Science.gov

Sample records for addressing challenging behaviors

  1. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  2. Addressing Challenging Behavior: Considering the Logic of Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terrance M.; Hirn, Regina G.

    2014-01-01

    When dealing with children who exhibit challenging behaviors there are no known interventions that work for all students or at all times. Thus, intervention for these students is often implemented in a trial and error manner. This article provides a logic for considering probability as a factor in selecting strategies. Understanding that some…

  3. Addressing Challenging Behaviors in Head Start: A Closer Look at Program Policies and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Head Start policies and procedures related to child guidance and addressing challenging behaviors were examined. Data were gathered from six Head Start programs in the Midwest, through interviews and document analysis. The findings provide a glimpse into how Head Start programs support children's social and emotional competence and…

  4. Strategies for Helping Parents of Young Children Address Challenging Behaviors in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Zhen; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Challenging behavior can be defined as any repeated pattern of behavior, or perception of behavior, that interferes with or is at risk of interfering with optimal learning or engagement in prosocial interactions with peers and adults. It is generally accepted in young children that challenging behaviors serve some sort of communicative purpose--to…

  5. Addressing Challenges in Studies of Behavioral Responses of Whales to Noise.

    PubMed

    Cato, Douglas H; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Noad, Michael J; McCauley, Robert D; Kniest, Eric; Paton, David; Kavanagh, Ailbhe S

    2016-01-01

    Studying the behavioral response of whales to noise presents numerous challenges. In addition to the characteristics of the noise exposure, many factors may affect the response and these must be measured and accounted for in the analysis. An adequate sample size that includes matching controls is crucial if meaningful results are to be obtained. Field work is thus complicated, logistically difficult, and expensive. This paper discusses some of the challenges and how they are being met in a large-scale multiplatform project in which humpback whales are exposed to the noise of seismic air guns. PMID:26610954

  6. Addressing Challenges in Studies of Behavioral Responses of Whales to Noise.

    PubMed

    Cato, Douglas H; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Noad, Michael J; McCauley, Robert D; Kniest, Eric; Paton, David; Kavanagh, Ailbhe S

    2016-01-01

    Studying the behavioral response of whales to noise presents numerous challenges. In addition to the characteristics of the noise exposure, many factors may affect the response and these must be measured and accounted for in the analysis. An adequate sample size that includes matching controls is crucial if meaningful results are to be obtained. Field work is thus complicated, logistically difficult, and expensive. This paper discusses some of the challenges and how they are being met in a large-scale multiplatform project in which humpback whales are exposed to the noise of seismic air guns.

  7. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Individuals with Disabilities: A Behavior Analytic Strategy for Addressing Private Events in Challenging Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Audrey N; Contreras, Bethany P; Clay, Casey J; Twohig, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Applied behavior analysts work with many populations including individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities. Although behavior analysts have a variety of empirically supported treatments to implement when working with individuals with disabilities, sometimes, other variables may adversely impact treatment effectiveness. The degree to which problematic thoughts and feelings (private events) influence behavior may be a variable that contributes to treatment efficacy. Traditional behavior analytic services are not always equipped to successfully address the private events influencing client behavior. In such cases, it may be beneficial for behavior analysts to consider additional philosophically aligned treatments for private events. One such treatment, acceptance and commitment therapy, may be a useful tool for behavior analysts to incorporate into their toolbox in order to help clients. The purpose of this paper is to introduce behavior analysts to a potential solution to the problem of effectively addressing private events in behavior analytic services. We then propose a model for thinking about private events in relation to clients with disabilities and present a guide for taking steps to address private events in the clinical setting. We conclude this paper with a call for research and present a possible research agenda for behavior analysts. PMID:27606236

  8. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Individuals with Disabilities: A Behavior Analytic Strategy for Addressing Private Events in Challenging Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Audrey N; Contreras, Bethany P; Clay, Casey J; Twohig, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Applied behavior analysts work with many populations including individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities. Although behavior analysts have a variety of empirically supported treatments to implement when working with individuals with disabilities, sometimes, other variables may adversely impact treatment effectiveness. The degree to which problematic thoughts and feelings (private events) influence behavior may be a variable that contributes to treatment efficacy. Traditional behavior analytic services are not always equipped to successfully address the private events influencing client behavior. In such cases, it may be beneficial for behavior analysts to consider additional philosophically aligned treatments for private events. One such treatment, acceptance and commitment therapy, may be a useful tool for behavior analysts to incorporate into their toolbox in order to help clients. The purpose of this paper is to introduce behavior analysts to a potential solution to the problem of effectively addressing private events in behavior analytic services. We then propose a model for thinking about private events in relation to clients with disabilities and present a guide for taking steps to address private events in the clinical setting. We conclude this paper with a call for research and present a possible research agenda for behavior analysts.

  9. A Demonstration of Individualized Positive Behavior Support Interventions by Head Start Staff to Address Children's Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Mary D.; Walker, Virginia L.; Snell, Martha E.; Smith, Carol G.

    2013-01-01

    Following the implementation of Tier 1 and Tier 2 Positive Behavior Support (PBS) strategies in six Head Start (HS) classrooms, three children in two classrooms were identified who had significant behavioral challenges and met the criteria for the use of individualized PBS. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate whether the effects of…

  10. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  11. Preparing Early Childhood Educators to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Development and Challenging Behavior: A Survey of Higher Education Programs in Nine States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents results from a survey of faculty members from 2- and 4-year higher education programs in nine states that prepare teachers to work with preschool children. The purpose of the study was to determine how professors address content related to social-emotional development and challenging behaviors, how well prepared they believe…

  12. Addressing Challenges for Chemical Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savidge, William B.; Brandes, Jay A.

    2009-05-01

    Unknown Knowns and Known Unknowns: Chemical Oceanography in a Changing World; Savannah, Georgia, 22-24 February 2009; Rapid climate change in recent decades has resulted in significant shifts in ocean chemistry. A group of more than 80 chemical oceanographers from the United States and Europe met in Savannah, Ga., to consider the challenges facing the field in upcoming decades and to reflect on what studies and resources are needed to meet these challenges. The primary focus was on carbon and related nutrient cycling and the tools, such as biomarkers, used to investigate these processes. Over the course of 2 days, a series of provocative talks and spirited discussions highlighted several challenges facing chemical oceanographers.

  13. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Alter, George C.

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this “uncharted territory,” as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  14. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alter, George C; Vardigan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this "uncharted territory," as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  15. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alter, George C; Vardigan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this "uncharted territory," as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised.

  16. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  17. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning: Addressing Challenging Behavior in Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Amy; Hemmeter, Mary Louise

    2009-01-01

    The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) is a federally funded national resource center designed to support early care and education providers address the social-emotional needs of children birth through age 5 years. Recent research has found that an extraordinarily high number of young children are being…

  18. Addressing the Social, Academic, and Behavioral Needs of Students with Challenging Behavior in Inclusive and Alternative Settings. Highlights from the Forum on Comprehensive Programming for a Diverse Population of Children and Youth with Challenging Behavior: Addressing Social, Academic, and Behavioral Needs within Inclusive and Alternative Settings (Las Vegas, Nevada, February 9-10, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Gable, Robert A., Ed.

    This document presents the texts of 11 major presentations and conference highlights from a February 2001 conference on the social, academic, and behavioral needs of students with challenging behavior in inclusive and alternative settings as required under the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The presentations…

  19. A non-pharmacologic approach to address challenging behaviors of Veterans with dementia: description of the tailored activity program-VA randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Behavioral symptoms accompanying dementia are associated with increased health care costs, reduced quality of life and daily functioning, heightened family caregiver burden, and nursing home placement. Standard care typically involves pharmacologic agents, but these are, at best, modestly effective, carry serious risks, including mortality, and do not address behavioral symptoms families consider most distressful and which may prompt nursing home placement. Given dementia’s devastating effects and the absence of an imminent cure, the Veterans Administration has supported the development and testing of new approaches to manage challenging behaviors at home. Methods/Design The Tailored Activity Program – Veterans Administration is a Phase III efficacy trial designed to reduce behavioral symptoms in Veterans with dementia living with their caregivers in the community. The study uses a randomized two-group parallel design with 160 diverse Veterans and caregivers. The experimental group receives a transformative patient-centric intervention designed to reduce the burden of behavioral symptoms in Veterans with dementia. An occupational therapist conducts an assessment to identify a Veteran’s preserved capabilities, deficit areas, previous roles, habits, and interests to develop activities tailored to the Veteran. Family caregivers are then trained to incorporate activities into daily care. The attention-control group receives bi-monthly telephone contact where education on topics relevant to dementia is provided to caregivers. Key outcomes include reduced frequency and severity of behavioral symptoms using the 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (primary endpoint), reduced caregiver burden, enhanced skill acquisition, efficacy using activities, and time spent providing care at 4 months; and long-term effects (8 months) on the Veteran’s quality of life and frequency and severity of behavioral symptoms, and caregiver use of activities. The programs

  20. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  1. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development.

  2. USGS Science: Addressing Our Nation's Challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Tania M.

    2009-01-01

    With 6.6 billion people already living on Earth, and that number increasing every day, human influence on our planet is ever more apparent. Changes to the natural world combined with increasing human demands threaten our health and safety, our national security, our economy, and our quality of life. As a planet and a Nation, we face unprecedented challenges: loss of critical and unique ecosystems, the effects of climate change, increasing demand for limited energy and mineral resources, increasing vulnerability to natural hazards, the effects of emerging diseases on wildlife and human health, and growing needs for clean water. The time to respond to these challenges is now, but policymakers and decisionmakers face difficult choices. With competing priorities to balance, and potentially serious - perhaps irreversible - consequences at stake, our leaders need reliable scientific information to guide their decisions. As the Nation's earth and natural science agency, the USGS monitors and conducts scientific research on natural hazards and resources and how these elements and human activities influence our environment. Because the challenges we face are complex, the science needed to better understand and deal with these challenges must reflect the complex interplay among natural and human systems. With world-class expertise in biology, geology, geography, hydrology, geospatial information, and remote sensing, the USGS is uniquely capable of conducting the comprehensive scientific research needed to better understand the interdependent interactions of Earth's systems. Every day, the USGS helps decisionmakers to minimize loss of life and property, manage our natural resources, and protect and enhance our quality of life. This brochure provides examples of the challenges we face and how USGS science helps decisionmakers to address these challenges.

  3. Addressing Infectious Disease Challenges by Investigating Microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Balskus, Emily P

    2016-07-01

    Microbial communities occupy essentially every habitat on earth and have profound effects on our environment and human health. The National Microbiome Initiative will provide a framework for interdisciplinary microbiome research. The challenges inherent in discovering and understanding microbiome functions, especially those associated with infectious disease, present countless opportunities for chemists. PMID:27626096

  4. Family Connections: Addressing Behavior Issues--Practical Tips for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaze, Donna; Kirylo, James D.

    2012-01-01

    When parents get together, the subject of appropriately addressing the behavior of their children often comes to the forefront of conversations. Parents share various challenges they face with their children, including issues associated with listening, eating vegetables, doing chores, and a host of other discipline-related situations. The plethora…

  5. Connectivity and complex systems in geomorphology: addressing some key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Parsons, Anthony; Bracken, Louise; Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    "Connectivity thinking" and related concepts have a long history in geomorphology. Since the beginning of the 21st century connectivity research experienced a huge boom in geomorphology as geomorphologists started to develop new concepts on connectivity to better understand the complexity of geomorphic systems and system response to change. However, progress in the field of connectivity in geomorphology has mostly been developing in a parallel manner, resulting in a multiplicity of definitions, concepts and methodological approaches. Nevertheless, a set of common key challenges amongst the different connectivity concepts and approaches used to understand complex geomorphic systems are also evident. In the course of a theory think tank of the COST Action ES1306 (CONNECTEUR - Connecting European Connectivity Research) the following five different key challenges were detected (Turnbull et al., in prep.): (i) defining the fundamental unit, (ii) distinguishing between structural and functional boundaries, (iii) emergent behavior, (iv) memory effects, (v) measuring connectivity. In this presentation we will a) discuss how these key challenges are addressed and approached in connectivity research in geomorphology, b) evaluate ways in which cross-disciplinary advances may be made by exploring potential for a common toolbox approach to the study of connectivity.

  6. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the status and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics )CFD) models to address environmental engineering challenges for more detailed understanding of air pollutant source emissions, atmospheric dispersion and resulting human exposure. CFD simulations ...

  7. Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Brian M; Bernhardt, Jay M; Fleisher, Linda; Green, Bernard Lee

    2014-03-01

    During a panel presentation at the American Association for Cancer Research Cancer Health Disparities Conference titled 'Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities', the latest scientific advances in the application and utilization of mobile technology and/or mobile-health (mHealth) interventions to address cancer health disparities were discussed. The session included: an examination of overall population trends in the uptake of technology and the potential of addressing health disparities through such media; an exploration of the conceptual issues and challenges in the construction of mHealth interventions to address disparate and underserved populations; and a presentation of pilot study findings on the acceptability and feasibility of using mHealth interventions to address prostate cancer disparities among African-American men.

  8. Addressing Behavior Needs by Disability Category

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serfass, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with identified behavioral needs were provided a different level of behavioral intervention based on their special education disability category verification. A second purpose of this study was to determine what caused potential differences as interpreted by individuals working in the…

  9. Addressing strategy execution challenges to lead sustainable change.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2011-01-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses strategy execution challenges that must be addressed to lead sustainable change.

  10. Challenges in Diabetes Care: Can Digital Health Help Address Them?

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Varun; Wolf, Alexander; Brown, Adam; Close, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    In Brief There is great enthusiasm for the potential of digital health solutions in medicine and diabetes to address key care challenges: patient and provider burden, lack of data to inform therapeutic decision-making, poor access to care, and costs. However, the field is still in its nascent days; many patients and providers do not currently engage with digital health tools, and for those who do, the burden is still often high. Over time, digital health has excellent potential to collect data more seamlessly, make collected data more useful, and drive better outcomes at lower costs in less time. But there is still much to prove. This review offers key background information on the current state of digital health in diabetes, six of the most promising digital health technologies and services, and the challenges that remain. PMID:27621530

  11. Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

    2003-09-01

    By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

  12. Protecting the confidentiality of interim data: addressing current challenges.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Thomas R

    2015-02-01

    There is compelling evidence supporting the importance of maintaining confidentiality of interim data in clinical trials designed to reliably address the benefit-to-risk profile of interventions. While this is widely recognized, creative approaches are needed to achieve this in challenging settings where interim data are released for regulatory review and action, even though the trial would be continued to address its primary hypothesis. An illustration is the recently emerging setting of cardiovascular safety trials in type 2 diabetes mellitus. At the first stage of such trials, if large relative increases in cardiovascular major morbidity/mortality can be ruled out, data can be released solely for the purpose of allowing regulatory decision making about marketing approval. The trial is then continued in the post-marketing setting to address the primary hypothesis regarding whether smaller relative increases can be ruled out. Active rather than passive approaches are needed to protect the integrity of cardiovascular safety trials. Given the importance to trial integrity of maintaining confidentiality of interim data such as the estimated relative effect on cardiovascular risk, a Data Access Plan should be in place in these trials to ensure such data are not revealed to study participants and their caregivers, investigators involved in trial conduct, the sponsor's management team, and the public, until trial completion. A Performance Standards Document also should be developed to pre-specify targeted and minimally acceptable levels for recruitment rate, best real-world achievable adherence, avoidance of cross-ins, and retention rate. This document should specify creative approaches for achieving these targets, oversight procedures during trial conduct to monitor performance levels, and actions to be taken if emerging data indicate minimally acceptable levels are not being reached. In settings where meaningful breaches in confidentiality have occurred, such

  13. Protecting the confidentiality of interim data: addressing current challenges.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Thomas R

    2015-02-01

    There is compelling evidence supporting the importance of maintaining confidentiality of interim data in clinical trials designed to reliably address the benefit-to-risk profile of interventions. While this is widely recognized, creative approaches are needed to achieve this in challenging settings where interim data are released for regulatory review and action, even though the trial would be continued to address its primary hypothesis. An illustration is the recently emerging setting of cardiovascular safety trials in type 2 diabetes mellitus. At the first stage of such trials, if large relative increases in cardiovascular major morbidity/mortality can be ruled out, data can be released solely for the purpose of allowing regulatory decision making about marketing approval. The trial is then continued in the post-marketing setting to address the primary hypothesis regarding whether smaller relative increases can be ruled out. Active rather than passive approaches are needed to protect the integrity of cardiovascular safety trials. Given the importance to trial integrity of maintaining confidentiality of interim data such as the estimated relative effect on cardiovascular risk, a Data Access Plan should be in place in these trials to ensure such data are not revealed to study participants and their caregivers, investigators involved in trial conduct, the sponsor's management team, and the public, until trial completion. A Performance Standards Document also should be developed to pre-specify targeted and minimally acceptable levels for recruitment rate, best real-world achievable adherence, avoidance of cross-ins, and retention rate. This document should specify creative approaches for achieving these targets, oversight procedures during trial conduct to monitor performance levels, and actions to be taken if emerging data indicate minimally acceptable levels are not being reached. In settings where meaningful breaches in confidentiality have occurred, such

  14. Evidence-Based Practices for Addressing Classroom Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hye-Suk Lee; Lynch, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers of young children can plan proactively so that they avoid some of the serious problem behaviors in the classroom. The strategies presented in this article are part of a problem solving approach to challenging behavior based on the principles of positive behavioral support. Although these methods presented here have research-based…

  15. The Sustainable Hydrogen Economy: Addressing the Challenges Ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John A.

    2006-10-01

    It is rapidly becoming apparent that energy is one of the most important issues facing our world today; in fact, in today's society energy is as important as food and water. Humankind finds itself faced the challenge of how to continue to power society, particularly in the face of the rapidly growing economies of emerging nations like India and China, and yet answer questions of sustainability, energy security, geopolitics and global environment. One of the major issues facing America and most other countries in the world is how to supply a transportation fuel, an energy carrier to replace gasoline. Hydrogen as an energy carrier, primarily derived from water, can address issues of sustainability, environmental emissions and energy security. The ``Hydrogen Economy'' then is the production of hydrogen, its distribution and utilization as an energy carrier. While the vision of a hydrogen economy has been around for over 130 years, the most recent push to use hydrogen as an energy carrier came as part of a US Presidential Initiative, announced in the 2003 State of the Union Address. It is important that we consider hydrogen in tandem with other technologies as an alternative to the once-abundant hydrocarbon resources on which our society depends. This talk will introduce sustainable energy systems, including fuel cell technology and discuss the vision, the barriers and possible pathways for the production and implementation of hydrogen into the energy infrastructure.

  16. Evaluating complex community-based health promotion: addressing the challenges.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Gwyneth

    2014-08-01

    Community-based health promotion is poorly theorised and lacks an agreed evidence-base. This paper examines characteristics of community-based health promotion and the challenges they present to evaluation. A review of health promotion evaluation leads to an exploration of more recent approaches, drawing on ideas from complexity theory and developmental evaluation. A reflexive analysis of three program evaluations previously undertaken as an evaluation consultant is used to develop a conceptual model to help in the design and conduct of health promotion evaluation. The model is further explored by applying it retrospectively to one evaluation. Findings suggest that the context-contingent nature of health promotion programs; turbulence in the community context and players; multiple stakeholders, goals and strategies; and uncertainty of outcomes all contribute to the complexity of interventions. Bringing together insights from developmental evaluation and complexity theory can help to address some evaluation challenges. The proposed model emphasises recognising and responding to changing contexts and emerging outcomes, providing rapid feedback and facilitating reflexive practice. This will enable the evaluator to gain a better understanding of the influence of context and other implementation factors in a complex setting. Use of the model should contribute to building cumulative evidence and knowledge in order to identify the principles of health promotion effectiveness that may be transferable to new situations.

  17. Interweaving Knowledge Resources to Address Complex Environmental Health Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth Ellen; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex problems do not respect academic disciplinary boundaries. Environmental health research is complex and often moves beyond these boundaries, integrating diverse knowledge resources to solve such challenges. Here we describe an evolving paradigm for interweaving approaches that integrates widely diverse resources outside of traditional academic environments in full partnerships of mutual respect and understanding. We demonstrate that scientists, social scientists, and engineers can work with government agencies, industry, and communities to interweave their expertise into metaphorical knowledge fabrics to share understanding, resources, and enthusiasm. Objective Our goal is to acknowledge and validate how interweaving research approaches can contribute to research-driven, solution-oriented problem solving in environmental health, and to inspire more members of the environmental health community to consider this approach. Discussion The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program (SRP), as mandated by Congress, has evolved to become a program that reaches across a wide range of knowledge resources. SRP fosters interweaving multiple knowledge resources to develop innovative multidirectional partnerships for research and training. Here we describe examples of how motivation, ideas, knowledge, and expertise from different people, institutions, and agencies can integrate to tackle challenges that can be as complex as the resources they bring to bear on it. Conclusions By providing structure for interweaving science with its stakeholders, we are better able to leverage resources, increase potential for innovation, and proactively ensure a more fully developed spectrum of beneficial outcomes of research investments. Citation Anderson BE, Naujokas MF, Suk WA. 2015. Interweaving knowledge resources to address complex environmental health challenges. Environ Health Perspect 123:1095–1099

  18. Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that

  19. Addressing the Challenges of Distributed Hydrologic Modeling for Operational Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, M. B.; Yamagata, K.; Kobor, J.; Fontenot, E.

    2008-05-01

    Operational forecasting systems must provide reliable, accurate and timely flood forecasts for a range of catchments from small rapidly responding mountain catchments and urban areas to large, complex but more slowly responding fluvial systems. Flood forecasting systems have evolved from simple forecasting for flood mitigation to real-time decision support systems for real-time reservoir operations for water supply, navigation, hydropower, for managing environmental flows and habitat protection, cooling water and water quality forecasting. These different requirements lead to a number of challenges in applying distributed modelling in an operational context. These challenges include, the often short time available for forecasting that requires a trade-off between model complexity and accuracy on the one hand and on the other hand the need for efficient calculations to reduce the computation times. Limitations in the data available in real-time require modelling tools that can not only operate on a minimum of data but also take advantage of new data sources such as weather radar, satellite remote sensing, wireless sensors etc. Finally, models must not only accurately predict flood peaks but also forecast low flows and surface water-groundwater interactions, water quality, water temperature, optimal reservoir levels, and inundated areas. This paper shows how these challenges are being addressed in a number of case studies. The central strategy has been to develop a flexible modelling framework that can be adapted to different data sources, different levels of complexity and spatial distribution and different modelling objectives. The resulting framework allows amongst other things, optimal use of grid-based precipitation fields from weather radar and numerical weather models, direct integration of satellite remote sensing, a unique capability to treat a range of new forecasting problems such as flooding conditioned by surface water-groundwater interactions. Results

  20. Challenges faced by multidisplinary new investigators on addressing grand challenges in global health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The grand challenges approach aims to spark innovative and transformative strategies to overcome barriers to significant global health issues. Grand Challenges Canada endorses an ‘Integrated Innovation™’ approach that focuses on the intersection of scientific/technological, social and business innovation. In this article we explore themes emerging from a dialogue between the authors, who are multidisciplinary recipients of the ‘Rising Stars in Global Health’ award from Grand Challenges Canada, regarding benefits of engaging in integrated innovation research, and recommendations for how this approach may develop in the future. Discussion Our dialogue followed a semi-structured interview format that addressed three topics: 1) reflections on applying an Integrated Innovation™ approach for global health; 2) thoughts on participation in the Grand Challenges 2012 meeting; and 3) authors’ visions of Grand Challenges Canada and the Grand Challenge movement towards 2020. The dialogue was transcribed verbatim and we used thematic analysis techniques to identify, analyze and report themes in the data. Benefits of working using the Grand Challenges approach centered on two themes: a) the potential for scientific breakthrough and b) building interdisciplinary collaborations and a community of scholars. Challenges and opportunities for Grand Challenges in moving forward included: a) capacity building, particularly regarding Integrated Innovation™ and scale-up planning; b) interdisciplinary and international mentorship for new investigators; and c) potential for future commercialization. Conclusions Our discussion highlighted that Integrated Innovation™ offers the opportunity to develop new theories, methods and approaches to global health while simultaneously fostering a collaborative spirit grounded in international, interdisciplinary collaborations. However, the arguable over-emphasis on corporatization poses a major challenge for new investigators

  1. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Anne; Monda-Amaya, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Challenging behavior can have adverse effects on both students and teachers, and preservice teachers often report feeling ill prepared to manage this behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine (a) preservice teacher perceptions of student and teacher behavior during scenarios of challenging behavior, (b) alternative solutions or strategies…

  2. Utilizing Motivational Interviewing to Address Resistant Behaviors in Clinical Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahesh, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Motivational interviewing is presented as an approach to address resistant behaviors in clinical supervision. A case example is used to illustrate the process in which the relational and technical elements of motivational interviewing can be applied to supervisee resistance. Implications for supervisors and researchers are discussed.

  3. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Wyoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  4. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers; (2) significant financial shortfalls; and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  5. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  6. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  7. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  8. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  9. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  10. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  11. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  12. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  13. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  14. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  15. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  16. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  17. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  18. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  19. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  20. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  1. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  2. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  3. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  4. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  5. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  6. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  7. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  8. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  9. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  10. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  11. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  12. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  13. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  14. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  15. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  16. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  17. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  18. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  19. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  20. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  1. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  2. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  3. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  4. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  5. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  6. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the field of environmental engineering, modeling tools are playing an ever larger role in addressing air quality issues, including source pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and human exposure risks. More detailed modeling of environmental flows requires tools for c...

  7. A Canadian Effort to Address Fractions Teaching and Learning Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yearley, Shelley; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching and learning fraction concepts provides challenges in primary schools all over the world. In this article, Shelley Yearley and Catherine Bruce describe a fractions-based research project conducted in Ontario, Canada.

  8. Teaching Digital Natives: Promoting Information Literacy and Addressing Instructional Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Technology must be used as a teaching and learning tool to help students succeed. However, educators must be proactive in identifying some of the pitfalls of technology, such as information illiteracy. The phenomenological study covers how English instructors from Indianapolis, who teach first year students, address information literacy and the…

  9. Challenges in an Aging Society: Presidential Address to APPAM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The United States is at a critical crossroads in its history right now. The public policy problems that the people are facing are complex and interrelated, and the demographic changes that are about to significantly change their country are not well understood by large numbers of people. In this presidential address to the Association for Public…

  10. Addressing a Nation's Challenge: Graduate Programs in Gerontology in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; Lowenstein, Ariela

    2007-01-01

    Like other developed nations, Israel has rapidly aged. This demographic revolution has created new challenges for Israeli society. We describe the societal background, including the emerging societal needs, solutions, and problems, as well as the professional principles, which guided us in developing the first two Israeli academic programs in…

  11. Identifying and Addressing Challenges to Research in University Laboratory Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    File, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This essay offers a review of challenges that university laboratory preschools face in providing a site for research that fits with other components of the program mission. An argument is made to consider paradigm shifts in research questions and methods that move away from traditions within the fields that study children's…

  12. Addressing Reticence: The Challenge of Engaging Reluctant Adult ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Steven J.; Henrichsen, Lynn E.

    2015-01-01

    Reticence frequently prevents adult ESL learners from learning as much as they otherwise might. The nature of second-language learning requires frequent performance that may challenge students' self-concepts, leading to reticence and self-consciousness. To reduce or prevent this problem, teachers must employ appropriate pedagogical and classroom…

  13. Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M., Ed.; Dunlap, Glen, Ed.; Albin, Richard W., Ed.

    The 19 chapters of this volume address theory, research, and practice concerning positive behavior support with families of children and youth with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. The chapters are: (1) "Positive Behavior Support with Families" (Joseph Lucyshyn and others); (2) "Finding Positive Behavior Support One Piece at a…

  14. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges.

    PubMed

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health-related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management.

  15. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health–related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management. PMID:24666627

  16. Strategies to Address Common Challenges When Teaching in an Active Learning Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.

  17. Addressing key challenges in space gravitational wave astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Neil

    A space based gravitational wave detector will open up the source-rich low frequency portion of the spectrum that can not be accessed from the ground, making possible some very exciting scientific studies. The rich data set collected by such an instrument will be unlike anything encountered by ground based (Laser interferometers or Pulsar timing) gravitational wave observatories, and it will take unique data analysis techniques to realize the full potential of the mission. At present, no techniques exist to exploit the discovery space opened by such a mission. Discovery potential is one of the main selling points for a mission in a new waveband. Our goal is to address this, and other key outstanding issues, by (i) Developing techniques for detecting un-modeled and un-expected signals (ii) Producing improved waveform models for spinning black hole binaries and use them to assess trade-offs in the mission design (iii) Develop robust techniques to identify possible departures from the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity and (iv) explore the constraints that can be placed on astrophysical and modified gravity models by observing multiple systems.

  18. Strengthening health information systems to address health equity challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Lexi Bambas; Braveman, Paula; Dachs, J. Norberto W.; Delgado, Iris; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Moser, Kath; Rolfe, Liz; Vega, Jeanette; Zarowsky, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Special studies and isolated initiatives over the past several decades in low-, middle- and high-income countries have consistently shown inequalities in health among socioeconomic groups and by gender, race or ethnicity, geographical area and other measures associated with social advantage. Significant health inequalities linked to social (dis)advantage rather than to inherent biological differences are generally considered unfair or inequitable. Such health inequities are the main object of health development efforts, including global targets such as the Millennium Development Goals, which require monitoring to evaluate progress. However, most national health information systems (HIS) lack key information needed to assess and address health inequities, namely, reliable, longitudinal and representative data linking measures of health with measures of social status or advantage at the individual or small-area level. Without empirical documentation and monitoring of such inequities, as well as country-level capacity to use this information for effective planning and monitoring of progress in response to interventions, movement towards equity is unlikely to occur. This paper reviews core information requirements and potential databases and proposes short-term and longer term strategies for strengthening the capabilities of HIS for the analysis of health equity and discusses HIS-related entry points for supporting a culture of equity-oriented decision-making and policy development. PMID:16184279

  19. Aneesur Rahman Prize for Computational Physics Lecture: Addressing Dirac's Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelikowsky, James

    2013-03-01

    After the invention of quantum mechanics, P. A. M. Dirac made the following observation: ``The underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of a large part of physics and the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble. It therefore becomes desirable that approximate practical methods of applying quantum mechanics should be developed, which can lead to an explanation of the main features of complex atomic systems...'' The creation of ``approximate practical methods'' in response to Dirac's challenge has included the one electron picture, density functional theory and the pseudopotential concept. The combination of such methods in conjunction with contemporary computational platforms and new algorithms offer the possibility of predicting properties of materials solely from knowledge of the atomic species present. I will give an overview of progress in this field with an emphasis on materials at the nanoscale. Support from the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation is acknowledged.

  20. Educating Students with Behavioral Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Lee; White, George P.; Gresham, Frank M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a model classroom for students with severe behavioral problems that parallels regular classroom instruction while emphasizing positive expectations, relevant curriculum activities, and good teacher-student interaction. The authors also provide suggestions for controlling negative behavior in areas outside the classroom,…

  1. Using Concept Mapping to Improve Parent Implementation of Positive Behavioral Interventions for Children with Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkahtani, Keetam D. F.

    2013-01-01

    Children's challenging behaviors can be addressed with effective interventions that can meet children's emotional needs and support their families. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) value the family involvement in the process of their child treatment. The intention of this study was to use concept mapping as an adjunct to PBIS…

  2. Preventing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool: Effective Strategies for Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Janelle C.; Crosby, Megan G.; Irwin, Heather K.; Dennis, Lindsay R.; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides practical strategies and techniques that early childhood educators can implement in their classrooms to effectively manage challenging behaviors. The specific strategies addressed fall under the following categories: (a) classroom management, (b) reinforcement, and (c) communication. Suggestions are made for how parents can…

  3. The Challenges of Gangs and Youth Violence in the Schools. Fourth CCBD Mini-Library Series: Addressing the Diverse Needs of Children and Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders--Programs That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Sharon H.; Van Acker, Richard

    Review of the current knowledge concerning youth violence and gang behavior considers risk factors for violence and gang formation, functions served by violence and gang membership, and strategies that have been empirically validated to be either beneficial or ineffective. Following an introductory chapter, the first chapter looks at the nature of…

  4. Teaching Elementary School Teachers Cognitive-Behavioral Techniques To Address ADDH Behaviors in the Classroom Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogelmann-Peper, Marcella

    This practicum was designed to address attention deficit and hyperactive behaviors (ADDH) in the elementary classroom setting. The primary goal was to provide teachers with an effective intervention technique which requires little time and addresses the ADDH syndrome. A second aim was to increase teachers' understanding of the ADDH syndrome and…

  5. Managing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Bridgitt Lenore

    2014-01-01

    Despite state mandated early childhood education (ECE) teacher competencies, many children are removed from preschool settings for behaviors related to socioemotional problems. This study's rationale was the propensity of expulsions among children exhibiting challenging behaviors in preschool programs. Guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological model…

  6. [Challenging behavior: behavioral phenotypes of some genetic syndromes].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Challenging behavior in individuals with mental retardation (MR) is relatively frequent, and represents a significant obstacle to adaptive skills. The frequency of specific forms and manifestations of challenging behavior can depend on a variety of personal and environmental factors. There are several prominent theoretical models regarding the etiology of challenging behavior and psychopathology in persons with MR: behavioral, developmental, socio-cultural and biological.The biological model emphasizes the physiological, biochemical and genetic factors as the potential source of challenging behavior. The progress in the field of genetics and neuroscience has opened the opportunity to study and discover the neurobiological basis of phenotypic characteristics. Genetic syndromes associated with MR can be followed by a specific set of problems and disorders which constitutes their behavioral phenotype. The aim of this paper was to present challenging behaviors that manifest in the most frequently studied syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Williams syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The concept of behavioral phenotype implies a higher probability of manifesting specific developmental characteristics and specific behaviors in individuals with a certain genetic syndrome. Although the specific set of (possible) problems and disorders is distinctive for the described genetic syndromes, the connection between genetics and behavior should be viewed through probabilistic dimension. The probabilistic concept takes into consideration the possibility of intra-syndrome variability in the occurrence, intensity and time onset of behavioral characteristics, at which the higher variability the lower is the specificity of the genetic syndrome. Identifying the specific pattern of behavior can be most important for the process of early diagnosis and prognosis. In addition, having knowledge about behavioral phenotype can be a landmark in the creation of

  7. [Challenging behavior: behavioral phenotypes of some genetic syndromes].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Challenging behavior in individuals with mental retardation (MR) is relatively frequent, and represents a significant obstacle to adaptive skills. The frequency of specific forms and manifestations of challenging behavior can depend on a variety of personal and environmental factors. There are several prominent theoretical models regarding the etiology of challenging behavior and psychopathology in persons with MR: behavioral, developmental, socio-cultural and biological.The biological model emphasizes the physiological, biochemical and genetic factors as the potential source of challenging behavior. The progress in the field of genetics and neuroscience has opened the opportunity to study and discover the neurobiological basis of phenotypic characteristics. Genetic syndromes associated with MR can be followed by a specific set of problems and disorders which constitutes their behavioral phenotype. The aim of this paper was to present challenging behaviors that manifest in the most frequently studied syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Williams syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The concept of behavioral phenotype implies a higher probability of manifesting specific developmental characteristics and specific behaviors in individuals with a certain genetic syndrome. Although the specific set of (possible) problems and disorders is distinctive for the described genetic syndromes, the connection between genetics and behavior should be viewed through probabilistic dimension. The probabilistic concept takes into consideration the possibility of intra-syndrome variability in the occurrence, intensity and time onset of behavioral characteristics, at which the higher variability the lower is the specificity of the genetic syndrome. Identifying the specific pattern of behavior can be most important for the process of early diagnosis and prognosis. In addition, having knowledge about behavioral phenotype can be a landmark in the creation of

  8. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-07

    AMO is developing advanced technologies that cut energy use and carbon emissions in some of the most energy-intensive processes within U.S. manufacturing. The brochure describes the AMO R&D projects that address these challenges.

  9. Making Pedagogical Decisions to Address Challenges of Joint Jewish-Bedouin Environmental Projects in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkaher, Iris; Tal, Tali

    2016-01-01

    This interpretive study identifies challenges of working with Bedouin and Jewish Israeli youth in two multicultural projects: education for sustainability and place-conscious education. It also describes the ways the adult project leaders addressed these challenges and their views on the effectiveness of their decisions. Participants comprised 16…

  10. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges? PMID:22047501

  11. Addressing challenges and needs in patient education targeting hardly reached patients with chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Varming, Annemarie Reinhardt; Torenholt, Rikke; Møller, Birgitte Lund; Vestergaard, Susanne; Engelund, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Some patients do not benefit from participation in patient education due to reasons related to disease burden, literacy, and socioeconomic challenges. In this communication, we address more specifically both the challenges that these hardly reached patients face in relation to patient education programs and the challenges educators face when conducting patient education with hardly reached patients. We define principles for the format and content of dialogue tools to better support this patient group within the population of individuals with diabetes. PMID:25729695

  12. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms. PMID:21453515

  13. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water.

    PubMed

    Riley, Mark R; Gerba, Charles P; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-03-31

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms.

