Science.gov

Sample records for addressing childhood obesity

  1. Addressing Childhood Obesity: Opportunities for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Brown, Callie L; Halvorson, Elizabeth E; Cohen, Gail M; Lazorick, Suzanne; Skelton, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    The overweight and obesity epidemic among children and adolescents in the United States continues to worsen, with notable racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities. Risk factors for pediatric obesity include genetics; environmental and neighborhood factors; increased intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast-food, and processed snacks; decreased physical activity; shorter sleep duration; and increased personal, prenatal, or family stress. Pediatricians can help prevent obesity by measuring body mass index at least yearly and providing age- and development-appropriate anticipatory guidance to families. Public policies and environmental interventions aim to make it easier for children to make healthy nutrition and physical activity choices. Interventions focused on family habits and parenting strategies have also been successful at preventing or treating childhood obesity. PMID:26318950

  2. Addressing childhood obesity through increased physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hills, Andrew P; Okely, Anthony D; Baur, Louise A

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children globally. Despite an appreciation that physical activity is essential for the normal growth and development of children and prevents obesity and obesity-related health problems, too few children are physically active. A concurrent problem is that today's young people spend more time than previous generations did in sedentary pursuits, including watching television and engaging in screen-based games. Active behavior has been displaced by these inactive recreational choices, which has contributed to reductions in activity-related energy expenditure. Implementation of multifactorial solutions considered to offer the best chance of combating these trends is urgently required to redress the energy imbalance that characterizes obesity. The counterproductive 'shame and blame' mentality that apportions responsibility for the childhood obesity problem to sufferers, their parents, teachers or health-care providers needs to be changed. Instead, these groups should offer constant support and encouragement to promote appropriate physical activity in children. Failure to provide activity opportunities will increase the likelihood that the children of today will live less healthy (and possibly shorter) lives than their parents. PMID:20736922

  3. Parental Perceptions of the Schools' Role in Addressing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Maureen; Polivka, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    As childhood obesity has increased, schools have struggled with their role in this epidemic. Parents with a school-age child in a suburban latchkey program were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity, body mass index, and the school's role in prevention and treatment of obesity. More than 80% of participants identified…

  4. Forging a future of better cardiovascular health: addressing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Charlotte A; Arteaga, Sonia; Loria, Catherine

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes ongoing National, Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-initiated childhood obesity research. It calls on clinicians, researchers, and cardiologists to work with other healthcare providers, community agencies, schools and caregivers to foster better cardiovascular health in children by intervening on multiple levels of influence on childhood obesity. PMID:24076288

  5. State Legislation to Address Childhood Obesity. Program Results Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiester, Leila

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 12.5 million American children and teens are obese. Over time, the diseases and disabilities associated with obesity may undermine this population's health and result in substantial social and economic costs. Policies that address children's nutrition and physical activity are an important tool in reversing the obesity epidemic. More…

  6. Addressing childhood obesity at school entry: Qualitative experiences of school health professionals.

    PubMed

    Turner, Gillian L; Owen, Stephanie; Watson, Paula M

    2016-09-01

    School entry provides an opportune moment for health professionals to intervene with children who are overweight, yet identification and management of childhood obesity presents challenges in practice. This multi-method qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 school health professionals in addressing childhood obesity at school entry. Methods included semi-structured interviews with service managers (n = 3); focus groups with school nurses (n = 12) and child health practitioners (n = 6); and open-ended questionnaires with school nurses (n = 4) and child health practitioners (n = 1) who were unable to attend the focus groups. A thematic analysis revealed agreement between service managers, school nurses and child health practitioners. Whilst it was felt school health professionals have an important role to play in managing childhood obesity, efforts to address child weight were limited by a lack of capacity, lack of clear protocols, challenges of engaging parents and insufficient training in childhood obesity and related lifestyle issues. School health policymakers need to recognize childhood obesity as a serious public health issue, allocate appropriate resources to nurse training and development and ensure clear pathways are established to ensure consistency of care. PMID:26105059

  7. In search of the silver bullet: regulatory models to address childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Joan R

    2010-01-01

    The concern over obesity today has evolved beyond an issue of personal vanity to a serious national health issue affecting millions of Americans. Obesity in children is especially alarming. Overweight children and adolescents are at risk for health problems throughout their lives. While under-nutrition or diet insufficiencies were once major obstacles in the development of healthy infants and children, the epidemic of childhood obesity marks the start of the 21st century with equally menacing health consequences. Childhood obesity creates an increased burden of disease on our economy with increased indirect economic costs of time lost from work for parents and time lost from school for the child. Data raise the possibility that the current generation of children could suffer greater illness or experience a shorter lifespan than that of their parents. Some experts believe that government mandated restrictions on dietary choices would alleviate the obesity problem, while others find such actions to be an unwarranted government intrusion. Still, as concerns about obesity continue to grow, especially regarding children, some say government intervention of some type is necessary to solve the problem. This paper examines the history and factors involved in the childhood obesity epidemic, explores regulatory options for its resolution, and provides an overview of obesity as a serious challenge to public health, and the health of children in particular. The federal agencies who share the responsibility for regulating food in the United States and their efforts to address the obesity problem are discussed as a background to various state and federal regulatory models influencing dietary choices. The effectiveness of proposed regulations and alternatives to government intervention suggest that the resolution of the childhood obesity issue requires a coordinated, multilevel approach. PMID:24475539

  8. Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  9. Community Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity, the Feasibility of Programs Addressing Childhood Obesity, and Persisting Gaps.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts. PMID:26433725

  10. A Call to Action: Addressing the Childhood Obesity Epidemic through Comprehensive School Counseling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belser, Christopher T.; Morris, Jessica A.; Hasselbeck, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for school-based interventions targeting the childhood obesity epidemic has been well documented. The risk factors associated with childhood obesity are physical, mental, psychosocial, academic, and economic. With training in developing comprehensive programs and interventions, professional school counselors are positioned to assist…

  11. Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410

  12. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410

  13. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective. PMID:23255079

  14. The Role of Parents in Public Views of Strategies to Address Childhood Obesity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    WOLFSON, JULIA A; GOLLUST, SARAH E; NIEDERDEPPE, JEFF; BARRY, COLLEEN L

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points The American public—both men and women and those with and without children in the household—holds parents highly responsible and largely to blame for childhood obesity. High attributions of responsibility to parents for reducing childhood obesity did not universally undermine support for broader policy action. School-based obesity prevention policies were strongly supported, even among those viewing parents as mostly to blame for childhood obesity. Americans who viewed sectors outside the family (such as the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government) as helping address childhood obesity were more willing to support a wider range of population-based obesity prevention policies. Context The public's views of parents’ behaviors and choices—and the attitudes held by parents themselves—are likely to influence the success of efforts to reverse obesity rates. Methods We analyzed data from 2 US national public opinion surveys fielded in 2011 and 2012 to examine attributions of blame and responsibility to parents for obesity, both among the general public and parents themselves, and we also explored the relationship between views of parents and support for obesity prevention policies. Findings We found that attribution of blame and responsibility to parents was consistently high, regardless of parental status or gender. Support for policies to curb childhood obesity also did not differ notably by parental status or gender. Multivariable analyses revealed consistent patterns in the association between public attitudes toward parents’ responsibility and support for policies to curb childhood obesity. High parental responsibility was linked to higher support for school-targeted policies but generally was not associated with policies outside the school setting. Attribution of greater responsibility to entities external to children and their parents (schools, the food and beverage industry, and the government) was associated with greater

  15. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Han, Joan C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kimm, Sue Y S

    2010-05-15

    Worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly during the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders such as type 2 diabetes is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding of the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from these advances, elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us few lessons about prevention or reversal of obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need reassessment and improved quantification at a population level because of sedentary lifestyles of children nowadays. For individual treatment, currently recommended calorie prescriptions might be too conservative in view of evolving insight into the so-called energy gap. Although quality of research into both prevention and treatment has improved, high-quality multicentre trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake should continue. Recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating; increased efforts should be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244

  16. School-Based Health Centers and Childhood Obesity: "An Ideal Location to Address a Complex Issue"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010

    2010-01-01

    One of today's most pressing public health problems is the rise in childhood overweight and obesity. School-based health centers (SBHCs)--the convergence of public health, primary care, and mental health in schools--represent an important element in the public health toolbox for combating the challenging epidemic. When working side-by-side in a…

  17. Addressing Prediabetes in Childhood Obesity Treatment Programs: Support from Research and Current Practice

    PubMed Central

    Grow, H. Mollie; Fernandez, Cristina; Lukasiewicz, Gloria J.; Rhodes, Erinn T.; Shaffer, Laura A.; Sweeney, Brooke; Woolford, Susan J.; Estrada, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes have increased in prevalence among overweight and obese children, with significant implications for long-term health. There is little published evidence on the best approaches to care of prediabetes among overweight youth or the current practices used across pediatric weight management programs. Methods: This article reviews the literature and summarizes current practices for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of prediabetes at childhood obesity treatment centers. Findings regarding current practice were based on responses to an online survey from 28 pediatric weight management programs at 25 children's hospitals in 2012. Based on the literature reviewed, and empiric data, consensus support statements on prediabetes care and T2DM prevention were developed among representatives of these 25 children's hospitals' obesity clinics. Results: The evidence reviewed demonstrates that current T2DM and prediabetes diagnostic parameters are derived from adult-based studies with little understanding of clinical outcomes among youth. Very limited evidence exists on preventing progression of prediabetes. Some evidence suggests that a significant proportion of obese youth with prediabetes will revert to normoglycemia without pharmacological management. Evidence supports lifestyle modification for children with prediabetes, but further study of specific lifestyle changes and pharmacological treatments is needed. Conclusion: Evidence to guide management of prediabetes in children is limited. Current practice patterns of pediatric weight management programs show areas of variability in practice, reflecting the limited evidence base. More research is needed to guide clinical care for overweight youth with prediabetes. PMID:25055134

  18. Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD): The Cross-Site Overview and Opportunities for Interventions Addressing Obesity Community-Wide

    PubMed Central

    Belay, Brook; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Williams, Nancy; Blanck, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: This is the first of a set of articles in this issue on the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project and provides an overview of the multisite approach and community-wide interventions. Innovative multisetting, multilevel approaches that integrate primary healthcare and public health interventions to improve outcomes for children with obesity need to be evaluated. The CORD project aims to improve BMI and obesity-related behaviors among underserved 2- to 12-year-old children by utilizing these approaches. Methods: The CORD consortium, structure, model terminology and key components, and common measures were solidified in year 1 of the CORD project. Demonstration sites applied the CORD model across communities in years 2 and 3. Evaluation plans for year 4 include site-specific analyses as well as cross-site impact, process, and sustainability evaluations. Results: The CORD approach resulted in commonalities and differences in participant, intervention, comparison, and outcome elements across sites. Products are to include analytic results as well as cost assessment, lessons learned, tools, and materials. Discussion: Foreseen opportunities and challenges arise from the similarities and unique aspects across sites. Communities adapted interventions to fit their local context and build on strengths, but, in turn, this flexibility makes cross-site evaluation challenging. Conclusion: The CORD project represents an evidence-based approach that integrates primary care and public health strategies and evaluates multisetting multilevel interventions, thus adding to the limited research in this field. CORD products will be disseminated to a variety of stakeholders to aid the understanding, prevention, and management of childhood obesity. PMID:25679059

  19. Programming towards childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Tounian, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence that a constitutional susceptibility to fat gain is necessary for children to become obese under the pressure of an obesogenic environment; this is the programming towards obesity. The role of genetics in this programming is dominant. Besides the rare monogenic recessive forms of obesity secondary to mutations in genes involved in the hypothalamic appetite control pathways, obesity linked to mutations in melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors are more frequent due to their dominant mode of transmission. Predisposition to common obesity is polygenic and involves a network of genes; nevertheless, more research is required to elucidate their exact role. Fetal and perhaps early postnatal programming is also possible. Under- and overnutrition, diabetes, and maternal smoking during pregnancy were shown to promote later obesity and may affect the central body weight regulatory system during fetal development. The role of early postnatal factors such as formula-feeding rather than breastfeeding, excess in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids or protein intakes, and excessive weight gain early in life is more questionable and needs further investigation. Taking into consideration that childhood obesity is a programmed disease should modify its clinical management. Childhood obesity should no longer be considered as the result of inappropriate eating habits and/or excessive inactivity in order to relieve the obese children's discrimination and their parents' guilt. Since treatment of obese children requires a substantial motivation to continuously fight against the programmed excessive drive to eat, it seems wiser to wait for children to be old enough, thus more motivated, to initiate energy restriction. Moreover, with the great majority of children being not predisposed to obesity, prevention strategies should not be addressed to the whole pediatric population but targeted to those children at risk. Improvement of knowledge on programming towards

  20. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    2016-08-31

    Essential facts Nearly one third of children aged 2-15 in England are overweight or obese. Younger generations are becoming obese at earlier ages and staying so for longer. Reducing obesity levels is a major public health challenge as the condition doubles the risk of dying prematurely. Obese adults are more likely to develop health conditions such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and depression. Treating conditions related to obesity is a major financial burden on the NHS, costing more than £5 billion a year. PMID:27577286

  1. Childhood sexual abuse and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, T B; Sarwer, D B

    2004-08-01

    The causes of the current obesity epidemic are multifactorial and include genetic, environmental, and individual factors. One potential risk factor may be the experience of childhood sexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse is remarkably common and is thought to affect up to one-third of women and one-eighth of men. A history of childhood sexual abuse is associated with numerous psychological sequelae including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, somatization, and eating disorders. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult obesity. These studies suggest at least a modest relationship between the two. Potential explanations for the relationship have focused on the role of disordered eating, particularly binge eating, as well as the possible "adaptive function" of obesity in childhood sexual abuse survivors. Nevertheless, additional research on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and obesity is clearly needed, not only to address the outstanding empirical issues but also to guide clinical care. PMID:15245381

  2. Parental Perceptions of the Rural School's Role in Addressing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Ann M.; Kaylor, Marybeth; Steinke, Jessica D.; Barker, Rosanta M.

    2011-01-01

    This study employed cross-sectional, descriptive design with convenience sampling to explore rural parent perceptions of child obesity, use of Body Mass Index (BMI) in schools, preferences for receipt of BMI information and, the rural school's role in obesity prevention/treatment. The survey "Parental Perceptions of BMI and Obesity in the…

  3. Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study

    PubMed Central

    Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188

  4. School, Community, and Family Working Together to Address Childhood Obesity: Perceptions from the KOALA Lifestyle Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smibert, Asa; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Hogan, Anna; Leong, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological data on childhood obesity has prompted a significant response from both governments and academics seeking to recommend solutions to the reported "crisis". The "Kinder Overweight Active Living Action" (KOALA) healthy lifestyle programme is a randomized obesity prevention and intervention study designed to provide an understanding of…

  5. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  6. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... To help counter the current epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States, five NIH institutes joined together in 2005 to start and promote an obesity-prevention program " We Can! "—"Ways to Enhance Children's ...

  7. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources & Publications Reports Prevention Strategies & Guidelines Fact Sheets Social Media Tools ... now affects 1 in 6 children and adolescents in the United States. Childhood Obesity Facts How ...

  8. Managing childhood obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...

  9. Community-based approaches to address childhood undernutrition and obesity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Community-based approaches have been the mainstay of interventions to address the problem of child malnutrition in developing societies. Many programs have been in operation in several countries for decades and originated largely as social welfare, food security and poverty eradication programs. Increasingly conceptual frameworks to guide this activity have been developed as our understanding of the complex nature of the determinants of undernutrition improves. Alongside this evolution, is the accumulation of evidence on the types of interventions in the community that are effective, practical and sustainable. The changing environment is probably determining the altering scenario of child nutrition in developing societies, with rapid developmental transition and urbanization being responsible for the emerging problems of obesity and other metabolic disorders that are largely the result of the now well-recognized linkages between child undernutrition and early onset adult chronic diseases. This dramatic change is contributing to the double burden of malnutrition in developing countries. Community interventions hence need to be integrated and joined up to reduce both aspects of malnutrition in societies. The evidence that community-based nutrition interventions can have a positive impact on pregnancy outcomes and child undernutrition needs to be evaluated to enable programs to prioritize and incorporate the interventions that work in the community. Programs that are operational and successful also need to be evaluated and disseminated in order to enable countries to generate their own programs tailored to tackling the changing nutritional problems of the children in their society. PMID:19346779

  10. Childhood Obesity for Pediatric Gastroenterologists

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jeannie S.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology. PMID:23282941

  11. Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

  12. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  13. Childhood environment and obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  14. Reversing the trend of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Stroup, Donna F; Johnson, Valerie; Hahn, Robert S; Proctor, Dwayne C

    2009-07-01

    In March 2008, a group of experts in anthropology, law, epidemiology, ethics, and social networking met to share their diverse perspectives on preventing childhood obesity. In meeting their charge to identify innovative ways to lower the prevalence of childhood obesity, they asked several questions: What has succeeded and what has not? What are the barriers to success? Whose job is it to address these barriers? We provide a brief background on childhood obesity and highlight some of the ideas generated at the Symposium on Epidemiologic, Ethical, and Anthropologic Issues in Childhood Overweight and Obesity, which took place in March 2008 at Saint George's University, Saint George, PMID:19527599

  15. Hawai'i's Opportunity for Active Living Advancement (HO'ĀLA): addressing childhood obesity through safe routes to school.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Katie M; Dierenfield, Laura; Alexander, Daniel A; Prose, Marcia; Peterson, Ann C

    2011-07-01

    Increasing active transportation to and from school may reduce childhood obesity rates in Hawai'i. A community partnership was formed to address this issue in Hawai'i's Opportunity for Active Living Advancement (HO'ĀLA), a quasi-experimental study of active transportation in Hawai'i County. The purpose of this study was to determine baseline rates for active transportation rates to and from school and to track changes related to macro-level (statewide) policy, locally-based Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs and bicycle and pedestrian planning initiatives expected to improve the safety, comfort and ease of walking and bicycling to and from school. Measures included parent surveys, student travel tallies, traffic counts and safety observations. Assessments of the walking and biking environment around each school were made using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan. Complete Streets and SRTS policy implementation was tracked through the activities of a state transportation-led Task Force and an advocacy-led coalition, respectively. Planning initiatives were tracked through citizen-based advisory committees. Thirteen volunteer schools participated as the intervention (n=8) or comparison (n=5) schools. The majority of students were Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander in schools located in under-resourced communities. Overall, few children walked or biked to school. The majority of children were driven to and from school by their parents. With the influence of HO'ĀLA staff members, two intervention schools were obligated SRTS project funding from the state, schools were identified as key areas in the pedestrian master plan, and one intervention school was slated for a bike plan priority project. As the SRTS programs are implemented in the next phase of the project, post-test data will be collected to ascertain if changes in active transportation rates occur. PMID:21886289

  16. Reducing Childhood Obesity: We Can!

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity We Can! Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table ... Promotes Healthier Children We Can! is a national childhood obesity prevention program sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, ...

  17. Family Counseling and Childhood Obesity: A Review of Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissette, Patrick J.; Taylor, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to be one of the most refractory and resistant problems encountered by children. This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature and addresses the presumed influence of family members in relation to childhood obesity. Directions for future family counseling research into childhood obesity are also…

  18. Childhood Obesity: A School-Based Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Charlotte

    This model of an eight-week childhood obesity program for intermediate elementary through junior high school students addresses the social, psychological, and physical penalties often incurred by obese children. The materials detail the program format in terms of: (1) a daily food log; (2) a discussion of proper nutrition; (3) a contract for…

  19. The Role of School Counselors in the Childhood Obesity Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrier, Yvonne I.; Bakerson, Michelle A.; Linton, Jeremy M.; Walker, Lynne R.; Woolford, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant public health concern. Since 1960, the prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States increased dramatically from 5% to 16.9%. To date many interventions to address obesity in schools have focused on healthy changes to the content of vending machines, school lunches, and the addition of after school…

  20. Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demo...

  1. Psychiatric comorbidity of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D

    2012-06-01

    The onset of psychiatric symptoms and disorders is relatively common in childhood, occurring among youths across the weight spectrum. However, available research suggests that certain psychiatric comorbidities are more prevalent in obese children and adolescents than in healthy weight youths. First, we review research on disordered eating, including evidence to suggest that loss of control eating is associated with weight gain and obesity in youths, as well as poor outcome in family-based treatment of paediatric obesity. Second, we highlight evidence on the relationship between depression and obesity, especially in girls. Third, we present data on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly the symptoms of impulsivity and inattention, and childhood obesity. We also consider that some medical conditions and psychotropic medications contribute to weight gain and obesity in children and adolescents. Throughout the review, we emphasize that psychiatric comorbidity may be a cause or consequence of childhood obesity, or they may share common aetiological factors. PMID:22724645

  2. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  3. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  4. Markets and childhood obesity policy.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In particular, energy-dense foods, such as those containing fats and sugars, became relatively cheaper than less energy-dense foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Second, rising wages increased the "opportunity costs" of food preparation for college graduates, encouraging them to spend less time preparing meals. Third, technological changes created incentives to use prepackaged food rather than to prepare foods. Several economic rationales justify government intervention in markets to address these problems. First, because free markets generally under-provide information, the government may intervene to provide consumers with nutrition information they need. Second, because society bears the soaring costs of obesity, the government may intervene to lower the costs to taxpayers. Third, because children are not what economists call "rational consumers"--they cannot evaluate information critically and weigh the future consequences of their actions-the government may step in to help them make better choices. The government can easily disseminate information to consumers directly, but formulating policies to address the other two rationales is more difficult. In the absence of ideal policies to combat obesity, the government must turn to "second-best" policies. For example, it could protect children from advertisements for "junk food." It could implement taxes and subsidies that discourage the consumption of unhealthful foods or encourage physical activity. It could require schools to remove vending machines for soda and candy. From the economic perspective, policymakers should evaluate these options on the basis of cost

  5. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  6. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  7. [Childhood obesity prevention from a community view].

    PubMed

    Ariza, Carles; Ortega-Rodríguez, Eduard; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Valmayor, Sara; Juárez, Olga; Pasarín, M Isabel

    2015-04-01

    The percentage of failure and relapse in the treatment of obesity is high. Where possible, the preferred strategy for preventing obesity is to modify eating habits and lifestyles. This article aims to provide a framework for evidence on the most effective interventions for addressing childhood obesity, both from a prevention point of view, as well as reducing it, when it is already established. After a review of the scientific literature, the issues that must be considered both in the universal and selective prevention of childhood obesity are presented. Also, in light of the controversy over the tools for measuring and controlling the problem, some clarification is provided on the criteria. Finally, the approach to the prevention of overweight and obesity with a community perspective is separated, with two short protocols being offered with diagrams of the basic procedure to follow. PMID:25835135

  8. An Innovative Approach to Addressing Childhood Obesity: A Knowledge-Based Infrastructure for Supporting Multi-Stakeholder Partnership Decision-Making in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Addy, Nii Antiaye; Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Buckeridge, David L.; Dubé, Laurette

    2015-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) have become a widespread means for deploying policies in a whole of society strategy to address the complex problem of childhood obesity. However, decision-making in MSPs is fraught with challenges, as decision-makers are faced with complexity, and have to reconcile disparate conceptualizations of knowledge across multiple sectors with diverse sets of indicators and data. These challenges can be addressed by supporting MSPs with innovative tools for obtaining, organizing and using data to inform decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of a knowledge-based infrastructure to support MSP decision-making processes. The paper emerged from a study to define specifications for a knowledge-based infrastructure to provide decision support for community-level MSPs in the Canadian province of Quebec. As part of the study, a process assessment was conducted to understand the needs of communities as they collect, organize, and analyze data to make decisions about their priorities. The result of this process is a “portrait”, which is an epidemiological profile of health and nutrition in their community. Portraits inform strategic planning and development of interventions, and are used to assess the impact of interventions. Our key findings indicate ambiguities and disagreement among MSP decision-makers regarding causal relationships between actions and outcomes, and the relevant data needed for making decisions. MSP decision-makers expressed a desire for easy-to-use tools that facilitate the collection, organization, synthesis, and analysis of data, to enable decision-making in a timely manner. Findings inform conceptual modeling and ontological analysis to capture the domain knowledge and specify relationships between actions and outcomes. This modeling and analysis provide the foundation for an ontology, encoded using OWL 2 Web Ontology Language. The ontology is developed to provide

  9. An innovative approach to addressing childhood obesity: a knowledge-based infrastructure for supporting multi-stakeholder partnership decision-making in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Addy, Nii Antiaye; Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Buckeridge, David L; Dubé, Laurette

    2015-02-01

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) have become a widespread means for deploying policies in a whole of society strategy to address the complex problem of childhood obesity. However, decision-making in MSPs is fraught with challenges, as decision-makers are faced with complexity, and have to reconcile disparate conceptualizations of knowledge across multiple sectors with diverse sets of indicators and data. These challenges can be addressed by supporting MSPs with innovative tools for obtaining, organizing and using data to inform decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of a knowledge-based infrastructure to support MSP decision-making processes. The paper emerged from a study to define specifications for a knowledge-based infrastructure to provide decision support for community-level MSPs in the Canadian province of Quebec. As part of the study, a process assessment was conducted to understand the needs of communities as they collect, organize, and analyze data to make decisions about their priorities. The result of this process is a "portrait", which is an epidemiological profile of health and nutrition in their community. Portraits inform strategic planning and development of interventions, and are used to assess the impact of interventions. Our key findings indicate ambiguities and disagreement among MSP decision-makers regarding causal relationships between actions and outcomes, and the relevant data needed for making decisions. MSP decision-makers expressed a desire for easy-to-use tools that facilitate the collection, organization, synthesis, and analysis of data, to enable decision-making in a timely manner. Findings inform conceptual modeling and ontological analysis to capture the domain knowledge and specify relationships between actions and outcomes. This modeling and analysis provide the foundation for an ontology, encoded using OWL 2 Web Ontology Language. The ontology is developed to provide semantic

  10. Markets and Childhood Obesity Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In…

  11. Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2007-01-01

    According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

  12. Childhood Obesity and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…

  13. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity and the importance of early life. Recommendations promoting optimal cardiovascular health in all children and youth are discussed. PMID:20190900

  14. Cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-02-01

    Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity is an important and increasingly prevalent public health problem in Canada and worldwide. High adiposity in youth is indicated in clinical practice by plotting body mass index on appropriate percentile charts normed for age and sex, although waist measures might be a further tool. High adiposity can lead to adiposopathy in youth, with associated increases in inflammation and oxidative stress, changes in adipokines, and endocrinopathy. This is manifest as cardiometabolic risk factors in similar patterns to those in noted in obese adults. Obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with vascular changes indicative of early atherosclerosis, and ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. These cardiovascular consequences are evident in youth, but childhood obesity is also predictive of similar consequences in adulthood. Childhood obesity and risk factors have been shown to track into adulthood and worsen in most individuals. The result is an exponential acceleration of atherosclerosis, which can be predicted to translate into an epidemic of premature cardiovascular disease and events. A change in paradigm is needed toward preventing and curing atherosclerosis and not just preventing cardiovascular disease. This would necessarily create an imperative for preventing and treating childhood obesity. Urgent attention, policy, and action are needed to avoid the enormous future social and health care costs associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obesity in youth. PMID:25661547

  15. Psychological correlates of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Puder, J J; Munsch, S

    2010-12-01

    To enhance the prevention and intervention efforts of childhood obesity, there is a strong need for the early detection of psychological factors contributing to its development and maintenance. Rather than a stable condition, childhood obesity represents a dynamic process, in which behavior, cognition and emotional regulation interact mutually with each other. Family structure and context, that is, parental and familial attitudes, activity, nutritional patterns as well as familial stress, have an important role with respect to the onset and maintenance of overweight and obesity. Behavioral and emotional problems are found in many, though not all, obese children, with a higher prevalence in clinical, treatment-seeking samples. The interrelatedness between obesity and psychological problems seems to be twofold, in that clinically meaningful psychological distress might foster weight gain and obesity may lead to psychosocial problems. The most frequently implicated psychosocial factors are externalizing (impulsivity and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and internalizing (depression and anxiety) behavioral problems and uncontrolled eating behavior. These findings strengthen the need to further explore the interrelatedness between psychological problems and childhood obesity. PMID:21151145

  16. Managing obesity--from childhood and onwards.

    PubMed

    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle; Rössner, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    It is unclear whether the obesity epidemic has come to a halt. Perhaps the incidence is declining, at least in pre-school children. However, the obesity rate is higher than ever before. Prevention is a priority, especially in children, but has not been very successful to date. Treatment has basically offered the same tools for decades. The recent development of obesity pharmacotherapy has regressed with--in most countries--only one drug of modest effect available. Bariatric surgery has therefore been considered one of the few solutions in the adult setting and is gaining increasing attention as a treatment option, even in pediatric extreme obesity. In some countries, government action for prevention has been taken, but too often resources have not been set aside. This review addresses new and old strategies to manage obesity--from childhood and onwards. PMID:21905821

  17. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  18. CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMCALS

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent rates of obesity and overweight are continuing to increase in much of the world. Risk factors such as diet composition, excess caloric intake, decreased exercise, genetics, and the built environment are active areas of etiologic research. The obesogen hypothesis, which postulates that pre- and peri- natal chemical exposure can contribute to risk of childhood and adolescent obesity, remains relatively under-examined. This review surveys numerous classes of chemicals for which this hypothesis has been explored. We focus on human data where they exist and also discuss the findings of rodent and cell culture studies. Organochlorine chemicals as well as several classes of chemicals that are PPAR agonists are identified as possible risk factors for obesity. Recommendations for future epidemiologic and experimental research on the chemical origins of obesity are also given. PMID:21259261

  19. Childhood Obesity Demands New Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satter, Ellyn

    1991-01-01

    Health professionals suggest creating achievable goals in childhood obesity. The article recommends correcting factors that distort normal growth and providing positive eating and exercise management to slow weight gain. Rather than trying for weight loss, children must learn positive lifelong eating and exercise patterns and attitudes toward self…

  20. [Management of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Dubern, Béatrice

    2010-09-01

    Endocrine diseases (hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency, hypercortisolism) are exceptional in obese children and are searched only in case of short stature. It is not necessary to test systematically glucose tolerance (fasting glucose; oral glucose tolerance test) and lipids in order to look for obesity related comorbidities. Decreased caloric intake is the main goal for the treatment. Ways to succeed need to be adapted to each child with pragmatism and without dogmatism. Goals for treatment are reasonable (stabilization of weight excess). Weight loss surgery in obese children may be discussed in some cases with multidisciplinary expert team (doctors, surgeons, psychologist...) and close collaboration between adults teams and paediatricians. PMID:20615656

  1. Childhood obesity: Determinants, evaluation, and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Raychaudhuri, Moutusi; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child's food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child's lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on ‘junk’ food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity. PMID:23565376

  2. Childhood obesity: Determinants, evaluation, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Moutusi; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2012-12-01

    Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child's food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child's lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on 'junk' food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity. PMID:23565376

  3. Games and childhood obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

  4. Childhood obesity and the media.

    PubMed

    Hingle, Melanie; Kunkel, Dale

    2012-06-01

    This article assesses the role played by media in contributing to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. Electronic media use, often referred to as screen time, is significantly correlated with child adiposity. Although the causal mechanism that accounts for this relationship is unclear, it is well established that reducing screen time improves weight status. Media advertising for unhealthy foods contributes to obesity by influencing children's food preferences, requests, and diet. Industry efforts have failed to improve the nutritional quality of foods marketed on television to children, leading public health advocates to recommend government restrictions on child-targeted advertisements for unhealthy foods. PMID:22643173

  5. Impact of social marketing in the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2012-07-01

    Obesity, mainly childhood obesity, is a worldwide concern. Childhood obesity continues to adulthood, and it is associated with multiple noncommunicable diseases. One important aspect in the fight against obesity is prevention, the earlier, the better. Social marketing is a novel concept being increasingly used as an approach to address social problems and more and more included in the community-based interventions aiming to change unhealthy behaviors. Although there is limited evidence of its effectiveness, it seems that when conscientiously applied, social marketing principles may be useful to change behaviors and thus better health outcomes. PMID:22798001

  6. Childhood obesity: what can be done to help today's youth?

    PubMed

    Henry, Linda L

    2005-01-01

    Childhood obesity is at epidemic proportions in the United States today. This epidemic has created a public health crisis. Although several initiatives are under way to address childhood obesity, including legislative bills before Congress and a call by the National Academy of Sciences for society to band together to stop the rise in the rates of childhood obesity, none of these efforts address what can be done today to help those youth that are considered morbidly obese and who have failed to find solutions with the standard medical treatment plan. This article discusses the use of bariatric surgery as a possible solution, presents a case study to illustrate the impact bariatric surgery can have on youth who are morbidly obese, and defines the pediatric nurse's role in helping to assure that youth are included in the current legislative process. PMID:15794315

  7. [Childhood obesity and general medicine].

    PubMed

    Cailliez, Eric; Fanello, Serge; Gérard, Solène; Pietri, Maéva

    2012-01-01

    The results of a 2009-2010 survey of general practitioners in Maine-et-Loire show that their practices have improved over the last few years with regard to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. However, the recommendations of the French national health authority and the French national nutrition and health programme are not sufficiently applied and doctors face numerous difficulties, including a lack of parental involvement. PMID:22880332

  8. Childhood obesity in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Steven; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-07-01

    New Zealand has an unacceptably high rate of childhood obesity at 11 percent of children. The cause is due to an over consumption of food particularly in the form of junk food. To reverse this serious problem an all-of-society approach with leadership from the government is going to be required. The consequence of ignoring the problem will threaten the future viability of the health service. PMID:26149897

  9. Age-related consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zaepfel, Alysia; Bjornstad, Petter; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2014-01-01

    The severity and frequency of childhood obesity has increased significantly over the past three to four decades. The health effects of increased body mass index as a child may significantly impact obese youth as they age. However, many of the long-term outcomes of childhood obesity have yet to be studied. This article examines the currently available longitudinal data evaluating the effects of childhood obesity on adult outcomes. Consequences of obesity include an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and its associated retinal and renal complications, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, asthma, orthopedic complications, psychiatric disease, and increased rates of cancer, among others. These disorders can start as early as childhood, and such early onset increases the likelihood of early morbidity and mortality. Being obese as a child also increases the likelihood of being obese as an adult, and obesity in adulthood also leads to obesity-related complications. This review outlines the evidence for childhood obesity as a predictor of adult obesity and obesity-related disorders, thereby emphasizing the importance of early intervention to prevent the onset of obesity in childhood. PMID:24434909

  10. Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence: A Decade in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: (1) current definitions of childhood and…

  11. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

  12. Childhood obesity: a Wilsonian concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carolyn; Lobo, Marie L

    2011-10-01

    The rate of childhood obesity in the United States has tripled since 1980, with approximately 17% of U.S. children between the ages of 2 and 19 years currently identified as obese. Although a multitude of programs have been implemented to prevent and treat childhood obesity, no single strategy has been identified as the most effective method. Part of the problem in identifying successful interventions is clarifying what is meant by the term obesity as it applies to children. This article provides a concept analysis of the term obesity in relation to children using a Wilsonian approach. PMID:21930033

  13. The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers are only gradually becoming aware of the gravity of the risk that overweight and obesity pose for children's health. In this article Stephen Daniels documents the heavy toll that the obesity epidemic is taking on the health of the nation's children. He discusses both the immediate risks associated with childhood obesity and the…

  14. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  15. Obesity in childhood and adolescence, genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Memedi, Rexhep; Tasic, Velibor; Nikolic, Erieta; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Gucev, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. The etiology is complex, but most often idiopathic. Hormonal, syndromic and medication-induced obesity are well investigated. Genetic causes are increasingly described. Novel technologies such as whole exome sequencing identify ever more candidate genes influencing or causing obesity. All insights into the complex problem of obesity in a team approach to treatment: diet, psychology, medications and surgery. We briefly review epidemiology, etiology, consequences and treatment approaches in childhood and adolescent obesity, with special emphasis on emerging knowledge of its genetics. PMID:24296635

  16. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on BMI, obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth-graders. Unlike previous studies, we address the endogeneity of the school food environment by controlling for children's BMI at school entry and estimating instrumental variables regressions that leverage variation in the school's grade span. Our main finding is that junk food availability does not significantly increase BMI or obesity among this fifth grade cohort despite the increased likelihood of in-school junk food purchases. The results are robust to alternate measures of junk food availability including school administrator reports of sales during school hours, school administrator reports of competitive food outlets, and children's reports of junk food availability. Moreover, the absence of any effects on overall food consumption and physical activity further support the null findings for BMI and obesity. PMID:23729952

  17. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  18. Elementary School Principals' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This survey assessed school principals' perceptions regarding childhood obesity and the schools' role in dealing with the problem. Results of a survey of 277 elementary school principals are presented. (Author/MT)

  19. Food Away from Home and Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Mancino, Lisa; Todd, Jessica E; Guthrie, Joanne; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a number of serious health risks that can persist into adulthood. While trends in food away from home and fast-food consumption have paralleled trends in childhood obesity, it is important to identify whether this is a causal relationship. This paper reviews recent literature in this area to summarize if there is a consensus in research findings. We group the literature into two areas - consumption of and access to food away from home (FAFH). While no consensus findings have been reached in either area, the evidence of an association between FAFH consumption and childhood obesity has gained strength. Further, there is evidence that FAFH meals add calories to children's diets. The literature on the role of FAFH access and childhood obesity has continued producing mixed results. PMID:26626922

  20. Combating Childhood Obesity: School Leadership Makes a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisceglie, Rob

    2008-01-01

    An important first step in addressing any public health crisis is raising public awareness. However, getting everyone on board to help solve the underlying causes of that crisis is a daunting task. The childhood obesity epidemic poses such a challenge, particularly in terms of how to best engage and assist principals and other school leaders in…

  1. Interactive media for childhood obesity prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is a worldwide pandemic that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and multiple cancers, and reduces quality of life and functional ability. Fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable (FJV) intake, and physical activity (PA) are behaviors related to childhood obesit...

  2. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth graders. Unlike previous studies, we address…

  3. "Let's Move!" to End Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obama, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates in America have tripled in the last three decades. Almost one in three children are considered overweight or obese. Pediatricians are now treating children for adult diseases like type II diabetes and hypertension. All parents want the best for their children. They want children to succeed in school, fulfill their dreams,…

  4. Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Patricia M.; Butcher, Kristin F.

    2006-01-01

    The increase in childhood obesity over the past several decades, together with the associated health problems and costs, is raising grave concern among health care professionals, policy experts, children's advocates, and parents. Patricia Anderson and Kristin Butcher document trends in children's obesity and examine the possible underlying causes…

  5. Is Childhood Obesity Related to TV Addiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, David

    1988-01-01

    Excessive television viewing is associated with obesity in children because it decreases time spent on physical activity, and promotes overeating of snacks and high calorie foods. Childhood obesity demands physicians' concern because of the physical and psychological damage which follows its victims into adulthood. (IAH)

  6. Learning from state surveillance of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Longjohn, Matt; Sheon, Amy R; Card-Higginson, Paula; Nader, Philip R; Mason, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Data on childhood obesity collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention helped reveal the nation's epidemic of overweight and obese children. But more information is needed. Collecting body mass index (BMI)-the widely accepted measurement of childhood weight status-at the state and local levels can be instrumental in identifying and tracking obesity trends, designing interventions to help overweight children, and guiding broader policy solutions. Approximately thirty states have enacted or proposed BMI surveillance laws and regulations. Arkansas stands out as the state with the highest-quality surveillance data. Innovative strategies being pursued in a number of other states should be explored for broader dissemination. PMID:20194988

  7. Contributions of built environment to childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Tamanna; Cushing, Rachel A; Jackson, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    As childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, it is critical to devise interventions that target the root causes of obesity and its risk factors. The two main components of childhood obesity are physical inactivity and improper nutrition, and it is becoming increasingly evident that the built environment can determine the level of exposure to these risk factors. Through a multidisciplinary literature review, we investigated the association between various built environment attributes and childhood obesity. We found that neighborhood features such as walkability/bikeability, mixed land use, accessible destinations, and transit increase resident physical activity; also that access to high-caloric foods and convenience stores increases risk of overweight and obesity, whereas the presence of neighborhood supermarkets and farmers' markets is associated with lower childhood body mass index and overweight status. It is evident that a child's built environment impacts his access to nutritious foods and physical activity. In order for children, as well as adults, to prevent onset of overweight or obesity, they need safe places to be active and local markets that offer affordable, healthy food options. Interventions that are designed to provide safe, walkable neighborhoods with access to necessary destinations will be effective in combating the epidemic of obesity. PMID:21259262

  8. Adiponectin gene polymorphisms: Association with childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Vanêssa Gomes; Gomes, Karina Braga

    2014-01-01

    The current childhood obesity epidemic represents a particular challenge for public health. Understanding of the etiological mechanisms of obesity remains integral in treating this complex disorder. In recent years, studies have elucidated the influence of hormones secreted by adipose tissue named adipokines. Adiponectin is a adipokine that exhibits important anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic properties and it is strongly associated to obesity development. It is well known that adiponectin levels decrease with obesity. Furthermore, studies show that some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding adiponectin, ADIPOQ, may influence the expression of this protein. The objective of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in the context of childhood obesity.

  9. Childhood obesity: prevention is better than cure

    PubMed Central

    Pandita, Aakash; Sharma, Deepak; Pandita, Dharti; Pawar, Smita; Tariq, Mir; Kaul, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities have emerged as a major health problem garnering interests from both public health agencies and mainstream media consumers. With increasing awareness on its impact on health, finances, and community at large, it has come to the forefront for scientific research and development of health plans. The need for better strategies and novel interventions to manage obesity is now being recognized by the entire health care system. Obesity and overweight is now the fifth leading global risk factor for mortality. Strategic investment is thus urgently needed to implement population-based childhood obesity prevention programmes which are effective and also culturally appropriate. Population-based prevention is crucial to stem this rising tide of childhood obesity which is fast reaching epidemic proportions. Obesity has its onset very early in life; therefore, children constitute a major group of this disease. It is thus imperative to lay utmost importance on prevention of obesity in children and herald its progress, if present already. Furthermore, treatment is still in preliminary stage, so early prevention holds better than treatment at later stages. This article is an attempt to lay emphasis on childhood obesity as a problem that needs to be recognized early and measures for its prevention. PMID:27042133

  10. Etiology, Treatment and Prevention of Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence: A Decade in Review

    PubMed Central

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: 1) current definitions of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity; 2) demography of childhood and adolescent obesity both in the US and globally; 3) current topics in the physiology of fat and obesity; 4) psychosocial correlates of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity; 5) the three major obesity-related behaviors, i.e. dietary intake, physical activity and sleep; 6) genes components of childhood and adolescent obesity; 7) environment and childhood and adolescent obesity; and 8) progress in interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity. The article concludes with recommendations for future research, including the need for large-scale, high dose and long-term interventions that take into account the complex nature of the problem. PMID:21625328

  11. Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Updated:Aug 17, ... you boost your odds in the battle against childhood obesity. Studies have shown that children whose families eat ...

  12. Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caregivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caretakers Updated:Aug 27, ... gradually. Healthier Kids • Healthier Kids Home • Our Programs • Childhood Obesity Introduction Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is ...

  13. Cesarean Birth Linked to Risk of Obesity in Childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... only show an association between cesarean delivery and childhood obesity, not cause and effect. Chavarro, however, believes the ... suggest that the association between cesarean delivery and childhood obesity is real, rather than an issue of inadequate ...

  14. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  15. Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Danese, A; Tan, M

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a prevalent global-health problem associated with substantial morbidity, impairment and economic burden. Because most readily available forms of treatment are ineffective in the long term, it is essential to advance knowledge of obesity prevention by identifying potentially modifiable risk factors. Findings from experimental studies in non-human primates suggest that adverse childhood experiences may influence obesity risk. However, observations from human studies showed heterogeneous results. To address these inconsistencies, we performed Medline, PsycInfo and Embase searches till 1 August 2012 for articles examining the association between childhood maltreatment and obesity. We then conducted a meta-analysis of the identified studies and explored the effects of various possible sources of bias. A meta-analysis of 41 studies (190 285 participants) revealed that childhood maltreatment was associated with elevated risk of developing obesity over the life-course (odds ratio=1.36; 95% confidence interval=1.26-1.47). Results were not explained by publication bias or undue influence of individual studies. Overall, results were not significantly affected by the measures or definitions used for maltreatment or obesity, nor by confounding by childhood or adult socioeconomic status, current smoking, alcohol intake or physical activity. However, the association was not statistically significant in studies of children and adolescents, focusing on emotional neglect, or adjusting for current depression. Furthermore, the association was stronger in samples including more women and whites, but was not influenced by study quality. Child maltreatment is a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity. Future research should clarify the mechanisms through which child maltreatment affects obesity risk and explore methods to remediate this effect. PMID:23689533

  16. 77 FR 55093 - National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8852 of August 31, 2012 National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2012 By... Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, we rededicate ourselves to meeting that critical responsibility. For more... additional information on how we can solve the problem of childhood obesity within a generation, visit...

  17. 76 FR 55205 - National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... September 6, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8702--National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2011... August 31, 2011 National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Since the 1970s, the rate of childhood obesity in our country has tripled,...

  18. 78 FR 54739 - National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9007 of August 30, 2013 National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2013 By... diabetes, cancer, asthma, heart disease, and high blood pressure. While childhood obesity remains a serious... National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, let us build on this momentum and strengthen the trend...

  19. 75 FR 7197 - Establishing a Task Force on Childhood Obesity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... on Childhood Obesity Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Across our country, childhood obesity has reached epidemic rates and, as a result, our children may live shorter... solve the problem of childhood obesity within a generation through a comprehensive approach that...

  20. [WHAT IS THE RISK FOR CHILDHOOD OBESITY?].

