Science.gov

Sample records for addressing childhood obesity

  1. Addressing childhood obesity through increased physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hills, Andrew P; Okely, Anthony D; Baur, Louise A

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children globally. Despite an appreciation that physical activity is essential for the normal growth and development of children and prevents obesity and obesity-related health problems, too few children are physically active. A concurrent problem is that today's young people spend more time than previous generations did in sedentary pursuits, including watching television and engaging in screen-based games. Active behavior has been displaced by these inactive recreational choices, which has contributed to reductions in activity-related energy expenditure. Implementation of multifactorial solutions considered to offer the best chance of combating these trends is urgently required to redress the energy imbalance that characterizes obesity. The counterproductive 'shame and blame' mentality that apportions responsibility for the childhood obesity problem to sufferers, their parents, teachers or health-care providers needs to be changed. Instead, these groups should offer constant support and encouragement to promote appropriate physical activity in children. Failure to provide activity opportunities will increase the likelihood that the children of today will live less healthy (and possibly shorter) lives than their parents.

  2. Hard truths and a new strategy for addressing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Bilger, Marcel

    2012-04-01

    We debunk three likely misperceptions about childhood obesity: (1) the epidemic thereof is caused by poverty, (2) information campaigns alone would be effective at reducing childhood obesity rates, and (3) obesity-reducing interventions would necessarily save money. We then discuss policies that could be effective at reducing childhood obesity rates and propose a tax/subsidy strategy that would provide the right incentives for governments, schools, and households to make appropriate investments in obesity prevention efforts. PMID:22799509

  3. Parental Perceptions of the Schools' Role in Addressing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Maureen; Polivka, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    As childhood obesity has increased, schools have struggled with their role in this epidemic. Parents with a school-age child in a suburban latchkey program were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity, body mass index, and the school's role in prevention and treatment of obesity. More than 80% of participants identified…

  4. Parental perceptions of the schools' role in addressing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Maureen; Polivka, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    As childhood obesity has increased, schools have struggled with their role in this epidemic. Parents with a school-age child in a suburban latchkey program were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity, body mass index, and the school's role in prevention and treatment of obesity. More than 80% of participants identified inactivity, poor eating behavior, lack of parental control in what children eat, and eating too much as the main causes of childhood obesity. Parents preferred receiving information about their child's body mass index from the school via a letter from the school nurse. Participants agreed that physical education classes, as well as units on nutrition and weight control, should be present in schools. Parents also supported eliminating junk food machines and offering special low-calorie meals. By supporting these strategies, parents indicated that schools should have a role in childhood obesity. School nurses can advocate for parental preferences in their school district.

  5. State Legislation to Address Childhood Obesity. Program Results Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiester, Leila

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 12.5 million American children and teens are obese. Over time, the diseases and disabilities associated with obesity may undermine this population's health and result in substantial social and economic costs. Policies that address children's nutrition and physical activity are an important tool in reversing the obesity epidemic. More…

  6. Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR): interventions addressing multiple influences in childhood and adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Charlotte A; Boyington, Josephine; Esposito, Layla; Pemberton, Victoria L; Bonds, Denise; Kelley, Melinda; Yang, Song; Murray, David; Stevens, June

    2013-11-01

    This paper is the first of five papers in this issue that describes a new research consortium funded by the National Institutes of Health. It describes the design characteristics of the Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) trials and common measurements across the trials. The COPTR Consortium is conducting interventions to prevent obesity in pre-schoolers and treat overweight or obese 7-13 year olds. Four randomized controlled trials will enroll a total of 1700 children and adolescents (~50% female, 70% minorities), and will test innovative multi-level and multi-component interventions in multiple settings involving primary care physicians, parks and recreational centers, family advocates, and schools. For all the studies, the primary outcome measure is body mass index; secondary outcomes, moderators and mediators of intervention include diet, physical activity, home and neighborhood influences, and psychosocial factors. COPTR is being conducted collaboratively among four participating field centers, a coordinating center, and NIH project offices. Outcomes from COPTR have the potential to enhance our knowledge of interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity.

  7. Addressing childhood obesity at school entry: Qualitative experiences of school health professionals.

    PubMed

    Turner, Gillian L; Owen, Stephanie; Watson, Paula M

    2016-09-01

    School entry provides an opportune moment for health professionals to intervene with children who are overweight, yet identification and management of childhood obesity presents challenges in practice. This multi-method qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 school health professionals in addressing childhood obesity at school entry. Methods included semi-structured interviews with service managers (n = 3); focus groups with school nurses (n = 12) and child health practitioners (n = 6); and open-ended questionnaires with school nurses (n = 4) and child health practitioners (n = 1) who were unable to attend the focus groups. A thematic analysis revealed agreement between service managers, school nurses and child health practitioners. Whilst it was felt school health professionals have an important role to play in managing childhood obesity, efforts to address child weight were limited by a lack of capacity, lack of clear protocols, challenges of engaging parents and insufficient training in childhood obesity and related lifestyle issues. School health policymakers need to recognize childhood obesity as a serious public health issue, allocate appropriate resources to nurse training and development and ensure clear pathways are established to ensure consistency of care.