  14. Child Care Teachers' Perspectives on Including Children with Challenging Behavior in Child Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…

  15. Replacement Behaviors for Identified Functions of Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Functional assessment has become a major feature of learning-based research. A critical element of the majority of these studies includes not only methods and procedures to identify the cause of the challenging behavior, but to establish replacement treatment methods. By far the most common intervention in the 176 studies we reviewed was…

  16. Offering Behavioral Assistance to Latino Students Demonstrating Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2015-01-01

    Challenging behaviors can significantly alter the learning environment of any classroom. Traditionally, schools have implemented practices that remove the offending student from the classroom, deliver punitive disciplinary actions, or refer the student to special education evaluation. Unfortunately, such practices have demonstrated little…

  17. Beyond Values Clarification: Addressing Client Values in Clinical Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonow, Jordan T.; Follette, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical principles of psychology, as exemplified in the American Psychological Association (APA) Code of Ethics (2002), provide impractical advice for addressing client values during psychotherapy. These principles seem to argue that each client's values should be respected and protected at all times, except in cases in which this would result in…

  18. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: Exploring Challenges in an Urban District Struggling to Address Inequities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMatthews, David; Mawhinney, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Research Approach: This cross case study describes the challenges that two principals working in one urban school district addressed while attempting to transform their school cultures to embrace an inclusion model. Analysis of interviews and observations in each school revealed the actions, values, and orientations of the individual leaders and…

  19. Addressing the Challenges Encountered during a Developmental Evaluation: Implications for Evaluation Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poth, Cheryl-Anne; Pinto, Dorothy; Howery, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes three challenges encountered during a developmental evaluation and explains how these were addressed from the evaluators' perspective. The evaluation was conducted to support the implementation of a three-year educational technology leadership project funded by the Alberta provincial government. The developmental evaluation…

  20. Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in an after School Program Classroom: The Effects of the Daily Behavior Report Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorvey, Zamecia J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to address behavior discipline problems in special and general education setting classrooms. Disruptive behaviors are a major concern as they create excessive stress and demands for classroom teachers and school administrators to address them. Effective interventions are needed to properly address them. Moreover, classroom…

  1. Addressing Wife Abuse in Mexican Immigrant Couples: Challenges for Family Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Tina

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses wife abuse in undocumented Mexican immigrant couples and suggests an ecosystems treatment approach that takes into consideration the structural forces of oppression and discrimination on abusive behaviors in the home and combines individual, family and community level interventions to help immigrant men stop the abuse.…

  2. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A.; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed. PMID:26777725

  3. Global challenges keynote address in memoriam to colleagues lost in the Malaysia airlines 17 crash

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Six colleagues working in the HIV field were killed when their flight en route to Kuala Lumpur was shot down over the Ukraine. This report is drawn from the in memoriam keynote opening address given at the 12th International AIDS Impact conference in Amsterdam in 2015. It highlights their tangible and valued roles in the HIV response and looks forward to the road ahead. It describes the ways in which we can build on their legacy to address current global challenges in HIV prevention and treatment and to mobilise the intensified, focused resources that are needed to turn the HIV epidemic on its head. PMID:26963879

  4. The Louisiana emergency department behavioral health challenge.

    PubMed

    Griffies, W Scott; Collins, William J; Adams, Arwen E

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina uncovered and exaggerated Louisiana's behavioral health crisis. Patients with mental illness are backlogged in emergency rooms across the state, unable to access inpatient psychiatric treatment. Post-Katrina, part of the department of psychiatry of the Louisiana State University (LSU) New Orleans was displaced to Huey P. Long Medical Center (HPLMC) in Pineville, Louisiana. While displaced, LSU wrote a grant to develop a psychiatric emergency room service at HPLMC and in the process experienced a number of barriers to optimal behavioral healthcare in the emergency department (ED). The ED plays an essential role in our state's system of care for the mentally ill. However, EDs throughout the nation traditionally have not had the provisions necessary for optimal behavioral healthcare. In this article, we will address barriers to implementing proper provisions for sound behavioral healthcare in the ED. We will outline an affordable and available mental health personnel infrastructure that integrates with the ED's medical model of care, and improves quality of care of the mentally ill and the functional level of the ED, as well as the morale and job satisfaction of ED healthcare providers. PMID:18220095

  5. Addressing the Social and Academic Behavior of a Student with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in an Alternative Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoszowski, N. C.; Jolivette, K.; Frederick, L. D.

    2013-01-01

    Check-In/Check-Out is a secondary tier positive behavior support program in which an adult mentor is paired with a student to address problem behavior and support appropriate behavior. This case study extended the implementation of the Check-In/Check-Out strategy to a residential facility for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The…

  6. Challenges Addressing Unmet Need for Contraception: Voices of Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems. PMID:27337850

  7. Challenges Addressing Unmet Need for Contraception: Voices of Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems.

  8. Influence of "Mood-Inducing" Music on Challenging Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, V. Mark; Mapstone, Eileen

    1998-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of musical manipulation on the challenging behaviors of two children and one adult with severe/profound mental retardation. First, high-rate challenging behaviors were identified and then fast- or slow-beat music was added. Challenging behavior was more frequent when slow-beat music was played. Affect also varied…

  9. The ABCs of Challenging Behavior: Understanding Basic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Ayvazo, Shiri; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2016-01-01

    Many young children engage in challenging behaviors that could have short- and long-term negative effects for both the children and their families. Challenging behaviors refer to "any repeated pattern of behavior, or perception of behavior, that interferes with or is at risk of interfering with optimal learning or engagement in prosocial…

  10. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belvedere, D. R.; Houser, P.; van Oevelen, P. J.; Schiffer, R. A.; Entin, J. K.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Schlosser, C. A.; Wood, E. F.; Ek, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projected increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial, energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinated effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observational and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the information

  11. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-05-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projected increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial, energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinated effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observational and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the information

  12. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belvedere, D. R.; Houser, P. R.; Schiffer, R. A.; Entin, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projective increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinative effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this is a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to-decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observationable and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing, and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the

  13. ASCO's Community Research Forum: addressing challenges of community-based research from the grass roots.

    PubMed

    Robert, Nicholas; Lilenbaum, Rogerio; Hurley, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    ASCO's Community Research Forum is a solution-oriented venue for community research sites to overcome barriers to conducting clinical trials. The key objectives of the Forum are to (1) convene community-based researchers to identify challenges to conducting research that ASCO can address, (2) develop solution-oriented projects to address these challenges to facilitate clinical trial participation in community research settings, and (3) shape ASCO programs and policies to support members engaged in community research. The Community Research Forum holds an annual in-person meeting that convenes physician investigators, research administrators, research nurses, and clinical research associates from community-based research programs and practices. To meet identified needs, the Community Research Forum has developed the ASCO Clinical Trial Workload Assessment Tool and the ASCO Research Program Quality Assessment Tool. Both of these tools will be available to the public in 2014. The Forum is currently exploring the concept and potential metrics of a research certification program to formally assess community-based research programs, and to identify gaps and areas to improve the program in order to meet quality standards. The Community Research Forum's website aims to serve as a go-to resource for community-based physician investigators and research staff. The Community Research Forum will continue to provide a forum for community-based researchers to network, share challenges, and develop initiatives that provide solutions and facilitate the conduct of clinical trials.

  14. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    During the Anthropocene, mankind will face several global environmental challenges. One of the first and more successful responses provided by Science to these challenges is the collecting of long-term series of biophysical variables in order to improve our knowledge of natural systems. The huge amount of information gathered during the last decades by Research Infrastructures (RIs) has helped to understand the structure and functioning of natural systems at local and regional scales. But how can we address the global cross-scale and cross-disciplinary challenges posed by the global environment change? We believe that it will be necessary to observe, model better and understand the whole biosphere using long term data generated by international RIs. RIs play a key role on many of the last advances and discoveries in science, from the observation of the Higgs Boson at CERN to the exploration of the Universe by the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The scale of complexity, instrumentation, computing resources, technological advances, and also of the investments, and the size of research collaborations, do not have precedents in Science. RIs in environmental field are developing fast, but the corresponding communities need yet to further reflect the need for a wider global collaboration because the challenges to tackle are in essence of global nature. This contribution describes how COOP+ project (EU Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action) will promote the cooperation among RIs at a global scale to address global environmental challenges. Our project evolves from the experience of the sucessful FP7 COOPEUS project (see http://www.coopeus.eu), which explored the use and access to data from RIs in environmental research in Europe and USA. The general goal of COOP+ is to strengthen the links and coordination of the ESFRI RIs related to Marine Science (EMSO), Arctic and Atmospheric Research (EISCAT), Carbon Observation (ICOS) and Biodiversity

  15. Facilitators, challenges, and collaborative activities in faith and health partnerships to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle C; Hall, Sarah M; Kiser, Mimi

    2010-10-01

    Interest in partnering with faith-based organizations (FBOs) to address health disparities has grown in recent years. Yet relatively little is known about these types of partnerships. As part of an evaluation of the Institute for Faith and Public Health Collaborations, representatives of 34 faith-health teams (n = 61) completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews were tape recorded, transcribed, and coded by two members of the evaluation team to identify themes. Major facilitators to faith-health collaborative work were passion and commitment, importance of FBOs in communities, favorable political climate, support from community and faith leaders, diversity of teams, and mutual trust and respect. Barriers unique to faith and health collaboration included discomfort with FBOs, distrust of either health agencies or FBOs, diversity within faith communities, different agendas, separation of church and state, and the lack of a common language. Findings suggest that faith-health partnerships face unique challenges but are capable of aligning resources to address health disparities.

  16. Next-generation clinical trials: Novel strategies to address the challenge of tumor molecular heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Daniel V.T.

    2014-01-01

    The promise of ‘personalized cancer care’ with therapies toward specific molecular aberrations has potential to improve outcomes. However, there is recognized heterogeneity within any given tumor-type from patient to patient (inter-patient heterogeneity), and within an individual (intra-patient heterogeneity) as demonstrated by molecular evolution through space (primary tumor to metastasis) and time (after therapy). These issues have become hurdles to advancing cancer treatment outcomes with novel molecularly targeted agents. Classic trial design paradigms are challenged by heterogeneity, as they are unable to test targeted therapeutics against low frequency genomic ‘oncogenic driver’ aberrations with adequate power. Usual accrual difficulties to clinical trials are exacerbated by low frequencies of any given molecular driver. To address these challenges, there is need for innovative clinical trial designs and strategies implementing novel diagnostic biomarker technologies to account for inter-patient molecular diversity and scarce tissue for analysis. Importantly, there is also need for pre-defined treatment priority algorithms given numerous aberrations commonly observed within any one individual sample. Access to multiple available therapeutic agents simultaneously is crucial. Finally intra-patient heterogeneity through time may be addressed by serial biomarker assessment at the time of tumor progression. This report discusses various ‘next-generation’ biomarker-driven trial designs and their potentials and limitations to tackle these recognized molecular heterogeneity challenges. Regulatory hurdles, with respect to drug and companion diagnostic development and approval, are considered. Focus is on the ‘Expansion Platform Design Types I and II’, the latter demonstrated with a first example, ‘PANGEA: Personalized Anti-Neoplastics for Gastro-Esophageal Adenocarcinoma’. Applying integral medium-throughput genomic and proteomic assays along with

  17. Functionally Approached Body (FAB) Strategies for Young Children Who Have Behavioral and Sensory Processing Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, John

    2005-01-01

    Functionally Approached Body (FAB) Strategies offer a clinical approach to help parents of young children with behavioral and sensory processing strategies. This article introduces the FAB Strategies, clinical strategies developed by the author for understanding and addressing young children's behavioral and sensory processing challenges. The FAB…

  18. Evaluating a School-Based Day Treatment Program for Students with Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Antoine Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Jade County Public Schools has provided school-based therapeutic day treatment in its public schools for more than 10 years. This program was adopted by the school system to provide an intervention in the school and classroom to address the challenging behaviors of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Currently, three human services…

  19. ICD-10 Medical Coding: The Role of Perioperative Services in Addressing Implementation Challenges.

    PubMed

    Wing, Toni L

    2016-02-01

    The International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) was adopted in the United States on October 1, 2015. Replacing the outdated ICD, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding system was long overdue, and the updated classifications were needed to accurately collect data and improve patient care. However, the complexity of ICD-10 may present substantial challenges for health information management coders and affect hospital revenue collection. Because the OR generates a large share of a hospital's overall revenue, perioperative services personnel must take a critical look at ICD-10 changes and address adoption challenges to minimize the negative effects ICD-10 may have on surgical revenue and help personnel identify perioperative services' important role in ICD-10 implementation. PMID:26849983

  20. Discovery Channel Telescope software progress report: addressing early commissioning and operations challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasse, Michael; Lotz, Paul J.

    2014-07-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope is a 4.3m astronomical research telescope in northern Arizona constructed through a partnership between Discovery Communications and Lowell Observatory. In transition from construction phase to commissioning and operations, we faced a variety of software challenges, both foreseen and unforeseen, and addressed those with a variety of solutions including, isolation of the control systems network, development of an Operations Log application, extension of the interface to instrumentation software, improvements to engineering data analysis, provisions to avoid failure modes, and enhanced user experience. We describe these solutions and present an overview of the current project status.

  1. The Role of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Addressing the World's Energy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, James

    2014-03-01

    The Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the United States provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study of nanoscale materials, with an emphasis on atomic-level tailoring to achieve desired properties and functions. The CFN is a science-based user facility, simultaneously developing strong scientific programs while offering broad access to its capabilities and collaboration through an active user program. The overarching scientific theme of the CFN is the development and understanding of nanoscale materials that address the Nations' challenges in energy security, consistent with the Department of Energy mission. The CFN is one of five Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) funded by the Office of Science of the United States Department of Energy. The CFN supports Brookhaven's goal of leadership in the development of advanced materials and processes for selected energy applications. In my presentation, I will highlight the role that the CFN, through its scientific staff and this scientific user community, is playing in addressing the world's energy challenges. I will focus on several trajectories of research that are being executed at CFN, including work on photovoltaics, novel nanostructured materials for catalysis, soft and biological materials, and our state-of-the-art electron microscopy and proximal probe microscopy facilities.

  2. Symptom Severity and Challenging Behavior in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Jina; Dixon, Dennis R.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Granpeesheh, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of challenging behaviors in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) population is often assumed to be high but relatively little research has actually been published on it. Furthermore, challenging behaviors are likely to impede progress in evidence-based treatment programs, such as early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI). Little…

  3. Challenges for a local service agency to address domestic violence -a case study from rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-08-15

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women's access to legal support.

  4. STaRRS in Yellowstone: Addressing Challenges Facing Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseal, A.; Gallagher, R.; Fuhrmann, B.; Sanford, R.

    2010-12-01

    The literature outlines many challenges faced by Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships (STSPs) including cultural differences between the scientific research and education communities. For example, shared vocabulary terms with dissimilar definitions can create communication problems. Other issues include accuracy in data collection, meeting the needs of a very diverse group of partners, connecting students with research science in a meaningful way, and maintaining the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain these partnerships. Additionally, evidence, other than anecdotal, of the success of these partnerships is limited, especially as school year and research cycles are often on different schedules or have very different goals. Students, Teachers, and Rangers & Research Scientists: Investigating Systems at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park (STaRRS) was an STSP developed to address some of these challenges, model some solutions within an STSP, and identify some possible outcomes for participating teachers and their students. Three strategies used to address some of these challenges that will be discussed briefly in this presentation include: (a) embedding the STSP in an already existing National Park Service environmental education program; (b) development of three types of research activities connecting teachers, students, and scientists to the research, and (c) a professional development (PD) model that included all partners in an on-going year-long process. Results from an accompanying research study will also be presented. Using a pretest-intervention-posttest design, this study revealed significant changes in attitude regarding science and scientists of participating STaRRS teachers. Student data gathered using a quasi-experimental pretest-intervention-posttest treatment and comparison group design also demonstrated significant changes in their attitudes and gains in earth science content knowledge.

  5. Time for a change: addressing R&D and commercialization challenges for antibacterials.

    PubMed

    Payne, David J; Miller, Linda Federici; Findlay, David; Anderson, James; Marks, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    The antibacterial therapeutic area has been described as the perfect storm. Resistance is increasing to the point that our hospitals encounter patients infected with untreatable pathogens, the overall industry pipeline is described as dry and most multinational pharmaceutical companies have withdrawn from the area. Major contributing factors to the declining antibacterial industry pipeline include scientific challenges, clinical/regulatory hurdles and low return on investment. This paper examines these challenges and proposes approaches to address them. There is a need for a broader scientific agenda to explore new approaches to discover and develop antibacterial agents. Additionally, ideas of how industry and academia could be better integrated will be presented. While promising progress in the regulatory environment has been made, more streamlined regulatory paths are still required and the solutions will lie in global harmonization and clearly defined guidance. Creating the right incentives for antibacterial research and development is critical and a new commercial model for antibacterial agents will be proposed. One key solution to help resolve both the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and lack of new drug development are rapid, cost-effective, accurate point of care diagnostics that will transform antibacterial prescribing and enable more cost-effective and efficient antibacterial clinical trials. The challenges of AMR are too great for any one group to resolve and success will require leadership and partnerships among academia, industry and governments globally.

  6. Time for a change: addressing R&D and commercialization challenges for antibacterials.

    PubMed

    Payne, David J; Miller, Linda Federici; Findlay, David; Anderson, James; Marks, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    The antibacterial therapeutic area has been described as the perfect storm. Resistance is increasing to the point that our hospitals encounter patients infected with untreatable pathogens, the overall industry pipeline is described as dry and most multinational pharmaceutical companies have withdrawn from the area. Major contributing factors to the declining antibacterial industry pipeline include scientific challenges, clinical/regulatory hurdles and low return on investment. This paper examines these challenges and proposes approaches to address them. There is a need for a broader scientific agenda to explore new approaches to discover and develop antibacterial agents. Additionally, ideas of how industry and academia could be better integrated will be presented. While promising progress in the regulatory environment has been made, more streamlined regulatory paths are still required and the solutions will lie in global harmonization and clearly defined guidance. Creating the right incentives for antibacterial research and development is critical and a new commercial model for antibacterial agents will be proposed. One key solution to help resolve both the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and lack of new drug development are rapid, cost-effective, accurate point of care diagnostics that will transform antibacterial prescribing and enable more cost-effective and efficient antibacterial clinical trials. The challenges of AMR are too great for any one group to resolve and success will require leadership and partnerships among academia, industry and governments globally. PMID:25918443

  7. Addressing Grand Challenges in Earth Observation Science: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, W.; Fröhlich, J.; Wotawa, G.; Stowasser, R.; Staudinger, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Walli, A.; Federspiel, C.; Aspetsberger, M.; Atzberger, C.; Briese, C.; Notarnicola, C.; Zebisch, M.; Boresch, A.; Enenkel, M.; Kidd, R.; von Beringe, A.; Hasenauer, S.; Naeimi, V.; Mücke, W.

    2014-09-01

    Earth observation is entering a new era where the increasing availability of free and open global satellite data sets combined with the computing power offered by modern information technologies opens up the possibility to process high-resolution data sets at global scale and short repeat intervals in a fully automatic fashion. This will not only boost the availability of higher level earth observation data in purely quantitative terms, but can also be expected to trigger a step change in the quality and usability of earth observation data. However, the technical, scientific, and organisational challenges that need to be overcome to arrive at this point are significant. First of all, Petabyte-scale data centres are needed for storing and processing complete satellite data records. Second, innovative processing chains that allow fully automatic processing of the satellite data from the raw sensor records to higher-level geophysical products need to be developed. Last but not least, new models of cooperation between public and private actors need to be found in order to live up to the first two challenges. This paper offers a discussion of how the Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC) - a catalyser for an open and international cooperation of public and private organisations - will address these three grand challenges with the aim to foster the use of earth observation for monitoring of global water resources.

  8. Time for a change: addressing R&D and commercialization challenges for antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    Payne, David J.; Miller, Linda Federici; Findlay, David; Anderson, James; Marks, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial therapeutic area has been described as the perfect storm. Resistance is increasing to the point that our hospitals encounter patients infected with untreatable pathogens, the overall industry pipeline is described as dry and most multinational pharmaceutical companies have withdrawn from the area. Major contributing factors to the declining antibacterial industry pipeline include scientific challenges, clinical/regulatory hurdles and low return on investment. This paper examines these challenges and proposes approaches to address them. There is a need for a broader scientific agenda to explore new approaches to discover and develop antibacterial agents. Additionally, ideas of how industry and academia could be better integrated will be presented. While promising progress in the regulatory environment has been made, more streamlined regulatory paths are still required and the solutions will lie in global harmonization and clearly defined guidance. Creating the right incentives for antibacterial research and development is critical and a new commercial model for antibacterial agents will be proposed. One key solution to help resolve both the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and lack of new drug development are rapid, cost-effective, accurate point of care diagnostics that will transform antibacterial prescribing and enable more cost-effective and efficient antibacterial clinical trials. The challenges of AMR are too great for any one group to resolve and success will require leadership and partnerships among academia, industry and governments globally. PMID:25918443

  9. Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

    2013-04-01

    Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities Deon E. Terblanche and Liisa Jalkanen dterblanche@wmo.int ljalkanen@wmo.int World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland The 21st Century could amongst others, become known as the century in which our species has evolved from Homo sapiens to Homo urbanus. By now the urban population has surpassed the rural population and the rate of urbanization will continue at such a pace that by 2050 urban dwellers could outnumber their rural counterpart by more than two to one. Most of this growth in urban population will occur in developing countries and along coastal areas. Urbanization is to a large extent the outcome of humans seeking a better life through improved opportunities presented by high-density communities. Megacities and large urban complexes provide more job opportunities and social structures, better transport and communication links and a relative abundance of physical goods and services when compared to most rural areas. Unfortunately these urban complexes also present numerous social and environmental challenges. Urban areas differ from their surroundings by morphology, population density, and with high concentration of industrial activities, energy consumption and transport. They also pose unique challenges to atmospheric modelling and monitoring and create a multi-disciplinary spectrum of potential threats, including air pollution, which need to be addressed in an integrated way. These areas are also vulnerable to the changing climate and its implications to sea-level and extreme events, air quality and related health impacts. Many urban activities are significantly impacted by weather events that would not be considered to be of high impact in less densely populated areas. For instance, moderate precipitation events can cause flooding and landslides as modified urban catchments generally have higher run-off to rainfall ratios than their more pristine rural

  10. Maternal and developmental immune challenges alter behavior and learning ability of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Grindstaff, Jennifer L.; Hunsaker, Veronica R.; Cox, Shelby N.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of the offspring immune response during development is known to influence growth and behavioral phenotype. However, the potential for maternal antibodies to block the behavioral effects of immune activation during the neonatal period has not been assessed. We challenged female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) prior to egg laying and then challenged offspring during the nestling and juvenile periods with one of two antigens (keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). We then tested the effects of maternal and neonatal immune challenges on offspring growth rates and neophobia and learning ability of offspring during adulthood. Neonatal immune challenge depressed growth rates. Neophobia of adult offspring was influenced by a combination of maternal treatment, offspring treatment, and offspring sex. Males challenged with LPS during the nestling and juvenile periods had reduced learning performance in a novel foraging task; however, female learning was not impacted. Offspring challenged with the same antigen as mothers exhibited similar growth suppression and behavioral changes as offspring challenged with a novel antigen. Thus, developmental immune challenges have long-term effects on the growth and behavioral phenotype of offspring. We found limited evidence that matching of maternal and offspring challenges reduces the effects of immune challenge in the altricial zebra finch. This may be a result of rapid catabolism of maternal antibodies in altricial birds. Our results emphasize the need to address sex differences in the long-term effects of developmental immune challenge and suggest neonatal immune activation may be one proximate mechanism underlying differences in adult behavior. PMID:22522078

  11. Enhancing Behavioral Couple Therapy: Addressing the Therapeutic Alliance, Hope, and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Shalonda; Iwamasa, Gayle Y.

    2005-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of behavioral couple therapy (BCT) are well documented and disseminated, and this couple therapy approach continues to evolve. Newer behaviorally based approaches share an openness to integration and can enhance the ability of BCT to address three key process-related variables: the therapeutic alliance, hope, and…

  12. Influence of "mood-inducing" music on challenging behavior.

    PubMed

    Durand, V M; Mapstone, E

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a musical manipulation on the challenging behavior of 3 persons with severe disabilities were evaluated. In Experiment 1 we identified stimulus conditions associated with high rates of challenging behavior for each participant. In Experiment 2 the high rate condition (determined in Experiment 1) was repeated with the addition of fast and slow beat music. Data indicate that challenging behavior was more frequent when slow beat music was played. Participants also displayed differential expressions of affect in these conditions. Results suggest that conditions associated with expression of affect may serve as establishing operations for challenging behavior and that this type of influence should be investigated further for possible contributions to intervention efforts.

  13. Consensus Statement on Electronic Health Predictive Analytics: A Guiding Framework to Address Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Amarasingham, Ruben; Audet, Anne-Marie J.; Bates, David W.; Glenn Cohen, I.; Entwistle, Martin; Escobar, G. J.; Liu, Vincent; Etheredge, Lynn; Lo, Bernard; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Ram, Sudha; Saria, Suchi; Schilling, Lisa M.; Shahi, Anand; Stewart, Walter F.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Xie, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Context: The recent explosion in available electronic health record (EHR) data is motivating a rapid expansion of electronic health care predictive analytic (e-HPA) applications, defined as the use of electronic algorithms that forecast clinical events in real time with the intent to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs. There is an urgent need for a systematic framework to guide the development and application of e-HPA to ensure that the field develops in a scientifically sound, ethical, and efficient manner. Objectives: Building upon earlier frameworks of model development and utilization, we identify the emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA, propose a framework that enables us to realize these opportunities, address these challenges, and motivate e-HPA stakeholders to both adopt and continuously refine the framework as the applications of e-HPA emerge. Methods: To achieve these objectives, 17 experts with diverse expertise including methodology, ethics, legal, regulation, and health care delivery systems were assembled to identify emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA and to propose a framework to guide the development and application of e-HPA. Findings: The framework proposed by the panel includes three key domains where e-HPA differs qualitatively from earlier generations of models and algorithms (Data Barriers, Transparency, and Ethics) and areas where current frameworks are insufficient to address the emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA (Regulation and Certification; and Education and Training). The following list of recommendations summarizes the key points of the framework: Data Barriers: Establish mechanisms within the scientific community to support data sharing for predictive model development and testing.Transparency: Set standards around e-HPA validation based on principles of scientific transparency and reproducibility.Ethics: Develop both individual-centered and society-centered risk-benefit approaches to evaluate

  14. The primary therapist model: addressing challenges to practice in special education.

    PubMed

    Rainforth, Beverly

    2002-01-01

    When occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) are provided as related services in educational settings, federal law, professional guidelines, and validated practices have pointed to appropriate models of service provision. Issues such as personnel shortages, professional isolation, and questionable educational relevance of services all create barriers to use of recommended practices. The overlap between OT and PT in special education suggests one strategy to help address these barriers: a primary therapist model. In this model, an OT or PT is assigned as primary therapist, with consultation from the other discipline as required to meet student needs. Potential benefits of the model, challenges in implementation, the best practice framework needed to support the model, and the need for research on costs and benefits are discussed. PMID:12216366

  15. Using Systems Approaches to Address Challenges for Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Karnes, Jason H; Van Driest, Sara; Bowton, Erica A; Weeke, Peter E; Mosley, Jonathan D; Peterson, Josh F; Denny, Joshua C

    2014-01-01

    Many genetic variants have been shown to affect drug response through changes in drug efficacy and likelihood of adverse effects. Much of pharmacogenomic science has focused on discovering and clinically implementing single gene variants with large effect sizes. Given the increasing complexities of drug responses and their variability, a systems approach may be enabling for discovery of new biology in this area. Further, systems approaches may be useful in addressing challenges in moving these data to clinical implementation, including creation of predictive models of drug response phenotypes, improved clinical decision-making through complex biological models, improving strategies for integrating genomics into clinical practice, and evaluating the impact of implementation programs on public health. PMID:24319008

  16. Addressing the Challenges of Hepatitis C Virus Resistance and Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    Colpitts, Che C.; Baumert, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is a major cause of chronic liver disease, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The development of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment by offering genuine prospects for the first comprehensive cure of a chronic viral infection in humans. While antiviral resistance is a significant limitation for interferon-based therapies, resistance and treatment failure still appear to be present in a small fraction of patients even in state-of-the-art DAA combination therapies. Therefore, treatment failure and resistance still remain a clinical challenge for the management of patients not responding to DAAs. In this special issue of Viruses on HCV drug resistance, mechanisms of antiviral resistance for different classes of antiviral drugs are described. Furthermore, the detection and monitoring of resistance in clinical practice, the clinical impact of resistance in different patient groups and strategies to prevent and address resistance and treatment failure using complementary antiviral strategies are reviewed. PMID:27537906

  17. Disaster response and people experiencing homelessness: Addressing challenges of a population with limited resources.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Bryan; Smith, Mary-Elise

    2015-01-01

    In this article the authors provide an overview of some issues that inhibit disaster planning and response for people experiencing homelessness and discuss the planning process conducted for this population in Worcester, MA. People experiencing homelessness face numerous challenges in preparing for disasters both natural and human caused. Similarly, providers attempting to aid these individuals must recognize and overcome various factors that hamper efforts to provide assistance. People experiencing homelessness lack the general resources many in the United States take for granted, including food, shelter, communication methods, and transportation. The population also has an increased prevalence of medical and psychiatric conditions. These factors amplify the typical difficulties in preparedness, communication, sheltering, and training for disasters. With these principles in mind, the authors reviewed the literature for best practices, identified potential stakeholders, and developed an annex to help address organization and delivery of care to those experiencing homelessness during a disaster. PMID:26150363

  18. The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Son H.; Edmonds, James A.

    2007-10-24

    The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world’s electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

  19. Is My Teaching Disturbing You? Strategies for Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kelle

    2010-01-01

    Faculty in higher education are experiencing a new generation of college students referred to as Generation X (Gen-Xers) and Millennials. The characteristics and behaviors of Gen-Xers and Millennials have created a more challenging classroom learning environment. Some educators may choose to ignore disruptive behaviors or may simply not know which…

  20. Violent Behavior in Cancer Patients--A Rarely Addressed Phenomenon in Oncological Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grube, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Dealing with violent cancer patients can be particularly challenging. The purpose of this study was to collect data on the frequency, quality, and underlying variables affecting violent behavior as well as to examine the role played by this behavior in the premature interruption of treatment. A total of 388 cancer inpatients were examined by…

  1. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Tammy R; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-06-08

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant.

  2. Coach strategies for addressing psychosocial challenges during the return to sport from injury.

    PubMed

    Podlog, Leslie; Dionigi, Rylee

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coach strategies for addressing athletes' psychosocial challenges in returning to sport following injury rehabilitation. Qualitative interviews with eight elite coaches from the Western Australian Institute of Sport (WAIS) in Perth, Australia revealed that coaches facilitated athletes' return to sport from injury through a variety of means, but did not typically provide systematic forms of assistance. Coaches commented that the idiosyncratic nature of the injury experience meant that they needed to apply strategies consistent with athletes' particular psychosocial needs. Such strategies included: (a) coordination of a "team approach" to rehabilitation; (b) fostering open communication with athletes and treatment team members; (c) social support; (d) positive thinking and goal setting; and (e) role models. Analysis of these strategies revealed that coaches attempted to address competence, autonomy, and relatedness needs in facilitating athletes' return from injury. These findings suggest that self-determination theory may be a valuable approach for examining coach forms of assistance regarding athletes' return to competition following injury. Findings are discussed in relation to injury literature and self-determination theory. Suggestions for future research are also presented.

  3. Geriatric Telemedicine: Background and Evidence for Telemedicine as a Way to Address the Challenges of Geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The global population of elderly people is increasing at a remarkable rate, which may be expected to continue for some time. Older patients require more care, and with the current model of care delivery, the costs may be expected to rise, although higher cost is unsustainable. For this reason, a new pattern of practice is needed. Telemedicine will be presented as a highly effective and necessary tool in geriatrics. Methods This review will present some of the background and evidence for telemedicine as a way to address the challenges of geriatrics through geriatric telemedicine. Some of the evidence for the value of telemedicine as a tool for physicians and healthcare systems is presented. Results Telemedicine offers many means to address the problems of geriatric care in creative ways. The use of electronic medicine, telecommunications, and information management has now found its way into the very fabric of health care. The use of telemedicine is a fait accompli in much of the world, and it continues to have an increasing role deeply imbedded in our electronic practices coupled with social media. Conclusions The evidence for successful incorporation of telemedicine into practice is abundant and continues to accrue. This is a great opportunity for medical practice to evolve to new levels of engagement with patients and new levels of attainment in terms of quality care. PMID:26618027

  4. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Tammy R.; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A.; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant. PMID:27338429

  5. Becoming a vaccine champion: evidence-based interventions to address the challenges of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Temoka, Erick

    2013-01-01

    The incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality rates of vaccine-preventable diseases have decreased drastically since the advent of modern vaccination by Edward Jenner at the end of the 18th century. In recent years, however, a growing number of parents have been refusing or delaying vaccination for their children for socioeconomical, medical, religious and/or philosophical reasons. This has resulted in a loss of herd immunity that has caused a resurgence of many infectious diseases. This article describes evidence-based methods by which a pediatric clinic can become a vaccine champion by aiming at vaccination rates of 100 percent. This goal can be attained by a team effort that addresses the challenges of vaccination by using every visit as a chance to vaccinate, educate, address the fears and the concerns of the parents and provide articles and other written documentations on the benefits and side effects of vaccines. A standardized system that identifies and tracks patients who need vaccines is also essential to find those who are seldom brought to medical attention. A consistent and systematic use of these evidence-based methods by a dedicated staff is essential to attain vaccination rates close to 100 percent. PMID:23444594

  6. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Tammy R; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant. PMID:27338429

  7. Integrated Strategy to Address Hanford’s Deep Vadose Zone Remediation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Triplett, Mark B.; Freshley, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Morse, John G.; Lober, Robert W.; Chronister, Glen B.

    2010-10-03

    A vast majority of Hanford’s remaining in-ground contaminants reside in the vadose zone of the Central Plateau, where reprocessing operations occurred. The vadose zone is comprised of about 75 meters of water-unsaturated sediments above groundwater. These contaminants have, and continue to release into groundwater that discharges to the Columbia River. If left untreated, these contaminants could remain a threat for centuries. Much of this contamination resides deep in the vadose zone, below the effective depth of tradition surface remedy influence. In 2008, the Department of Energy initiated deep vadose zone treatability testing to seek remedies for technetium-99 and uranium contamination. These tests include the application of desiccation for technetium-99 and reactive gas technologies for uranium. To complement these efforts, the Department of Energy has initiated a “defense-in-depth” approach to address the unique challenges for characterization and remediation of the deep vadose zone. This defense-in-depth approach will implement multiple approaches to understand and control contaminant flux from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater. Among these approaches is an increased investment in science and technology solutions to resolve deep vadose zone challenges including characterization, prediction, remediation, and monitoring.

  8. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  9. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  10. Re-thinking wastewater landscapes: combining innovative strategies to address tomorrow's urban wastewater treatment challenges.

    PubMed

    Smith, B R

    2009-01-01

    Most major cities worldwide face urban water management challenges relating to drinking supply, stormwater and wastewater treatment, and ecological preservation. In light of climate change and finite natural resources, addressing these challenges in sustainable ways will require innovative solutions arising from interdisciplinary collaboration. This article summarizes five major urban water management strategies that bridge the fields of engineering, ecology, landscape architecture, and urban planning. A conceptual implementation of these strategies is demonstrated through a design for a small constructed wetland treatment system in San Francisco, California. The proposed decentralized system described in this article consists of a detention basin, vegetated and open free water surface wetlands, and ultraviolet disinfection. In wet weather, the system would detain and treat combined sewer discharges (CSD), and in dry weather it would treat residential greywater for toilet flushing and irrigation in a nearby neighborhood. It is designed to adapt over time to changing climatic conditions and treatment demands. Importantly, this proposal demonstrates how constructed wetland engineers can incorporate multiple benefits into their systems, offering a vision of how wastewater infrastructure can be an attractive community, educational, recreational, and habitat amenity through the integration of engineering, ecology, and landscape design.

  11. Addressing China’s grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C.; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J.; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    China’s increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  12. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  13. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Discussion Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address

  14. Policy recommendations for addressing privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increased use of human biological material for cell-based research and clinical interventions poses risks to the privacy of patients and donors, including the possibility of re-identification of individuals from anonymized cell lines and associated genetic data. These risks will increase as technologies and databases used for re-identification become affordable and more sophisticated. Policies that require ongoing linkage of cell lines to donors’ clinical information for research and regulatory purposes, and existing practices that limit research participants’ ability to control what is done with their genetic data, amplify the privacy concerns. Discussion To date, the privacy issues associated with cell-based research and interventions have not received much attention in the academic and policymaking contexts. This paper, arising out of a multi-disciplinary workshop, aims to rectify this by outlining the issues, proposing novel governance strategies and policy recommendations, and identifying areas where further evidence is required to make sound policy decisions. The authors of this paper take the position that existing rules and norms can be reasonably extended to address privacy risks in this context without compromising emerging developments in the research environment, and that exceptions from such rules should be justified using a case-by-case approach. In developing new policies, the broader framework of regulations governing cell-based research and related areas must be taken into account, as well as the views of impacted groups, including scientists, research participants and the general public. Summary This paper outlines deliberations at a policy development workshop focusing on privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions. The paper provides an overview of these challenges, followed by a discussion of key themes and recommendations that emerged from discussions at the workshop. The paper concludes that

  15. Function-Based Interventions for Children with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Glen; Fox, Lise

    2011-01-01

    It is now axiomatic that challenging behaviors are defined more profitably by their functions (their motivations) than by their topographies (what they look like). The notion that challenging behaviors can be defined on the basis of their function has led in the past 30 years to a dramatically reconfigured approach to assessment and intervention.…

  16. Effects of the Good Behavior Game on Challenging Behaviors in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Andrea; McKenna, John W.; Bunuan, Rommel L.; Muething, Colin S.; Vega, Ramon, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Challenging behavior at school remains a concern for teachers and administrators. Thus classroom management practices to prevent challenging behavior are sorely needed. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) has been found to be useful to positively change student behavior. However, previous reviews of the GBG have not quantified effects, have not focused…

  17. Project T.A.C.K.L.E. (Together, Addressing the Challenges of Knowledge and Literacy for Employees). Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI.

    Project TACKLE (Together, Addressing the Challenge of Knowledge and Literacy for Employees) was a cooperative project, jointly developed to address employees with the inadequate basic skills necessary to operate modernized, technical equipment and maintain job security. Approximately 500 current employees of General Motors, Flint, Michigan, used…

  18. Planning for Challenging Behaviors: A Method to the Madness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deasy, Gia S.