    PubMed

    Nicolino, Marc; Villanueva, Cahine

    2015-12-01

    The complications of obesity may be observed during childhood. They include multiple and varied anomalies that are found in all major organ systems. These abnormalities occur in the more or less long term. In this context, the question of the impact of early development of obesity on overall health status and mortality is asked. The most frequent comorbidities are described and the different clinical and para-clinical indicators that allow to detect them. PMID:26979020

  1. Childhood obesity: a systems medicine approach.

    PubMed

    Stone, William L; Schetzina, Karen; Stuart, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity and its sequelae are a major public health problem in both the USA and globally. This review will focus on a systems medicine approach to obesity. Systems medicine is an integrative approach utilizing the vast amount of data garnered from "omics" technology and integrating these data with conventional pathophysiology as well as diverse environmental factors such as diet, exercise, community dynamics and the intestinal microbiome. Omics technology includes genomics, epigenomics, metagenomics, metabolomics and proteomics. In addition to unraveling etiology, the goals of a systems medicine approach are to provide actionable and evidenced-based clinical approaches. In the case of childhood obesity, an additional goal is characterizing measureable risk factors/biomarkers for obesity at the earliest possible age and devising age-appropriate optimal intervention strategies. It is also important to establish the age at which interventions could be critical. As discussed below, it is possible that some of the pathophysiological and epigenetic changes resulting from childhood obesity could become more irreversible the longer the obesity remains untreated. PMID:27100491

  2. Global metabolomic profiling targeting childhood obesity in the Hispanic population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolomics may unravel important biological pathways involved in the pathophysiology of childhood obesity. We aimed to 1) identify metabolites that differ significantly between nonobese and obese Hispanic children; 2) collapse metabolites into principal components (PCs) associated with obesity and...

  3. Postpartum Obesity: The Root Problem of Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, Valencia Browning; Potts, Claudia Sealey

    2011-01-01

    Remedying childhood obesity cannot take place without first identifying relevant issues commonly influencing gatekeepers of food for children as well as the role modeling for encouraging or discouraging daily activities. Children cannot drive to the store, form grocery lists or complete menu management tasks without adult assistance. Excessive…

  4. Obesity and Metabolic Disease After Childhood Cancer.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Dana; Raghunathan, Nirupa; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Tonorezos, Emily S

    2015-11-01

    As care for the childhood cancer patient has improved significantly, there is an increasing incidence of treatment-related late effects. Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are common and significant metabolic conditions in some populations of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Results from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and other large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors reveal that long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and those who received total body irradiation or abdominal radiotherapy are at highest risk. The potential mechanisms for the observed increase in risk, including alterations in leptin and adiponectin, pancreatic insufficiency, poor dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle, and perhaps changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, are reviewed. Discussion of exercise and diet intervention studies shows that further research about the barriers to a healthy lifestyle and other interventions in childhood cancer survivors is warranted. PMID:26568532

  5. Lifetime cardiovascular risk of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Raghuveer, Geetha

    2010-05-01

    An increase in the incidence and an earlier onset of coronary artery disease is expected because of the increased prevalence of childhood obesity. Comorbidities of obesity, such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance syndrome, hypertension, associated nutritional deficiencies, and a sedentary lifestyle or associated lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoke exposure, are likely to account for this increase because these are all independent risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis. Because clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease does not manifest in obese children, assessment of the subclinical markers of atherosclerosis may help in the evaluation of the progression of atherosclerosis, in further stratification of risk, and in monitoring the effects of intervention. Furthermore, because multiple risk factors with poorly understood interplay might be present in obese children, assessment of the vasculature directly, and perhaps the assignment of a "vascular age," may be a useful method to quantify the "end organ" effect of exposure to these various risks. Obese children may show favorable changes in their behaviors that result in an improvement in clinically measurable risk factors with various clinic-based and behavior modification therapies, but the vascular benefits of such interventions need to be studied further. Broad social, cultural, legislative, and policy changes that support healthy lifestyles within families and communities need to be implemented to decrease the prevalence of childhood obesity and its cardiovascular consequences in communities. The effect of risk factor modification on the vasculature will continue to be a resource for the direction of evidence-based therapy in obese children. PMID:20335556

  6. Parental employment, family routines and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Patricia M

    2012-12-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) data from kindergarten through eighth grade, this paper investigate the relationships among maternal employment, family routines and obesity. More hours worked by the mother tend to be negatively related to positive routines like eating meals as a family or at regular times, or having family rules about hours of television watched. Many of these same routines are significantly related to the probability of being obese, implying that family routines may be a mechanism by which maternal employment intensity affects children's obesity. However, inclusion of family routines in the obesity regression does not appreciably change the estimated effect of maternal employment hours. Thus, the commonly estimated deleterious effect of maternal employment on children's obesity cannot be explained by family routines, leaving the exact mechanisms an open question for further exploration. PMID:22622096

  7. Phthalate exposure and childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin Hye

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and vehicles for cosmetic ingredients. Phthalate metabolites have documented biochemical activity including activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and antiandrogenic effects, which may contribute to the development of obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phthalates have significant effects on the development of obesity, especially after prenatal exposure at low doses. Although few studies have examined the effects of phthalate on obesity development in humans, some work has shown that phthalates affect humans and animals similarly. In this paper, we review the possible mechanisms of phthalate-induced obesity, and discuss evidence supporting the role of phthalates in the development of obesity in humans. PMID:25077088

  8. Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD): Evaluation plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project evaluation will determine the extent to which the CORD model of linking primary care (PC) interventions to public health (PH) interventions in multiple community sectors affects BMI and behavior in children (2 to 12 years). The evaluation c...

  9. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  10. Disorders of childhood growth and development: childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Robert; Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity in the United States is estimated at 17%, or 12 million children ages 2 to 19 years. Obesity is a multifactorial condition with syndromic and nonsyndromic variants. Genetic, social, ethnic, endocrinologic, and behavioral issues are all potential etiologic factors. Preventive efforts should begin with monitoring from birth and include breastfeeding until age 6 months, avoiding juices, and promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and adequate exercise. Childhood obesity is diagnosed based on body mass index; a child is considered overweight at the 85th to 95th percentiles and obese at or above the 95th percentile. After obesity is diagnosed, testing should include blood pressure levels, fasting lipid profile, diabetes screening, and liver function tests. The physician should obtain a detailed history of the physical activity level and food intake and assess possible complications of obesity, including depression and hypertension, annually. Lifestyle interventions with family involvement are the mainstay of management, with pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery considered for adolescents only if intensive lifestyle modifications have failed and in the presence of comorbidities. Intervention by multiple disciplines (ie, medicine, nutrition, psychology) is recommended, and family physicians are encouraged to become more involved in encouraging physical activity and improved nutrition for children. PMID:23869391

  11. Childhood obesity: a framework for policy approaches and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kersh, Rogan; Stroup, Donna F; Taylor, Wendell C

    2011-09-01

    Although obesity rates among US children have increased during the past 3 decades, effective public policies have been limited, and the quest for workable solutions raises ethical questions. To address these concerns, in 2010, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation convened an expert panel to consider approaches to the ethics problems related to interventions for childhood obesity. On the basis of recommendations from the expert panel, we propose frameworks for policy approaches and ethical aspects of interventions and evaluation. We present these frameworks in the context of other papers in this collection and make recommendations for public health practice. PMID:21843423

  12. Research opportunities with curanderos to address childhood overweight in Latino families.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lauren; Bunik, Maya; Johnson, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Curanderos are consulted as an adjunct or alternative to biomedical health care in the greater southwest, although the extent of their involvement in obesity prevention and treatment is poorly understood. Seven curanderos participated in audiotaped interviews about their work with families and beliefs about childhood feeding and overweight. Themes reflected curanderos' beliefs about their practice and childhood obesity. Curanderos approach their work as a calling, emphasizing elements from nature in etiology and cure. From the curandero's standpoint, essential elements of obesity management must acknowledge the socially marginalized experiences of Latinos. We encountered working with curanderos as problematic, and this likely reflected our differing personal characteristics and a tension between our healing professions. Curanderos could serve as collaborators in childhood obesity interventions if we craft health messages and delivery modes that resonate with Latino families and address ethical and communication issues on the research team. PMID:19933354

  13. School Health Initiatives and Childhood Obesity: BMI screening and reporting.

    PubMed

    Soto, Carol; White, Jane H

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has reached an epidemic status especially in the United States. Agencies such as the Institute of Medicine, Surgeon General's Office, and the American Academy of Pediatrics have called for action. Schools have been provided with guidelines to address obesity prevention. School-based body mass index screening and parent reporting programs have received a significant amount of attention in the literature. Intended to raise awareness for parents and provide a first step toward intervention for children who are overweight, there is to date limited outcomes of their success. However, one state, Arkansas, with mandated screening has reported success in that following screening in its schools, obesity rates were not increased. A significant concern with screening in schools is its potential harm to children around teasing, body image sensitivity, and possible unhealthy dieting. These controversial issues are explored, and recommendations are suggested for nursing's role in obesity prevention especially in schools. PMID:20679328

  14. Analyzing Screening Policies for Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Wein, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the health and economic costs of childhood obesity, coupled with studies suggesting the benefits of comprehensive (dietary, physical activity and behavioral counseling) intervention, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended childhood screening and intervention for obesity beginning at age six. Using a longitudinal data set consisting of the body mass index of 3164 children up to age 18 and another longitudinal data set containing the body mass index at ages 18 and 40 and the presence or absence of disease (hypertension and diabetes) at age 40 for 747 people, we formulate and numerically solve – separately for boys and girls – a dynamic programming problem for the optimal biennial (i.e., at ages 2, 4, …, 16) obesity screening thresholds. Unlike most screening problem formulations, we take a societal viewpoint, where the state of the system at each age is the population-wide probability density function of the body mass index. Compared to the biennial version of the task force’s recommendation, the screening thresholds derived from the dynamic program achieve a relative reduction in disease prevalence of 3% at the same screening (and treatment) cost, or – due to the flatness of the disease vs. screening tradeoff curve – achieves the same disease prevalence at a 28% relative reduction in cost. Compared to the task force’s policy, which uses the 95th percentile of body mass index (from cross-sectional growth charts tabulated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) as the screening threshold for each age, the dynamic programming policy treats mostly 16 year olds (including many who are not obese) and very few males under 14 years old. While our results suggest that adult hypertension and diabetes are minimized by focusing childhood obesity screening and treatment on older adolescents, the shortcomings in the available data and the narrowness of the medical outcomes considered prevent us from making a

  15. Childhood obesity: Current and novel approaches.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Matthew A; Kiess, Wieland

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over the last fifty years by approximately 5% per decade, and approximately a quarter of all children are now either overweight or obese. These children have a significantly increased risk of many future health problems including adult obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Despite this relentless increase, common-sense approaches aimed at prevention and treatment have failed to solve the problem. Current approaches at prevention have faced major challenges with some progress in implementing smaller scale programs and social marketing, but little action on broad public policy approaches which often appears unpalatable to society or individual governments. Meanwhile, treatment approaches have mainly focused on lifestyle change, and novel approaches are urgently needed. Prevention needs to shift to improving maternal health prior to conception, with more research focussed on the impact of early years in programming offspring to future overweight/obesity. Likewise, treatment paradigms need to move from simply thinking that obesity can be solved by readdressing diet and activity levels. Novel approaches are needed which take into consideration the complex physiology which regulates early childhood growth and the development of obesity in susceptible individuals. PMID:26051294

  16. Treating Obesity in Preschoolers: A Review and Recommendations for Addressing Critical Gaps.

    PubMed

    Towner, Elizabeth K; Clifford, Lisa M; McCullough, Mary Beth; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Stark, Lori J

    2016-06-01

    Developing interventions targeting obesity reduction in preschoolers is an emergent area. Although intensive, multicomponent interventions seem a promising approach to preschool obesity reduction, this review identifies and discusses approaches to 3 critical gaps (poor reach to families from low-income and minority backgrounds, lack of sufficient evidence to determine the most effective and efficient treatment components and approaches to treating obesity in early childhood, and lack of consensus on how best to discern intervention effectiveness) that need to be addressed to advance the preschool obesity literature. PMID:27261546

  17. Systems Science and Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review and New Directions

    PubMed Central

    Foster, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    As a public health problem, childhood obesity operates at multiple levels, ranging from individual health behaviors to school and community characteristics to public policies. Examining obesity, particularly childhood obesity, from any single perspective is likely to fail, and systems science methods offer a possible solution. We systematically reviewed studies that examined the causes and/or consequences of obesity from a systems science perspective. The 21 included studies addressed four general areas of systems science in obesity: (1) translating interventions to a large scale, (2) the effect of obesity on other health or economic outcomes, (3) the effect of geography on obesity, and (4) the effect of social networks on obesity. In general, little research addresses obesity from a true, integrated systems science perspective, and the available research infrequently focuses on children. This shortcoming limits the ability of that research to inform public policy. However, we believe that the largely incremental approaches used in current systems science lay a foundation for future work and present a model demonstrating the system of childhood obesity. Systems science perspective and related methods are particularly promising in understanding the link between childhood obesity and adult outcomes. Systems models emphasize the evolution of agents and their interactions; such evolution is particularly salient in the context of a developing child. PMID:23710344

  18. Systems science and childhood obesity: a systematic review and new directions.

    PubMed

    Cockrell Skinner, Asheley; Foster, E Michael

    2013-01-01

    As a public health problem, childhood obesity operates at multiple levels, ranging from individual health behaviors to school and community characteristics to public policies. Examining obesity, particularly childhood obesity, from any single perspective is likely to fail, and systems science methods offer a possible solution. We systematically reviewed studies that examined the causes and/or consequences of obesity from a systems science perspective. The 21 included studies addressed four general areas of systems science in obesity: (1) translating interventions to a large scale, (2) the effect of obesity on other health or economic outcomes, (3) the effect of geography on obesity, and (4) the effect of social networks on obesity. In general, little research addresses obesity from a true, integrated systems science perspective, and the available research infrequently focuses on children. This shortcoming limits the ability of that research to inform public policy. However, we believe that the largely incremental approaches used in current systems science lay a foundation for future work and present a model demonstrating the system of childhood obesity. Systems science perspective and related methods are particularly promising in understanding the link between childhood obesity and adult outcomes. Systems models emphasize the evolution of agents and their interactions; such evolution is particularly salient in the context of a developing child. PMID:23710344

  19. The Role of Urbanization in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pirgon, Özgür; Aslan, Nagehan

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is becoming the most frequently diagnosed chronic disease in many countries affecting all age groups and specifically the pediatric population. To date, most approaches have focused on changing the behavior of individuals with respect to diet and exercise. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may be achieved by changes in lifestyle through a variety of interventions targeting the urban environment, physical activity, time spent watching television and playing computer games and consumption of carbonated drinks. However, as yet, these strategies seem to have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. In this article, we aimed to discuss the effect of rapid urbanization on childhood obesity and to suggest solutions to this problem. PMID:26831548

  20. The Role of Urbanization in Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Pirgon, Özgür; Aslan, Nagehan

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is becoming the most frequently diagnosed chronic disease in many countries affecting all age groups and specifically the pediatric population. To date, most approaches have focused on changing the behavior of individuals with respect to diet and exercise. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may be achieved by changes in lifestyle through a variety of interventions targeting the urban environment, physical activity, time spent watching television and playing computer games and consumption of carbonated drinks. However, as yet, these strategies seem to have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. In this article, we aimed to discuss the effect of rapid urbanization on childhood obesity and to suggest solutions to this problem. PMID:26831548

  1. Treating Obesity As a Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  2. Obesity in Infants to Preschoolers

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  3. Health visitors tackle childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Vassie, Athena

    One of Public Health England's priorities is to tackle obesity, particularly in children. Health visitors are ideally placed to identify and support families of children at risk from obesity, but research shows they lack the training and confidence to do so. This article describes a short-term local scheme that offered support by a specially trained health visitor to families in their own homes. The health visitor was trained using a family partnership model that teaches how to work with parents and carers to help them implement their own solutions. PMID:26548260

  4. Impact of infant feeding practices on childhood obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is a complex disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The current surge in childhood obesity in the United States is attributable to an interaction between a genetic predisposition toward obesity and a permissive environment. Several recent sy...

  5. Prevention: The First Line of Defense against Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milano, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become an alarming problem in this country. Risk factors associated with childhood obesity include having obese parents, a history of low or high birth weight, Black or Hispanic ethnicity, and low socioeconomic background. Although most healthy American infants and toddlers have adequate diets, many parents and health…

  6. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2012-06-01

    Abstract This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30-40%) than the European (20-30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10-20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity-SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639

  7. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota?

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Marina; Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota. PMID:25546278

  8. Childhood obesity: a role for gut microbiota?

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marina; Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota. PMID:25546278

  9. [Focus of childhood obesity from pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-López, Erika F; Macías-Rosales, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    The prevalences of overweight and obesity have increased dramatically in the last two decades in the adult and children population. The Organization for Cooperation and Economic Development reported in 2010 that Mexico ranks first worldwide in childhood obesity. The 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey reported that one of every three teenagers are overweight and obese. In the last decades, pediatric hospitals in different parts of the world reported the prevalence of secondary malnutrition, since in those days overweight and obesity did not represent health problems. Currently, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been scarcely studied in pediatric hospitals. In the Hospital de Pediatría (Children's Hospital) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social's Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente it is reported a prevalence of overweight of 15.4 % and obesity of 12.2 %, which reflects a nutritional transition.Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in this pediatric hospital of reference, one could conclude that the pediatrician should be able to make a correct evaluation of the nutritional state, because, if he does not detect these problems, we will be condemning children to suffer from a chronic disease for the rest of their lives, and with all the implications in the short, medium and long term. PMID:24866318

  10. Sleep patterns and obesity in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Julie C.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To highlight the recent findings on sleep–obesity associations in children. We focus on sleep duration, sleep timing and chronotype, and describe the potential mechanisms underlying sleep–obesity associations. Recent findings Poor sleep is increasingly common in children and associations between short sleep duration in early childhood and obesity are consistently found. Less is known about the infancy period, and the findings in adolescents are inconsistent. Sleep timing patterns may also contribute to obesity risk. Variable and shifted sleep schedules and evening chronotypes have recently been linked to adiposity in adults; less is known about children. Further, there is little understanding regarding the mechanisms of association. The timing of eating, dietary intake, obesogenic eating behaviors, and changes in appetite-regulating hormones have been identified as possible mechanisms for sleep–obesity associations and may be promising avenues for future research. Longitudinal and experimental work with children is needed to determine the nature of associations. Summary Beyond sleep duration, sleep timing patterns may contribute to obesity risk. Biological and behavioral processes have been proposed as mechanisms that may explain the association. Understanding the pathways through which poor sleep patterns could increase obesity risk in children may provide novel avenues for intervention. PMID:25517022

  11. Childhood Obesity: A Heavy Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.; Leggett, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The youth of today are faced with a big problem; they are becoming more obese every day. The time of children playing outside all day and being extremely active has been overtaken by the television and video games. The days of sitting down as a family and eating a good healthy meal has been replaced by the rush to the nearest fast food…

  12. Childhood Obesity: Problems and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Staveren, Tonia; Dale, Darren

    2004-01-01

    Schools and homes both play a role in contributing to the rising numbers of obese children. School teachers and administrators must do all they can to create a school environment that is conducive to children maintaining a healthy weight. Legislation designed to add quality physical education time to the school curriculum is imperative. Changes to…

  13. Implementing 12345 Fit-Tastic: A Tool for Combating Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Wade, Kerri; Summar, Shelly; Dewit, Emily

    2016-03-01

    Childhood obesity is epidemic in the United States. School nurses are in a unique position to address weight with the students they serve. This article provides tools for school nurses to be able to conduct an obesity screening, demonstrate the basic skills of motivational interviewing in treatment of obesity in a school age child, and utilize the 12345 Fit-Tastic program in their practice. This article is the seventh and final article in a series on the topic of childhood obesity and the accompanying comorbidities. PMID:26822132

  14. Impact of Social Marketing in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity123

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, mainly childhood obesity, is a worldwide concern. Childhood obesity continues to adulthood, and it is associated with multiple noncommunicable diseases. One important aspect in the fight against obesity is prevention, the earlier, the better. Social marketing is a novel concept being increasingly used as an approach to address social problems and more and more included in the community-based interventions aiming to change unhealthy behaviors. Although there is limited evidence of its effectiveness, it seems that when conscientiously applied, social marketing principles may be useful to change behaviors and thus better health outcomes. PMID:22798001

  15. Childhood Obesity: Immune Response and Nutritional Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is characterized by a low-grade inflammation status depending on the multicellular release of cytokines, adipokines, and reactive oxygen species. In particular, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory T regulatory cells and inflammatory T helper 17 cells seems to sustain such a phlogistic condition. Alterations of gut microbiota since childhood also contribute to the maintenance of inflammation. Therefore, besides preventive measures and caloric restrictions, dietary intake of natural products endowed with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may represent a valid interventional approach for preventing and/or attenuating the pathological consequences of obesity. In this regard, the use of prebiotics, probiotics, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and melatonin in human clinical trials will be described. PMID:25759691

  16. Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

    2010-05-01

    The increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is not unique to industrialized societies; dramatic increases are occurring in urbanized areas of developing countries. In light of the consensus that obesity is a significant public health concern and that many weight-loss interventions have been unsuccessful in the long term, an exploration of food patterns that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity. Epidemiologic studies indicate that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower prevalence of obesity in adults and children. A meta-analysis of adult vegetarian diet studies estimated a reduced weight difference of 7.6 kg for men and 3.3 kg for women, which resulted in a 2-point lower BMI (in kg/m(2)). Similarly, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarian children are leaner, and their BMI difference becomes greater during adolescence. Studies exploring the risk of overweight and food groups and dietary patterns indicate that a plant-based diet seems to be a sensible approach for the prevention of obesity in children. Plant-based diets are low in energy density and high in complex carbohydrate, fiber, and water, which may increase satiety and resting energy expenditure. Plant-based dietary patterns should be encouraged for optimal health and environmental benefits. Food policies are warranted to support social marketing messages and to reduce the cultural and economic forces that make it difficult to promote plant-based dietary patterns. PMID:20237136

  17. Evaluation of a childhood obesity awareness campaign targeting head start families: designed by parents for parents.

    PubMed

    GreenMills, Lisa L; Davison, Kirsten K; Gordon, Karen E; Li, Kaigang; Jurkowski, Janine M

    2013-01-01

    The Communities for Healthy Living program used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to empower Head Start parents in designing and pilot testing a multi-component family-centered obesity prevention program. One program component was a childhood obesity awareness campaign addressing common parental misconceptions about obesity. The campaign was designed by a community advisory board of parents to target specific issues identified within their own community. Results from pre-post intervention surveys (N=108) showed that campaign exposure was high; 92% of responding parents reported noticing the campaign. Parents also demonstrated significant increases in awareness of childhood obesity, along with decreases in obesity-related misconceptions. Findings, supported by growing literature on CBPR, suggest a CBPR approach to campaign development is an effective strategy to promote parent awareness of childhood obesity. PMID:23727962

  18. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) than the European (20–30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10–20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity–SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639

  19. News media framing of childhood obesity in the United States from 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Barry, Colleen L; Jarlenski, Marian; Grob, Rachel; Schlesinger, Mark; Gollust, Sarah E

    2011-07-01

    The American public holds mixed views about the desirability of government action to combat childhood obesity. The framing of coverage by news media may affect citizens' views about the causes of childhood obesity and the most appropriate strategies for addressing the problem. We analyzed the content of a 20% random sample of news stories on childhood obesity published in 18 national and regional news sources in the United States over a 10-year period (2000-2009). News media coverage patterns indicated that by 2003, childhood obesity was firmly on the news media's agenda and remained so until 2007, after which coverage decreased. We identified changes in news media framing over time and significant differences according to news source. News coverage of causes of childhood obesity that were linked to the food and beverage industry increased in the early years of the study but then decreased markedly in later years. Similarly, mention of solutions to the problem of childhood obesity that involved restrictions on the food and beverage industry followed a reverse U-shaped pattern over the 10-year study period. News stories consistently mentioned individual behavioral changes most often as a solution to the problem of childhood obesity. Television news was more likely than other news sources to focus on behavior change as a solution, whereas newspapers were more likely to identify system-level solutions such as changes that would affect neighborhoods, schools, and the food and beverage industry. PMID:21690111

  20. [Atherosclerosis in childhood: the role of obesity].

    PubMed

    Sarni, P; Vinci, A; Fierro, S; Del Buono, S

    1997-01-01

    A variety of studies indicates that the process of atherosclerosis begins in childhood and progresses during adulthood. Chronic obesity, inadequate caloric intake, and hypertension and smoke, are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate if the presence of some risk factors during adolescence may involve in accelerated atherosclerosis disease. 50 subjects, median age 11 +/- 0.6 SD (27 females, and 23 males) are admitted to the study. After overnight fasting we have investigated: lipoproteina A (nephelometric test), glycemia and insulin baseline and after load 120', tryglycerides, cholesterolo, apolipoproteina A, B, plasma concentrations. In addition to general medical evaluation, anthropometric measurements of weight, height, blood pressure, BMI, overnight ratio were calculated according to Tanner's charts. The means anthropometric and metabolic values in different groups were compared. One group affected with abdominal obesity state (waist-hips ratio > 0.9), the second with mid obesity condition (waist-hip ratio < 0.9). Tryglycerides, cholesterolo, insulin plasma concentrations in both groups were considered similar. However in the first group higher levels of apolipoproteina A (means 102 + 10.2 SD) and lipoproteina A were demonstrated (P = 0.03 in males, P = 0.01 Statview for Mann Whitney test). Childhood is an important period for the development of the atherosclerosis such as the presence of obesity during this time has a very high likelihood of persisting into adulthood. The severity of obesity in adults is greater in those who were obese as adolescents. In accord with other authors we have not observed abnormal tryglicerides and cholesterolo plasma concentrations, which probably are found in adulthood obesity. We believe indeed the risk factors are different in obesity of childhood, atherosclerosis may be induced by high endogenous insulin secretion and abnormal uptake of lipoprotein. However the potential

  1. [Dietetic indications for obesity treatment in childhood].

    PubMed

    Miggiano, G A D; Santoro, C

    2004-10-01

    A growing organism needs to have a steady availability of nutrients, in suitable quantities and in correct ratios, in order to achieve its genetic potential. Overweight and obesity in growing individuals may conceal lack of one or more nutrients. Obesity in childhood is the consequence of an excess of calories compared with the energetic waste because of the interlacing of genetic factors, metabolic factors (cellularity of the adipose tissue, deficit of thermogenesis), excessive food intake, alteration of some neuro-endocrine mechanisms which regulate bodily weight (set point theory), lack of suitable physical exercise; therefore a complicity of endogenous, exogenous, biological, psychological and social factors to which we cannot ascribe singularly a primary role. It is however necessary to start, since the first year of a child's life, a food education program as the latest acquisition shows that degenerative pathologies of metabolism start in a very precocious age and unbalanced nutrition starts since childhood. The most suitable therapeutic approach is that which takes in consideration all the aspects of obesity. This requires an intervention on several aspects: food, psychological mechanisms which sometimes are the cause of hypernutrition, attitude towards physical exercise, and also family and social behaviors concerning the patient. The traditional diet approach towards childhood obesity is based on balanced hypochaloric diets which provide about 1200-1800 kcal per day, distributed in 4 or 5 daily meals. The correct meal division educates the child to self-control and it is advantageous from a metabolic point of view because it avoids both high instability of glyco-insulin, caused by an excess of food, and because improving thermogenesis, induced by the diet, the result will consist in an increase of energetic waste. For the main meals it is advantageous to apply to a main course. PMID:15702660

  2. Views of City, County, and State Policy Makers About Childhood Obesity in New York State, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Rebecca; Lundell, Helen; Meyerson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction No single solution exists to reduce rates of childhood obesity in the United States, but public policy action is essential. A greater understanding of policy maker views on childhood obesity would provide insight into ways that public health advocates can overcome barriers to propose, enact, and implement obesity prevention policies. Methods We conducted 48 in-depth, qualitative interviews with town/city, county, and state policy makers in the state of New York from December 14, 2010, through June 10, 2011. We used a semistructured interview protocol to solicit policy maker views on the causes of, solutions to, and responsibility for addressing the issue of childhood obesity. Results Most policy makers considered the issue of childhood obesity to be of high importance. Respondents cited changes to family structures as a major cause of childhood obesity, followed by changes in the external environment and among children themselves. Respondents offered varied solutions for childhood obesity, with the most common type of solution being outside of the respondent’s sphere of policy influence. Policy makers cited the need for joint responsibility among parents, government, schools, and the food industry to address childhood obesity. Conclusion Beliefs of many policy makers about childhood obesity are similar to those of the general public. Findings highlight the need for future research to inform the development of communication strategies to promote policy action among those with authority to pass and implement it. PMID:24262027

  3. Thyroid axis alterations in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gertig, Anna M; Niechciał, Elżbieta; Skowrońska, Bogda

    2012-01-01

    In recent years researchers have become increasingly interested in the particular relation between the function of the thyroid gland and the body mass in the population of obese children. Numerous studies have been conducted and the literature on the related issues has been abounding. Several thereof have strived at pinpointing a significant link between the function of the thyroid axis and the body mass. Yet, it still remains to be clarified whether these subtle changes in the level of thyroid hormones and TSH observed in childhood obesity are responsible for the increased body mass or rather they represent a secondary phenomenon. The mechanism most often put forward by the researchers that links obesity to thyroid function is the increased level of leptin, which affects neurones in the hypothalamus and the thyroid axis causing TRH and TSH secretion. The body mass is positively correlated with serum leptin and elevated level of leptin is connected with an increase in TSH level. However, there is still controversy whether these inconspicuous differences observed in thyroid axis merit the treatment with thyroxine since these changes seem to constitute a consequence rather than a cause of obesity. Therefore, as most authors postulate, primary importance should be placed on lifestyle changes and body weight reduction leaving substitutive treatment as a supplementary option. The purpose of this review is to present the most current issues on child obesity and the related malfunction of the thyroid axis through an overview of international publications from the years 1996-2011. PMID:23146791

  4. Childhood Obesity – 2010: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joan C.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kimm, Sue Y.S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly over the past 3 decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from this, the elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us only limited lessons on how to prevent or reverse obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need to be re-assessed and better quantified, on a population level, given the more sedentary life of children today. For individual treatment, the currently recommended calorie prescriptions may be too conservative given the evolving insight on the “energy gap.” Whilst quality of research in both prevention and treatment has improved, there is still a need for high-quality multi-centre trials with long-term follow-up. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches that aim to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake need to continue. Most recently, the spiralling increase in obesity prevalence may be abating for children. Thus, even greater efforts need to be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244

  5. Childhood obesity-an insight into preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Dube, Rajani; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is now a global problem throughout the world. The major factors affecting weight regulation and the development of obesity in children are the result of a large number of biological, behavioral, social, environmental, and economic factors and the complex interactions between them that promote a positive energy balance. The changes in the dietary habits with the adoption of sedentary life style increases manifold obesity-related diseases and their complications. An obese child later on grows up to become an obese adult. Therefore, the role of primary prevention along with methodical diet control, behavioral changes, and physical activity are the important strategies against the battle of childhood obesity. PMID:25298951

  6. Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Must, A; Strauss, R S

    1999-03-01

    This report reviews the risks and consequences associated with childhood and adolescent obesity. Although no consensus definition of childhood obesity exists, the various measures encountered in the literature are moderately well correlated. The paper is organized in three parts. The first section reviews childhood obesity sequelae that occur during childhood. These short-term risks, for orthopedic, neurological, pulmonary, gasteroenterological, and endocrine conditions, although largely limited to severely overweight children, are becoming more common as the prevalence of severe overweight rises. The social burden of pediatric obesity, especially during middle childhood and adolescence, may have lasting effects on self-esteem, body image and economic mobility. The second section examines the intermediate consequences, such as the development of cardiovascular risk factors and persistence of obesity into adulthood. These mid-range effects of early obesity presage later adult disease and premature mortality. In the final section, the small body of research on the long-term morbidity and mortality associated with childhood obesity is reviewed. These studies suggest that risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality is elevated among those who were overweight during childhood. The high prevalence and dramatic secular trend toward increasing childhood obesity suggest that without aggressive approaches to prevention and treatment, the attendant health and social consequences will be both substantial and long-lasting. PMID:10340798

  7. Childhood Obesity Prevention and Physical Activity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this literature review is to summarise and synthesise the research base concerning childhood obesity and physical activity, particularly in relation to teachers and schools and within a policy context of the UK. The review investigates childhood obesity, physical activity, physical education, the role of teachers, the role of…

  8. Too Much Tube Time? Television Viewing and Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Tiffany M.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2007-01-01

    The rates of overweight in infancy and childhood are rapidly growing. One contributor to the rising tide of childhood obesity, and a target included in many obesity prevention and intervention programs, is television (TV) use. This article examines the amount of media to which young children are exposed, and considers the evidence for the…

  9. Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project: Cross-site evaluation method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project links public health and primary care interventions in three projects described in detail in accompanying articles in this issue of Childhood Obesity. This article describes a comprehensive evaluation plan to determine the extent to which th...

  10. [Does childhood obesity affect sexual development?].

    PubMed

    Wagner, I V; Sergeyev, E; Dittrich, K; Gesing, J; Neef, M; Adler, M; Geserick, M; Pfäffle, R W; Körner, A; Kiess, W

    2013-04-01

    The process of pubertal development is only partly understood and is influenced by many different factors. During the twentieth century there was a general trend toward earlier pubertal development. Fat mass is thought to be a major inducer of puberty. Owing to the rising epidemic of childhood obesity, the relationship between body composition in children and the rate and timing of puberty needs to be investigated. Some studies suggest that central obesity is associated with an earlier onset of pubertal development. Rapid weight gain in early life is linked to advanced puberty in both sexes. A clear correlation exists between increasing body mass index (BMI) and earlier pubertal development in girls. In boys the data are controversial: The majority of studies propose that there is an earlier puberty and voice break in obese boys, but some studies show the opposite. There are several factors and mechanisms that seem to link obesity and puberty, for example, leptin, adipocytokines, and gut peptides. Important players include genetic variation and environmental factors (e.g., endocrine-disrupting chemicals). This article presents the latest studies and evidence on this topic, underlining the inconsistencies in the data and, therefore, the need for further research in this area. PMID:23529595

  11. Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure.

    PubMed

    Ebbeling, Cara B; Pawlak, Dorota B; Ludwig, David S

    2002-08-10

    During the past two decades, the prevalence of obesity in children has risen greatly worldwide. Obesity in childhood causes a wide range of serious complications, and increases the risk of premature illness and death later in life, raising public-health concerns. Results of research have provided new insights into the physiological basis of bodyweight regulation. However, treatment for childhood obesity remains largely ineffective. In view of its rapid development in genetically stable populations, the childhood obesity epidemic can be primarily attributed to adverse environmental factors for which straightforward, if politically difficult, solutions exist. PMID:12241736

  12. Interculturalism: Addressing Diversity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponciano, Leslie; Shabazian, Ani

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators work with children and families from a range of diverse backgrounds. As society becomes increasingly multiracial, multilingual, and multicultural, so too grows the need for educators' abilities to support children's development by instilling in them the tools they need to live together respectfully and stand up to…

  13. Collaborating for impact: a multilevel early childhood obesity prevention initiative.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Tara; Hoffman, Jessica A; Ahl, Marilyn; Bhaumik, Urmi; Healey, Christine; Carter, Sonia; Dickerson, Deborah; Nethersole, Shari; Griffin, Daphne; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures, a multilevel initiative in Boston, Massachusetts, which brings major institutions' missions and resources together to address early childhood obesity prevention. Programming is designed to facilitate healthy eating and physical activity in preschool children's home, school, and community environments by engaging parents and early childhood educators in the places where they live, learn, and play. This article describes how established interventions were implemented in a novel setting to engage the parents of children attending Head Start and staff, and presents pilot data from the first 2 years of the initiative. Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures is a feasible initiative, which has shown concrete, positive results that can be replicated. PMID:22617410

  14. "Salud America!" Developing a National Latino Childhood Obesity Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J.; Green, Lawrence W.; Ottoson, Judith

    2011-01-01

    U.S. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, with one third of children overweight or obese. Latino children have some of the highest obesity rates, a concern because they are part of the youngest and fastest-growing U.S. minority group. Unfortunately, scarce research data on Latinos hinders the development and implementation of…

  15. Pharmacotherapy for childhood obesity: present and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Sherafat-Kazemzadeh, Roya; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is a serious medical condition associated with significant comorbidities during childhood and adulthood. Lifestyle modifications are essential for treating children with obesity, yet many have insufficient response to improve health with behavioral approaches alone. This review summarizes the relatively sparse data on pharmacotherapy for pediatric obesity and presents information on obesity medications in development. Most previously studied medications demonstrated, at best, modest effects on body weight and obesity-related conditions. It is to be hoped that the future will bring new drugs targeting specific obesity phenotypes that will allow clinicians to use etiology-specific, and therefore more effective, anti-obesity therapies. PMID:22929210

  16. Lifestyle changes in the management of adulthood and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Orio, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Ascione, Antonio; Marciano, Francesca; Savastano, Silvia; Colarieti, Giorgio; Orio, Marcello; Colao, Annamaria; Palomba, Stefano; Muscogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-12-01

    Adulthood and childhood obesity is rapidly becoming an epidemic problem and it has a short and long-term impact on health. Short-term consequences are mostly represented by psychological effects; in fact obese children have more chances to develop psychological or psychiatric problems than non-obese children. The main long-term effect is represented by the fact that childhood obesity continues into adulthood obesity and this results in negative effects in young adult life, since obesity increases the risk to develop morbidity and premature mortality. The obesity-related diseases are mostly represented by hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases. Medical treatment should be discouraged in childhood because of the side effects and it should be only reserved for obese children with related medical complications. Lifestyle changes should be encouraged in both adulthood and childhood obesity. This review focuses on the management of obesity both in adulthood and in childhood, paying particular attention to lifestyle changes that should be recommended. PMID:27600645

  17. NFC as a Childhood Obesity Treatment Tool.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Hellín, P; Fontecha, J; Hervás, R; Bravo, J

    2015-09-01

    Childhood Obesity is associated with a wide range of serious health complications and constitutes an increased risk of premature syndromes, including diabetes or heart diseases. Its treatment seems to be complicated. So, in order to help parents we have developed a system that will try to make easier the process of choosing foodstuff for overweight and obese children at the supermarket. To interact with the system, Near Field Communication mobile phones and tags are used. Those tags would have nutritional information such as energy or fat contain of each product. When the interaction takes place, the system will generate an alert determining if the product is adequate for the user diet or not. Decision will be influenced by specific prescript diets, which would have been previously generated by the system based on user profile parameters. At the same time the diet is established, the shopping list would be generated automatically. Therefore, the user could download and print both things at home easily by the PC application. The system also takes into account physical activity of the user. Children mobile phone includes an accelerometer that will detect and collect user activities in order to modify calorical requirements and, if necessary, to change physical activity too. In the future, it would be possible to extend this project system for adults, managing diets not just for obese and overweight, but also to diabetic or celiac people. PMID:26254253

  18. Perception of Childhood Obesity in Mothers of Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Ok; Kim, Gyo Nam; Park, Euna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology. Methods A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results. Results There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the “authoritative discipline type,” the “generous home meal focused type,” and the “home meal based on household financial situation type.” Conclusion The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity. PMID:25938022

  19. Epidemiology of childhood overweight & obesity in India: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ranjani, Harish; Mehreen, T.S.; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Garg, Renu; Anand, Krishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Childhood obesity is a known precursor to obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. However, the magnitude of the problem among children and adolescents in India is unclear due to paucity of well-conducted nationwide studies and lack of uniformity in the cut-points used to define childhood overweight and obesity. Hence an attempt was made to review the data on trends in childhood overweight and obesity reported from India during 1981 to 2013. Methods: Literature search was done in various scientific public domains from the last three decades using key words such as childhood and adolescent obesity, overweight, prevalence, trends, etc. Additional studies were also identified through cross-references and websites of official agencies. Results: Prevalence data from 52 studies conducted in 16 of the 28 States in India were included in analysis. The median value for the combined prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity showed that it was higher in north, compared to south India. The pooled data after 2010 estimated a combined prevalence of 19.3 per cent of childhood overweight and obesity which was a significant increase from the earlier prevalence of 16.3 per cent reported in 2001-2005. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that overweight and obesity rates in children and adolescents are increasing not just among the higher socio-economic groups but also in the lower income groups where underweight still remains a major concern. PMID:27121514

  20. Crowdsourcing Novel Childhood Predictors of Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Robert; Dohle, Simone; Bongard, Josh C.; Hines, Paul D. H.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0) registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI) and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children’s lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors. PMID:24505310

  1. Evaluating the perceived impact of an interprofessional childhood obesity course on competencies for collaborative practice.

    PubMed

    Iachini, Aidyn L; Dunn, Brianne L; Blake, Christine; Blake, Elizabeth W

    2016-05-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is needed to prepare health professional students to address the complexities of childhood obesity in practice. This mixed-method study sought to evaluate the perceived impact of a childhood obesity IPE intervention on health professional students' collaborative competency development within two domains: roles/responsibilities and teams/teamwork. Fourteen health professional students participated in this mixed-methods study. Quantitative data were collected through pre/post surveys, while qualitative data were collected through reflection assignments. Survey findings indicated that students reported significant increases in growth within both interprofessional competency domains. Qualitative data elaborated on the types of learning students experienced relative to each domain. Implications of this study for research and practice related to IPE to address complex health issues, such as childhood obesity, are shared. PMID:27152544

  2. Childhood obesity, bone development, and cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Norman K

    2015-07-15

    Osteoporosis and obesity are both major public health concerns. It has long been considered that these are distinct disorders rarely found in the same individual; however, emerging evidence supports an important interaction between adipose tissue and the skeleton. Whereas overweight per se may augment bone strength, animal studies suggest that the metabolic impairment that accompanies obesity is detrimental to bone. Obesity during childhood, a critical time for bone development, likely has profound and lasting effects on bone strength and fracture risk. This notion has received little attention in children and results are mixed, with studies reporting that bone strength development is enhanced or impaired by obesity. Whether obesity is a risk factor for osteoporosis or childhood bone health, in general, remains an important clinical question. Here, we will focus on clarifying the controversial relationships between childhood obesity and bone strength development, and provide insights into potential mechanisms that may regulate the effect of excess adiposity on bone. PMID:25817542

  3. Weighty Issues for Kids: Taking Aim at Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a Healthy Weight Weight-control Information Network Tools and Resources To Help Prevent Childhood Obesity (We Can!) Media-Smart Youth CONTACT US NIH Office of Communications and Public Liaison Building 31, Room ...

  4. Translating Developmental Science to Address Childhood Adversity.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S; Forkey, Heather; Szilagyi, Moira

    2015-01-01

    Demystifying child development is a defining element of pediatric care, and pediatricians have long appreciated the profound influences that families and communities have on both child development and life course trajectories. Dramatic advances in the basic sciences of development are beginning to reveal the biologic mechanisms underlying well-established associations between a spectrum of childhood adversities and less than optimal outcomes in health, education and economic productivity. Pediatricians are well positioned to translate this new knowledge into both practice and policy, but doing so will require unprecedented levels of collaboration with educators, social service providers, and policy makers. Pediatricians might recognize the negative impact of family-level adversities on child development, but developing an effective response will likely require the engagement of community partners. By developing collaborative, innovative ways to promote the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that are biologic prerequisites for health, academic success, and economic productivity, family-centered pediatric medical homes will remain relevant in an era that increasingly values wellness and population health. PMID:26183002

  5. Addressing childhood trauma in a developmental context

    PubMed Central

    Gregorowski, Claire; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    With the anticipated publication of the DSM-5 in May 2013, much reflection and work has been done on reviewing existing psychiatric nomenclature including, but not limited to the field of traumatic exposure. Traditionally, understanding of the psychiatric and psychological effects of trauma have been developed from studies with adults and then applied to trauma-exposed children with some modifications. While this is an important step to understanding the sequelae of trauma in children and adolescents, the adverse developmental effects of traumatic exposures on the rapidly evolving neurological, physical, social and psychological capacities of children calls for a developmentally sensitive framework for understanding, assessing and treating trauma-exposed children. The importance of early attachment relationships in infancy and childhood means that severely disrupted early caregiving relationships may have far-reaching and lifelong developmental consequences and can therefore be considered traumatic. Given the high rates of violence and trauma exposure of South African children and adolescents, the need for a developmentally based understanding of the effects of trauma on child and adolescent mental health becomes even more pronounced. In this paper, we draw on theoretical perspectives to provide a practical, clinically driven approach to the management of developmental trauma. PMID:25104963

  6. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  7. "Couch-potatoeism" and childhood obesity: The inverse causality hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Fröberg, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The bulk of cross-sectional studies suggests that lower levels of physical activity are associated with childhood obesity. Although this has led to the general understanding that "couch-potatoes" are fat on account of their inactive lifestyles, cross-sectional studies do not imply causality. On the contrary, the contribution of physical activity to obesity during childhood is currently unclear, and lately, studies have suggested that "couch-potatoeism" could be the result of obesity rather than its cause. Coupled with evidence suggesting that interventions have had little effect on children's physical activity levels as well as on obesity, this inverse causality challenges the role of physical activity in childhood obesity prevention strategies. PMID:25625694

  8. Current & future medical costs of childhood obesity in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Guettabi, Mouhcine

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the medical costs of childhood obesity in Alaska, today and in the future. We estimate that 15.2 percent of those ages 2 to 19 in Alaska are obese. Using parameters from published reports and studies, we estimate that the total excess medical costs due to obesity for both adults and children in Alaska in 2012 were $226 million, with medical costs of obese children and adolescents accounting for about $7 million of that total. And those medical costs will get much higher over time, as today's children transition into adulthood. Aside from the 15.2 percent currently obese, another estimated 20 percent of children who aren't currently obese will become obese as adults, if current national patterns continue. We estimate that the 20-year medical costs--discounted to present value--of obesity among the current cohort of Alaska children and adolescents will be $624 million in today's dollars. But those future costs could be decreased if Alaskans found ways to reduce obesity. We consider how reducing obesity in several ways could reduce future medical costs: reducing current rates of childhood obesity, rates of obese children who become obese adults, or rates of non-obese children and adolescents who become obese adults. We undertake modest reductions to showcase the potential cost savings associated with each of these channels. Clearly the financial savings are a direct function of the obesity reductions and therefore the magnitude of the realized savings will vary accordingly. Also keep in mind that these figures are only for the current cohort of children and adolescents; over time more generations of Alaskans will grow from children into adults, repeating the same cycle unless rates of obesity decline. And finally, remember that medical costs are only part of the broader range of social and economic costs obesity creates. PMID:26043494

  9. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development

    PubMed Central

    Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B

    2012-01-01

    Summary Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multistakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. ‘Ensemble Prévenons l'ObésitéDes Enfants’ (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input – drawing on the evidence-base – together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. PMID:22106871

  10. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.