  8. Addressing childhood obesity at school entry: Qualitative experiences of school health professionals.

    PubMed

    Turner, Gillian L; Owen, Stephanie; Watson, Paula M

    2016-09-01

    School entry provides an opportune moment for health professionals to intervene with children who are overweight, yet identification and management of childhood obesity presents challenges in practice. This multi-method qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 school health professionals in addressing childhood obesity at school entry. Methods included semi-structured interviews with service managers (n = 3); focus groups with school nurses (n = 12) and child health practitioners (n = 6); and open-ended questionnaires with school nurses (n = 4) and child health practitioners (n = 1) who were unable to attend the focus groups. A thematic analysis revealed agreement between service managers, school nurses and child health practitioners. Whilst it was felt school health professionals have an important role to play in managing childhood obesity, efforts to address child weight were limited by a lack of capacity, lack of clear protocols, challenges of engaging parents and insufficient training in childhood obesity and related lifestyle issues. School health policymakers need to recognize childhood obesity as a serious public health issue, allocate appropriate resources to nurse training and development and ensure clear pathways are established to ensure consistency of care. PMID:26105059

  9. In search of the silver bullet: regulatory models to address childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Joan R

    2010-01-01

    The concern over obesity today has evolved beyond an issue of personal vanity to a serious national health issue affecting millions of Americans. Obesity in children is especially alarming. Overweight children and adolescents are at risk for health problems throughout their lives. While under-nutrition or diet insufficiencies were once major obstacles in the development of healthy infants and children, the epidemic of childhood obesity marks the start of the 21st century with equally menacing health consequences. Childhood obesity creates an increased burden of disease on our economy with increased indirect economic costs of time lost from work for parents and time lost from school for the child. Data raise the possibility that the current generation of children could suffer greater illness or experience a shorter lifespan than that of their parents. Some experts believe that government mandated restrictions on dietary choices would alleviate the obesity problem, while others find such actions to be an unwarranted government intrusion. Still, as concerns about obesity continue to grow, especially regarding children, some say government intervention of some type is necessary to solve the problem. This paper examines the history and factors involved in the childhood obesity epidemic, explores regulatory options for its resolution, and provides an overview of obesity as a serious challenge to public health, and the health of children in particular. The federal agencies who share the responsibility for regulating food in the United States and their efforts to address the obesity problem are discussed as a background to various state and federal regulatory models influencing dietary choices. The effectiveness of proposed regulations and alternatives to government intervention suggest that the resolution of the childhood obesity issue requires a coordinated, multilevel approach. PMID:24475539

  10. Community Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity, the Feasibility of Programs Addressing Childhood Obesity, and Persisting Gaps.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts.

  11. Community Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity, the Feasibility of Programs Addressing Childhood Obesity, and Persisting Gaps.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts. PMID:26433725

  12. Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  13. A Call to Action: Addressing the Childhood Obesity Epidemic through Comprehensive School Counseling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belser, Christopher T.; Morris, Jessica A.; Hasselbeck, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for school-based interventions targeting the childhood obesity epidemic has been well documented. The risk factors associated with childhood obesity are physical, mental, psychosocial, academic, and economic. With training in developing comprehensive programs and interventions, professional school counselors are positioned to assist…

  14. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  15. The Role of Parents in Public Views of Strategies to Address Childhood Obesity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    WOLFSON, JULIA A; GOLLUST, SARAH E; NIEDERDEPPE, JEFF; BARRY, COLLEEN L

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points The American public—both men and women and those with and without children in the household—holds parents highly responsible and largely to blame for childhood obesity. High attributions of responsibility to parents for reducing childhood obesity did not universally undermine support for broader policy action. School-based obesity prevention policies were strongly supported, even among those viewing parents as mostly to blame for childhood obesity. Americans who viewed sectors outside the family (such as the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government) as helping address childhood obesity were more willing to support a wider range of population-based obesity prevention policies. Context The public's views of parents’ behaviors and choices—and the attitudes held by parents themselves—are likely to influence the success of efforts to reverse obesity rates. Methods We analyzed data from 2 US national public opinion surveys fielded in 2011 and 2012 to examine attributions of blame and responsibility to parents for obesity, both among the general public and parents themselves, and we also explored the relationship between views of parents and support for obesity prevention policies. Findings We found that attribution of blame and responsibility to parents was consistently high, regardless of parental status or gender. Support for policies to curb childhood obesity also did not differ notably by parental status or gender. Multivariable analyses revealed consistent patterns in the association between public attitudes toward parents’ responsibility and support for policies to curb childhood obesity. High parental responsibility was linked to higher support for school-targeted policies but generally was not associated with policies outside the school setting. Attribution of greater responsibility to entities external to children and their parents (schools, the food and beverage industry, and the government) was associated with greater