    Student behavior problems have been found to be the most significant and frequently addressed concern of rural educators. A model was developed in response to the needs of rural educators in West Virginia for planning, documenting, implementing, and monitoring behavior plans for students with emotional and behavior problems. The first step…

  19. Development and evaluation of information resources for patients, families, and healthcare providers addressing behavioral and cognitive sequelae among adults with a primary brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kylie M; Simpson, Grahame K; Koh, Eng-Siew; Whiting, Diane L; Gillett, Lauren; Simpson, Teresa; Firth, Rochelle

    2015-06-01

    Behavioral and cognitive changes in patients with primary brain tumor (PBT) are common and may be distressing to patients and their family members. Healthcare professionals report a strong need for information, practical strategies, and training to assist consumers and better address management issues. A literature review by the current project found that 53% of the information resources currently available to consumers and health professionals contained minimal or no information about cognitive/behavioral changes after PBT, and 71% of the resources contained minimal or no information on associated strategies to manage these changes. This project aimed to develop an information resource for patients, carers, and health professionals addressing the behavioral and cognitive sequelae of PBT, including strategies to minimize the disabling impact of such behaviors. In consultation with staff and patient groups, 16 key information topics were identified covering cognitive and communication changes and challenging behaviors including executive impairment, behavioral disturbance, and social/emotional dysfunction. Sixteen fact sheets and 11 additional resource sheets were developed and evaluated according to established consumer communication guidelines. Preliminary data show that these resources have been positively received and well utilized. These sheets are the first of their kind addressing challenging behaviors in the neuro-oncology patient group and are a practical and useful information resource for health professionals working with these patients and their families. The new resource assists in reinforcing interventions provided to individual patients and their relatives who are experiencing difficulties in managing challenging behaviors after PBT. PMID:25827649

  20. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  1. Issues and Challenges in Sedentary Behavior Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Minsoo; Rowe, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown the negative impact of sedentary behavior on health, including cardiovascular risk factors, chronic disease-related morbidity, and mortality. Accurate measurement of sedentary behavior is thus important to plan effective interventions and to inform public health messages. This article (a) provides an overview of the…

  2. Supporting Successful Transition to Kindergarten: General Challenges and Specific Implications for Students with Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormont, Melissa; Beckner, Rebecca; Mitchell, Barbara; Richter, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present factors that impede and promote successful transition to kindergarten, with a focus on the specific needs of students with problem behavior. The review addresses competencies that teachers report are critical for success in kindergarten, traditional transition practices, and challenges in implementing…

  3. Behavioral addictions: a novel challenge for psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Presta, Silvio; Baroni, Stefano; Silvestri, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-12-01

    Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology. It is, however, controversial whether all or at least some of them should be considered real disorders or just normal, albeit extreme, behaviors. The aim of this article is to review current data on pharmacological treatment of behavioral addictions. As no specific and validated treatment algorithms are currently available, only an improved knowledge on their psychopathological, clinical, and neurobiological features may have relevant implications for more focused preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  4. Addressing Task Avoidance in Middle School Students: Academic Behavior Check-In/Check-Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turtura, Jessica E.; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Boyd, R. Justin

    2014-01-01

    Multitier prevention systems consist of a continuum of interventions to address the needs of all students. Within such systems, Tier I supports are in place for all students and are designed to enhance prosocial (social behavior interventions) and academic (instructional interventions) skills. Tier II interventions supplement the Tier I…

  5. Assessing and addressing inappropriate sexual behavior in brain-injured clients.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Barbara; Jillings, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Inappropriate sexual comments and behaviors from clients with brain injuries can be frustrating, awkward, and time consuming for the nurses who are caring for them. Understanding the meaning of these comments and behaviors, as well as receiving direction concerning ways to handle the situation can help nurses overcome their frustration and improve the quality of nursing care. This article examines potential underlying causes of inappropriate sexual behavior, explains the behaviors from client, family, staff, and organizational perspectives, and begins to look at ways to respectfully and sensitively address the behaviors using a model and framework developed by the Sexual Health Service (SHS) at Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (VHHSC), in British Columbia, Canada.

  6. Addressing challenges in combining GOES and LEO satellite products of the CONUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, R. A.; Dworak, R.

    2012-12-01

    The challenges of transforming data from the next generation of satellites into information and products for the weather and science purposes presents a major challenge to both the research and applications communities. This will be especially difficult over land, where the process of integrating observations from multiple instruments and platforms in real time is complicated by the influence of the land surface on the observations themselves. In addition, effective merging of the mixture of time-continuous GEO and less frequent but higher spectral resolution LEO observations with other new surface-based observations will be essential and require new product processing strategies. The material shown in this presentation will begin to address some of these issues. It will describe results of efforts to inter-calibrate moisture products derived from existing GEO and LEO data sets over land designed 1) to identify and remove biases from the GOES moisture retrievals, 2) to determine the seasonally varying information content of the GOES relative to NWP model 'first guess' fields, 3) to determine the similarities and differences in error structures between GOES and AIRS retrievals, and 4) to determine the vertical structure of the errors in both systems. For example, comparisons have been made between GOES Total Precipitable Water (TPW) using the Li retrieval system (GOES-Li) and data from Raman Lidar (RL), Microwave Radiometer (MWR) and surface-based GPS-Met systems at the ARM CART site. The test showed for using one year of derived TPW products, the NWP model first guess (GFS) and GOES-Li products are wetter, however the GOES-Li beats the GFS in the warm season, especially in August when the NWP precipitation skill is least. During the warm season GOES-Li is noticeably better than GFS (which was too wet) during daytime. In addition, the GPS-Met data are best during the daytime, while the Ramon Lidar performs best at night. AIRS products were also evaluated for several

  7. Academic Research Library as Broker in Addressing Interoperability Challenges for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P., II

    2015-12-01

    Data capture is an important process in the research lifecycle. Complete descriptive and representative information of the data or database is necessary during data collection whether in the field or in the research lab. The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Public Access Plan (2015) mandates the need for federally funded projects to make their research data more openly available. Developing, implementing, and integrating metadata workflows into to the research process of the data lifecycle facilitates improved data access while also addressing interoperability challenges for the geosciences such as data description and representation. Lack of metadata or data curation can contribute to (1) semantic, (2) ontology, and (3) data integration issues within and across disciplinary domains and projects. Some researchers of EarthCube funded projects have identified these issues as gaps. These gaps can contribute to interoperability data access, discovery, and integration issues between domain-specific and general data repositories. Academic Research Libraries have expertise in providing long-term discovery and access through the use of metadata standards and provision of access to research data, datasets, and publications via institutional repositories. Metadata crosswalks, open archival information systems (OAIS), trusted-repositories, data seal of approval, persistent URL, linking data, objects, resources, and publications in institutional repositories and digital content management systems are common components in the library discipline. These components contribute to a library perspective on data access and discovery that can benefit the geosciences. The USGS Community for Data Integration (CDI) has developed the Science Support Framework (SSF) for data management and integration within its community of practice for contribution to improved understanding of the Earth's physical and biological systems. The USGS CDI SSF can be used as a reference model to map to Earth

  8. The importance of fungi and mycology for addressing major global challenges*.

    PubMed

    Lange, Lene

    2014-12-01

    In the new bioeconomy, fungi play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new biological drugs. This range of new uses of fungi all stand on the shoulders of the efforts of mycologists over generations: the scientific discipline mycology has built comprehensive understanding within fungal biodiversity, classification, evolution, genetics, physiology, ecology, pathogenesis, and nutrition. Applied mycology could not make progress without this platform. To unfold the full potentials of what fungi can do for both environment and man we need to strengthen the field of mycology on a global scale. The current mission statement gives an overview of where we are, what needs to be done, what obstacles to overcome, and which potentials are within reach. It further provides a vision for how mycology can be strengthened: The time is right to make the world aware of the immense importance of fungi and mycology for sustainable global development, where land, water and biological materials are used in a more efficient and more sustainable manner. This is an opportunity for profiling mycology by narrating the role played by fungi in the bioeconomy. Greater awareness and appreciation of the role of fungi can be used to build support for mycology around the world. Support will attract more talent to our field of study, empower mycologists around the world to generate more funds for necessary basic research, and strengthen the global mycology network. The use of fungi for unlocking the full potentials of the bioeconomy relies on such progress. The fungal kingdom can be an

  9. Behavioral Interventions to Address Sleep Disturbances in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kylan S.; Johnson, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the adverse effects that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, these sleep problems also present significant challenges for the entire family. This article outlines the results of a…

  10. Key challenges of offshore wind power: Three essays addressing public acceptance, stakeholder conflict, and wildlife impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alison Waterbury

    Society is facing a pressing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to limit anthropogenic climate change, which has far reaching implications for humans and the environment. Transforming the energy infrastructure to carbon-free sources is one solution to curb greenhouse gas emissions, but this transformation has been slow to materialize in many places, such as the United States (U.S.). Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources available, which can be deployed in large-scale developments in many parts of the world. Yet, offshore wind has faced many challenges, which are more social and regulatory than technical. This dissertation addresses social and regulatory issues surrounding offshore wind development through three stand-alone essays, which, in combination, address a decision-making framework of where to locate offshore wind turbines, by minimizing effects on people and wildlife. The challenges to offshore wind that are addressed by this dissertation include (1) understanding underlying factors that drive support for or opposition to offshore wind energy; (2) conflict with existing ocean uses and users; and (3) public concern and regulatory processes related to wildlife impacts. The first paper identifies unique factors that drive public opinion of proposed offshore wind projects in nearby coastal communities. Wind energy development on land has faced local opposition for reasons such as effects on cultural landscapes and wildlife, which can be instrumental in whether or not and the speed with which a project moves ahead toward completion. Factors leading to support for, or opposition to, offshore wind energy are not well known, particularly for developments that are near-shore and in-view of coastal communities. Results are presented from a survey of 699 residents (35.5% response rate) completed in 2013 in greater Atlantic City, New Jersey and coastal Delaware, United States, where near-shore wind demonstration projects had

  11. Addressing Challenges to Public Understanding of Science: Epistemic Cognition, Motivated Reasoning, and Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Gale M.; Kienhues, Dorothe; Hofer, Barbara K.

    2014-01-01

    Science is of critical importance to daily life in a knowledge society and has a significant influence on many everyday decisions. As scientific problems increase in their number and complexity, so do the challenges facing the public in understanding these issues. Our objective is to focus on 3 of those challenges: the challenge of reasoning about…

  12. Behavioral addictions: a novel challenge for psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Presta, Silvio; Baroni, Stefano; Silvestri, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-12-01

    Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology. It is, however, controversial whether all or at least some of them should be considered real disorders or just normal, albeit extreme, behaviors. The aim of this article is to review current data on pharmacological treatment of behavioral addictions. As no specific and validated treatment algorithms are currently available, only an improved knowledge on their psychopathological, clinical, and neurobiological features may have relevant implications for more focused preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24589040

  13. 17th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: addressing the disruption challenge for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, Richard

    2013-08-01

    This annual workshop on magnetohydrodynamic stability control was held on 5-7 November 2012 at Columbia University in the city of New York, in the aftermath of a violent hydrodynamic instability event termed 'Hurricane Sandy'. Despite these challenging circumstances, Columbia University managed an excellent meeting, enabling the full participation of the community. This Workshop has been held since 1996 to help in the development of understanding and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities for future fusion reactors. It covers a wide range of stability topics—from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, edge-localized modes (ELMs), resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD—spanning many device types (tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches) to identify commonalities in the physics and a means of control. The theme for 2012 was 'addressing the disruption challenge for ITER', and thus the first day had a heavy focus on both the avoidance and mitigation of disruptions in ITER. Key elements included understanding how to apply 3D fields to maintain stability, as well as managing the disruption process itself through mitigating loads in the thermal quench and handling so called 'runaway electrons'. This culminated in a panel discussion on the disruption mitigation strategy for ITER, which noted that heat load asymmetries during the thermal quench appear to be an artifact of MHD processes, and that runaway electron generation may be inevitable, suggesting research should focus on control and dissipation of the runaway beam. The workshop was combined this year with the annual US-Japan MHD Workshop, with a special section looking more deeply at 'Fundamentals of 3D Perturbed Equilibrium Control', with interesting sessions on 3D equilibrium reconstruction, RWM physics, novel control concepts such as non-magnetic sensing, adaptive control, q < 2 tokamak operation, and the effects of flow. The final day turned to tearing mode interactions

  14. Estimating the Health Effects of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies: Addressing Parametric, Model, and Valuation Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jeremy J.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Markandya, Anil; Balbus, John M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Haines, Andy; Chalabi, Zaid

    2014-01-01

    simultaneously improving health. Citation: Remais JV, Hess JJ, Ebi KL, Markandya A, Balbus JM, Wilkinson P, Haines A, Chalabi Z. 2014. Estimating the health effects of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies: addressing parametric, model, and valuation challenges. Environ Health Perspect 122:447–455; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306744 PMID:24583270

  15. Novel developments in benthic modelling to address scientific and policy challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Artioli, Yuri; Bruggeman, Jorn; Aldridge, John; Blackford, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of benthic systems in supporting, regulating and providing marine ecosystem services requires better understanding of their functioning and their response and resilience to stressors. Novel observational methods for the investigation of dynamics of benthic-pelagic coupling in shelf seas are being developed and new data is being collected. Therefore there is an increasing demand for robust representation of benthic processes in marine biogeochemical and ecosystem models, which would improve our understanding of whole systems and benthic-pelagic coupling, rather than act as mere closure terms for pelagic models. However, for several decades development of benthic models has lagged behind their pelagic counterparts. To address contemporary scientific, policy and societal challenges, the biogeochemical and ecological model ERSEM (European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model), including its benthic sub-model, was recently recoded in a scalable and modular format adopting the approach of FABM (Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models). Within the Shelf Sea Biogeochemistry research programme, a series of additional processes have been included, such as a sedimentary carbonate system, a resuspendable fluff layer, and the simulation of advective sediments. It was shown that the inclusion of these processes changes the dynamics of benthic-pelagic fluxes as well as modifying the benthic food web. Comparison of model results with in-situ data demonstrated a general improvement of model performance and highlighted the importance of the benthic system in overall ecosystem dynamics. As an example, our simulations have shown that inclusion of a resuspendable fluff layer facilitates regeneration of inorganic nutrients in the water column due to degradation of resuspended organic material by pelagic bacteria. Moreover, the composition of fluff was found to be important for trophic interactions, and therefore indirectly affects benthic community composition. Where

  16. OpenTopography: Addressing Big Data Challenges Using Cloud Computing, HPC, and Data Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Phan, M.; Youn, C.; Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2014-12-01

    OpenTopography (OT) is a geoinformatics-based data facility initiated in 2009 for democratizing access to high-resolution topographic data, derived products, and tools. Hosted at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), OT utilizes cyberinfrastructure, including large-scale data management, high-performance computing, and service-oriented architectures to provide efficient Web based access to large, high-resolution topographic datasets. OT collocates data with processing tools to enable users to quickly access custom data and derived products for their application. OT's ongoing R&D efforts aim to solve emerging technical challenges associated with exponential growth in data, higher order data products, as well as user base. Optimization of data management strategies can be informed by a comprehensive set of OT user access metrics that allows us to better understand usage patterns with respect to the data. By analyzing the spatiotemporal access patterns within the datasets, we can map areas of the data archive that are highly active (hot) versus the ones that are rarely accessed (cold). This enables us to architect a tiered storage environment consisting of high performance disk storage (SSD) for the hot areas and less expensive slower disk for the cold ones, thereby optimizing price to performance. From a compute perspective, OT is looking at cloud based solutions such as the Microsoft Azure platform to handle sudden increases in load. An OT virtual machine image in Microsoft's VM Depot can be invoked and deployed quickly in response to increased system demand. OT has also integrated SDSC HPC systems like the Gordon supercomputer into our infrastructure tier to enable compute intensive workloads like parallel computation of hydrologic routing on high resolution topography. This capability also allows OT to scale to HPC resources during high loads to meet user demand and provide more efficient processing. With a growing user base and maturing scientific user

  17. Students with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study which aimed to explore the learning and behavioral characteristics of students with Learning Disabilities (LDs) in Jordan. Specifically, variables that related to challenging behaviors, school's type, and gender differences were investigated. Four resource room teachers in public and private schools were…

  18. Walk and Talk: An Intervention for Behaviorally Challenged Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative research explored the question: Do preadolescent and adolescent youths with behavioral challenges benefit from a multimodal intervention of walking outdoors while engaging in counseling? The objective of the Walk and Talk intervention is to help the youth feel better, explore alternative behavioral choices, and learn new coping…

  19. Communicating about Challenging Behavior: Helpful Conversations between Caregivers and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Amy; Broyles, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The normal developmental challenges experienced during early childhood as well as more significant emotional and behavioral problems require that parents and caregivers communicate effectively. The manner in which parents and caregivers communicate with each other about children's behavior can have a significant and lasting impact on children,…

  20. The Challenges of Managing Student Behavior Problems in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abebe, Solomon; Hailemariam, Assegedech

    2007-01-01

    Student behavior problems are challenging at all levels in school. The purpose of this article was to determine the type, prevalence and complex nature of student behavior problems and its impact on teaching and learning. Archival data for discipline referrals in a middle school were examined. Data indicated that "Insubordination" was the most…

  1. The Necessity of Conceptual Skill Enhancement to Address Philosophical Challenges of New Science : Background and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Este, Robert A.

    Sensory extension and increasingly powerful computation underpinning emerging new science provides us with daunting conceptual challenges. It is here argued that because they are primarily philosophical in nature, high-level conceptual challenges are unique and different from those that help us refine outputs and achievements based on solving our technical and political problems. This paper explores the practical implications of such unique conceptual challenges and discusses the need for enhancement of conceptual skills. Such conceptual enhancement may provide us with a good opportunity to best respond to and benefit from these challenges.

  2. Community Strategies: Addressing the Challenges for Young People Living in Rural Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Helen; Wyn, Johanna

    Young people growing up in rural and isolated areas of Australia face particular challenges because structural change to the rural economy has dramatically affected their communities. Structural challenges include limited transportation, health and community services that are difficult to access and not confidential, scarcity of affordable…

  3. Strategies to Address Challenging Behaviour in Young Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Kathleen; Jones, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may present problems within community, leisure, and educational settings, and, in many instances, precludes them from accessing these environments. Factors contributing to the occurrence of challenging behaviours include characteristics associated with…

  4. Getting People Involved: The Benefit of Intellectual Capital Management for Addressing HR Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pook, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the benefits of intellectual capital assessment for facing current challenges of human resources work and organizational development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes findings of studies on challenges in HR work and maps them with features of intellectual capital assessment methods. It is thus a…

  5. A Holistic Approach towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Addressing Education Challenges in Asia and the Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ra, Sungsup; Chin, Brian; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offers opportunities for governments to address key education challenges of quality, equity, and efficiency. While governments and educational institutions in developed countries may have taken up these opportunities, many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region have often missed them out.…

  6. Exploring a Community of Practice Model for Professional Development to Address Challenges to Classroom Practices in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether or not, and how, an on-site and research-teacher community of practice model for professional development addressed the challenges to classroom practices in a Head Start program. Data sources included interviews with teachers, videos of planning and teaching sessions, and the researchers' fieldwork log and…

  7. The pain of pain: challenges of animal behavior models.

    PubMed

    Barrett, James E

    2015-04-15

    Berend Olivier has had a long-standing interest in the utility of animal models for a wide variety of therapeutic indications. His work has spanned multiple types of models, blending ethological, or species typical and naturalistic behaviors, along with methodologies based on learned behavior. He has consistently done so, from an analytical as well as predictive perspective, and has made multiple contributions while working in both the pharmaceutical industry and within an academic institution. Although focused primarily on psychiatric disorders, Berend has conducted research in the area of pain in humans and in animals, demonstrating an expansive appreciation for the breadth, scope and significance of the science and applications of the discipline of pharmacology to these diverse areas. This review focuses on the use of animal models in pain research from the perspective of the long-standing deficiencies in the development of therapeutics in this area and from a preclinical perspective where the translational weaknesses have been quite problematic. The challenges confronting animal models of pain, however, are not unique to this area of research, as they cut across several therapeutic areas. Despite the deficiencies, failures and concerns, existing animal models of pain continue to be of widespread use and are essential to progress in pain research as well as in other areas. Although not focusing on specific animal models of pain, this paper seeks to examine general issues facing the use of these models. It does so by exploring alternative approaches which capture recent developments, which build upon principles and concepts we have learned from Berend's contributions, and which provide the prospect of helping to address the absence of novel therapeutics in this area.

  8. Rethinking prevention in primary care: applying the chronic care model to address health risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hung, Dorothy Y; Rundall, Thomas G; Tallia, Alfred F; Cohen, Deborah J; Halpin, Helen Ann; Crabtree, Benjamin F

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the Chronic Care Model (CCM) as a framework for preventing health risk behaviors such as tobacco use, risky drinking, unhealthy dietary patterns, and physical inactivity. Data were obtained from primary care practices participating in a national health promotion initiative sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Practices owned by a hospital health system and exhibiting a culture of quality improvement were more likely to offer recommended services such as health risk assessment, behavioral counseling, and referral to community-based programs. Practices that had a multispecialty physician staff and staff dieticians, decision support in the form of point-of-care reminders and clinical staff meetings, and clinical information systems such as electronic medical records were also more likely to offer recommended services. Adaptation of the CCM for preventive purposes may offer a useful framework for addressing important health risk behaviors.

  9. Early Parental Positive Behavior Support and Childhood Adjustment: Addressing Enduring Questions with New Methods

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Winter, Charlotte E.; Wilson, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children’s adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design. Observational and parent-reported data from mother–child dyads (N = 731; 49 percent female) were collected from a high-risk sample at age 2. Follow-up data were collected via teacher report and child assessment at age 7.5. The results supported combining three different observational methods to assess positive behavior support at age 2 within a latent factor. Further, parents’ observed positive behavior support at age 2 predicted multiple types of teacher-reported and child-assessed problem behavior and competencies at 7.5 years old. Results supported the validity and predictive capability of a multi-method observational measure of parenting and the importance of a continued focus on the early years within preventive interventions. PMID:26997757

  10. The role and challenges of the food industry in addressing chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Summary Increasingly, food companies play an important role in stemming the rising burden of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Concrete actions taken by these companies include global public commitments to address food reformulation, consumer information, responsible marketing, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and public-private partnerships. These actions are reviewed together with eleven specific PepsiCo goals and commitments that address products, the marketplace, and communities at large. Interim progress on these goals and commitments are discussed as well as constraints hampering faster progress. Further disease prevention depends on increasing implementation of private-public initiatives. PMID:20509876

  11. A Problem-Solving Approach to Addressing Current Global Challenges in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Judith D.; Aspin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with an analysis of global problems shaping education, particularly as they impact upon learning and life chances. In addressing these problems a range of philosophical positions and controversies are considered, including: traditional romantic and institutional views of schooling; and more recent maximalist, neo-liberal,…

  12. Facilitators, Challenges, and Collaborative Activities in Faith and Health Partnerships to Address Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Hall, Sarah M.; Kiser, Mimi

    2010-01-01

    Interest in partnering with faith-based organizations (FBOs) to address health disparities has grown in recent years. Yet relatively little is known about these types of partnerships. As part of an evaluation of the Institute for Faith and Public Health Collaborations, representatives of 34 faith--health teams (n = 61) completed semi-structured…

  13. Multiscale Modeling in Computational Biomechanics: Determining Computational Priorities and Addressing Current Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Tawhai, Merryn; Bischoff, Jeff; Einstein, Daniel R.; Erdemir, Ahmet; Guess, Trent; Reinbolt, Jeff

    2009-05-01

    Abstract In this article, we describe some current multiscale modeling issues in computational biomechanics from the perspective of the musculoskeletal and respiratory systems and mechanotransduction. First, we outline the necessity of multiscale simulations in these biological systems. Then we summarize challenges inherent to multiscale biomechanics modeling, regardless of the subdiscipline, followed by computational challenges that are system-specific. We discuss some of the current tools that have been utilized to aid research in multiscale mechanics simulations, and the priorities to further the field of multiscale biomechanics computation.

  14. Challenges Facing Contemporary Associative Approaches to Acquired Behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ralph R

    2006-01-01

    Despite the considerable success of contemporary associative models of learning in stimulating new behavioral research and modest success in providing direction to both neuroscience and psychotherapy, these models are confronted with at least three challenges. The first challenge is to the assumption that animals encode only one or a few summary statistics to capture what has been experienced over many training trials. This assumption is contrary to overwhelming evidence that the brain retains episodic information. The second challenge is that the learning-performance distinction has been largely ignored. Most models erroneously assume that behavior is a nearly perfect reflection of what has been encoded. The third challenge is to account for interactions between stimuli that have been presented separately (e.g., stimulus interference) as well as between stimuli that have been presented together (e.g., stimulus competition). PMID:19768131

  15. Addressing Challenges in Web Accessibility for the Blind and Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, Angela; Stirbens, Kathleen A.; Williams, Joseph; Haiber, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Searching for relevant information on the web is an important aspect of distance learning. This activity is a challenge for visually impaired distance learners. While sighted people have the ability to filter information in a fast and non sequential way, blind persons rely on tools that process the information in a sequential way. Learning is…

  16. A Model Driven Framework to Address Challenges in a Mobile Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaddage, Ferial; Christensen, Rhonda; Lai, Wing; Knezek, Gerald; Norris, Cathie; Soloway, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a review of the pedagogical, technological, policy and research challenges and concepts underlying mobile learning is presented, followed by a brief description of categories of implementations. A model Mobile learning framework and dynamic criteria for mobile learning implementations are proposed, along with a case study of one site…

  17. Narrative Research Addressing the Challenges of a Career in Professional Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the challenges that accomplished young athletes face as they aspire to become professional athletes. The data used in this study was derived from selected lived and told sport experiences of undergraduate and graduate kinesiology majors who were former competitive athletes. Additional data was derived…

  18. A Promising Approach to Addressing America's Biggest Challenges. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul; Seldon, Willa

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges--a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy--that require powerful solutions. In a climate of increasingly constrained resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant,…

  19. Government Information Focus. The Digital Divide: Understanding and Addressing the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, Christopher P.

    This report discusses the challenges of the Digital Divide. Part I examines the issues concerning access as it relates to schools, communities, free Internet service providers, and broadband. Part II defines technological literacy and how it pertains to the Digital Divide debate. Part III examines those who are affected by the divide and…

  20. The Benefits and Challenges of Becoming Cross-Culturally Competent Counseling Psychologists. Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul

    2006-01-01

    The central thesis of this article is that focusing on cross-cultural competence will enhance both the science and the practice of counseling psychology. Developing cross-cultural competence is a lifelong journey, replete with many joys and challenges, that will (a) increase the sophistication of our research, (b) expand the utility and…

  1. The role of public-private partnerships in addressing the biomedical innovation challenge.

    PubMed

    Said, Maya; Zerhouni, Elias

    2014-11-01

    Without a step change in the productivity of pharmaceutical research and development, it will be difficult to tackle the public health challenges facing societies worldwide. Public–private partnerships could play a key role in achieving this step change, but they need to be well designed and led.

  2. Family Connections: Helping Early Head Start/Head Start Staff and Parents Address Mental Health Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardslee, William R.; Avery, Mary Watson; Ayoub, Catherine; Watts, Caroline L.

    2009-01-01

    Early Head Start/Head Start teachers and staff encounter parents who have wrestled with depression and other adversities every day. This article describes an innovative program of trainings for and consultation to Early Head Start/Head Start staff to help them effectively deal with mental heath challenges faced by parents and children. The program…

  3. Year of Coordinated Observations, Modeling and Forecasting: Addressing the Challenge of Organized Tropical Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waliser, Duane E.

    2006-01-01

    The multi-scale organization of tropical convection and scale interaction are grand challenges in the prediction of weather and climate. As part of a international effort UN Year of Planet Earth, this proposed effort to observe, model and forecast the effects of organized tropical convection is reviewed. This viewgraph presentation reviews the proposal.

  4. The role of public-private partnerships in addressing the biomedical innovation challenge.

    PubMed

    Said, Maya; Zerhouni, Elias

    2014-11-01

    Without a step change in the productivity of pharmaceutical research and development, it will be difficult to tackle the public health challenges facing societies worldwide. Public–private partnerships could play a key role in achieving this step change, but they need to be well designed and led. PMID:25359362

  5. Addressing Human Capital Challenges: Assessing the Experiences of Four Countries in the Arab Region. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    This research brief describes an analysis of the reform efforts of four Arab region nations (Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates) in response to human capital challenges they face in preparing their people to work in a global environment. (Contains 3 tables.) [For associated report, see ED503118.

  6. Addressing Quality Challenges in the Private University Sector in Bangladesh: From Policy Formulation to Institutional Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco Ramírez, Gerardo; Jahirul Haque, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Private higher education is growing, especially in developing and transitioning countries. Rapid growth frequently comes with concerns about quality. This article explores challenges and opportunities for higher education quality among private universities in Bangladesh. By presenting a vertical case study that explores interactions among actors…

  7. Comparison of Behavioral Intervention and Sensory-Integration Therapy in the Treatment of Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Sarah; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Hughes, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of sensory-integration therapy (SIT) and a behavioral intervention on rates of challenging behavior (including self-injurious behavior) in four children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. For each of the participants a functional assessment was conducted to identify the variables…

  8. Challenges in Addressing Depression in HIV Research: Assessment, Cultural Context, and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Simoni, Jane M.; Safren, Steven A.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Lyda, Karen; Grossman, Cynthia I.; Rao, Deepa; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Wong, Frank Y.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Blank, Michael B.; DiClemente, Ralph; Wilson, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common co-morbidities of HIV infection. It negatively impacts self-care, quality of life, and biomedical outcomes among people living with HIV (PLWH) and may interfere with their ability to benefit from health promotion interventions. State-of-the-science research among PLWH, therefore, must address depression. To guide researchers, we describe the main diagnostic, screening, and symptom-rating measures of depression, offering suggestions for selecting the most appropriate instrument. We also address cultural considerations in the assessment of depression among PLWH, emphasizing the need to consider measurement equivalence and offering strategies for developing measures that are valid cross-culturally. Finally, acknowledging the high prevalence of depression among PLWH, we provide guidance to researchers on incorporating depression into the theoretical framework of their studies and employing procedures that account for participants with depression. PMID:21046221

  9. Toward a Predictive Understanding of Earth’s Microbiomes to Address 21st Century Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Blaser, Martin J.; Cardon, Zoe G.; Cho, Mildred K.; Dangl, Jeffrey L.; Green, Jessica L.; Knight, Rob; Maxon, Mary E.; Northen, Trent R.; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microorganisms have shaped our planet and its inhabitants for over 3.5 billion years. Humankind has had a profound influence on the biosphere, manifested as global climate and land use changes, and extensive urbanization in response to a growing population. The challenges we face to supply food, energy, and clean water while maintaining and improving the health of our population and ecosystems are significant. Given the extensive influence of microorganisms across our biosphere, we propose that a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort is required to understand, predict, and harness microbiome function. From the parallelization of gene function testing to precision manipulation of genes, communities, and model ecosystems and development of novel analytical and simulation approaches, we outline strategies to move microbiome research into an era of causality. These efforts will improve prediction of ecosystem response and enable the development of new, responsible, microbiome-based solutions to significant challenges of our time. PMID:27178263

  10. Can microfluidics address biomanufacturing challenges in drug/gene/cell therapies?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hon Fai; Ma, Siying; Leong, Kam W.

    2016-01-01

    Translation of any inventions into products requires manufacturing. Development of drug/gene/cell delivery systems will eventually face manufacturing challenges, which require the establishment of standardized processes to produce biologically-relevant products of high quality without incurring prohibitive cost. Microfluidicu technologies present many advantages to improve the quality of drug/gene/cell delivery systems. They also offer the benefits of automation. What remains unclear is whether they can meet the scale-up requirement. In this perspective, we discuss the advantages of microfluidic-assisted synthesis of nanoscale drug/gene delivery systems, formation of microscale drug/cell-encapsulated particles, generation of genetically engineered cells and fabrication of macroscale drug/cell-loaded micro-/nano-fibers. We also highlight the scale-up challenges one would face in adopting microfluidic technologies for the manufacturing of these therapeutic delivery systems. PMID:27047674

  11. Toward a Predictive Understanding of Earth's Microbiomes to Address 21st Century Challenges.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Martin J; Cardon, Zoe G; Cho, Mildred K; Dangl, Jeffrey L; Donohue, Timothy J; Green, Jessica L; Knight, Rob; Maxon, Mary E; Northen, Trent R; Pollard, Katherine S; Brodie, Eoin L

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms have shaped our planet and its inhabitants for over 3.5 billion years. Humankind has had a profound influence on the biosphere, manifested as global climate and land use changes, and extensive urbanization in response to a growing population. The challenges we face to supply food, energy, and clean water while maintaining and improving the health of our population and ecosystems are significant. Given the extensive influence of microorganisms across our biosphere, we propose that a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort is required to understand, predict, and harness microbiome function. From the parallelization of gene function testing to precision manipulation of genes, communities, and model ecosystems and development of novel analytical and simulation approaches, we outline strategies to move microbiome research into an era of causality. These efforts will improve prediction of ecosystem response and enable the development of new, responsible, microbiome-based solutions to significant challenges of our time. PMID:27178263

  12. Addressing the Challenges of a Quarter Century of Giscience Education: A Flexible Higher Education Curriculum Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenendaal, B.

    2014-04-01

    A wide range of geographic information science (GIScience) educational programs currently exist, the oldest now over 25 years. Offerings vary from those specifically focussed on geographic information science, to those that utilise geographic information systems in various applications and disciplines. Over the past two decades, there have been a number of initiatives to design curricula for GIScience, including the NCGIA Core Curriculum, GIS&T Body of Knowledge and the Geospatial Technology Competency Model developments. The rapid developments in geospatial technology, applications and organisations have added to the challenges that higher educational institutions face in order to ensure that GIScience education is relevant and responsive to the changing needs of students and industry. This paper discusses some of the challenges being faced in higher education in general, and GIScience education in particular, and outlines a flexible higher education curriculum framework for GIScience.

  13. Nonclinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals--Addressing current challenges of these novel and emerging therapies.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Frank R; Baumann, Andreas; Blaich, Guenter; de Haan, Lolke; Fagg, Rajni; Kiessling, Andrea; Kronenberg, Sven; Locher, Mathias; Milton, Mark; Tibbitts, Jay; Ulrich, Peter; Weir, Lucinda

    2015-10-01

    Non-clinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals can present significant challenges to human risk assessment with these often innovative and complex drugs. Hot Topics in this field were discussed recently at the 4th Annual European Biosafe General Membership meeting. In this feature article, the presentations and subsequent discussions from the main sessions are summarized. The topics covered include: (i) wanted versus unwanted immune activation, (ii) bi-specific protein scaffolds, (iii) use of Pharmacokinetic (PK)/Pharmacodynamic (PD) data to impact/optimize toxicology study design, (iv) cytokine release and challenges to human translation (v) safety testing of cell and gene therapies including chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells and retroviral vectors and (vi) biopharmaceutical development strategies encompassing a range of diverse topics including optimizing entry of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) into the brain, safety testing of therapeutic vaccines, non-clinical testing of biosimilars, infection in toxicology studies with immunomodulators and challenges to human risk assessment, maternal and infant anti-drug antibody (ADA) development and impact in non-human primate (NHP) developmental toxicity studies, and a summary of an NC3Rs workshop on the future vision for non-clinical safety assessment of biopharmaceuticals.

  14. Systems approach to address incivility and disruptive behaviors in health-care organizations.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Elizabeth; Kusy, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing evidence that disruptive behaviors within health-care teams constitute a major threat to the quality of care, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JCAHO; Joint Commission Resources, 2008) has a new leadership standard that addresses disruptive and inappropriate behaviors effective January 1, 2009. For professionals who work in human resources and organization development, these standards represent a clarion call to design and implement evidence-based interventions to create health-care communities of respectful engagement that have zero tolerance for disruptive, uncivil, and intimidating behaviors by any professional. In this chapter, we will build an evidence-based argument that sustainable change must include organizational, team, and individual strategies across all professionals in the organization. We will then describe an intervention model--Toxic Organization Change System--that has emerged from our own research on toxic behaviors in the workplace (Kusy & Holloway, 2009) and provide examples of specific strategies that we have used to prevent and ameliorate toxic cultures.

  15. A Biobehavioral [corrected] Framework to Address the Emerging Challenge of Multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Suls, Jerry; Green, Paige A; Davidson, Karina W

    2016-04-01

    Multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of multiple physical or psychological illnesses, is prevalent particularly among older adults. The number of Americans with multiple chronic diseases is projected to increase from 57 million in 2000 to 81 million in 2020. However, behavioral medicine and health psychology, while focusing on the co-occurrence of psychological/psychiatric disorders with primary medical morbidities, have historically tended to ignore the co-occurrence of primary medical comorbidities, such as diabetes and cancer, and their biopsychosocial implications. This approach may hinder our ecologically valid understanding of the etiology, prevention, and treatment for individual patients with multimorbidity. In this selective review, we propose a heuristic behavioral framework for the etiology of multimorbidity. More acknowledgment and systematic research on multiple, co-existing disorders in behavioral medicine are consistent with the biopsychosocial model's emphasis on treating the "whole person," which means not considering any single illness, its symptoms, risk factors, or mechanisms, in isolation. As systems analytics, big data, machine learning, and mixed-model trajectory analyses, among others, come online and become more widely available, we may be able to tackle multimorbidity more holistically, efficiently, and satisfactorily.

  16. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  17. Staff Reports of Setting Events Associated With Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Peter; Teer, Kerry; Rye, Lynne; Hughes, David

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to identify the setting events reported by care staff as more and less likely to be associated with the challenging behaviors of people with intellectual disabilities. Sixty-five staff working with 22 individuals were interviewed using an inventory of putative setting events. Findings were collated to allow identification of…

  18. Improving Mathematics Problem Solving Skills for Students with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Peter J.; Wyrick, Amanda; Brown, E. Todd; Lingo, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that there is a reciprocal relationship between challenging behavior and poor academic performance and that this relationship will have a lifelong negative impact on individuals caught in this detrimental cycle. New interventions continue to be reported in the literature describing more effective ways to implement academic…

  19. BE PROACTIVE: "Including Students With Challenging Behavior in Your Classroom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchem, Katherine J.

    2005-01-01

    Many teachers feel unprepared to deal with disruptive behavior and believe this substantially interferes with their teaching and their ability to successfully include children with disabilities (Schumm & Vaughn, 1995). In addition to the stress of dealing with never-ending piles of paperwork, working with challenging students may be one of the…

  20. The Relationship between Perceived Instructor Immediacy and Student Challenge Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodboy, Alan K.; Myers, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived instructor immediacy and student challenge behavior (i.e., procedural, evaluation, power play, practicality) in the college classroom. Participants were 403 students who listened to and reported on a 15 minute guest lecturer in an introductory communication class. Results…

  1. The Challenge of Characterizing Operations in the Mechanisms Underlying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, William

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscience and cognitive science seek to explain behavioral regularities in terms of underlying mechanisms. An important element of a mechanistic explanation is a characterization of the operations of the parts of the mechanism. The challenge in characterizing such operations is illustrated by an example from the history of physiological…

  2. Watershed Outreach Professionals' Behavior Change Practices, Challenges, and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Meghan; Little, Samuel; Phelps, Kaitlin; Roble, Carrie; Zint, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the practices, challenges, and needs of Chesapeake Bay watershed outreach professionals, as related to behavior change strategies and best outreach practices. Data were collected through a questionnaire e-mailed to applicants to the Chesapeake Bay Trust's environmental outreach grant program (n = 108, r = 56%). Almost all…

  3. An Overview of Interdisciplinary Research at Notre Dame Addressing "Grand Challenges" in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Bolster, D.; Tank, J. L.; Hellmann, J.; Christopher, S. F.; Sharma, A.; Chiu, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Midwest and Great Lakes region face a number of "Grand Challenges" associated with climate, land use, agriculture, and water resources infrastructure. These include sustainability of agricultural systems and related impacts to food security and the regional economy; sustainability of Great Lakes water levels; changing storm statistics and impacts to stormwater management and flooding; water quality in rivers and downstream receiving water bodies related to non-point source pollution on agricultural lands and combined sewer overflows in urban areas; urban impacts related to aging infrastructure and climate change, and ecosystem management and restoration. In the context of water management, groundwater resources are poorly understood in comparison with surface water resources, and regional-scale simulation models are needed to address questions of sustainability both in terms of supply and water quality. Interdisciplinary research at the University of Notre Dame is attempting to address these research challenges via 1) integrated macro-scale groundwater and surface water modeling to address issues related to sustainable water supply, ecosystem restoration, and agricultural impacts; 2) development of high-resolution regional climate models dynamically coupled to the Great Lakes to address urban impacts, changing storm statistics and to quantify precipitation and evaporation over the Great Lakes; 3) and integrated macro-scale hydrology and water quality modeling to assess the large-scale performance of innovative land management BMPs on agricultural land (such as the two-stage ditch, cover crops, and dynamic drainage control) intended to improve water quality.