    1990-01-01

    Elementary school physical education teachers were almost unanimous in their beliefs that normal weight is very important to the health of children, and accurately perceived the etiology of childhood obesity. Most did not believe schools do enough to alleviate obesity and supported school-based weight reduction techniques. (JD)

  11. Childhood Obesity: A Growing Phenomenon for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gregory; Reese, Shirley A.

    2006-01-01

    The greatest health risk facing children today is obesity. The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has risen dramatically in the past several decades. Because children on the average spend up to five or six hours a day involved in sedentary activities, including excessive time watching television, using the computer and playing…

  12. Stay Smart: Lost Weight--Childhood Obesity and Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosa-Postl, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Prevention is the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic levels of childhood obesity. Current statistics show that obesity has more than doubled for preschool children aged 2-5 years and adolescents aged 12-19 years, and it has more than tripled for children aged 6-11 years. It is generally recognized that nutrition education for the…

  13. Social influence in childhood obesity interventions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jalali, M S; Sharafi-Avarzaman, Z; Rahmandad, H; Ammerman, A S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the pathways through which social influence at the family level moderates the impact of childhood obesity interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity interventions in which parents' behaviours are targeted to change children's obesity outcomes, because of the potential social and environmental influence of parents on the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of children. PubMed (1966-2013) and the Web of Science (1900-2013) were searched, and 32 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Results for existing mechanisms that moderate parents' influence on children's behaviour are discussed, and a causal pathway diagram is developed to map out social influence mechanisms that affect childhood obesity. We provide health professionals and researchers with recommendations for leveraging family-based social influence mechanisms to increase the efficacy of obesity intervention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:27138986

  14. The role of both parents' attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Laghezza, Loredana; Radi, Giulia; Battistini, Dalila; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children's obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent-child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates, and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents' attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers and fathers. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father's attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:25120507

  15. The role of both parents’ attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Laghezza, Loredana; Radi, Giulia; Battistini, Dalila; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children’s obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent–child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates, and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents’ attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers and fathers. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father’s attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:25120507

  16. Actions necessary to prevent childhood obesity: creating the climate for change.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a public health epidemic, and currently a battle exists over how to frame and address this problem. This paper explores how public policy approaches can be employed to address obesity. We present the argument that obesity should be viewed as the consequence of a "toxic environment" rather than the result of the population failing to take enough "personal responsibility." In order to make progress in decreasing the prevalence of obesity, we must shift our view of obesity away from the medical model (which focuses on the individual) to a public health model (which focuses on the population). At the same time, we must be sensitive to the problem of weight bias. Potential obstacles to taking a public policy approach are identified, as well as suggestions on how to overcome them. PMID:17341218

  17. Reducing Childhood Obesity through U.S. Federal Policy

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Alyson H.; Flottemesch, Thomas J.; Maciosek, Michael V.; Jenson, Jennifer; Barclay, Gillian; Ashe, Marice; Sanchez, Eduardo J.; Story, Mary; Teutsch, Steven M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity prevalence remains high in the U.S., especially among racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. Federal policy is important in improving public health given its broad reach. Information is needed about federal policies that could reduce childhood obesity rates and by how much. Purpose To estimate the impact of three federal policies on childhood obesity prevalence in 2032, after 20 years of implementation. Methods Criteria were used to select the three following policies to reduce childhood obesity from 26 recommended policies: afterschool physical activity programs, a $0.01/ounce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) excise tax, and a ban on child-directed fast food TV advertising. For each policy, the literature was reviewed from January 2000 through July 2012 to find evidence of effectiveness and create average effect sizes. In 2012, a Markov microsimulation model estimated each policy’s impact on diet or physical activity, and then BMI, in a simulated school-aged population in 2032. Results The microsimulation predicted that afterschool physical activity programs would reduce obesity the most among children aged 6–12 years (1.8 percentage points) and the advertising ban would reduce obesity the least (0.9 percentage points). The SSB excise tax would reduce obesity the most among adolescents aged 13–18 years (2.4 percentage points). All three policies would reduce obesity more among blacks and Hispanics than whites, with the SSB excise tax reducing obesity disparities the most. Conclusions All three policies would reduce childhood obesity prevalence by 2032. However, a national $0.01/ounce SSB excise tax is the best option. PMID:25175764

  18. Raising healthy children: Moral and political responsibility for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Megan

    2010-12-01

    Childhood obesity and chronic disease rates continue to climb, but policy and programme responses are mainly limited to education and awareness activities. These encourage individuals to make responsible lifestyle choices. Regulation and environmental change have a minor role, as they involve more intrusive roles for government, invading traditionally private domains of nutrition and physical activity. But to address children's health needs, today's emphasis on self-management is inappropriate. Children, especially the very young, are dependent and vulnerable. I describe why the current public health strategies, with their political and moral foundations, remain ineffective. The foundations are based primarily upon the traditional liberal understanding of the public/private divide, while neglecting to recognize the legal obligations and implications of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and theories of justice and citizenship as they apply to children. PMID:21119650

  19. Research contributions on childhood obesity from a public-private partnership

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity remains a significant global problem with immediate and long-term individual health and societal consequences. Targets for change should include the most potent and predictive factors for obesity at all levels of the personal, social and physical environments. The Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living (‘the Center’) is a public-private partnership that was developed to address child health issues through research, service, and education. This overview paper introduces a special issue of seven articles on childhood obesity from the Center, and the implications of this research for obesity prevention. Methods and results A review of the literature on public-private partnerships was undertaken and key components of the partnership between the Michael & Susan Dell Foundation and the Center were compared for compatibility. The conceptual framework for Center research, based on social cognitive theory and the social-ecological model, is explained. An overview of papers in this special issue, relative to the conceptual framework, and the implications of this research for childhood obesity prevention, are provided. Conclusions The public-private partnership that created the Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living has been instrumental in motivating the Center’s academic faculty to focus their research on improvements in child, family and community health through etiologic, epidemiologic, methodologic and intervention research. This special issue extends this work and places particular emphasis on socioeconomic inequalities in addressing the obesity problem in the U.S. and worldwide. PMID:26222489

  20. Communication About Childhood Obesity on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Tabak, Rachel G.; Ruhr, Lindsay R.; Maier, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Little is known about the use of social media as a tool for health communication. We used a mixed-methods design to examine communication about childhood obesity on Twitter. Methods. NodeXL was used to collect tweets sent in June 2013 containing the hashtag #childhoodobesity. Tweets were coded for content; tweeters were classified by sector and health focus. Data were also collected on the network of follower connections among the tweeters. We used descriptive statistics and exponential random graph modeling to examine tweet content, characteristics of tweeters, and the composition and structure of the network of connections facilitating communication among tweeters. Results. We collected 1110 tweets originating from 576 unique Twitter users. More individuals (65.6%) than organizations (32.9%) tweeted. More tweets focused on individual behavior than environment or policy. Few government and educational tweeters were in the network, but they were more likely than private individuals to be followed by others. Conclusions. There is an opportunity to better disseminate evidence-based information to a broad audience through Twitter by increasing the presence of credible sources in the #childhoodobesity conversation and focusing the content of tweets on scientific evidence. PMID:24832138

  1. The Impact of Familial Predisposition to Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease on Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Louise Aas; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has reached alarming rates world-wide. The aetiology seems to be an interplay between genetic and environmental factors, and a surrogate measure of this complex interaction is suggested as familial predisposition. Familial predisposition to obesity and related cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications constitute the presence of obesity and/or obesity-related complications in primarily blood-related family members. The approaches of its measurement and applicability vary, and the evidence especially of its influence on obesity and obesity treatment in childhood is limited. Studies have linked a familial predisposition of obesity, CVD (hypertension, dyslipidaemia and thromboembolic events), and type 2 diabetes mellitus to BMI as well as other adiposity measures in children, suggesting degrees of familial aggregation of metabolic derangements. A pattern of predispositions arising from mothers, parents or grandparents as being most influential have been found, but further comprehensive studies are needed in order to specify the exact implications of familial predisposition. In the scope of childhood obesity this article reviews the current literature regarding familial predisposition to obesity and obesity-related complications, and how these familial predispositions may impact obesity in the offspring. PMID:26465142

  2. Atherosclerosis prevention starts in childhood: the obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Medina-Ruiz, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and advances rapidly triggered by multiple genetic and environmental factors, including obesity. Obesity has reach epidemic proportions mainly by the consumption of junk food and a sedentary lifestyle. Our children spend long time inactive in front of the television and video games, further aggravated by the consumption of excessive calories of unhealthy food bombardment from TV commercials. The health related expenses of the obese is in average $1,500 annually higher than for persons with normal weight. The annual cost of diseases associated to obesity is estimated on $147 billion in the United States, a 10% of the national medical expenses. We must uncover strategies conducting to healthier lifestyles. School and home initiatives together with community and governmental efforts are necessary to stimulate our youngsters to live healthy lifestyles. The commitment of the food industry is critical to achieve the difficult goal of reducing childhood obesity to the prevalent 5% of the 1970's. PMID:22737835

  3. Using performance-based regulation to reduce childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sugarman, Stephen D; Sandman, Nirit

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the public health community has recognized the growing problem of childhood obesity. But, unlike tobacco control policy, there is little evidence about what public policies would work to substantially reduce childhood obesity. Public health leaders currently tend to support traditional "command and control" schemes that order private enterprises and governments to stop or start doing specific things that, is it hoped, will yield lower childhood obesity rates. These include measures such as 1) taking sweetened beverages out of schools, 2) posting calorie counts on fast-food menu boards, 3) labeling foods with a "red light" if they contain high levels of fat or sugar, 4) limiting the density of fast food restaurants in any neighborhood, 5) requiring chain restaurants to offer "healthy" alternatives, and 6) eliminating junk food ads on television shows aimed at children. Some advocates propose other regulatory interventions such as 1) influencing the relative prices of healthy and unhealthy foods through taxes and/or subsidies and 2) suing private industry for money damages as a way of blaming childhood obesity on certain practices of the food industry (such as its marketing, product composition, or portion size decisions). The food industry generally seeks to deflect blame for childhood obesity onto others, such as parents and schools. PMID:19017402

  4. Economic Evaluation of Childhood Obesity Interventions: Reflections and Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Frew, Emma

    2016-08-01

    Rising levels of childhood obesity present a serious global public health problem amounting to 7 % of GDP in developed countries and affecting 14 % of children. As such, many countries are investing increasingly large quantities of resource towards treatment and prevention. Whilst it is important to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of any intervention, it is equally as important to demonstrate cost effectiveness as policy makers strive to get the best value for money from increasingly limited public resources. Economic evaluation assists with making these investment decisions and whilst it can offer considerable support in many healthcare contexts, applying it to a childhood obesity context is not straightforward. Childhood obesity is a complex disease with interventions being multi-component in nature. Furthermore, the interventions are implemented in a variety of settings such as schools, the community, and the home, and have costs and benefits that fall outside the health sector. This paper provides a reflection from a UK perspective on the application of the conventional approach to economic evaluation to childhood obesity. It offers suggestions for how evaluations should be designed to fit better within this context, and to meet the needs of local decision makers. An excellent example is the need to report costs using a micro-costing format and for benefit measurement to go beyond a health focus. This is critical as the organisation and commissioning of childhood obesity services is done from a Local Authority setting and this presents further challenges for what is the most appropriate economic evaluation approach to use. Given that adult obesity is now of epidemic proportions, the accurate assessment of childhood obesity interventions to support public health decision making is critical. PMID:26968705

  5. The relation between childhood obesity and adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Daar, Ghaniya; Sarı, Kamran; Gencer, Zeliha Kapusuz; Ede, Hüseyin; Aydın, Reha; Saydam, Levent

    2016-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a common and significant public health problem all over the world. As a well-known fact obese children have an increased risk of obesity-associated comorbidities, including obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders at an earlier age compared to their normal weight peers. They also have an increased risk of poor self-esteem, greater body dissatisfaction, and increased peer teasing that lead to a lower health-related quality of life. While the presence of adenoid hypertrophy and increased rate of obstructive sleep apnea frequently co-exists in majority of cases. We have limited knowledge about the effect of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on development of childhood obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between obesity, presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and the quality of life parameters in obese children as measured by the OSA-18 quality of life questionnaire. Fifty obese children aged between 3 and 18 years and 50 age- and gender-matched otherwise children were enrolled to the study. All subjects were routinely examined by the otolaryngologist before enrollment. The size of adenoid hypertrophy was measured using lateral cephalometric radiographs. The tonsils were also graded using the schema recommended by Brodsky et al. We used OSA-18 questionnaires to evaluate the subjects' quality of life issues. We found, 34 % of obese group had tonsillar hypertrophy while the rate was 6 % in control group. Similarly 16 % of obese group had tonsillar hypertrophy compared to only 4 % in non-obese group. It was also noted that total OSA-18 scores of obese group were significantly higher than those of non-obese group. In subgroup analysis of obese group, total OSA-18 score of obese subjects with either adenoid and/or tonsillar hypertrophy was significantly higher than that of obese subjects without adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy. As the related literature suggests that the impact of adenotonsillar size on OSA

  6. Key stakeholders' perspectives towards childhood obesity treatment: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Staniford, Leanne Jane; Breckon, Jeff David; Copeland, Robert James; Hutchison, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Over the past three decades, there has been a dramatic global increase in childhood obesity. A better understanding of stakeholders' perceptions of intervention requirements could contribute to developing more effective interventions for childhood obesity. This study provides a qualitative, in-depth, analysis of stakeholders' (children, parents and health professionals) perspectives toward the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment interventions. Twenty-six stakeholders were recruited using purposive sampling; semi-structured interviews were adopted to explore stakeholders' perceptions with data analysed using a framework approach. Stakeholders concurred that treatment should be family-based incorporating physical activity, nutrition and psychological components, and be delivered in familiar environments to recipients. However, incongruence existed between stakeholders towards the sustainability of obesity treatment interventions. Parents and children reported needing ongoing support to sustain behavioural changes made during treatment, while health professionals suggested interventions should aim to create autonomous individuals who exit treatment and independently sustain behaviour change. This study provides an insight into issues of stakeholder involvement in the obesity intervention design and delivery process. To promote long-term behaviour change, there needs to be increased congruence between the delivery and receipt of childhood obesity treatment interventions. Interventions need to incorporate strategies that promote autonomous and self-regulated motivation, to enhance families' confidence in sustaining behaviour change independent of health professional support. PMID:21917596

  7. Childhood obesity perceptions among African American caregivers in a rural Georgia community: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Hansen, Andrew R

    2015-04-01

    Given the pivotal role of African American caregiver's perceptions of childhood obesity in rural areas, the inclusion of caregiver's perceptions could potentially reduce childhood obesity rates. The objective of the current study was to explore childhood obesity perceptions among African Americans in a rural Georgia community. This concurrent mixed methods study utilized two theoretical frameworks: Social Cognitive Theory and Social Ecological Model. Using a convenience sample, caregivers ages 22-65 years completed a paper-based survey (n = 135) and a face-to-face interview (n = 12) to explore perceptions of obesity risk factors, health complications, weight status, built environment features, and obesity prevention approaches. Descriptive statistics were generated and a six-step process was used for qualitative analysis. Participants commonly cited behavioral risk factors; yet, social aspects and appearance of the community were not considered contributing factors. Chronic diseases were reported as obesity health complications. Caregivers had a distorted view of their child's weight status. In addition, analysis revealed that caregivers assessed child's weight and height measurements by the child's appearance or a recent doctor visit. Environmental barriers reported by caregivers included safety concerns and insufficient physical activity venues and programs. Also, caregivers conveyed parents are an imperative component of preventing obesity. Although this study found caregivers were aware of obesity risk factors, health complications, built environment features, and prevention approaches their obesity perceptions were not incorporated into school or community prevention efforts. Findings suggest that children residing in rural areas are in need of tailored efforts that address caregiver perceptions of obesity. PMID:25218019

  8. Children's Healthy Living Program (CHL) Indigenous Workforce Training to Prevent Childhood Obesity in the Underserved U.S. Affiliated Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; Delormier, Treena; Hattori-Uchima, Margaret; Leslie, Jodi Haunani; Greenberg, Joshua; Kim, Jang Ho; Deenik, Jonathan L; Dunn, Michael A; Areta, I Apulu; Novotny, Rachel

    2015-05-01

    The U.S. Affiliated Pacific Region (USAPR) is an underserved region with high rates of obesity-related, non-communicable diseases and a low proportion of trained obesity prevention professionals, especially indigenous professionals. The Children's Healthy Living Training Program was developed to enhance the USAPR's capacity to address childhood obesity prevention. PMID:25981090

  9. The importance of systems thinking to address obesity.

    PubMed

    Finegood, Diane T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is clearly a complex problem for both the individual and for society. Complex or 'wicked' problems have common characteristics such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, interdependence, and self-organization. As such they require solutions appropriate for complex problems, rather than a reductionist search for the causes. 'Systems thinking' provides new ways to consider how to collectively address complex societal problems like obesity, where biology interacts with social, cultural and built environmental factors in infinite permutations and combinations. The systems that give rise to the obesity epidemic function at multiple levels, and there are important interactions between these levels. At any given level, individual actors and organizations matter and system function is optimized when individual and organizational capacity to respond is well matched to the complexity of individual tasks. Providing system supports to help networks of individuals become 'communities of practice' and 'systems of influence' may also help to accelerate the pace of effective action against obesity. Research efforts need to move away from the relentless search for the specific isolated causes of obesity and focus on solutions that have been shown to work in addressing other 'wicked' problems. PMID:23128771

  10. Effective partnership: how school nurses and physical education teachers can combat childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Charity; Broussard, Lisa; Bellar, David

    2013-01-01

    School systems face many challenges in attempting to address the childhood overweight and obesity epidemic. Given the accumulated nature of the required physical activity and the likelihood that only one meal will be delivered while on school grounds, the potential for impactful change in obese or overweight children through school policy is limited. From this vantage point, it is easy to see that physical education programs alone cannot ensure that children participate in 60 minutes of daily physical activity. The necessary multifaceted approach requires opportunities for physical activity to be obtained throughout the school day. The school nurse and physical education teachers are the school personnel most likely to be involved in efforts to curtail the childhood overweight and obesity epidemic at the school level. These individuals are in critical roles of assisting both parents and children when it comes to understanding the devastating effects of being overweight and obese and in helping children identify positive health behaviors that may help reverse this condition. The purpose of this article is to describe the ways in which the school nurse and physical education teacher can work collaboratively to better address the childhood overweight and obesity epidemic. PMID:23724595

  11. Metabolic effects of exercise on childhood obesity: a current view

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Santiago Tavares; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Andreazzi, Ana Eliza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. DATA SOURCE: A search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. DATA SYNTHESIS: Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of these effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in fighting obesity. PMID:25662015

  12. Gooey Stuff, Intra-Activity, and Differential Obesities: Foregrounding Agential Adiposity within Childhood Obesity Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, forces such as the media, medical discourse, and public policy work to position childhood obesity as increased body fat content or excess adiposity due to various personal, social, and economic factors. Drawing on Barad's "agential realist ontology", this article aims to inhabit-with obesity in an effort to disrupt dominant…

  13. Might video games help remedy childhood obesity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is the most prevalent health problem among children in the United States and globally, leading to diverse health problems and staggering costs. Most child obesity prevention interventions are not working well, or not at all. Part of the problem is that the causes of child obesity are not cle...

  14. 3 CFR 8702 - Proclamation 8702 of August 31, 2011. National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2011 8702 Proclamation 8702 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8702 of August 31, 2011 Proc. 8702 National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2011By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Since the 1970s, the rate of childhood obesity...

  15. 75 FR 12493 - Task Force on Childhood Obesity: Request for Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ...Across the country, childhood obesity has reached epidemic rates. On February 9, 2010, President Obama signed a Presidential Memo establishing a Task Force on Childhood Obesity that directs Federal agencies to create a comprehensive interagency national action plan to solve the challenge of childhood obesity within a generation. The Presidential Memo directs the Task Force to focus on four......

  16. 3 CFR 9007 - Proclamation 9007 of August 30, 2013. National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2013 9007 Proclamation 9007 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9007 of August 30, 2013 Proc. 9007 National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2013By the..., cancer, asthma, heart disease, and high blood pressure. While childhood obesity remains a serious...

  17. A systematic review of health videogames on childhood obesity prevention and intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health video games are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health video games on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health video ames published betwee...

  18. The epidemiological transition and the global childhood obesity epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Broyles, S T; Denstel, K D; Church, T S; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is now recognized as a global public health issue. Social patterning of obesity, consistent with the theory of epidemiologic transition, has not been well described in children, and the limited research has focused on developed settings. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between childhood obesity and household income using objective measures of adiposity and to explore how this relationship differs across levels of country human development. METHODS: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) was a multi-national cross-sectional study conducted in 12 urban/suburban study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of development. ISCOLE collected objectively measured height, body mass and percentage body fat in 7341 10-year-old children. Multi-level random-effects models were used to examine income gradients in several obesity measures. RESULTS: The mean age of the children was 10.4 years, and 12.6% were obese, ranging from 5.4% (Finland) to 23.8% (China). For both boys and girls, obesity prevalence, body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) z-score increased linearly with higher income at lower levels of development (all P for trend ⩽0.0012), but decreased linearly with higher income at higher levels of development (all P for trend ⩽0.0003). Country human development explained 75% of the variation in the country-specific income–obesity relationships (r=−0.87, P=0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Results are consistent with the theory of epidemiologic transition. Global efforts to control obesity must account for socioeconomic factors within a country's context. Future research should seek to understand global socioeconomic patterns in obesity-related lifestyle behaviors. PMID:27152182

  19. Improving Childhood Obesity Treatment Using New Technologies: The ETIOBE System.

    PubMed

    Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausias; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Oliver, Elia; Zaragoza, Irene; Alcaniz, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem in western culture. Sedentary lifestyles and an "obesogenic environment" are the main influences on children leading to an increase in obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe an e-health platform for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity called ETIOBE. This e-health platform is an e-therapy system for the treatment of obesity, aimed at improving treatment adherence and promoting the mechanisms of self-control in patients, to obtain weight loss maintenance and to prevent relapse by establishing healthy lifestyle habits. ETIOBE is composed of three different applications, the Clinician Support System (CSS), the Home Support System (HSS) and the Mobile Support System (MSS). The use of new Information and Communication (ICT) technologies can help clinicians to improve the effectiveness of weight loss treatments, especially in the case of children, and to achieve designated treatment goals. PMID:21559232

  20. Maternal employment and childhood obesity--a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Eiben, Gabriele; M Fernandéz-Alvira, Juan; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kovács, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin

    2013-07-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity. PMID:23721884

  1. Improving Childhood Obesity Treatment Using New Technologies: The ETIOBE System

    PubMed Central

    Baños, Rosa. M; Cebolla, Ausias; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Oliver, Elia; Zaragoza, Irene; Alcaniz, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem in western culture. Sedentary lifestyles and an “obesogenic environment” are the main influences on children leading to an increase in obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe an e-health platform for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity called ETIOBE. This e-health platform is an e-therapy system for the treatment of obesity, aimed at improving treatment adherence and promoting the mechanisms of self-control in patients, to obtain weight loss maintenance and to prevent relapse by establishing healthy lifestyle habits. ETIOBE is composed of three different applications, the Clinician Support System (CSS), the Home Support System (HSS) and the Mobile Support System (MSS). The use of new Information and Communication (ICT) technologies can help clinicians to improve the effectiveness of weight loss treatments, especially in the case of children, and to achieve designated treatment goals. PMID:21559232

  2. A new childhood asthma phenotype: obese with early menarche.

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2016-03-01

    Three concomitant phenomena occur in the later years of childhood: increases in the incidence of asthma, obesity and early menarche. This article is an overview of the current epidemiologic, basic, genetic and epigenetic evidence about this relationship. As a consequence we propose that obese girls who have an early menarche (≤ 11 years of age) constitute a new asthma phenotype in childhood. Future studies need to be carried out in order to find the best control and treatment of this new asthma phenotype. PMID:26644272

  3. Perceptions of childhood obesity of undergraduate students in physical education.

    PubMed

    Savage, M P

    1995-06-01

    A sample (N = 200) of undergraduate students in physical education from 12 universities in a midwestern state was sent the 1990 Price questionnaire; 178 responded (89%). 96% of the respondents indicated that normal weight is very important in children, 88% agreed that physical education teachers should play major roles in treating childhood obesity. 92% believed their college courses prepared them to administer exercise programs to help children reduce weight, and 70% supported school-based weight-reduction strategies. Over-all, the students seemed to want to help eliminate childhood obesity and indicated they should become significantly involved in school programs designed to achieve this goal. PMID:7480495

  4. Mental Health, Wellness, and Childhood Overweight/Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; McVey, Gail; Bardick, Angela; Ireland, Alana

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc.), little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems); psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape), and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors). We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status. PMID:22778915

  5. Childhood obesity in developing countries: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Goel, Kashish; Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop

    2012-02-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices and a sedentary lifestyle have led to increasing prevalence of childhood obesity (5-19 yr) in developing countries recently: 41.8% in Mexico, 22.1% in Brazil, 22.0% in India, and 19.3% in Argentina. Moreover, secular trends indicate increasing prevalence rates in these countries: 4.1 to 13.9% in Brazil during 1974-1997, 12.2 to 15.6% in Thailand during 1991-1993, and 9.8 to 11.7% in India during 2006-2009. Important determinants of childhood obesity include high socioeconomic status, residence in metropolitan cities, female gender, unawareness and false beliefs about nutrition, marketing by transnational food companies, increasing academic stress, and poor facilities for physical activity. Childhood obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the early-onset metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, and adulthood obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity through parental initiative and social support interventions are the most important strategies in managing childhood obesity. Also, high-risk screening and effective health educational programs are urgently needed in developing countries. PMID:22240243

  6. International epidemic of childhood obesity and television viewing.

    PubMed

    Guran, T; Bereket, A

    2011-12-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity. PMID:22075803

  7. Mental health, wellness, and childhood overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; McVey, Gail; Bardick, Angela; Ireland, Alana

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc.), little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems); psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape), and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors). We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status. PMID:22778915

  8. Childhood Obesity: Causes, Consequences, and Management.

    PubMed

    Gurnani, Muskaan; Birken, Catherine; Hamilton, Jill

    2015-08-01

    One-third of North American children are overweight or obese. Pathologic obesity accounts for only a small percentage of these cases. The vast majority are the result of a complex interaction of genetic and hormonal, nutritional, physical activity, and physical and social environmental factors. Obesity increases the risk for various cardiometabolic, pulmonary, and psychosocial complications for children, which often continues into adulthood. Multidisciplinary care, focusing on family-centered behavior change, is an evidence-based, essential part of the treatment, along with pharmacologic and surgical options for more complex cases. Prevention and early intervention strategies are key to reversing the obesity epidemic. PMID:26210619

  9. Sensitizing Future Health Professionals to Determinants of Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosemond, Tiara N; Blake, Christine E; Buff, Scotty M; Blake, Elizabeth W; Dunn, Brianne L; Browne, Teri; Bell, Bethany A; Iachini, Aidyn L

    2016-07-01

    Long-term solutions to the childhood obesity epidemic will require concerted interdisciplinary efforts that are sensitive to both individual and social determinants of health. The Junior Doctors of Health© (JDOH) program involves interprofessional education (IPE) with university students from health science fields (e.g., medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health) who deliver an interactive program in teams to at-risk school-aged youth. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of participation in the JDOH IPE program on university students' beliefs about childhood obesity. Fifty-three of the 71 health sciences students enrolled in the JDOH IPE program between 2011 and 2013 participated in this study. Pre- and post-surveys assessed students' beliefs about the importance, causes of, and responsibility for reducing childhood obesity with both closed- and open-ended questions. In 2013, quantitative data were analyzed using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests and qualitative data were analyzed through open coding to identify emergent themes. Results indicate that after participation in the JDOH IPE program, students' identification of social and environmental causes of childhood obesity increased significantly. Further, students' ranking of the importance of obesity was initially higher than those of different issues typically portrayed as social or environmental (e.g., youth violence) but it was similarly ranked after participation in JDOH. This suggests a greater sensitivity to social and environmental challenges faced by youth. Findings suggest that IPE experiences that bring clinical and community-oriented health professions together to engage with disadvantaged youth foster sensitivity to the complexities of childhood obesity in low-income settings. PMID:26876771

  10. Childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop

    2013-03-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (< 40 y). Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG'). PMID:23334584

  11. Creating a Community Coalition to Prevent Childhood Obesity in Yakima County, Washington: Rev It Up! 2008

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jessica; Bindler, Ruth C.; Miller, Kris

    2012-01-01

    Background One-third of the US population is obese, and childhood obesity has tripled since the late 1970s. Childhood obesity is a significant health issue requiring interventions on individual, interpersonal, community, organizational, and policy levels. Community coalitions offer successful strategies for engaging community partners with health improvement goals. Community Context In 2008, Yakima County, an agricultural community in eastern Washington, was ranked the eighth fattest city in the United States. Recognizing the obesity problem, the Yakima Health District (YHD) established 2 objectives: to decrease rates of childhood obesity in Yakima County and to recruit and establish a community coalition of key stakeholders and experts to help address the problem. Methods The YHD spearheaded a movement to create a community coalition. The coalition applied for and received state and federal grants. In September 2008, the YHD held the first recruitment event for Rev It Up!, its community-based effort to address the obesity problem in Yakima. YHD invited the Washington State Department of Health to advise the coalition-building and action-planning process. Outcome The community coalition achieved 5 of 7 objectives, including developing a common vision, creating an advisory committee, and conducting a community inventory, prioritization process, and action plan. However, unexpected public health challenges in the YHD delayed coalition efforts. Interpretation Creating the Rev It Up! coalition met a community need and engaged community partners. Some potential partners were dissuaded by the 6-month period required to establish the coalition. Rev It Up! continues as a community effort to reduce rates of obesity in Yakima County. PMID:22765932

  12. A new insight into food addiction in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Keser, Alev; Yüksel, Ayşegül; Yeşiltepe-Mutlu, Gül; Bayhan, Asuman; Özsu, Elif; Hatun, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled eating behavior in obese subjects is very similar to behavior in food addiction, suggesting a relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between childhood obesity and food addiction and to determine the frequency of food addiction among obese children and adolescents. The study included 100 overweight and obese children. Food addiction was evaluated by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The cutoff value for food addiction was defined as the presence of 3 or more symptoms. Participants were between 10 and 18 years of age; 63% were girls. Of the participants, 71% had food addiction. The most addictive foods were chocolate, ice cream, carbonated beverages, French fries, white bread, rice, candy, chips and pasta, in decreasing order of frequency. Experiencing a frequent feeling of hunger was associated with a 2.2-fold increase in food addiction risk, while consumption of French fries ≥1-2 times per week was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in risk (p<0.05). The high YFAS scores in obese and overweight adolescents suggest that food addiction plays an important role in childhood obesity. Evaluation of food addiction in more detail may open a new perspective on the prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:26701938

  13. Gendered dimensions of obesity in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen N

    2008-01-01

    Background The literature on childhood and adolescent obesity is vast. In addition to producing a general overview, this paper aims to highlight gender differences or similarities, an area which has tended not to be the principal focus of this literature. Methods Databases were searched using the terms 'obesity' and 'child', 'adolescent', 'teenager', 'youth', 'young people', 'sex', 'gender', 'masculine', 'feminine', 'male', 'female', 'boy' and 'girl' (or variations on these terms). In order to limit the potential literature, the main focus is on other reviews, both general and relating to specific aspects of obesity. Results The findings of genetic studies are similar for males and females, and differences in obesity rates as defined by body mass index are generally small and inconsistent. However, differences between males and females due to biology are evident in the patterning of body fat, the fat levels at which health risks become apparent, levels of resting energy expenditure and energy requirements, ability to engage in certain physical activities and the consequences of obesity for the female reproductive system. Differences due to society or culture include food choices and dietary concerns, overall physical activity levels, body satisfaction and the long-term psychosocial consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Conclusion This review suggests differences between males and females in exposure and vulnerability to obesogenic environments, the consequences of child and adolescent obesity, and responses to interventions for the condition. A clearer focus on gender differences is required among both researchers and policy makers within this field. PMID:18194542

  14. Economic disruption and childhood obesity: distraction, disconnection, displacement of children's health, and a need for social change.

    PubMed

    Balog, Joseph E

    2015-04-01

    Using and adopting Simon Szreter's framework on how economic growth had a deleterious effect on children's health during the Industrial Revolution, this article presents a parallel argument that economic growth, in modern times, also has disrupted the lives of our children expressed by increasing rates of childhood obesity. A comprehensive perspective is presented that describes how economic growth in postindustrial United States has distracted our nation's attention away from a public health's concern for the health of children and social justice. The new normal of childhood obesity represents a disconnection from the harmful reality of childhood obesity and displaces the value of childhood health too far behind adult's pursuits of utility. To provide children a fair opportunity to health, and to help children secure their own future liberty and utility, children need to be able to achieve "just levels" of health that would ordinarily exist if remediable injustices that threaten health were reasonably addressed and eliminated. PMID:25829120

  15. Editorial: Status of childhood obesity research internationally

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A conference was held on obesity mostly in Asia. The presenters made talks on a broad variety of diet and physical activity issues. It was clear that obesity is a growing problem worldwide with a common lack of understanding of what is causing the epidemic or what can be effectively done about it. M...

  16. The childhood obesity pandemic: Promoting knowledge for undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Ben-Sefer, Ellen

    2009-05-01

    The rise in childhood obesity is acknowledged as a major health problem in many countries. Health issues directly related to the childhood obesity pandemic are numerous as are the risk factors in its development. No single strategy is likely to be effective in reversing this alarming trend, rather, nurses need to work with children and families by providing education, guidance, and support to promote a change in the many lifestyle factors that have helped to create this health problem. Curriculum, teaching practices and assignment topics based on contemporary health issues of relevance to nursing practice support the importance of educating nursing students on this worrying health issue. The use of a creative strategy to help students learn about the childhood obesity problem can also be utilised to encourage lateral thinking in students. Thus, an assignment can have two significant goals in the development of knowledge and understanding of childhood obesity but also personal discovery of creative ability to design a method that engages children in learning about this health problem and what they can do to avoid its development. PMID:18783989

  17. The Role of Parents in Preventing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Ana C.; Sussner, Katarina M.; Kim, Juhee; Gortmaker, Steven

    2006-01-01

    As researchers continue to analyze the role of parenting both in the development of childhood overweight and in obesity prevention, studies of child nutrition and growth are detailing the ways in which parents affect their children's development of food- and activity-related behaviors. Ana Lindsay, Katarina Sussner, Juhee Kim, and Steven Gortmaker…

  18. School Nutrition Programs and the Incidence of Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention. Using panel data on more than 13,500 primary school students, we assess the relationship between SBP and NSLP participation and (relatively) long-run measures of child weight. After documenting a…

  19. Teachers as Partners in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruss, Mozhdeh B.; Dannison, Linda; Morris, Joseph R.; Quitugua, Jackie; Palacios, Rosa T.; McGowan, Judy; Michael, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the…

  20. What Can We Do to Prevent Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumeng, Julie

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the growing problem of childhood obesity and suggests guidelines for professionals to recommend to parents. Research has shown that an overweight child at 3 years is nearly eight times as likely to become an overweight young adult as is a typically developing 3-year-old. More of America's children are becoming overweight, and…

  1. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Childhood Obesity at Nine Years

    PubMed Central

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik; Roberts, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and obesity. We tested whether prenatal cocaine exposure increases the likelihood of obesity in 561 9-year-old term children from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS). Overall, 21.6% of children met criterion for obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 95th percentile, age and sex-specific). While there was no overall cocaine effect on obesity, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol were 4 times more likely to be obese (OR 4.11, CI 2.04–9.76) than children not exposed to either drug. No increase in obesity prevalence was found in children exposed to alcohol but not cocaine (OR 1.08, CI .59–1.93) or both (OR 1.21, CI 0.66–2.22). Alcohol exposure may attenuate the effect of cocaine exposure on obesity. Increased obesity associated with cocaine but not alcohol exposure was first observed at 7 years. BMI was also elevated from 3 to 9 years in children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol, due to increasing weight but normal height. Prenatal exposure to cocaine may alter the neuroendocrine system and metabolic processes resulting in increased weight gain and childhood obesity. PMID:21109003

  2. Cardiovascular disease in childhood: the role of obesity.

    PubMed

    Herouvi, Despina; Karanasios, Evangelos; Karayianni, Christina; Karavanaki, Kyriaki

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, childhood obesity is becoming an epidemic health problem. It is now evident from many studies that childhood obesity is correlated with adult excess weight status and the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in adulthood, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. The exposure to obesity and to the above risk factors during childhood subsequently lead to atherosclerotic development, such as altered vascular structure and function, although the mechanisms are still unclear. Several non-invasive, and thus easy-to-obtain measures of arterial structure and function, have been shown to be clinically useful in providing information about vasculature early in the course of atherosclerosis, including measurement of endothelial function, carotid intima media thickness, and arterial stiffness. The early detection of cardiovascular abnormalities is essential because the control of the atherogenic process is more effective during its early stages. The present review focuses on the cardiovascular consequences of obesity, on the mechanisms and the methods of measurement of endothelial dysfunction in obese children and adolescents, and on the ways of intervention for the improvement of vascular health. PMID:23340698

  3. Major initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada: the year in review.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews 15 significant initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada between September 2010 and September 2011. These include the: announcement of a Federal-Provincial-Territorial framework for action to promote healthy weights; implementation of the nutrition labeling initiative; launch of the CBC "Live Right Now" campaign; announcement of the Public Health Agency of Canada's innovation strategy funding related to obesity; publication of the Canadian Health Measures Survey physical activity findings; release of new Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines; launch of ParticipACTION's "Think Again" campaign; workshop on building trust to address the epidemic of obesity; start of the Canadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry; initiation of "Our Health Our Future: A National Dialogue on Healthy Weights"; release of the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth; National Obesity Summit; Nature Play Day and Sports Day in Canada; development of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy; and the creation of Active Canada 20/20--A National Physical Activity Plan. The diversity and intensity of activity addressing the childhood obesity and physical inactivity "epidemic" in Canada is encouraging and must be maintained and enhanced. PMID:22905632

  4. Childhood obesity: are we missing the big picture?

    PubMed

    Maziak, W; Ward, K D; Stockton, M B

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide, raising alarm about future trends of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. This article discusses what may underlie our failure to respond effectively to the obesity epidemic, and presents a wider perspective for future research and public health agendas. So far targeting individual-level determinants and clinical aspects of childhood obesity has produced limited success. There is growing interest in understanding the wider determinants of obesity such as the built environment (e.g. walkability), social interactions, food marketing and prices, but much needs to be learned. Particularly, we need to identify distal modifiable factors with multiple potential that would make them attractive for people and policymakers alike. For example, walking-biking-friendly cities can reduce obesity as well as energy consumption, air pollution and traffic delays. Such agenda needs to be driven by strong evidence from research involving multi-level influences on behaviour, as well as the study of wider politico-economic trends affecting people's choices. This article highlights available evidence and arguments for research and policy needed to curb the obesity epidemic. The upstream approach underlying these arguments aims to make healthy choices not only the most rational, but also the most feasible and affordable. PMID:18154601

  5. Children's Hospital Association Consensus Statements for Comorbidities of Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Eneli, Ihuoma; Hampl, Sarah; Mietus-Snyder, Michele; Mirza, Nazrat; Rhodes, Erinn; Sweeney, Brooke; Tinajero-Deck, Lydia; Woolford, Susan J.; Pont, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Childhood obesity and overweight affect approximately 30% of US children. Many of these children have obesity-related comorbidities, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, fatty liver disease, diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), sleep apnea, psychosocial problems, and others. These children need routine screening and, in many cases, treatment for these conditions. However, because primary care pediatric providers (PCPs) often are underequipped to deal with these comorbidities, they frequently refer these patients to subspecialists. However, as a result of the US pediatric subspecialist shortage and considering that 12.5 million children are obese, access to care by subspecialists is limited. The aim of this article is to provide accessible, user-friendly clinical consensus statements to facilitate the screening, interpretation of results, and early treatment for some of the most common childhood obesity comorbidities. Methods: Members of the Children's Hospital Association (formerly NACHRI) FOCUS on a Fitter Future II (FFFII), a collaboration of 25 US pediatric obesity centers, used a combination of the best available evidence and collective clinical experience to develop consensus statements for pediatric obesity-related comorbidities. FFFII also surveyed the participating pediatric obesity centers regarding their current practices. Results: The work group developed consensus statements for use in the evaluation and treatment of lipids, liver enzymes, and blood pressure abnormalities and PCOS in the child with overweight and obesity. The results of the FFFII survey illustrated the variability in the approach for initial evaluation and treatment as well as pattern of referrals to subspecialists among programs. Conclusions: The consensus statements presented in this article can be a useful tool for PCPs in the management and overall care of children with overweight and obesity. PMID:25019404

  6. Interventions for prevention of childhood obesity in primary care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Nicole; Brauer, Paula; Simpson, Janis Randall; Kim, Susie; Haines, Jess

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preventing childhood obesity is a public health priority, and primary care is an important setting for early intervention. Authors of a recent national guideline have identified a need for effective primary care interventions for obesity prevention and that parent perspectives on interventions are notably absent from the literature. Our objective was to determine the perspectives of primary care clinicians and parents of children 2-5 years of age on the implementation of an obesity prevention intervention within team-based primary care to inform intervention implementation. Methods: We conducted focus groups with interprofessional primary care clinicians (n = 40) and interviews with parents (n = 26). Participants were asked about facilitators and barriers to, and recommendations for implementing a prevention program in primary care. Data were recorded and transcribed, and we used directed content analysis to identify major themes. Results: Barriers existed to addressing obesity-related behaviours in this age group and included a gap in well-child primary care between ages 18 months and 4-5 years, lack of time and sensitivity of the topic. Trust and existing relationships with primary care clinicians were facilitators to program implementation. Offering separate programs for parents and children, and addressing both general parenting topics and obesity-related behaviours were identified as desirable. Interpretation: Despite barriers to addressing obesity-related behaviours within well-child primary care, both clinicians and parents expressed interest in interventions in primary care settings. Next steps should include pilot studies to identify feasible strategies for intervention implementation. PMID:27398363

  7. Policy Approaches to Offset Childhood Food Insecurity and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broberg, Danielle M.; Broberg, Katharine A.; McGuire, Jenifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Policies originally designed to address food insecurity are in need of revision due to rising rates of obesity among those they serve. Within the context of national policies, this article uses an ecological perspective to consider the links between food insecurity and obesity. The recommendations include adjusting the nutritional standards of the…

  8. Assessment of Endothelial Dysfunction in Childhood Obesity and Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Hoymans, Vicky Y.; Van Craenenbroeck, Amaryllis H.; Vissers, Dirk K.; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Conraads, Viviane M.

    2013-01-01

    The association of obesity with noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular complications and diabetes, is considered a major threat to the management of health care worldwide. Epidemiological findings show that childhood obesity is rapidly rising in Western society, as well as in developing countries. This pandemic is not without consequences and can affect the risk of future cardiovascular disease in these children. Childhood obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction, the first yet still reversible step towards atherosclerosis. Advanced research techniques have added further insight on how childhood obesity and associated comorbidities lead to endothelial dysfunction. Techniques used to measure endothelial function were further brought to perfection, and novel biomarkers, including endothelial progenitor cells, were discovered. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical overview on both in vivo as well as in vitro markers for endothelial integrity. Additionally, an in-depth description of the mechanisms that disrupt the delicate balance between endothelial damage and repair will be given. Finally, the effects of lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy on endothelial dysfunction will be reviewed. PMID:23691262

  9. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-09-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:26374183

  10. Motivational Interviewing in Childhood Obesity Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Borrello, Maria; Pietrabissa, Giada; Ceccarini, Martina; Manzoni, Gian M.; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is one of today’s most diffused and severe public health problems worldwide. It affects both adults and children with critical physical, social, and psychological consequences. The aim of this review is to appraise the studies that investigated the effects of motivational interviewing techniques in treating overweight and obese children. The electronic databases PubMed and PsychINFO were searched for articles meeting inclusion criteria. The review included studies based on the application of motivational interviewing (MI) components and having the objective of changing body mass index (BMI) in overweight or obese children from age 2 to age 11. Six articles have been selected and included in this review. Three studies reported that MI had a statistically significant positive effect on BMI and on secondary obesity-related behavior outcomes. MI can be applicable in the treatment of overweight and obese children, but its efficacy cannot be proved given the lack of studies carried out on this specific sample. PMID:26617555

  11. 3 CFR 8852 - Proclamation 8852 of August 31, 2012. National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2012 8852 Proclamation 8852 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8852 of August 31, 2012 Proc. 8852 National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2012By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Over the past several decades, childhood...