  16. School-Based Health Centers and Childhood Obesity: "An Ideal Location to Address a Complex Issue"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010

    2010-01-01

    One of today's most pressing public health problems is the rise in childhood overweight and obesity. School-based health centers (SBHCs)--the convergence of public health, primary care, and mental health in schools--represent an important element in the public health toolbox for combating the challenging epidemic. When working side-by-side in a…

  17. European Union public opinion on policy measures to address childhood overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Suggs, L Suzanne; McIntyre, Chris

    2011-02-01

    Increases in pediatric overweight and obesity throughout the European Union (EU) generate concern because of the many associated co-morbidities, psychosocial effects, and economic costs. A variety of policy approaches have been implemented, but counteracting weight gain has proven challenging. Do differences in public opinion about policy options to fight the problem exist among EU countries? We obtained data for our study from the Eurobarometer and include representative samples from all EU Member States plus four prospective countries. Our results suggest strong consistency among EU countries in support for two policies: providing information to parents and more physical activity in schools. For improving children's diets, our data show widespread support for providing parents with information, education programs in schools, and restrictions on advertising. For reducing childhood obesity, more physical activity in schools received the most support followed by education and advertising restrictions. There was very little support for imposing taxes on unhealthy food. PMID:21150940

  18. Service learning in a pediatric weight management program to address childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Fengyi; Goebel, Laurie A; Satkamp, Nicole; Beauchamp, Rachel; Kurrasch, Julie M; Smith, Asia R; Maguire, Julia M

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes an inter-professional service learning collaboration and reflects benefits and considerations when incorporating a family-oriented approach in the community-based pediatric weight management program. Because obesity has tremendous consequences on a nation's health and economy, a pediatrician in a community health network has utilized an inter-professional team to implement a pediatric weight management program targeting children between the ages of 8 and 15 years. The team incorporates a culturally sensitive curriculum using a family-oriented approach for obesity prevention and intervention. Physicians, registered dietitians, occupational therapists, nurse practitioners, and mental health professionals assist participants in adopting a healthier lifestyle by addressing physical and psychosocial issues related to obesity, developing a nutrition plan, making healthier food choices, and finding fun ways to be more physically active. Graduate occupational therapy students work closely with the team members to assist delivery of interactive activities and behavior intervention.

  19. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... page please turn Javascript on. The We Can! childhood obesity-prevention program involves parents, caregivers, and community leaders ...

  20. Parental perceptions of the rural school's role in addressing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Stalter, Ann M; Kaylor, Marybeth; Steinke, Jessica D; Barker, Rosanta M

    2011-02-01

    This study employed cross-sectional, descriptive design with convenience sampling to explore rural parent perceptions of child obesity, use of Body Mass Index (BMI) in schools, preferences for receipt of BMI information and, the rural school's role in obesity prevention/treatment. The survey "Parental Perceptions of BMI and Obesity in the School-Age Child" was used. Of the 183 surveys distributed, 65 were returned (35.5%). Fifty-five percentage of parents were in agreement of school-based BMI screening. Fifty-four percentage of parents selected a combination of ways to receive BMI information (letter from school nurse, face-to-face conference with nurse, or via report card). Few parents (6.2%) were reluctant to schools addressing obesity. Significant relationships were identified between non-White, overweight parents who had overweight children (n = 3). They were more likely to disagree with removal of junk food, increasing physical activity, and recommending weight loss. Recommendations to involve parents in BMI screening are presented.

  1. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    2016-08-31

    Essential facts Nearly one third of children aged 2-15 in England are overweight or obese. Younger generations are becoming obese at earlier ages and staying so for longer. Reducing obesity levels is a major public health challenge as the condition doubles the risk of dying prematurely. Obese adults are more likely to develop health conditions such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and depression. Treating conditions related to obesity is a major financial burden on the NHS, costing more than £5 billion a year. PMID:27577286

  2. Parental Perceptions of the Rural School's Role in Addressing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Ann M.; Kaylor, Marybeth; Steinke, Jessica D.; Barker, Rosanta M.