  4. Addressing the urban pipeline challenge for the physician workforce: the Sophie Davis model.

    PubMed

    Roman, Stanford A

    2004-12-01

    The convergence of numerous trends indicates that a physician shortage by 2020 is likely. There is a 25% growth in the overall population, but that of the college-age sector is increasing by only 5%. The numbers of African Americans and Latinos in that sector will increase more than will members of other population groups; these two groups are most affected by the uneven quality of science education in urban high schools. Challenges to create a pipeline of a large, diverse, and qualified pool of medical school applicants are great, and are influenced by the actual and perceived cost of medical school tuition and the competition from other professions. Since 1973, the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a seven-year joint BS/MD program, has expanded access to medical school education for talented inner-city youths, including minorities and those with limited financial resources. Students receive a BS degree and their first two years of medical school education and, upon successful completion of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1, transfer to one of five cooperating medical schools in New York State that confer the terminal MD degree. Sophie Davis integrates medical studies in the baccalaureate program, using actual performance in medical studies as a predictor of success. Of the more than 1,400 of its graduates, 25% are African American, 8% are Latino, 28% are Asian American, and 39% are white. Over 25% of its current student body comes from federally defined low-income families, and almost three-quarters qualify for New York State financial aid. The Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education is a model that offers a partial response to those factors that will challenge the achievement of an adequate supply of physicians for our urban communities. The author describes the model in detail and explains how it helps talented but unevenly educated students rise to the challenge of a medical education.

  5. Addressing the urban pipeline challenge for the physician workforce: the Sophie Davis model.

    PubMed

    Roman, Stanford A

    2004-12-01

    The convergence of numerous trends indicates that a physician shortage by 2020 is likely. There is a 25% growth in the overall population, but that of the college-age sector is increasing by only 5%. The numbers of African Americans and Latinos in that sector will increase more than will members of other population groups; these two groups are most affected by the uneven quality of science education in urban high schools. Challenges to create a pipeline of a large, diverse, and qualified pool of medical school applicants are great, and are influenced by the actual and perceived cost of medical school tuition and the competition from other professions. Since 1973, the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a seven-year joint BS/MD program, has expanded access to medical school education for talented inner-city youths, including minorities and those with limited financial resources. Students receive a BS degree and their first two years of medical school education and, upon successful completion of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1, transfer to one of five cooperating medical schools in New York State that confer the terminal MD degree. Sophie Davis integrates medical studies in the baccalaureate program, using actual performance in medical studies as a predictor of success. Of the more than 1,400 of its graduates, 25% are African American, 8% are Latino, 28% are Asian American, and 39% are white. Over 25% of its current student body comes from federally defined low-income families, and almost three-quarters qualify for New York State financial aid. The Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education is a model that offers a partial response to those factors that will challenge the achievement of an adequate supply of physicians for our urban communities. The author describes the model in detail and explains how it helps talented but unevenly educated students rise to the challenge of a medical education. PMID:15563652

  6. Cancer Core Europe: a consortium to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum challenge.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Caldas, Carlos; Ringborg, Ulrik; Medema, René; Tabernero, Josep; Wiestler, Otmar

    2014-11-01

    European cancer research for a transformative initiative by creating a consortium of six leading excellent comprehensive cancer centres that will work together to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum. Prerequisites for joint translational and clinical research programs are very demanding. These require the creation of a virtual single 'e-hospital' and a powerful translational platform, inter-compatible clinical molecular profiling laboratories with a robust underlying computational biology pipeline, standardised functional and molecular imaging, commonly agreed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for liquid and tissue biopsy procurement, storage and processing, for molecular diagnostics, 'omics', functional genetics, immune-monitoring and other assessments. Importantly also it requires a culture of data collection and data storage that provides complete longitudinal data sets to allow for: effective data sharing and common database building, and to achieve a level of completeness of data that is required for conducting outcome research, taking into account our current understanding of cancers as communities of evolving clones. Cutting edge basic research and technology development serve as an important driving force for innovative translational and clinical studies. Given the excellent track records of the six participants in these areas, Cancer Core Europe will be able to support the full spectrum of research required to address the cancer research- cancer care continuum. Cancer Core Europe also constitutes a unique environment to train the next generation of talents in innovative translational and clinical oncology. PMID:25263570

  7. Some strategies to address the challenges of collecting observational data in a busy clinical environment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; McDonald, Glenda; Luck, Lauretta; Waine, Melissa; Wilkes, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    Studies drawing on observational methods can provide vital data to enhance healthcare. However, collecting observational data in clinical settings is replete with challenges, particularly where multiple data-collecting observers are used. Observers collecting data require shared understanding and training to ensure data quality, and particularly, to confirm accurate and consistent identification, discrimination and recording of data. The aim of this paper is to describe strategies for preparing and supporting multiple researchers tasked with collecting observational data in a busy, and often unpredictable, hospital environment. We hope our insights might assist future researchers undertaking research in similar settings. PMID:27188039

  8. Addressing challenging behaviour in children with Down syndrome: the use of applied behaviour analysis for assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Kathleen M; Jones, Emily A

    2006-09-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with Down syndrome and the examination of behaviourally based strategies to specifically address the unique characteristics of children with Down syndrome are limited. However, there are several studies in which a subset of the participants did have Down syndrome. A handful of these studies are reviewed within the context of functional behaviour assessment and Positive Behavioural Supports. Drawing from these studies and the behavioural literature, as well as the authors' clinical experience and research, suggestions regarding early intervention for challenging behaviour with children with Down syndrome are provided.

  9. Drug Delivery Approaches in Addressing Clinical Pharmacology-Related Issues: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hong; Jung, Huijeong; Li, Xuhong

    2015-11-01

    Various drug delivery approaches can be used to maximize therapeutic efficacy and minimize side effects, by impacting absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of a drug compound. For those drugs with poor water solubility or low permeability, techniques such as amorphous solid dispersion, liposomes, and complexations have been used to improve their oral bioavailability. Modified release (MR) formulations have been widely used to improve patient compliance, as well as to reduce side effects, especially for those drugs with short half-lives or narrow therapeutic windows. More than ten drugs using sterile long-acting release (LAR) formulations with clear clinical benefit have been successfully marketed. Furthermore, drug delivery systems have been used in delaying drug clearance processes. Additionally, modifying the in vivo drug distribution using targeted delivery systems has significantly improved oncology treatments. All the drug delivery approaches have their advantages and limitations. For both brand and generic drugs, the achievement of consistent quality and therapeutic performance using drug delivery systems can also pose serious challenges in developing a drug for the market, which requires close collaboration among industry, academia, and regulatory agencies. With the advent of personalized medicines, there will be great opportunities and challenges in utilizing drug delivery systems to provide better products and services for patients.

  10. On the road to a stronger public health workforce: visual tools to address complex challenges.

    PubMed

    Drehobl, Patricia; Stover, Beth H; Koo, Denise

    2014-11-01

    The public health workforce is vital to protecting the health and safety of the public, yet for years, state and local governmental public health agencies have reported substantial workforce losses and other challenges to the workforce that threaten the public's health. These challenges are complex, often involve multiple influencing or related causal factors, and demand comprehensive solutions. However, proposed solutions often focus on selected factors and might be fragmented rather than comprehensive. This paper describes approaches to characterizing the situation more comprehensively and includes two visual tools: (1) a fishbone, or Ishikawa, diagram that depicts multiple factors affecting the public health workforce; and (2) a roadmap that displays key elements-goals and strategies-to strengthen the public health workforce, thus moving from the problems depicted in the fishbone toward solutions. The visual tools aid thinking about ways to strengthen the public health workforce through collective solutions and to help leverage resources and build on each other's work. The strategic roadmap is intended to serve as a dynamic tool for partnership, prioritization, and gap assessment. These tools reflect and support CDC's commitment to working with partners on the highest priorities for strengthening the workforce to improve the public's health. PMID:25439245

  11. Addressing challenges of modulation transfer function measurement with fisheye lens cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deegan, Brian M.; Denny, Patrick E.; Zlokolica, Vladimir; Dever, Barry; Russell, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Modulation transfer function (MTF) is a well defined and accepted method of measuring image sharpness. The slanted edge test, as defined in ISO12233 is a standard method of calculating MTF, and is widely used for lens alignment and auto-focus algorithm verification. However, there are a number of challenges which should be considered when measuring MTF in cameras with fisheye lenses. Due to trade-offs related Petzval curvature, planarity of the optical plane is difficult to achieve in fisheye lenses. It is therefore critical to have the ability to accurately measure sharpness throughout the entire image, particularly for lens alignment. One challenge for fisheye lenses is that, because of the radial distortion, the slanted edges will have different angles, depending on the location within the image and on the distortion profile of the lens. Previous work in the literature indicates that MTF measurements are robust for angles between 2 and 10 degrees. Outside of this range, MTF measurements become unreliable. Also, the slanted edge itself will be curved by the lens distortion, causing further measurement problems. This study summarises the difficulties in the use of MTF for sharpness measurement in fisheye lens cameras, and proposes mitigations and alternative methods.

  12. On the road to a stronger public health workforce: visual tools to address complex challenges.

    PubMed

    Drehobl, Patricia; Stover, Beth H; Koo, Denise

    2014-11-01

    The public health workforce is vital to protecting the health and safety of the public, yet for years, state and local governmental public health agencies have reported substantial workforce losses and other challenges to the workforce that threaten the public's health. These challenges are complex, often involve multiple influencing or related causal factors, and demand comprehensive solutions. However, proposed solutions often focus on selected factors and might be fragmented rather than comprehensive. This paper describes approaches to characterizing the situation more comprehensively and includes two visual tools: (1) a fishbone, or Ishikawa, diagram that depicts multiple factors affecting the public health workforce; and (2) a roadmap that displays key elements-goals and strategies-to strengthen the public health workforce, thus moving from the problems depicted in the fishbone toward solutions. The visual tools aid thinking about ways to strengthen the public health workforce through collective solutions and to help leverage resources and build on each other's work. The strategic roadmap is intended to serve as a dynamic tool for partnership, prioritization, and gap assessment. These tools reflect and support CDC's commitment to working with partners on the highest priorities for strengthening the workforce to improve the public's health.

  13. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): Addressing the Challenges in ITM Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastes, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission of opportunity will perform unprecedented imaging of the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere from geostationary orbit. GOLD will fly an ultraviolet (UV) imager on a commercial communications satellite in order to answer fundamental scientific questions about how the thermosphere-ionosphere (T-I) system responds to geomagnetic storms and solar radiation from above and upward propagating tides from below. GOLD will conduct simultaneous measurements of temperature and composition in the T-I system on a global scale, across a hemisphere, at a half hour cadence. These continuous, synoptic measurements of temperature and composition allow the separation of temporal and spatial variability. GOLD's far-ultraviolet imaging spectrograph will perform breakthrough measurements needed to address compelling issues concerning the global response of the T-I system to external and internal influences. This talk will discuss the mission, it's capabilities and the planned observations.

  14. Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Miyake, Akira

    2012-02-01

    We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.

  15. Balancing challenge and responsibility: a suggested role for graduate programs in addressing career development.

    PubMed

    Morton, R L

    1986-01-01

    This article suggests a role graduate programs might adopt to meet the challenge of counseling students to take advantage of new career opportunities, not just relying on the allegiances that easily led graduates into traditional careers. It proposes a two-stage approach consisting of sets of nurturing activities--to help students arrive at well understood, personal professional missions, and facilitating activities--to support advancing those professional missions. In view of limited academic resources and faculty reward structures that primarily acknowledge scholarly productivity, not student service, synergy is essential. Its achievement may require marshalling contributions from students, faculty, alumni and other practitioners, and professional associations. While requiring substantial initial investment of faculty energy, the returns may benefit students, faculty, and program alike.

  16. Polar Engineering and Research to Address Operational Challenges in Austere Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, J. L.; Richter-Menge, J.; Weale, J. C.; Lever, J. H.; Knuth, M. A.; Shoop, S. A.; Haehnel, R.; Arcone, S. A.; Bjella, K.; Finnegan, D. C.; Courville, Z.; Tracy, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    Logistics constraints and operational challenges in the austere environs of the polar regions present unique technological and engineering problems. Working closely with universities, government agencies and industry, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab (CRREL) routinely conducts scientific research and engineering in the Arctic, sub-Arctic and Antarctic covering a wide range of topics and applications. Current areas of focus include: improved mobility techniques for overland traverses; robotic vehicles for traversing, sampling and data collection; snow road and transportation characterization; integrated operational systems including airfield consolidation proof-of-concept studies; infrastructure technology such as firn air cooling, building design, snow foundations and sewage handling; remote/renewable autonomous power solutions for data collection; subsurface radar for crevasse detection and cryosphere characterization; ground-based lidar topographic scanning and near-real-time climate/environmental monitoring linked to AIS infrastructure. While these research and engineering efforts provide solutions and improved technology for specific problems, the impacts are many and wide-reaching and the results are often applicable to other challenging environments. Here, an overview of current research foci and projects is presented along with in-the-field applications, effects and future implications. The results and solutions of these efforts typically lead to technological improvements in operations and logistics which are cost-beneficial, thus freeing up funding dollars for fundamental scientific research. The links between basic research and applied solutions delivering far-reaching impacts (both large- and small-scale) on society, the environment, industry and scientific research are also demonstrated.

  17. PM₂.₅ opened a door to public participation addressing environmental challenges in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ganlin

    2015-02-01

    China has long been regarded as a centralized society where the public has little influence on decision-making. Such a top-down management scheme is perceived as a major obstacle to address complicated environment issues. The recent public campaign in China to urge creation of a nationwide PM₂.₅ monitoring network and mitigation plan provides an unprecedented case of how the public participated and influenced policy-making in a centralized society. This paper reviews key incidents in the campaign chronologically. Here we identify information technology, public awareness of air quality's health impacts and the fact air quality affects everyone as public goods as the major factors promoting public participation. This case demonstrates that public participation can happen in a centralized, top-down society such as China. Continued environmental deterioration may stimulate similar campaigns for other issues. We anticipate this essay to be a starting point for more studies on how environmental issues stimulate incremental social change by making people involved in decision-making process, especially in societies where they are rarely able to do so.

  18. Addressing challenges in the production and analysis of illumina sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Martin; Heyn, Patricia; Kelso, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to generate large amounts of sequence data very rapidly and at substantially lower cost than capillary sequencing. These new technologies have specific characteristics and limitations that require either consideration during project design, or which must be addressed during data analysis. Specialist skills, both at the laboratory and the computational stages of project design and analysis, are crucial to the generation of high quality data from these new platforms. The Illumina sequencers (including the Genome Analyzers I/II/IIe/IIx and the new HiScan and HiSeq) represent a widely used platform providing parallel readout of several hundred million immobilized sequences using fluorescent-dye reversible-terminator chemistry. Sequencing library quality, sample handling, instrument settings and sequencing chemistry have a strong impact on sequencing run quality. The presence of adapter chimeras and adapter sequences at the end of short-insert molecules, as well as increased error rates and short read lengths complicate many computational analyses. We discuss here some of the factors that influence the frequency and severity of these problems and provide solutions for circumventing these. Further, we present a set of general principles for good analysis practice that enable problems with sequencing runs to be identified and dealt with.

  19. PM₂.₅ opened a door to public participation addressing environmental challenges in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ganlin

    2015-02-01

    China has long been regarded as a centralized society where the public has little influence on decision-making. Such a top-down management scheme is perceived as a major obstacle to address complicated environment issues. The recent public campaign in China to urge creation of a nationwide PM₂.₅ monitoring network and mitigation plan provides an unprecedented case of how the public participated and influenced policy-making in a centralized society. This paper reviews key incidents in the campaign chronologically. Here we identify information technology, public awareness of air quality's health impacts and the fact air quality affects everyone as public goods as the major factors promoting public participation. This case demonstrates that public participation can happen in a centralized, top-down society such as China. Continued environmental deterioration may stimulate similar campaigns for other issues. We anticipate this essay to be a starting point for more studies on how environmental issues stimulate incremental social change by making people involved in decision-making process, especially in societies where they are rarely able to do so. PMID:25499795

  20. The challenge of effectively addressing tobacco control within a health promoting NHS Trust.

    PubMed

    Quinn, J; Sengupta, S; Cleary, H

    2001-12-15

    As part of its participation in the international network of health promoting hospitals (HPH), South Tyneside Health Care NHS Trust has initiated a series of sub-projects that are informed by the contemporary evidence-base and the principles of the HPH programme. This paper concerns the first of these sub-projects, whose aim is to establish an equitable and effective Trust-wide system to address smoking in South Tyneside. The ambition is to build a framework for, and foster a culture within which, individuals will be treated considerately, whilst managing "unhealthy" behaviour in such a way as to have a long-term positive impact within the organisation and the surrounding community. This paper will briefly outline the key activities underway, and the manner in which it is hoped this approach to undertaking a HPH sub-project will contribute to sustainable local health improvement, while also supporting the Trust's broader transformation into a truly health promoting organisation. PMID:11755769

  1. Status of Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Activities Underway to Address Major Domestic Radiological Security Challenges - 12105

    SciTech Connect

    Cuthbertson, Abigail; Jennison, Meaghan

    2012-07-01

    During their service lives, radioactive sealed sources are used for a wide variety of essential purposes. However, each year, thousands of radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential risk to national security, health, and safety become disused and unwanted in the United States. Due to their concentrated activity and portability, these sources could be used in radiological dispersal devices ('dirty bombs'). For more than a decade, the National Nuclear Security Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Offsite Source Recovery Project (GTRI/OSRP), have facilitated the removal and disposition of thousands of disused/unwanted sources worldwide. However, the ability of GTRI/OSRP to continue its work is critically dependent on the ability to transport and appropriately dispose of these sources. On that front, GTRI/OSRP progress includes development of two prototype Type B transport containers and significant efforts toward certification, increased commercial disposal access for risk-significant sealed sources at commercial sites, and cooperation through the International Atomic Energy Agency to increase source repatriation. Disused sealed sources continue to pose a national security concern. The impact of a dirty bomb detonation could be costly both financially and to those exposed to the resulting radiation. However, significant progress has been made since 2008 on each of the challenges identified in the DHS Sealed Source Security Workshop. Not only will there be increased opportunity for commercial disposal of many sizes and types of sealed sources, but also stakeholders are studying front-end solutions to the problem of disused sealed sources, such as financial assurance and recycle. The lack of sealed source transport containers is also likely to be mitigated with the development and certification by NNSA of two new Type B models. Internationally, increased efforts at source repatriation will mitigate the

  2. Changing roles for primary-care physicians: addressing challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, C P; Kaluzny, A D; Kibbe, D C; Tredway, R

    2005-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising is but one example of a process called disintermediation that is directly affecting primary-care physicians and their patients. This paper examines the trends and the actors involved in disintermediation, which threatens the traditional patient-physician relationship. The paper outlines the social forces behind these threats and illustrates the resulting challenges and opportunities. A rationale and strategies are presented to rebuild, maintain and strengthen the patient-physician relationship in an era of growing disintermediation and anticipated advancements in cost-effective office-based information systems. Primary care--as we know it--is under siege from a number of trends in healthcare delivery, resulting in loss of physician autonomy, disrupted continuity of care and potential erosion of professional values (Rastegar 2004; Future of Family Medicine Project Leadership Committee 2004). The halcyon days of medicine as a craft guild with a monopoly on (1) technical knowledge and (2) the means of implementation, reached its zenith in the mid-twentieth century and has been under pressure ever since (Starr 1982; Schlesinger 2002). While this is a trend within the US health system, it is likely to affect other delivery systems in the years ahead. PMID:15828571

  3. Addressing everyday challenges: feasibility of a family caregiver training program for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Samuel, Preethy S; Barnas, Jean M; Welker, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and efficacy of the Family Caregiver Training Program for assisting with the basic activities of daily living of people with dementia. METHOD. A one-group pretest-posttest research design with a 3-mo follow-up was used to examine the efficacy of a manualized education program for caregivers. The 6-hr training was delivered to 72 family caregivers over 3 consecutive weeks (2 hr/wk) by trained clinicians. RESULTS. Caregivers showed a significant gain in knowledge of how to effectively assist with communication and nutrition, t(52) = 7.05, p < .000; transfers and toileting, t(45) = 3.10, p < .003; and bathing and dressing, t(44) = 2.71, p < .01, of their care recipients. CONCLUSION. Our findings demonstrate that this manualized intervention protocol is a promising method of equipping family members with the skills needed to face their everyday challenges in caring for people with dementia.

  4. Addressing the Real-World Challenges in the Development of Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Christopher E.; Balaban, Edward; Sweet, Adam; Hayden, Sandra Claire; Bajwa, Anupa

    2005-01-01

    The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) has been an on-going research effort conducted over several years. PITEX has developed and applied a model-based diagnostic system for the main propulsion system of the X-34 reusable launch vehicle, a space-launch technology demonstrator. The application was simulation-based using detailed models of the propulsion subsystem to generate nominal and failure scenarios during captive carry, which is the most safety-critical portion of the X-34 flight. Since no system-level testing of the X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) was performed, these simulated data were used to verify and validate the software system. Advanced diagnostic and signal processing algorithms were developed and tested in real-time on flight-like hardware. In an attempt to expose potential performance problems, these PITEX algorithms were subject to numerous real-world effects in the simulated data including noise, sensor resolution, command/valve talkback information, and nominal build variations. The current research has demonstrated the potential benefits of model-based diagnostics, defined the performance metrics required to evaluate the diagnostic system, and studied the impact of real-world challenges encountered when monitoring propulsion subsystems.

  5. Addressing the ethical, policy, and social challenges of preclinical Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Karlawish, Jason

    2011-10-11

    Research suggests that Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology begins prior to the clinical expression of the disease and that biomarker measures may provide direct evidence of this process. As a result, it may be possible to uncouple the diagnosis of AD from the clinical expression of the disease. The shifting boundaries between normal brain aging and disease present 3 challenges: 1) establishing guidelines for researchers and clinicians to safely and effectively communicate the diagnosis of preclinical AD, 2) setting up a process that effectively translates this diagnosis into practice and policy, and 3) adapting laws, regulations, and professional practices to the diagnosis of preclinical AD. The field of genetic testing for AD suggests how to balance a patient's desire to know his or her risk of developing dementia with a clinician's desire to mitigate the potential harms of that information. The development of diagnostic and treatment guidelines for other diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, suggests the need for a National Alzheimer's Education Program to develop policies and procedures to translate preclinical AD into both clinical practice and policy. Revisions are needed to laws, regulations, and professional practices governing driving, financial management and planning, and privacy and confidentiality.

  6. Addressing fundamental architectural challenges of an activity-based intelligence and advanced analytics (ABIAA) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Kevin; Albert, Thomas; Brower, Bernard V.; Pellechia, Matthew F.

    2015-06-01

    The domain of Geospatial Intelligence Analysis is rapidly shifting toward a new paradigm of Activity Based Intelligence (ABI) and information-based Tipping and Cueing. General requirements for an advanced ABIAA system present significant challenges in architectural design, computing resources, data volumes, workflow efficiency, data mining and analysis algorithms, and database structures. These sophisticated ABI software systems must include advanced algorithms that automatically flag activities of interest in less time and within larger data volumes than can be processed by human analysts. In doing this, they must also maintain the geospatial accuracy necessary for cross-correlation of multi-intelligence data sources. Historically, serial architectural workflows have been employed in ABIAA system design for tasking, collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination. These simpler architectures may produce implementations that solve short term requirements; however, they have serious limitations that preclude them from being used effectively in an automated ABIAA system with multiple data sources. This paper discusses modern ABIAA architectural considerations providing an overview of an advanced ABIAA system and comparisons to legacy systems. It concludes with a recommended strategy and incremental approach to the research, development, and construction of a fully automated ABIAA system.

  7. Strategies for Integrated Analysis of Genetic, Epigenetic, and Gene Expression Variation in Cancer: Addressing the Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Thingholm, Louise B.; Andersen, Lars; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C.; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Lise Lotte

    2016-01-01

    The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis. However, integration of heterogeneous measurements of biological variation is a non-trivial exercise due to the diversity of the human genome and the variety of output data formats and genome coverage obtained from the commonly used molecular platforms. This review article will provide an introduction to integration strategies used for analyzing genetic risk factors for cancer. We critically examine the ability of these strategies to handle the complexity of the human genome and also accommodate information about the biological and functional interactions between the elements that have been measured—making the assessment of disease risk against a composite genomic factor possible. The focus of this review is to provide an overview and introduction to the main strategies and to discuss where there is a need for further development. PMID:26870081

  8. Vision for cross-layer optimization to address the dual challenges of energy and reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Dehon, Andre; Carter, Nicholas P

    2009-01-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point where the conventional target of producing perfect, identical transistors that operate without upset can no longer be maintained while continuing to reduce the energy per operation. With power requirements already limiting chip performance, continuing to demand perfect, upset-free transistors would mean the end of scaling benefits. The big challenges in device variability and reliability are driven by uncommon tails in distributions, infrequent upsets, one-size-fits-all technology requirements, and a lack of information about the context of each operation. Solutions co-designed across traditional layer boundaries in our system stack can change the game, allowing architecture and software (a) to compensate for uncommon variation, environments, and events, (b) to pass down invariants and requirements for the computation, and (c) to monitor the health of collections of deVices. Cross-layer codesign provides a path to continue extracting benefits from further scaled technologies despite the fact that they may be less predictable and more variable. While some limited multi-layer mitigation strategies do exist, to move forward redefining traditional layer abstractions and developing a framework that facilitates cross-layer collaboration is necessary.

  9. Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Melin, Alexander M; Czejdo, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

  10. Addressing the ethical, policy, and social challenges of preclinical Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology begins prior to the clinical expression of the disease and that biomarker measures may provide direct evidence of this process. As a result, it may be possible to uncouple the diagnosis of AD from the clinical expression of the disease. The shifting boundaries between normal brain aging and disease present 3 challenges: 1) establishing guidelines for researchers and clinicians to safely and effectively communicate the diagnosis of preclinical AD, 2) setting up a process that effectively translates this diagnosis into practice and policy, and 3) adapting laws, regulations, and professional practices to the diagnosis of preclinical AD. The field of genetic testing for AD suggests how to balance a patient's desire to know his or her risk of developing dementia with a clinician's desire to mitigate the potential harms of that information. The development of diagnostic and treatment guidelines for other diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, suggests the need for a National Alzheimer's Education Program to develop policies and procedures to translate preclinical AD into both clinical practice and policy. Revisions are needed to laws, regulations, and professional practices governing driving, financial management and planning, and privacy and confidentiality. PMID:21917767

  11. Addressing the challenges of solar thermal fuels via atomic-scale computational design and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpak, Alexie; Kucharski, Timothy; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    By reversibly storing solar energy in the conformations of photo-isomers, solar thermal fuels (STFs) provide a mechanism for emissions-free, renewable energy storage and conversion in a single system. Development of STFs as a large-scale energy technology has been hampered by technical challenges that beset the photo-isomers of interest: low energy density, storage lifetime, and quantum yield; UV absorption; and irreversible degradation upon repeated cycling. In this talk, we discuss our efforts to design new STFs that overcome these hurdles. We present computational results on various STFs based on our recently proposed photo-isomer/template STF concept [Kolpak and Grossman, Nano Letters 11, 3156 (2011)], as well as new experimental results on azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotube STFs. Our approach yields significant improvements with respect to STFs studied in the past, with energy densities similar to Li-ion batteries, storage lifetimes > 1 year, and increased quantum yield and absorption efficiency. Our strategy also suggests mechanisms for inhibiting photo-isomer degradation. With a large phase space yet to be explored, there remain numerous possibilites for property enhancement, suggesting that STFs could become a competitive renewable energy technology.

  12. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IV&V portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IV&V projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IV&V techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. Additionally, the role FM has with regard to strengthened security requirements, with potential to advance overall asset protection of flight software systems, is being addressed with the development of an adverse conditions database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities. Capitalizing on the established framework, this TR suite provides assurance capability for a variety of FM architectures and varied development approaches. Research results are being disseminated across NASA, other agencies, and the

  13. 2015 Presidential Address: 75 Years of Battling Diabetes--Our Global Challenge.

    PubMed

    Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    This address was delivered by Samuel Dagogo-Jack, MD, President, Medicine & Science, of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), at the Association's 75th Scientific Sessions in Boston, MA, on 7 June 2015. Dr. Dagogo-Jack is a professor of medicine and the director of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism and the director of the Clinical Research Center at The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, where he holds the A.C. Mullins Endowed Chair in Translational Research. He has been an ADA volunteer since 1991 and has served on several national committees and chaired the Association's Research Grant Review Committee. At the local level, he has served on community leadership boards in St. Louis, MO, and Tennessee. A physician-scientist, Dr. Dagogo-Jack's current research focuses on the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in the prediction and prevention of prediabetes, diabetes, and diabetes complications. He is the principal investigator of the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort (POP-ABC) study and also directs The University of Tennessee site for the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)/DPP Outcomes Study (DPPOS). Dr. Dagogo-Jack earned his medical and research doctorate degrees from the University of Ibadan College of Medicine in Nigeria, holds a master's of science from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne in England, and completed his postdoctoral fellowship training in metabolism at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis in Missouri. A board-certified endocrinologist, Dr. Dagogo-Jack has been elected to the Association of American Physicians and is the 2015 recipient of the Banting Medal for Leadership from the ADA. The ADA and Diabetes Care thank Dr. Dagogo-Jack for his outstanding leadership and service to the Association. PMID:26696655

  14. 2015 Presidential Address: 75 Years of Battling Diabetes--Our Global Challenge.

    PubMed

    Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    This address was delivered by Samuel Dagogo-Jack, MD, President, Medicine & Science, of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), at the Association's 75th Scientific Sessions in Boston, MA, on 7 June 2015. Dr. Dagogo-Jack is a professor of medicine and the director of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism and the director of the Clinical Research Center at The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, where he holds the A.C. Mullins Endowed Chair in Translational Research. He has been an ADA volunteer since 1991 and has served on several national committees and chaired the Association's Research Grant Review Committee. At the local level, he has served on community leadership boards in St. Louis, MO, and Tennessee. A physician-scientist, Dr. Dagogo-Jack's current research focuses on the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in the prediction and prevention of prediabetes, diabetes, and diabetes complications. He is the principal investigator of the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort (POP-ABC) study and also directs The University of Tennessee site for the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)/DPP Outcomes Study (DPPOS). Dr. Dagogo-Jack earned his medical and research doctorate degrees from the University of Ibadan College of Medicine in Nigeria, holds a master's of science from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne in England, and completed his postdoctoral fellowship training in metabolism at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis in Missouri. A board-certified endocrinologist, Dr. Dagogo-Jack has been elected to the Association of American Physicians and is the 2015 recipient of the Banting Medal for Leadership from the ADA. The ADA and Diabetes Care thank Dr. Dagogo-Jack for his outstanding leadership and service to the Association.

  15. Encouraging positive behavior in 'challenging' children: the Nurtured Heart Approach.

    PubMed

    Ahmann, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Conventional parenting approaches often fall short of the mark for children who exhibit difficult behavior, sometimes inadvertently leading to increased oppositionality and poor self-esteem. As a result, parents of children with intense personalities and challenging behaviors need strategies that work very differently. The Nurtured Heart Approach is a philosophy/technique developed to help parents rewrite the often negative parenting scripts used with these children by limiting the amount of attention given to negative or undesirable behaviors while noticing and acknowledging even small positive behaviors, naming them, "energizing" attention given to them, and valuing their occurrence. Although there has been very limited empirical study of the Nurtured Heart Approach to date, it has been used, with anecdotal reports of success, in a variety of settings, including Head Start programs, schools, foster care agencies, a treatment center, and a pre-adolescent diversion program (Glasser, 2000). PMID:24757920

  16. Addressing the Challenges of Multi-Domain Data Integration with the SemantEco Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, E. W.; Seyed, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Data integration across multiple domains will continue to be a challenge with the proliferation of big data in the sciences. Data origination issues and how data are manipulated are critical to enable scientists to understand and consume disparate datasets as research becomes more multidisciplinary. We present the SemantEco framework as an exemplar for designing an integrative portal for data discovery, exploration, and interpretation that uses best practice W3C Recommendations. We use the Resource Description Framework (RDF) with extensible ontologies described in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to provide graph-based data representation. Furthermore, SemantEco ingests data via the software package csv2rdf4lod, which generates data provenance using the W3C provenance recommendation (PROV). Our presentation will discuss benefits and challenges of semantic integration, their effect on runtime performance, and how the SemantEco framework assisted in identifying performance issues and improved query performance across multiple domains by an order of magnitude. SemantEco benefits from a semantic approach that provides an 'open world', which allows data to incrementally change just as it does in the real world. SemantEco modules may load new ontologies and data using the W3C's SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language via HTTP. Modules may also provide user interface elements for applications and query capabilities to support new use cases. Modules can associate with domains, which are first-class objects in SemantEco. This enables SemantEco to perform integration and reasoning both within and across domains on module-provided data. The SemantEco framework has been used to construct a web portal for environmental and ecological data. The portal includes water and air quality data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and species observation counts for birds and fish from the Avian Knowledge Network and the Santa Barbara Long Term

  17. Treating Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors with Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in…

  18. Constructing Pragmatic Socioeconomic Status Assessment Tools to Address Health Equality Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tajik, Parvin; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: A key challenge for equality evaluation and monitoring, mainly in developing countries, is assessing socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals. This difficulty along with low technical competency, have resulted in many health information collected in these countries which are devoid of suitable SES indices. However, simplifying data collection requirements for estimating economic parameters seems to guarantee their wide adoption by survey and health information system (HIS) designers, resulting in immediate production of equity-oriented policy-relevant information. The goal of this study is obtaining adequate number of variables, which their combination can provide a valid assessment of SES in Iranian population. Methods: The data source was Living Standards Measurement Study of Iran (2006). Data of 27,000 households on the ownership of 33 household assets was used for this analysis. Households of this study were divided into 5 groups in terms of SES status using principle component analysis. Then selection was made among the 33 variables so that a combination with minimum necessary number for obtaining SES status is reached. Agreement of the new combination (including minimum number of variables) with full variable combination (including all 33 variables) was assessed using weighted kappa. Results: A minimum set of six variables including having kitchen, bathroom, vacuum cleaner, washing machine, freezer and personal computer could successfully discriminate SES of the population. Comparing this 6 item-index with the whole 33 item-index revealed that 65% of households were in the same quintiles, with a weighted kappa statistics of 0.76. For households in different quintiles, movement was generally limited to one quintile, with just 2% of households moving two or more quintiles. Conclusions: The proposed simple index is completely applicable in current Iran's society. It can be used in different survey and studies. The development is quite simple and can

  19. Regional initiatives to address the challenges of tuberculosis in children: perspectives from the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Graham, Stephen M; Grzemska, Malgorzata; Brands, Annemieke; Nguyen, Huong; Amini, James; Triasih, Rina; Talukder, Khurshid; Ahmed, Shakil; Amanullah, Farhana; Kumar, Blessina; Tufail, Pervaiz; Detjen, Anne; Marais, Ben; Hennig, Cornelia; Islam, Tauhid

    2015-03-01

    Increasing attention is being given to the challenges of management and prevention of tuberculosis in children and adolescents. There have been a number of recent important milestones achieved at the global level to address this previously neglected disease. There is now a need to increase activities and build partnerships at the regional and national levels in order to address the wide policy-practice gaps for implementation, and to take the key steps outlined in the Roadmap for Child Tuberculosis published in 2013. In this article, we provide the rationale and suggest strategies illustrated with examples to improve diagnosis, management, outcomes and prevention for children with tuberculosis in the Asia-Pacific region, with an emphasis on the need for greatly improved recording and reporting. Effective collaboration with community engagement between the child health sector, the National Tuberculosis control Programmes, community-based services and the communities themselves are essential.

  20. Next-generation clinical trials: Novel strategies to address the challenge of tumor molecular heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Catenacci, Daniel V T

    2015-05-01

    The promise of 'personalized cancer care' with therapies toward specific molecular aberrations has potential to improve outcomes. However, there is recognized heterogeneity within any given tumor-type from patient to patient (inter-patient heterogeneity), and within an individual (intra-patient heterogeneity) as demonstrated by molecular evolution through space (primary tumor to metastasis) and time (after therapy). These issues have become hurdles to advancing cancer treatment outcomes with novel molecularly targeted agents. Classic trial design paradigms are challenged by heterogeneity, as they are unable to test targeted therapeutics against low frequency genomic 'oncogenic driver' aberrations with adequate power. Usual accrual difficulties to clinical trials are exacerbated by low frequencies of any given molecular driver. To address these challenges, there is need for innovative clinical trial designs and strategies implementing novel diagnostic biomarker technologies to account for inter-patient molecular diversity and scarce tissue for analysis. Importantly, there is also need for pre-defined treatment priority algorithms given numerous aberrations commonly observed within any one individual sample. Access to multiple available therapeutic agents simultaneously is crucial. Finally intra-patient heterogeneity through time may be addressed by serial biomarker assessment at the time of tumor progression. This report discusses various 'next-generation' biomarker-driven trial designs and their potentials and limitations to tackle these recognized molecular heterogeneity challenges. Regulatory hurdles, with respect to drug and companion diagnostic development and approval, are considered. Focus is on the 'Expansion Platform Design Types I and II', the latter demonstrated with a first example, 'PANGEA: Personalized Anti-Neoplastics for Gastro-Esophageal Adenocarcinoma'. Applying integral medium-throughput genomic and proteomic assays along with a practical

  1. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development. PMID:22807061

  2. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Moritz, Robert L; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14-15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development.