  12. 3 CFR 8554 - Proclamation 8554 of September 1, 2010. National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2010 8554 Proclamation 8554 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8554 of September 1, 2010 Proc. 8554 National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2010By the... to ensure that our children are able to live full and active lives. During National Childhood...

  13. Childhood Obesity and Schools: Evidence from the National Survey of Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ji; Hooker, Neal H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The international prevalence of childhood obesity and obesity-related diseases has received increasing attention. Applying data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we explore relationships between childhood obesity and school type, National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) eligibility,…

  14. Shaping a Healthier Generation: Successful State Strategies to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulheron, Joyal; Vonasek, Kara

    2009-01-01

    Studies show that childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Today, more than 23 million American children--or nearly one in every three--are overweight or obese. If childhood obesity is left unaddressed, a generation of individuals could face health, social, and economic challenges that promise to stress government…

  15. Early childhood obesity prevention in low-income, urban communities.

    PubMed

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Theise, Rachelle; Palamar, Joseph J; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Barajas, R Gabriela; Calzada, Esther J

    2014-01-01

    Given the disproportionately high rates of obesity-related morbidity among low-income, ethnic minority youth, obesity prevention in this population is critical. Prior efforts to curb childhood obesity have had limited public health impact. The present study evaluates an innovative approach to obesity prevention by promoting foundational parenting and child behavioral regulation. This pre-post intervention study evaluated an enhanced version of ParentCorps with 91 families of pre-Kindergarten students in low-income, urban communities. Assessments included tests of knowledge and parent report. Consistent with findings from two randomized controlled trials of ParentCorps, parent knowledge and use of foundational parenting practices increased and child behavior problems decreased. Child nutrition knowledge and physical activity increased and television watching decreased; for boys, sleep problems decreased. Comparable benefits occurred for children at high risk for obesity based on child dysregulation, child overweight, and parent overweight. Results support a "whole child," family-centered approach to health promotion in early childhood. PMID:24702665

  16. Trends of childhood obesity in China and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guiju; Jia, Genmei; Peng, Honglei; Dickerman, Barbra; Compher, Charlene; Liu, Jianghong

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity is worsening at dramatic rates and has become a public health crisis. This study investigated these trends in childhood obesity and examined parental factors that may contribute to overweight and obesity. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight measurements taken annually from 2004 to 2007 in a subsample of 136 children (2-4 years old), from the Jintan Child Health Project in China. Parental factors were assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity rose from 6.6% and 2.2% in 2004 to 15.4% and 6.6% in 2007 (p < .05). Overweight was significantly associated with maternal employment (p < .05), but not with parental education level, maternal age at birth, or breast-feeding. To counter this rapid increase of obesity and overweight prevalence, nurses should regularly monitor children's weight and advise parents, especially working mothers, on the nutritional benefits of home-cooked meals. PMID:23823460

  17. Addressing Obesity in the Workplace: The Role of Employers

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Luann; Darling, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Context: Employers have pursued many strategies over the years to control health care costs and improve care. Disappointed by efforts to manage costs through the use of insurance-related techniques (e.g., prior authorization, restricted provider networks), employers have also begun to try to manage health by addressing their employees' key lifestyle risks. Reducing obesity (along with tobacco use and inactivity) is a priority for employers seeking to lower the incidence and severity of chronic illness and the associated demand for health services. Methods: This article describes the employer's perspective on the cost impact of obesity, discusses current practices in employer-sponsored wellness and weight management programs, provides examples from U.S. companies illustrating key points of employers' leverage and opportunities, and suggests policy directions to support the expansion of employers' initiatives, especially for smaller employers. Findings: Researchers and policymakers often overlook the extensive efforts and considerable impact of employer-sponsored wellness and health improvement programs. Greater focus on opportunities in the workplace is merited, however, for the evidence base supporting the economic and health impacts of employer-sponsored health promotion and wellness is growing, although not as quickly as the experience base of large employers. Conclusions: Public and private employers can serve their own economic interests by addressing obesity. Health care organizations, particularly hospitals, as well as public employers can be important role models. Policy development is needed to accelerate change, especially for smaller employers (those with fewer than 500 employees), which represent the majority of U.S. employers and are far less likely to offer health promotion programs. PMID:19298417

  18. Stopping Childhood Obesity before It Begins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Deborah; Arens, Sheila A.; Germeroth, Carrie; Hein, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Preschool is a crucial time for obesity prevention, as children are developing eating and physical activity habits. A lack of physical activity at preschool may contribute more to overweight children than parental influences such as modeling and supporting physical activity or providing fitness equipment in the home. Let Me Play is a comprehensive…

  19. Making a Difference in Early Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Dan

    2009-01-01

    News reports calling attention to the steady increase in the number of overweight adults have become an accepted part of our media landscape. Worse still, warnings continue that more and more young children, like the adults who care for them, are carrying too much weight. Unfortunately, this bad news about our growing obesity problem isn't just…

  20. Poverty, Food Programs, and Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Curtin, Sally

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen percent of children 6-11 years of age were classified as overweight in 1999-2002, four times the percentage in 1965. Although poverty has traditionally been associated with underweight as a result of poor diet, researchers have recently pointed to a paradox in the U.S., which is that low income and obesity can coexist in the same…

  1. Birth weight and childhood obesity: a 12-country study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Y; Ma, J; Wang, Y; Li, W; Katzmarzyk, P T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Johnson, W D; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Church, T S; Zhao, P; Hu, G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated the association between the full range of birth weight and the risk of childhood obesity in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between different levels of birth weight and the risk of obesity among children aged 9–11 years in 12 countries. METHODS: A multinational, cross-sectional study of 5141 children aged 9–11 years was conducted in 12 countries. Height and weight were obtained using standardized methods. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary and sleeping were objectively measured using 24-h, waist-worn accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+) monitored for 7 days. Birth weight and other factors (regions, parental education, maternal history of gestational diabetes, children age, gender, breast feeding, gestational age, unhealthy diet scores and healthy diet scores) were collected by parental and children's questionnaires. Multilevel modeling was used to account for the nested nature of the data. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of obesity (BMI z-score>+2 s.d.) was 15.4% for boys and 10.0% for girls. There was a positive association between birth weight and BMI z-scores. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of childhood obesity were significantly higher among children whose birth weights were 3500–3999 g (OR 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–1.92), and >4000 g (OR 2.08; 95% CI: 1.47–2.93), compared with the reference group (2500–2999 g). The positive association between birth weight and the odds of childhood obesity was seen in girls, whereas a U-shaped association appeared in boys. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of birth weight, defined as birth weight ⩾3500 g, were associated with increased odds of obesity among 9–11-year-old children in 12 countries. However, sex differences in the association between birth weight and the risk of obesity need to be considered when planning interventions to reduce

  2. Environmental influences on childhood obesity: ethnic and cultural influences in context.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2008-04-22

    Ethnicity is associated with differences in food-related beliefs, preferences, and behaviors, and cultural influences may contribute to the higher than average risk of obesity among children and youth in U.S. ethnic minority populations. However, cultural attitudes and beliefs are not the only potential source of ethnic variation in childhood obesity prevalence and should not be studied in isolation. Demographic, socio-structural, and environmental variables must also be considered. Available evidence indicates ethnic differences along several pathways that may increase risks of obesity development during gestation, infancy, childhood and adolescence. These include above-average prevalence of obesity in adult females and of maternal diabetes during pregnancy, parental attitudes and practices that may lead to overfeeding children, above-average levels of consumption of certain high calorie foods and beverages, and inadequate physical activity. Environments with lower than average neighborhood availability of healthful foods and higher than average availability of fast food restaurants, along with exposure to ethnically targeted food marketing may contribute to reliance on high calorie foods and beverages, and these foods may be socially and culturally valued. Attitudes about and environmental contexts for physical activity are also relevant. Increasingly, it is acknowledged that individual behaviors and lifestyles, e.g. food choices or child feeding practices, are responsive to the ecological contexts in which they are practiced. Focusing attention on the fluid interactions of cultural influences with contextual factors, of recognized importance for the study of childhood undernutrition, can also lead to further understanding of how to address ethnic disparities in childhood obesity. PMID:18158165

  3. A Positive Deviance Approach to Early Childhood Obesity: Cross-Sectional Characterization of Positive Outliers

    PubMed Central

    Farragher, Jill; Parker, Paige; Hale, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Positive deviance methodology has been applied in the developing world to address childhood malnutrition and has potential for application to childhood obesity in the United States. We hypothesized that among children at high-risk for obesity, evaluating normal weight children will enable identification of positive outlier behaviors and practices. Methods: In a community at high-risk for obesity, a cross-sectional mixed-methods analysis was done of normal weight, overweight, and obese children, classified by BMI percentile. Parents were interviewed using a semistructured format in regard to their children's general health, feeding and activity practices, and perceptions of weight. Results: Interviews were conducted in 40 homes in the lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas with a largely Hispanic (87.5%) population. Demographics, including income, education, and food assistance use, did not vary between groups. Nearly all (93.8%) parents of normal weight children perceived their child to be lower than the median weight. Group differences were observed for reported juice and yogurt consumption. Differences in both emotional feeding behaviors and parents' internalization of reasons for healthy habits were identified as different between groups. Conclusions: We found subtle variations in reported feeding and activity practices by weight status among healthy children in a population at high risk for obesity. The behaviors and attitudes described were consistent with previous literature; however, the local strategies associated with a healthy weight are novel, potentially providing a basis for a specific intervention in this population. PMID:25885174

  4. Childhood Obesity & Dental Disease: Common Causes, Common Solutions. Oral Health & Obesity Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…

  5. Childhood obesity treatment: targeting parents exclusively v. parents and children.

    PubMed

    Golan, Moria; Kaufman, Vered; Shahar, Danit R

    2006-05-01

    There is a consensus that interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity should involve the family; however, the extent of the child's involvement has received little attention. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of treating childhood obesity via a family-based health-centred intervention, targeting parents alone v. parents and obese children together. Thirty-two families with obese children of 6-11 years of age were randomised into groups, in which participants were provided for 6 months a comprehensive educational and behavioural programme for a healthy lifestyle. These groups differed in their main agent of change: parents-only v. the parents and the obese child. In both groups, parents were encouraged to foster authoritative parenting styles (parents are both firm and supportive; assume a leadership role in the environmental change with appropriate granting of child's autonomy). Only the intervention aimed at parents-only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage overweight at the end of the programme (P=0.02) as well as at the 1-year follow-up meeting. The differences between groups at both times were significant (P<0.05). A greater reduction in food stimuli in the home (P<0.05) was noted in the parents-only group. In both groups, the parents' weight status did not change. Regression analysis shows that the level of attendance in sessions explained 28 % of the variability in the children's weight status change, the treatment group explained another 10 %, and the improvement in the obesogenic load explained 11 % of the variability. These results suggest that omitting the obese child from active participation in the health-centred programme may be beneficial for weight loss and for the promotion of a healthy lifestyle among obese children. PMID:16611394

  6. [Epigenetics of childhood obesity and diabetes].

    PubMed

    Valladares-Salgado, Adán; Suárez-Sánchez, Fernando; Burguete-García, Ana I; Cruz, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) result from sedentary lifestyle, high-carbohydrate diets and genetic predisposition. Epigenetics is a form of genetic regulation in specialized cells that does not involve changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence, but it can be inherited to one or more generations through mitosis or meiosis. Children whose mothers develop gestational diabetes are more likely to become obese and diabetic in adult life. DNA methylation is a major mechanism in the regulation of transcription and gene expression of several genes. High levels of glucose and insulin during pregnancy modify the risk of developing T2DM, suggesting that the expression pattern is modified due to cell memory in a specific tissue. If T2DM is linked to adaptation in utero, the obvious primary prevention is to protect the fetal development. Future epidemiological studies need to employ more accurate indicators or markers of development to show the relationship between a specific disease and the exposure to environmental factors. The mechanisms by which malnutrition, and intrauterine growth retardation produce changes in the metabolism of glucose and insuline are worth to explore in order to control obesity and T2DM. PMID:24866314

  7. Psychosocial perspectives and the issue of prevention in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Stein, Daniel; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L; Latzer, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50 years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review, we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors, lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries), being female, belonging to a minority group, and being exposed to adverse life events may all be associated with a greater risk of childhood overweight/obesity. These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above-average food intake of low nutritional quality and reduction in physical activity. Other important psychosocial mediators include the influence of the family and peer environment, and exposure to the media. In the second part of the review, we discuss the potential of psychosocial prevention programs to intervene in the processes involved in the rise of childhood overweight/obesity. Two points are emphasized. First, prevention programs should be multidisciplinary, combining the knowledge of experts from different professions, and taking into consideration the important role of the family environment and relevant influential social organizations, particularly school. Second, effective change is unlikely to occur without large-scale programs carried out on a public policy level. PMID:25133140

  8. Psychosocial Perspectives and the Issue of Prevention in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Daniel; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L.; Latzer, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50 years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review, we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors, lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries), being female, belonging to a minority group, and being exposed to adverse life events may all be associated with a greater risk of childhood overweight/obesity. These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above-average food intake of low nutritional quality and reduction in physical activity. Other important psychosocial mediators include the influence of the family and peer environment, and exposure to the media. In the second part of the review, we discuss the potential of psychosocial prevention programs to intervene in the processes involved in the rise of childhood overweight/obesity. Two points are emphasized. First, prevention programs should be multidisciplinary, combining the knowledge of experts from different professions, and taking into consideration the important role of the family environment and relevant influential social organizations, particularly school. Second, effective change is unlikely to occur without large-scale programs carried out on a public policy level. PMID:25133140

  9. Physical environmental correlates of childhood obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dunton, G F; Kaplan, J; Wolch, J; Jerrett, M; Reynolds, K D

    2009-07-01

    Increasing rates of childhood obesity in the USA and other Western countries are a cause for serious public health concern. Neighborhood and community environments are thought to play a contributing role in the development of obesity among youth, but it is not well understood which types of physical environmental characteristics have the most potential to influence obesity outcomes. This paper reports the results of a systematic review of quantitative research examining built and biophysical environmental variables associated with obesity in children and adolescents through physical activity. Literature searches in PubMed, PsychInfo and Geobase were conducted. Fifteen quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The majority of studies were cross-sectional and published after 2005. Overall, few consistent findings emerged. For children, associations between physical environmental variables and obesity differed by gender, age, socioeconomic status, population density and whether reports were made by the parent or child. Access to equipment and facilities, neighborhood pattern (e.g. rural, exurban, suburban) and urban sprawl were associated with obesity outcomes in adolescents. For most environmental variables considered, strong empirical evidence is not yet available. Conceptual gaps, methodological limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:19389058

  10. Early Childhood Obesity is Associated with Compromised Cerebellar Development

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS — a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric MRI images. Individuals with PWS (n=16) and EMO (n=12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p=0.02 control vs. EMO; p=0.0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 ± 25; EMO 81 ± 19; and Controls 112 ± 13 (p<0.0001 controls vs. PWS and controls vs. EMO). As both conditions are characterized by early-onset obesity and slowed cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development. PMID:19437203

  11. Childhood obesity in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Poskitt, E M E

    2014-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in childhood is an increasing problem for the less affluent countries of the world. The prevalence of overweight/obesity varies, not only between countries but across countries, depending on the environments in which children live. Changes in physical activity and diet are having adverse effects on children's nutrition. Greater affluence and urbanisation with more technology such as television in homes are associated with overweight. Affluence also brings the ability to purchase commercial, prepared 'fast-food' items, leading too often to disadvantageous effects on children's diets. The solutions to this rising tide of overweight/obesity seem to lie with broad-based programmes initiated at central government level or at more local community level but which are designed to reach across and throughout societies to enable families and communities to modify the unhealthy lifestyle which too often accompanies increasing affluence and development. PMID:25203842

  12. Psychological and physiological correlates of childhood obesity in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of associations between psychopathology and obesity in childhood remains inconsistent, and most studies have been conducted in Western countries. This study investigated psychological and physiological correlates of obesity in a community sample of children in Taiwan. In total, 302 children (157 overweight/obese and 145 healthy-weight children) were selected from first- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in eight elementary schools in 2009. These children participated in a comprehensive health examination, including a physical examination, blood sample analysis, and questionnaire administration. We found that regarding physiological characteristics, compared with the healthy-weight children, the overweight/obese children had significantly higher values for body fat estimated using the bioelectrical impedance method (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.001); lower values for high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001); and worse values for glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), and fasting blood glucose (p = 0.049). In logistic models adjusted for parental and child traits and physiological characteristics, children’s overweight/obesity was significantly associated with lower self-concept (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93–0.99) and less disruptive behavior (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92–0.99). Less disruptive behavior and the lack of a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression in childhood obesity appear to be a unique pattern in Taiwan that warrants further investigation. PMID:26612264

  13. A health literate approach to the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard O.; Thompson, Jessica R.; Rothman, Russell L.; Scott, Amanda M. McDougald; Heerman, William J.; Sommer, Evan C.; Barkin, Shari L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe a systematic assessment of patient educational materials for the Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) trial, a childhood obesity prevention study targeting a low health literate population. Methods Process included: (1) expert review of educational content, (2) assessment of the quality of materials including use of the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) tool, and (3) material review and revision with target population. Results 12 core modules were developed and assessed in an iterative process. Average readability was at the 6th grade reading level (SMOG Index 5.63 ± 0.76, and Fry graph 6.0 ± 0.85). SAM evaluation resulted in adjustments to literacy demand, layout & typography, and learning stimulation & motivation. Cognitive interviews with target population revealed additional changes incorporated to enhance participant's perception of acceptability and feasibility for behavior change. Conclusion The GROW modules are a collection of evidence-based materials appropriate for parents with low health literacy and their preschool aged children, that target the prevention of childhood overweight/obesity. Practice implications Most trials addressing the treatment or prevention of childhood obesity use written materials. Due to the ubiquitous prevalence of limited health literacy, our described methods may assist researchers in ensuring their content is both understood and actionable. PMID:24001660

  14. Childhood obesity prevention: an intervention targeting primary caregivers of school children.

    PubMed

    Bruss, Mozhdeh B; Michael, Timothy J; Morris, Joseph R; Applegate, Brooks; Dannison, Linda; Quitugua, Jackie A; Palacios, Rosa T; Klein, David J

    2010-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) was used to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally relevant, science-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a US Commonwealth in the western Pacific. This cognitive behavioral lifestyle intervention, Project Familia Giya Marianas (PFGM), was offered during the 2005-2007 school years in all CNMI public elementary schools over eight sessions to primary caregivers of 3rd grade children (N = 407). A crossover design was utilized with half of the schools offering the intervention in the Fall term, while the other half delivered the sessions in the Spring term. The primary outcome measure was change in BMI z-score. There was an intervention-dependent effect on BMI z-score, with program impact being a function of baseline BMI and the number of lessons attended. This effect was most apparent in students whose baseline BMI z-score was in healthy range (>/=5 to <85 percentile). In both Asian and Pacific Island groups, children whose caregivers completed 5-8 lessons experienced a significant change in BMI z-score as compared to those with 0 lessons (P < 0.05). Research that integrates multidisciplinary and multimethod approaches is effective in identifying and/or devising solutions to address a complex condition such as childhood obesity. PFGM demonstrated that community participation can be successfully utilized in the development and implementation of childhood obesity prevention programs. PMID:19424164

  15. Brazil's national programs targeting childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C F; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C

    2013-06-01

    In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5-9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10-19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided to overweight individuals. The Brazilian Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Strategy was launched in 2009 to support health teams to counsel families about healthy feeding, focused on child health and obesity prevention. Within the school environment, the School Health Program offers activities that are developed by PHC teams together with education professionals to focus on assessing health conditions, prevention and health promotion. To improve the nutritional profile of processed foods, terms of cooperation have been signed with the food industry to reduce fat and sodium content. Food industry advertising and marketing to infants and young children are now regulated by the Brazilian Regulation for the Marketing of Foods to Infants and Young Children. PMID:27152158

  16. Brazil's national programs targeting childhood obesity prevention

    PubMed Central

    Silva, A C F; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5–9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10–19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided to overweight individuals. The Brazilian Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Strategy was launched in 2009 to support health teams to counsel families about healthy feeding, focused on child health and obesity prevention. Within the school environment, the School Health Program offers activities that are developed by PHC teams together with education professionals to focus on assessing health conditions, prevention and health promotion. To improve the nutritional profile of processed foods, terms of cooperation have been signed with the food industry to reduce fat and sodium content. Food industry advertising and marketing to infants and young children are now regulated by the Brazilian Regulation for the Marketing of Foods to Infants and Young Children. PMID:27152158

  17. Child's Obesity Tied to Mom's Pregnancy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's metabolism to 'imprint' the baby for childhood obesity," said study lead author Dr. Teresa Hillier. She's ... born to determine and address the impact on childhood obesity," Hillier said. "We need to intervene during the ...

  18. Innovative Tools Help Counselors Discuss Childhood Obesity with Parents

    PubMed Central

    Lockner, Donna; Kibbe, Debra; Marley, Scott C.; Trowbridge, Frederick; Bailey, Angie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Childhood overweight and obesity pose potential health risks for many children under the age of 5 years. Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) nutritionists are in a unique position to help reduce this problem because of their frequent counseling contacts with clients during certification visits. Therefore, four new tools to facilitate nutritional counseling of parents of overweight children during certifications were developed and systematically evaluated. Methods The Nutrition and Activity Self-History (NASH) form, Report Card/Action Plan (ReCAP), Talking Tips, and Healthy Weight Poster were evaluated by WIC nutritionists via an online survey. Anchors on the Likert scale were 0 for Strongly Disagree to 6 for Strongly Agree. Four regional focus groups were also conducted. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results The response rate on the survey was 83% (n=63). Focus groups were comprised of staff that volunteered to participate (n=34). The NASH form, which replaces a food frequency questionnaire for identifying nutrition risk, had a mean rating of 5.20 as “Helpful when counseling about weight.” The ReCAP, Talking Tips, and Healthy Weight Poster achieved mean ratings of 5.70, 4.75, and 5.30, respectively, in this category. Focus group responses were very positive about the usefulness of the ReCAP and Healthy Weight Poster to visually convey the concept of BMI percentile for age using a green, yellow, and red color-coded “traffic light” approach to showing healthy versus unhealthy BMI values. Conclusions WIC programs and other pediatric health care settings may want to consider adopting these innovative tools to better serve their clients and address pediatric overweight in the populations they serve. PMID:23496294

  19. Neighborhoods, Schools and Obesity: The Potential for Place-Based Approaches to Reduce Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Brian; Corcoran, Sean P.; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    A common policy approach to reducing childhood obesity aims to shape the environment in which children spend most of their time: neighborhoods and schools. This paper uses richly detailed data on the body mass index (BMI) of all New York City public school students in grades K-8 to assess the potential for place-based approaches to reduce child obesity. We document variation in the prevalence of obesity across NYC public schools and census tracts, and then estimate the extent to which this variation can be explained by differences in individual-level predictors (such as race and household income). Both unadjusted and adjusted variability across neighborhoods and schools suggest place-based policies have the potential to meaningfully reduce child obesity, but under most realistic scenarios the improvement would be modest. PMID:27309533

  20. Neighborhoods, Schools and Obesity: The Potential for Place-Based Approaches to Reduce Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Elbel, Brian; Corcoran, Sean P; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    A common policy approach to reducing childhood obesity aims to shape the environment in which children spend most of their time: neighborhoods and schools. This paper uses richly detailed data on the body mass index (BMI) of all New York City public school students in grades K-8 to assess the potential for place-based approaches to reduce child obesity. We document variation in the prevalence of obesity across NYC public schools and census tracts, and then estimate the extent to which this variation can be explained by differences in individual-level predictors (such as race and household income). Both unadjusted and adjusted variability across neighborhoods and schools suggest place-based policies have the potential to meaningfully reduce child obesity, but under most realistic scenarios the improvement would be modest. PMID:27309533

  1. Childhood obesity as a predictor of morbidity in adulthood: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, A; Simmonds, M; Owen, C G; Woolacott, N

    2016-01-01

    Obese children are at higher risk of being obese as adults, and adult obesity is associated with an increased risk of morbidity. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the ability of childhood body mass index (BMI) to predict obesity-related morbidities in adulthood. Thirty-seven studies were included. High childhood BMI was associated with an increased incidence of adult diabetes (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.30-2.22), coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.10-1.31) and a range of cancers, but not stroke or breast cancer. The accuracy of childhood BMI when predicting any adult morbidity was low. Only 31% of future diabetes and 22% of future hypertension and CHD occurred in children aged 12 or over classified as being overweight or obese. Only 20% of all adult cancers occurred in children classified as being overweight or obese. Childhood obesity is associated with moderately increased risks of adult obesity-related morbidity, but the increase in risk is not large enough for childhood BMI to be a good predictor of the incidence of adult morbidities. This is because the majority of adult obesity-related morbidity occurs in adults who were of healthy weight in childhood. Therefore, targeting obesity reduction solely at obese or overweight children may not substantially reduce the overall burden of obesity-related disease in adulthood. PMID:26440472

  2. Poverty, food programs, and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Hofferth, Sandra L; Curtin, Sally

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen percent of children 6-11 years of age were classified as overweight in 1999-2002, four times the percentage in 1965. Although poverty has traditionally been associated with underweight as a result of poor diet, researchers have recently pointed to a paradox in the U.S., which is that low income and obesity can coexist in the same population. This paper first examines whether income is linked to overweight in school-age children. Second, it explores whether food programs such as the Food Stamp Program, the National School Lunch Program, and the School Breakfast Program are associated with overweight among children in different income groups. The data come from the nationally representative 1997 Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement. No evidence either that poor children are more likely to be overweight or that food programs contribute to overweight among poor children was found. PMID:16201056

  3. Opportunities to Strengthen Childhood Obesity Prevention in Two Mexican Health Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Cespedes, Elizabeth; Andrade, Gloria Oliva Martínez; Rodríguez-Oliveros, Guadalupe; Perez-Cuevas, Ricardo; González-Unzaga, Marco A.; Trejo, Amalia Benitez; Haines, Jess; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine Mexican caregivers’ perceptions of the role of primary care in childhood obesity management, understand the barriers and facilitators of behavior change, and identify opportunities to strengthen obesity prevention and treatment in clinical settings. Methods We conducted 52 in-depth interviews with parents and caregivers of overweight and obese children age 2–5 years in 4 Ministry of Health (public, low SES) and 4 Social Security Institute (insured, higher SES) primary care clinics in Mexico City and did systematic thematic analysis. Results In both health systems, caregivers acknowledged childhood overweight but not its adverse health consequences. Although the majority of parents had not received nutrition or physical activity recommendations from health providers, many were open to clinician guidance. Despite knowledge of healthful nutrition and physical activity, parents identified several barriers to change including child feeding occurring in the context of competing priorities (work schedules, spouses’ food preferences), and cultural norms (heavy as healthy, food as nurturance) that take precedence over adherence to dietary guidelines. Physical activity, while viewed favorably, is not a structured part of most preschooler’s routines as reported by parents. Conclusions The likelihood of success for clinic-based obesity prevention among Mexican preschoolers will be higher by addressing contextual barriers such as cultural norms regarding children’s weight and support of family members for behavior change. Similarities in caregivers’ perceptions across 2 health systems highlight the possibility of developing comprehensive interventions for the population as a whole. PMID:25530836

  4. The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE): design and methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) was to determine the relationships between lifestyle behaviours and obesity in a multi-national study of children, and to investigate the influence of higher-order characteristics such as behavioural settings, and the physical, social and policy environments, on the observed relationships within and between countries. Methods/design The targeted sample included 6000 10-year old children from 12 countries in five major geographic regions of the world (Europe, Africa, the Americas, South-East Asia, and the Western Pacific). The protocol included procedures to collect data at the individual level (lifestyle, diet and physical activity questionnaires, accelerometry), family and neighborhood level (parental questionnaires), and the school environment (school administrator questionnaire and school audit tool). A standard study protocol was developed for implementation in all regions of the world. A rigorous system of training and certification of study personnel was developed and implemented, including web-based training modules and regional in-person training meetings. Discussion The results of this study will provide a robust examination of the correlates of adiposity and obesity in children, focusing on both sides of the energy balance equation. The results will also provide important new information that will inform the development of lifestyle, environmental, and policy interventions to address and prevent childhood obesity that may be culturally adapted for implementation around the world. ISCOLE represents a multi-national collaboration among all world regions, and represents a global effort to increase research understanding, capacity and infrastructure in childhood obesity. PMID:24079373

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity in the United Kingdom: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Scarborough, Peter; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge worldwide. There is a growing literature documenting socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity risk. Here we draw inference from the literature about inequalities in childhood obesity risk in the UK. We summarize and appraise the extant peer-reviewed literature about socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity in the UK. Common area-level indices of socioeconomic position, including the Carstairs Deprivation Index, the Index of Multiple Deprivation and the Townsend Deprivation Index, as well as common household and individual-level metrics of childhood socioeconomic position, including head-of-household social class and maternal education, were generally inversely associated with childhood obesity in the UK. We summarize key methodological limitations to the extant literature and suggest avenues for future research. PMID:23108336

  6. Endocrine and Metabolic Biomarkers Predicting Early Childhood Obesity Risk.

    PubMed

    Socha, Piotr; Hellmuth, Christian; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Demmelmair, Hans; Rzehak, Peter; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Escribano, Joaquin; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Dain, Elena; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Riva, Enrica; Verduci, Elvira; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of long-term effects of early dietary intervention in infancy on later obesity risk. Many studies showed reduced risk of obesity with breastfeeding in infancy, which could be related to the reduced protein intake with human milk compared to infant formula. In a randomized controlled trial (Childhood Obesity Project), we were able to show that infant formula with reduced protein content results in lower BMI both at 2 and 6 years. These effects seem to be mediated mainly by branched-chain amino acids which stimulate the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin release. In this trial, we also showed an influence of high-protein diet on larger kidney size, which seems to be partly explained by a significant effect of free IGF-1 on kidney volume. The IGF-1 axis was shown to regulate early growth, adipose tissue differentiation and early adipogenesis in animals and in humans. Leptin and adiponectin can also be regarded as important endocrine regulators of obesity. These markers were tested in observational studies. Leptin seems to be closely correlated with BMI but changes in adiponectin require further exploration. Still, there is a lack of good data or some results are contradictory to indicate the role of either leptin or adiponectin in infancy for determining later obesity risk. PMID:27088335

  7. Global School-Based Childhood Obesity Interventions: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ickes, Melinda J.; McMullen, Jennifer; Haider, Taj; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) primary research; (2) overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3) school-based; (4) studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5) published in the English language; (6) child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7) studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy. PMID:25170684

  8. Parenthood--a contributing factor to childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Fatma G; Kanikireddy, Sankarabharan; Patel, Manthan

    2010-07-01

    Prevalence of childhood obesity and its complications have increased world-wide. Parental status may be associated with children's health outcomes including their eating habits, body weight and blood cholesterol. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1988-1994, provided a unique opportunity for matching parents to children enabling analyses of joint demographics, racial differences and health indicators. Specifically, the NHANES III data, 1988-1994, of 219 households with single-parents and 780 dual-parent households were analyzed as predictors for primary outcome variables of children's Body Mass Index (BMI), dietary nutrient intakes and blood cholesterol. Children of single-parent households were significantly (p < 0.01) more overweight than children of dual-parent households. Total calorie and saturated fatty acid intakes were higher among children of single-parent households than dual-parent households (p < 0.05). On average, Black children were more overweight (p < 0.04) than children of other races. The study results implied a strong relationship between single-parent status and excess weight in children. Further studies are needed to explore the dynamics of single-parent households and its influence on childhood diet and obesity. Parental involvement in the development of school- and community-based obesity prevention programs are suggested for effective health initiatives. Economic constraints and cultural preferences may be communicated directly by family involvement in these much needed public health programs. PMID:20717539

  9. The association between childhood sexual and physical abuse with incident adult severe obesity across 13 years of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Dietz, William H.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe obesity has increased yet childhood antecedents of adult severe obesity are not well understood. Objective Estimate adult-onset severe obesity risk in individuals with history of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse compared to those who did not report abuse. Methods Longitudinal analysis of participants from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=10,774) Wave II (1996; aged 12–22 years) followed through Wave IV (2008–09; aged 24–34 years). New cases of adult-onset severe obesity (BMI≥40 kg/m2 using measured height and weight) in individuals followed over 13 years who were not severely obese during adolescence (BMI <120% of 95th percentile CDC/NCHS growth curves). Results The combined occurrence of self-reported sexual and physical abuse during childhood was associated with an increased risk of incident severe obesity in adulthood in non-minority females (Hazard Ratio=2.5; 1.3, 4.8) and males (Hazard Ratio=3.6; 1.5, 8.5) compared to individuals with no history of abuse. Conclusion In addition to other social and emotional risks, exposure to sexual and physical abuse during childhood may increase risk of severe obesity later in life. Consideration of the confluence of childhood abuse might be considered as part of preventive and therapeutic approaches to address severe obesity. PMID:24115589

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood overweight: heterogeneity across five countries in the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Lissner, L; Wijnhoven, T M A; Mehlig, K; Sjöberg, A; Kunesova, M; Yngve, A; Petrauskiene, A; Duleva, V; Rito, A I; Breda, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excess risk of childhood overweight and obesity occurring in socioeconomically disadvantaged families has been demonstrated in numerous studies from high-income regions, including Europe. It is well known that socioeconomic characteristics such as parental education, income and occupation are etiologically relevant to childhood obesity. However, in the pan-European setting, there is reason to believe that inequalities in childhood weight status may vary among countries as a function of differing degrees of socioeconomic development and equity. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we have examined socioeconomic differences in childhood obesity in different parts of the European region using nationally representative data from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Portugal and Sweden that were collected in 2008 during the first round of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. Results: Heterogeneity in the association between parental socioeconomic indicators and childhood overweight or obesity was clearly observed across the five countries studied. Positive as well as negative associations were observed between parental socioeconomic indicators and childhood overweight, with statistically significant interactions between country and parental indicators. Conclusions: These findings have public health implications for the WHO European Region and underscore the necessity to continue documenting socioeconomic inequalities in obesity in all countries through international surveillance efforts in countries with diverse geographic, social and economic environments. This is a prerequisite for universal as well as targeted preventive actions. PMID:27136760

  11. Obesity in childhood and adolescence: evidence based clinical and public health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J J

    2006-07-01

    A global epidemic of paediatric obesity occurred in recent years, and prevalence of obesity is continuing to rise. In the developed world obesity is now the most common disease of childhood and adolescence. Paediatric obesity is not a cosmetic issue, being associated with a significant burden of ill health both for obese children and for adults who were obese as children. Health professionals tend to underestimate the impact of paediatric obesity, and lack the skills, knowledge, and time to treat it effectively. This short review aims to summarise recent systematic reviews on the origins, consequences, prevention, and treatment of paediatric obesity. PMID:16822919

  12. Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project: Cross-Site Evaluation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mehta, Paras; Thompson, Debbe; Bhargava, Alok; Carlson, Coleen; Kao, Dennis; Layne, Charles S.; Ledoux, Tracey; O'Connor, Teresia; Rifai, Hanadi; Gulley, Lauren; Hallett, Allen M.; Kudia, Ousswa; Joseph, Sitara; Modelska, Maria; Ortega, Dana; Parker, Nathan; Stevens, Andria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project links public health and primary care interventions in three projects described in detail in accompanying articles in this issue of Childhood Obesity. This article describes a comprehensive evaluation plan to determine the extent to which the CORD model is associated with changes in behavior, body weight, BMI, quality of life, and healthcare satisfaction in children 2–12 years of age. Design/Methods: The CORD Evaluation Center (EC-CORD) will analyze the pooled data from three independent demonstration projects that each integrate public health and primary care childhood obesity interventions. An extensive set of common measures at the family, facility, and community levels were defined by consensus among the CORD projects and EC-CORD. Process evaluation will assess reach, dose delivered, and fidelity of intervention components. Impact evaluation will use a mixed linear models approach to account for heterogeneity among project-site populations and interventions. Sustainability evaluation will assess the potential for replicability, continuation of benefits beyond the funding period, institutionalization of the intervention activities, and community capacity to support ongoing program delivery. Finally, cost analyses will assess how much benefit can potentially be gained per dollar invested in programs based on the CORD model. Conclusions: The keys to combining and analyzing data across multiple projects include the CORD model framework and common measures for the behavioral and health outcomes along with important covariates at the individual, setting, and community levels. The overall objective of the comprehensive evaluation will develop evidence-based recommendations for replicating and disseminating community-wide, integrated public health and primary care programs based on the CORD model. PMID:25679060

  13. Perceptions of Childhood Obesity among Rural Parents, Teachers, and School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Paula J.; Choi, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this exploratory qualitative research were to describe perceptions related to childhood obesity of rural parents, teachers, and school administrators and to examine how their perceptions shape their choices and behaviors for children's eating and physical exercise. The results showed that the perceptions of childhood obesity in the…

  14. Mexican American Mothers' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity: A Theory-Guided Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Erica T.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to increase, disproportionately affecting Mexican American children. The aims of this review are to (a) assess the literature regarding Mexican American mothers' knowledge and perceptions of childhood obesity, prevention, and their role in prevention; (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of the research…

  15. Weighing in on Education: A Study of Childhood Obesity and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guindon, John R., Sr.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative causal comparative study looked to see if there was a relationship between childhood obesity and student achievement. Because of the many conflicting results in the research available, it was not known if there was a relationship between childhood obesity and student achievement among inner-city middle school students in a school…

  16. Keeping Children Active: What You Can Do to Fight Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about childhood obesity and explores ways to fight this condition. The author shares some activities to get children moving to positively impact childhood obesity. These include: "Stand Up/Sit Down;" "Quick Clean-Up;" and "Get Ready Spaghetti."

  17. Childhood Obesity: Causes and Prevention. Symposium Proceedings (Washington, DC, October 27, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services (USDA), Washington, DC. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.

    This report documents the proceedings of a 1998 symposium on the causes and prevention of childhood obesity sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion to focus attention on the growing problem of childhood obesity in the United States and the link between nutrition and health. Following opening…

  18. ENERGY IMBALANCE UNDERLYING THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY IN HISPANIC CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity arises from dysregulation of energy balance; however, the energetics for the development of childhood obesity are poorly delineated. We therefore developed a mathematical model based on empirical data and current understanding of energy balance to predict the total energy cost of w...

  19. Matters of Size: Obesity as a Diversity Issue in the Field of Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    1999-01-01

    Notes that obesity is the primary reason for peer rejection in America; examines effects of obesity on wellness, self-esteem, peer relationships, and social status of children/families and early childhood teachers. Suggests that early childhood educators: (1) educate all stakeholders about nutrition and body size issues; (2) speak out against…

  20. Dynamics of childhood growth and obesity development and validation of a quantitative mathematical model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinicians and policy makers need the ability to predict quantitatively how childhood bodyweight will respond to obesity interventions. We developed and validated a mathematical model of childhood energy balance that accounts for healthy growth and development of obesity, and that makes quantitative...

  1. Preventing Childhood Obesity: What Are We Doing Right?

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    After decades of increases, the prevalence of childhood obesity has declined in the past decade in New York City, as measured in children participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and public school students, with the greatest reductions occurring in the youngest children. Possible explanations were changes in demographics; WIC, day care, and school food policies; citywide obesity prevention policies, media messages; and family and community food consumption. Although the decreases cannot be attributed to any one cause, the most plausible explanation is changes in food consumption at home, prompted by media messages and reinforced by school and child care center policy changes. Continued media messages and policy changes are needed to sustain these improvements and extend them to other age groups. PMID:25033123

  2. Adiposity in childhood cancer survivors: insights into obesity physiopathology.

    PubMed

    Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2009-03-01

    As childhood cancer treatment has become more effective, survival rates have improved, and a number of complications have been described while many of these patients reach adulthood. Obesity is a well-recognized late effect, and its metabolic effects may lead to cardiovascular disease. Currently, studies concerning overweight have focused on acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors, since they are at risk for hypothalamic-pituitary axis damage secondary to cancer therapies (cranial irradiation, chemotherapy, and brain surgery) or to primary tumor location. Obesity and cancer have metabolic syndrome features in common. Thus, it remains controversial if overweight is a cause or consequence of cancer, and to date additional mechanisms involving adipose tissue and hypothalamic derangements have been considered, comprising premature adiposity rebound, hyperinsulinemia, leptin regulation, and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Overall, further research is still necessary to better understand the relationship between adipogenesis and hypothalamic control deregulation following cancer therapy. PMID:19466212

  3. Preventing childhood obesity: what are we doing right?

    PubMed

    Farley, Thomas A; Dowell, Deborah

    2014-09-01

    After decades of increases, the prevalence of childhood obesity has declined in the past decade in New York City, as measured in children participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and public school students, with the greatest reductions occurring in the youngest children. Possible explanations were changes in demographics; WIC, day care, and school food policies; citywide obesity prevention policies, media messages; and family and community food consumption. Although the decreases cannot be attributed to any one cause, the most plausible explanation is changes in food consumption at home, prompted by media messages and reinforced by school and child care center policy changes. Continued media messages and policy changes are needed to sustain these improvements and extend them to other age groups. PMID:25033123

  4. The relationship of obesity and weight gain to childhood teasing.

    PubMed

    Feeg, Veronica D; Candelaria, Laura M; Krenitsky-Korn, Susan; Vessey, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between weight gain and childhood teasing in children. Anthropometric data and self-reported teasing experiences were collected on a sample of second and third graders at a local elementary school in a disadvantaged suburban community. The study model uses bio-ecological development theory in which child development is understood in context: the child's physical characteristics influence the social environment, which interact and influence the behaviors that result in physical development and characteristics such as weight gain. Results suggest that teasing influences BMI change and that the relationship is more complex than simply stating that obese children are teased. PMID:25241400

  5. Ecological Risk Model of Childhood Obesity in Chinese Immigrant Children

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Americans are the largest and fastest growing Asian American subgroup, increasing about one-third during the 2000s. Despite the slender Asian stereotype, nearly one-third of 6-to-11 years old Chinese American children were found to be overweight (above the 85th percentile in BMI). Importantly, unique and severe health risks are associated with being overweight/obese in Chinese. Unfortunately, Chinese immigrant children have been neglected in the literature on obesity. This review aimed to identify factors at various levels of the ecological model that may place Chinese immigrant children at risk for being overweight/obese in the U.S. Key contextual factors at the micro-, meso-, exo-, macro- and chronosystem were identified guided by Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. The corresponding mediating and moderating processes among the factors were also reviewed and proposed. By presenting a conceptual framework and relevant research, this review can provide a basic framework for directing future interdisciplinary research in seeking solutions to childhood obesity within this understudied population. PMID:25728887

  6. Ecological risk model of childhood obesity in Chinese immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L

    2015-07-01

    Chinese Americans are the largest and fastest growing Asian American subgroup, increasing about one-third during the 2000s. Despite the slender Asian stereotype, nearly one-third of 6-to-11 year old Chinese American children were found to be overweight (above the 85th percentile in BMI). Importantly, unique and severe health risks are associated with being overweight/obese in Chinese. Unfortunately, Chinese immigrant children have been neglected in the literature on obesity. This review aimed to identify factors at various levels of the ecological model that may place Chinese immigrant children at risk for being overweight/obese in the U.S. Key contextual factors at the micro-, meso-, exo-, macro- and chronosystem were identified guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. The corresponding mediating and moderating processes among the factors were also reviewed and proposed. By presenting a conceptual framework and relevant research, this review can provide a basic framework for directing future interdisciplinary research in seeking solutions to childhood obesity within this understudied population. PMID:25728887

  7. Lifecourse Approach to Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Childhood Obesity123

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2012-01-01

    Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present, suggesting that disparities in childhood obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. Several risk factors during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of offspring obesity, including excessive maternal gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, antenatal depression, and biological stress. During infancy and early childhood, rapid infant weight gain, infant feeding practices, sleep duration, child’s diet, physical activity, and sedentary practices are associated with the development of obesity. Studies have found substantial racial/ethnic differences in many of these early life risk factors for childhood obesity. It is possible that racial/ethnic differences in early life risk factors for obesity might contribute to the high prevalence of obesity among minority preschool-age children and beyond. Understanding these differences may help inform the design of clinical and public health interventions and policies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity and eliminate disparities among racial/ethnic minority children. PMID:22332105

  8. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95% CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95% CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26386682

  9. Prenatal exposure to antibiotics, cesarean section and risk of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, NT; Whyatt, R; Hoepner, L; Oberfield, S; Dominguez-Bello, MG; Widen, EM; Hassoun, A; Perera, F; Rundle, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cesarean section (CS) and antibiotic use during pregnancy may alter normal maternal-offspring microbiota exchange, thereby contributing to aberrant microbial colonization of the infant gut and increased susceptibility to obesity later in life. We hypothesized that (i) maternal use of antibiotics in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and (ii) CS are independently associated with higher risk of childhood obesity in the offspring. SUBJECTS/METHODS Of the 727 mothers enrolled in the Northern Manhattan Mothers and Children Study, we analyzed the 436 mother–child dyads followed until 7 years of age with complete data. We ascertained prenatal antibiotic use by a questionnaire administered late in the third trimester, and delivery mode by medical record. We derived age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-scores using the CDC SAS Macro, and defined obesity as BMI z ≥ 95th percentile. We used binary regression with robust variance and linear regression models adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, pre-gravid BMI, maternal receipt of public assistance, birth weight, sex, breastfeeding in the first year and gestational antibiotics or delivery mode. RESULTS Compared with children not exposed to antibiotics during the second or third trimester, those exposed had 84% (33–154%) higher risk of obesity, after multivariable adjustment. Second or third trimester antibiotic exposure was also positively associated with BMI z-scores, waist circumference and % body fat (all P<0.05). Independent of prenatal antibiotic usage, CS was associated with 46% (8–98%) higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Associations were similar for elective and non-elective CS. CONCLUSIONS In our cohort, CS and exposure to antibiotics in the second or third trimester were associated with higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Future studies that address the limitations of our study are warranted to determine if prenatal antibiotic use is associated with

  10. Healthy school as an ecological model for prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Albert; Ho, Mandy; Keung, Vera

    2010-01-01

    A number of risk factors including obesity, insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables, and lack of physical activities are responsible for the majority of chronic disease burden. Healthy behaviours should begin early in life with sustained actions, but in many countries there is no system addressing positive health. The opportunities offered by different settings for gaining entry into individuals and groups are of paramount importance for health promotion. Evidence has shown the effectiveness of the Healthy School model to improve healthy eating and physical activities. In this article we report key findings of studies in Hong Kong showing changes in school policies and environment in relationship to student health apart from improvement of health behaviours by adopting the Healthy School framework. A case study has illustrated how the framework created a supportive environment, policies changes, and personal health skills development to improve healthy eating. The Healthy School model can help to combat childhood obesity. PMID:20391246

  11. Towards Health in All Policies for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Gubbels, Jessica S.; Raat, Hein; de Vries, Nanne K.; Jansen, Maria W. J.