  3. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  4. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  5. Development of an Internet Intervention to Address Behaviors Associated with Skin Cancer Risk among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn; Darlow, Susan; Munshi, Teja; Caruso, Carolyn; Ritterband, Lee; Raivitch, Stephanie; Fleisher, Linda; Manne, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the US, and its incidence is increasing. The major risk factor for skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV). Young adults tend to expose themselves to large amounts of UV and engage in minimal skin protection, which increases their skin cancer risk. Interventions are needed to address risk behaviors among young adults that may lead to skin cancer. The nternet offers a cost-effective way to widely disseminate efficacious interventions. The current paper describes the development of an online skin cancer risk reduction intervention (UV4.me) for young adults. Procedures The iterative development process for UV4.me followed best-practice guidelines and included the following activities: individual interviews, focus groups, content development by the expert team, acceptability testing, cognitive interviewing for questionnaires, quality control testing, usability testing, and a pilot randomized controlled trial. Participant acceptability and usability feedback was assessed. Principal Results The development process produced an evidence-informed intervention that is individually-tailored, interactive, and multimedia in nature based on the Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction, a model for internet interventions, and other best-practice recommendations, expert input, as well as user acceptability and usability feedback gathered before, during, and after development. Major Conclusions Development of an acceptable intervention intended to have a significant public health impact requires a relatively large investment in time, money, expertise, and ongoing user input. Lessons learned and recommendations are discussed. The comprehensive process used may help prepare others interested in creating similar behavioral health interventions. PMID:26640776

  6. The Challenge of Characterizing Operations in the Mechanisms Underlying Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, William

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscience and cognitive science seek to explain behavioral regularities in terms of underlying mechanisms. An important element of a mechanistic explanation is a characterization of the operations of the parts of the mechanism. The challenge in characterizing such operations is illustrated by an example from the history of physiological chemistry in which some investigators tried to characterize the internal operations in the same terms as the overall physiological system while others appealed to elemental chemistry. In order for biochemistry to become successful, researchers had to identify a new level of operations involving operations over molecular groups. Existing attempts at mechanistic explanation of behavior are in a situation comparable to earlier approaches to physiological chemistry, drawing their inspiration either from overall psychology activities or from low-level neural processes. Successful mechanistic explanations of behavior require the discovery of the appropriate component operations. Such discovery is a daunting challenge but one on which success will be beneficial to both behavioral scientists and cognitive and neuroscientists. PMID:16596967

  7. Addressing the empathy deficit: beliefs about the malleability of empathy predict effortful responses when empathy is challenging.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Karina; Zaki, Jamil; Dweck, Carol S

    2014-09-01

    Empathy is often thought to occur automatically. Yet, empathy frequently breaks down when it is difficult or distressing to relate to people in need, suggesting that empathy is often not felt reflexively. Indeed, the United States as a whole is said to be displaying an empathy deficit. When and why does empathy break down, and what predicts whether people will exert effort to experience empathy in challenging contexts? Across 7 studies, we found that people who held a malleable mindset about empathy (believing empathy can be developed) expended greater empathic effort in challenging contexts than did people who held a fixed theory (believing empathy cannot be developed). Specifically, a malleable theory of empathy--whether measured or experimentally induced--promoted (a) more self-reported effort to feel empathy when it is challenging (Study 1); (b) more empathically effortful responses to a person with conflicting views on personally important sociopolitical issues (Studies 2-4); (c) more time spent listening to the emotional personal story of a racial outgroup member (Study 5); and (d) greater willingness to help cancer patients in effortful, face-to-face ways (Study 6). Study 7 revealed a possible reason for this greater empathic effort in challenging contexts: a stronger interest in improving one's empathy. Together, these data suggest that people's mindsets powerfully affect whether they exert effort to empathize when it is needed most, and these data may represent a point of leverage in increasing empathic behaviors on a broad scale. PMID:25133727

  8. Challenges for a Local Service Agency to Address Domestic Violence –A Case Study From Rural Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women’s access to legal support. PMID:25363105

  9. Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH), Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23) and focus group discussions (n=7) were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies), staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism), overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism, communication skills

  10. Addressing the Photometric Calibration Challenge: Explicit Determination of the Instrumental Response and Atmospheric Response Functions, and Tying it All Together.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Photometric calibration is currently the dominant source of systematic uncertainty in exploiting type Ia supernovae to determine the nature of the dark energy. We review our ongoing program to address this calibration challenge by performing measurements of both the instrumental response function and the optical transmission function of the atmosphere. A key aspect of this approach is to complement standard star observations by using NIST-calibrated photodiodes as a metrology foundation for optical flux measurements. We present our first attempt to assess photometric consistency between synthetic photometry and observations, by comparing predictions based on a NIST-diode-based determination of the PanSTARRS-1 instrumental response and empirical atmospheric transmission measurements, with fluxes we obtained from observing spectrophotometric standards.

  11. Measures of Risk for Challenging Behaviors: A Comparison between the CBC and BDI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Barbara Yingling; Bauman, Dona C.; Nottis, Katharyn Ellen Ketter

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that for some children, early incidences of challenging behaviors are predictors of later difficulties. These incidences of challenging behaviors may predict mental health issues, social adjustment issues and/or increased challenging behaviors that will impede school success and impact transition to adult life…

  12. Risk Factors for Challenging Behaviors among 157 Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Olivia; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for the occurrence of challenging behavior along with the specific topographies of challenging behavior shown by a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder in Ireland. The occurrence of challenging behavior was examined in comparison with the following variables: gender, age, level of…

  13. Influence of Motivating Operations and Discriminative Stimuli on Challenging Behavior Maintained by Positive Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edrisinha, Chaturi; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Choi, Ha Young

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of an establishing operation (EO) and abolishing operation (AO) on stimulus control of challenging behavior. Two participants with developmental disabilities and challenging behavior participated. In Phase I, a functional analysis was conducted to identify the consequences maintaining challenging behavior. In Phase II, a…

  14. Conducting Community Research in Rural China –Addressing the Methodological Challenges of Recruiting Participants in Rapidly Changing Social Environments

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jing; Chiu, Helen F.K.; Hou, Zai-Jin; Caine, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper addressed a unique challenge for public health and community research in rural China, i.e., the very large percentage of young adults that comprises a highly mobile working population that has been an essential component of the country’s economic transformation. Fluid local demographic patterns potentially have a substantial impact on sample representativeness and data validity. Methods This report is based upon a cross sectional survey with face-to-face interviews of residents aged 16–34 years in rural communities of Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. Two waves of fieldwork and other strategies were adopted in response to recruitment challenges. Results 1654 of 3008 potential participants took part in the study; this constituted 98% of those individuals approached and 55% of the persons enumerated in the local household registration system (hukou). Analyses revealed substantial differences among those who were interviewed during September and October 2005, versus those seen during the Chinese Lunar New Year of 2006 when many migrant workers and students returned to their homes. Both groups together differed from those who were unavailable during either recruiting episode. Discussion and Conclusions We discuss potential responses to associated methodological challenges, including, (1) permanent hukou mismatches; (2) temporary hukou mismatches; (3) difficulties faced by potential participants to fully understand the purpose of research, the informed consent process, and specific research questions; and (4) appreciation of the importance of local social networks, as they pertain in particular to rural China. These findings underscore that there may be a need to make “on-the-ground” adjustments to varying local conditions to maximize sample representativeness and data validity. PMID:22662022

  15. Family-Centered Practices & Positive Behavior Support: A Qualitative Examination of Families' Perspectives of Managing Preschoolers' Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryhill, Laura F.

    2013-01-01

    Challenging behavior often impacts a child's education along with peer and family relationships. It is estimated that 10-30% of all typically developing preschool children have chronic, mild to moderate levels of behavior problems. Given the significant impact that challenging behavior can have on a child's development, relationships, and future…

  16. When Young Children Need Help: Understanding and Addressing Emotional, Behavioral, and Developmental Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    You know what it's like to spend time with youngsters who are particularly puzzling or hard to help. "When Young Children Need Help" helps early childhood educators make sense of what is going on for such children and use that understanding to promote growth and mastery. Written for child care center staff, family child care providers,…

  17. Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, J.J.; Rizkalla, E.I.

    2007-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management

  18. In silico regenerative medicine: how computational tools allow regulatory and financial challenges to be addressed in a volatile market

    PubMed Central

    Geris, L.; Guyot, Y.; Schrooten, J.; Papantoniou, I.

    2016-01-01

    The cell therapy market is a highly volatile one, due to the use of disruptive technologies, the current economic situation and the small size of the market. In such a market, companies as well as academic research institutes are in need of tools to advance their understanding and, at the same time, reduce their R&D costs, increase product quality and productivity, and reduce the time to market. An additional difficulty is the regulatory path that needs to be followed, which is challenging in the case of cell-based therapeutic products and should rely on the implementation of quality by design (QbD) principles. In silico modelling is a tool that allows the above-mentioned challenges to be addressed in the field of regenerative medicine. This review discusses such in silico models and focuses more specifically on the bioprocess. Three (clusters of) examples related to this subject are discussed. The first example comes from the pharmaceutical engineering field where QbD principles and their implementation through the use of in silico models are both a regulatory and economic necessity. The second example is related to the production of red blood cells. The described in silico model is mainly used to investigate the manufacturing process of the cell-therapeutic product, and pays special attention to the economic viability of the process. Finally, we describe the set-up of a model capturing essential events in the development of a tissue-engineered combination product in the context of bone tissue engineering. For each of the examples, a short introduction to some economic aspects is given, followed by a description of the in silico tool or tools that have been developed to allow the implementation of QbD principles and optimal design. PMID:27051516

  19. In silico regenerative medicine: how computational tools allow regulatory and financial challenges to be addressed in a volatile market.

    PubMed

    Geris, L; Guyot, Y; Schrooten, J; Papantoniou, I

    2016-04-01

    The cell therapy market is a highly volatile one, due to the use of disruptive technologies, the current economic situation and the small size of the market. In such a market, companies as well as academic research institutes are in need of tools to advance their understanding and, at the same time, reduce their R&D costs, increase product quality and productivity, and reduce the time to market. An additional difficulty is the regulatory path that needs to be followed, which is challenging in the case of cell-based therapeutic products and should rely on the implementation of quality by design (QbD) principles. In silico modelling is a tool that allows the above-mentioned challenges to be addressed in the field of regenerative medicine. This review discusses such in silico models and focuses more specifically on the bioprocess. Three (clusters of) examples related to this subject are discussed. The first example comes from the pharmaceutical engineering field where QbD principles and their implementation through the use of in silico models are both a regulatory and economic necessity. The second example is related to the production of red blood cells. The described in silico model is mainly used to investigate the manufacturing process of the cell-therapeutic product, and pays special attention to the economic viability of the process. Finally, we describe the set-up of a model capturing essential events in the development of a tissue-engineered combination product in the context of bone tissue engineering. For each of the examples, a short introduction to some economic aspects is given, followed by a description of the in silico tool or tools that have been developed to allow the implementation of QbD principles and optimal design.

  20. Biaxial tension of fibrous tissue: using finite element methods to address experimental challenges arising from boundary conditions and anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Nathan T; Cortes, Daniel H; Vresilovic, Edward J; Elliott, Dawn M

    2013-02-01

    Planar biaxial tension remains a critical loading modality for fibrous soft tissue and is widely used to characterize tissue mechanical response, evaluate treatments, develop constitutive formulas, and obtain material properties for use in finite element studies. Although the application of tension on all edges of the test specimen represents the in situ environment, there remains a need to address the interpretation of experimental results. Unlike uniaxial tension, in biaxial tension the applied forces at the loading clamps do not transmit fully to the region of interest (ROI), which may lead to improper material characterization if not accounted for. In this study, we reviewed the tensile biaxial literature over the last ten years, noting experimental and analysis challenges. In response to these challenges, we used finite element simulations to quantify load transmission from the clamps to the ROI in biaxial tension and to formulate a correction factor that can be used to determine ROI stresses. Additionally, the impact of sample geometry, material anisotropy, and tissue orientation on the correction factor were determined. Large stress concentrations were evident in both square and cruciform geometries and for all levels of anisotropy. In general, stress concentrations were greater for the square geometry than the cruciform geometry. For both square and cruciform geometries, materials with fibers aligned parallel to the loading axes reduced stress concentrations compared to the isotropic tissue, resulting in more of the applied load being transferred to the ROI. In contrast, fiber-reinforced specimens oriented such that the fibers aligned at an angle to the loading axes produced very large stress concentrations across the clamps and shielding in the ROI. A correction factor technique was introduced that can be used to calculate the stresses in the ROI from the measured experimental loads at the clamps. Application of a correction factor to experimental biaxial

  1. In silico regenerative medicine: how computational tools allow regulatory and financial challenges to be addressed in a volatile market.

    PubMed

    Geris, L; Guyot, Y; Schrooten, J; Papantoniou, I

    2016-04-01

    The cell therapy market is a highly volatile one, due to the use of disruptive technologies, the current economic situation and the small size of the market. In such a market, companies as well as academic research institutes are in need of tools to advance their understanding and, at the same time, reduce their R&D costs, increase product quality and productivity, and reduce the time to market. An additional difficulty is the regulatory path that needs to be followed, which is challenging in the case of cell-based therapeutic products and should rely on the implementation of quality by design (QbD) principles. In silico modelling is a tool that allows the above-mentioned challenges to be addressed in the field of regenerative medicine. This review discusses such in silico models and focuses more specifically on the bioprocess. Three (clusters of) examples related to this subject are discussed. The first example comes from the pharmaceutical engineering field where QbD principles and their implementation through the use of in silico models are both a regulatory and economic necessity. The second example is related to the production of red blood cells. The described in silico model is mainly used to investigate the manufacturing process of the cell-therapeutic product, and pays special attention to the economic viability of the process. Finally, we describe the set-up of a model capturing essential events in the development of a tissue-engineered combination product in the context of bone tissue engineering. For each of the examples, a short introduction to some economic aspects is given, followed by a description of the in silico tool or tools that have been developed to allow the implementation of QbD principles and optimal design. PMID:27051516

  2. Addressing Unknown Constants and Metabolic Network Behaviors Through Petascale Computing: Understanding H2 Production in Green Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Alber, D.; Graf, P.; Seibert, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Genomics Revolution has resulted in a massive and growing quantity of whole-genome DNA sequences, which encode the metabolic catalysts necessary for life. However, gene annotations can rarely be complete, and measurement of the kinetic constants associated with the encoded enzymes can not possibly keep pace, necessitating the use of careful modeling to explore plausible network behaviors. Key challenges are (1) quantitatively formulating kinetic laws governing each transformation in a fixed model network; (2) characterizing the stable solution (if any) of the associated ordinary differential equations (ODEs); (3) fitting the latter to metabolomics data as it becomes available; and, (4) optimizing a model output against the possible space of kinetic parameters, with respect to properties such as robustness of network response, or maximum consumption/production. This SciDAC-2 project addresses this large-scale uncertainty in the genome-scale metabolic network of the water-splitting, H{sub 2}-producing green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Each metabolic transformation is formulated as an irreversible steady-state process, such that the vast literature on known enzyme mechanisms may be incorporated directly. To start, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and basic fermentation pathways have been encoded in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) with careful annotation and consistency with the KEGG database, yielding a model with 3 compartments, 95 species, 38 reactions, and 109 kinetic constants. To study and optimize such models with a view toward larger models, we have developed a system which takes as input an SBML model, and automatically produces C code that when compiled and executed optimizes the model's kinetic parameters according to test criteria. We describe the system and present numerical results. Further development, including overlaying of a parallel multistart algorithm, will allow optimization of thousands of parameters on high

  3. Addressing unknown constants and metabolic network behaviors through petascale computing: understanding H2 production in green algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Christopher; Alber, David; Graf, Peter; Kim, Kwiseon; Seibert, Michael

    2007-07-01

    The Genomics Revolution has resulted in a massive and growing quantity of whole-genome DNA sequences, which encode the metabolic catalysts necessary for life. However, gene annotations can rarely be complete, and measurement of the kinetic constants associated with the encoded enzymes can not possibly keep pace, necessitating the use of careful modeling to explore plausible network behaviors. Key challenges are (1) quantitatively formulating kinetic laws governing each transformation in a fixed model network; (2) characterizing the stable solution (if any) of the associated ordinary differential equations (ODEs); (3) fitting the latter to metabolomics data as it becomes available; and, (4) optimizing a model output against the possible space of kinetic parameters, with respect to properties such as robustness of network response, or maximum consumption/production. This SciDAC-2 project addresses this large-scale uncertainty in the genome-scale metabolic network of the water-splitting, H2-producing green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Each metabolic transformation is formulated as an irreversible steady-state process, such that the vast literature on known enzyme mechanisms may be incorporated directly. To start, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and basic fermentation pathways have been encoded in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) with careful annotation and consistency with the KEGG database, yielding a model with 3 compartments, 95 species, 38 reactions, and 109 kinetic constants. To study and optimize such models with a view toward larger models, we have developed a system which takes as input an SBML model, and automatically produces C code that when compiled and executed optimizes the model's kinetic parameters according to test criteria. We describe the system and present numerical results. Further development, including overlaying of a parallel multistart algorithm, will allow optimization of thousands of parameters on high-performance systems

  4. Adding to Our Practice Toolkit: Using the ACTS Script to Address Stigmatizing Peer Behaviors in the Context of Maternal Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Marcellus, Lenora; Poag, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) are a growing population in the NICU setting, and nurses report that caring for families can be challenging. Women who are pregnant and newly parenting who use drugs and alcohol typically face significant negative attitudes, judgment, and stigma within their communities and from providers when they access health care. When nurses witness biased behavior or communication from their peers, they may feel distressed and unprepared to address the situation. Using script guides or structured communication frameworks (e.g., SBAR) is one helpful strategy for rehearsing actions and responses. The ACTS script was developed specifically to address peer attitudes and stigma in relation to substance use during pregnancy. PMID:27636698

  5. The virtual network supporting the front lines: addressing emerging behavioral health problems following the tsunami of 2004.

    PubMed

    Reissman, Dori B; Schreiber, Merritt; Klomp, Richard W; Hoover, Michele; Kowalski-Trakofler, Kathleen; Perez, Jon

    2006-10-01

    The devastation wreaked by the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean required extensive multinational and nongovernmental relief efforts to address the massive loss of infrastructure, people, and society. This article addresses approaches to behavioral incident management from a process perspective, through the lens of one official stateside channel of emergency operations. The process highlights the formation and connectivity of multidisciplinary teams that virtually supported the efforts of a seven-person, on-scene, behavioral health team aboard the USNS Mercy as part of Operation Unified Assistance in the Indian Ocean. Frontline health diplomacy and behavioral health relief efforts were greatly augmented by the virtual network of support from leading experts around the globe. Future disaster response and recovery efforts ought to build on the success of such virtual support networks, by planning for appropriate technology, expertise, and mutual aid partnerships.

  6. Addressing Methodological Challenges in Large Communication Datasets: Collecting and Coding Longitudinal Interactions in Home Hospice Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Reblin, Maija; Clayton, Margaret F; John, Kevin K; Ellington, Lee

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present strategies for collecting and coding a large longitudinal communication dataset collected across multiple sites, consisting of over 2000 hours of digital audio recordings from approximately 300 families. We describe our methods within the context of implementing a large-scale study of communication during cancer home hospice nurse visits, but this procedure could be adapted to communication datasets across a wide variety of settings. This research is the first study designed to capture home hospice nurse-caregiver communication, a highly understudied location and type of communication event. We present a detailed example protocol encompassing data collection in the home environment, large-scale, multi-site secure data management, the development of theoretically-based communication coding, and strategies for preventing coder drift and ensuring reliability of analyses. Although each of these challenges have the potential to undermine the utility of the data, reliability between coders is often the only issue consistently reported and addressed in the literature. Overall, our approach demonstrates rigor and provides a “how-to” example for managing large, digitally-recorded data sets from collection through analysis. These strategies can inform other large-scale health communication research. PMID:26580414

  7. Addressing Methodological Challenges in Large Communication Data Sets: Collecting and Coding Longitudinal Interactions in Home Hospice Cancer Care.

    PubMed

    Reblin, Maija; Clayton, Margaret F; John, Kevin K; Ellington, Lee

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present strategies for collecting and coding a large longitudinal communication data set collected across multiple sites, consisting of more than 2000 hours of digital audio recordings from approximately 300 families. We describe our methods within the context of implementing a large-scale study of communication during cancer home hospice nurse visits, but this procedure could be adapted to communication data sets across a wide variety of settings. This research is the first study designed to capture home hospice nurse-caregiver communication, a highly understudied location and type of communication event. We present a detailed example protocol encompassing data collection in the home environment, large-scale, multisite secure data management, the development of theoretically-based communication coding, and strategies for preventing coder drift and ensuring reliability of analyses. Although each of these challenges has the potential to undermine the utility of the data, reliability between coders is often the only issue consistently reported and addressed in the literature. Overall, our approach demonstrates rigor and provides a "how-to" example for managing large, digitally recorded data sets from collection through analysis. These strategies can inform other large-scale health communication research.

  8. Addressing Methodological Challenges in Large Communication Data Sets: Collecting and Coding Longitudinal Interactions in Home Hospice Cancer Care.

    PubMed

    Reblin, Maija; Clayton, Margaret F; John, Kevin K; Ellington, Lee

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present strategies for collecting and coding a large longitudinal communication data set collected across multiple sites, consisting of more than 2000 hours of digital audio recordings from approximately 300 families. We describe our methods within the context of implementing a large-scale study of communication during cancer home hospice nurse visits, but this procedure could be adapted to communication data sets across a wide variety of settings. This research is the first study designed to capture home hospice nurse-caregiver communication, a highly understudied location and type of communication event. We present a detailed example protocol encompassing data collection in the home environment, large-scale, multisite secure data management, the development of theoretically-based communication coding, and strategies for preventing coder drift and ensuring reliability of analyses. Although each of these challenges has the potential to undermine the utility of the data, reliability between coders is often the only issue consistently reported and addressed in the literature. Overall, our approach demonstrates rigor and provides a "how-to" example for managing large, digitally recorded data sets from collection through analysis. These strategies can inform other large-scale health communication research. PMID:26580414

  9. Addressing the challenges of the HIV continuum of care in high-prevalence cities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Alan E; Purcell, David W; Gordon, Christopher M; Barasky, Rebecca J; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    In summary, addressing the challenges of the HIV care continuum is critical so that the goals of the NHAS can be achieved. CDC is working closely with federal partners, public health departments, and communities throughout the United States on multiple surveillance, programmatic, and research initiatives to inform and improve outcomes along the HIV care continuum. Currently, a large number of research projects are being conducted to describe the care continuum in various populations, assess and model the impact of interventions, and monitor the quality of care. To contribute to this knowledge base, NIH is working with its academic partners to support research that will inform the optimization of HIV treatment and prevention programs. As part of this focus, the CFAR/APC HIV Continuum of Care Working Group was formed to encourage communication between academic investigators and their local DOHs and to support joint research initiatives that are both timely and relevant to their own cities and environments. Finally, the results presented in this supplement may have implications for jurisdictions beyond those in which the studies were conducted.

  10. Organization for rare diseases India (ORDI) - addressing the challenges and opportunities for the Indian rare diseases' community.

    PubMed

    Rajasimha, Harsha Karur; Shirol, Prasannakumar Basayya; Ramamoorthy, Preveen; Hegde, Madhuri; Barde, Sangeeta; Chandru, Vijay; Ravinandan, M E; Ramchandran, Ramani; Haldar, Kasturi; Lin, Jimmy C; Babar, Imran A; Girisha, Katta M; Srinivasan, Sudha; Navaneetham, Duraiswamy; Battu, Rajani; Devarakonda, Rajashree; Kini, Usha; Vijayachandra, Kinnimulki; Verma, Ishwar C

    2014-08-13

    In order to address the unmet needs and create opportunities that benefit patients with rare disease in India, a group of volunteers created a not-for-profit organization named Organization for Rare Diseases India (ORDI; www.ordindia.org). ORDI plans to represent the collective voice and advocate the needs of patients with rare diseases and other stakeholders in India. The ORDI team members come from diverse backgrounds such as genetics, molecular diagnostics, drug development, bioinformatics, communications, information technology, patient advocacy and public service. ORDI builds on the lessons learned from numerous similar organizations in the USA, European Union and disease-specific rare disease foundations in India. In this review, we provide a background on the landscape of rare diseases and the organizations that are active in this area globally and in India. We discuss the unique challenges in tackling rare diseases in India, and highlight the unmet needs of the key stakeholders of rare diseases. Finally, we define the vision, mission, goals and objectives of ORDI, identify the key developments in the health care context in India and welcome community feedback and comments on our approach.

  11. Addressing the challenges of the HIV continuum of care in high-prevalence cities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Alan E; Purcell, David W; Gordon, Christopher M; Barasky, Rebecca J; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    In summary, addressing the challenges of the HIV care continuum is critical so that the goals of the NHAS can be achieved. CDC is working closely with federal partners, public health departments, and communities throughout the United States on multiple surveillance, programmatic, and research initiatives to inform and improve outcomes along the HIV care continuum. Currently, a large number of research projects are being conducted to describe the care continuum in various populations, assess and model the impact of interventions, and monitor the quality of care. To contribute to this knowledge base, NIH is working with its academic partners to support research that will inform the optimization of HIV treatment and prevention programs. As part of this focus, the CFAR/APC HIV Continuum of Care Working Group was formed to encourage communication between academic investigators and their local DOHs and to support joint research initiatives that are both timely and relevant to their own cities and environments. Finally, the results presented in this supplement may have implications for jurisdictions beyond those in which the studies were conducted. PMID:25867773

  12. Using Student Success Skills to Address ASCA Behavior Standards in Grades K-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Nicholas R.; Oliver, Brandie M.; Keller, Thomas J.; McAulay, Andrew; Piatek, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated relationships between a school counselor's implementation of the Student Success Skills (SSS) program with 203 students in grades K-3 and teacher ratings of student competency on five learning behaviors from the ASCA Mindsets & Behaviors for Student Success (American School Counselor Association, 2014). Using a paired…

  13. Transformative learning in a professional development course aimed at addressing disruptive physician behavior: a composite case study.

    PubMed

    Samenow, Charles P; Worley, Linda L M; Neufeld, Ron; Fishel, Tobi; Swiggart, William H

    2013-01-01

    Disruptive physician behavior presents a challenge to the academic medical center. Such behaviors threaten the learning environment through increasing staff conflict, role modeling poor behaviors to trainees, and, ultimately, posing a risk to patient safety. Given that these physicians are often respected and valued for their clinical skills, many institutions struggle with how to best manage their behaviors. The authors present a composite case study of an academic physician referred to a professional development program for his disruptive behavior. They outline how transformative learning was applied to the development of concrete learning objectives, activities, and assessments for a curriculum aimed at promoting behavior change. Important themes include a safe group process in which the physician's assumptions are critically examined so that through experiential exercises and reflection, new roles, skills, and behaviors are learned, explored, and practiced. Timely feedback to the physician from the institution, colleagues, and administrators is critical to the physician's understanding of the impact of his or her behavior. Ultimately, the physician returns to practice demonstrating more professional behavior. Implications for medical education, prevention, and other professional development programs are discussed. PMID:23165281

  14. Using Response Cards as a Class-Wide Intervention to Decrease Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchaine, Ellen L.; Green, Katherine B.; Jolivette, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Studies indicate that challenging behavior and low achievement are cyclical, so the most effective way to improve classroom behavior is to increase student participation and strengthen academic achievement. Implementing specific strategies will help eliminate challenging behaviors occurring on a daily basis. One strategy that may be implemented to…

  15. Challenging Behaviors in Adults with Intellectual Disability: The Effects of Race and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Tureck, Kimberly; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of challenging behaviors were assessed in 175 adults with intellectual disability (ID) or ID and a comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The relationship between ASD diagnosis, race, and challenging behaviors was assessed using the "Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Adults (ASD-BPA)." Those with ASD and ID were found to…

  16. Increased Exposure to Rigid Routines Can Lead to Increased Challenging Behavior Following Changes to Those Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Leah E.; Oliver, Chris; Callaghan, Eleanor; Woodcock, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with preference for routine and challenging behavior following changes to routines. We examine individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, who show elevated levels of this behavior, to better understand how previous experience of a routine can affect challenging behavior elicited by disruption to…

  17. Characteristics and Hypothesized Functions of Challenging Behavior in a Community-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Esch, John W.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Stewart, Kelise K.

    2010-01-01

    An archival study was conducted to document (a) types of challenging behavior, and (b) functional assessment outcomes, for a sample of persons with developmental disabilities who were referred to community-practicing behavior analysts for assessment and treatment of challenging behavior. Functional assessment reports, prepared by 17 behavior…

  18. Relationship among challenging, repetitive, and communicative behaviors in children with severe intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Petty, Jane; Allen, Debbie; Oliver, Chris

    2009-09-01

    We used experimental and descriptive functional analyses and lag sequential analyses to examine the functional and temporal relationship among the self-injurious (SIB), potentially injurious, repetitive, challenging, and pragmatic communicative behaviors of 6 children with intellectual disabilities. Functional analyses revealed social function for SIB, potentially injurious, and repetitive behaviors across 5, 4, and 5 participants, respectively. Sixteen functionally equivalent response classes were identified across participants using both experimental and naturalistic observation data. Repetitive, potentially injurious, and SIB behaviors were significantly temporally associated, and pragmatic communicative behaviors were strongly temporally associated with challenging behaviors. The importance of the temporal and functional relationship between imperative communicative acts and challenging behavior is discussed.

  19. Addressing Shared Vulnerability for Comorbid PTSD and Chronic Pain: A Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmundson, Gordon J. G.; Hadjistavropolous, Heather D.

    2006-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occurs with other conditions and symptoms that can complicate assessment and treatment. Of these, chronic musculoskeletal pain and related avoidance behaviors are amongst the most common and, unfortunately, the most often overlooked. In this paper we discuss issues that warrant consideration in…

  20. Using Self-Management Interventions to Address General Education Behavioral Needs: Assessment of Effectiveness and Feasibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesch, Amy M.; Daniels, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive self-management intervention was utilized to increase the on-task behavior of three African American students within an urban middle-school setting. The intervention was designed to necessitate minimal management on the part of the general education classroom teacher by utilizing an electronic prompting device, as well as a…

  1. Assessing and Addressing Safe Food Handling Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Susan E.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1122) on an urban college campus using a previously piloted survey tool. Data obtained found that while students reported high levels of confidence in their ability to engage in safe food handling practices, their knowledge and self-reported behaviors…

  2. Addressing Bullying and Cyber-Bullying Behaviors among Adolescents: A Participatory Action Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Forde, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has been recognized as a significant social issue and research has shown that bullying behaviors tend to increase during the middle school years. Research trends indicate that current attention given to bullying has been influenced by public outcry against a growing number of tragic school and community-based events involving youth, many…

  3. Using Movement-Based Sensory Interventions to Address Self-Stimulatory Behaviors in Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Nicole M.; Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer; Jolivette, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a three-step process to help teachers determine whether or not the function of a student's stereotypical behavior is sensory-based and if so, how to select and monitor an appropriate sensory intervention to promote instructional engagement. In particular, characteristics of students who are seeking to gain sensory input in…

  4. Using Narrative Logs--Understanding Students' Challenging Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Shridevi; Hoyer, Lynn; Meehan, Kirsten; Young, Lisa; Guerrera, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This article shows how teachers can implement behavioral observation and assessment using a structured rubric narrative log format to understand a student's problem behaviors and find ways to encourage more positive behavior. Advantages of narrative observations for functional behavioral assessments are specified and include exploring one's own…

  5. Addressing Challenging Behaviour in Children with Down Syndrome: The Use of Applied Behaviour Analysis for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Kathlee M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with…

  6. Hitting the Moving Target: Challenges of Creating a Dynamic Curriculum Addressing the Ethical Dimensions of Geospatial Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, John; Vallor, Shannon; Freundschuh, Scott; Gannon, William L.; Zandbergen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    While established ethical norms and core legal principles concerning the protection of privacy may be easily identified, applying these standards to rapidly evolving digital information technologies, markets for digital information and convulsive changes in social understandings of privacy is increasingly challenging. This challenge has been…

  7. Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn

    2016-04-01

    Widespread awareness of the recent deaths of several black males at the hands of police has revealed an unaddressed public health challenge-determining the root causes of excessive use of force by police applied to black males that may result in "justifiable homicides." The criminalization of black males has a long history in the USA, which has resulted in an increase in policing behaviors by legal authorities and created inequitable life chances for black males. Currently, the discipline of public health has not applied an intersectional approach that investigates the intersection of race and gender to understanding police behaviors that lead to "justifiable homicides" for black males. This article applies the core tenets and processes of Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to develop a framework that can improve research and interventions to address the disparities observed in recent trend analyses of "justifiable homicides." Accordingly, we use PHCRP to offer an alternative framework on the social, legal, and health implications of violence-related incidents. We aim to move the literature in this area forward to help scholars, policymakers, and activists build the capacity of communities to address the excessive use of force by police to reduce mortality rates from "justifiable homicides." PMID:26661386

  8. Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn

    2016-04-01

    Widespread awareness of the recent deaths of several black males at the hands of police has revealed an unaddressed public health challenge-determining the root causes of excessive use of force by police applied to black males that may result in "justifiable homicides." The criminalization of black males has a long history in the USA, which has resulted in an increase in policing behaviors by legal authorities and created inequitable life chances for black males. Currently, the discipline of public health has not applied an intersectional approach that investigates the intersection of race and gender to understanding police behaviors that lead to "justifiable homicides" for black males. This article applies the core tenets and processes of Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to develop a framework that can improve research and interventions to address the disparities observed in recent trend analyses of "justifiable homicides." Accordingly, we use PHCRP to offer an alternative framework on the social, legal, and health implications of violence-related incidents. We aim to move the literature in this area forward to help scholars, policymakers, and activists build the capacity of communities to address the excessive use of force by police to reduce mortality rates from "justifiable homicides."

  9. Reaching Each Student: National Challenge and Organizational Commitment. Addresses to the College Board National Forum, October 31-November 2, 1990, Boston, Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, New York, NY.

    Four speakers addressed the College Board National Forum on "Reaching Each Student" in the Fall of 1990 in Boston, Massachusetts. John F. Akers, Chairman of the Board at International Business Machines in his speech "Reaching Each Student: A Business Perspective" challenged the College Board to work with American business to change the educational…

  10. Top 10 Ways To Improve Public Schools. Innovative Solutions To Help Address the Issues and Challenges Facing Most Public School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Comptroller of Public Accounts, Austin.

    This report offers the top 10 challenges identified by public schools and the ways that the Texas School Performance Review (TSPR) suggests that these issues be addressed. The TSPR ensures that scarce education resources are spent in the classroom. For a TSPR review, the TSPR team is invited in for months of detailed study, during which it asks…

  11. Cross-sector partnerships and public health: challenges and opportunities for addressing obesity and noncommunicable diseases through engagement with the private sector.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lee M; Finegood, Diane T

    2015-03-18

    Over the past few decades, cross-sector partnerships with the private sector have become an increasingly accepted practice in public health, particularly in efforts to address infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Now these partnerships are becoming a popular tool in efforts to reduce and prevent obesity and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. Partnering with businesses presents a means to acquire resources, as well as opportunities to influence the private sector toward more healthful practices. Yet even though collaboration is a core principle of public health practice, public-private or nonprofit-private partnerships present risks and challenges that warrant specific consideration. In this article, we review the role of public health partnerships with the private sector, with a focus on efforts to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases in high-income settings. We identify key challenges-including goal alignment and conflict of interest-and consider how changes to partnership practice might address these.

  12. Cross-sector partnerships and public health: challenges and opportunities for addressing obesity and noncommunicable diseases through engagement with the private sector.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lee M; Finegood, Diane T

    2015-03-18

    Over the past few decades, cross-sector partnerships with the private sector have become an increasingly accepted practice in public health, particularly in efforts to address infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Now these partnerships are becoming a popular tool in efforts to reduce and prevent obesity and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. Partnering with businesses presents a means to acquire resources, as well as opportunities to influence the private sector toward more healthful practices. Yet even though collaboration is a core principle of public health practice, public-private or nonprofit-private partnerships present risks and challenges that warrant specific consideration. In this article, we review the role of public health partnerships with the private sector, with a focus on efforts to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases in high-income settings. We identify key challenges-including goal alignment and conflict of interest-and consider how changes to partnership practice might address these. PMID:25581149

  13. Examination of an Antecedent Communication Intervention to Reduce Tangibly Maintained Challenging Behavior: A Controlled Analog Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; El Zein, Farah; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used…

  14. Pre-Service Preschool Teachers' Self Competency Evaluation of Challenging Play Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    Children play more vigorously and more productively when their teachers have formal education or training in the importance of play. Children with challenging play behavior in the play create a difficult situation for pre-service preschool teachers, affecting their achievement in the program objectives. Issues of challenging behavior in preschool…

  15. The Emotional Reactions to Challenging Behavior Scale-Korean (ERCBS-K): Modification and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kozub, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the original version of Mitchell and Hastings's (1998) Emotional Reaction to Challenging Behavior Scale (ERCBS) and estimate validity and reliability of a revised version containing 29 items. The Emotional Reaction to Challenging Behavior Scale-Korean (ERCBS-K) was studied using 445 in-service physical…

  16. Additional Support for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors in Regions of Northwest Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunenborg, Carolien B.; Nakken, H.; van der Meulen, B. F.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    One in 10 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) exhibits behaviors that represent a significant challenge to the people who support them. Parents and staff (such as direct support professionals) often are challenged in trying to find a solution to overcome or reduce these behaviors. A form of additional professional support (i.e., external…

  17. Psychotropic Medication Use for Challenging Behaviors in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Challenging behaviors in persons with intellectual disabilities are primary target for treatment in mental health clinics and institutions. Furthermore, an increasing number of people are receiving psychotropic medications for the management of their challenging behaviors. Many people are often treated with high doses of multiple psychotropic…

  18. Effects of Language of Instruction on Response Accuracy and Challenging Behavior in a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Andrews, Alonzo; Ortega, Lilia

    2011-01-01

    Discrete trial training was delivered using English and Spanish languages to a student with autism from a Spanish-speaking family. An alternating treatments design was used to examine the effects of language of instruction on the child's response accuracy and challenging behavior. More correct responses and fewer challenging behaviors occurred…

  19. Gender Effects on Challenging Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.; Rieske, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Challenging behaviors are extremely prevalent within the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population. To date, numerous factors affecting the rates of challenging behaviors within the ASD population have been examined including age, gender, ethnicity, and intellectual functioning. Controversy has arisen in regard to the effect of gender on…

  20. Using Antecedent Exercise to Decrease Challenging Behavior in Boys with Developmental Disabilities and an Emotional Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Tullis, Christopher A.; Kazee, Aline R.

    2011-01-01

    Some individuals with developmental disabilities and emotional disorders may engage in challenging behavior that can result in the use of aversive procedures and/or seclusion from typically developing peers. They may also engage in low levels of physical activity. One way to decrease challenging behaviors while increasing overall levels of…

  1. Photonic crystal fiber with a dual-frequency addressable liquid crystal: behavior in the visible wavelength range.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, A; Kitzerow, H-S; Schwuchow, A; Kobelke, J; Bartelt, H

    2008-11-10

    Wave-guiding in the visible spectral range is investigated for a micro-structured crystal fiber filled with a dual-frequency addressable nematic liquid crystal mixture. The fiber exhibits a solid core surrounded by just 4 rings of cylindrical holes. Control of the liquid crystal alignment by anchoring agents permits relatively low attenuation. Samples with different anchoring conditions at the interface of the silica glass and the liquid crystal show different transmission properties and switching behavior. Polarization dependent and independent fiber optic switching is observed. Due to a dualfrequency addressing scheme, active switching to both states with enhanced and reduced transmission becomes possible for planar anchoring. Even a non-perfect fiber shows reasonable transmission and a variety of interesting effects.

  2. Photonic crystal fiber with a dual-frequency addressable liquid crystal: behavior in the visible wavelength range.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, A; Kitzerow, H-S; Schwuchow, A; Kobelke, J; Bartelt, H

    2008-11-10

    Wave-guiding in the visible spectral range is investigated for a micro-structured crystal fiber filled with a dual-frequency addressable nematic liquid crystal mixture. The fiber exhibits a solid core surrounded by just 4 rings of cylindrical holes. Control of the liquid crystal alignment by anchoring agents permits relatively low attenuation. Samples with different anchoring conditions at the interface of the silica glass and the liquid crystal show different transmission properties and switching behavior. Polarization dependent and independent fiber optic switching is observed. Due to a dualfrequency addressing scheme, active switching to both states with enhanced and reduced transmission becomes possible for planar anchoring. Even a non-perfect fiber shows reasonable transmission and a variety of interesting effects. PMID:19582031

  3. The design, implementation and acceptability of an integrated intervention to address multiple behavioral and psychosocial risk factors among pregnant African American women

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Kathy S; Blake, Susan M; Milligan, Renee A; Sharps, Phyllis W; White, Davene B; Rodan, Margaret F; Rossi, Maryann; Murray, Kennan B

    2008-01-01

    Background African American women are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcomes compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Single or multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors may contribute to this risk. Most interventions focus on singular risks. This paper describes the design, implementation, challenges faced, and acceptability of a behavioral counseling intervention for low income, pregnant African American women which integrated multiple targeted risks into a multi-component format. Methods Six academic institutions in Washington, DC collaborated in the development of a community-wide, primary care research study, DC-HOPE, to improve pregnancy outcomes. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression and intimate partner violence were the four risks targeted because of their adverse impact on pregnancy. Evidence-based models for addressing each risk were adapted and integrated into a multiple risk behavior intervention format. Pregnant women attending six urban prenatal clinics were screened for eligibility and risks and randomized to intervention or usual care. The 10-session intervention was delivered in conjunction with prenatal and postpartum care visits. Descriptive statistics on risk factor distributions, intervention attendance and length (i.e., with < 4 sessions considered minimal adherence) for all enrolled women (n = 1,044), and perceptions of study participation from a sub-sample of those enrolled (n = 152) are reported. Results Forty-eight percent of women screened were eligible based on presence of targeted risks, 76% of those eligible were enrolled, and 79% of those enrolled were retained postpartum. Most women reported a single risk factor (61%); 39% had multiple risks. Eighty-four percent of intervention women attended at least one session (60% attended ≥ 4 sessions) without disruption of clinic scheduling. Specific risk factor content was delivered as prescribed in 80% or more of the sessions; 78% of sessions were

  4. Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) Facing the Twenty-First Century: Challenges and Contributions. Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnove, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    Examines challenges to comparative and international education in the areas of epistemological approaches, research methodology, philosophical considerations, and dissemination of findings; the field's contributions in questioning assumptions about school-society relationships, identifying the benefits and dangers of "borrowing" educational…

  5. Overcoming obstacles to implementation: addressing political, institutional and behavioral problems in earthquake hazard mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesch, Daniel J.; Petak, William J.

    2002-06-01

    This project is aimed at bridging the three planes, from basic research, through enabling processes, to engineered systems. At the basic research plane, we have been working to improve our collective understanding about obstacles to implementing mitigation practices, owner decision processes (in connection with other MCEER projects), and public policy processes. At the level of enabling processes, we have been seeking to develop an understanding of how obstacles to greater mitigation can be overcome by improved policy design and processes. At the engineered systems plane, our work is intended to result in practical guidelines for devising policies and programs with appropriate motivation and incentives for implementing policies and programs once adopted. This phase of the research has been aimed, first, at a thorough, multidisciplinary review of the literature concerning obstacles to implementation. Second, the research has focused on advancing the state of the art by developing means for integrating the insights offered by diverse perspectives on the implementation process from the several social, behavioral, and decision sciences. The research establishes a basis for testing our understanding of these processes in the case of hospital retrofit decisions.

  6. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-10-26

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

  7. Treating Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors With Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:23914278

  8. Influence of motivating operations and discriminative stimuli on challenging behavior maintained by positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Edrisinha, Chaturi; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Choi, Ha Young

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of an establishing operation (EO) and abolishing operation (AO) on stimulus control of challenging behavior. Two participants with developmental disabilities and challenging behavior participated. In Phase I, a functional analysis was conducted to identify the consequences maintaining challenging behavior. In Phase II, a discrimination between SD and SΔ was trained. In Phase III, pre-session MOs (i.e., EO and AO conditions) were arranged to assess their effects on challenging behavior. Finally in Phase IV, in addition to manipulating pre-session MOs the challenging behavior was evaluated under extinction in both SD and SΔ conditions. Results indicated that in the context of extinction when pre-session EO and AO conditions were manipulated, responding not only became differentiated but was higher in both SD and SΔ conditions in the pre-session EO condition when compared to the pre-session AO condition.

  9. How can we exploit above–belowground interactions to assist in addressing the challenges of food security?

    PubMed Central

    Orrell, Peter; Bennett, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Can above–belowground interactions help address issues of food security? We address this question in this manuscript, and review the intersection of above–belowground interactions and food security. We propose that above–belowground interactions could address two strategies identified by Godfray etal. (2010): reducing the Yield Gap, and Increasing Production Limits. In particular, to minimize the difference between potential and realized production (The Yield Gap) above–belowground interactions could be manipulated to reduce losses to pests and increase crop growth (and therefore yields). To Increase Production Limits we propose two mechanisms: utilizing intercropping (which uses multiple aspects of above–belowground interactions) and breeding for traits that promote beneficial above–belowground interactions, as well as breeding mutualistic organisms to improve their provided benefit. As a result, if they are managed correctly, there is great potential for above–belowground interactions to contribute to food security. PMID:24198821

  10. How can we exploit above-belowground interactions to assist in addressing the challenges of food security?

    PubMed

    Orrell, Peter; Bennett, Alison E

    2013-10-30

    Can above-belowground interactions help address issues of food security? We address this question in this manuscript, and review the intersection of above-belowground interactions and food security. We propose that above-belowground interactions could address two strategies identified by Godfray etal. (2010): reducing the Yield Gap, and Increasing Production Limits. In particular, to minimize the difference between potential and realized production (The Yield Gap) above-belowground interactions could be manipulated to reduce losses to pests and increase crop growth (and therefore yields). To Increase Production Limits we propose two mechanisms: utilizing intercropping (which uses multiple aspects of above-belowground interactions) and breeding for traits that promote beneficial above-belowground interactions, as well as breeding mutualistic organisms to improve their provided benefit. As a result, if they are managed correctly, there is great potential for above-belowground interactions to contribute to food security.

  11. Parental Knowledge of Behavioral Principles Following Training to Address Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kylan

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the challenges that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, sleep problems in children present significant challenges for the entire family. Research studies on behavioral interventions to…

  12. Prevalence and putative risk markers of challenging behavior in students with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Dworschak, Wolfgang; Ratz, Christoph; Wagner, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies have reported a high prevalence of challenging behavior among students with intellectual disabilities (ID). They discuss different putative risk markers as well as their influence on the occurrence of challenging behavior. The study investigates the prevalence of challenging behavior and evaluates in terms of a replication study well-known putative risk markers among a representative sample of students with ID (N=1629) in Bavaria, one of the largest regions in Germany. The research is based on a modified version of the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC). Findings indicate a prevalence rate of 52% for challenging behavior. The following putative risk markers are associated with challenging behavior: intense need for care, male gender, lack of communication skills, and residential setting. These risk markers explain 8.4% of the variance concerning challenging behavior. These results reveal that challenging behavior either is to a large extent determined by situations and interactions between individuals and environment and cannot be explained by the measured individual and social risk markers alone, or it is determined by further risk markers that were not measured. PMID:27608371

  13. Implementing a Public Health Approach to Addressing Mental Health Needs in a University Setting: Lessons and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcover, Jason; Mays, Sally; McCarthy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The mental health needs of college students are placing increasing demands on counseling center resources, and traditional outreach efforts may be outdated or incomplete. The public health model provides an approach for reaching more students, decreasing stigma, and addressing mental health concerns before they reach crisis levels. Implementing a…

  14. What Strategies Do Urban Superintendents Utilize to Address Global Challenges in the Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Synyard, Julie Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Urban superintendents are charged with the responsibility of educating students in a rapidly changing world driven by technological advances, boundless information, international markets, and global pressures that demand of people that they be innovative thinkers and creative problem solvers to address the myriad of issues that will undoubtedly…

  15. Caregiver-mediated approaches to managing challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Grofer Klinger, Laura; Ence, Whitney; Meyer, Allison

    2013-06-01

    A significant proportion of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are referred to mental health centers due to the presence of challenging behaviors. Because challenging behaviors in children and adolescents with ASD often result from underlying social and communication difficulties and comorbid anxiety, traditional caregiver-mediated behavior intervention techniques developed for children with disruptive behavior disorders may need to be adapted for this population. Behavioral interventions that target communication skills, social skills, anxiety, and sensory responsiveness in children with ASD may be needed. Notably, while best practice necessitates the involvement of caregivers in treating children and adolescents with ASD, few randomized control studies have examined the effectiveness of caregiver-implemented interventions in reducing challenging behaviors. This review summarizes the current literature with regard to caregiver-mediated behavioral interventions for children with ASD, and suggests areas for intervention development and research.

  16. Behavioral Safety in the Food Services Industry: Challenges and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebbon, Angela; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2012-01-01

    During the course of a 6-year behavioral safety consult at a food and drink industry site, data were collected on the number of Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordable incidents, number of lost and restricted days, and number of peer safety observations. Employees were trained to identify safe and unsafe behavior, conduct peer…

  17. Treatment or Accommodation for Adults with Challenging Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the difficulties some individuals with developmental disabilities have in responding to behavioral treatment and suggests an alternative to traditional behavioral treatment programs. It describes the use of the accommodation approach in which an individual's environment is rearranged to prevent or lower the occurrence of…

  18. Positive Family Intervention for Severe Challenging Behavior I: A Multisite Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, V. Mark; Hieneman, Meme; Clarke, Shelley; Wang, Mo; Rinaldi, Melissa L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was a multisite randomized clinical trial assessing the effects of adding a cognitive-behavioral intervention to positive behavior support (PBS). Fifty-four families who met the criteria of (a) having a child with a developmental disability, (b) whose child displayed serious challenging behavior (e.g., aggression, self-injury,…

  19. Addressing Challenging Behaviours in the General Education Setting: Conducting a Teacher-Based Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    When a student demonstrates a challenging or problematic behaviour in the classroom, the climate and the instructional experience can change dramatically for both the students and the classroom teacher. Before resorting to sanctions and punitive consequences, there is a series of steps a classroom teacher can conduct to reduce and replace the…

  20. Implementing a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioural Assessment to Understand and Address Challenging Behaviours Demonstrated by Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie; Short, Maureen; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    As the US student population continues to become increasingly diverse, educators have encountered difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine disability indicators. This concern is clearly evident in assisting students from diverse backgrounds who demonstrate chronic challenging behaviours. Past practices (e.g.…

  1. It's Not Just "What" You Say: Verbal and Nonverbal Skills Help Leaders Address Challenges and Achieve Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoller, Kendall; Lahera, Antonia Issa; Normore, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a story about two school leaders in a large Southern California urban district who used skills developed in a university school leadership program to create rapport, empathy, and trust while leading through challenging situations and achieving actionable outcomes. In addition to developing relationships in support of…

  2. Addressing the Challenges of a New Digital Technologies Curriculum: MOOCs as a Scalable Solution for Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivian, Rebecca; Falkner, Katrina; Falkner, Nickolas

    2014-01-01

    England and Australia have introduced new learning areas, teaching computer science to children from the first year of school. This is a significant milestone that also raises a number of big challenges: the preparation of teachers and the development of resources" at a national scale." Curriculum change is not easy for teachers, in any…

  3. Issues in Integrating Psychotropic and Intensive Behavioral Interventions for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Challenges in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Blair P.; Torelli, Jessica N.; Symons, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of psychotropic medication use among students with emotional and behavioral challenges continues to increase as intensive behavioral interventions are designed and evaluated in schools. There is general consensus among clinical professionals that psychotropic medications are not "silver bullets" but should be expected to…

  4. Effects of an intervention addressing information, motivation, and behavioral skills on HIV care adherence in a southern clinic cohort.

    PubMed

    Konkle-Parker, Deborah J; Amico, K Rivet; McKinney, Venetra E

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that subtherapeutic appointment adherence and medication adherence are associated with worse clinical outcomes for people living with HIV disease. Thus, poor appointment and medication adherence diminish individual and community HIV control and transmission. Yet not enough is known about interventions that can improve retention in HIV care. The purpose of this study was to test an intervention to improve retention and/or medication adherence in a public clinic in the Deep South. One hundred participants with retention or medication adherence difficulties were randomized to either a six-month intervention or usual care, and followed longitudinally for one year. The intervention was multidimensional, based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model. The intervention addressed information about HIV and the importance of retention/adherence, motivation to be retained and/or adhere to medications, and the behavioral skills needed to manage and maintain these healthy behaviors in a combination of face-to-face and telephone sessions. The proportion of those with at least one visit in each four-month block (third) of the year increased in those with minimal exposure to the intervention (three out of eight intervention contacts) as compared to those with less intervention exposure (p = 0.098). Those with at least this minimal exposure averaged a significantly higher number of thirds that included a clinic visit as compared to those with less intervention exposure (p = 0.013). The intervention did not demonstrate a significant effect on medication adherence, though this is contradictory to a previous study testing a version of this intervention designed to address only medication adherence. Further study to increase uptake of the intervention is needed to increase its efficacy.

  5. Functional analysis of challenging behavior in people with severe intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Casas, C; Navarro, J I; Garcia-Gonzalez-Gordon, R; Marchena, E

    2014-12-01

    Challenging behaviors exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities often hinder the acquisition of academic, social, and life skills. Functional analysis has been useful for assessing challenging behavior in various settings. The purpose of this study was to implement an operant methodology for recognizing the functional properties of challenging behavior in people with intellectual disabilities. Four adults diagnosed with profound intellectual disability received assessment under several experimental conditions using a functional analysis methodology: social attention as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement such as the termination of demands, positive tangible reinforcements, absence of social contingencies, and escape from noisy stimuli. Results showed that different types of reinforcement or avoiding contingencies affected the rate of aggression, self-injury, disruption, stereotypy, or socially offensive behaviors, and functional analysis may potentially be a viable alternative for identifying challenging behaviors.

  6. Functional analysis of challenging behavior in people with severe intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Casas, C; Navarro, J I; Garcia-Gonzalez-Gordon, R; Marchena, E

    2014-12-01

    Challenging behaviors exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities often hinder the acquisition of academic, social, and life skills. Functional analysis has been useful for assessing challenging behavior in various settings. The purpose of this study was to implement an operant methodology for recognizing the functional properties of challenging behavior in people with intellectual disabilities. Four adults diagnosed with profound intellectual disability received assessment under several experimental conditions using a functional analysis methodology: social attention as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement such as the termination of demands, positive tangible reinforcements, absence of social contingencies, and escape from noisy stimuli. Results showed that different types of reinforcement or avoiding contingencies affected the rate of aggression, self-injury, disruption, stereotypy, or socially offensive behaviors, and functional analysis may potentially be a viable alternative for identifying challenging behaviors. PMID:25375028

  7. Behavioral effects of social challenges and genomic mechanisms of social priming: What’s testosterone got to do with it?

    PubMed Central

    Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Peterson, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Social challenges from rival conspecifics are common in the lives of animals, and changes in an animal’s social environment can influence physiology and behavior in ways that appear to be adaptive in the face of continued social instability (i.e. social priming). Recently, it has become clear that testosterone, long thought to be the primary mediator of these effects, may not always change in response to social challenges, an observation that highlights gaps in our understanding of the proximate mechanisms by which animals respond to their social environment. Here, our goal is to address the degree to which testosterone mediates organismal responses to social cues. To this end, we review the behavioral and physiological consequences of social challenges, as well as their underlying hormonal and gene regulatory mechanisms. We also present a new case study from a wild songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), in which we find largely divergent genome-wide transcriptional changes induced by social challenges and testosterone, respectively, in muscle and liver tissue. Our review underscores the diversity of mechanisms that link the dynamic social environment with an organisms’ genomic, hormonal, and behavioral state. This diversity among species, and even among tissues within an organism, reveals new insights into the pattern and process by which evolution may alter proximate mechanisms of social priming. PMID:27721823

  8. Behavioral Health's Challenge to Academic, Scientific, and Professional Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matarazzo, Joseph D.

    1982-01-01

    Asserts that psychologists can contribute to a reduction in national health expenditures by focusing on such illness- and accident-causing behaviors as smoking, alcohol use, improper diet, and speeding and the nonuse of seat belts in cars. (GC)

  9. Community health workers for patients with medical and behavioral health needs - Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Laderman, Mara; Mate, Kedar

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral health integration efforts often focus on the formal health care infrastructure. We performed a non-systematic literature review and expert interviews to identify community-based interventions for patients with medical and behavioral health needs. Community Health Workers (CHWs) are the dominant intervention to support patients outside of the clinic. These interventions do not always optimally meet patients' needs. Organizations should consider the challenges and benefits of CHWs for patients with medical and behavioral health needs. We outline two challenges to successful CHW programs for this population, propose two design considerations for community-based integration, and suggest how quality improvement methods might help with both challenges. PMID:27637818

  10. Implementation Challenges to TADS Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Feeny, Norah C.; Sweeney, Michael; Zagurski, Robin

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses treatment obstacles that were frequently encountered by CBT therapists in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) trial. The most common or challenging treatment obstacles and their respective solutions were distilled from the minutes of national conference calls attended by TADS CBT supervisors and…

  11. Addressing the "Global Health Tax" and "Wild Cards": Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health.

    PubMed

    Palazuelos, Daniel; Dhillon, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Among many possible benefits, global health efforts can expand the skills and experience of U.S. clinicians, improve health for communities in need, and generate innovations in care delivery with relevance everywhere. Yet, despite high rates of interest among students and medical trainees to include global health opportunities in their training, there is still no clear understanding of how this interest will translate into viable and sustained global health careers after graduation. Building on a growing conversation about how to support careers in academic global health, this Perspective describes the practical challenges faced by physicians pursuing these careers after they complete training. Writing from their perspective as junior faculty at one U.S. academic health center with a dedicated focus on global health training, the authors describe a number of practical issues they have found to be critical both for their own career development and for the advice they provide their mentees. With a particular emphasis on the financial, personal, professional, and logistical challenges that young "expat" global health physicians in academic institutions face, they underscore the importance of finding ways to support these career paths, and propose possible solutions. Such investments would not only respond to the rational and moral imperatives of global health work and advance the mission of improving human health but also help to fully leverage the potential of what is already an unprecedented movement within academic medicine. PMID:26244256

  12. Progress in Aptamer-Mediated Drug Delivery Vehicles for Cancer Targeting and Its Implications in Addressing Chemotherapeutic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Huang, He; Dong, Shiwu; Ge, Liang; Zhang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are novel oligonucleotides with flexible three-dimensional configurations that recognize and bind to their cognate targets, including tumor surface receptors, in a high-affinity and highly specific manner. Because of their unique intrinsic properties, a variety of aptamer-mediated nanovehicles have been developed to directionally transport anti-cancer drugs to tumor sites to minimize systemic cytotoxicity and to enhance permeation by these tumoricidal agents. Despite advances in the selection and synthesis of aptamers and in the conjugation and self-assembly of nanotechnologies, current chemotherapy and drug delivery systems face great challenges. These challenges are due to the limitations of aptamers and vehicles and because of complicated tumor mechanisms, including heterogeneity, anti-cancer drug resistance, and hypoxia-induced aberrances. In this review, we will summarize current approaches utilizing tumor surface hallmarks and aptamers and their roles and mechanisms in therapeutic nanovehicles targeting tumors. Delivery forms include nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanogels, aptamer-drug conjugates, and novel molecular trains. Moreover, the obstacles posed by the aforementioned issues will be highlighted, and possible solutions will be acknowledged. Furthermore, future perspectives will be presented, including cutting-edge integration with RNA interference nanotechnology and personalized chemotherapy, which will facilitate innovative approaches to aptamer-based therapeutics. PMID:25057317

  13. Projected groundwater balance as a state indicator for addressing sustainability and management challenges of overexploited crystalline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarah, S.; Ahmed, S.; Boisson, A.; Violette, S.; de Marsily, G.

    2014-11-01

    In India, particularly in semi-arid regions, groundwater levels are declining at alarming rates due to overexploitation and the sustainable exploitation of groundwater resources is in deep crisis. There is little or no information on groundwater sustainability indicators, which can signal towards the challenges in water management. In this study we downscaled an entire watershed into three zones based on the different hydrodynamic behaviour recorded at the borewell scale. A process-based simple, multi-parameter linear auto-regressive model was developed to predict groundwater levels, which uses recharge, groundwater withdrawal and irrigation return flow as input variables. A comprehensive and predictive long-term groundwater balance is used as a state indicator to evaluate the sustainability and management challenges in the watershed. Two groundwater withdrawal scenarios were designed to assess the impact of groundwater withdrawal on the groundwater balance. We found that geological heterogeneities play a crucial role in controlling groundwater fluctuations. The storage change in two different groundwater withdrawal scenarios shows gradually declining groundwater storage in both scenarios. A long-term assessment of the groundwater balance helps to analyse the state of the groundwater system and to locate priority zones for watershed interventions.

  14. Addressing the "Global Health Tax" and "Wild Cards": Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health.

    PubMed

    Palazuelos, Daniel; Dhillon, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Among many possible benefits, global health efforts can expand the skills and experience of U.S. clinicians, improve health for communities in need, and generate innovations in care delivery with relevance everywhere. Yet, despite high rates of interest among students and medical trainees to include global health opportunities in their training, there is still no clear understanding of how this interest will translate into viable and sustained global health careers after graduation. Building on a growing conversation about how to support careers in academic global health, this Perspective describes the practical challenges faced by physicians pursuing these careers after they complete training. Writing from their perspective as junior faculty at one U.S. academic health center with a dedicated focus on global health training, the authors describe a number of practical issues they have found to be critical both for their own career development and for the advice they provide their mentees. With a particular emphasis on the financial, personal, professional, and logistical challenges that young "expat" global health physicians in academic institutions face, they underscore the importance of finding ways to support these career paths, and propose possible solutions. Such investments would not only respond to the rational and moral imperatives of global health work and advance the mission of improving human health but also help to fully leverage the potential of what is already an unprecedented movement within academic medicine.

  15. Coitally Active University Students: Sexual Behaviors, Concerns, and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Carol A.; Davidson, J. Kenneth., Sr.

    1986-01-01

    Examined behaviors, attitudes, and concerns of students coitally active. Differences between genders included male dissatisfaction with infrequent opportunities for sexual intercourse, lack of variety of sex partners, and insufficient oral-genital stimulation. Female concerns were lack of stimulation to their breasts, painful sexual intercourse,…

  16. Solving the Puzzle: Dual Language Learners with Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemeth, Karen; Brillante, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    It can be difficult for any teacher to support a child whose behavior is disruptive, but a language barrier can certainly complicate the situation. Children who are new to English may not be able to tell teachers what's going on. This makes it even more important for teachers to learn specific strategies to interpret the child's actions and plan…

  17. The Challenges for Primary Caregivers of Adolescents With Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Oruche, Ukamaka M.; Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Cravens, Hillary A.; Lowry, Brittany; Lindsey, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), including oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, present unique challenges for their families. Although, most empirically supported treatments for DBD are family-based, the emphasis is typically on the behavior of the child rather than on the life challenges and resultant distress experienced by the family members. Fifteen families of adolescents with DBD were recruited from a large publicly funded Community Mental Health Center. For this report, data from in-depth interviews with the adolescents’ primary caregivers were analyzed by standard content analytic procedures to describe the challenges they experienced living with and caring for the adolescents. The primary caregivers reported that the challenges were overwhelming, demanding, and unrelenting. The two most salient challenges were (a) managing the adolescents’ aggressive, defiant, and deceitful behaviors, and (b) interacting frequently with a number of child-serving agencies. A number of clinical implications are drawn from these findings. PMID:25504213

  18. Supports for libraries'restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake : Challenges we address at Miyagi Prefectural Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Shinichiro

    This article overviews the situations of damage and reconstruction of mainly public libraries in Miyagi Prefecture about 9 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Serious damage of library buildings was due not only to the tsunami or seismic sea wave but to violent shaking, the latter less reported by the media. We at the Miyagi Prefectural Library implemented reconstruction assistance for regional public libraries in both direct and indirect ways. Among them, we report in detail on the support we offered until the Minami-sanriku Town Library reopened its service. We highlight a prefectural library's role, acting between supporters and those supportees, to consider the necessity of middle organizations. We clarify what challenges we face and examine how best to provide assistance in case of large-scale disasters.

  19. Addressing the challenge of the emerging NCD epidemic: lessons learned from Botswana's response to the HIV epidemic.

    PubMed

    Reid, M J A; Mosepele, M; Tsima, B M; Gross, R

    2012-09-21

    Botswana has the second highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in the world, and yet it has built one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive HIV programs. While public health infrastructure has responded remarkably to the HIV epidemic, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), particularly diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, in both HIV-infected and non-infected individuals, is increasing rapidly. Applying lessons learned from the scale-up of HIV/AIDS services may help with the implementation of an effective response to the challenges of the emerging NCD epidemic. We suggest that a successful response should include integrated service delivery, capacity building to provide disease-specific care, and strong partnerships to mobilize communities.

  20. Building a National Pediatric Cancer Center and Network in Paraguay: Lessons for Addressing Challenges in a Low-income Country.

    PubMed

    Samudio, Angélica; Figueredo, Diego; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Zelada, Ofelia; Peris, Aníbal; Bogado Yinde, Luis; Relyea, George; Pérez, Antonio; Madero, Luis; Ribeiro, Raul; Masera, Giuseppe; Caniza, Miguela A

    2015-07-01

    In Paraguay, cancer is among the leading causes of death among children. We report challenges and solutions for building the country's first pediatric cancer center at the National University School of Medicine (PCC-SM) and describe the outcomes of the National Network for Pediatric Cancer. We found that children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated between 2008 and 2012 had higher 3-year survival rates and lower treatment abandonment rates than did children treated between 2000 and 2007 before the network was established. This improvement directly coincided with the increased treatment capacity of the PCC-SM. Herein, we describe the role of local, national, and international contributors in improving the health care at Paraguay's PCC-SM and discuss how expediting access to specialized cancer diagnosis and care and implementing a system for referral and follow-up visits can improve cancer outcomes in other low-resource countries.

  1. Addressing the challenge of the emerging NCD epidemic: lessons learned from Botswana’s response to the HIV epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Mosepele, M.; Tsima, B. M.; Gross, R.

    2012-01-01

    Botswana has the second highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in the world, and yet it has built one of Africa’s most progressive and comprehensive HIV programs. While public health infrastructure has responded remarkably to the HIV epidemic, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), particularly diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, in both HIV-infected and non-infected individuals, is increasing rapidly. Applying lessons learned from the scale-up of HIV/AIDS services may help with the implementation of an effective response to the challenges of the emerging NCD epidemic. We suggest that a successful response should include integrated service delivery, capacity building to provide disease-specific care, and strong partnerships to mobilize communities. PMID:26392950

  2. Technical Study Addresses a Key Challenge to Harmonizing U.S. and International PV Module Standards (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    NREL builds community and industry support by addressing concerns voiced by key standards organizations. Photovoltaic (PV) manufacturers in the United States test the safety of their products using standards developed through consensus processes. Because U.S. PV module safety standards are not aligned with international standards, manufacturers must test their modules twice - and sometimes maintain separate product lines. By meeting with standards organizations such as the Solar ABCs and Underwriters Laboratories (UL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) leaders have worked to identify different stakeholders priorities and concerns. UL, specifically, has expressed concern that the international standards do not address all possible risks. For example, new encapsulant materials could soften at high temperatures and frameless modules could slide apart, exposing live electrical parts or allowing glass to fall on a person below. The deformation of a solid material under the influence of mechanical stresses is known as 'creep.' Current module qualification tests are limited to 85 C, whereas modules can, for short times, reach 105 C outdoors. In response to UL's concern, NREL designed and executed an experiment to compare on-sun and accelerated rates of creep for modules fabricated with various encapsulants, including some that have low melting points. Objectives were to (1) evaluate the potential for creep in outdoor exposure, (2) provide guidance on the risks and design needs with thermoplastic materials, and (3) provide a basis for modifying standards to account for materials with potential to creep. The study tested experimental materials with eight representative encapsulants in both outdoor and indoor (chamber) exposure. The study found that modules with materials that were expected to creep did so in the indoor exposure, but not in most outdoor environments and mounting configurations. The results provide a basis for defining an accelerated test needed to

  3. Key outcomes and addressing remaining challenges--perspectives from a final evaluation of the China GAVI project.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weizhong; Liang, Xiaofeng; Cui, Fuqiang; Li, Li; Hadler, Stephen C; Hutin, Yvan J; Kane, Mark; Wang, Yu

    2013-12-27

    During the China GAVI project, implemented between 2002 and 2010, more than 25 million children received hepatitis B vaccine with the support of project, and the vaccine proved to be safe and effective. With careful consideration for project savings, China and GAVI continually adjusted the budget, additionally allowing the project to spend operational funds to support demonstration projects to improve timely birth dose (TBD), conduct training of EPI staff, and to monitor the project impact. Results from the final evaluation indicated the achievement of key outcomes. As a result of government co-investment, human resources at county level engaged in hepatitis B vaccination increased from 29 per county on average in 2002 to 66 in 2009. All project counties funded by the GAVI project use auto-disable syringes for hepatitis B vaccination and other vaccines. Surveyed hepatitis B vaccine coverage increased from 71% in 2002 to 93% in 2009 among infants. The HBsAg prevalence declined from 9.67% in 1992 to 0.96% in 2006 among children under 5 years of age. However, several important issues remain: (1) China still accounts for the largest annual number of perinatal HBV infections (estimated 84,121) in the WHO WPR region; (2) China still lacks a clear national policy for safe injection of vaccines; (3) vaccination of high risk adults and protection of health care workers are still not implemented; (4) hepatitis B surveillance needs to be refined to more accurately monitor acute hepatitis B; and (5) a program for treatment of persons with chronic HBV infection is needed. Recommendations for future hepatitis B control include: using the lessons learned from the China GAVI project for future introductions of new vaccines; addressing unmet needs with a second generation hepatitis B program to reach every infant, including screening mothers, and providing HBIG for infants born to HBsAg positive mothers; expanding vaccination to high risk adults; addressing remaining unsafe

  4. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family.

  5. Coping with Challenge and Hindrance Stressors in Teams: Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Matthew J.; Ellis, Aleksander P. J.; Stein, Jordan H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the challenge-hindrance framework to examine the discrete and combined effects of different environmental stressors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes at the team level. Results from 83 teams working on a command and control simulation indicated that the introduction of a challenge stressor…

  6. Addressing the Challenges of Satellite and in-Situ Oceanographic Dataset Interoperability at the PO.Daac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Huang, T.

    2014-12-01

    The earth science enterprise increasingly relies on the integration and synthesis of multivariate datasets from diverse observational platforms. NASA's ocean salinity missions, that include Aquarius/SAC-D and the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) field campaign, illustrate the value of integrated observations in support of studies of the water cycle, environmental variability and climate. However, the inherent heterogeneity of resulting data and the disparate, distributed systems that serve them complicates their effective utilization for both earth science research and applications. Despite increased availability of oceanographic data online and improved protocols and tools for access, the fundamental problem of unified data access remains an impediment in part because of structural reasons (domain specific data providers) and in part because of specific technical issues. Key technical interoperability challenges include adherence to metadata and data format standards that are particularly acute for in-situ data and the lack of a unified metadata model facilitating archival and integration of both satellite and oceanographic field datasets. Here we report on new efforts at the PO.DAAC, NASA's physical oceanographic data center responsible for the archival and distribution of the satellite mission data that includes Aquarius, to extend our data management infrastructure to additionally support field campaign datasets such as those from SPURS. Integral to this are plans to develop a generalized data matchup service facilitating the reconciliation of multi-scale data exhibiting heterogeneous sampling geometries in support of mission Cal/Val and oceanographic research.

  7. A biodiversity indicators dashboard: addressing challenges to monitoring progress towards the Aichi biodiversity targets using disaggregated global data.

    PubMed

    Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L; Young, Bruce E; Brooks, Thomas M; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H M; Larsen, Frank W; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C; Turner, Will R

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's "Aichi Targets". These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity "dashboard"--a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the protection of

  8. A Biodiversity Indicators Dashboard: Addressing Challenges to Monitoring Progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets Using Disaggregated Global Data

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L.; Young, Bruce E.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Larsen, Frank W.; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C.; Turner, Will R.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's “Aichi Targets”. These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity “dashboard” – a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the

  9. Engaging sub-national governments in addressing health equities: challenges and opportunities in China's health system reform.

    PubMed

    Brixi, Hana; Mu, Yan; Targa, Beatrice; Hipgrave, David

    2013-12-01

    China's current health system reform (HSR) is striving to resolve deep inequities in health outcomes. Achieving this goal is difficult not only because of continuously increasing income disparities in China but also because of weaknesses in healthcare financing and delivery at the local level. We explore to what extent sub-national governments, which are largely responsible for health financing in China, are addressing health inequities. We describe the recent trend in health inequalities in China, and analyse government expenditure on health in the context of China's decentralization and intergovernmental model to assess whether national, provincial and sub-provincial public resource allocations and local government accountability relationships are aligned with this goal. Our analysis reveals that government expenditure on health at sub-national levels, which accounts for ∼90% of total government expenditure on health, is increasingly regressive across provinces, and across prefectures within provinces. Increasing inequity in public expenditure at sub-national levels indicates that resources and responsibilities at sub-national levels in China are not well aligned with national priorities. China's HSR would benefit from complementary measures to improve the governance and financing of public service delivery. We discuss the existing weaknesses in local governance and suggest possible approaches to better align the responsibilities and capacity of sub-national governments with national policies, standards, laws and regulations, therefore ensuring local-level implementation and enforcement. Drawing on China's institutional framework and ongoing reform pilots, we present possible approaches to: (1) consolidate key health financing responsibilities at the provincial level and strengthen the accountability of provincial governments, (2) define targets for expenditure on primary health care, outputs and outcomes for each province and (3) use independent sources to

  10. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family. PMID:27497456

  11. The Handbook of High-Risk Challenging Behaviors in People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive and destructive behaviors are an ongoing challenge for many children, adolescents, and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD). What's behind these high-risk behaviors, and how can professionals help manage them? Discover the answers in this comprehensive text, the most up-to-date compendium of knowledge on…

  12. Descriptive Analysis of Teacher Instructional Practices and Student Engagement among Adolescents with and without Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirn, Regina G.; Scott, Terrance M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine teacher and student behavior in high school classrooms that included at least one student identified with challenging behavior. Across two school years and within the content areas of math, reading/English, social studies, and science, student/ teacher dyads were directly observed in the typical…

  13. Classroom Management Strategies for Young Children with Challenging Behavior within Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolivette, Kristine; Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Many preschool, Head Start, and kindergarten educators of young children express concern about the number of children who exhibit frequent challenging behaviors and report that managing these behaviors is difficult within these classrooms. This article describes research-based strategies with practical applications that can be used as part of…

  14. Challenging Behaviors in Early Childhood Settings: Creating a Place for All Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart Bell, Susan; Carr, Victoria W.; Denno, Dawn; Johnson, Lawrence J.; Phillips, Louise R.