    2013-01-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from health and nonhealth sectors. Such intersectoral collaboration has been proved to be difficult. In this study, we investigated which resources influence intersectoral collaboration. The behavior change wheel framework was used to categorize motivation-, capability-, and opportunity-related resources for intersectoral collaboration. In-depth interviews were held with eight officials representing 10 non-health policy sectors within a local government. Results showed that health and non-health policy sectors did not share policy goals, which decreased motivation for intersectoral collaboration. Awareness of the linkage between health and nonhealth policy sectors was limited, and management was not involved in creating such awareness, which reduced the capability for intersectoral collaboration. Insufficient organizational resources and structures reduced opportunities for intersectoral collaboration. To stimulate intersectoral collaboration to prevent childhood obesity, we recommend that public health professionals should reframe health goals in the terminology of nonhealth policy sectors, that municipal department managers should increase awareness of public health in non-health policy sectors, and that flatter organizational structures should be established. PMID:24490059

  12. Causal pathways linking Farm to School to childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anupama; Ratcliffe, Michelle M

    2012-08-01

    Farm to School programs are rapidly gaining attention as a potential strategy for preventing childhood obesity; however, the causal linkages between Farm to School activities and health outcomes are not well documented. To capitalize on the increased interest in and momentum for Farm to School, researchers and practitioners need to move from developing and implementing evidence informed programs and policies to ones that are evidence-based. The purpose of this article is to outline a framework for facilitating an evidence base for Farm to School programs and policies through a systematic and coordinated approach. Employing the concepts of causal pathways, the authors introduce a proposed framework for organizing and systematically testing out multiple hypotheses (or potential causal links) for how, why, and under what conditions Farm to School Inputs and Activities may result in what Outputs, Effects, and Impacts. Using the causal pathways framework may help develop and test competing hypotheses, identify multicausality, strength, and interactions of causes, and discern the difference between catalysts and causes. In this article, we introduce causal pathways, present menus of potential independent and dependent variables from which to create and test causal pathways linking Farm to School interventions and their role in preventing childhood obesity, discuss their applicability to Farm to School research and practice, and outline proposed next steps for developing a coordinated research framework for Farm to School programs. PMID:22867068

  13. Paediatric Obesity Research in Early Childhood and the Primary Care Setting: The TARGet Kids! Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Morinis, Julia; Maguire, Jonathon; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian W.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Birken, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and development of a primary care research network in Canada—TARGet Kids!—to develop and translate an evidence-base on effective screening and prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:22690197

  14. A Tale of Two ObesCities: The Role of Municipal Governance in Reducing Childhood Obesity in New York City and London

    PubMed Central

    Libman, Kimberly; O’Keefe, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    As rates of childhood obesity and overweight rise around the world, researchers and policy makers seek new ways to reverse these trends. Given the concentration of the world’s population, income inequalities, unhealthy diets, and patterns of physical activity in cities, urban areas bear a disproportionate burden of obesity. To address these issues, in 2008, researchers from the City University of New York and London Metropolitan University created the Municipal Responses to Childhood Obesity Collaborative. The Collaborative examined three questions: What role has city government played in responding to childhood obesity in each jurisdiction? How have municipal governance structures in each city influenced its capacity to respond effectively? How can policy and programmatic interventions to reduce childhood obesity also reduce the growing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic inequities in its prevalence? Based on a review of existing initiatives in London and New York City, the Collaborative recommended 11 broad strategies by which each city could reduce childhood obesity. These recommendations were selected because they can be enacted at the municipal level; will reduce socioeconomic and racial/ethnic inequalities in obesity; are either well supported by research or are already being implemented in one city, demonstrating their feasibility; build on existing city assets; and are both green and healthy. PMID:20811951

  15. Invited Commentary: Childhood and Adolescent Obesity--Psychological and Behavioral Issues in Weight Loss Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…

  16. Associations of cord blood metabolites with early childhood obesity risk

    PubMed Central

    Isganaitis, Elvira; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Oken, Emily; Dreyfuss, Jonathan; Gall, Walt; Gillman, Matthew W.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Rapid postnatal weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndrome. To identify markers of rapid infancy weight gain and childhood obesity, we analyzed the metabolome in cord blood from infants differing in their postnatal weight trajectories. Methods We performed a nested case-control study within Project Viva, a longitudinal cohort of mothers and children. We selected cases (n=26) based on top quartile of change in weight-for-age 0-6 mo and BMI >85th percentile in mid-childhood (median 7.7 years). Controls (n=26) were age- and sex-matched, had normal postnatal weight gain (2nd or 3rd quartile of change in weight-for-age 0-6 mo) and normal mid-childhood weight (BMI 25th-75th percentile). Cord blood metabolites were measured using untargeted LC/MS; individual metabolites and pathways differing between cases vs. controls were compared in categorical analyses. We adjusted metabolites for maternal age, maternal BMI, and breastfeeding duration (linear regression), and assessed whether metabolites improved the ability to predict case-control status (logistic regression). Results Of 415 detected metabolites, 16 were altered in cases vs. controls (T-test, nominal P<0.05). 3 metabolites were related to tryptophan: serotonin, tryptophan betaine, and tryptophyl leucine (46%, 48% and 26% lower in cases, respectively, P<0.05). Mean levels of 2 methyl donors, dimethylglycine and N-acetylmethionine, were also lower in cases (18% and 16% respectively, P=0.01). Moreover, the glutamine:glutamate ratio was reduced by 33% (P<0.05) in cases. Levels of serotonin, tryptophyl leucine, and N-acetylmethionine remained significantly different after adjustment for maternal BMI, age, and breastfeeding. Adding metabolite levels to logistic regression models including only clinical covariates improved the ability to predict case vs. control status. Conclusions Several cord blood metabolites are associated with rapid postnatal weight gain

  17. Childhood Obesity and Restrictions of Parental Liberty. A Response to "Paternalism, Obesity, and Tolerable Levels of Risk"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    This paper responds to Michael Merry's recent contribution on childhood obesity. Merry's analysis highlights the difficulties in finding an appropriate balance between children's and parents' interests in antiobesity interventions and emphasizes the importance of weight stigma and its effects on the obesity debate. He concludes by recommending…

  18. Systematic Review of Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Jodi; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee; Wang, Youfa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviewed community-based childhood obesity prevention programs in the United States and high-income countries. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library for relevant English-language studies. Studies were eligible if the intervention was primarily implemented in the community setting; had at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline; and compared results from an intervention to a comparison group. Two independent reviewers conducted title scans and abstract reviews and reviewed the full articles to assess eligibility. Each article received a double review for data abstraction. The second reviewer confirmed the first reviewer’s data abstraction for completeness and accuracy. RESULTS: Nine community-based studies were included; 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 non–randomized controlled trials. One study was conducted only in the community setting, 3 were conducted in the community and school setting, and 5 were conducted in the community setting in combination with at least 1 other setting such as the home. Desirable changes in BMI or BMI z-score were found in 4 of the 9 studies. Two studies reported significant improvements in behavioral outcomes (1 in physical activity and 1 in vegetable intake). CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is moderate that a combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. More research and consistent methods are needed to understand the comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs in the community setting. PMID:23753099

  19. Childhood Obesity Is a Chronic Disease Demanding Specific Health Care--a Position Statement from the Childhood Obesity Task Force (COTF) of the European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO).

    PubMed

    Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Baker, Jennifer L; Hassapidou, Maria; Holm, Jens Christian; Nowicka, Paulina; O'Malley, Grace; Weiss, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the greatest health challenges of the 21st century. The EASO COTF is convinced that classifying obesity as a chronic disease in children and adolescents is a crucial step for increasing individual and societal awareness, and for improving early diagnosis and intervention. Such a classification will enhance the development of novel preventive and treatment approaches, health care policies and systems, and the education of healthcare workers. The management of obesity prior to the appearance of co-morbidities may prevent their escalation into significant medical and psychosocial problems, and reduce their economic and societal impact. Childhood is a unique window of opportunity to influence lifetime effects on health, quality of life, prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and disabilities. The Convention on the Rights of the Child by UNICEF states that parties shall strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to health care services. The EASO COTF is aiming to address these issues via educational activities for health care workers, identification of research agendas, and the promotion of collaborations among clinicians, researchers, health institutions, organizations and states across Europe. PMID:26469067

  20. Determinants, consequences and prevention of childhood overweight and obesity: An Indian context

    PubMed Central

    Ranjani, Harish; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mehreen, T. S.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Anand, Krishnan; Garg, Renu; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in adolescents and children has risen to alarming levels globally, and this has serious public health consequences. Sedentary lifestyle and consumption of calorie-dense foods of low nutritional value are speculated to be two of the most important etiological factors responsible for escalating rate of childhood overweight in developing nations. To tackle the childhood obesity epidemic we require comprehensive multidisciplinary evidence-based interventions. Some suggested strategies for childhood obesity prevention and management include increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary time including television viewing, personalized nutrition plans for very obese kids, co-curriculum health education which should be implemented in schools and counseling for children and their parents. In developing countries like India we will need practical and cost-effective community-based strategies with appropriate policy changes in order to curb the escalating epidemic of childhood obesity. PMID:25538874

  1. Evaluation of the Relationship between Childhood Traumas and Adulthood Obesity Development.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Hayrettin; Bilgiç, Vedat; Erten, Sebahattin; Aras, Şükrü; Tayfur, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to delineate the relationship between childhood traumas and adulthood obesity. A total of 314 individuals (157 obese and 157 nonobese) were recruited in the study. After obtaining anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was administered to the participants. Overall scores of CTQ were determined to be 42.6 ± 10.5 (higher trauma) in obese group and 37.2 ± 6.6 (lower trauma) in nonobese group (P < 0.001). Frequency rates of childhood traumatic experience were found to be 68.8% for obese people and 38.8% for nonobese people. In conclusion, an increased risk for adulthood obesity development was significantly associated with childhood traumatic experience. PMID:27399037

  2. Trends in Measures of Childhood Obesity in Korea From 1998 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bahk, Jinwook; Khang, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background During the last several decades, the number of children who are overweight or obese has reached alarming levels worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine trends in measures of childhood obesity among Korean children aged 2–19 from 1998 to 2012. Methods Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Age-adjusted means of WC and BMI were compared between years. We used three international criteria (International Obesity Task Force [IOTF], World Health Organization [WHO], United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]) and a Korean national reference standard (Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [KCDC]) to calculate age-standardized prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. Results Despite differences in absolute prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity according to the four different criteria, the time trends of prevalence were generally similar across criteria. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity generally stabilized from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls. WC decreased from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls aged 2–19. Conclusions Further studies exploring the factors causing plateaued trends of childhood obesity measures are needed to implement effective policies for reducing the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. PMID:26686881

  3. Design of a Digital-Based, Multicomponent Nutrition Guidance System for Prevention of Early Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M.; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parenting focused modifiable factors to prevent obesity and promote healthy growth in the first 1000 days of life are needed. Scale-up of interventions to global populations is necessary to reverse trends in weight status among infants and toddlers, and large scale dissemination will require understanding of effective strategies. Utilizing nutrition education theories, this paper describes the design of a digital-based nutrition guidance system targeted to first-time mothers to prevent obesity during the first two years. The multicomponent system consists of scientifically substantiated content, tools, and telephone-based professional support delivered in an anticipatory and sequential manner via the internet, email, and text messages, focusing on educational modules addressing the modifiable factors associated with childhood obesity. Digital delivery formats leverage consumer media trends and provide the opportunity for scale-up, unavailable to previous interventions reliant on resource heavy clinic and home-based counseling. Designed initially for use in the United States, this system's core features are applicable to all contexts and constitute an approach fostering healthy growth, not just obesity prevention. The multicomponent features, combined with a global concern for optimal growth and positive trends in mobile internet use, represent this system's future potential to affect change in nutrition practice in developing countries.

  4. Using Metabolomic Profiles as Biomarkers for Insulin Resistance in Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue; Gang, Xiaokun; Liu, Yujia; Sun, Chenglin; Han, Qing; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown the intimate relationship between metabolomic profiles and insulin resistance (IR) in obese adults, while little is known about childhood obesity. In this review, we searched available papers addressing metabolomic profiles and IR in obese children from inception to February 2016 on MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and EMASE. HOMA-IR was applied as surrogate markers of IR and related metabolic disorders at both baseline and follow-up. To minimize selection bias, two investigators independently completed this work. After critical selection, 10 studies (including 2,673 participants) were eligible and evaluated by using QUADOMICS for quality assessment. Six of the 10 studies were classified as "high quality." Then we generated all the metabolites identified in each study and found amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism were the main affected metabolic pathways in obese children. Among identified metabolites, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids (AAAs), and acylcarnitines were reported to be associated with IR as biomarkers most frequently. Additionally, BCAAs and tyrosine seemed to be relevant to future metabolic risk in the long-term follow-up cohorts, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and prevention strategy. Because of limited scale and design heterogeneity of existing studies, future studies might focus on validating above findings in more large-scale and longitudinal studies with elaborate design. PMID:27517054

  5. Using Metabolomic Profiles as Biomarkers for Insulin Resistance in Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chenglin

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown the intimate relationship between metabolomic profiles and insulin resistance (IR) in obese adults, while little is known about childhood obesity. In this review, we searched available papers addressing metabolomic profiles and IR in obese children from inception to February 2016 on MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and EMASE. HOMA-IR was applied as surrogate markers of IR and related metabolic disorders at both baseline and follow-up. To minimize selection bias, two investigators independently completed this work. After critical selection, 10 studies (including 2,673 participants) were eligible and evaluated by using QUADOMICS for quality assessment. Six of the 10 studies were classified as “high quality.” Then we generated all the metabolites identified in each study and found amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism were the main affected metabolic pathways in obese children. Among identified metabolites, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids (AAAs), and acylcarnitines were reported to be associated with IR as biomarkers most frequently. Additionally, BCAAs and tyrosine seemed to be relevant to future metabolic risk in the long-term follow-up cohorts, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and prevention strategy. Because of limited scale and design heterogeneity of existing studies, future studies might focus on validating above findings in more large-scale and longitudinal studies with elaborate design. PMID:27517054

  6. The appropriateness of opt-out consent for monitoring childhood obesity in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lacy, K; Kremer, P; de Silva-Sanigorski, A; Allender, S; Leslie, E; Jones, L; Fornaro, S; Swinburn, B

    2012-10-01

    Childhood obesity monitoring is a fundamental component of obesity prevention but is poorly done in Australia. Monitoring obesity prevalence in children provides important population health data that can be used to track trends over time, identify areas at greatest risk of obesity, determine the effectiveness of interventions and policies, raise awareness and stimulate action. High participation rates are essential for effective monitoring because these provide more representative data. Passive ('opt-out') consent has been shown to provide high participation rates in international childhood obesity monitoring programs and in a recent Australian federal initiative monitoring early child development. A federal initiative structured like existing child development monitoring programs, but with the authority to collect height and weight measurements using opt-out consent, is recommended to monitor rates of childhood obesity in Australia. PMID:22888020

  7. Obesity in pregnancy: addressing the issues at the booking appointment.

    PubMed

    Haken, Clara; Fitzsimons, Kate

    2011-03-01

    The recently published Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (CMACE) report, Maternal Obesity in the UK: Findings from a National Project, has provided new information on how often we are caring for women who have a body mass index (BMI) of 35 or more, who these women are, the complications and consequences associated with obesity during pregnancy and the preparedness of maternity services to meet these women's needs. Focusing on booking, this article highlights some of the study's key recommendations and discusses the implications for midwives. Accurate calculation of BMI, discussion of dietary advice including supplementation, risk assessment and referral on are all considerations for this consultation. PMID:21473324

  8. Sarah's Story: Using Ritual Therapy to Address Psychospiritual Issues in Treating Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Radha J.; Horton, H. Shelton, Jr.; Watson, Terri

    1997-01-01

    Describes an individual's healing from the trauma of childhood sexual abuse through counseling, spiritual growth, and the use of therapeutic ritual. Explores relationships between the psychospiritual issues associated with childhood sexual abuse and commonly designated treatment goals. Claims that addressing psychospiritual issues is crucial in…

  9. Food environment and childhood obesity: the effect of dollar stores.

    PubMed

    Drichoutis, Andreas C; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Rouse, Heather L; Thomsen, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of dollar stores on children's Body Mass Index (BMI). We use a dataset compiled by the Arkansas Center for Health Improvement that reflects a BMI screening program for public school children in the state of Arkansas. We combine propensity score matching with difference-in-differences methods to deal with time-invariant as well time-varying unobserved factors. We find no evidence that the presence of dollar stores within a reasonably close proximity of the child's residence increases BMI. In fact, we see an increase in BMI when dollar stores leave a child's neighborhood. Given the proliferation of dollar stores in rural and low-income urban areas, the question of whether dollar stores are contributing to high rates of childhood obesity is policy relevant. However, our results provide some evidence that exposure to dollar stores is not a causal factor. PMID:26626186

  10. Communities of Color Creating Healthy Environments to Combat Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Subica, Andrew M; Grills, Cheryl T; Douglas, Jason A; Villanueva, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic and racial health disparities present an enduring challenge to community-based health promotion, which rarely targets their underlying population-level determinants (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, health care inequity). We present a novel 3-lens prescription for using community organizing to treat these determinants in communities of color based on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Communities Creating Healthy Environments initiative, the first national project to combat childhood obesity in communities of color using community organizing strategies. The lenses--Social Justice, Culture-Place, and Organizational Capacity-Organizing Approach--assist health professional-community partnerships in planning and evaluating community organizing-based health promotion programs. These programs activate community stakeholders to alter their community's disease-causing, population-level determinants through grassroots policy advocacy, potentially reducing health disparities affecting communities of color. PMID:26562108

  11. Linking Obesity Prevention and Mental Health Promotion to Address Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Claydon, Elizabeth; Austin, Anna; Smith, Megan V

    2016-05-01

    Considerable racial health disparities exist, especially in mental health and obesity. However, few approaches exist to address obesity and mental health simultaneously in minority groups. An intervention to address mental health in a low-income, minority group of urban mothers was designed using results from a needs assessment. Participating women were asked to rank their top health concerns and personal goals. Along with mental health concerns and basic needs, the majority of mothers desired assistance with improving their physical well-being. These results are surprising, but lend credence to creating interventions that aim to address both mental health and obesity concerns simultaneously. PMID:26303902

  12. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  13. Everyone Swims: A Community Partnership and Policy Approach to Address Health Disparities in Drowning and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stempski, Sarah; Liu, Lenna; Grow, H. Mollie; Pomietto, Maureen; Chung, Celeste; Shumann, Amy; Bennett, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Well-known disparities exist in rates of obesity and drowning, two public health priorities. Addressing these disparities by increasing access to safe swimming and water recreation may yield benefits for both obesity and injury prevention. "Everyone Swims," a community partnership, brought community health clinics and water recreation…

  14. A Feasibility and Efficacy Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online Preventative Program for Childhood Obesity: Protocol for the EMPOWER Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Background: The home and family environment is a highly influential psychosocial antecedent of pediatric obesity. Implementation of conventional family- and home-based childhood obesity interventions is challenging for parents, often requiring them to attend multiple educational sessions. Attrition rates for traditional interventions are frequently high due to competing demands for parents’ time. Under such constraints, an Internet-based intervention has the potential to modify determinants of childhood obesity while making judicious use of parents’ time. Theory-based interventions offer many advantages over atheoretical interventions, including reduced intervention dosage, increased likelihood of behavioral change, and efficient resource allocation. Social cognitive theory (SCT) is a robust theoretical framework for addressing childhood obesity. SCT is a behavior change model rooted in reciprocal determinism, a causal paradigm that states that human functioning is the product of a dynamic interplay of behavioral, personal, and environmental factors. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of the Enabling Mothers to Prevent Childhood Obesity Through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) program, an Internet-based, theory-driven intervention for preventing childhood overweight and obesity. The project goal is supported by two specific aims: (1) modification of four obesogenic protective factors related to childhood obesity (minutes engaged in physical activity, servings of fruits and vegetables consumed, servings of sugar-sweetened and sugar-free beverages consumed, and minutes engaged in screen time), and (2) reification of five maternal-mediated constructs of SCT (environment, expectations, emotional coping, self-control, and self-efficacy). Methods: We will recruit mothers with children ages 4 to 6 years from childcare centers and randomly assign them to either the theory-based (experimental) or knowledge-based (control) arm of the trial. Data

  15. Harnessing the power of advertising to prevent childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. Methods A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005–2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns promoting the program and its key messages: drinking water; getting physically active and; eating more vegetables and fruit. Pre-post telephone surveys (n = 9) were undertaken to evaluate awareness of the campaigns among parents of children aged 2–15 years using repeat cross-sections of randomly selected cohorts. A total of 1,367 parents (HNE = 748, NSW = 619) participated. Results At each survey post baseline, HNE parents were significantly more likely to have seen, read or heard about the program and its messages in the media than parents in the remainder of the state (p < 0.001). Further, there was a significant increase in awareness of the program and each of its messages over time in HNE compared to no change over time in NSW (p < 0.001). Awareness was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in HNE compared to NSW after each specific campaign (except the vegetable one) and significantly higher awareness levels were sustained for each campaign until the end of the program. At the end of the program participants without a tertiary education were significantly more likely (p = 0.04) to be aware of the brand campaign (31%) than those with (20%) but there were no other statistically significant socio-demographic differences in awareness. Conclusions The Good for Kids communication campaigns increased and maintained awareness of childhood obesity prevention messages. Moreover, messages were delivered equitably to diverse socio-demographic groups within the

  16. Exploring the relationship between childhood obesity and proximity to the coast: A rural/urban perspective.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sophie L; Demougin, Philippe R; Higgins, Sahran; Husk, Kerryn; Wheeler, Benedict W; White, Mathew

    2016-07-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the 21st century's most serious global health challenges. Research suggests that better access to 'greenspace' (e.g. parks) may encourage physical activity and reduce the risk of obesity amongst children. We extend earlier work by considering childhood obesity in relation to proximity to the coast, using data from England's National Child Measurement Programme. Results suggest that although the overall prevalence of childhood obesity is slightly lower at the coast (-0.68% points comparing <1km to >20km, p<0.001), the relationship depends on area type. Specifically, although a coastal proximity gradient (lower obesity rates nearer the coast) was found for rural areas and smaller cities and towns, it was not present among large urban conurbations (interaction p-value<0.001). Coastal environments and access to them are changing in many areas, and research to explore potential impacts on child health is warranted. PMID:27262662

  17. The imperative to prevent and treat childhood obesity: why the world cannot afford to wait.

    PubMed

    Messiah, S E; Lipshultz, S E; Natale, R A; Miller, T L

    2013-12-01

    In the past 20 years, the prevalence of obesity in the United States increased almost 50% among adults and by 300% in children. Today, 9.7% of all U.S. infants up to 2 years old have abnormally high weight-for-recumbent length; 25% of children under age 5 are either overweight or obese; and 17% of adolescents are obese. Ethnic disparities in the rates of obesity are also large and apparent in childhood. Further, 44% of obese adolescents have metabolic syndrome. Obese children tend to become obese adults; thus, in a decade, young adults will likely have much higher risks of chronic disease, which has tremendous implications for the healthcare system. However, early childhood may be the best time to prevent obesity. Teachers' healthy eating choices are positively associated with changes in body mass index percentiles for children, for example. In addition, 8 million children attend afterschool programs, which can successfully promote health and wellness and successfully treat obesity. This childhood epidemic of obesity and its health-related consequences in adolescents should be a clinical and public health priority. However, this major public health problem cannot be managed solely in clinical settings. Rather, public health strategies must be integrated into home and family, school and community-based settings. PMID:25586732

  18. Low levels of energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors: Implications for obesity prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (medi...

  19. Expanding Exposure: Can Increasing the Daily Duration of Head Start Reduce Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisvold, David E.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Coinciding with the work requirements of welfare reform in the mid-1990s, the early childhood education program, Head Start, significantly expanded to increase the availability of full-day classes. Using unique administrative data, we examine the effect of full-day compared to half-day attendance on childhood obesity. This effect is identified…

  20. Parental and Early Childhood Influences on Adolescent Obesity: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Paola; Parker, Helen; Bulsara, Max; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The influence of parental and early childhood factors on adolescent obesity was investigated using a longitudinal model of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years. Trajectories of BMI using linear mixed model (LMM) analysis were used to investigate the influence of early parental and childhood factors on BMI at 14 years in the Raine birth…

  1. Prevalence and geographic distribution of childhood obesity in China in 2005.

    PubMed

    Ji, Cheng Ye; Cheng, Tsung O

    2008-12-17

    China now joins the world epidemic of childhood obesity. Because of the large disparity of environmental conditions across various sub-populations, accurate prevalence of obesity/overweight cannot be estimated by population-based approaches. Using a resident-based targeted approach, we determined the geographical distribution of childhood obesity in China and analyzed the specific factors related to the increasing prevalence of obesity in each of its ten regions. An alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity has spread all over China, except for the poverty western rural areas. In 2005, the prevalence of combined childhood overweight and obesity in China reached 32.5% for males and 17.6% for females in the northern coastal big cities, suggesting that the obesity prevalence in some urban Chinese populations has approached that of the developed countries. The prevalence of obesity in the affluent rural sub-populations first exceeded that in some urban populations; then, as they learned their lessons and revised their lifestyles, the prevalence declined to a lower level approaching that of the transitional societies of other countries. The geographical distribution of obesity prevalence in China is mainly caused by the large disparity in the socioeconomic status related to dietary and lifestyle changes in modern China. Multiple and integrated interventions are urgently needed to halt the epidemic of childhood obesity by tackling its basic causes such as fast food, automobiles, television and lack of exercise. The differing prevalences in different regions of China offer an opportunity to reverse this alarming, growing epidemic of childhood obesity in the world's most populous country. PMID:18765165

  2. Implementing Childhood Obesity Policy in a New Educational Environment: The Cases of Mississippi and Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Paul M.; Dyson, Ben; Vardaman, James M.; Ferry, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Our purpose was to investigate the processes involved in, and outcomes of, implementing 3 new state-level, school-oriented childhood obesity policies enacted between 2004 and 2007. Methods. We followed policy implementation in 8 high schools in Mississippi and Tennessee. We collected data between 2006 and 2009 from interviews with policymakers, administrators, teachers, and students; observations of school-based activities; and documents. Results. Significant barriers to the effective implementation of obesity-related policies emerged. These most notably include a value system that prioritizes performances in standardized tests over physical education (PE) and a varsity sport system that negatively influences opportunities for PE. These and other factors, such as resource constraints and the overloading of school administrators with new policies, mitigate against the implementation of policies designed to promote improvements in student health through PE. Conclusions. Policies designed to address health and social problems in high-school settings face significant barriers to effective implementation. To have a broad impact, obesity-related policies must be tied to mainstream educational initiatives that both incentivize, and hold accountable, the school-level actors responsible for their implementation. PMID:22420819

  3. Novel genetic loci identified for the pathophysiology of childhood obesity in the Hispanic population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variants responsible for susceptibility to obesity and its comorbidities among Hispanic children have not been identified. The VIVA LA FAMILIA Study was designed to genetically map childhood obesity and associated biological processes in the Hispanic population. A genome-wide association stu...

  4. The Governmentality of Childhood Obesity: Coca-Cola, Public Health and Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Darren; Gard, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the emergence of what might seem an unexpected policy outcome--a large multinational corporation, frequently blamed for exacerbating childhood obesity, operating as an officially sanctioned driver of anti-obesity initiatives in primary schools across the globe. We draw on Foucault's notion of governmentality to examine…

  5. An Examination of Educators' Perceptions of the School's Role in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sharon Kay Harris

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a prevalent subject of research currently, and many researchers have studied the effectiveness of school programs in battling obesity among students. This case study, utilizing ethnographic tools of observation, interviews, and investigation of artifacts, examines educators' perceptions of the role of the school in the…

  6. Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings with Parental Involvement: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…

  7. A Pilot Study of Parent Mentors for Early Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Foster, Byron A; Aquino, Christian A; Gil, Mario; Gelfond, Jonathan A L; Hale, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the feasibility of a parent mentor model of intervention for early childhood obesity using positive deviance-based methods to inform the intervention. Methods. In this pilot, randomized clinical trial, parent-child dyads (age: 2-5) with children whose body mass index (BMI) was ≥95th percentile were randomized to parent mentor intervention or community health worker comparison. The child's height and weight were measured at baseline, after the six-month intervention, and six months after the intervention. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment, participation, and retention. The primary clinical outcome was BMI z-score change. Results. Sixty participants were enrolled, and forty-eight completed the six-month intervention. At baseline, the BMI z-score in the parent mentor group was 2.63 (SD = 0.65) and in the community health worker group it was 2.61 (SD = 0.89). For change in BMI z-score over time, there was no difference by randomization group at the end of the intervention: -0.02 (95% CI: -0.26, 0.22). At the end of the intervention, the BMI z-score for the parent mentor group was 2.48 (SD = 0.58) and for the community health worker group it was 2.45 (SD = 0.91), both reduced from baseline, p < 0.001. Conclusion. The model of a parent mentor clinical trial is feasible, and both randomized groups experienced small, sustained effects on adiposity in an obese, Hispanic population. PMID:27379182

  8. A Pilot Study of Parent Mentors for Early Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Byron A.; Aquino, Christian A.; Gil, Mario; Gelfond, Jonathan A. L.; Hale, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the feasibility of a parent mentor model of intervention for early childhood obesity using positive deviance-based methods to inform the intervention. Methods. In this pilot, randomized clinical trial, parent-child dyads (age: 2–5) with children whose body mass index (BMI) was ≥95th percentile were randomized to parent mentor intervention or community health worker comparison. The child's height and weight were measured at baseline, after the six-month intervention, and six months after the intervention. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment, participation, and retention. The primary clinical outcome was BMI z-score change. Results. Sixty participants were enrolled, and forty-eight completed the six-month intervention. At baseline, the BMI z-score in the parent mentor group was 2.63 (SD = 0.65) and in the community health worker group it was 2.61 (SD = 0.89). For change in BMI z-score over time, there was no difference by randomization group at the end of the intervention: −0.02 (95% CI: −0.26, 0.22). At the end of the intervention, the BMI z-score for the parent mentor group was 2.48 (SD = 0.58) and for the community health worker group it was 2.45 (SD = 0.91), both reduced from baseline, p < 0.001. Conclusion. The model of a parent mentor clinical trial is feasible, and both randomized groups experienced small, sustained effects on adiposity in an obese, Hispanic population. PMID:27379182

  9. Physicians' attitude toward identification and management of childhood obesity in Israel.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Ran D; Modan-Moses, Dalit; Bujanover, Yoram; Glasser, Saralee; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2004-10-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem, and is becoming increasingly common in affluent societies. In 1998, an Expert Committee published guidelines regarding obesity evaluation and treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude of primary care physicians in Israel toward diagnosis and treatment of childhood obesity, as related to the recommended guidelines. Primary physicians caring for children and adolescents were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire including personal and professional details, methods of diagnosis, documentation and treatment of childhood obesity, and familiarity with and implementation of the Expert Committee recommendations. One hundred forty-four physicians, treating approximately 100,000 children monthly, completed the questionnaire. Ninety-four percent were considered to have diagnosed obesity properly. Furthermore, only 19% reported weighing all children examined, while 99% of the physicians suggested some treatment for obesity. The most frequent recommendations for managing obesity were referral to a dietitian (92%), physical exercise (85%), and group treatment (27%). The majority of physicians (78%) were not familiar with the new Expert Committee recommendations regarding obesity treatment. This study suggests that the majority of primary physicians diagnose obesity properly and recommend accepted modalities to manage obesity. A comprehensive program to prevent and treat obesity is recommended to improve the health status of the population. PMID:15494881

  10. The role of emotion regulation in childhood obesity: implications for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, E; Canals, J; Arija, V; De Henauw, S; Michels, N

    2016-06-01

    Stress and negative emotions pose a major threat to public health, by increasing the risk of obesity. Since the management process for emotions (emotion regulation; ER) is developed in childhood, we present a novel conceptual framework model for the role of ER in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. A narrative review of the literature by electronic database search (MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and Scopus) was conducted of observational and interventional/experimental literature on ER and obesity and the underlying concepts. We also present an overview of ER intervention techniques. Our model indicates that childhood ER is a link between stress and obesity. Stress along with ineffective ER leads to abnormal cortisol patterns, emotional eating, sedentary lifestyle, reduction of physical activity, and sleep problems. Simultaneously, a healthy lifestyle could show benefits on ER and in developing adaptive ER strategies. In the development of obesity and ER, parents also play a role. By contrast, effective ER skills decrease obesity-related unhealthy behaviour and enhance protective factors, which boost health. The literature contains some observational studies of children but very few intervention studies, most of which are pilot or on-going studies. In conclusion, encouraging effective ER could be a useful new approach for combating and treating childhood obesity. Future ER intervention studies are needed to confirm the validity of this model in children. PMID:27045966

  11. The Development and Evaluation of a Measure Assessing School Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Addressing Pediatric Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    School nurses represent an important resource for addressing pediatric obesity and weight-related health. However, school nurses perceive numerous barriers that prevent them from addressing the weight-related health of students. The current study developed and tested a new, comprehensive measure of nurses' perceptions of 10 types of barriers to…

  12. Exploring the relationship between parental concern and the management of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lucas C; Harris, Carole V; Bradlyn, Andrew S

    2012-05-01

    Parental concern about child weight has been identified as a factor in parental monitoring and regulation of child diet. However, little is known about factors that influence parental concern or about how concern may influence parent management of child physical activity. The objectives of the current study were to identify the factors associated with parental concern about child weight and determine if parental concern is associated with specific actions to improve diet and increase physical activity. A stratified random sample of 1,500 parents of children in kindergarten, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 9th grade were interviewed. Interviews addressed: (a) child and parent physical activity, (b) child and family nutrition, (c) child and parent BMI weight category, (d) interactions with health care providers, (e) parent obesity knowledge, (f) school assessment of BMI, and (g) parent perception of and concern about child weight. Child gender, weight status, and parent perception of child weight were significant predictors of parental concern. Parents were significantly more likely to report concern if their child was female, they believed their child to be overweight/obese, or their child was overweight/obese as indicated by BMI percentile. Concerned parents were significantly more likely to limit child screen time, take steps to improve child diet, and increase child physical activity than were parents who reported no concern. Treatment and prevention efforts should emphasize parental concern and awareness about child weight by providing accurate feedback on child weight status and education regarding the health risks associated with childhood overweight and obesity. Schools can play an important role in this process through the incorporation of BMI screenings. PMID:21594667

  13. Race, childhood insulin, childhood caloric intake, and class 3 obesity at age 24: 14-year prospective study of schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Daniels, Stephen R; Wang, Ping

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of Class 3 obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2)) has more than doubled in the past 25 years. In a 14-year prospective study from age 10 to 24 of a biracial schoolgirl cohort (293 black, 256 white), we assessed childhood correlates of Class 3 BMI at age 24. Of 42 girls with Class 3 BMI at age 24, 36 (86%) were black. By logistic regression, significant explanatory variables of Class 3 BMI at age 24 included top decile waist circumference at age 11 (odds ratio (OR) 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-13.9, P = 0.0002), age 10 BMI ≥ the Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2000 top 15% (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.5-19.3, P = 0.0002), and a three-way interaction between race, childhood insulin, and average caloric intake from age 10 to age 19 (for each unit increase, OR 1.7 95% CI 1.3-2.2, P = 0.0003). Age 10 BMI, age 11 waist circumference, and interaction of race, childhood insulin, and childhood caloric intake predict Class 3 obesity in young adulthood, facilitating childhood identification of girls at high risk for developing Class 3 obesity. PMID:21593807

  14. Nonnutritive, low caloric substitutes for food sugars: clinical implications for addressing the incidence of dental caries and overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael W; Wright, J Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate. PMID:22505906

  15. Nonnutritive, Low Caloric Substitutes for Food Sugars: Clinical Implications for Addressing the Incidence of Dental Caries and Overweight/Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Michael W.; Wright, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate. PMID:22505906

  16. Redesigning Health Care Practices to Address Childhood Poverty.

    PubMed

    Fierman, Arthur H; Beck, Andrew F; Chung, Esther K; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Siegel, Benjamin; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Conroy, Kathleen; Federico, Steven G; Flanagan, Patricia J; Garg, Arvin; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Grace, Aimee M; Gross, Rachel S; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri; Kraft, Colleen; Kuo, Alice; Lewis, Gena; Lobach, Katherine S; Long, Dayna; Ma, Christine T; Messito, Mary; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberley R; Osman, Cynthia; Sadof, Matthew D; Schickedanz, Adam B; Cox, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty. PMID:27044692

  17. BMD-associated variation at the Osterix locus is correlated with childhood obesity in females.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Li, Mingyao; Zhang, Haitao; Mentch, Frank D; Wang, Kai; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Kim, Cecilia E; Glessner, Joseph T; Frackelton, Edward C; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Berkowitz, Robert I; Zemel, Babette S; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F A

    2011-06-01

    Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a number of genetic variants robustly associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or osteoporosis. Evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies has shown an association between BMD and BMI, presumably as a consequence of bone loading. We investigated the 23 previously published BMD GWAS-derived loci in the context of childhood obesity by leveraging our existing genome-wide genotyped European American cohort of 1106 obese children (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) and 5997 controls (BMI < 95th percentile). Evidence of association was only observed at one locus, namely Osterix (SP7), with the G allele of rs2016266 being significantly over-represented among childhood obesity cases (P = 2.85 × 10(-3)). When restricting these analyses to each gender, we observed strong association between rs2016266 and childhood obesity in females (477 cases and 2867 controls; P = 3.56 × 10(-4)), which survived adjustment for all tests applied. However, no evidence of association was observed among males. Interestingly, Osterix is the only GWAS locus uncovered to date that has also been previously implicated in the determination of BMD in childhood. In conclusion, these findings indicate that a well established variant at the Osterix locus associated with increased BMD is also associated with childhood obesity primarily in females. PMID:21212767

  18. A Systematic Review of Health Videogames on Childhood Obesity Prevention and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Lu, Amy Shirong; Kharrazi, Hadi; Gharghabi, Fardad; Thompson, Debbe

    2013-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health videogames are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health videogames on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health videogames published between 2005 and 2013 in English were selected from 2433 articles identified through five major search engines. Results indicated that academic interest in using health videogames for childhood obesity prevention has increased during this time. Most games were commercially available. Most studies were of short duration. Diverse player and game play patterns have been identified. Most studies involved players of both genders with slightly more boys. The majority of players were non-white. Most studies had the players play the games at home, whereas some extended the play setting to school and sports/recreational facilities. Most of the games were commercially available. Positive outcomes related to obesity were observed in about 40 percent of the studies, all of which targeted overweight or obese participants. PMID:24353906

  19. The dangerous link between childhood and adulthood predictors of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Wang, David Q H; Frühbeck, Gema; Garruti, Gabriella; Portincasa, Piero

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate whether some risk factors in childhood work as significant predictors of the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. These factors include exposures to risk factors in the prenatal period, infancy and early childhood, as well as other socio-demographic variables. We searched articles of interest in PubMed using the following terms: 'predictors AND obesity OR Metabolic syndrome AND (children OR adolescents) AND (dyslipidemia OR type 2 diabetes OR atherosclerosis OR hypertension OR hypercholesterolemia OR cardiovascular disease)' AND genetic OR epigenetic. Maternal age, smoking and weight gain during pregnancy, parental body mass index, birth weight, childhood growth patterns (early rapid growth and early adiposity rebound), childhood obesity and the parents' employment have a role in early life. Furthermore, urbanization, unhealthy diets, increasingly sedentary lifestyles and genetic/epigenetic variants play a role in the persistence of obesity in adulthood. Health promotion programs/agencies should consider these factors as reasonable targets to reduce the risk of adult obesity. Moreover, it should be a clinical priority to correctly identify obese children who are already affected by metabolic comorbidities. PMID:26758061

  20. A Systematic Review of Health Videogames on Childhood Obesity Prevention and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kharrazi, Hadi; Gharghabi, Fardad; Thompson, Debbe

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health videogames are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health videogames on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health videogames published between 2005 and 2013 in English were selected from 2433 articles identified through five major search engines. Results indicated that academic interest in using health videogames for childhood obesity prevention has increased during this time. Most games were commercially available. Most studies were of short duration. Diverse player and game play patterns have been identified. Most studies involved players of both genders with slightly more boys. The majority of players were non-white. Most studies had the players play the games at home, whereas some extended the play setting to school and sports/recreational facilities. Most of the games were commercially available. Positive outcomes related to obesity were observed in about 40 percent of the studies, all of which targeted overweight or obese participants. PMID:24353906

  1. Principles and pitfalls in the differential diagnosis and management of childhood obesities.

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Barrios, Vicente; Muñoz-Calvo, María T; Pozo, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is currently the most prevalent chronic childhood disease in Western countries. It is one of the most frequent consultations in general pediatrics and is even more common in pediatric endocrinology. As might be predicted, the prevalence of obesity-associated comorbidities is also increasing in children and adolescents. It is widely accepted that this increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the current lifestyle in Western countries. However, there is increasing evidence indicating that an individual's genetic background is important in determining obesity risk. The physiologic mechanisms controlling appetite and energy expenditure are being revealed in part because of the identification of new causes of human monogenic, syndromic, and endocrine-related obesity. Thus, it is no longer appropriate to talk about obesity, but rather about "obesities" or "different diseases causing obesity," because their pathophysiologic bases differ. Moreover, these obesities require different diagnostic and management approaches. The pediatrician must be aware of this issue and focus the clinical history and physical examination toward specific clinical signs and symptoms to better exploit the available diagnostic and therapeutic resources when facing a child with obesity. Genetic, genomic, and metabolomic studies are often necessary to obtain a more appropriate diagnosis. Cognitive behavioral therapy is fundamental in obese children. The identification of potential targets will hopefully result in new pharmacologic approaches for translational and personalized medicine for obesity in the near future. PMID:24829481

  2. The Facts about Childhood Obesity and Overweightness. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lino, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Examines the issue of overweightness and obesity among children. Addresses the following: (1) magnitude of obesity and overweightness; (2) growth of the problem in recent years; (3) diet and other key roles; and (4) the relation of obesity to income, education, and ethnicity. (SD)

  3. Association between serum soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors and early childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Shengrong; Li, Wei; Liu, Zhuo; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Sen; Wu, Jianxin

    2016-06-30

    This study aimed to characterize the inflammatory cytokine profiles and further validate the significantly different cytokines in the serum obtained from obese children aged 36-48 months. Four obese children and four lean controls were randomly selected for inflammatory cytokine array assay, in which two cytokines [soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors (sTNFRs) 1 and 2] were found to be significantly different. Both cytokines (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) were then further validated through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 61 obese children and 52 lean children. ELISA results revealed that serum sTNFR1 level in obese children significantly increased (p = 0.003), whereas sTNFR2 did not change significantly (p = 0.069). Stratified analysis by gender showed that only obese girls presented increased sTNFR1 (p = 0.005) and sTNFR2 (p = 0.049) levels. We conclude that serum sTNFR1 is elevated in early childhood obesity. Moreover, serum sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 are associated with obese girls but not obese boys, thereby suggesting that serum sTNFRs in early childhood obesity may be sex related. PMID:27040725

  4. Starting the Conversation – A Childhood Obesity Knowledge Project Using an App

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Hoa B.; Huang, Bu; Cole, Allison; James, Rosalina; Ai, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Starting the Conversation was a pilot project to test an intervention for childhood obesity, a major public health epidemic, using a free smartphone application (app). The primary aim was to assess students’ knowledge of nutritional indicators, physical exercise and use of screen time before and after the intervention. Methods The study was conducted in 2011–2012. The sample, recruited from seven high schools in Snohomish County, Washington, was 65.3% minority participants. Of the 118 participants in the sample (n=118), 79 handwrote their responses (n=78) and 36 responded via the app (n=39). We compared the frequency and types of physical exercise, frequency of screen time, and nutritional variables of high school students. Participants used the cell phone app or a handwritten log to record their daily entries for 20 days. Results Both males (n=43) and females (n=75) grades 9–12 used the app or handwritten entries. Participants who used the app ate less fast food and exercised more, as compared with those who recorded their entries by hand. Screen time usage decreased over the course of the study, based on a comparison of the post-survey level and the pre-survey level. Knowledge of recommended daily consumption of vegetables increased post-test in the app group and knowledge of water consumption increased significantly in both groups. There was no significant difference in BMI pre and post-test. Conclusions Patterns of nutritional intake, physical exercise and knowledge of these issues varied pre and post-test. It is critical to further examine factors associated with lack of physical activity and food intake patterns of youth using social media to further address the childhood obesity epidemic. Future research should focus on specific ethnic subgroups and an intervention at the school level aimed at the students with BMI ≥ 95th percentile. PMID:24678462

  5. 3 CFR - Establishing a Task Force on Childhood Obesity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... face chronic obesity-related health problems such as heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer, and... implementation of successful strategies that will prevent and combat obesity. Such strategies include...

  6. A review of the psychological and familial perspectives of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise in both industrialized and developing countries. The investigation of the psychosocial aspects of childhood obesity has been the focus of long- standing theoretical and empirical endeavor. Overweight in children and adolescents is associated with a host of psychological and social problems such as reduced school and social performance, less favorable quality of life, societal victimization and peer teasing, lower self-and body-esteem, and neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Whereas community samples of obese youngsters usually do not show elevated psychopathology, clinically-referred overweight children show elevated depression, anxiety, behavior problems, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating. Parents’ perceptions of their child’s overweight highly influence the well-being of obese children and the way in which they perceive themselves. The present review paper aims to broaden the scope of knowledge of clinicians about several important psychosocial and familial dimensions of childhood obesity: the psychosocial functioning, self and body esteem and psychopathology of overweight youngsters, the influence of children’s perceptions of overweight, including those of the obese children themselves on their well being, and the influence of parental attitudes about weight and eating on the psychological condition of the obese child. PMID:24999389

  7. A review of the psychological and familial perspectives of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Latzer, Yael; Stein, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise in both industrialized and developing countries. The investigation of the psychosocial aspects of childhood obesity has been the focus of long- standing theoretical and empirical endeavor. Overweight in children and adolescents is associated with a host of psychological and social problems such as reduced school and social performance, less favorable quality of life, societal victimization and peer teasing, lower self-and body-esteem, and neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Whereas community samples of obese youngsters usually do not show elevated psychopathology, clinically-referred overweight children show elevated depression, anxiety, behavior problems, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating. Parents' perceptions of their child's overweight highly influence the well-being of obese children and the way in which they perceive themselves. THE PRESENT REVIEW PAPER AIMS TO BROADEN THE SCOPE OF KNOWLEDGE OF CLINICIANS ABOUT SEVERAL IMPORTANT PSYCHOSOCIAL AND FAMILIAL DIMENSIONS OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY: the psychosocial functioning, self and body esteem and psychopathology of overweight youngsters, the influence of children's perceptions of overweight, including those of the obese children themselves on their well being, and the influence of parental attitudes about weight and eating on the psychological condition of the obese child. PMID:24999389

  8. Childhood obesity: the impact on long-term risk of metabolic and CVD is not necessarily inevitable.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    The worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population is estimated to be 35%. These trends are reflected in childhood obesity prevalence, and the potential impact of early-onset obesity is of great concern. The aim of this review was to investigate the long-term implications of childhood obesity for metabolic and cardiovascular health, focusing on the independent contribution of childhood obesity to adult disease risk, as distinct from associations mediated by tracking of obesity across the lifespan. The data systematically reviewed provide little evidence to suggest that childhood overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular risk during adulthood. Instead, the data demonstrate that the relationships observed are dependent on tracking of BMI between childhood and adulthood, alongside persistence of dietary patterns and physical activity. Adjustment for adult BMI uncovers unexpected negative associations between childhood BMI and adult disease, suggesting a protective effect of childhood obesity at any given level of adult BMI. Further work is required to explain these findings, both in terms of pathways and statistical artefacts. To conclude, it must be stressed that it is not suggested that childhood obesity is without negative consequence. Childhood obesity is clearly associated with a range of adverse physical and psychological outcomes. However, the data are important in supporting a positive message that the long-term consequences of childhood obesity are avoidable; and that there remains opportunity for intervention across the lifespan. This nuance in understanding long-term risk is important when considering the effectiveness of interventions at different stages of the lifespan. PMID:25027289

  9. Vitamin D deficiency & childhood obesity: a tale of two epidemics.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Catherine A; Belenchia, Anthony M

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and vitamin D deficiency represent two of the most wide-spread health concerns in the United States, especially among children. There is a well-established inverse relationship between vitamin D status and obesity; however, it is unknown as to whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to, or is a consequence of obesity. Based on available research, the positive effects of correcting hypovitaminosis D in obesity seem to be primarily related to its action on glycemic control. PMID:24645299

  10. Understanding Our Service-Learning Community: An Exploratory Study of Parent, Teacher, and Student Perceptions about Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey-Sokes, Marilyn; Meaney, Karen S.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. University health and physical education programs have a unique opportunity to assist in childhood obesity prevention through service-learning programs. However, prior to the implementation of service-learning curricula, it is imperative to gain insight in the unique needs of the…

  11. Promoting conversations between physicians and families about childhood obesity: evaluation of physician communication training within a clinical practice improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Shue, Carolyn K; Whitt, Justin K; Daniel, Linda; Shue, Christian B

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates have incrementally increased since the 1980s, sparking calls for initiatives focused on addressing this public health concern. In response, the family medicine residency clinic profiled in this research designed, executed, and evaluated a practice improvement initiative focused on physician communication behaviors and clinic processes that impact the management of unhealthy pediatric weight. The results of the evaluation effort demonstrated increased physician knowledge of communication principles, improvements in weight management counseling rates, and opportunities for health delivery system changes to promote the effective clinical management of unhealthy pediatric weight. PMID:26362560

  12. Estimating the Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in Alaska Using Partial, Nonrandom Measurement Data

    PubMed Central

    Boles, Myde; Fink, Karol; Topol, Rebecca; Fenaughty, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although monitoring childhood obesity prevalence is critical for state public health programs to assess trends and the effectiveness of interventions, few states have comprehensive body mass index measurement systems in place. In some states, however, assorted school districts collect measurements on student height and weight as part of annual health screenings. To estimate childhood obesity prevalence in Alaska, we created a logistic regression model using such annual measurements along with public data on demographics and socioeconomic status. Our mixed-effects model-generated prevalence estimates validated well against weighted estimates, with 95% confidence intervals overlapping between methodologies among 7 of 8 participating school districts. Our methodology accounts for variation in school-level and student-level demographic factors across the state, and the approach we describe can be applied by other states that have existing nonrandom student measurement data to estimate childhood obesity prevalence. PMID:27010843

  13. An increasing socioeconomic gap in childhood overweight and obesity in China.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; James, Sherman A; Merli, M Giovanna; Zheng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We used a new conceptual framework that integrates tenets from health economics, social epidemiology, and health behavior to analyze the impact of socioeconomic forces on the temporal changes in the socioeconomic status (SES) gap in childhood overweight and obesity in China. In data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 1991 to 2006, we found increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity across all SES groups, but a greater increase among higher-SES children, especially after 1997, when income inequality dramatically increased. Our findings suggest that for China, the increasing SES gap in purchasing power for obesogenic goods, associated with rising income inequality, played a prominent role in the country's increasing SES gap in childhood obesity and overweight. PMID:24228657

  14. Two patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion presenting with childhood obesity and hyperphagia.

    PubMed

    Bassett, J K; Chandler, K E; Douzgou, S

    2016-08-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a clinically heterogeneous condition of intellectual disability, parathyroid and thyroid hypoplasia, palatal abnormalities, cardiac malformations and psychiatric symptoms. Hyperphagia and childhood obesity is widely reported in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) but there is only one previous report of this presentation in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We describe two further cases of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in which hyperphagia and childhood obesity were the presenting features. This may be a manifestation of obsessive behaviour secondary to some of the psychiatric features commonly seen in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Serious complications may result from hyperphagia and childhood obesity therefore early recognition and intervention is crucial. Due to the similar clinical presentation of these two patients to patients with PWS, it is suggested that the hyperphagia seen here should be managed in a similar way to how it is managed in PWS. PMID:27184501

  15. Estimating the Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in Alaska Using Partial, Nonrandom Measurement Data.

    PubMed

    Everson, Erik; Boles, Myde; Fink, Karol; Topol, Rebecca; Fenaughty, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although monitoring childhood obesity prevalence is critical for state public health programs to assess trends and the effectiveness of interventions, few states have comprehensive body mass index measurement systems in place. In some states, however, assorted school districts collect measurements on student height and weight as part of annual health screenings. To estimate childhood obesity prevalence in Alaska, we created a logistic regression model using such annual measurements along with public data on demographics and socioeconomic status. Our mixed-effects model-generated prevalence estimates validated well against weighted estimates, with 95% confidence intervals overlapping between methodologies among 7 of 8 participating school districts. Our methodology accounts for variation in school-level and student-level demographic factors across the state, and the approach we describe can be applied by other states that have existing nonrandom student measurement data to estimate childhood obesity prevalence. PMID:27010843

  16. An Increasing Socioeconomic Gap in Childhood Overweight and Obesity in China

    PubMed Central

    James, Sherman A.; Merli, M. Giovanna; Zheng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We used a new conceptual framework that integrates tenets from health economics, social epidemiology, and health behavior to analyze the impact of socioeconomic forces on the temporal changes in the socioeconomic status (SES) gap in childhood overweight and obesity in China. In data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 1991 to 2006, we found increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity across all SES groups, but a greater increase among higher-SES children, especially after 1997, when income inequality dramatically increased. Our findings suggest that for China, the increasing SES gap in purchasing power for obesogenic goods, associated with rising income inequality, played a prominent role in the country’s increasing SES gap in childhood obesity and overweight. PMID:24228657

  17. Childhood, Adolescent, and Teenage Obesity: Recommendations for Community Initiatives in Central Harlem.

    PubMed

    Maidenberg, Michelle P

    2016-05-01

    Because ofpoverty, the high prevalence of obesity, and the lack of adequate supports, Central Harlem's children, adolescents, and teenagers are at risk for major physiological, psychological, and social issues. This article discusses the public health concerns related to this population, especially the prevalence of obesity. This article identifies the prevalence of illness and obesity in the inner city and stipulates the causes and consequences of obesity among children, adolescents, and teenagers. In addition, it reports on the appropriate community intervention, using a coalition and a community collaborative organization that serve as models to build support for Central Harlem. A proposal is offered for reducing obesity among youths in the community. The intervention outlines a logic model that identifies a multisystemic approach at the micro and macro level for community intervention and policy initiatives to advocate for fundamental change. Further research recommendations are described to reduce the prevalence of childhood, adolescent, and teenage obesity in urban communities. PMID:27263198

  18. Childhood obesity and risk of allergy or asthma.

    PubMed

    Raj, Dinesh; Kabra, Sushil K; Lodha, Rakesh

    2014-11-01

    The simultaneous increment in the prevalence of obesity and allergic diseases suggests a possible link between them. This review focuses on the consequences of obesity on allergic diseases, especially asthma in children and adolescents, and evaluates the available evidence on the possible mechanisms. Obesity is related more strongly to nonatopic than atopic asthma, suggesting non-eosinophilic inflammation and Th1 polarization. Among other allergic diseases, the association is more consistent with eczema compared to allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis. The mechanisms of asthma in obese individuals could involve mechanical effects of obesity on lung function, adipokines-mediated inflammation, shared factors (diet, genetics, sedentary lifestyle) and comorbidities. PMID:25282288

  19. Principles and Pitfalls in the Differential Diagnosis and Management of Childhood Obesities123

    PubMed Central

    Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á.; Barrios, Vicente; Muñoz-Calvo, María T.; Pozo, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Argente, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is currently the most prevalent chronic childhood disease in Western countries. It is one of the most frequent consultations in general pediatrics and is even more common in pediatric endocrinology. As might be predicted, the prevalence of obesity-associated comorbidities is also increasing in children and adolescents. It is widely accepted that this increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the current lifestyle in Western countries. However, there is increasing evidence indicating that an individual’s genetic background is important in determining obesity risk. The physiologic mechanisms controlling appetite and energy expenditure are being revealed in part because of the identification of new causes of human monogenic, syndromic, and endocrine-related obesity. Thus, it is no longer appropriate to talk about obesity, but rather about “obesities” or “different diseases causing obesity,” because their pathophysiologic bases differ. Moreover, these obesities require different diagnostic and management approaches. The pediatrician must be aware of this issue and focus the clinical history and physical examination toward specific clinical signs and symptoms to better exploit the available diagnostic and therapeutic resources when facing a child with obesity. Genetic, genomic, and metabolomic studies are often necessary to obtain a more appropriate diagnosis. Cognitive behavioral therapy is fundamental in obese children. The identification of potential targets will hopefully result in new pharmacologic approaches for translational and personalized medicine for obesity in the near future. PMID:24829481

  20. Effects of childhood abuse on adult obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemmingsson, E; Johansson, K; Reynisdottir, S

    2014-11-01

    Controversy exists surrounding the role of childhood abuse in obesity development. This is a meta-analysis of observational studies on the role of childhood abuse in adult obesity. Systematic searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, Medline and CINAHL resulted in 23 cohort studies (4 prospective, 19 retrospective) with n=112,708 participants, containing four abuse types (physical, emotional, sexual, general). Four studies reported dose-response effects. A random effects model was used to quantify effect sizes, meta-regression/subgroup analysis for identifying potential moderating variables and Egger's test for publication bias. Adults who reported childhood abuse were significantly more likely to be obese (odds ratio [OR]: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-1.45, P<0.001). All four types of abuse were significantly associated with adult obesity: physical (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13-1.46), emotional (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.08-1.71), sexual (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.13-1.53) and general abuse (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.25-1.69). Severe abuse (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.27-1.77) was significantly more associated with adult obesity (P=0.043) compared with light/moderate abuse (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.91-1.41). We found no significant effects of study design (prospective vs. retrospective, P=0.07), age (P=0.96) or gender (P=0.92). Publication bias was evident (Egger's test P=0.007), but effect sizes remained statistically significant in sensitivity analyses. Childhood abuse was clearly associated with being obese as an adult, including a positive dose-response association. This suggests that adverse life experiences during childhood plays a major role in obesity development, potentially by inducing mental and emotional perturbations, maladaptive coping responses, stress, inflammation and metabolic disturbances. PMID:25123205

  1. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1994-02-01

    The association of various features of family life with obesity in childhood is well established, but less is known about the effect of these influences on the risk of later obesity. In this prospective, population-based study, we examined the influence of parental care in childhood on the risk of obesity in the offspring in young adulthood. In 1974, 1258 pupils aged 9-10 years were randomly selected from the third grade of Copenhagen schools. Information on 987 pupils was obtained from the form teachers on family structure and the perceived support from the parents; school medical services reported on the child's general hygiene. 756 (86%) of the 881 eligible participants were followed up 10 years later. The influence of family factors in childhood on the risk of obesity (body-mass index > 95th centile) in young adulthood was estimated by odds ratios with control for age and body-mass index in 1974, sex, and social background. Family structure (biological or other parents and number of siblings) did not significantly affect the risk of adult obesity. Parental neglect greatly increased the risk in comparison with harmonious support (odds ratio 7.1 [95% CI 2.6-19.3]). Dirty and neglected children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood, independent of age and body-mass index in childhood, sex, and social background. PMID:7905145

  2. Our Choice/Nuestra Opción: The Imperial County, California, Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (CA-CORD)

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Leticia; Binggeli-Vallarta, Amy; Moody, Jamie; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Angulo, Janette; Hoyt, Helina; Chuang, Emmeline; Ganiats, Theodore G.; Gahagan, Sheila; Ji, Ming; Zive, Michelle; Schmied, Emily; Arredondo, Elva M.; Elder, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Despite recent declines among young children, obesity remains a public health burden in the United States, including among Latino/Hispanic children. The determining factors are many and are too complex to fully address with interventions that focus on single factors, such as parenting behaviors or school policies. In this article, we describe a multisector, multilevel intervention to prevent and control childhood obesity in predominantly Mexican-origin communities in Southern California, one of three sites of the CDC-funded Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CA-CORD) study. Methods: CA-CORD is a partnership between a university-affiliated research institute, a federally qualified health center, and a county public health department. We used formative research, advisory committee members' recommendations, and previous research to inform the development of the CA-CORD project. Our theory-informed multisector, multilevel intervention targets improvements in four health behaviors: fruit, vegetable, and water consumption; physical activity; and quality sleep. Intervention partners include 1200 families, a federally qualified health center (including three clinics), 26 early care and education centers, two elementary school districts (and 20 elementary schools), three community recreation centers, and three restaurants. Intervention components in these sectors target changes in behaviors, policies, systems, and the social and physical environment. Evaluation activities include assessment of the primary outcome, BMI z-score, at baseline, 12-, and 18-months post-baseline, and sector evaluations at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Conclusions: Identifying feasible and effective strategies to prevent and control childhood obesity has the potential to effect real changes in children's current and future health status. PMID:25584664

  3. Cause and effect in childhood obesity: solutions for a national epidemic.

    PubMed

    Wieting, J Michael

    2008-10-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. As a result, children are at increased risk for myriad preventable acute and chronic medical problems--many of which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In addition, childhood obesity has serious psychosocial consequences, such as low self-esteem, lower quality of life, and depression. The multifaceted causes and solutions to this pervasive health issue are discussed in the present review, as are pertinent health policy issues. Osteopathic physicians and other healthcare providers can play an important role in patient and family education, direct care, and advocacy. PMID:18948638

  4. Parent-Child Interaction, Self-Regulation, and Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah E; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the epidemiologic evidence linking parent-child relationships, self-regulation, and weight status with a focus on early childhood. The emotional quality of parent-child interactions may influence children's risk for obesity through multiple pathways. Prospective studies linking observer ratings of young children's self-regulation, particularly inhibitory control, to future weight status are discussed. Although findings are preliminary, promoting positive relationships between parents/caregivers and young children holds promise as a component of efforts to prevent childhood obesity. Multi-disciplinary collaborations between researchers with training in developmental science and child health should be encouraged. PMID:27037572

  5. Contingent valuation analysis of willingness to pay to reduce childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John

    2008-07-01

    Several recent surveys have asked Americans whether they support policies to reduce childhood obesity. There is reason for skepticism of such surveys because people are not confronted with the tax costs of such policies when they are asked whether they support them. This paper uses contingent valuation (CV), a method frequently used to estimate people's willingness to pay (WTP) for goods or services not transacted in markets, applied to unique survey data from New York State to estimate the willingness to pay to reduce childhood obesity. The willingness to pay data correlate in predictable ways with respondent characteristics. The mean WTP for a 50% reduction in childhood obesity is $46.41 (95% CI: $33.45, $59.15), which implies a total WTP by New York State residents of $690.6 million (95% CI: $497.7, $880.15), which is less than that implied by previous surveys that did not use CV methods but greater than current spending on policies to reduce childhood obesity and greater than the estimated savings in external costs. The findings provide policymakers with useful information about taxpayers' support for, and preferred budget for, anti-obesity policies. PMID:18619930

  6. High incidence of obesity in young adults after treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood.

    PubMed

    Didi, M; Didcock, E; Davies, H A; Ogilvy-Stuart, A L; Wales, J K; Shalet, S M

    1995-07-01

    To determine whether obesity complicated the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, we studied the body mass index (BMI) of 63 female when and 51 male patients from the time of diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia to the time when final height was attained. The BMI z score was calculated for each patient at diagnosis, at end of treatment, and at attainment of final height. Obesity at attainment of final height was defined as a BMI greater than the 85th percentile of the normal reference population. At final height 23 of 51 male (45%) and 30 of 63 female patients (47%) were obese. Girls became obese between diagnosis and the end of chemotherapy (p = 0.02), after which they had no further increase, indicating that chemotherapy may have played a role in their obesity. Boys had a progressive and gradual increase in BMI z score through to attainment of final height. Obesity did not appear to be associated with growth hormone insufficiency, disproportionate growth, or abnormal timing of puberty. We conclude that approximately half the survivors of leukemia in childhood become obese young adults. Many of those treated with the more recent regimens studied are still only in their mid or preteen years and should be advised regarding a more active lifestyle and a healthy diet in an attempt to reduce the incidence of obesity. PMID:7608813

  7. Unique transcriptomic signature of omental adipose tissue in Ossabaw swine: a model of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Roberts, Michael D.; Wells, Kevin D.; Company, Joseph M.; Kanosky, Kayla M.; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Perfield, James W.; Ibdah, Jamal A.; Booth, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the impact of childhood obesity on intra-abdominal adipose tissue phenotype, a complete transcriptomic analysis using deep RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on omental adipose tissue (OMAT) obtained from lean and Western diet-induced obese juvenile Ossabaw swine. Obese animals had 88% greater body mass, 49% greater body fat content, and a 60% increase in OMAT adipocyte area (all P < 0.05) compared with lean pigs. RNA-seq revealed a 37% increase in the total transcript number in the OMAT of obese pigs. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed transcripts in obese OMAT were primarily enriched in the following categories: 1) development, 2) cellular function and maintenance, and 3) connective tissue development and function, while transcripts associated with RNA posttranslational modification, lipid metabolism, and small molecule biochemistry were reduced. DAVID and Gene Ontology analyses showed that many of the classically recognized gene pathways associated with adipose tissue dysfunction in obese adults including hypoxia, inflammation, angiogenesis were not altered in OMAT in our model. The current study indicates that obesity in juvenile Ossabaw swine is characterized by increases in overall OMAT transcript number and provides novel data describing early transcriptomic alterations that occur in response to excess caloric intake in visceral adipose tissue in a pig model of childhood obesity. PMID:24642759

  8. Three Interventions That Reduce Childhood Obesity Are Projected To Save More Than They Cost To Implement.

    PubMed

    Gortmaker, Steven L; Wang, Y Claire; Long, Michael W; Giles, Catherine M; Ward, Zachary J; Barrett, Jessica L; Kenney, Erica L; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Afzal, Amna Sadaf; Resch, Stephen C; Cradock, Angie L

    2015-11-01

    Policy makers seeking to reduce childhood obesity must prioritize investment in treatment and primary prevention. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of seven interventions high on the obesity policy agenda: a sugar-sweetened beverage excise tax; elimination of the tax subsidy for advertising unhealthy food to children; restaurant menu calorie labeling; nutrition standards for school meals; nutrition standards for all other food and beverages sold in schools; improved early care and education; and increased access to adolescent bariatric surgery. We used systematic reviews and a microsimulation model of national implementation of the interventions over the period 2015-25 to estimate their impact on obesity prevalence and their cost-effectiveness for reducing the body mass index of individuals. In our model, three of the seven interventions--excise tax, elimination of the tax deduction, and nutrition standards for food and beverages sold in schools outside of meals--saved more in health care costs than they cost to implement. Each of the three interventions prevented 129,000-576,000 cases of childhood obesity in 2025. Adolescent bariatric surgery had a negligible impact on obesity prevalence. Our results highlight the importance of primary prevention for policy makers aiming to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:26526252

  9. Effectiveness of school network for childhood obesity prevention (SNOCOP) in primary schools of Saraburi Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Banchonhattakit, Pannee; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Pradipasen, Mandhana; Miner, Kathleen R; Nityasuddhi, Dechavudh

    2009-07-01

    This research was designed to test the effectiveness of a school network for childhood obesity prevention (SNOCOP) in primary schools; a program that aimed to improve student behavior in terms of knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity prevention, and their food consumption behavior. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest time series study was conducted. By 2-stage stratified sampling selection 180 students from 6 schools were assigned to the intervention group and 195 students from 6 schools to the control group at Saraburi Province, Thailand in 2006- 2007. In addition, thirty-one participants being school administrators, teachers, parents, and community members from six schools formed the social network initiating the intervention. The schoolchildren in the intervention group improved their eating behavior, knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity preventive behavior. The six schools of the intervention group changed school policies and school activities aiming to reduce the proportion of obesity among their student. No such activities could be observed in the control group. These findings suggest that the School-Social Network of Childhood Obesity Prevention program is an effective means to prevent childhood obesity. PMID:19842420

  10. Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Feeding and Childhood Obesity among Mothers of Lower Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…

  11. Sugar, stress, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: early childhood obesity risks among a clinic-based sample of low-income Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Watt, Toni Terling; Appel, Louis; Roberts, Kelley; Flores, Bianca; Morris, Sarajane

    2013-06-01

    The nationwide epidemic of pediatric obesity is more prevalent among Hispanic children than white children. Recent literature suggests that obesity has early origins, leading scholars to call for interventions in pregnancy and infancy. However, there is little theoretical or empirical research to guide the development of early prevention programs for Hispanics. The present study seeks to identify risk factors for early childhood obesity among a low-income, predominately Hispanic sample. Data were gathered to inform the design of a primary care childhood obesity prevention program targeting pregnancy through age 12 months. Baseline data were gathered on 153 women attending the clinic for prenatal care or for their child's 2, 6 or 12 month well-check. All women completed surveys on diet, exercise, social support, food security, stress, infant feeding practices, health, and demographics. For women with children (n = 66), survey data were matched with medical records data on infant weight. Results reveal that 55 % of women in the sample had an infant profiling in the 85th percentile or higher, confirming the need for an early childhood obesity intervention. While mothers exhibited several potential risk factors for childhood obesity (e.g. fast food consumption), only maternal consumption of sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages, stress, and SNAP (food stamp receipt) were associated with infant overweight. Findings further reveal that stress and SNAP relate to child overweight, in part, through mothers' sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Results suggest that obesity prevention efforts must address specific individual choices as well as the external environment that shapes these consumption patterns. PMID:23197136

  12. Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Melissa D; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Khan, Mohammad K A; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Williams, Patricia L; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been rigorously studied in relation to childhood obesity prevention. Few studies have examined whether combination feeding—breast milk and formula—may also be protective against obesity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration, combination feeding and overweight and obesity among Canadian school children. We analyzed data from a 2011 cross-sectional, population based survey (n = 5,560), which included self-reported infant feeding behaviours, a food frequency questionnaire and measured height and weight. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and overweight and obesity adjusting for socioeconomic status, diet quality and physical activity. Thirty-four percent of children were breastfed for <1 week or never while 32% were breastfed for at least 6 months. In the fully adjusted model, children who were only formula fed or who were combination fed for <6 months were more likely to be overweight or obese relative to children who were only breastfed (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60 and OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.69, respectively). When examining overweight and obese children separately, those who were only formula fed were more likely obese (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.10-2.25) relative to their peers who were only breastfed. And those who were combination fed for <6 months relative to those only breastfed were more likely to be overweight (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.66). Breastfeeding, in the absence of formula feeding, appears to have a protective effect on childhood obesity. While combination feeding confers less benefit than only breastfeeding, it is more desirable than formula feeding alone. Strategies and social policies are needed to promote exclusive and longer breastfeeding duration and should be integrated with comprehensive efforts to prevent childhood obesity and to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the long term. PMID:25656729

  13. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Relationship Between Obesity and Mental Health in Low-Income Women.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jennifer C; Milan, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether a history of self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the relationship between obesity and mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income women. A community sample of 186 women completed self-report measures and had their weight and height measured. Body mass index and CSA had an interactive effect on all mental health measures, such that obese women with a CSA history reported substantially higher levels of all symptoms. These results give greater specificity to the obesity-mental health link reported in previous studies and provide possible directions for targeted intervention. PMID:26541476

  14. Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…

  15. The Future of Children: Spring 2006. Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina, Ed.; Donahue, Elisabeth, Ed.; Orleans, Tracy, Ed.; Grisso, Jeane Ann, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The third volume of "The Future of Children" examines the causes and consequences of increasing rates of obesity and overweight among children. It also reviews specific policies and programs aimed at reducing obesity and overweight and the related health problems that result. Contents include: (1) Introducing the Issue (Christina Paxson, Elisabeth…

  16. Technology: The Problem or the Solution to Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstone, Susan; Teatum, Jim

    2011-01-01

    One-third of the population of US children is considered obese and two-thirds of the adult population falls into the same category. These figures have tripled over the last 30 years. This demonstrates that the existing strategies to combat obesity do not work and it is time to look for alternatives. The recommendation is to turn the problem into a…

  17. Obesity and Skill Attainment in Early Childhood. NBER Working Paper No. 13997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Spiess, C. Katharina

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between obesity and skill attainment in early childhood (aged 2-4 years). Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study are used to estimate models of developmental functioning in four critical areas (verbal skills, activities of daily living, motor skills, and social skills) as a function of various…

  18. Attitudes to Childhood Overweight and Obesity: The Limits of Cultural Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Suparna; Abbott, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore attitudes to and beliefs about childhood overweight and obesity among Bangladeshi mothers and to check maternal perceptions of their children's weight status. Design: Mixed methods cross-sectional study. Setting: A general practice in East London, UK. Methods: Qualitative interviews with 14 mothers; weighing and measuring 22…

  19. Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity: An Integrative Review of Recent Recommendations from Five Expert Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.; Gierut, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast 5 sets of expert recommendations about the treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity. Method: We reviewed 5 sets of recent expert recommendations: 2007 health care organizations' four stage model, 2007 Canadian clinical practice guidelines, 2008 Endocrine Society recommendations, 2009 seven step model, and…

  20. Childhood Obesity: A Food and Nutrition Resource List for Educators and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellechia, Kathleen M.; Akobundu, Ucheoma O.; Naslund, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    This publication is a collection of resources on the topic of childhood obesity for educators and researchers. It is comprised of articles from professional journals (published 2000 to present), information available on the World Wide Web, consumer educational materials and contact information of related organizations. Items with a public health…

  1. The Role of Built Environments in Physical Activity, Eating, and Obesity in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallis, James F.; Glanz, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Over the past forty years various changes in the U.S. "built environment" have promoted sedentary lifestyles and less healthful diets. James Sallis and Karen Glanz investigate whether these changes have had a direct effect on childhood obesity and whether improvements to encourage more physical activity and more healthful diets are likely to lower…

  2. Recess Activities of the Week (RAW): Promoting Free Time Physical Activity to Combat Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Christina D.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Partidge, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity and inactivity levels among young Americans have risen steadily over the last few decades, and has become a major concern. Participation in regular physical activity helps prevent excess adiposity in children and youth. Recess is a regularly occurring period of time in school children's days which is an opportunity to help them…

  3. The Preschool Nap as a Protective Factor in the Fight against Childhood Obesity: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kihm, Holly Spencer; Rolling, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Although the prevalence of childhood obesity has not increased in recent years, it remains unacceptably high and warrants continued study. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationship between weight status and length of sleep (both daytime and nighttime) among preschool children. Special attention was given to the role…

  4. Elementary School Personnel's Perceptions on Childhood Obesity: Pervasiveness and Facilitating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odum, Mary; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Tisone, Christine A.; Outley, Corliss W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers in numerous disciplines have investigated the effects of the school environment on childhood obesity (CHO), one of the greatest current health concerns in the United States. There is a gap in current empirical evidence, however, on school personnel's perspectives of this issue. This study examined school personnel's…

  5. School Nutrition Programs and the Incidence of Childhood Obesity. NBER Working Paper No. 14297

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna

    2008-01-01

    In light of the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention. Using panel data on over 13,500 primary school students, we assess the relationship between SBP and NSLP participation and (relatively) long-run measures of child weight. After documenting a…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Childhood Obesity, Weight Status Change, and Subsequent Academic Performance in Taiwanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Backround: This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. Methods: First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end…

  7. Moving Forward in Childhood Obesity Treatment: A Call for Translational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, P. M.; Dugdill, L.; Murphy, R.; Knowles, Z.; Cable, N. T.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious challenges of the 21st century and it is vital that evidence-based treatment approaches can be translated into practice to meet public health needs. Yet policy-makers cannot afford to wait for the results of lengthy trials before "probably efficacious" interventions are made available to the public, and…

  8. Influence of Perceptions on School Nurse Practices to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quelly, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive childhood obesity prevention (COP) strategies should include increasing school nurse involvement. This study was conducted to determine the influence of key school nurse perceptions (self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers) on participation in COP practices at the individual child and school level. Florida…

  9. Making the Grade: Reversing Childhood Obesity in School Districts Toolkit--What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In order to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States, it is critical to elevate the importance of physical education and physical activity as core components of a comprehensive curriculum in schools. It is also essential to explicitly state ways in which the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)…

  10. A Burger and Fries: The Dilemma of Childhood Obesity. For Parents Particularly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, MaryJane

    2003-01-01

    Discusses reasons childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and the numerous health problems that can result. Suggests parents incorporate physical activity into their family's lifestyle; advocate for daily outdoor recess at school; provide healthful meals; respect their child's appetite; not use food for comfort or as reward; and limit…

  11. Bariatric Bypass Surgery to Resolve Complicated Childhood Morbid Obesity: Case Report Study: Erratum.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    In the article ''Bariatric Bypass Surgery to Resolve Complicated Childhood Morbid Obesity: Case Report Study'', which appeared in Volume 94, Issue 49 of Medicine, Dr. Elrazek's name was incorrectly presented as Abd Elrazek M. Ali Hussein when it should have read Abd Elrazek Abd Elrazek. The article has since been corrected online. PMID:27231816

  12. Competitive Food Sales in Schools and Childhood Obesity: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Altman, Claire E.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of American middle schools and high schools sell what are known as "competitive foods," such as soft drinks, candy bars, and chips, to children. The relationship between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and snacks and childhood obesity is well established, but it remains unknown whether competitive food sales in schools are…

  13. Socioeconomic determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China: the long arm of institutional power.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; George, Linda K

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have widely reported that the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood overweight and obesity in China is significant and positive, which lends little support to the fundamental-cause perspective. Using multiple waves (1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) (N = 2,556, 2,063, 1,431 and 1,242, respectively) and continuous BMI cut-points obtained from a polynomial method, (mixed-effect) logistic regression analyses show that parental state-sector employment, an important, yet overlooked, indicator of political power during the market transformation has changed from a risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 1997 to a protective factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 2006. Results from quantile regression analyses generate the same conclusions and demonstrate that the protective effect of parental state sector employment at high percentiles of BMI is robust under different estimation strategies. By bridging the fundamental causes perspective and theories of market transformation, this research not only documents the effect of political power on childhood overweight/obesity but also calls for the use of multifaceted, culturally-relevant stratification measures in testing the fundamental cause perspective across time and space. PMID:26178452

  14. The effects of childhood obesity status on monocyte concentration and plasma chemokine concentration (ECRA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight/obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic diseases, such as type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In recent years, the prevalence of overweight in children has nearly tripled, especially among Mexican-American children. Childhood overweight greatly increases the ris...

  15. Rationale, design, and methods for process evaluation in the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cross-site process evaluation plan for the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project is described here. The CORD project comprises 3 unique demonstration projects designed to integrate multi-level, multi-setting health care and public health interventions over a 4-year funding peri...

  16. Finding common ground: perspectives on community-based childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Porter, Christine M; Pelletier, David L

    2012-11-01

    To support successful and inclusive community organizing for childhood obesity prevention, this research identified stakeholder perspectives on what communities should do to prevent childhood obesity. It employed factor analysis on statement sorts (Q methodology) conducted by 95 people in an upstate New York community. These participants sorted 36 statements about the issue by how much he or she agreed or disagreed with each. Participants were recruited through strategic snowball sampling to sample a variety of perspectives. The four resulting factors, or perspectives, were interpreted in the context of presort demographic surveys and postsort interviews. This research found one stance that fits the environmental perspective common in public health. The other three factors indicate important variations among perspectives centered on individual responsibility, ranging from libertarian to technocratic views. However, overall, results revealed a substantial degree of agreement among the four perspectives, including on providing access to family activities and on making fruits and vegetables more available and affordable, for example, through subsidies. This article points to common ground for community action on childhood obesity prevention, highlights areas likely to generate considerable contention, and shows whose views are not being accounted for in, at least, this community's childhood obesity prevention project. PMID:21525420

  17. Delivery by caesarean section and risk of childhood obesity: analysis of a Peruvian prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to assess if Caesarean section is a risk factor for overnutrition in early- and late-childhood, and to assess the magnitude of the effect of child- versus family-related variables in these risk estimates. Methods. Longitudinal data from Peruvian children from the Young Lives Study was used. Outcomes assessed were overweight, obesity, overnutrition (overweight plus obesity), and central obesity (waist circumference) at the age 5 (first follow-up) and 7 (second follow-up) years. The exposure of interests was delivery by Caesarean section. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariable models adjusted for child-related (e.g., birth weight) and family-related (e.g., maternal nutritional status) variables. Results. At baseline, mean age was 11.7 (± 3.5) months and 50.1% were boys. Children born by Caesarean section were 15.6%. The 10.5% of the children were overweight and 2.4% were obese. For the obesity outcome, data from 6,038 and 9,625 children-years was included from baseline to the first and second follow-up, respectively. Compared to those who did not experience Caesarean delivery, the risk of having obesity was higher in the group born by Caesarean: RRs were higher at early-childhood (first follow-up: 2.25; 95% CI [1.36-3.74]) than later in life (second follow-up: 1.57; 95% CI [1.02-2.41]). Family-related variables had a greater effect in attenuating the risk estimates for obesity at the first, than at the second follow-up. Conclusion. Our results suggest a higher probability of developing obesity, but not overweight, among children born by Caesarean section delivery. The magnitude of risk estimates decreased over time, and family-related variables had a stronger effect on the risk estimates at early-childhood. PMID:26137427

  18. Bariatric Bypass Surgery to Resolve Complicated Childhood Morbid Obesity: Case Report Study.

    PubMed

    Elbanna, Abduh; Eldin, Mohammed Tag; Fathy, Mohammad; Osman, Osama; Abdelfattah, Mohammed; Safwat, Abdelrahman; Elkader, Mohammed Sedki Abd; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Salama, Khaled; Elnour, Asim A; Shehab, Abdullah; Baghdady, Shazly; Amer, Mohamed; Alboraie, Mohamed; Ragb, Aly; Abd Elrazek, Abd Elrazek

    2015-12-01

    Children obesity has become one of the most important public health problems in many countries worldwide. Although the awareness of childhood obesity as a modifiable health risk is high, but many societies do not prioritize this issue as a health care problem, which may lead to comorbidities and even premature death. Despite the rising interest in bariatric surgery for children, only laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is being considered in resolving childhood obesity who failed other dietary or drug therapies; however many of LSG procedures failed to reduce the weight in children or resulted in complications postsurgery.Here, we present a novel bariatric procedure to clue out a female child 13 years old presented with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease-associated morbid obesity. The surgical bariatric technique applied both fundal resection and surgical bypass in pediatric obesity using the Elbanna novel bariatric technique.Bariatric surgical bypass may be considered in complicated-childhood cases who failed all other options. PMID:26656361

  19. Public Health Professionals as Policy Entrepreneurs: Arkansas's Childhood Obesity Policy Experience

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Rebekah L.; Felix, Holly C.; Phillips, Martha M.

    2010-01-01

    In response to a nationwide rise in obesity, several states have passed legislation to improve school health environments. Among these was Arkansas's Act 1220 of 2003, the most comprehensive school-based childhood obesity legislation at that time. We used the Multiple Streams Framework to analyze factors that brought childhood obesity to the forefront of the Arkansas legislative agenda and resulted in the passage of Act 1220. When 3 streams (problem, policy, and political) are combined, a policy window is opened and policy entrepreneurs may advance their goals. We documented factors that produced a policy window and allowed entrepreneurs to enact comprehensive legislation. This historical analysis and the Multiple Streams Framework may serve as a roadmap for leaders seeking to influence health policy. PMID:20864715

  20. School and community-based childhood obesity: implications for policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Reed, Suzette Fromm; Viola, Judah J; Lynch, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community on the topic of childhood obesity prevention lays some of the basis for the state of affairs of the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States as of 2012 and the need for and types of existing prevention and intervention efforts underway. At the intersection of public health and community psychology, each of the five articles presents some insights into how prevention and intervention efforts currently underway are fairing and offers some implications for program developers and policy makers to start to turn around the epidemic. Given the key role schools play, successful strategies for engaging schools are presented in the introduction. The authors of this special issue also emphasize the need to involve whole communities in order to attain the intended changes of reductions in overweight and obesity rates and increases in positive health outcomes. PMID:24702660

  1. Parents as health promoters: a theory of planned behavior perspective on the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kyle R; Silk, Kami S; Eneli, Ihuoma U

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States. A number of communication campaigns and interventions have been conducted to combat the problem, with parents being recognized as an important target audience. A critical aspect of involving parents in such campaigns is formative research on parents' perceptions of their role in preventing childhood obesity. To facilitate this process, a study was conducted in which parents (N = 201) responded to Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) survey items as they relate to providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods for their children. Results indicated support for TPB predictions. Additionally, the degree to which parents viewed providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods as effective in preventing obesity (response efficacy) was predictive of parent tracking of children's unhealthy eating behavior. Finally, parent TV viewing behavior was related to perceived response efficacy of limiting children's TV viewing hours. Practical implications for communication practitioners are discussed. PMID:20390979

  2. The Center for Healthy Weight: an academic medical center response to childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, T N; Kemby, K M

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity represents a worldwide medical and public health challenge. Academic medical centers cannot avoid the effects of the obesity epidemic, and must adopt strategies for their academic, clinical and public policy responses to childhood obesity. The Center for Healthy Weight at Stanford University and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford provides an example and model of one such strategy. The design provides both breadth and depth through six cores: Research, Patient Care, Community Programs, Advocating for Public Policy Change, Training and Professional Education, and the Healthy Hospital Initiative. The Center and its cores are designed to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration across the university, medical school, children's hospital and surrounding community. The foci of these cores are likely to be relevant to almost any academic medical center's mission and functions. PMID:25089192

  3. Risk for obesity in adolescence starts in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, S; Bann, C; Das, A; Lester, B; Bada, H; Bauer, CR; La Gasse, L; Higgins, RD

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the predictive value of body mass index (BMI) at earlier ages on risk of overweight/obesity at age of 11 years. Study Design This is a longitudinal study of 907 children from birth to age of 11 years. Predictors include BMI at earlier ages and outcome is overweight/obesity status at age of 11 years. Analyses were adjusted for covariates known to affect BMI. Result At 11 years, 17% were overweight and 25% were obese. Children whose BMI was measured as ≥85th percentile once at preschool age had a twofold risk for overweight/obesity at 11 years of age. Risk increased by 11-fold if a child's BMI measured was noted more than once during this age. During early elementary years, if a child's BMI was>85th percentile once, risk for overweight/obesity at 11 years was fivefold and increased by 72-fold if noted more than two times. During late elementary years, if a child's BMI was>85th percentile once, risk for overweight/obesity was 26-fold and increased by 351-fold if noted more than two times. Risk of overweight/obesity at 11 years was noted with higher maternal prepregnancy weight, higher birth weight, female gender and increased television viewing. Conclusion Children in higher BMI categories at young ages have a higher risk of overweight/obesity at 11 years of age. Effect size was greater for measurements taken closer to 11 years of age. Pediatricians need to identify children at-risk for adolescent obesity and initiate counseling and intervention at earlier ages. PMID:21415836

  4. A process to establish nutritional guidelines to address obesity: Lessons from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Charvel, Sofia; Cobo, Fernanda; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    In 2010, the Mexican government implemented a multi-sector agreement to prevent obesity. In response, the Ministries of Health and Education launched a national school-based policy to increase physical activity, improve nutrition literacy, and regulate school food offerings through nutritional guidelines. We studied the Guidelines' negotiation and regulatory review process, including government collaboration and industry response. Within the government, conflicting positions were evident: the Ministries of Health and Education supported the Guidelines as an effective obesity-prevention strategy, while the Ministries of Economics and Agriculture viewed them as potentially damaging to the economy and job generation. The food and beverage industries opposed and delayed the process, arguing that regulation was costly, with negative impacts on jobs and revenues. The proposed Guidelines suffered revisions that lowered standards initially put forward. We documented the need to improve cross-agency cooperation to achieve effective policymaking. The 'siloed' government working style presented a barrier to efforts to resist industry's influence and strong lobbying. Our results are relevant to public health policymakers working in childhood obesity prevention. PMID:26356071

  5. School based interventions versus family based interventions in the treatment of childhood obesity- a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood obesity, which has seen a rapid increase over the last decade, is now considered a major public health problem. Current treatment options are based on the two important frameworks of school- and family-based interventions; however, most research has yet to compare the two frameworks in the treatment of childhood obesity. The objective of this review is to compare the effectiveness of school-based intervention with family-based intervention in the treatment of childhood obesity. Methods Databases such as Medline, Pub med, CINAHL, and Science Direct were used to execute the search for primary research papers according to inclusion criteria. The review included a randomised controlled trial and quasi-randomised controlled trials based on family- and school-based intervention frameworks on the treatment of childhood obesity. Results The review identified 1231 articles of which 13 met the criteria. Out of the thirteen studies, eight were family-based interventions (n = 8) and five were school-based interventions (n = 5) with total participants (n = 2067). The participants were aged between 6 and 17 with the study duration ranging between one month and three years. Family-based interventions demonstrated effectiveness for children under the age of twelve and school-based intervention was most effective for those aged between 12 and 17 with differences for both long-term and short-term results. Conclusions The evidence shows that family- and school-based interventions have a considerable effect on treating childhood obesity. However, the effectiveness of the interventional frameworks depends on factors such as age, short- or long-term outcome, and methodological quality of the trials. Further research studies are required to determine the effectiveness of family- and school-based interventions using primary outcomes such as weight, BMI, percentage overweight and waist circumference in addition to the aforementioned

  6. 75 FR 54755 - National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-22590 Filed 9-7-10; 11:15 am] Billing... and chronic health problems during childhood, adolescence and adulthood, including heart...