    2004-01-01

    Learn to manage a wide range of challenging behaviors in early childhood settings with this strategy-filled resource for teachers and other professionals. Based on the latest research and the authors' classroom experience, the book helps early childhood teams assess the classroom environment and link effective behavioral interventions to…

  15. Effects of Vibroacoustic Music on Challenging Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Andersson, Gunilla; Viding, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Vibroacoustic music has been proposed to be an effective treatment for individuals with developmental disorders and challenging behaviors. The present study experimentally tested the effects of vibroacoustic music on self-injurious, stereotypical, and aggressive destructive behaviors in 20 individuals with autism spectrum disorders and…

  16. Comparing Brief and Extended Wait-Time during Small Group Instruction for Children with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt; Crozier, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    This preliminary study compared brief (1 s) and extended (4 s) wait-time on response opportunities, academic responses, accuracy, and disruptive behavior of two children with challenging behavior during small group instruction. Brief wait-time increased children's response opportunities, academic responses, and accuracy in comparison to extended…

  17. Bridging the Gap between Clinical and Classroom Intervention: Keystone Approaches for Students with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducharme, Joseph M.; Shecter, Carly

    2011-01-01

    Although not trained as treatment providers, teachers are increasingly faced with students who present challenging behavioral issues that require intervention. Teachers often resort to reactive and punitive strategies that have many negative side effects and drawbacks because they lack specific training in managing problem behavior in the…

  18. Support Needs of Individuals with Mild and Moderate Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux-Hebert, Melanie; Morin, Diane; Crocker, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study examined relationships between support needs assessed with the French version of the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS; Thompson et al., 2004) and challenging behaviors as assessed with the Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (Bruininks, Woodcock, Weatherman, & Hill, 1996). The Sample included 191 persons between 16 and 75…

  19. Training Head Start Teachers to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analysis of Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispoli, Mandy; Burke, Mack D.; Hatton, Heather; Ninci, Jennifer; Zaini, Samar; Sanchez, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) is a procedure for experimentally identifying the function of challenging behavior within applied settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a TBFA teacher-training package in the context of two Head Start centers implementing programwide positive behavior support (PWPBS). Four Head…

  20. Data Lakes and Data Visualization: An Innovative Approach to Address the Challenges of Access to Health Care in Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Denise D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are a variety of challenges to developing strategies to improve access to health care, but access to data is critical for effective evidence-based decision-making. Many agencies and organizations throughout Mississippi have been collecting quality health data for many years. However, those data have historically resided in data silos and have not been readily shared. A strategy was developed to build and coordinate infrastructure, capacity, tools, and resources to facilitate health workforce and population health planning throughout the state. Objective: Realizing data as the foundation upon which to build, the primary objective was to develop the capacity to collect, store, maintain, visualize, and analyze data from a variety of disparate sources -- with the ultimate goal of improving access to health care. Specific aims were to: 1) build a centralized data repository and scalable informatics platform, 2) develop a data management solution for this platform and then, 3) derive value from this platform by facilitating data visualization and analysis. Methods: A managed data lake was designed and constructed for health data from disparate sources throughout the state of Mississippi. A data management application was developed to log and track all data sources, maps and geographies, and data marts. With this informatics platform as a foundation, a variety of tools are used to visualize and analyze data. To illustrate, a web mapping application was developed to examine the health workforce geographically and attractive data visualizations and dynamic dashboards were created to facilitate health planning and research. Results: Samples of data visualizations that aim to inform health planners and policymakers are presented. Many agencies and organizations throughout the state benefit from this platform. Conclusion: The overarching goal is that by providing timely, reliable information to stakeholders, Mississippians in general will experience improved

  1. A renaissance in residential behavior analysis? A historical perspective and a better way to help people with challenging behavior

    PubMed Central

    Holburn, Steve

    1997-01-01

    After a slow start, the popularity of applied behavior analysis for people with severe behavior problems peaked in the 1970s and was then battered down by the effects of methodological behaviorism, the aversives controversy, overregulation, and the inherent limitations of congregate living. Despite the ethical, technical, and conceptual advancements in behavior analysis, many people with challenging behavior live in futile environments in which the behavior analyst can only tinker. A radically behavioristic approach has become available that has the power to change these conditions, to restore the reciprocity necessary for new learning, and to bring residential behavior analysts more in contact with the contingencies of helping and teaching. The approach is consistent with alternatives that behaviorists have suggested for years to improve the image and effectiveness of applied behavior analysis, although it will take the behaviorist far from the usual patterns of practice. Finally, the approach promotes its own survival by promoting access to interlocking organizational contingencies, but its antithetical nature presents many conceptual and practical challenges to agency adoption. PMID:22478282

  2. Addressing capability computing challenges of high-resolution global climate modelling at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantharaj, Valentine; Norman, Matthew; Evans, Katherine; Taylor, Mark; Worley, Patrick; Hack, James; Mayer, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    During 2013, high-resolution climate model simulations accounted for over 100 million "core hours" using Titan at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The suite of climate modeling experiments, primarily using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) at nearly 0.25 degree horizontal resolution, generated over a petabyte of data and nearly 100,000 files, ranging in sizes from 20 MB to over 100 GB. Effective utilization of leadership class resources requires careful planning and preparation. The application software, such as CESM, need to be ported, optimized and benchmarked for the target platform in order to meet the computational readiness requirements. The model configuration needs to be "tuned and balanced" for the experiments. This can be a complicated and resource intensive process, especially for high-resolution configurations using complex physics. The volume of I/O also increases with resolution; and new strategies may be required to manage I/O especially for large checkpoint and restart files that may require more frequent output for resiliency. It is also essential to monitor the application performance during the course of the simulation exercises. Finally, the large volume of data needs to be analyzed to derive the scientific results; and appropriate data and information delivered to the stakeholders. Titan is currently the largest supercomputer available for open science. The computational resources, in terms of "titan core hours" are allocated primarily via the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) and ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge (ALCC) programs, both sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Titan is a Cray XK7 system, capable of a theoretical peak performance of over 27 PFlop/s, consists of 18,688 compute nodes, with a NVIDIA Kepler K20 GPU and a 16-core AMD Opteron CPU in every node, for a total of 299,008 Opteron cores and 18,688 GPUs offering a cumulative 560

  3. The Use of Structural Behavioral Assessment to Develop Interventions for Secondary Students Exhibiting Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Maag, John W.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Structural behavioral assessment (SBA) involves a series of heuristic approaches similar to those used with functional behavioral assessment (FBA). It involves assessing contextual variables that precede the occurrence of a behavior. These variables have also been termed antecedents, setting events, or establishing operations. Once these variables…

  4. Behavioral Change Challenges in the Context of Center-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jokar, Fariba; Yousefi, Hojatollah; Yousefy, Alireza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is chronic and often a sign of long-standing unhealthy lifestyle habits. Patients need support to reach lifestyle changes, well-being, join in social and vocational activity. Thus, patient responsibility should to be encouraged to provide quality as well as longevity. Cardiac rehabilitation programs aid patients in the attainment of these objectives. However, research shows that behavioral change following the diagnosis of a chronic disease is a challenge. Objectives: We sought to determine behavioral change challenges in patients with cardiovascular disease to improve intervention programs. Patients and Methods: Using a descriptive qualitative approach, we collected the data using 30 in-depth semi-structure interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes from the data. Results: Three sources of behavioral change challenges emerged regarding the nature of cardiac disease and the role of the individual and the family in the recovery process. These challenges acted at two levels: intra- and interpersonal. The intrapersonal factors comprised value, knowledge and judgment about cardiovascular disease, and self-efficacy to fulfill the rehabilitation task. Family overprotection constituted the principal component of the interpersonal level. Conclusions: Behaviors are actually adopted and sustained by patients are so far from that recommended by health professionals. This gap could be reduced by identifying behavioral change challenges, rooted in the beliefs of the individual and the family. Therefore, culturally-based interventions to enhance disease self-management should be considered. PMID:26290753

  5. Behavior Change After 20 Months of a Radio Campaign Addressing Key Lifesaving Family Behaviors for Child Survival: Midline Results From a Cluster Randomized Trial in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sarrassat, Sophie; Meda, Nicolas; Ouedraogo, Moctar; Some, Henri; Bambara, Robert; Head, Roy; Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Cousens, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Burkina Faso, a comprehensive 35-month radio campaign addressed key, multiple family behaviors for improving under-5 child survival and was evaluated using a repeated cross-sectional, cluster randomized design. The primary outcome of the trial was postneonatal under-5 child mortality. This paper reports on behavior change achieved at midline. Method: Fourteen community radio stations in 14 geographic areas were selected based on their high listenership. Seven areas were randomly allocated to receive the intervention while the other 7 areas served as controls. The campaign was launched in March 2012. Cross-sectional surveys of about 5,000 mothers of under-5 children, living in villages close to the radio stations, were conducted at baseline (from December 2011 to February 2012) and at midline (in November 2013), after 20 months of campaigning. Statistical analyses were based on cluster-level summaries using a difference-in-difference (DiD) approach and adjusted for imbalances between arms at baseline. In addition, routine health facility data were analyzed for evidence of changes in health facility utilization. Results: At midline, 75% of women in the intervention arm reported recognizing radio spots from the campaign. There was some evidence of the campaign having positive effects on care seeking for diarrhea (adjusted DiD, 17.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 32.5; P = .03), antibiotic treatment for fast/difficult breathing (adjusted DiD, 29.6 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.5 to 55.7; P = .03), and saving money during pregnancy (adjusted DiD, 12.8 percentage points; 95% CI, 1.4 to 24.2; P = .03). For other target behaviors, there was little or no evidence of an impact of the campaign after adjustment for baseline imbalances and confounding factors. There was weak evidence of a positive correlation between the intensity of broadcasting of messages and reported changes in target behaviors. Routine health facility data

  6. Applications of operant learning theory to the management of challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rodger Ll; Alderman, Nick

    2011-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, interventions derived from learning theory have been delivered within a neurobehavioral framework to manage challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury with the aim of promoting engagement in the rehabilitation process and ameliorating social handicap. Learning theory provides a conceptual structure that facilitates our ability to understand the relationship between challenging behavior and environmental contingencies, while accommodating the constraints upon learning imposed by impaired cognition. Interventions derived from operant learning theory have most frequently been described in the literature because this method of associational learning provides good evidence for the effectiveness of differential reinforcement methods. This article therefore examines the efficacy of applying operant learning theory to manage challenging behavior after TBI as well as some of the limitations of this approach. Future developments in the application of learning theory are also considered. PMID:21552069

  7. Applications of operant learning theory to the management of challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rodger Ll; Alderman, Nick

    2011-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, interventions derived from learning theory have been delivered within a neurobehavioral framework to manage challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury with the aim of promoting engagement in the rehabilitation process and ameliorating social handicap. Learning theory provides a conceptual structure that facilitates our ability to understand the relationship between challenging behavior and environmental contingencies, while accommodating the constraints upon learning imposed by impaired cognition. Interventions derived from operant learning theory have most frequently been described in the literature because this method of associational learning provides good evidence for the effectiveness of differential reinforcement methods. This article therefore examines the efficacy of applying operant learning theory to manage challenging behavior after TBI as well as some of the limitations of this approach. Future developments in the application of learning theory are also considered.

  8. Zinc Prevents Sickness Behavior Induced by Lipopolysaccharides after a Stress Challenge in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, Thiago B.; Galvão, Marcella C.; Reis-Silva, Thiago M.; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Bernardi, Maria M.

    2015-01-01

    Sickness behavior is considered part of the specific beneficial adaptive behavioral and neuroimmune changes that occur in individuals in response to infectious/inflammatory processes. However, in dangerous and stressful situations, sickness behavior should be momentarily abrogated to prioritize survival behaviors, such as fight or flight. Taking this assumption into account, we experimentally induced sickness behavior in rats using lipopolysaccharides (LPS), an endotoxin that mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, and then exposed these rats to a restraint stress challenge. Zinc has been shown to play a regulatory role in the immune and nervous systems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc treatment on the sickness response of stress-challenged rats. We evaluated 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open-field behavior, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), corticosterone, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels. LPS administration induced sickness behavior in rats compared to controls, i.e., decreases in the distance traveled, average velocity, rearing frequency, self-grooming, and number of vocalizations, as well as an increase in the plasma levels of TNF-α, compared with controls after a stressor challenge. LPS also decreased BDNF expression but did not influence anxiety parameters. Zinc treatment was able to prevent sickness behavior in LPS-exposed rats after the stress challenge, restoring exploratory/motor behaviors, communication, and TNF-α levels similar to those of the control group. Thus, zinc treatment appears to be beneficial for sick animals when they are facing risky/stressful situations. PMID:25775356

  9. A new look at the science of weight control: how acceptance and commitment strategies can address the challenge of self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L

    2015-01-01

    The current manuscript proposes an acceptance-based, self-regulation framework for understanding the challenge of weight maintenance and describes how this framework can be integrated into the behavioral treatment of obesity. According to this framework, intrinsic drives to consume palatable, high-calorie food interact with a modern environment in which high calorie foods are easily accessible. This combination produces a chronic desire to eat unhealthy foods that exists in opposition to individuals' weight control goals. Similarly, low energy expenditure requirements reduce physical activity. We suggest that individuals vary in their responsivity to cues that motivate overeating and sedentary behavior, and that those higher in responsivity need specialized self-regulatory skills to maintain healthy eating and exercise behaviors. These skills include an ability to tolerate uncomfortable internal reactions to triggers and a reduction of pleasure, behavioral commitment to clearly-defined values, and metacognitive awareness of decision-making processes. So-called "acceptance-based" interventions based on these skills have so far proven efficacious for weight control, especially for those who are the most susceptible to eating in response to internal and external cues (as predicted by the model). Despite the current empirical support for the postulated model, much remains to be learned including whether acceptance-based interventions will prove efficacious in the longer-term. PMID:25445199

  10. A new look at the science of weight control: how acceptance and commitment strategies can address the challenge of self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L

    2015-01-01

    The current manuscript proposes an acceptance-based, self-regulation framework for understanding the challenge of weight maintenance and describes how this framework can be integrated into the behavioral treatment of obesity. According to this framework, intrinsic drives to consume palatable, high-calorie food interact with a modern environment in which high calorie foods are easily accessible. This combination produces a chronic desire to eat unhealthy foods that exists in opposition to individuals' weight control goals. Similarly, low energy expenditure requirements reduce physical activity. We suggest that individuals vary in their responsivity to cues that motivate overeating and sedentary behavior, and that those higher in responsivity need specialized self-regulatory skills to maintain healthy eating and exercise behaviors. These skills include an ability to tolerate uncomfortable internal reactions to triggers and a reduction of pleasure, behavioral commitment to clearly-defined values, and metacognitive awareness of decision-making processes. So-called "acceptance-based" interventions based on these skills have so far proven efficacious for weight control, especially for those who are the most susceptible to eating in response to internal and external cues (as predicted by the model). Despite the current empirical support for the postulated model, much remains to be learned including whether acceptance-based interventions will prove efficacious in the longer-term.

  11. Technology Education Addressing New Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedras, Melvin J.; Braukmann, James R.

    1990-01-01

    The integration of problem solving into the technology education laboratory means there will be changes in the ways in which teachers structure activities for learners and the manner in which teachers behave. (JOW)

  12. Addressing epidemiological and public health analytic challenges in outcome and impact research: a commentary on 'Prechewing Infant Food, Consumption of Sweets and Dairy and Not Breastfeeding are Associated with Increased Diarrhea Risk of Ten Month Old Infants'.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H

    2016-07-01

    Based on a paper by Conkle et al 2016, in which the authors use a descriptive epidemiological design to examine the relationship of premastication and other dietary behavioral variables to childhood diarrhea in the US, we address larger issues of "plausible causality" and the challenges involved in moving from epidemiological studies to public health policy. Drawing on examples from breastfeeding research and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) research, we discuss the following propositions: 1. Effective outcome analyses require simultaneous investigation of different, even contradictory, pathways; 2. Outcome versus impact assessments require different analytic procedures including context analysis; 3. Impact analysis requires understanding the trade-offs between detrimental and beneficial outcomes in relation to potential interventions; 4. No estimates exist for the likely detrimental and beneficial impacts of banning premastication, much less for their trade-offs. PMID:27229538

  13. Applying Decision-Making Approaches to Health Risk-Taking Behaviors: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    PubMed

    Cho; Keller; Cooper

    1999-06-01

    This paper critically examines how risk-taking behaviors can be modeled from a decision-making perspective. We first review several applications of a decision perspective to the study of risk-taking behaviors, including studies that investigate consequence generation and the components of the overall utility (i.e., consequence, desirability, and likelihood) of risk-taking and studies that investigate the validity of two decision-oriented models (subjective expected utility and the theory of reasoned action) in predicting risk-taking behaviors. We then discuss challenges in modeling risk-taking behaviors from a decision-making perspective. These challenges include (i) finding the factors that are necessary to improve the predictability of models, (ii) difficulties in eliciting the individual components of overall utility, and (iii) incorporating overall utility changes over time. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10366518

  14. Fostering sustained energy behavior change and increasing energy literacy in a student housing energy challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Robert Stephen

    We designed the Kukui Cup challenge to foster energy conservation and increase energy literacy. Based on a review of the literature, the challenge combined a variety of elements into an overall game experience, including: real-time energy feedback, goals, commitments, competition, and prizes. We designed a software system called Makahiki to provide the online portion of the Kukui Cup challenge. Energy use was monitored by smart meters installed on each floor of the Hale Aloha residence halls on the University of Hawai'i at Manoa campus. In October 2011, we ran the UH Kukui Cup challenge for the over 1000 residents of the Hale Aloha towers. To evaluate the Kukui Cup challenge, I conducted three experiments: challenge participation, energy literacy, and energy use. Many residents participated in the challenge, as measured by points earned and actions completed through the challenge website. I measured the energy literacy of a random sample of Hale Aloha residents using an online energy literacy questionnaire administered before and after the challenge. I found that challenge participants' energy knowledge increased significantly compared to non-challenge participants. Positive self-reported energy behaviors increased after the challenge for both challenge participants and non-participants, leading to the possibility of passive participation by the non-challenge participants. I found that energy use varied substantially between and within lounges over time. Variations in energy use over time complicated the selection of a baseline of energy use to compare the levels during and after the challenge. The best team reduced its energy use during the challenge by 16%. However, team energy conservation did not appear to correlate to participation in the challenge, and there was no evidence of sustained energy conservation after the challenge. The problems inherent in assessing energy conservation using a baseline call into question this common practice. My research has

  15. A Challenging Case of Limb Salvage Requiring a Combination of Composite Fixation and Masquelet Technique to Address Significant Segmental Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Blair, C.; Simela, A. T.; Cross, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Cases of limb salvage following skeletal trauma involving significant bone loss pose a particular challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Certain techniques for addressing this complex issue have been advanced in recent years and have met with considerable success. The Masquelet technique involves a staged procedure in which a temporary skeletal stabilization is paired with implantation of an antibiotic spacer and left in place for 6–8 weeks, during which time a “pseudomembrane” forms around the cement spacer. During the second stage of the procedure, the pseudomembrane is incised, the antibiotic spacer removed, and bone graft is placed. We present a case of significant segmental femur loss in a 19-year-old male opting for limb salvage in which a 17-centimeter segmental loss of bone was essentially regrown using a combination of the Masquelet technique with supplemental endosteal fixation. PMID:25789190

  16. The Missing Link: Delayed Emotional Development Predicts Challenging Behavior in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappok, Tanja; Budczies, Jan; Dziobek, Isabel; Bölte, Sven; Dosen, Anton; Diefenbacher, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) show high rates of challenging behavior (CB). The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the factors underlying CB in an adult, clinical ID sample (n = 203). Low levels of emotional development (ED), as measured by the "Scheme of Appraisal of ED," predicted overall CB, specifically…

  17. Effects of a Mathematics Fluency Program on Mathematics Performance of Students with Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Todd; Hirn, Regina G.; Lingo, Amy S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of a fluency-building mathematics program called Great Leaps Math on fluency of basic addition mathematics facts zero to nine and word problem solving using a multiple probe design across participants. Three elementary students with challenging behaviors and mathematics difficulty participated in the…

  18. Strain-Specific Changes in Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish Elicited by Cholinergic Challenge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some studies have compared the baseline behavior of different strains of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio), but there is sparse information on strain-specific responses to chemical challenges. The following study examines both the basal activity and response to a pharmacological cha...

  19. An Examination of Teacher Instruction and Student Engagement Involving Adolescents with and without Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirn, Regina Gilkey

    2011-01-01

    The interactions between teachers and students provide a venue for instructional delivery and ultimately student achievement in the school setting. However, not all students experience positive interactions with teachers in the typical classroom setting, especially those students exhibiting behavioral challenges. These students are observed with…

  20. Teacher-Student Relationships: Exploring the Perceptions of Students Who Exhibit Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satter, Allyson L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study describes and analyzes the perspectives of students with challenging behaviors regarding what they believe contributes to student teacher relationship quality. The conceptual framework guiding this study was informed by research in the following areas: transactional theory, self-efficacy theory, and teacher-student power…

  1. The Effects of Presession Manipulations on Automatically Maintained Challenging Behavior and Task Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yi-Chieh; Cannella-Malone, Helen I.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of presession exposure to attention, response blocking, attention with response blocking, and noninteraction conditions on subsequent engagement in automatically maintained challenging behavior and correct responding in four individuals with significant intellectual disabilities. Following a functional analysis, the…

  2. Circle Time: An Exploratory Study of Activities and Challenging Behavior in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaghlawan, Hasan Y.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine circle time activities in eight Head Start classrooms. A total of 7 h of observations occurred in eight classrooms. Songs and academic activities were the most frequently occurring activities. Challenging behavior during circle time also was examined. The three activities with the highest…

  3. Treatment of Challenging Behavior Exhibited by Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Rush, Karena S.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    A large body of literature exists describing the harmful effects of prenatal drug exposure on infant and child development. However, there is a paucity of research examining strategies to ameliorate sequelae such as externalizing behavior problems. In the present study, functional analysis procedures were used to assess challenging behavior…

  4. Practices for Enhancing Children's Social-Emotional Development and Preventing Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corso, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Many challenging behaviors can be prevented by designing environments that promote children's engagement and teaching children new social skills (Lawry, Danko, & Strain, 1999; Neilsen, Olive, Donovan, & McEvoy, 1999; Strain & Hemmeter, 1999). Fox, Dunlap, Hemmeter, Joseph, and Strain (2003) have described a framework for promoting children's…

  5. Challenging Behavior and Co-Morbid Psychopathology in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jane; Hemmings, Colin; Kravariti, Eugenia; Dworzynski, Katharina; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (N=124) as compared to adults with ID only (N=562). All participants were first time referrals to specialist mental health services and were living in community settings.…

  6. Toward a Better Understanding of the Effects of Hindrance and Challenge Stressors on Work Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jennica R.; Beehr, Terry A.; Christiansen, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes whereby hindrance and challenge stressors may affect work behavior. Three mechanisms were examined to explain the differential effects these stressors have demonstrated: job satisfaction, strains, and work self-efficacy. A model is proposed in which both types of stressors will result in increases in strains,…

  7. The Effects of an Abolishing Operation Intervention Component on Play Skills, Challenging Behavior, and Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Aguilar, Jeannie; Fragale, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce stereotypy and challenging behavior during play skills instruction by adding an abolishing operation component (AOC) to the intervention strategy. An alternating treatments design compared one condition in which participants were allowed to engage in stereotypy freely before beginning the play skills…

  8. Training, Consultation, and Mentoring: Supporting Effective Responses to Challenging Behavior in Early Care and Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschland, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Administrators in early care and education programs often turn to training initiatives to bolster staff competence in supporting children with emotional and behavioral challenges. However, training alone rarely results in the wide-ranging changes these administrators seek. This article presents a flexible approach to training, consultation and…

  9. Cultural Competence, Systems of Care, and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Lakeisha D.; Anderson, Jeffrey A.; McQueen, Kand

    2013-01-01

    For youth with emotional and behavioral challenges, there is a trend of minority overrepresentation in restrictive settings. "System of care" refers to an approach that emphasizes cultural competence and providing services in the least restrictive setting. This study investigated the relationship between placement restrictiveness,…

  10. Incorporating "motivation" into the functional analysis of challenging behavior: on the interactive and integrative potential of the motivating operation.

    PubMed

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; O'Reilly, Mark

    2007-07-01

    Sensitivity theory attempts to account for the variability often observed in challenging behavior by recourse to the "aberrant motivation" of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. In this article, we suggest that a functional analysis based on environmental (challenging environments) and biological (challenging needs) motivating operations provides a more parsimonious and empirically grounded account of challenging behavior than that proposed by sensitivity theory. It is argued that the concept of the motivating operation provides a means of integrating diverse strands of research without the undue inference of mentalistic constructs. An integrated model of challenging behavior is proposed, one that remains compatible with the central tenets of functional analysis.

  11. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Can It Help Address the Problem of Disproportionate Minority Representation in the Emotional Disturbance Disability Category?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jodi Abraham

    2012-01-01

    This research project investigated the possibility of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) as a way to address racial/ethnic disproportionality in the Emotional Disturbance (ED) category. The sample consisted of 114 elementary schools from a suburban school district in the Mid-Atlantic region. There were 57 SWPBS schools and 57 non-SWPBS…

  12. Response to Nadler's Commentary on Arch and Craske's (2011) "Addressing Relapse in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: Methods for Optimizing Long-Term Treatment Outcomes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arch, Joanna J.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    Nadler (this issue), in his commentary of our article, "Addressing Relapse in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: Methods for Optimizing Long-Term Treatment Outcomes" (Arch & Craske, 2011), argues that we misrepresent the role of panic attacks within learning theory and overlook cognitive treatment targets. He presents several case…

  13. Environmental enrichment to address behavioral differences between wild and captive black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Frances J

    2005-05-01

    I compared the behaviors of wild Varecia variegata living in a Malagasy rain forest with those of caged groups living in zoos in the United Kingdom in order to design environmental enrichment to encourage more natural behaviors. Comparisons were made between wild and captive animals in terms of activity budgets (instantaneously sampled at 1-min intervals) and social and solitary behaviors, which were continuously recorded for focal individuals. I followed the same sampling protocol during behavioral enrichment experiments, with additional monitoring of the amount and type of food consumed, and with more detailed observations of feeding behavior. No significant differences were found in resting or moving between wild and captive V. variegata. However, captive V. variegata spent more time on self-grooming and social behaviors, and less time feeding than wild V. variegata. There was also a lack of manual manipulation of food items. Behavioral enrichment experiments were carried out in which whole rather than chopped fruit was provided and presented in a more naturalistic manner. With this method of dietary presentation, manual manipulation of dietary items increased. Time spent feeding also increased significantly. Captive conservation breeding programs should not be wholly concerned with maintaining a diverse gene pool-they should also be concerned with conserving species-typical behaviors, especially if they are to produce behaviorally intact captive animals that can be reintroduced to the wild with minimal training, financial resources, and loss of individuals.

  14. Using assessment-based curricular intervention to improve the classroom behavior of a student with emotional and behavioral challenges.

    PubMed

    Kern, L; Childs, K E; Dunlap, G; Clarke, S; Falk, G D

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated a process of descriptive assessment, functional assessment, and assessment-based intervention with an elementary-school child who was described as having emotional and behavioral challenges, but who also exhibited above-average intelligence and communication skills. During a hypothesis-development phase, information was gathered from several sources including an interview that was conducted directly with the participant. Descriptive information collected during this phase produced five hypotheses about variables maintaining the problem behavior that were then tested experimentally in the classroom environment. The resulting functional assessment data supported the hypotheses. Intervention packages based on the hypotheses were implemented sequentially across English, spelling, and math classes. The interventions were successful in increasing on-task behavior, and the improvements were maintained for the remainder of the school year. PMID:8188564

  15. Administrator Strategies that Support High Fidelity Implementation of the Pyramid Model for Promoting Social-Emotional Competence & Addressing Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincic, Melissa; Smith, Barbara J.; Strain, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Implementing the Pyramid Model with fidelity and achieving positive outcomes for children and their families requires that administrators understand their roles in the implementation process. Every administrative decision impacts program quality and sustainability. This Policy Brief underscores the importance of facilitative administrative…

  16. Challenges to quality assurance and improvement efforts in behavioral health organizations: a qualitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Luis E; McMillen, J Curtis; Lee, Madeline Y; Books, Samantha J

    2013-05-01

    Behavioral health organizations have been increasingly required to implement plans to monitor and improve service quality. This qualitative study explores challenges that quality assurance and improvement (QA/I) personnel experience in performing their job in those practice settings. Sixteen QA/I personnel from different agencies in St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A., were interviewed face-to-face using a semi-structured instrument to capture challenges and a questionnaire to capture participant and agency characteristics. Data analysis followed a grounded theory approach. Challenges involved agency resources, agency buy-in, personnel training, competing demands, shifting standards, authority, and research capacity. Further research is needed to assess these challenges given expected outcomes.

  17. Listen-Identify-Brainstorm-Reality-Test-Encourage (LIBRE) Problem-Solving Model: Addressing Special Education Teacher Attrition through a Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Norma S.; Hernandez, Art; Hector, Alison M.; Crosby, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Special education teacher attrition rates continue to challenge the profession. A cognitive-behavioral problem-solving approach was used to examine three alternative certification program special education teachers' professional development through a series of 41 interviews conducted over a 2-year period. Beginning when they were novice special…

  18. Primary prevention of coronary heart disease: a challenge for behavioral medicine.

    PubMed

    Carleton, R A; Lasater, T M

    1987-07-01

    Arteriosclerosis is importantly influenced by blood cholesterol level, blood pressure, and cigarette smoking. Each of these major risk factors is influenced by behavioral choices made by individuals and supported by societies. Behavioral medicine has a rich tradition of dealing with individuals and small groups. The public health perspective of disease challenges behavioral medicine to develop new strategies and tactics for behavioral modification for health promotion on a population-wide basis. Additional research is needed to test effective methods for influencing population behavior, population risk factors, and ultimately population morbid and mortal event rates. Several major community projects are now investigating the health promotion process targeting individuals, small groups, organizations, and the entire community. School, worksites, and churches are particularly conducive to health promotion programming. Each has unique advantages and disadvantages; each deserves careful experimentation to determine its efficacy for population-wide health promotion efforts. A public health dimension to behavioral change promises widespread impact, generalization to other health promotive behaviors, maintenance of new cultural behavioral norms, and significant reductions in the incidence of many chronic diseases. PMID:3297395

  19. Can behavioral health drive its own reformation? The challenges of shifting direction.

    PubMed

    Morris, John A

    2016-03-01

    This paper is designed to provide a broad-view perspective on at least some of the implications of the Affordable Care Act for children's behavioral health. Historical trends in behavioral health have tended to isolate both consumers of services (including children, youth and families) and practitioners from the larger world of healthcare, with decidedly mixed results. This paper uses the concept of path dependence to highlight the multiple challenges facing child behavioral health as it moves forward. The paper builds its recommendations on the 4 pillars of sustainable change: politics, practice, economics, and science. In a changing health care environment, behavioral health has to transform. The paper concludes with some observations on the kinds of transformative change required to move in new directions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963187

  20. Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC): A Joint WWRP and WCRP Activity to Address the Challenges of Multi-Scale Organized Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughey, J.; Waliser, D.; Moncrieff, M.

    2008-12-01

    The realistic representation of tropical convection in our global atmospheric models is a long-standing grand challenge for numerical weather prediction and climate projection. To address this challenge, WCRP and WWRP/THORPEX have proposed a Year of coordinated observing, modeling and forecasting of organized tropical convection and its influences on predictability. This effort is intended to exploit the vast amounts of existing and emerging observations, the expanding computational resources and the development of new, high-resolution modeling frameworks, with the objective of advancing the characterization, diagnosis, modeling, parameterization and prediction of multi-scale convective/dynamic interactions, including the two- way interaction between tropical and extra-tropical weather/climate. This activity and its ultimate success will be based on the coordination of a wide range of ongoing and planned international programmatic activities (e.g., GEWEX/CEOP/GCSS, THORPEX, EOS, AMY), strong collaboration among the operational prediction, research laboratory and academic communities, and the construction of a comprehensive data base consisting of satellite data, in-situ data sets and global/high-resolution forecast and simulation model outputs relevant to tropical convection. The target time frame for scientific focus is May 2008 to October 2009, and was chosen as a period that would leverage the most benefit from recent investments in Earth Science infrastructure and overlapping programmatic activities (e.g., AMY, T-PARC). Specific areas of emphasis identified in YOTC are: 1) MJO and convectively coupled waves, 2) diurnal cycle, 3) easterly waves and tropical cyclones, 4) tropical-extratropical interactions, and 5) monsoon. This presentation will describe the development of this activity, its current status and planned programmatic framework and research agenda.

  1. Addressing challenges of training a new generation of clinician-innovators through an interdisciplinary medical technology design program: Bench-to-Bedside.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Patrick D; Elder, Craig T; D'Ambrosio, Troy; Langell, John T

    2015-01-01

    Graduate medical education has traditionally focused on training future physicians to be outstanding clinicians with basic and clinical science research skills. This focus has resulted in substantial knowledge gains, but a modest return on investment based on direct improvements in clinical care. In today's shifting healthcare landscape, a number of important challenges must be overcome to not only improve the delivery of healthcare, but to prepare future physicians to think outside the box, focus on and create healthcare innovations, and navigate the complex legal, business and regulatory hurdles of bringing innovation to the bedside. We created an interdisciplinary and experiential medical technology design competition to address these challenges and train medical students interested in moving new and innovative clinical solutions to the forefront of medicine. Medical students were partnered with business, law, design and engineering students to form interdisciplinary teams focused on developing solutions to unmet clinical needs. Over the course of six months teams were provided access to clinical and industry mentors, $500 prototyping funds, development facilities, and non-mandatory didactic lectures in ideation, design, intellectual property, FDA regulatory requirements, prototyping, market analysis, business plan development and capital acquisition. After four years of implementation, the program has supported 396 participants, seen the development of 91 novel medical devices, and launched the formation of 24 new companies. From our perspective, medical education programs that develop innovation training programs and shift incentives from purely traditional basic and clinical science research to also include high-risk innovation will see increased student engagement in improving healthcare delivery and an increase in the quality and quantity of innovative solutions to medical problems being brought to market. PMID:25984273

  2. Addressing challenges of training a new generation of clinician-innovators through an interdisciplinary medical technology design program: Bench-to-Bedside.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Patrick D; Elder, Craig T; D'Ambrosio, Troy; Langell, John T

    2015-01-01

    Graduate medical education has traditionally focused on training future physicians to be outstanding clinicians with basic and clinical science research skills. This focus has resulted in substantial knowledge gains, but a modest return on investment based on direct improvements in clinical care. In today's shifting healthcare landscape, a number of important challenges must be overcome to not only improve the delivery of healthcare, but to prepare future physicians to think outside the box, focus on and create healthcare innovations, and navigate the complex legal, business and regulatory hurdles of bringing innovation to the bedside. We created an interdisciplinary and experiential medical technology design competition to address these challenges and train medical students interested in moving new and innovative clinical solutions to the forefront of medicine. Medical students were partnered with business, law, design and engineering students to form interdisciplinary teams focused on developing solutions to unmet clinical needs. Over the course of six months teams were provided access to clinical and industry mentors, $500 prototyping funds, development facilities, and non-mandatory didactic lectures in ideation, design, intellectual property, FDA regulatory requirements, prototyping, market analysis, business plan development and capital acquisition. After four years of implementation, the program has supported 396 participants, seen the development of 91 novel medical devices, and launched the formation of 24 new companies. From our perspective, medical education programs that develop innovation training programs and shift incentives from purely traditional basic and clinical science research to also include high-risk innovation will see increased student engagement in improving healthcare delivery and an increase in the quality and quantity of innovative solutions to medical problems being brought to market.

  3. Further Evaluations of Functional Communication Training and Chained Schedules of Reinforcement to Treat Multiple Functions of Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcomata, Terry S.; Muething, Colin S.; Gainey, Summer; Hoffman, Katherine; Fragale, Christina

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated functional communication training (FCT) combined with a chained schedule of reinforcement procedure for the treatment of challenging behavior exhibited by two individuals diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and autism. Following functional analyses that suggested that challenging behavior served multiple functions for both participants,…

  4. Effects of Presession Satiation on Challenging Behavior and Academic Engagement for Children with Autism during Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispoli, Mandy J.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lang, Russell; Kang, Soyeon; Lancioni, Giulio; Parker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of presession satiation on challenging behavior and academic engagement during subsequent classroom activities for three 5-6 year-old children with autism. The percentage of 10-s intervals with challenging behavior and academic engagement during 20-min classroom activity sessions was observed under two conditions. One…

  5. An Evaluation of the Effects of Life Space Crisis Intervention on the Challenging Behavior of Individual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grskovic, Janice A.; Goetze, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of Life Space Crisis Interventions on the challenging behavior of four students with learning handicaps attending a special school in Germany. Students were in seventh and tenth grades and exhibited an array of challenging, disruptive classroom behaviors. After the implementation of interventions, major improvement…

  6. Quality of Life as a Mediator between Behavioral Challenges and Autistic Traits for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Matson, Johnny L.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple mediation model was proposed to integrate core concepts of challenging behaviors with autistic traits to increase understanding of their relationship to quality of life (QoL). It was hypothesized that QoL is a possible mediator between the severity of challenging behaviors and autistic traits in adults with intellectual disability.…

  7. We're the Same… but Different: Addressing Academic Divides in the Study of Brain and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Zoe R.

    2010-01-01

    How the brain mediates behavior is a question relevant to a broad range of disciplines including evolutionary biology, basic neuroscience, psychiatry, and population health. Experiments in animals have traditionally used two distinct approaches to explore brain–behavior relationships; one uses naturally existing behavioral models while the other focuses on the creation and investigation of medically oriented models using existing laboratory-amenable organisms. Scientists using the first approach are often referred to and self identify as “neuroethologists,” while the second category spans a variety of other sub-disciplines but is often referred to broadly as “behavioral neuroscience.” Despite an overall common scientific goal – the elucidation of the neural basis of behavior – members of these two groups often come from different scientific lineages, seek different sources of funding, and make their homes in different departments or colleges. The separation of these groups is also fostered by their attendance at different scientific conferences and publication records that reflect different journal preferences. Bridging this divide represents an opportunity to explore previously unanswerable questions and foster rapid scientific advances. This article explores the reasons for this divide and proposes measures that could help increase technology transfer and communication between these groups, potentially overcoming both physical and ideological gaps. PMID:20700499

  8. Children with developmental disabilities at a pediatric hospital: staff education to prevent and manage challenging behaviors.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Norah L; Lashley, Joel; Stonek, Alice V; Bonjour, Annette

    2012-12-01

    Children with developmental disabilities may get frustrated in unpredictable hospital environments. Frustration may escalate to challenging behaviors, which are a safety concern and may contribute to staff and patient injuries, use of restraints, and procedure delay or cancelations. The purpose of this article was to describe a pilot staff education program on preventing and managing challenging behaviors of children with developmental disabilities at a pediatric hospital. The 2-hour-long education (1 hour on-line and 1 hour instructor led) content focused on family-centered care and communication skills, including verbal judo™ modified for use in the health care setting. Participants in the instructor-led sessions reported improved knowledge and decreased fear about caring for children with developmental disabilities. Relationships of the education and fewer staff injuries, fewer canceled procedures, and decreased use of restraints merit further study. PMID:22465852

  9. Success importance and urge magnitude as determinants of cardiovascular response to a behavioral restraint challenge.

    PubMed

    Agtarap, Stephanie D; Wright, Rex A; Mlynski, Christopher; Hammad, Rawan; Blackledge, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Decades of research have investigated a conceptual analysis concerned with determinants and cardiovascular correlates of effort in people confronted with performance challenges, that is, opportunities to alter some course of events by acting. One suggestion is that effort and associated cardiovascular responses should be determined jointly by the difficulty of meeting a challenge and the importance of doing so. The present experiment tested this in a context involving behavioral restraint, that is, effortful resistance against a behavioral impulse or urge. Participants were presented a mildly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty low) or a strongly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty high) with instructions to refrain from showing any facial response. Success was made more or less important through coordinated manipulations of outcome expectancy, ego-involvement and social evaluation. As expected, SBP responses assessed during the work period were proportional to clip evocativeness - i.e., the difficulty of the restraint challenge - when importance was high, but low regardless of clip evocativeness when importance was low. Findings conceptually replicate previous cardiovascular results and support extension of the guiding analysis to the behavioral restraint realm. PMID:26968495

  10. Addressing Relapse in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: Methods for Optimizing Long-Term Treatment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arch, Joanna J.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a client with panic disorder and agoraphobia who relapses following a full course of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). To frame the client's treatment, the major components of CBT for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A) are reviewed. Likely reasons for the treatment's failure and strategies for improving…

  11. Use of behavioral interventions and parent education to address feeding difficulties in young children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Clawson, Elizabeth P; Kuchinski, Kimberly S; Bach, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intensive day patient pediatric feeding program using oral motor exercises, behavioral interventions, and parental education to increase the oral feeding of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Eight children between the ages of 18 months to 4.7 years participated in the feeding program for an average of 5.8 weeks. The program consisted of structured oral motor exercises, rewards for reinforcement of appropriate feeding behaviors such as accepting food, chewing, and swallowing, as well as extinction for inappropriate feeding responses. Results show improvement in mealtime skills and behaviors necessary for increasing oral intake. There was improvement in ability to open the mouth for the presentation of the food as well as improved timeliness of swallowing without gagging, expelling or holding food in the mouth. The children were able to tolerate longer meal sessions and consume a greater quantity of food resulting in greater caloric consumption. The children who were tube fed at admission were able to decrease the amount of tube supplementation due to their improved oral intake. Caregivers improved in their ability to feed their children by providing appropriate instructions, prompts and consequences (IPC) during meals.

  12. A holistic, multi-scale dynamic downscaling framework for climate impact assessments and challenges of addressing finer-scale watershed dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongho; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.