  7. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (<2500 g). Low birthweight was associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome and central obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding

  8. Childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depression in individuals with extreme obesity.

    PubMed

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Vivian, Dina; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to examine (a) a mediational model of childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depressive symptoms and (b) the impact of weight-related teasing on rates and correlates of childhood abuse. Charts of 187 extremely obese individuals seeking psychological clearance for bariatric (weight-loss) surgery were retrospectively examined. Among the participants, 61% reported a history of childhood abuse, 30.5% reported adult interpersonal abuse, and 15% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Initially, the relationship between childhood abuse and current depressive symptoms was significant (p<.001). However, the introduction of adult interpersonal abuse as a mediator in the model reduced the magnitude of its significance (Sobel's test p=.01). The associations between childhood abuse and adult interpersonal abuse and between adult interpersonal abuse and depressive symptoms were significant (p<.001 and p=.002, respectively), and the model showed a good fit across multiple indices. Finally, weight-related teasing was a significant moderator in the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse. Bariatric surgery patients report elevated rates of childhood abuse that are comparable to rates in psychiatric populations (e.g., eating disorders, depression), and higher than those in community samples and other medical populations. The relationship between child abuse and depressive symptomatology may be partially explained by the presence of adult interpersonal abuse; additionally, the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse was stronger for those who did not endure weight-related teasing than for those who did. PMID:24412223

  9. Childhood Obesity. A Concern for the Physical Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plimpton, Carol E.

    1987-01-01

    Physical educators can help obese children to realize their worth and become healthy individuals. Physical educators should encourage a positive attitude toward exercise and fitness, individual counseling, nutrition instruction, and development of high self-esteem. (CB)

  10. Childhood Overweight/Obesity and Pediatric Asthma: The Role of Parental Perception of Child Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Musaad, Salma M. A.; Paige, Katie N.; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Donovan, Sharon M.; Fiese, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child’s weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, observed body mass index (BMI) percentiles, and a measure of child feeding practices were explored in the context of asthma, food allergy, or both. Out of the children with asthma or food allergy that were classified as overweight/obese by BMI percentiles, 93% were not perceived as overweight/obese by the parent. Mean scores for concern about child weight were higher in children with both asthma and food allergy than either condition alone, yet there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of pressure to eat and restrictive feeding practices. In summary, parents of children with asthma or food allergy were less likely to recognize their child’s overweight/obese status and their feeding practices did not differ from those without asthma and food allergy. PMID:24064571

  11. Reducing childhood obesity through coordinated care: Development of a park prescription program.

    PubMed

    Messiah, Sarah E; Jiang, Sandy; Kardys, Jack; Hansen, Eric; Nardi, Maria; Forster, Lourdes

    2016-08-01

    Major hindrances to controlling the current childhood obesity epidemic include access to prevention and/or treatment programs that are affordable, provide minimal barriers for participation, and are available to the general public. Moreover, successful childhood obesity prevention efforts will require coordinated partnerships in multiple sectors such as government, health care, school/afterschool, and the community but very few documented sustainable programs currently exist. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on maintaining healthy weight via physical activity and healthy eating have the potential to be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians and other healthcare professionals who have young patients who are overweight/obese. The Miami Dade County Department of Parks, Recreation and Open Spaces in partnership with the University of Miami UHealth Systems have created a "Park Prescription Program (Parks Rx 4Health(TM))" that formally coordinates pediatricians, families, parents, caregivers, and child/adolescents to provide daily obesity-prevention activities. This Parks Rx 4Health(TM) program that we describe here allows UHealth pediatricians to seamlessly refer their overweight and obese patients to Fit2Play(TM), an evidence-based, park-based afterschool health and wellness program. Measurable outcomes that include body mass index, blood pressure, fitness, and nutrition knowledge are being collected at baseline and at 3-and 6-mo after referral to document patient progress. Results are then shared with the referring physician so they can follow up with the patient if necessary. Identifying successful models that integrate primary care, public health, and community-based efforts is important to accelerating progress in preventing childhood obesity. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on physical activity and nutrition education could be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians who have

  12. Reducing childhood obesity through coordinated care: Development of a park prescription program

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Sarah E; Jiang, Sandy; Kardys, Jack; Hansen, Eric; Nardi, Maria; Forster, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Major hindrances to controlling the current childhood obesity epidemic include access to prevention and/or treatment programs that are affordable, provide minimal barriers for participation, and are available to the general public. Moreover, successful childhood obesity prevention efforts will require coordinated partnerships in multiple sectors such as government, health care, school/afterschool, and the community but very few documented sustainable programs currently exist. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on maintaining healthy weight via physical activity and healthy eating have the potential to be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians and other healthcare professionals who have young patients who are overweight/obese. The Miami Dade County Department of Parks, Recreation and Open Spaces in partnership with the University of Miami UHealth Systems have created a “Park Prescription Program (Parks Rx 4HealthTM)” that formally coordinates pediatricians, families, parents, caregivers, and child/adolescents to provide daily obesity-prevention activities. This Parks Rx 4HealthTM program that we describe here allows UHealth pediatricians to seamlessly refer their overweight and obese patients to Fit2PlayTM, an evidence-based, park-based afterschool health and wellness program. Measurable outcomes that include body mass index, blood pressure, fitness, and nutrition knowledge are being collected at baseline and at 3-and 6-mo after referral to document patient progress. Results are then shared with the referring physician so they can follow up with the patient if necessary. Identifying successful models that integrate primary care, public health, and community-based efforts is important to accelerating progress in preventing childhood obesity. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on physical activity and nutrition education could be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians who have

  13. Assessing Implementation Fidelity and Adaptation in a Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed…

  14. Evaluating School Wellness Policy in Curbing Childhood Obesity in Anchorage, Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Wendy G.; Garcia, Gabriel M.; Hoffman, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Anchorage School District implemented a school wellness policy to address the problem of obesity among its elementary-aged students. We assessed whether the addition of this policy is effective in protecting or preventing students from becoming overweight/obese over time. The methods involved following two cohorts of students for 5…

  15. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

  16. A crisis in the marketplace: how food marketing contributes to childhood obesity and what can be done.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Lobstein, Tim; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Reducing food marketing to children has been proposed as one means for addressing the global crisis of childhood obesity, but significant social, legal, financial, and public perception barriers stand in the way. The scientific literature documents that food marketing to children is (a) massive; (b) expanding in number of venues (product placements, video games, the Internet, cell phones, etc.); (c) composed almost entirely of messages for nutrient-poor, calorie-dense foods; (d) having harmful effects; and (e) increasingly global and hence difficult to regulate by individual countries. The food industry, governmental bodies, and advocacy groups have proposed a variety of plans for altering the marketing landscape. This article reviews existing knowledge of the impact of marketing and addresses the value of various legal, legislative, regulatory, and industry-based approaches to change. PMID:18976142

  17. A randomized controlled trial to prevent childhood obesity through early childhood feeding and parenting guidance: rationale and design of study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early and rapid growth in Infants is strongly associated with early development and persistence of obesity in young children. Substantial research has linked child obesity/overweight to increased risks for serious health outcomes, which include adverse physical, psychological, behavioral, or social consequences. Methods/design The goal of this study is to compare the effectiveness of structured Community Health Worker (CHW)- provided home visits, using an intervention created through community-based participatory research, to standard care received through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) office visits in preventing the development of overweight (weight/length ≥85th percentile) and obesity (weight/length ≥95th percentile) in infants during their first 3 years of life. One hundred forty pregnant women in their third trimester (30–36 weeks) will be recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Discussion This study will provide prospective data on the effects of an intervention to prevent childhood obesity in children at high risk for obesity due to ethnicity, income, and maternal body mass index (BMI). It will have wide-ranging applicability and the potential for rapid dissemination through the WIC program, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of a community approach though employing CHWs in preventing obesity during the first 3 years of life. This easy-to-implement obesity prevention intervention can be adapted for many locales and diverse communities and can provide evidence for policy change to influence health throughout life. Trial registration Clinical Trials Number: NCT01905072 PMID:24063435

  18. Multi-Institutional Sharing of Electronic Health Record Data to Assess Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, L. Charles; Milov, David E.; Kelleher, Kelly; Kahn, Michael G.; Del Beccaro, Mark; Yu, Feliciano; Richards, Thomas; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity of multi-institutional electronic health record (EHR) data sharing for surveillance and study of childhood obesity. Methods We conducted a non-concurrent cohort study of 528,340 children with outpatient visits to six pediatric academic medical centers during 2007–08, with sufficient data in the EHR for body mass index (BMI) assessment. EHR data were compared with data from the 2007–08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Results Among children 2–17 years, BMI was evaluable for 1,398,655 visits (56%). The EHR dataset contained over 6,000 BMI measurements per month of age up to 16 years, yielding precise estimates of BMI. In the EHR dataset, 18% of children were obese versus 18% in NHANES, while 35% were obese or overweight versus 34% in NHANES. BMI for an individual was highly reliable over time (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.90 for obese children and 0.97 for all children). Only 14% of visits with measured obesity (BMI ≥95%) had a diagnosis of obesity recorded, and only 20% of children with measured obesity had the diagnosis documented during the study period. Obese children had higher primary care (4.8 versus 4.0 visits, p<0.001) and specialty care (3.7 versus 2.7 visits, p<0.001) utilization than non-obese counterparts, and higher prevalence of diverse co-morbidities. The cohort size in the EHR dataset permitted detection of associations with rare diagnoses. Data sharing did not require investment of extensive institutional resources, yet yielded high data quality. Conclusions Multi-institutional EHR data sharing is a promising, feasible, and valid approach for population health surveillance. It provides a valuable complement to more resource-intensive national surveys, particularly for iterative surveillance and quality improvement. Low rates of obesity diagnosis present a significant obstacle to surveillance and quality improvement for care of children with obesity. PMID:23823186

  19. Childhood obesity: food, nutrient, and eating-habit trends and influences.

    PubMed

    Roblin, Lynn

    2007-08-01

    The need has never been greater to support healthy eating and physical activity in children and youth; the numbers of overweight and obese children have doubled and tripled, respectively, over the past 3 decades. Poor eating habits, including inadequate intake of vegetables, fruit, and milk, and eating too many high-calorie snacks, play a role in childhood obesity. Grain products provide the highest percentage (31%) of daily calories, followed by "other foods," which have limited nutritional value (22% of daily calories). Snacks account for 27% of total daily calories, which is more than the calories consumed at breakfast (18%) and lunch (24%), but not dinner (31%). For Canadians older than 4 years of age, more than 41% of daily snack calories come from other foods, such as chips, chocolate bars, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sugars, syrup, preserves, fats, and oils. Habits that protect against childhood obesity include eating more vegetables and fruit, eating meals with family, and being physically active. Children's food habits and choices are influenced by family, caregivers, friends, schools, marketing, and the media. Successful interventions for preventing childhood obesity combine family- and school-based programs, nutrition education, dietary change, physical activity, family participation, and counseling. PMID:17622277

  20. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management123

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors’ nutritional intake as well as how survivors’ nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:26374183

  1. Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: The Origin of Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Chiara; Mazzantini, Sara; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major global issue. Its incidence is constantly increasing, thereby offering a threatening public health perspective. The risk of developing the numerous chronic diseases associated with this condition from very early in life is significant. Although complex and multi-factorial, the pathophysiology of obesity recognizes essential roles of nutritional and metabolic aspects. Particularly, several risk factors identified as possible determinants of later-life obesity act within the first 1000 days of life (i.e., from conception to age 2 years). The purpose of this manuscript is to review those key mechanisms for which a role in predisposing children to obesity is supported by the most recent literature. Throughout the development of the human feeding environment, three different stages have been identified: (1) the prenatal period; (2) breast vs. formula feeding; and (3) complementary diet. A deep understanding of the specific nutritional challenges presented within each phase might foster the development of future preventive strategies. PMID:27563917

  2. SWITCH: rationale, design, and implementation of a community, school, and family-based intervention to modify behaviors related to childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, Joey C; Gentile, Douglas A; Welk, Gregory J; Callahan, Randi; Strickland, Sarah; Walsh, Monica; Walsh, David A

    2008-01-01

    Background Although several previous projects have attempted to address the issue of child obesity through school-based interventions, the overall effectiveness of school-based programs on health-related outcomes in youth has been poor. Thus, it has been suggested that multi-level interventions that aim to influence healthy lifestyle behaviors at the community, school and family levels may prove more successful in the prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design This paper describes the rationale, design, and implementation of a community-, school-, and family-based intervention aimed at modifying key behaviors (physical activity, screen time (Internet, television, video games), and nutrition) related to childhood obesity among third through fifth graders in two mid-western cities. The intervention involves a randomized study of 10 schools (5 intervention and 5 control schools). The intervention is being conducted during the duration of the academic year – approximately 9 months – and includes baseline and post-intervention measurements of physical activity, dietary intake, screen time and body composition. Discussion We hope this report will be useful to researchers, public health professionals, and school administrators and health professionals (nurses and physical/health educators) seeking to develop similar prevention programs. It is obvious that more collaborative, inter-disciplinary, multi-level work is needed before a proven, effective intervention package to modify behaviors related to childhood obesity can be generally recommended. It is our hope that SWITCH is a step in that direction. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00685555 PMID:18588706

  3. Stigma, Obesity, and the Health of the Nation's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Latner, Janet D.

    2007-01-01

    Preventing childhood obesity has become a top priority in efforts to improve our nation's public health. Although much research is needed to address this health crisis, it is important to approach childhood obesity with an understanding of the social stigma that obese youths face, which is pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional…

  4. Reducing Childhood Obesity by Eliminating 100% Fruit Juice

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Melvin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture’s Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423

  5. Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-09-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure, Obesity and Childhood Asthma in an Urban Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Perzanowski, Matthew; Rundle, Andrew; Moors, Kathleen; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N.; Whyatt, Robin; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from traffic emissions and other combustion sources, and childhood obesity, have been implicated as risk factors for developing asthma. However, the interaction between these two on asthma among young urban children has not been studied previously. Methods Exposure to early childhood PAHs was measured by two week residential indoor monitoring at age 5–6 years in the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health birth cohort (n=311). Semivolatile [e.g., methylphenanthrenes] and nonvolatile [e.g., benzo(a)pyrene] PAHs were monitored. Obesity at age 5 was defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the year 2000 age- and sex- specific growth charts (Center for Disease Control). Current asthma and recent wheeze at ages 5 and 7 were determined by validated questionnaires. Data were analyzed using a modified Poisson regression in generalized estimating equations (GEE) to estimate relative risks (RR), after adjusting for potential covariates. Results Neither PAH concentrations or obesity had a main effect on asthma or recent wheeze. In models stratified by presence/absence of obesity, a significant positive association was observed between an interquartile range (IQR) increase in natural log-transformed 1-methylphenanthrene (RR [95% CI]: 2.62 [1.17–5.88] with IQRln=0.76), and 9-methylphenanthrene (2.92 [1.09–7.82] with IQRln=0.73) concentrations and asthma in obese children (n=63). No association in non-obese (n=248) children was observed at age 5 (Pinteraction < 0.03). Similar associations were observed for 3-methylphenanthrene, 9-methylphenanthrene, and 3,6-dimethylphenanthrene at age 7. Conclusions Obese young children may be more likely to develop asthma in association with greater exposure to PAHs, and methylphenanthrenes in particular, than non-obese children. PMID:24407477

  7. [Knowledge and gaps on the role of nutrition and physical activity on the onset of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Sangil-Monroy, Marta; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2004-12-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity has increased at alarming rates over the last few years, due to the concurrence of a variety of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of published studies in the past ten years evaluating the development of childhood obesity in relation to energy and macronutrients intake, their distribution throughout the day and physical activity patterns. 31 articles dealing with this subject were selected. Results obtained appear to indicate that reducing dietary fat and increasing dietary carbohydrate intakes along with consuming an adequate breakfast and carrying out leisure time physical activity on a regular basis act as determining factors to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity, even though the strength of the evidence from these studies is low. It should be a priority to conduct follow-up studies with comparable methodologies in Mediterranean countries, in order to establish parameters for the prevention and control of childhood and adolescent obesity. PMID:15607072

  8. Beyond BMI: The Next Chapter in Childhood Obesity Management.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Tracey L; Wareham, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric obesity treatment has traditionally focused on body mass index (BMI) and has had limited success. Recent research has suggested new ways to approach this topic that focuses more on holistic measures of health and inclusion of a larger population of children. This paper discusses new evidence in the prevention of chronic disease and treatment of obesity that has a body positive and mental health lens as well as integrating research from several areas of health, including the prevention of chronic disease. Practical medical and mental health assessments tools are suggested for clinical use. Implications for an individualized, positive treatment future are presented. PMID:26626762

  9. Childhood Obesity and Nutrition Issues in the United States: An Update on School-based Policies and Practices. Education Policy Brief, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spradlin, Terry; Gard, Greta; Huang, Vivian; Kopp, Beth; Malik, Alanna

    2012-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief examines the latest research and statistics regarding childhood obesity. In addition to providing an overview of current trends and effects of childhood obesity, this brief considers the reasons for the increase in obesity rates among children, as well as the latest federal and state initiatives created to combat…

  10. Metabolites as Novel Biomarkers for Childhood Obesity-Related Traits in Mexican American Children

    PubMed Central

    Farook, Vidya S.; Reddivari, Lavanya; Chittoor, Geetha; Puppala, Sobha; Arya, Rector; Fowler, Sharon P.; Hunt, Kelly J.; Curran, Joanne E.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Lehman, Donna M.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Lynch, Jane L.; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Blangero, John; Hale, Daniel E.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Vanamala, Jairam

    2014-01-01

    Aims Although newer approaches have identified several metabolites associated with obesity, there is paucity of such information in pediatric populations, especially among Mexican Americans (MAs) who are at high risk of obesity. Therefore, we performed a global serum metabolite screening in MA children to identify biomarkers of childhood obesity. Materials and methods We selected 15 normal-weight, 13 overweight and 14 obese MA children (6–17 years), and performed global serum metabolite screening using UPLC system with Q-Tof-Micromass-spectrometer. Metabolite values were analyzed to assess mean differences among groups using one-way ANOVA, test for linear trend across groups, and examine Pearson’s correlations between them and seven cardiometabolic traits (CMTs): body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides (TG), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Results We identified 14 metabolites exhibiting differences between groups as well as linear trend across groups with nominal statistical significance. After adjustment for multiple testing mean differences and linear trends across groups remained significant (P < 5.9 × 10−5) for L-thyronine, bradykinin, and naringenin. Of the examined metabolite-CMT trait pairs, all metabolites except for 2-methylbutyroylcarnitine were nominally associated with two or more CMTs, some exhibiting significance even after accounting for multiple testing(P < 3.6 × 10−3). Conclusions To our knowledge, this study - albeit pilot in nature - is the first study to identify these metabolites as novel biomarkers of childhood obesity and its correlates. These findings signify the need for future systematic investigations of metabolic pathways underlying childhood obesity. PMID:25405847

  11. Design of the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) Study

    PubMed Central

    Blaine, Rachel E.; Davison, Kirsten K.; Gortmaker, Steven; Anand, Shikha; Falbe, Jennifer; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Perkins, Meghan; Giles, Catherine; Criss, Shaniece; Colchamiro, Rachel; Woo Baidal, Jennifer; Land, Thomas; Smith, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Childhood obesity is highly prevalent, is associated with both short- and long-term adverse outcomes, disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority and economically deprived children, and represents a major threat to public health. Among the most promising approaches for its prevention and management are multilevel, multisector strategies. Methods/Design: The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) Study was a comprehensive, systematic intervention to prevent and reduce childhood obesity among low-income children ages 2–12 years in two selected cities in Massachusetts. Building on the Obesity Chronic Care Model, MA-CORD expanded a state public health department community-level obesity prevention initiative that incorporated evidence-based interventions in primary healthcare, the Women, Infants, and Children program, early care and education, schools/afterschool programs, as well as community-wide programs to improve food, beverage, physical activity (PA), and messaging environments. The study used a combination of pre– and post–time series and quasi-experimental designs to examine the extent to which the intervention resulted in changes in BMI, individual-level lifestyle behaviors, satisfaction with healthcare services, and quality of life among children, as well as changes in health policies, programs, and environments in the two intervention cities, compared to a comparison city. The intervention period was 2 years. Conclusions: MA-CORD will determine the extent to which a multisetting, multilevel intervention that integrates activities in primary care with broader public health interventions in schools, early care and education, and the community at large can improve children's dietary and PA behaviors and ultimately reduce obesity in low-income children. PMID:25469676

  12. Lessons learned from the implementation of a provincial breastfeeding policy in Nova Scotia, Canada and the implications for childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Sara F L; Sim, Sarah Meaghan; Hemmens, Erin; Price, Sheri L

    2012-04-01

    Healthy public policy plays a central role in creating environments that are supportive of health. Breastfeeding, widely supported as the optimal mode for infant feeding, is a critical factor in promoting infant health. In 2005, the Canadian province of Nova Scotia introduced a provincial breastfeeding policy. This paper describes the process and outcomes of an evaluation into the implementation of the policy. This evaluation comprised focus groups held with members of provincial and district level breastfeeding committees who were tasked with promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in their districts. Five key themes were identified, which were an unsupportive culture of breastfeeding; the need for strong leadership; the challenges in engaging physicians in dialogue around breastfeeding; lack of understanding around the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes; and breastfeeding as a way to address childhood obesity. Recommendations for other jurisdictions include the need for a policy, the value of leadership, the need to integrate policy with other initiatives across sectors and the importance of coordination and support at multiple levels. Finally, promotion of breastfeeding offers a population-based strategy for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic and should form a core component of any broader strategies or policies for childhood obesity prevention. PMID:22690194

  13. Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods.

    PubMed

    Moss, Brian G; Yeaton, William H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and postponing introduction to solid food (SF) on children's obesity and healthy weight status (WS), at 2 and 4 years. Drawing upon a nationally representative sample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we estimated the magnitude of the relationship between children's WS and early feeding practices. Contingency tables and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze obese and healthy WS for breastfed and never breastfed children and examine three timing categories for SF introduction. With both percentages and odds, breastfeeding and delaying introduction to SF until 4 months were associated with lower obesity rates and higher, healthy WS rates (typically 5-10%). Analyses of feeding practice combinations revealed that when children were not breastfed, obesity odds decreased when SF introduction was postponed until 4 months. Obesity odds were further reduced when SF delay was combined with breastfeeding. Consistent increases in healthy WS were also observed. Benefits were stable across both follow-up periods. Breastfeeding and delaying complementary foods yielded consistently and substantially lower likelihood of obesity and greater probability of healthy WS. Health policies targeting early feeding practices represent promising interventions to decrease preschool obesity and promote healthy WS. PMID:24057991

  14. Is Neck Circumference an Indicator for Metabolic Complication of Childhood Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; Atef, Abeer; El-Masry, Sahar A.; Ibrahim, Amany; Al-Tohamy, Muhammad; Rasheed, Enas Abdel; Elashry, Galal Ismail Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The possible role of neck circumference (NC) for screening childhood obesity and its complication is not well characterized. AIM: To assess NC and to explore its increase as risk factor with metabolic syndrome (MS) variables. METHODS: Cross sectional case-control study included 50 obese children (BMI ≥95th percentile) and 50 healthy (BMI 15th-‹85th percentile). All were subjected to clinical examination, measuring blood pressure (BP), body weight, height, NC, waist (WC) and hip (HC)., fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile. RESULTS: MS was detected among 52% of obese participants, but not among controls (0%). Clinical parameters and most of the laboratory values were higher in subjects with MS than in non-metabolic subjects, with statistical significance only in blood pressure and triglycerides. Among obese without MS, NC showed significantly positive correlations with age, weight, height, WC, HC and negative with LDL. While among Obese with MS, NC showed significantly positive correlations with age, weight, height, BMI-SDS, WC, HC and DBP. CONCLUSION: NC can be considered as a good indicator and predictor for obesity, especially central obesity. However, NC has no relation with lipid profile or fasting blood sugar.

  15. Childhood obesity and its health consequence in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Yang, X; Zhai, F; Piao, J; Zhao, W; Zhang, J; Ma, G

    2008-03-01

    Analyses of data from the representative 2002 National Nutrition and Health Survey were used to assess the likelihood of metabolic complications of overweight and obesity in Chinese children aged 7-17 years. Chinese criteria for body mass index classification were used for overweight and obesity with the 75th percentile US adolescent values for waist circumferences and all the metabolic criteria for blood pressure, lipids, fasting glucose established for US adolescents. Diabetes in 7-12-year-olds was 0.2% and 0.4% in children aged 12-18 years. Prevalences of dyslipidaemia (61.9%), hypertriglyceridaemia (18.2%) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (56.1%) were high and 16.0% of 15-18 years had hypertension. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 3.3% with more than half the children having at least one metabolic abnormality and 19.8% having at least two. All the metabolic parameters were significantly elevated in the overweight and obese children except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These data emphasize the marked sensitivity of Chinese children to the metabolic complications of overweight and obesity and amplify the need for early preventive measures. PMID:18307705

  16. Glycemic index, glycemic load and childhood obesity: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Kelishadi, Roya; Hashemipour, Mahin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several evidences have been reported so far in terms of the relationship between obesity and glycemic index and glycemic load in children. However, the number of review studies that have dealt with recent findings is quite low. The purpose of present study is to review the existing evidences in this regard. Materials and Methods: First of all, the phrases: “Glycaemic index”, “Glycaemic load”, “Glycemic index” OR “Glycemic load” accompanied by one of the words: “Adolescent”, “Young”, “Youth” “Children” OR “Child” were searched in texts of articles existing in ISI and PUBMED databases which were obtained out of 1001 articles. Among these, some articles, which reviewed the relationship of obesity with glycemic index and glycemic load, were selected. Finally, 20 articles were studied in current review study. Results: The majority of cross-sectional studies have found children's obesity directly linked with glycemic index and glycemic load; however, cohort studies found controversial results. Also, the intervention studies indicate the negative effect of glycemic index and glycemic load on obesity in children. Conclusion: Published evidences reported inconsistent results. It seems that existing studies are not sufficient and more studies are needed in this regard. PMID:24627855

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  18. Dietary patterns and their associations with childhood obesity in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiguo; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Zhang, Ji; Jiang, Hongru; Zhai, Fengying; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods, and illustrate efficaciously the impact of diet on health outcomes. Some findings of previous studies have limited applicability to Chinese children due to cultural factors. The presnt study was designed to identify dietary patterns and determine their relationships with obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Data collected from 1282 children and adolescents aged 7–17 years from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Weight and height were measured following standard methods, and BMI was calculated. Three dietary patterns were identified: modern (high intakes of milk, fast foods and eggs), traditional north (high intakes of wheat, tubers and other cereals) and traditional south (high intakes of vegetables, rice and pork). After adjusting for some confounders and total energy intake, subjects in the highest quartiles of the modern and traditional north patterns were found to have significantly greater risk of obesity (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·52, 6·32, and OR 2·42, 95 % CI 1·34, 4·39, respectively). In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern and the traditional north dietary pattern were associated with higher risk of obesity. Promoting healthier eating patterns could help prevent obesity in Chinese children. PMID:25944159

  19. Childhood Obesity: Harnessing the Power of Public and Private Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malepati, Sarath; Pirani, Hafiza; Surie, Diya; Dietz, David; Lee, Jason; Ramos, Lauren Raskin; Petersen, Brittney

    2007-01-01

    In this report the National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation (NIHCM) and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) focus on selective, exemplary collaborations between state health agencies and health plans to reduce overweight and obesity in children. The idea of collaboration is simple. Partner A agrees to…

  20. Dietary patterns and their associations with childhood obesity in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiguo; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Zhang, Ji; Jiang, Hongru; Zhai, Fengying; Zhang, Bing

    2015-06-28

    Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods, and illustrate efficaciously the impact of diet on health outcomes. Some findings of previous studies have limited applicability to Chinese children due to cultural factors. The present study was designed to identify dietary patterns and determine their relationships with obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Data collected from 1282 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Weight and height were measured following standard methods, and BMI was calculated. Three dietary patterns were identified: modern (high intakes of milk, fast foods and eggs), traditional north (high intakes of wheat, tubers and other cereals) and traditional south (high intakes of vegetables, rice and pork). After adjusting for some confounders and total energy intake, subjects in the highest quartiles of the modern and traditional north patterns were found to have significantly greater risk of obesity (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·52, 6·32, and OR 2·42, 95 % CI 1·34, 4·39, respectively). In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern and the traditional north dietary pattern were associated with higher risk of obesity. Promoting healthier eating patterns could help prevent obesity in Chinese children. PMID:25944159

  1. Effects of a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Treatment Program on Parental Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Trier, Cæcilie; Dahl, Maria; Stjernholm, Theresa; Nielsen, Tenna R. H.; Bøjsøe, Christine; Fonvig, Cilius E.; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment and to evaluate changes in the parents’ weight statuses during their child’s treatment. Methods The study included parents of 1,125 children and adolescents aged 3–22 years, who were enrolled in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. At baseline, weight and height of the parents were obtained by self-reported information and parental body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Weight and height of the children were measured in the clinic and BMI standard deviation scores were calculated. Furthermore, anthropometric data from parents of 664 children were obtained by telephone interview after a mean of 2.5 years of treatment (ranging 16 days to 7 years), and changes in parental BMI were analyzed. Results Data on changes in BMI were available in 606 mothers and 479 fathers. At baseline, the median BMI of the mothers was 28.1 kg/m2 (range: 16.9–66.6), and the median BMI of the fathers was 28.9 kg/m2 (range: 17.2–48.1). Seventy percent of the mothers and 80% of the fathers were overweight or obese at the time of their child’s treatment initiation. Both the mothers and fathers lost weight during their child’s treatment with a mean decrease in BMI in the mothers of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2–0.8, p = 0.0006) and in the fathers of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.6, p = 0.0007). Of the overweight/obese parents, 60% of the mothers and 58% of the fathers lost weight during their child’s treatment. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment. Family-based childhood obesity treatment with a focus on the child has a positive effect on parental BMI with both mothers and fathers losing weight. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00928473 PMID:27560141

  2. Computational and Statistical Models: A Comparison for Policy Modeling of Childhood Obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabry, Patricia L.; Hammond, Ross; Ip, Edward Hak-Sing; Huang, Terry T.-K.

    As systems science methodologies have begun to emerge as a set of innovative approaches to address complex problems in behavioral, social science, and public health research, some apparent conflicts with traditional statistical methodologies for public health have arisen. Computational modeling is an approach set in context that integrates diverse sources of data to test the plausibility of working hypotheses and to elicit novel ones. Statistical models are reductionist approaches geared towards proving the null hypothesis. While these two approaches may seem contrary to each other, we propose that they are in fact complementary and can be used jointly to advance solutions to complex problems. Outputs from statistical models can be fed into computational models, and outputs from computational models can lead to further empirical data collection and statistical models. Together, this presents an iterative process that refines the models and contributes to a greater understanding of the problem and its potential solutions. The purpose of this panel is to foster communication and understanding between statistical and computational modelers. Our goal is to shed light on the differences between the approaches and convey what kinds of research inquiries each one is best for addressing and how they can serve complementary (and synergistic) roles in the research process, to mutual benefit. For each approach the panel will cover the relevant "assumptions" and how the differences in what is assumed can foster misunderstandings. The interpretations of the results from each approach will be compared and contrasted and the limitations for each approach will be delineated. We will use illustrative examples from CompMod, the Comparative Modeling Network for Childhood Obesity Policy. The panel will also incorporate interactive discussions with the audience on the issues raised here.

  3. Addressing the Proximal Causes of Obesity: The Relevance of Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Lila

    2012-01-01

    Many policy measures to control the obesity epidemic assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods. In contrast, many regulations that do not assume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to control alcohol, a substance — like food — of which immoderate consumption leads to serious health problems. Alcohol-use control policies restrict where, when, and by whom alcohol can be purchased and used. Access, salience, and impulsive drinking behaviors are addressed with regulations including alcohol outlet density limits, constraints on retail displays of alcoholic beverages, and restrictions on drink “specials.” We discuss 5 regulations that are effective in reducing drinking and why they may be promising if applied to the obesity epidemic. PMID:22554409

  4. Influence of perceptions on school nurse practices to prevent childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Quelly, Susan B

    2014-08-01

    Comprehensive childhood obesity prevention (COP) strategies should include increasing school nurse involvement. This study was conducted to determine the influence of key school nurse perceptions (self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers) on participation in COP practices at the individual child and school level. Florida registered nurse (RN) school nurses (n = 171) anonymously completed online or paper questionnaires. Linear regression analyses identified a model of self-efficacy with perceived benefits and barriers that explained 12% and 9.1% (p < .001) of variance in child-level and school-level COP practices, respectively. Self-efficacy explained the most variance in both models (p < .001). Mediation testing identified perceived barriers as a partial mediator of the influence of self-efficacy on child-level practices. These findings support interventions and policy changes to increase self-efficacy and reduce perceived barriers to promote school nurse involvement in preventing childhood obesity. PMID:24128859

  5. Interventions to Promote an Integrated Approach to Public Health Problems: An Application to Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Gubbels, Jessica S.; De Vries, Nanne K.; Seidell, Jaap C.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Jansen, Maria W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Experts stress the need to bring the childhood obesity epidemic under control by means of an integrated approach. The implementation of such an approach requires the development of integrated enabling policies on public health by local governments. A prerequisite for developing such integrated public health policies is intersectoral collaboration. Since the development of integrated policies is still in its early stages, this study aimed to answer the following research question: “What interventions can promote intersectoral collaboration and the development of integrated health policies for the prevention of childhood obesity?” Data were collected through a literature search and observations of and interviews with stakeholders. Based on a theoretical framework, we categorized potential interventions that could optimize an integrated approach regarding children's physical activity and diet. The intervention categories included education, persuasion, incentivization, coercion, training, restriction, environmental restructuring, modeling, and enablement. PMID:22792120

  6. The Epidemic of Childhood Obesity: Review of Research and Implications for Public Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 20, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamoorthy, Jenelle S.; Hart, Chantelle; Jelalian, Elissa

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the rate of childhood obesity has more than doubled for preschool children aged 2 to 5 years and adolescents aged 12 to 19 years, and it has more than tripled for children 6 to 11 years of age (Institute of Medicine, 2005). At present, approximately 9 million children over 6 years are considered obese (Institute of…

  7. The Relationship between School-Level Characteristics and Implementation Fidelity of a Coordinated School Health Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Alyssa M.; King, Mindy H.; Sovinski, Danielle; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Curtailing childhood obesity is a public health imperative. Although multicomponent school-based programs reduce obesity among children, less is known about the implementation fidelity of these interventions. This study examines process evaluation findings for the Healthy, Energetic Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic, Schools (HEROES)…

  8. Development and Feasibility of a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program for Rural Families: Application of the Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knol, Linda L.; Myers, Harriet H.; Black, Sheila; Robinson, Darlene; Awololo, Yawah; Clark, Debra; Parker, Carson L.; Douglas, Joy W.; Higginbotham, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effective childhood obesity prevention programs for preschool children are limited in number and focus on changes in the child care environment rather than the home environment. Purpose: The purpose of this project was to develop and test the feasibility of a home environment obesity prevention program that incorporates mindful eating…

  9. Chemical and non-chemical s tressors affecting childhood obesity: a state-of-the-science-review

    EPA Science Inventory

    Childhood obesity has tripled in the last three decades and now affects 17% of children in the United States (US). In 2010, the percentage of obese children in the US was nearly 18% for both 6-11 and 12-19 years of age. Recent evidence in the literature suggests that exposure to ...

  10. Timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J; Taylor, M A; Langley-Evans, S C

    2013-10-01

    The World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding until 2 years of age or beyond. Appropriate complementary foods should be introduced in a timely fashion, beginning when the infant is 6 months old. In developing countries, early or inappropriate complementary feeding may lead to malnutrition and poor growth, but in countries such as the United Kingdom and United States of America, where obesity is a greater public health concern than malnutrition, the relationship to growth is unclear. We conducted a systematic review of the literature that investigated the relationship between the timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and overweight or obesity during childhood. Electronic databases were searched from inception until 30 September 2012 using specified keywords. Following the application of strict inclusion/exclusion criteria, 23 studies were identified and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted and aspects of quality were assessed using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Twenty-one of the studies considered the relationship between the time at which complementary foods were introduced and childhood body mass index (BMI), of which five found that introducing complementary foods at <3 months (two studies), 4 months (2 studies) or 20 weeks (one study) was associated with a higher BMI in childhood. Seven of the studies considered the association between complementary feeding and body composition but only one study reported an increase in the percentage of body fat among children given complementary foods before 15 weeks of age. We conclude that there is no clear association between the timing of the introduction of complementary foods and childhood overweight or obesity, but some evidence suggests that very early introduction (at or before 4 months), rather than at 4-6 months or >6 months, may increase the risk of childhood overweight. PMID:23736360

  11. Food, culture, and family: exploring the coordinated management of meaning regarding childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Bruss, Mozhdeh B; Morris, Joseph R; Dannison, Linda L; Orbe, Mark P; Quitugua, Jackie A; Palacios, Rosa T

    2005-01-01

    Increased rates of childhood obesity combined with more accessible information about the relationship between diet, physical activity and inactivity, and chronic diseases suggest the need for analyzing the complex process of receiving and transmitting messages related to child feeding practices. This study examined the perceptions of childhood obesity within 1 multiethnic community, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. In particular, through the use of focus groups, individuals indicated that sociocultural, familial, and official nutritional messages were most influential to their health care behaviors. The coordinated management of meaning (CMM) theory was used to gain insight into how individuals negotiate competing messages occurring at different levels of meaning. Given its focus on cultural influences (parallel to the concepts of archetypes), CMM proved especially relevant for understanding child feeding beliefs, values, attitudes, and practices in diverse ethnic populations. Implications for future health communication research that might draw from a CMM approach were identified, as well as pragmatic endeavors that focus on the development, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions in the prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:16083409

  12. Exergaming as a Strategic Tool in the Fight against Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lamboglia, Carminda Maria Goersch Fontenele; da Silva, Vanina Tereza Barbosa Lopes; de Vasconcelos Filho, José Eurico; Pinheiro, Mônica Helena Neves Pereira; Munguba, Marilene Calderaro da Silva; Silva Júnior, Francisco Valmar Isaias; de Paula, Fernando Alberto Ramirez; da Silva, Carlos Antônio Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Improper use of electronic media is considered a major contributing factor to childhood obesity. However, exergames, a new generation of active games, have made it possible to combine electronic entertainment with physical exercise. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the use of exergaming as a strategic tool in the fight against childhood obesity. Information was retrieved from the databases SciELO, LILACS, Pubmed, Ebsco, and Science Direct, using the search words “egames,” “exergames,” “exergaming,” “new generation of video games,” “active video games,” “energy expenditure,” “body composition,” and “physical activity” in English and Portuguese, covering the period January 2008 to April 2012. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Exergaming was found to increase physical activity levels, energy expenditure, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and percentage of physical activity engaged in and to reduce waist circumference and sedentary screen time. Thus, exergaming may be considered a highly relevant strategic tool for the adoption of an active and healthy lifestyle and may be useful in the fight against childhood obesity. PMID:24319594

  13. Diet, growth, and obesity development throughout childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Louise R.

    2015-01-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children covering diet, growth, and obesity development during childhood are reviewed. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires and food records. Growth data were collected by routine measurements, and in standardized clinics, body fatness was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scans. Diets changed dramatically during the preschool period with an increase in the intake of free (added) sugars (12.3% rising to 16.4% of energy) that remained similar until adolescence. This was due to increased intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Two periods of rapid growth were identified; infancy and mid-childhood (ages 7–11 y) and both were associated with obesity development. Diets with high energy density were associated with increasing fat mass from mid-childhood until adolescence. Genetic and dietary factors showed independent associations with increasing adiposity. At all ages studied, there were dietary inequalities related to maternal educational attainment that may influence inequalities found in obesity development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided valuable insights into how disparities in diet and growth may affect the development of ill health in adulthood. PMID:26395342

  14. US States’ Childhood Obesity Surveillance Practices and Recommendations for Improving Them, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Catherine M.; Cradock, Angie L.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Long, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Routine collection, analysis, and reporting of data on child height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), particularly at the state and local levels, are needed to monitor the childhood obesity epidemic, plan intervention strategies, and evaluate the impact of interventions. Child BMI surveillance systems operated by the US government do not provide state or local data on children across a range of ages. The objective of this study was to describe the extent to which state governments conduct child BMI surveillance. Methods From August through December 2014, we conducted a structured telephone survey with state government administrators to learn about state surveillance of child BMI. We also searched websites of state health and education agencies for information about state surveillance. Results State agency administrators in 48 states and Washington, DC, completed telephone interviews (96% response rate). Based on our interviews and Internet research, we determined that 14 states collect child BMI data in a manner consistent with standard definitions of public health surveillance. Conclusion The absence of child BMI surveillance systems in most states limits the ability of public health practitioners and policymakers to develop and evaluate responses to the childhood obesity epidemic. Greater investment in surveillance is needed to identify the most effective and cost-effective childhood obesity interventions. PMID:27468156

  15. Diet, growth, and obesity development throughout childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R

    2015-10-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children covering diet, growth, and obesity development during childhood are reviewed. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires and food records. Growth data were collected by routine measurements, and in standardized clinics, body fatness was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scans. Diets changed dramatically during the preschool period with an increase in the intake of free (added) sugars (12.3% rising to 16.4% of energy) that remained similar until adolescence. This was due to increased intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Two periods of rapid growth were identified; infancy and mid-childhood (ages 7-11 y) and both were associated with obesity development. Diets with high energy density were associated with increasing fat mass from mid-childhood until adolescence. Genetic and dietary factors showed independent associations with increasing adiposity. At all ages studied, there were dietary inequalities related to maternal educational attainment that may influence inequalities found in obesity development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided valuable insights into how disparities in diet and growth may affect the development of ill health in adulthood. PMID:26395342

  16. Unpacking vertical and horizontal integration: childhood overweight/obesity programs and planning, a Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasingly, multiple intervention programming is being understood and implemented as a key approach to developing public health initiatives and strategies. Using socio-ecological and population health perspectives, multiple intervention programming approaches are aimed at providing coordinated and strategic comprehensive programs operating over system levels and across sectors, allowing practitioners and decision makers to take advantage of synergistic effects. These approaches also require vertical and horizontal (v/h) integration of policy and practice in order to be maximally effective. Discussion This paper examines v/h integration of interventions for childhood overweight/obesity prevention and reduction from a Canadian perspective. It describes the implications of v/h integration for childhood overweight and obesity prevention, with examples of interventions where v/h integration has been implemented. An application of a conceptual framework for structuring v/h integration of an overweight/obesity prevention initiative is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of vertical/horizontal integration for policy, research, and practice related to childhood overweight and obesity prevention multiple intervention programs. Summary Both v/h integration across sectors and over system levels are needed to fully support multiple intervention programs of the complexity and scope required by obesity issues. V/h integration requires attention to system structures and processes. A conceptual framework is needed to support policy alignment, multi-level evaluation, and ongoing coordination of people at the front lines of practice. Using such tools to achieve integration may enhance sustainability, increase effectiveness of prevention and reduction efforts, decrease stigmatization, and lead to new ways to relate the environment to people and people to the environment for better health for children. PMID:20478054

  17. Genome-wide methylation analysis identifies differentially methylated CpG loci associated with severe obesity in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Huang, R C; Garratt, E S; Pan, H; Wu, Y; Davis, E A; Barton, S J; Burdge, G C; Godfrey, K M; Holbrook, J D; Lillycrop, K A

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health issue. Here we investigated whether differential DNA methylation was associated with childhood obesity. We studied DNA methylation profiles in whole blood from 78 obese children (mean BMI Z-score: 2.6) and 71 age- and sex-matched controls (mean BMI Z-score: 0.1). DNA samples from obese and control groups were pooled and analyzed using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Comparison of the methylation profiles between obese and control subjects revealed 129 differentially methylated CpG (DMCpG) loci associated with 80 unique genes that had a greater than 10% difference in methylation (P-value < 0.05). The top pathways enriched among the DMCpGs included developmental processes, immune system regulation, regulation of cell signaling, and small GTPase-mediated signal transduction. The associations between the methylation of selected DMCpGs with childhood obesity were validated using sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing across loci within the FYN, PIWIL4, and TAOK3 genes in individual subjects. Three CpG loci within FYN were hypermethylated in obese individuals (all P < 0.01), while obesity was associated with lower methylation of CpG loci within PIWIL4 (P = 0.003) and TAOK3 (P = 0.001). After building logistic regression models, we determined that a 1% increase in methylation in TAOK3, multiplicatively decreased the odds of being obese by 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86 – 0.97), and an increase of 1% methylation in FYN CpG3, multiplicatively increased the odds of being obese by 1.03 (95% CI: 0.99 – 1.07). In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that childhood obesity is associated with specific DNA methylation changes in whole blood, which may have utility as biomarkers of obesity risk. PMID:26646899

  18. Concurrent Associations between Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Sleep Duration with Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Lee, Joey A.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Eisenmann, Joey C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To examine the simultaneous influence of physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations on the odds of childhood obesity (including overweight). Methods. Physical activity was assessed via pedometer and screen time, and sleep duration were assessed via survey in a cross sectional sample of 674 children (aged 7–12 years) from two Midwestern communities in the fall of 2005. Participants were cross tabulated into four groups depending on how many recommendations were being met (0, 1, 2, or all 3). Linear and logistic regression were used to examine the influence of physical activity, screen time and sleep duration on obesity and interactions among the three variables. Results. Children achieving all three recommendations simultaneously (9.2% of total sample) were the least likely to be obese. Approximately 16% of boys and 9% of girls achieving all recommendations were overweight or obese compared to 53% of boys and 42.5% of girls not achieving any. Conclusions. The odds of obesity increased in a graded manner for each recommendation which was not met. Meeting all three recommendations appears to have a protective effect against obesity. Continued efforts are warranted to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors that include meeting physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations concurrently. PMID:24734210

  19. Evaluation of Bias in Estimates of Early Childhood Obesity From Parent-Reported Heights and Weights

    PubMed Central

    Weden, Margaret M.; Lau, Christopher; Brownell, Peter; Nazarov, Zafar; Fernandes, Meenakshi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated bias in estimated obesity prevalence owing to error in parental reporting. We also evaluated bias mitigation through application of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s biologically implausible value (BIV) cutoffs. Methods. We simulated obesity prevalence of children aged 2 to 5 years in 2 panel surveys after counterfactually substituting parameters estimated from 1999–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for prevalence of extreme height and weight and for proportions obese in extreme height or weight categories. Results. Heights reported below the first and fifth height-for-age percentiles explained between one half and two thirds, respectively, of total bias in obesity prevalence. Bias was reduced by one tenth when excluding cases with height-for-age and weight-for-age BIVs and by one fifth when excluding cases with body mass–index-for-age BIVs. Applying BIVs, however, resulted in incorrect exclusion of nonnegligible proportions of obese children. Conclusions. Correcting the reporting of children’s heights in the first percentile alone may reduce overestimation of early childhood obesity prevalence in surveys with parental reporting by one half to two thirds. Excluding BIVs has limited effectiveness in mitigating this bias. PMID:24832432

  20. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Discussion Although few

  1. Delivery by caesarean section and risk of childhood obesity: analysis of a Peruvian prospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to assess if Caesarean section is a risk factor for overnutrition in early- and late-childhood, and to assess the magnitude of the effect of child- versus family-related variables in these risk estimates. Methods. Longitudinal data from Peruvian children from the Young Lives Study was used. Outcomes assessed were overweight, obesity, overnutrition (overweight plus obesity), and central obesity (waist circumference) at the age 5 (first follow-up) and 7 (second follow-up) years. The exposure of interests was delivery by Caesarean section. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariable models adjusted for child-related (e.g., birth weight) and family-related (e.g., maternal nutritional status) variables. Results. At baseline, mean age was 11.7 (± 3.5) months and 50.1% were boys. Children born by Caesarean section were 15.6%. The 10.5% of the children were overweight and 2.4% were obese. For the obesity outcome, data from 6,038 and 9,625 children-years was included from baseline to the first and second follow-up, respectively. Compared to those who did not experience Caesarean delivery, the risk of having obesity was higher in the group born by Caesarean: RRs were higher at early-childhood (first follow-up: 2.25; 95% CI [1.36–3.74]) than later in life (second follow-up: 1.57; 95% CI [1.02–2.41]). Family-related variables had a greater effect in attenuating the risk estimates for obesity at the first, than at the second follow-up. Conclusion. Our results suggest a higher probability of developing obesity, but not overweight, among children born by Caesarean section delivery. The magnitude of risk estimates decreased over time, and family-related variables had a stronger effect on the risk estimates at early-childhood. PMID:26137427

  2. A genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies new childhood obesity loci

    PubMed Central

    Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Taal, H. Rob; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Scherag, André; Lecoeur, Cecile; Warrington, Nicole M.; Hypponen, Elina; Holst, Claus; Valcarcel, Beatriz; Thiering, Elisabeth; Salem, Rany M.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Zhao, Jianhua; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Jarick, Ivonne; Pennell, Craig E.; Evans, David M.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Berry, Diane J.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeinera, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; van der Valk, Ralf J.P.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Gauderman, William J.; Hassanein, Mohamed T.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mägi, Reedik; Boreham, Colin A.G.; Neville, Charlotte E.; Moreno, Luis A.; Elliott, Paul; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Li, Mingyao; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimäki, Terho; Eriksson, Johan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; Deloukas, Panos; McMahon, George; Ring, Susan M.; Kemp, John P.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.; Bustamante, Mariona; Guxens, Mònica; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bisgaard, Hans; Gilliland, Frank D.; Heinrich, Joachim; Wheeler, Eleanor; Barroso, Inês; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Power, Chris; Palmer, Lyle J.; Hinney, Anke; Widen, Elisabeth; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; McCarthy, Mark I.; Froguel, Philippe; Meyre, David; Hebebrand, Johannes; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Smith, George Davey; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made to establish genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American-Australian-European collaborative meta-analysis of fourteen studies consisting of 5,530 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI)) and 8,318 controls (<50th percentile of BMI) of European ancestry. Taking forward the eight novel signals yielding association with P < 5×10−6 in to nine independent datasets (n = 2,818 cases and 4,083 controls) we observed two loci that yielded a genome wide significant combined P-value, namely near OLFM4 on 13q14 (rs9568856; P=1.82×10−9; OR=1.22) and within HOXB5 on 17q21 (rs9299; P=3.54×10−9; OR=1.14). Both loci continued to show association when including two extreme childhood obesity cohorts (n = 2,214 cases and 2,674 controls). Finally, these two loci yielded directionally consistent associations in the GIANT meta-analysis of adult BMI1. PMID:22484627

  3. Are field-based exergames useful in preventing childhood obesity? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gao, Z; Chen, S

    2014-08-01

    Exergames have started to find their way into field-based settings, such as schools, communities and homes, as a possible solution to curbing physical inactivity and childhood obesity. However, a clear view of the effects of field-based exergaming on children's obesity-related outcomes is lacking. Hence, a systematic review on this topic is warranted. This review synthesizes the impact of field-based exergames on children's physical and psychosocial outcomes. A total of 34 articles conducted in field-based settings were identified from 104 peer-reviewed publications that investigated the effects of exergames. Upon screening, these articles met the inclusion criteria and a high inter-rater agreement for inclusion was reached between the authors. The effects of field-based exergames on children's habitual physical activity (PA) and obesity-related outcomes (e.g. weight loss, body composition) remain unclear due to design problems, measurement issues and other methodology concerns. In addition, exergame is appealing to children, although strategies are warranted to sustain their interests. In summary, exergames are desirable as a promising addition to promote PA and health. Professionals may integrate exergames at field settings to promote a physically active lifestyle among children with the goal of curbing childhood obesity. PMID:24602072

  4. Association of Childhood Obesity With Maternal Exposure to Ambient Air Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rundle, Andrew; Hoepner, Lori; Hassoun, Abeer; Oberfield, Sharon; Freyer, Greg; Holmes, Darrell; Reyes, Marilyn; Quinn, James; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica; Whyatt, Robin

    2012-01-01

    There are concerns that prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals increases children’s risk of obesity. African-American and Hispanic children born in the Bronx or Northern Manhattan, New York (1998–2006), whose mothers underwent personal air monitoring for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure during pregnancy, were followed up to ages 5 (n = 422) and 7 (n = 341) years. At age 5 years, 21% of the children were obese, as were 25% of those followed to age 7 years. After adjustment for child’s sex, age at measurement, ethnicity, and birth weight and maternal receipt of public assistance and prepregnancy obesity, higher prenatal PAH exposures were significantly associated with higher childhood body size. In adjusted analyses, compared with children of mothers in the lowest tertile of PAH exposure, children of mothers in the highest exposure tertile had a 0.39-unit higher body mass index z score (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08, 0.70) and a relative risk of 1.79 (95% CI: 1.09, 2.96) for obesity at age 5 years, and they had a 0.30-unit higher body mass index z score (95% CI: 0.01, 0.59), a 1.93-unit higher percentage of body fat (95% CI: 0.33, 3.54), and a relative risk of 2.26 (95% CI: 1.28, 4.00) for obesity at age 7 years. The data indicate that prenatal exposure to PAHs is associated with obesity in childhood. PMID:22505764

  5. Trends in Early Childhood Obesity in a Large Urban School District in the Southwestern United States, 2007–2014

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Orrin; Scharmen, Thomas; Kinyua, Peter; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although recent studies indicate that rates of childhood obesity and severe obesity may be declining, few studies have reported prevalence trends in early childhood or differences in trends across sociodemographic groups. The primary aim of this study was to report trends in prevalence of early childhood obesity and severe obesity 2007 through 2014 in a diverse, metropolitan school district in the southwestern United States and determine whether these trends vary by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and disability status. Methods We analyzed height, weight and demographic data from 43,113 kindergarteners enrolled in a large, urban school district in the southwestern United States for 7 school years. Adjusted odds of obesity and severe obesity were calculated to assess changes in prevalence for non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and American Indian students; free or reduced-price lunch participants and nonparticipants; and students with and without disabilities. To test for differences in obesity trends, interaction terms were added to the logistic regressions between school year and sex, race/ethnicity, free or reduced-price lunch participation, and disability status. Results The adjusted prevalence of both obesity (from 13.1% in 2007–2008 to 12.0% in 2013–20014) and severe obesity (from 2.4% in 2007–2008 to 1.2% in 2013–2014) declined overall. We found no significant interactions between the adjusted prevalence of obesity over time and any of the sociodemographic subgroups. Obesity prevalence declined more among American Indian students than among Hispanic or non-Hispanic white students. Conclusion In this district, from 2007 through 2014, severe obesity decreased and obesity did not increase, overall and across all sociodemographic subpopulations for kindergarten students. PMID:27253637

  6. Artificial sweeteners are not the answer to childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E

    2015-10-01

    While no single factor is responsible for the recent, dramatic increases in overweight and obesity, a scientific consensus has emerged suggesting that consumption of sugar-sweetened products, especially beverages, is casually linked to increases in risk of chronic, debilitating diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke. One approach that might be beneficial would be to replace sugar-sweetened items with products manufactured with artificial sweeteners that provide sweet tastes but with fewer calories. Unfortunately, evidence now indicates that artificial sweeteners are also associated with increased risk of the same chronic diseases linked to sugar consumption. Several biologically plausible mechanisms may explain these counterintuitive negative associations. For example, artificial sweeteners can interfere with basic learning processes that serve to anticipate the normal consequences of consuming sugars, leading to overeating, diminished release of hormones such as GLP-1, and impaired blood glucose regulation. In addition, artificial sweeteners can alter gut microbiota in rodent models and humans, which can also contribute to impaired glucose regulation. Use of artificial sweeteners may also be particularly problematic in children since exposure to hyper-sweetened foods and beverages at young ages may have effects on sweet preferences that persist into adulthood. Taken as a whole, current evidence suggests that a focus on reducing sweetener intake, whether the sweeteners are caloric or non-caloric, remains a better strategy for combating overweight and obesity than use of artificial sweeteners. PMID:25828597

  7. Increased Asthma Risk and Asthma-Related Health Care Complications Associated With Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Black, Mary Helen; Zhou, Hui; Takayanagi, Miwa; Jacobsen, Steven J.; Koebnick, Corinna

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic condition of childhood, yet the relationship between obesity and asthma risk and the impact of obesity on clinical asthma outcomes are not well understood. For this population-based, longitudinal study, demographic and clinical data were extracted from administrative and electronic health records of 623,358 patients aged 6–19 years who were enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health plan in 2007–2011. Crude asthma incidence ranged from 16.9 per 1,000 person-years among normal-weight youth to 22.3 per 1,000 person-years among extremely obese youth. The adjusted risks of asthma for overweight, moderately obese, and extremely obese youth relative to those of normal weight youth were 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.20), 1.23 (95% confidence interval: 1.19, 1.28), and 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.32, 1.42), respectively (Ptrend < 0.0001). The relationship between obesity and asthma risk was strongest in Asian/Pacific Islanders and in the youngest girls (aged 6–10 years), compared with other groups. Among youth who developed asthma, those who were moderately or extremely obese had more frequent asthma exacerbations requiring emergency department services and/or treatment with oral corticosteroids. In conclusion, obese youth are not only more likely to develop asthma, but they may be more likely to have severe asthma, resulting in a greater need for health care utilization and aggressive asthma treatment. PMID:23924576

  8. Everyone Swims: a community partnership and policy approach to address health disparities in drowning and obesity.

    PubMed

    Stempski, Sarah; Liu, Lenna; Grow, H Mollie; Pomietto, Maureen; Chung, Celeste; Shumann, Amy; Bennett, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Well-known disparities exist in rates of obesity and drowning, two public health priorities. Addressing these disparities by increasing access to safe swimming and water recreation may yield benefits for both obesity and injury prevention. Everyone Swims, a community partnership, brought community health clinics and water recreation organizations together to improve policies and systems that facilitated learning to swim and access to swimming and water recreation for low-income, diverse communities. Based in King County, Washington, Everyone Swims launched with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention grant funding from 2010 to 2012. This partnership led to multiple improvements in policies and systems: higher numbers of clinics screening for swimming ability, referrals from clinics to pools, more scholarship accessibility, and expansion of special swim programs. In building partnerships between community health/public health and community recreation organizations to develop systems that address user needs in low-income and culturally diverse communities, Everyone Swims represents a promising model of a structured partnership for systems and policy change to promote health and physical activity. PMID:25829109

  9. Designing an Agent-Based Model for Childhood Obesity Interventions: A Case Study of ChildObesity180.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Erin; Ornstein, Joseph T; Economos, Christina D; Herzog, Julia Bloom; Lynskey, Vanessa; Coffield, Edward; Hammond, Ross A

    2016-01-01

    Complex systems modeling can provide useful insights when designing and anticipating the impact of public health interventions. We developed an agent-based, or individual-based, computation model (ABM) to aid in evaluating and refining implementation of behavior change interventions designed to increase physical activity and healthy eating and reduce unnecessary weight gain among school-aged children. The potential benefits of applying an ABM approach include estimating outcomes despite data gaps, anticipating impact among different populations or scenarios, and exploring how to expand or modify an intervention. The practical challenges inherent in implementing such an approach include data resources, data availability, and the skills and knowledge of ABM among the public health obesity intervention community. The aim of this article was to provide a step-by-step guide on how to develop an ABM to evaluate multifaceted interventions on childhood obesity prevention in multiple settings. We used data from 2 obesity prevention initiatives and public-use resources. The details and goals of the interventions, overview of the model design process, and generalizability of this approach for future interventions is discussed. PMID:26741998

  10. Designing an Agent-Based Model for Childhood Obesity Interventions: A Case Study of ChildObesity180

    PubMed Central

    Ornstein, Joseph T.; Economos, Christina D.; Herzog, Julia Bloom; Lynskey, Vanessa; Coffield, Edward; Hammond, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Complex systems modeling can provide useful insights when designing and anticipating the impact of public health interventions. We developed an agent-based, or individual-based, computation model (ABM) to aid in evaluating and refining implementation of behavior change interventions designed to increase physical activity and healthy eating and reduce unnecessary weight gain among school-aged children. The potential benefits of applying an ABM approach include estimating outcomes despite data gaps, anticipating impact among different populations or scenarios, and exploring how to expand or modify an intervention. The practical challenges inherent in implementing such an approach include data resources, data availability, and the skills and knowledge of ABM among the public health obesity intervention community. The aim of this article was to provide a step-by-step guide on how to develop an ABM to evaluate multifaceted interventions on childhood obesity prevention in multiple settings. We used data from 2 obesity prevention initiatives and public-use resources. The details and goals of the interventions, overview of the model design process, and generalizability of this approach for future interventions is discussed. PMID:26741998

  11. Association between casino opening or expansion and risk of childhood overweight and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Dow, William H.; Chichlowska, Kristal

    2014-01-01

    Importance Economic resources have been inversely associated with risk of childhood overweight/obesity. Few studies have evaluated whether this association is a direct effect of economic resources or is attributable to unmeasured confounding or reverse causation. American-Indian-owned casinos have resulted in increased economic resources for some tribes and provide an opportunity to test whether these resources are associated with overweight/obesity. Objective To assess whether openings or expansions of American Indian-owned casinos were associated with childhood overweight/obesity risk. Design, Setting, and Participants We used repeated cross-sectional anthropometric measurements from fitness testing of American Indian children (ages 7–18) from school districts that encompassed tribal lands in California between 2001 and 2012. Children in school districts encompassing American Indian tribal lands that either gained or expanded a casino were compared with children in districts with tribal lands that did not gain or expand a casino. Main Outcome and Measures Per capita annual income, median annual household income, percent of the population in poverty, total population, child overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥85th age- and sex-specific percentile) and body mass index z-score (BMI z score). Results Of the 117 school districts, 57 gained or expanded a casino, 24 had a pre-existing casino but did not expand, and 36 never had a casino. Mean (SD) and median (IQR) levels of slots per capita were 7 (12) and 3 (0.3, 8). Among districts where a casino opened or expanded, mean (SD) and median (IQR) change in slots per capita were 13 (19) and 3 (1, 11).Forty-eight percent of the anthropometric measurements were classified as overweight/obese (11,048 of 22,863). Every casino slot machine per capita gained was associated with an increase in per capita annual income (β= $541 (95% CI: $245, $836) and a decrease in percent in poverty (β=−0.6% (95% CI: −1.1%, −0

  12. Childhood obesity among Puerto Rican children: discrepancies between child's and parent's perception of weight status.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette

    2012-04-01

    Public concern about childhood obesity and associated health problems calls for the identification of modifiable factors that could halt this epidemic. Parental perceptions of their children's weight status could be associated to how parents influence children's eating patterns. We aimed to identify the perceptions Puerto Rican parents have of their children's weight and children's own perceptions of weight status as compared to real weight. A cross sectional survey was performed in a representative sample of 1st-6th grade students. Only half of the children correctly identified their weight, and only 62.4% of the parents correctly classified their children's weight. Most obese/overweight children did not perceive themselves as such. Almost half of obese/overweight children were identified by the parents as normal weight while over half of the underweight children were perceived by their parents at normal weight. More girls than boys perceived themselves as obese/overweight and more parents of girls than of boys perceived them as such. Higher-educated parents were better at recognizing overweight/obesity among their children compared to less-educated parents. This study suggests an influence of parents' SES characteristics on their perceptions of children's weight status as well as on children's own perceptions of their weight status. PMID:22690203

  13. The Relations Between Immunity, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Markers, in Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Laura Anca, Popescu; Bogdana, Virgolici; Olivia, Timnea; Horia, Virgolici; Dumitru, Oraseanu; Leon, Zagrean

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance are the principal culprits in childhood obesity. Immune modifications are also important in the development of the obesity complications.The aim of this study is to find the relations for some immunity parameters with markers for oxidative stress and inflammation. Sixty obese children (10-16 years old) and thirty age and sex matched lean children were involved. The activities for erythrocyte superoxid dismutase (SOD), for erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and serum thioredoxin level were measured by ELISA, as oxidative stress markers. Circulating immune complexes (CIC), complement fractions C3, C4 and the self-antibodies, antismooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), antiliver-kidney microsome antibodies (LKM1) were measured by ELISA methods. Ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured as inflammatory markers by immunoturbidimetric methods. ceruloplasmin (p<0.001), haptoglobin (p<0.001), CRP (p<0.05) and activity for SOD (p<0.001) were measured, while thioredoxin concentration (p<0.04) was reduced. The antibodies LKM1 and ASMA and GPx activity were not modified between groups. Positive correlations (for p<0.05) were calculated between SOD activity and LKM1 (r=0.37), GPx activity and ASMA (r=0.27), haptoglobin and C3 (r=0.33), ceruloplasmin and CIC (r=0.41), CRP and C3 (p<0.27) and negative correlations were calculated for C4 both with GPx activity (r= -0.28) and with thioredoxin level (r= -0.27). In the obese children versus the lean ones, higher levels for C3 (p<0.001), C4(p<0.001), CIC (p<0.05), In conclusion, this study demonstrates that immune modifications, inflammation and oxidative stress are related and they act in cluster in childhood obesity. PMID:26461379

  14. Active lifestyle in childhood and adolescence prevents obesity development in young adulthood: Iowa Bone Development Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Levy, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that individuals who are active but who decrease physical activity (PA) over time have a higher risk of becoming obese in young adulthood, when compared to individuals who are consistently active throughout childhood and adolescence. Methods Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members (242 males and 251 females) participated in accelerometry assessments, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and dietary questionnaire surveys at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years. Group-based trajectory analyses identified distinct trajectory patterns of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), percentage of body fat (%BF), and energy intake. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to estimate the odds of “becoming obese” based on the MVPA trajectories, adjusted for mother’s education, somatic maturation, and energy intake. Results Among males, 74.7% had a “normal” body fat pattern, 14.6% had a “becoming obese” pattern, and 10.7% had a “consistently obese” pattern, while among females, the percentages were 58.6%, 28.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Participants who were active (≥45 minutes MVPA) as children but decreased MVPA with age were more likely to become obese, compared to consistently active participants (adjusted OR=2.77; 95% CI=1.16, 6.58). Conclusions An active lifestyle throughout childhood and adolescence could prevent obesity development in young adulthood. PMID:26538514

  15. Story immersion in a health videogame for childhood obesity prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stories can serve as powerful tools for health interventions. Story immersion refers to the experience of being absorbed in a story. This is among the first studies to analyze story immersion’s role in health video games among children by addressing two main questions: Will children be more immersed...

  16. Decline in Physical Fitness From Childhood to Adulthood Associated With Increased Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Terence; Magnussen, Costan G.; Schmidt, Michael D.; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Raitakari, Olli T.; Zimmet, Paul Z.; Blair, Steven N.; Thomson, Russell; Cleland, Verity J.; Venn, Alison

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine how fitness in both childhood and adulthood is associated with adult obesity and insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective cohort study set in Australia in 2004–2006 followed up a cohort of 647 adults who had participated in the Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey in 1985 and who had undergone anthropometry and cardiorespiratory fitness assessment during the survey. Outcome measures were insulin resistance and obesity, defined as a homeostasis model assessment index above the 75th sex-specific percentile and BMI ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. RESULTS Lower levels of child cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with increased odds of adult obesity (adjusted odds ratio [OR] per unit decrease 3.0 [95% CI 1.6–5.6]) and insulin resistance (1.7 [1.1–2.6]). A decline in fitness level between childhood and adulthood was associated with increased obesity (4.5 [2.6–7.7]) and insulin resistance (2.1 [1.5–2.9]) per unit decline. CONCLUSIONS A decline in fitness from childhood to adulthood, and by inference a decline in physical activity, is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in adulthood. Programs aimed at maintaining high childhood physical activity levels into adulthood may have potential for reducing the burden of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adults. PMID:19106381

  17. Obesity and Poverty: A Growing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Dianne Yow; Queen, J. Allen; Schumacher, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This research study addresses the childhood obesity epidemic, which has seen the number of overweight children from the ages of 6 to 11 triple since the mid-1970s. The authors note that there are more than twice as many poor and obese adolescents compared with more affluent youths, and examine a number of factors linking obesity and poverty.…

  18. Understanding the Relationship Between the Retail Food Environment Index and Early Childhood Obesity Among WIC Participants in Los Angeles County Using GeoDa.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E; Afifi, Abdelmonem A; Estrada, Leobardo; Harrison, Gail G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between the local food environment and obesity proportions among 3- to 4-year-old children who were participants in the WIC program in Los Angeles County using spatial analyses techniques. ArcGIS, spatial analysis software, was used to compute the retail food environment index (RFEI) per ZIP code. GeoDa, spatial statistics software was employed to check for spatial autocorrelation and to control for permeability of the boundaries. Linear regression and ANOVA were used to examine the impact of the food environment on childhood obesity. Fast-food restaurants represented 30% and convenience stores represented 40% of the sum of food outlets in areas where WIC participants reside. Although there was no statistically significant association between RFEI and 3- to 4-year-old obesity proportions among WIC children, analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests demonstrated statistically significant positive associations between obesity and the number of convenience stores and the number of supermarkets. Our findings suggest that RFEI, as currently constructed, may not be the optimal way to capture the food environment. This study suggests that convenience stores and supermarkets are a likely source of excess calories for children in low-income households. Given the ubiquity of convenience stores in low-income neighborhoods, interventions to improve availability of healthy food in these stores should be part of the many approaches to addressing childhood obesity. This study adds to the literature by examining the validity of the RFEI and by demonstrating the need and illustrating the use of spatial analyses, using GeoDA, in the environment/obesity studies. PMID:23569623

  19. What childhood obesity prevention programmes work? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Cai, L.; Wu, Y.; Wilson, R. F.; Weston, C.; Fawole, O.; Bleich, S. N.; Cheskin, L. J.; Showell, N. N.; Lau, B. D.; Chiu, D. T.; Zhang, A.; Segal, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Previous reviews of childhood obesity prevention have focused largely on schools and findings have been inconsistent. Funded by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the National Institutes of Health, we systematically evaluated the effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programmes conducted in high-income countries and implemented in various settings. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL®, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane Library from inception through 22 April 2013 for relevant studies, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies and natural experiments, targeting diet, physical activity or both, and conducted in children aged 2–18 in high-income countries. Two reviewers independently abstracted the data. The strength of evidence (SOE) supporting interventions was graded for each study setting (e.g. home, school). Meta-analyses were performed on studies judged sufficiently similar and appropriate to pool using random effect models. This paper reported our findings on various adiposity-related outcomes. We identified 147 articles (139 intervention studies) of which 115 studies were primarily school based, although other settings could have been involved. Most were conducted in the United States and within the past decade. SOE was high for physical activity-only interventions delivered in schools with home involvement or combined diet–physical activity interventions delivered in schools with both home and community components. SOE was moderate for school-based interventions targeting either diet or physical activity, combined interventions delivered in schools with home or community components or combined interventions delivered in the community with a school component. SOE was low for combined interventions in childcare or home settings. Evidence was insufficient for other interventions. In conclusion, at least moderately strong evidence supports the effectiveness of school

  20. The underlying interactome of childhood obesity: the potential role of sleep.

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2012-02-01

    Fine-tuning and integration between social rhythms and biological rhythms should be a priority for all, especially for children. As such, the opportunity to sleep should fit the evolving needs for sleep in a child. Unfortunately, children today are highly unlikely to obtain sufficient sleep or live under stable and regular schedules. Poor or dysregulated sleep affects the regulation of homeostatic and hormonal systems underlying somatic and intellectual growth, maturation, and bioenergetics. Therefore, in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, assessments of the “obesogenic” lifestyle, such as dietary and physical activity patterns, need to be coupled with accurate evaluation of the quality and quantity of sleep and with the potential co-existence of sleep-disordered breathing or other sleep disorders. Incorporation of sleep as an integral component of many childhood research studies on obesity should be done a priori rather than as an afterthought. Although parents and health professionals have meticulously delineated,observed, and quantified normal patterns of activities such as eating or playing, the absence of reliable sleep health data in children is all the more puzzling considering that young children engage in sleeping activities more than in any other activity during the 24-hour cycle. Therefore, the most forgotten, overlooked, or even actively ignored behavior of this century is undoubtedly childhood sleep. Trends aiming to reduce sleep in children have emerged, and regrettably continue to gain momentum. In parallel with such undesirable consequences, leading to the blatant disregard of sleep as a vital function rather than a commodity, a reciprocal increase in obesity rates has emerged. The mechanistic links between sleep and metabolism are now emerging, and should prompt incorporation of measures aiming to align sleep with any other antiobesity campaign. To paraphrase a well-known dictum “Somni sano in corpore sano” (healthy sleep

  1. Determinants of Weight Loss in an Interdisciplinary Long-Term Care Program for Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Dubuisson, A. C.; Zech, F. R.; Dassy, M. M.; Jodogne, N. B.; Beauloye, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Efforts are needed to improve the long-term efficiency of childhood obesity treatment. To adapt strategies, the identification of subgroups of patients with a greater weight loss may be useful. Objective. To analyze the results of a chronic care program for childhood obesity and to determine baseline factors (medical, dietary, and psychosocial) associated with successful weight loss. Subjects and Method. We set up a family-targeted and individually adapted interdisciplinary long-term care program. We reviewed the medical files of 144 children (59 boys and 85 girls; 10.5 ± 3.1 y; mean BMI-z-score: 2.73 ± 0.62) who had ≥2 interdisciplinary visits and ≥1-year treatment. Results. Mean treatment length was 2.2 y (1–6.7 y) with 3 ± 1 visits/year. The duration of treatment did not depend on the initial weight loss, but this was predictive of the weight change over time. Furthermore any additional weight loss was observed with time whatever the initial weight change. High levels of physical activity and daily water intake from baseline conditions were associated with a greater weight loss after 9 months of intervention. In contrast, a high baseline consumption of soft drinks resulted in lower weight loss. Family specific factors such as being a single child or the child's family support were identified as baseline factors which may contribute to better results. Conclusion. Our study suggests that the benefit of a chronic weight control program supports the need for its integration into the current concept of treatment. Better prevention policy and parental support may improve the success of the childhood obesity treatment. PMID:24527260

  2. Childhood maltreatment and the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Diesel, Jill C; Bodnar, Lisa M; Day, Nancy L; Larkby, Cynthia A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate whether maternal history of childhood maltreatment was associated with pre-pregnancy obesity or excessive gestational weight gain. Pregnant women (n = 472) reported pre-pregnancy weight and height and gestational weight gain and were followed up to 16 years post-partum when they reported maltreatment on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ score ranged from no maltreatment (25) to severe maltreatment (125). Prenatal mental health modified the association between CTQ score and maternal weight (P < 0.15), and thus stratified models are presented. After adjusting for race, prenatal tobacco, marijuana and alcohol use, a one standard deviation (1 SD) increase in CTQ score was associated with a 45% increase in the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity among the 141 women with elevated anxiety (≥75th percentile on the State Trait Anxiety Inventory) [relative risk, RR (95% confidence interval, CI): 1.45 (1.12, 1.88)], but was not associated among less anxious (<75th percentile) women [RR (95% CI): 1.10 (0.81, 1.51)]. Risk of excessive gestational weight gain was higher [adjusted RR (95% CI): 1.21 (1.07, 1.37)] with every 1 SD increase in CTQ score for anxious women. No association was observed for less anxious women [adjusted RR (95% CI): 0.89 (0.78, 1.02)]. Prenatal depression similarly modified the association between maltreatment and weight gain. Factors such as psychological status and traumatic experiences in early childhood may contribute to pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. PMID:25138565

  3. Temptations in cyberspace: new battlefields in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anjali

    2010-01-01

    Proposed regulations targeting food marketing to children typically focus on traditional media, such as television, radio, and print ads. However, the widespread use of the Internet has promulgated novel food marketing strategies such as "advergaming," or the use of online games incorporating advertisements. In addition, the advent of so-called neuromarketing research is also allowing advertisers to appeal to the subconscious and emotional effects of food and beverage products, to which children may be particularly vulnerable. Current and future regulatory efforts should address the ubiquitous but often subtle marketing to which children are exposed and should measure success in terms of children's consumption of these products. PMID:20194983

  4. Successful childhood obesity management in primary care in Canada: what are the odds?

    PubMed Central

    Kuhle, Stefan; Doucette, Rachel; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Background. The management of a child presenting with obesity in a primary care setting can be viewed as a multi-step behavioral process with many perceived and actual barriers for families and primary care providers. In order to achieve the goal of behavior change and, ultimately, clinically meaningful weight management outcomes in a child who is considered obese, all steps in this process should ideally be completed. We sought to review the evidence for completing each step, and to estimate the population effect of secondary prevention of childhood obesity in Canada. Methods. Data from the 2009/2010 Canadian Community Health Survey and from a review of the literature were used to estimate the probabilities for completion of each step. A flow chart based on these probabilities was used to determine the proportion of children with obesity that would undergo and achieve clinically meaningful weight management outcomes each year in Canada. Results. We estimated that the probability of a child in Canada who presents with obesity achieving clinically meaningful weight management outcomes through secondary prevention in primary care is around 0.6% per year, with a range from 0.01% to 7.2% per year. The lack of accessible and effective weight management programs appeared to be the most important bottleneck in the process. Conclusions. In order to make progress towards supporting effective pediatric obesity management, efforts should focus on population-based primary prevention and a systems approach to change our obesogenic society, alongside the allocation of resources toward weight management approaches that are comprehensively offered, equitably distributed and robustly evaluated. PMID:26623175

  5. Parents as agents of change in childhood obesity--from research to practice.

    PubMed

    Golan, Moria

    2006-01-01

    The home environment is undoubtedly the most important setting in relation to shaping children's eating and physical activity behaviors. Family-based behavioral treatment is the most well-established intervention for the treatment of childhood obesity. Historically, family based interventions target the obese child and at least one or both parents. Presented here is a review of the literature on parents as exclusive agents of change, with the addition of some recent results indicating the effectiveness of this approach when implemented in public health programs. Targeting parents as the exclusive mediator has resulted in a better reduction in children's percentage overweight, and improvement in the obesogenic environment and behaviors, in comparison to a setting in which parents attended sessions with the obese child, or only children attended sessions. The findings from these studies were subsequently implemented in a national community-based survey. Both children's and parents' weight status were significantly improved, although only parents attended the group sessions. A significant reduction in the obesogenic load at home was also found. Permissive parenting style was associated with less reduction in obesogenic load at home (p < 0.01) and with less weight loss (p < 0.05). Omitting the obese child from direct intervention and targeting parents only is a cost-effective approach with integrated messages for the management of weight-related problems. PMID:17907317

  6. Fighting an Epidemic: The Role of Schools in Reducing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Sara A.; Sharkey, Jill; Yetter, Georgette; Felix, Erika; Furlong, Michael J.; Poston, W. S. Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Obesity among children and adolescents is a major public health concern affecting the physical and emotional health of youth while increasing their risk of reduced quality and duration of life. Schools and communities have begun to galvanize to address this epidemic and need quality empirical information to guide their policy, programming, and…

  7. “Greenlight Study”: A Controlled Trial of Low-Literacy, Early Childhood Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Bronaugh, Andrea; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Children who become overweight by age 2 years have significantly greater risks of long-term health problems, and children in low-income communities, where rates of low adult literacy are highest, are at increased risk of developing obesity. The objective of the Greenlight Intervention Study is to assess the effectiveness of a low-literacy, primary-care intervention on the reduction of early childhood obesity. At 4 primary-care pediatric residency training sites across the US, 865 infant-parent dyads were enrolled at the 2-month well-child checkup and are being followed through the 24-month well-child checkup. Two sites were randomly assigned to the intervention, and the other sites were assigned to an attention-control arm, implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' The Injury Prevention Program. The intervention consists of an interactive educational toolkit, including low-literacy materials designed for use during well-child visits, and a clinician-centered curriculum for providing low-literacy guidance on obesity prevention. The study is powered to detect a 10% difference in the number of children overweight (BMI > 85%) at 24 months. Other outcome measures include observed physician–parent communication, as well as parent-reported information on child dietary intake, physical activity, and injury-prevention behaviors. The study is designed to inform evidence-based standards for early childhood obesity prevention, and more generally to inform optimal approaches for low-literacy messages and health literacy training in primary preventive care. This article describes the conceptual model, study design, intervention content, and baseline characteristics of the study population. PMID:24819570

  8. Fighting childhood obesity through performance-based regulation of the food industry.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Stephen D; Sandman, Nirit

    2007-04-01

    That childhood obesity is an alarming public health problem is clear and widely appreciated. What is altogether unclear is what our society should do about it. Some people think the solution lies in using tort law to sue McDonald's, Coca-Cola, and other corporations. We reject that notion. Others believe that government should order specific changes in the behavior of food companies and school officials--and yet, there is little reason for confidence that these "command and control" strategies will make a difference. Instead, we propose "performance-based regulation" of the food industry. This is analogous to the approach our country is now taking with respect to elementary and secondary education (most prominently in the No Child Left Behind legislation). Schools are not told how to achieve better educational results, but better outcomes are demanded of them. This strategy has also been used in the environmental context to reduce harmful power plant emissions, and it has been briefly proposed as a way of regulating cigarette companies. In this Article, we propose that large firms selling food and drink that is high in sugar or fat will be assigned the responsibility of reducing obesity rates in a specific pool of children. A firm's share of the overall responsibility will be based on its share of the "bad' food market, and the children assigned to it will be organized by geographically proximate schools where obesity rates are currently above the plan's nationwide target rate of 8 percent (the actual childhood obesity rate today is approximately 16 percent). Firms that fail to achieve their goals will be subject to serious financial penalties. PMID:17679177

  9. Are you talking to ME? The importance of ethnicity and culture in childhood obesity prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Peña, Michelle-Marie; Dixon, Brittany; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-02-01

    Childhood obesity is prevalent, is of consequence, and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority populations. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence and substantial differences in many risk factors for obesity are already present, suggesting that disparities in obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. The reasons for racial/ethnic variation in obesity are complex and may include differences in cultural beliefs and practices, level of acculturation, ethnicity-based differences in body image, and perceptions of media, sleep, and physical activity. In addition, racial/ethnic differences in obesity may evolve as a consequence of the socio- and environmental context in which families live. The primary care setting offers unique opportunities to intervene and alter the subsequent course of health and disease for children at risk for obesity. Regular visits during childhood allow both detection of elevated weight status and offer opportunities for prevention and treatment. Greater awareness of the behavioral, social–cultural, and environmental determinants of obesity among ethnic minority populations could assist clinicians in the treatment of obesity among diverse pediatric populations. Specific strategies include beginning prevention efforts early in life before obesity is present and recognizing and querying about ethnic- and culturally specific beliefs and practices, the role of the extended family in the household, and parents' beliefs of the causative factors related to their child's obesity. Efforts to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate care, family-based treatment programs, and support services that aim to uncouple socioeconomic factors from adverse health outcomes could improve obesity care for racial/ethnic minority children. PMID:22799474

  10. Partnerships to Address Obesity Disparities in Hawai`i: The PILI `Ohana Project

    PubMed Central

    Nacapoy, Andrea H.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe`aimoku; West, Margaret R.; Dillard, Adrienne Y.; Leake, Anne; Kekauoha, B. Puni; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Siu, Andrea; Mosier, Sean W.; Mau, Marjorie K.

    2008-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach to scientific research that is gaining broader application to address persistent problems in health care disparities and other hypothesis-driven research. However, information on how to form CBPR community-academic partnerships and how to best involve community partners in scientific research is not well-defined. The purpose of this paper is to share the experience of the Partnership for Improving Lifestyle Interventions (PILI) `Ohana Project in forming a co-equal CBPR community-academic partnership that involved 5 different community partners in a scientific research study to address obesity disparities in Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Peoples (i.e., Samoans, Chuukese, and Filipinos). Specifically, the paper discusses 1) the formation of our community-academic partnership including identification of the research topic; 2) the development of the CBPR infrastructure to foster a sustainable co-equal research environment; and 3) the collaboration in designing a community-based and community-led intervention. The paper concludes with a brief summary of the authors' thoughts about CBPR partnerships from both the academic and community perspectives. PMID:18853898

  11. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Objectives: Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. Methods: U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. Results: More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. Conclusions: The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world’s most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Citation: Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic

  12. Pediatric obesity. An introduction.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children's health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children's environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail. PMID:25836737

  13. A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach for Preventing Childhood Obesity: The Communities and Schools Together Project

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Evers, Cody; Zwink, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a systemic and complex multilevel public health problem. Research approaches are needed that effectively engage communities in reversing environmental determinants of child obesity. Objectives This article discusses the Communities and Schools Together Project (CAST) and lessons learned about the project’s community-based participatory research (CBPR) model. Methods A partnership of schools, community organizations, and researchers used multiple methods to examine environmental health risks for childhood obesity and conduct school–community health programs. Action work groups structured partner involvement for designing and implementing study phases. Lessons Learned CBPR in child obesity prevention involves engaging multiple communities with overlapping yet divergent goals. Schools are naturally situated to participate in child obesity projects, but engagement of key personnel is essential for functional partnerships. Complex societal problems require CBPR approaches that can align diverse communities and necessitate significant coordination by researchers. CBPR can provide simultaneous health promotion across multiple communities in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Support for emergent partner activities is an essential practice for maintaining community interest and involvement in multi-year CBPR projects. Conclusion Investigator-initiated CBPR partnerships can effectively organize and facilitate large health-promoting partnerships involving multiple, diverse stakeholder communities. Lessons learned from CAST illustrate the synergy that can propel projects that are holistically linked to the agents of a community. PMID:26548786

  14. Policies to support obesity prevention for children: a focus on of early childhood policies.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marianne E; Homer, Charles J

    2011-12-01

    Policies at many levels may help to shape environments that promote healthy weight and prevent obesity. We present policies to support obesity prevention for young children. We highlight policy Sand environmental systems change examples in the areas of promoting breastfeeding and providing healthy affordable food and information about food in community and child care settings and promoting physical activity in child care and the community. We address the role of the health care system and health care professionals to shape and advocate for policy and environmental systems change and provide resources for pediatric health care professionals to engage in community-based advocacy. PMID:22093867

  15. Clinical Management of Obesity in Women: Addressing a Lifecycle of Risk.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nadia N; Butsch, Winfield Scott; Aidarous, Sabina

    2016-06-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that nearly 2 billion people worldwide are overweight, 600 million of whom are obese. The increasing prevalence of this condition in women is of particular concern given its impact on reproductive health and mortality. Burgeoning data implicating maternal obesity in fetal programming and the metabolic health of future generations further suggest that obesity in women is one of the most pressing public health concerns of the twenty-first century. However, health care professionals are infrequently engaged in obesity management. This article provides a conceptual understanding of obesity and a rational approach to treatment. PMID:27212089

  16. Healthy Families Study: Design of a Childhood Obesity Prevention Trial for Hispanic Families

    PubMed Central

    Zoorob, Roger; Buchowski, Maciej; Beech, Bettina M.; Canedo, Juan R.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Akohoue, Sylvie; Hull, Pamela C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The childhood obesity epidemic disproportionately affects Hispanics. This paper reports on the design of the ongoing Healthy Families Study, a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a community-based, behavioral family intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in Hispanic children using a community-based participatory research approach. Methods The study will enroll 272 Hispanic families with children ages 5–7 residing in greater Nashville, Tennessee, United States. Families are randomized to the active weight gain prevention intervention or an alternative intervention focused on oral health. Lay community health promoters implement the interventions primarily in Spanish in a community center. The active intervention was adapted from the We Can! parent program to be culturally-targeted for Hispanic families and for younger children. This 12-month intervention promotes healthy eating behaviors, increased physical activity, and decreased sedentary behavior, with an emphasis on parental modeling and experiential learning for children. Families attend eight bi-monthly group sessions during four months then receive information and/or support by phone or mail each month for eight months. The primary outcome is change in children’s body mass index. Secondary outcomes are changes in children’s waist circumference, dietary behaviors, preferences for fruits and vegetables, physical activity, and screen time. Results Enrollment and data collection are in progress. Conclusion This study will contribute valuable evidence on efficacy of a childhood obesity prevention intervention targeting Hispanic families with implications for reducing disparities. PMID:23624172

  17. Dietary Education in School-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs12

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review school based interventions designed to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity that focused on modifying dietary behavior and were published between 2000 and May 2009. A total of 25 interventions met the criteria. The grade range of these interventions was from K to 12; 13 studies exclusively targeted elementary school, 2 targeted both elementary and middle school, 9 exclusively targeted middle school, and 1 targeted high school. The majority of the interventions focused on both dietary and physical activity behaviors, whereas 8 interventions focused exclusively on dietary behaviors. Approximately one-half of the interventions were based on a behavioral theory. In terms of duration, 13 were longer than 6 mo, 4 were less than 1 mo, and 8 had a duration between 1 and 6 mo. The majority of the interventions were implemented by teachers. In terms of activities, almost all interventions had a curricular component except 2 that distributed free fruit or vegetables. Besides curricular instructions, parental and family involvement was also utilized by several interventions. Environmental and policy changes were used in 7 interventions. For evaluation, the 2 most popular designs were experimental design with random assignment at group level and quasi experimental design, both of which were used by 9 interventions each. In terms of impact on adiposity indices, only 14 interventions measured it and only 6 of those were able to demonstrate significant changes. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of school based dietary education interventions for childhood obesity prevention are presented. PMID:22332053

  18. Maternal employment and childhood obesity: a search for mechanisms in time use data.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John; Liu, Feng

    2012-12-01

    A substantial body of research documents that maternal employment is associated with childhood obesity. This paper explores possible mechanisms for that correlation in the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). We find that maternal employment is associated with working mothers spending, per day, 4 fewer minutes grocery shopping, 17 fewer minutes cooking, 10 fewer minutes eating with children, 12 fewer minutes playing with children, 4 fewer minutes supervising children, and 37 fewer minutes caring for children. The differences tend to be greatest for mothers with young children (age 0-5 years). We explore the extent to which these findings differ by day of the week, whether a partner or spouse is present in the household, whether the mother works non-standard hours, and socioeconomic status. Only a small percentage (about 15%) of the fewer minutes spent in these activities by working mothers appears to be offset by increases in time by husbands and partners. These findings suggest plausible mechanisms for the association between maternal employment and childhood obesity. PMID:22790446

  19. Addressing the policy cacophony does not require more evidence: an argument for reframing obesity as caloric overconsumption

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous policies have been proposed to address the public health problem of obesity, resulting in a policy cacophony. The noise of so many policy options renders it difficult for policymakers to determine which policies warrant implementation. This has resulted in calls for more and better evidence to support obesity policy. However, it is not clear that evidence is the solution. This paper argues that to address the policy cacophony it is necessary to rethink the problem of obesity, and more specifically, how the problem of obesity is framed. This paper argues that the frame “obesity” be replaced by the frame “caloric overconsumption”, concluding that the frame caloric overconsumption can overcome the obesity policy cacophony. Discussion Frames are important because they influence public policy. Understood as packages that define issues, frames influence how best to approach a problem. Consequently, debates over public policy are considered battles over framing, with small shifts in how an issue is framed resulting in significant changes to the policy environment. This paper presents a rationale for reframing the problem of obesity as caloric overconsumption. The frame “obesity” contributes to the policy cacophony by including policies aimed at both energy output and energy input. However, research increasingly demonstrates that energy input is the primary cause of obesity, and that increases in energy input are largely attributable to the food environment. By focusing on policies that aim to prevent increases in energy input, the frame caloric overconsumption will reduce the noise of the obesity policy cacophony. While the proposed frame will face some challenges, particularly industry opposition, policies aimed at preventing caloric overconsumption have a clearer focus, and can be more politically palatable if caloric overconsumption is seen as an involuntary risk resulting from the food environment. Summary The paper concludes that

  20. The Evidence Base for Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Settings: Research Synthesis Addressing Staff and Program Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Eileen M.; Bradley, Jennifer R.; Allen, Mary Dallas; Perry, Deborah F.

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: One strategy to support early childhood providers' work with children exhibiting challenging behavior is offering mental health consultation services in order to build staff skills and confidence and reduce staff stress and turnover. Through systematic search procedures, 26 recent studies were identified that addressed the…