    2015-03-01

    We present a state-of-the-art holistic, multi-scale dynamic downscaling approach suited to address climate change impacts on hydrologic metrics and hydraulic regime of surface flow at the "scale of human decisions" in ungauged basins. The framework rests on stochastic and physical downscaling techniques that permit one-way crossing 106-100 m scales, with a specific emphasis on 'nesting' hydraulic assessments within a coarser-scale hydrologic model. Future climate projections for the location of Manchester watershed (MI) are obtained from an ensemble of General Circulation Models of the 3rd phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project database and downscaled to a "point" scale using a weather generator. To represent the natural variability of historic and future climates, we generated continuous time series of 300 years for the locations of 3 meteorological stations located in the vicinity of the ungauged basin. To make such a multi-scale approach computationally feasible, we identified the months of May and August as the periods of specific interest based on ecohydrologic considerations. Analyses of historic and future simulation results for the identified periods show that the same median rainfall obtained by accounting for climate natural variability triggers hydrologically-mediated non-uniqueness in flow variables resolved at the hydraulic scale. An emerging challenge is that uncertainty initiated at the hydrologic scale is not necessarily preserved at smaller-scale flow variables, because of non-linearity of underlying physical processes, which ultimately can mask climate uncertainty. We stress the necessity of augmenting climate-level uncertainties of emission scenario, multi-model, and natural variability with uncertainties arising due to non-linearities in smaller-scale processes.

  13. Volumetric influence on the mechanical behavior of organic solids: The case of aspirin and paracetamol addressed via dispersion corrected DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Kapil; Flurchick, Kenneth M.; Valenzano, Loredana

    2015-06-01

    The elastic and mechanical properties of the most stable polymorphs of aspirin and paracetamol are obtained at B3LYP-D2* level of theory to show how effects arising from volumetric expansions related to thermal variations influence the behavior of these materials. Results are in fair agreement with experimental values reported at temperatures far from 0 K, showing that the proposed approach can describe the elastic response of molecular crystals as rationalized in terms of inter-molecular forces. The computational approach, despite its semi-empirical nature, allows achieving a qualitative chemical understanding of the macroscopic mechanical properties of molecular crystals with respect to changes in temperature.

  14. Dissociation between sickness behavior and emotionality during lipopolysaccharide challenge in lymphocyte deficient Rag2(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sarah M; Michael, Kerry C; Klaus, Joseph; Mert, Abdullah; Romano-Verthelyi, Ari; Sand, Joseph; Tonelli, Leonardo H

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory diseases are highly associated with affective disorders including depression and anxiety. While the role of the innate immune system on emotionality has been extensively studied, the role of adaptive immunity is less understood. Considering that chronic inflammatory conditions are mediated largely by maladaptive lymphocyte function, the role of these cells on brain function and behavior during inflammation warrants investigation. In the present study we employed mice deficient in lymphocyte function and studied behavioral and inflammatory responses during challenge with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Rag2(-/-) mice lacking mature lymphocytes were susceptible to death under sub-septic (5 mg/kg) doses of LPS and survived only to moderate (1 mg/kg) doses of LPS. Under these conditions, they displayed attenuated TNF-alpha responses and behavioral symptoms of sickness when compared with immunocompetent mice. Nevertheless, Rag2(-/-) mice had protracted motivational impairments after recovery from sickness suggesting a specific function for lymphocytes on the re-establishment of motivational states after activation of the innate immune system. The behavioral impairments in Rag2(-/-) mice were paralleled by an elevation in plasma corticosterone after behavioral tests. These results provide evidence that the absence of adaptive immunity may be associated with emotional deficits during inflammation and suggest that depressive states associated with medical illness may be mediated in part by impaired lymphocyte responses.

  15. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  16. Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  17. Opportunities and Challenges for Smartphone Applications in Supporting Health Behavior Change: Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Leanne; Conway, Gemma; Yardley, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    track behavior and goals and the ability to acquire advice and information “on the go” were valued. Context-sensing capabilities and social media features tended to be considered unnecessary and off-putting. Conclusions This study provided insight into the opportunities and challenges involved in delivering health-related behavioral interventions through smartphone apps. The findings suggested a number of valued features and characteristics that app developers may wish to consider when creating health behavior apps. Findings also highlighted several major challenges that appeared to need further consideration and research to ensure the development of effective and well-accepted behavior change apps. PMID:23598614

  18. Joint trajectories of cognitive functioning and challenging behavior for persons living with dementia in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Annie; Garcia, Linda; McIntosh, Cameron

    2015-09-01

    The current study examines the longitudinal relationship between dementia-related challenging behaviors (e.g., vocal disruption, physical aggression, repetitive behaviors, and restlessness) and cognitive functioning in the long-term care (LTC) context. A multivariate latent growth curve model within the structural equation modeling (SEM) framework was applied to data collected from 16,804 older adults upon admission to LTC and every 3 months for a period of 2.5 years. Increases in challenging behaviors were characterized by a significant positive linear and negative quadratic trend (i.e., a subtle leveling off at later assessment times), whereas increases in cognitive impairment were characterized by a positive linear trend. On average, individuals who were more cognitively impaired upon entry into LTC and who exhibited a steeper increase in cognitive impairment also exhibited more challenging behaviors at entry into LTC and a steeper increase in challenging behaviors, respectively. At the within-person level, individuals demonstrating an increase in cognitive impairment at a specific occasion were also more likely to demonstrate an increase in challenging behaviors at that same occasion; however, the magnitude of these effects was very small, suggesting limited practical implications. This study provides novel empirical evidence about the coevolution of cognitive impairment and challenging behaviors, going beyond prior research that has been either cross-sectional in nature, examined longitudinal change in only 1 variable, or simply looked at linear trends without attempting to explore the possibility of nonlinear change. Most importantly, this longitudinal examination of persons with dementia living in LTC has implications for how challenging behaviors can be better managed and for how new strategies can be implemented to prevent challenging behaviors.

  19. Moderate Heat Challenge Increased Yolk Steroid Hormones and Shaped Offspring Growth and Behavior in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Chanson, Marine; Delaveau, Joël; Mercerand, Frédéric; Möstl, Erich; Calandreau, Ludovic; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Collin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental challenges might affect the maternal organism and indirectly affect the later ontogeny of the progeny. We investigated the cross-generation impact of a moderate heat challenge in chickens. We hypothesized that a warm temperature–within the thermotolerance range- would affect the hormonal environment provided to embryos by mothers, and in turn, affect the morphology and behavioral phenotype of offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings Laying hens were raised under a standard thermal condition at 21°C (controls) or 30°C (experimental) for 5 consecutive weeks. A significant increase was observed in the internal temperature of hens exposed to the warm treatment; however plasma corticosterone levels remained unaffected. The laying rate was not affected, but experimental hens laid lighter eggs than the controls during the treatment. As expected, the maternal thermal environment affected yolk hormone contents. Eggs laid by the experimental hens showed significantly higher concentrations of yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol. All chicks were raised under standard thermal conditions. The quality of hatchlings, growth, feeding behavior and emotional reactivity of chicks were analyzed. Offspring of experimental hens (C30 chicks) were lighter but obtained better morphological quality scores at hatching than the controls (C21 chicks). C30 chicks expressed lesser distress calls when exposed to a novel food. Unlike C21 chicks, C30 chicks expressed no preference for energetic food. Conclusion/Significance Our findings suggest that moderate heat challenge triggers maternal effects and modulate the developmental trajectory of offspring in a way that may be adaptive. This suggests that the impact of heat challenges on captive or wild populations might have a cross-generation effect. PMID:23451257

  20. Addressing numerical challenges in introducing a reactive transport code into a land surface model: a biogeochemical modeling proof-of-concept with CLM-PFLOTRAN 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guoping; Yuan, Fengming; Bisht, Gautam; Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Kumar, Jitendra; Mills, Richard T.; Xu, Xiaofeng; Andre, Ben; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Painter, Scott L.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2016-03-01

    We explore coupling to a configurable subsurface reactive transport code as a flexible and extensible approach to biogeochemistry in land surface models. A reaction network with the Community Land Model carbon-nitrogen (CLM-CN) decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant uptake is used as an example. We implement the reactions in the open-source PFLOTRAN (massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport) code and couple it with the CLM. To make the rate formulae designed for use in explicit time stepping in CLMs compatible with the implicit time stepping used in PFLOTRAN, the Monod substrate rate-limiting function with a residual concentration is used to represent the limitation of nitrogen availability on plant uptake and immobilization. We demonstrate that CLM-PFLOTRAN predictions (without invoking PFLOTRAN transport) are consistent with CLM4.5 for Arctic, temperate, and tropical sites.Switching from explicit to implicit method increases rigor but introduces numerical challenges. Care needs to be taken to use scaling, clipping, or log transformation to avoid negative concentrations during the Newton iterations. With a tight relative update tolerance (STOL) to avoid false convergence, an accurate solution can be achieved with about 50 % more computing time than CLM in point mode site simulations using either the scaling or clipping methods. The log transformation method takes 60-100 % more computing time than CLM. The computing time increases slightly for clipping and scaling; it increases substantially for log transformation for half saturation decrease from 10-3 to 10-9 mol m-3, which normally results in decreasing nitrogen concentrations. The frequent occurrence of very low concentrations (e.g. below nanomolar) can increase the computing time for clipping or scaling by about 20 %, double for log transformation. Overall, the log transformation method is accurate and robust, and the clipping and scaling methods are efficient. When the

  1. Addressing numerical challenges in introducing a reactive transport code into a land surface model: a biogeochemical modeling proof-of-concept with CLM–PFLOTRAN 1.0

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Guoping; Yuan, Fengming; Bisht, Gautam; Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Kumar, Jitendra; Mills, Richard T.; Xu, Xiaofeng; Andre, Ben; Hoffman, Forrest M.; et al

    2016-03-04

    We explore coupling to a configurable subsurface reactive transport code as a flexible and extensible approach to biogeochemistry in land surface models. A reaction network with the Community Land Model carbon–nitrogen (CLM-CN) decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant uptake is used as an example. We implement the reactions in the open-source PFLOTRAN (massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport) code and couple it with the CLM. To make the rate formulae designed for use in explicit time stepping in CLMs compatible with the implicit time stepping used in PFLOTRAN, the Monod substrate rate-limiting function with a residual concentration is used to represent the limitation ofmore » nitrogen availability on plant uptake and immobilization. We demonstrate that CLM–PFLOTRAN predictions (without invoking PFLOTRAN transport) are consistent with CLM4.5 for Arctic, temperate, and tropical sites.Switching from explicit to implicit method increases rigor but introduces numerical challenges. Care needs to be taken to use scaling, clipping, or log transformation to avoid negative concentrations during the Newton iterations. With a tight relative update tolerance (STOL) to avoid false convergence, an accurate solution can be achieved with about 50 % more computing time than CLM in point mode site simulations using either the scaling or clipping methods. The log transformation method takes 60–100 % more computing time than CLM. The computing time increases slightly for clipping and scaling; it increases substantially for log transformation for half saturation decrease from 10−3 to 10−9 mol m−3, which normally results in decreasing nitrogen concentrations. The frequent occurrence of very low concentrations (e.g. below nanomolar) can increase the computing time for clipping or scaling by about 20 %, double for log transformation. Overall, the log transformation method is accurate and robust, and the clipping and scaling

  2. Investigation of a Multi-Component Intervention Addressing Mathematical Reasoning and Self-Regulation of Behavior for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Marie B.

    2013-01-01

    For students with Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities (EBD), negative student outcomes are the poorest across disability categories, including high rates of school dropouts, unemployment and incarcerations. Mathematically, students with EBD receiving instruction in special education settings experience practices not consistent with recommendations…

  3. School Counselors' Involvement with a School-Wide Positive Behavior Support System: Addressing Student Behavior Issues in a Proactive and Positive Manner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Katie; Andreen, Kelsey

    2013-01-01

    For schools using School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports, the school counselor is an essential member of the implementation team. Moreover, the prevention model corresponds with the school counselor standards and the ASCA National Model. This article shows how a school counselor teams with school staff in a K-3 elementary school of 600 pupils to…

  4. Biological rhythms, higher brain function, and behavior: Gaps, opportunities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Benca, Ruth; Duncan, Marilyn J; Frank, Ellen; McClung, Colleen; Nelson, Randy J; Vicentic, Aleksandra

    2009-12-11

    Increasing evidence suggests that disrupted temporal organization impairs behavior, cognition, and affect; further, disruption of circadian clock genes impairs sleep-wake cycle and social rhythms which may be implicated in mental disorders. Despite this strong evidence, a gap in understanding the neural mechanisms of this interaction obscures whether biological rhythms disturbances are the underlying causes or merely symptoms of mental disorder. Here, we review current understanding, emerging concepts, gaps, and opportunities pertinent to (1) the neurobiology of the interactions between circadian oscillators and the neural circuits subserving higher brain function and behaviors of relevance to mental health, (2) the most promising approaches to determine how biological rhythms regulate brain function and behavior under normal and pathological conditions, (3) the gaps and challenges to advancing knowledge on the link between disrupted circadian rhythms/sleep and psychiatric disorders, and (4) the novel strategies for translation of basic science discoveries in circadian biology to clinical settings to define risk, prevent or delay onset of mental illnesses, design diagnostic tools, and propose new therapeutic strategies. The review is organized around five themes pertinent to (1) the impact of molecular clocks on physiology and behavior, (2) the interactions between circadian signals and cognitive functions, (3) the interface of circadian rhythms with sleep, (4) a clinical perspective on the relationship between circadian rhythm abnormalities and affective disorders, and (5) the pre-clinical models of circadian rhythm abnormalities and mood disorders.

  5. Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Close-up view of the liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51L taken from camera site 39B-2/T3. From this camera position, a cloud of grey-brown smoke can be seen on the right side of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) on a line directly across from the letter 'U' in United States. This was the first visible sign that an SRB joint breach may have occured. On January 28, 1986 frigid overnight temperatures caused normally pliable rubber O-ring seals and putty that are designed to seal and establish joint integrity between the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) joint segments, to become hard and non- flexible. At the instant of SRB ignition, tremendous stresses and pressures occur within the SRB casing and especially at the joint attachmentment points. The failure of the O-rings and putty to 'seat' properly at motor ignition, caused hot exhaust gases to blow by the seals and putty. During Challenger's ascent, this hot gas 'blow by' ultimately cut a swath completely through the steel booster casing; and like a welder's torch, began cutting into the External Tank (ET). It is believed that the ET was compromised in several locations starting in the aft at the initial point where SRB joint failure occured. The ET hydrogen tank is believed to have been breached first, with continuous rapid incremental failure of both the ET and SRB. A chain reaction of events occurring in milliseconds culminated in a massive explosion. The orbiter Challenger was instantly ejected by the blast and went askew into the supersonic air flow. These aerodynamic forces caused structural shattering and complete destruction of the orbiter. Though it was concluded that the G-forces experienced during orbiter ejection and break-up were survivable, impact with the ocean surface was not. Tragically, all seven crewmembers perished.

  6. A Systematic Evidence Review of the Check-In/Check-Out Program for Reducing Student Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggin, Daniel M.; Zurheide, Jamie; Pickett, Kayci C.; Baillie, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    Three-tiered models of prevention are increasingly being adopted by schools to address the behavioral needs of students. A critical component of multitiered systems are secondary interventions used with students in need of behavioral support but who are not candidates for individualized interventions. Despite the importance of secondary…

  7. Microglia Transcriptome Changes in a Model of Depressive Behavior after Immune Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Nixon, Scott E.; O’Connor, Jason C.; Southey, Bruce R.; Lawson, Marcus A.; McCusker, Robert H.; Borras, Tania; Machuca, Debbie; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Depression symptoms following immune response to a challenge have been reported after the recovery from sickness. A RNA-Seq study of the dysregulation of the microglia transcriptome in a model of inflammation-associated depressive behavior was undertaken. The transcriptome of microglia from mice at day 7 after Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) challenge was compared to that from unchallenged Control mice and to the transcriptome from peripheral macrophages from the same mice. Among the 562 and 3,851 genes differentially expressed between BCG-challenged and Control mice in microglia and macrophages respectively, 353 genes overlapped between these cells types. Among the most differentially expressed genes in the microglia, serum amyloid A3 (Saa3) and cell adhesion molecule 3 (Cadm3) were over-expressed and coiled-coil domain containing 162 (Ccdc162) and titin-cap (Tcap) were under-expressed in BCG-challenged relative to Control. Many of the differentially expressed genes between BCG-challenged and Control mice were associated with neurological disorders encompassing depression symptoms. Across cell types, S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9), interleukin 1 beta (Il1b) and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (Kmo) were differentially expressed between challenged and control mice. Immune response, chemotaxis, and chemokine activity were among the functional categories enriched by the differentially expressed genes. Functional categories enriched among the 9,117 genes differentially expressed between cell types included leukocyte regulation and activation, chemokine and cytokine activities, MAP kinase activity, and apoptosis. More than 200 genes exhibited alternative splicing events between cell types including WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1 (Wnk1) and microtubule-actin crosslinking factor 1(Macf1). Network visualization revealed the capability of microglia to exhibit transcriptome dysregulation in response to immune challenge still after resolution of sickness symptoms

  8. Microglia Transcriptome Changes in a Model of Depressive Behavior after Immune Challenge.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Nixon, Scott E; O'Connor, Jason C; Southey, Bruce R; Lawson, Marcus A; McCusker, Robert H; Borras, Tania; Machuca, Debbie; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    Depression symptoms following immune response to a challenge have been reported after the recovery from sickness. A RNA-Seq study of the dysregulation of the microglia transcriptome in a model of inflammation-associated depressive behavior was undertaken. The transcriptome of microglia from mice at day 7 after Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) challenge was compared to that from unchallenged Control mice and to the transcriptome from peripheral macrophages from the same mice. Among the 562 and 3,851 genes differentially expressed between BCG-challenged and Control mice in microglia and macrophages respectively, 353 genes overlapped between these cells types. Among the most differentially expressed genes in the microglia, serum amyloid A3 (Saa3) and cell adhesion molecule 3 (Cadm3) were over-expressed and coiled-coil domain containing 162 (Ccdc162) and titin-cap (Tcap) were under-expressed in BCG-challenged relative to Control. Many of the differentially expressed genes between BCG-challenged and Control mice were associated with neurological disorders encompassing depression symptoms. Across cell types, S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9), interleukin 1 beta (Il1b) and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (Kmo) were differentially expressed between challenged and control mice. Immune response, chemotaxis, and chemokine activity were among the functional categories enriched by the differentially expressed genes. Functional categories enriched among the 9,117 genes differentially expressed between cell types included leukocyte regulation and activation, chemokine and cytokine activities, MAP kinase activity, and apoptosis. More than 200 genes exhibited alternative splicing events between cell types including WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1 (Wnk1) and microtubule-actin crosslinking factor 1(Macf1). Network visualization revealed the capability of microglia to exhibit transcriptome dysregulation in response to immune challenge still after resolution of sickness symptoms

  9. Microglia Transcriptome Changes in a Model of Depressive Behavior after Immune Challenge.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Nixon, Scott E; O'Connor, Jason C; Southey, Bruce R; Lawson, Marcus A; McCusker, Robert H; Borras, Tania; Machuca, Debbie; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    Depression symptoms following immune response to a challenge have been reported after the recovery from sickness. A RNA-Seq study of the dysregulation of the microglia transcriptome in a model of inflammation-associated depressive behavior was undertaken. The transcriptome of microglia from mice at day 7 after Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) challenge was compared to that from unchallenged Control mice and to the transcriptome from peripheral macrophages from the same mice. Among the 562 and 3,851 genes differentially expressed between BCG-challenged and Control mice in microglia and macrophages respectively, 353 genes overlapped between these cells types. Among the most differentially expressed genes in the microglia, serum amyloid A3 (Saa3) and cell adhesion molecule 3 (Cadm3) were over-expressed and coiled-coil domain containing 162 (Ccdc162) and titin-cap (Tcap) were under-expressed in BCG-challenged relative to Control. Many of the differentially expressed genes between BCG-challenged and Control mice were associated with neurological disorders encompassing depression symptoms. Across cell types, S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9), interleukin 1 beta (Il1b) and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (Kmo) were differentially expressed between challenged and control mice. Immune response, chemotaxis, and chemokine activity were among the functional categories enriched by the differentially expressed genes. Functional categories enriched among the 9,117 genes differentially expressed between cell types included leukocyte regulation and activation, chemokine and cytokine activities, MAP kinase activity, and apoptosis. More than 200 genes exhibited alternative splicing events between cell types including WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1 (Wnk1) and microtubule-actin crosslinking factor 1(Macf1). Network visualization revealed the capability of microglia to exhibit transcriptome dysregulation in response to immune challenge still after resolution of sickness symptoms

  10. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  11. Teacher Implementation of Trial-Based Functional Analysis and Function-Based Interventions for Students with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Susan Dagenhart

    2012-01-01

    Children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or emotional and behavioral disabilities (E/BD) often exhibit challenging behavior including aggression, self-injury, non-compliance, or property destruction (Kamps, Kravits, Rauch, Kamps, & Chung, 2000; National Autism Center, 2009). As a result, students with ASD or E/BD often miss out…

  12. The Relationship among Attributions, Emotions, and Interpersonal Styles of Staff Working with Clients with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zijlmans, Linda J. M.; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Willems, Arno P. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have tested Weiner's model, which suggests a relationship among causal attributions regarding challenging behavior (CB), emotions, and helping behavior of staff. No studies have focused on interpersonal styles. The goals of this study were to investigate the influence of type of CB on attributions, emotions and interpersonal style…

  13. What Is the Evidence for Environmental Causes of Challenging Behaviors in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    An extensive literature on the causes of challenging behaviors has been developed, primarily in the applied behavior analysis literature. One hundred and seventy-three empirical studies were reviewed where functional assessment serves as the primary method of identifying these causes. Most of the studies were able to identify a clear function or…

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Video-Modeling Based Interventions for Reduction of Challenging Behaviors for Students with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Wiseman, Nicole; White, Sherry A.; Balluch, Felicity

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the use of video modeling (VM)-based interventions to reduce the challenging behaviors of students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Each study was evaluated using Council for Exceptional Children's (CEC's) quality indicators for evidence-based practices. In addition, study effects were calculated along the three…

  15. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  16. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions. PMID:23812638

  17. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  18. Can "good" stressors spark "bad" behaviors? The mediating role of emotions in links of challenge and hindrance stressors with citizenship and counterproductive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rodell, Jessica B; Judge, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    The authors combined affective events theory (H. M. Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) and the transactional stress model (R. S. Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) to build and test a model specifying the dynamic, emotion-based relationships among challenge and hindrance stressors and citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. The study employed an experience sampling methodology. Results showed that challenge stressors had offsetting indirect links with citizenship behaviors through attentiveness and anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety. Hindrance stressors had a negative indirect effect on citizenship behaviors through anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety and anger. Finally, multilevel moderating effects showed that the relationship between hindrance stressors and anger varied according to employees' levels of neuroticism.

  19. Lessons From the Viagra Study: Methodological Challenges in Recruitment of Older and Minority Heterosexual Men for Research on Sexual Practices and Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexual men, particularly minority men, into research studies on sexual behaviors and practices. The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges that arose during the recruitment and data collection stages of a study on health and sexual practices of older heterosexual men using prescribed erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs, and the strategies that were used to meet these challenges. Lessons learned from this study will be discussed, as well as implications for HIV/STD researchers and clinicians. PMID:21216626

  20. Behavioral reactivity to a noradrenergic challenge after chronic oral methylphenidate (ritalin) in rats.

    PubMed

    Leblanc-Duchin, Denise; Taukulis, Harald K

    2004-12-01

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is routinely used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is a psychomotor stimulant with pharmacodynamics similar to those established for cocaine and amphetamine with primary activation of the noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. Long-term exposure to psychostimulants including methylphenidate (MPD) is believed to result in enduring functional changes along both these pathways and various behaviors mediated by these systems may be affected. In the present experiment, the effects of intermittent oral administration of methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) to rats over a 4-week period were subsequently (after a drug washout interval) assessed in three animal models sensitive to noradrenergic manipulation: the elevated plus-maze, predator odor avoidance, and social interaction tests. The behaviors of methylphenidate-experienced animals were compared with untreated controls. Thirty minutes prior to testing, half the animals with each of these histories received an injection of yohimbine hydrochloride (2.0 mg/kg), an alpha2-adrenoreceptor blocker intended to evoke noradrenergic system activation, while the remainder received a saline injection. Yohimbine was expected to reduce both exploration of novel stimuli and interaction with conspecifics, and it was predicted that methylphenidate would potentiate these effects. Relative to saline-tested controls, rats that received both the methylphenidate treatment and the yohimbine challenge exhibited the least exploration in the predator odor test and the lowest duration of interaction with an unfamiliar conspecific partner in the social interaction test. The behavior patterns observed in this group of rats suggest heightened emotionality and defensiveness that are typically seen when rats are administered drugs known to be anxiogenic in human subjects. In the plus-maze, exploratory locomotor activities remained unaltered by either drug while yohimbine decreased risk

  1. The missing link: delayed emotional development predicts challenging behavior in adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Sappok, Tanja; Budczies, Jan; Dziobek, Isabel; Bölte, Sven; Dosen, Anton; Diefenbacher, Albert

    2014-04-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) show high rates of challenging behavior (CB). The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the factors underlying CB in an adult, clinical ID sample (n = 203). Low levels of emotional development (ED), as measured by the Scheme of Appraisal of ED, predicted overall CB, specifically irritability and self-injury, high unemployment and low occupation rates, while severity of ID controlled for ED did not. Autism was the only mental disorder associated with overall CB, stereotypy, lethargy, and predicted antipsychotic drug usage. Given the persistence and clinical significance of CB, evaluation of autism and ED may suggest priority areas for diagnostics and therapy, to provide the prerequisites for participation in society and living up one's potentials.

  2. Anxiety and cerebral blood flow during behavioral challenge. Dissociation of central from peripheral and subjective measures

    SciTech Connect

    Zohar, J.; Insel, T.R.; Berman, K.F.; Foa, E.B.; Hill, J.L.; Weinberger, D.R.

    1989-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety and regional cerebral blood flow, we administered behavioral challenges to 10 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder while measuring regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Each patient was studied under three conditions: relaxation, imaginal flooding, and in vivo (actual) exposure to the phobic stimulus. Subjective anxiety, obsessive-compulsive ratings, and autonomic measures (heart rate, blood pressure) increased significantly, but respiratory rate and PCO/sub 2/ did not change across the three conditions. Regional cerebral blood flow increased slightly (in the temporal region) during imaginal flooding, but decreased markedly in several cortical regions during in vivo exposure, when anxiety was highest by subjective and peripheral autonomic measures. These results demonstrate that intense anxiety can be associated with decreased rather than increased cortical perfusion and that ostensibly related states of anxiety (eg, anticipatory and obsessional anxiety) may be associated with opposite effects on regional cerebral blood flow.

  3. Identifying barriers and catalysts to fostering pro-environmental behavior: opportunities and challenges for community psychology.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Christine C; Angelique, Holly

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we report on an exploratory study of perceived barriers and catalysts to increasing pro-environmental behavior among people associated with the environmental movement. Perceived barriers include time, money, low efficacy and hopelessness. Catalysts focus on changing social norms, especially through education and institutional support. We discuss the tragedy of the commons and free-riding as impediments to change. We use this study as an entryway to hypothesize opportunities and challenges that community psychologists face in motivating and supporting actions to reduce the impact of global climate change. We provide examples of how community psychologists can foster these changes. In short, we argue that community psychology is well positioned to take a leading role in the fight for a carbon neutral future. PMID:21203832

  4. Adapting cognitive behavioral therapy to meet the needs of Chinese clients: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Hanley, Terry

    2015-06-01

    With the growing influence of China (Chinese people/culture) on the world's politics, economy, and culture, the psychological wellbeing of Chinese people is becoming increasingly important for both researchers and practitioners. Despite this, the cultural responsiveness of many conventional psychotherapeutic models has often been brought into question. In contrast, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is rapidly becoming one of the most popular approaches in the mental health service industry and has been successfully adapted into many different cultural contexts. The current article is a theoretical discussion of the opportunities and challenges that CBT faces with respect to how it might meet the cultural needs and preferences of Chinese clients. Suggestions for successful cultural adaptation are offered based on existing research and practices. It is concluded that many features of CBT appear to match well with the Chinese cultural perspective. However, despite this promising start further work is needed to focus specifically on its practical effectiveness for Chinese clients.

  5. The Achilles Heel of Future Economic Growth: The Workforce Development Challenge. What Is It? How Critical Is It? Who's Doing What To Address It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Vandegrift, Judith A.

    Arizona businesses are facing a dearth of skilled workers. The work force deficit is about quantity and about quality. It is both an immediate problem and a long-term problem. It is a threat to business competitiveness and Arizona's competitive advantage, and it challenges both industry and government to find solutions. Currently the State of…

  6. Addressing governance challenges in the provision of animal health services: A review of the literature and empirical application transaction cost theory.

    PubMed

    Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina; Nielsen, Thea

    2015-11-01

    Providing adequate animal health services to smallholder farmers in developing countries has remained a challenge, in spite of various reform efforts during the past decades. The focuses of the past reforms were on market failures to decide what the public sector, the private sector, and the "third sector" (the community-based sector) should do with regard to providing animal health services. However, such frameworks have paid limited attention to the governance challenges inherent in the provision of animal health services. This paper presents a framework for analyzing institutional arrangements for providing animal health services that focus not only on market failures, but also on governance challenges, such as elite capture, and absenteeism of staff. As an analytical basis, Williamson's discriminating alignment hypothesis is applied to assess the cost-effectiveness of different institutional arrangements for animal health services in view of both market failures and governance challenges. This framework is used to generate testable hypotheses on the appropriateness of different institutional arrangements for providing animal health services, depending on context-specific circumstances. Data from Uganda and Kenya on clinical veterinary services is used to provide an empirical test of these hypotheses and to demonstrate application of Williamson's transaction cost theory to veterinary service delivery. The paper concludes that strong public sector involvement, especially in building and strengthening a synergistic relation-based referral arrangement between paraprofessionals and veterinarians is imperative in improving animal health service delivery in developing countries. PMID:26477330

  7. Prioritizing "psychological" consequences for disaster preparedness and response: a framework for addressing the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive effects of patient surge in large-scale disasters.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Lisa S; Eisenman, David P; Tanielian, Terri; Taylor, Stephanie L; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Zazzali, James; Diamond, Dickson; Cienfuegos, Barbara; Shields, Sandra

    2011-03-01

    While information for the medical aspects of disaster surge is increasingly available, there is little guidance for health care facilities on how to manage the psychological aspects of large-scale disasters that might involve a surge of psychological casualties. In addition, no models are available to guide the development of training curricula to address these needs. This article describes 2 conceptual frameworks to guide hospitals and clinics in managing such consequences. One framework was developed to understand the antecedents of psychological effects or "psychological triggers" (restricted movement, limited resources, limited information, trauma exposure, and perceived personal or family risk) that cause the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive reactions following large-scale disasters. Another framework, adapted from the Donabedian quality of care model, was developed to guide appropriate disaster response by health care facilities in addressing the consequences of reactions to psychological triggers. This framework specifies structural components (internal organizational structure and chain of command, resources and infrastructure, and knowledge and skills) that should be in place before an event to minimize consequences. The framework also specifies process components (coordination with external organizations, risk assessment and monitoring, psychological support, and communication and information sharing) to support evidence-informed interventions.

  8. Prioritizing "psychological" consequences for disaster preparedness and response: a framework for addressing the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive effects of patient surge in large-scale disasters.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Lisa S; Eisenman, David P; Tanielian, Terri; Taylor, Stephanie L; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Zazzali, James; Diamond, Dickson; Cienfuegos, Barbara; Shields, Sandra

    2011-03-01

    While information for the medical aspects of disaster surge is increasingly available, there is little guidance for health care facilities on how to manage the psychological aspects of large-scale disasters that might involve a surge of psychological casualties. In addition, no models are available to guide the development of training curricula to address these needs. This article describes 2 conceptual frameworks to guide hospitals and clinics in managing such consequences. One framework was developed to understand the antecedents of psychological effects or "psychological triggers" (restricted movement, limited resources, limited information, trauma exposure, and perceived personal or family risk) that cause the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive reactions following large-scale disasters. Another framework, adapted from the Donabedian quality of care model, was developed to guide appropriate disaster response by health care facilities in addressing the consequences of reactions to psychological triggers. This framework specifies structural components (internal organizational structure and chain of command, resources and infrastructure, and knowledge and skills) that should be in place before an event to minimize consequences. The framework also specifies process components (coordination with external organizations, risk assessment and monitoring, psychological support, and communication and information sharing) to support evidence-informed interventions. PMID:21402830

  9. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  10. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  11. A systematic review and evaluation of response redirection as a treatment for challenging behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lydon, Sinéad; Healy, Olive; O'Reilly, Mark; McCoy, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Response redirection is widely used in clinical practice as a treatment for repetitive behavior or stereotypy in persons with developmental disabilities. However, to date the procedure has received comparatively little empirical evaluation. The current review sought to examine the literature describing the efficacy of response redirection alone, response interruption and redirection (RIRD), and multi-element treatment packages incorporating response redirection, as interventions for challenging behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Additionally, the status of response redirection, and RIRD, as evidence-based practice was evaluated in accordance with Reichow's (2011) recently developed criteria. Results indicated that interventions involving response redirection or RIRD typically led to large decreases in challenging behavior but did not result in behavioral suppression. On the basis of the current literature and in accordance with Reichow's criteria, interventions incorporating response redirection do not yet constitute evidence-based practice. The implications of these findings, for both research and practice, are discussed.

  12. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  13. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  14. Progression of Challenging Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders as Measured by the Autism Spectrum Disorders-Problem Behaviors for Children (ASD-PBC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age on challenging behaviors among 167 children, ages 3-14 years, with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, or Asperger's syndrome. Results of a MANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences between young children, children, and young adolescents on any of the…

  15. Addressing the “Global Health Tax” and “Wild Cards”: Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Among many possible benefits, global health efforts can expand the skills and experience of U.S. clinicians, improve health for communities in need, and generate innovations in care delivery with relevance everywhere. Yet, despite high rates of interest among students and medical trainees to include global health opportunities in their training, there is still no clear understanding of how this interest will translate into viable and sustained global health careers after graduation. Building on a growing conversation about how to support careers in academic global health, this Perspective describes the practical challenges faced by physicians pursuing these careers after they complete training. Writing from their perspective as junior faculty at one U.S. academic health center with a dedicated focus on global health training, the authors describe a number of practical issues they have found to be critical both for their own career development and for the advice they provide their mentees. With a particular emphasis on the financial, personal, professional, and logistical challenges that young “expat” global health physicians in academic institutions face, they underscore the importance of finding ways to support these career paths, and propose possible solutions. Such investments would not only respond to the rational and moral imperatives of global health work and advance the mission of improving human health but also help to fully leverage the potential of what is already an unprecedented movement within academic medicine. PMID:26244256

  16. Back to the basics: Identifying and addressing underlying challenges in achieving high quality and relevant health statistics for indigenous populations in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Smylie, Janet; Firestone, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Canada is known internationally for excellence in both the quality and public policy relevance of its health and social statistics. There is a double standard however with respect to the relevance and quality of statistics for Indigenous populations in Canada. Indigenous specific health and social statistics gathering is informed by unique ethical, rights-based, policy and practice imperatives regarding the need for Indigenous participation and leadership in Indigenous data processes throughout the spectrum of indicator development, data collection, management, analysis and use. We demonstrate how current Indigenous data quality challenges including misclassification errors and non-response bias systematically contribute to a significant underestimate of inequities in health determinants, health status, and health care access between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. The major quality challenge underlying these errors and biases is the lack of Indigenous specific identifiers that are consistent and relevant in major health and social data sources. The recent removal of an Indigenous identity question from the Canadian census has resulted in further deterioration of an already suboptimal system. A revision of core health data sources to include relevant, consistent, and inclusive Indigenous self-identification is urgently required. These changes need to be carried out in partnership with Indigenous peoples and their representative and governing organizations. PMID:26793283

  17. Responses to Students Exhibiting Challenging Behavior: A Social-Cognitive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and academic interventions for individuals with developmental disabilities have been based primarily on behavior theory and principles of applied behavior analysis, with a recent emphasis on positive behavioral supports and the use of nonaversive interventions. Despite the wide acceptance of applied behavior analysis technology within…

  18. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  19. Myocardial and peripheral vascular responses to behavioral challenges and their stability in black and white Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, P G; Llabre, M M; Hurwitz, B E; Frame, C A; Reineke, L J; Fins, A I; McCalla, J; Cieply, L K; Schneiderman, N

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the short term stability of myocardial and peripheral vascular responses to behavioral challenges, and to compare the response patterns of Black and White men. Blood pressure and heart rate, as well as stroke volume, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and systolic time interval measures derived from the impedance cardiogram were obtained in 12 Black and 12 White men. These measures were taken prior to and during an evaluative speech stressor, a mirror star tracing task, and a forehead cold pressor test presented during two laboratory sessions scheduled two weeks apart. In general, total peripheral resistance and impedance-derived baseline measures showed acceptable reproducibility (G greater than .85). With a few exceptions, adequate reliability was also demonstrated for change (delta) scores. All tasks raised blood pressure responses above resting levels. Blacks demonstrated significantly greater increases in total peripheral resistance responses across tasks. Whites but not Blacks also revealed increases above baseline in cardiac output and contractility as estimated by the Heather Index. These findings are consistent with the view that Blacks show greater vascular responsiveness than Whites across a variety of tasks, but reveal less myocardial responsiveness. PMID:1410171

  20. Prenatal immune challenge affects growth, behavior, and brain dopamine in offspring.

    PubMed

    Bakos, Jan; Duncko, Roman; Makatsori, Aikaterini; Pirnik, Zdeno; Kiss, Alexander; Jezova, Daniela

    2004-06-01

    It is known that the development and plasticity of the neuroendocrine system can be affected by many factors, and that adverse events during the prenatal period can result in long-lasting changes in adulthood. This study was aimed at evaluating the possible consequences for offspring from chronic inflammation during pregnancy. Chronic inflammation was simulated by treatment with increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to dams on days 15 through 19 of pregnancy. Attempts were made to prevent possible negative alterations by keeping animals in an enriched environment (EE). Maternal exposure to LPS resulted in a significant reduction of body weight of male offspring during the weaning period. This difference remained until the age of 63 days in controls (C), but not in animals reared in EE. The content of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens was found to be lower in prenatally stressed (PS) adult males. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to maternal immune challenge was associated with lower locomotor activity in elevated plus maze and increased number of skips in the beam-walking test, as observed in female offspring. No differences in ACTH and corticosterone concentrations with regard to prenatal treatment were found; however, both groups kept in EE showed increased levels of corticosterone as well as enlarged adrenal glands. Thus, immune activation during pregnancy may induce long-term changes in brain catecholamines and behavior, but it is not harmful to basal hormone secretion in the offspring. PMID:15240379