    2011-01-01

    This study employed cross-sectional, descriptive design with convenience sampling to explore rural parent perceptions of child obesity, use of Body Mass Index (BMI) in schools, preferences for receipt of BMI information and, the rural school's role in obesity prevention/treatment. The survey "Parental Perceptions of BMI and Obesity in the…

  3. School, Community, and Family Working Together to Address Childhood Obesity: Perceptions from the KOALA Lifestyle Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smibert, Asa; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Hogan, Anna; Leong, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological data on childhood obesity has prompted a significant response from both governments and academics seeking to recommend solutions to the reported "crisis". The "Kinder Overweight Active Living Action" (KOALA) healthy lifestyle programme is a randomized obesity prevention and intervention study designed to provide an understanding of…

  4. Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study

    PubMed Central

    Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188

  5. Community-based approaches to address childhood undernutrition and obesity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Community-based approaches have been the mainstay of interventions to address the problem of child malnutrition in developing societies. Many programs have been in operation in several countries for decades and originated largely as social welfare, food security and poverty eradication programs. Increasingly conceptual frameworks to guide this activity have been developed as our understanding of the complex nature of the determinants of undernutrition improves. Alongside this evolution, is the accumulation of evidence on the types of interventions in the community that are effective, practical and sustainable. The changing environment is probably determining the altering scenario of child nutrition in developing societies, with rapid developmental transition and urbanization being responsible for the emerging problems of obesity and other metabolic disorders that are largely the result of the now well-recognized linkages between child undernutrition and early onset adult chronic diseases. This dramatic change is contributing to the double burden of malnutrition in developing countries. Community interventions hence need to be integrated and joined up to reduce both aspects of malnutrition in societies. The evidence that community-based nutrition interventions can have a positive impact on pregnancy outcomes and child undernutrition needs to be evaluated to enable programs to prioritize and incorporate the interventions that work in the community. Programs that are operational and successful also need to be evaluated and disseminated in order to enable countries to generate their own programs tailored to tackling the changing nutritional problems of the children in their society. PMID:19346779

  6. Community-based approaches to address childhood undernutrition and obesity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Community-based approaches have been the mainstay of interventions to address the problem of child malnutrition in developing societies. Many programs have been in operation in several countries for decades and originated largely as social welfare, food security and poverty eradication programs. Increasingly conceptual frameworks to guide this activity have been developed as our understanding of the complex nature of the determinants of undernutrition improves. Alongside this evolution, is the accumulation of evidence on the types of interventions in the community that are effective, practical and sustainable. The changing environment is probably determining the altering scenario of child nutrition in developing societies, with rapid developmental transition and urbanization being responsible for the emerging problems of obesity and other metabolic disorders that are largely the result of the now well-recognized linkages between child undernutrition and early onset adult chronic diseases. This dramatic change is contributing to the double burden of malnutrition in developing countries. Community interventions hence need to be integrated and joined up to reduce both aspects of malnutrition in societies. The evidence that community-based nutrition interventions can have a positive impact on pregnancy outcomes and child undernutrition needs to be evaluated to enable programs to prioritize and incorporate the interventions that work in the community. Programs that are operational and successful also need to be evaluated and disseminated in order to enable countries to generate their own programs tailored to tackling the changing nutritional problems of the children in their society.

  7. Myths about childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Bandini, L G; Dietz, W H

    1992-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a multifactorial and complex disease. Myths such as those that we have described may distract our patients from the underlying behaviors that contribute to the disease or may deflect the blame perceived by obese patients and their parents. Myths that suggest that the obese are inactive, eat differently, or eat more junk food suggest that obese individuals are socially deviant and justifies the intense discrimination directed against them. The myth that obesity represents an untreatable disease helps free health-care professionals from the responsibility to understand and care for obese children. Dispelling the myths about childhood obesity represents a critical step in prevention and treatment.

  8. Childhood obesity for pediatric gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jeannie S; Barlow, Sarah E; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P; Xanthakos, Stavra A

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology.

  9. Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

  10. Childhood environment and obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  11. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  12. Beyond Positivism: Understanding and addressing childhood obesity disparities through a Critical Theory perspective

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Krista; Kulage, Kristine M.; Lucero, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We apply Critical Theory to examine menu labeling with the aim of uncovering important implications for nursing practice, research, and policy. Conclusions Our critical analysis uncovers barriers to menu labeling's effectiveness, particularly for vulnerable populations. Nurses must work to minimize the impact of these barriers and optimize the effectiveness of menu labeling, in order to strengthen the fight against obesity. Practice implications We suggest changes, guided by this critical analysis,that can be implemented by nurses working in clinical practice, research, and policy. PMID:26112774

  13. Hawai'i's Opportunity for Active Living Advancement (HO'ĀLA): addressing childhood obesity through safe routes to school.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Katie M; Dierenfield, Laura; Alexander, Daniel A; Prose, Marcia; Peterson, Ann C

    2011-07-01

    Increasing active transportation to and from school may reduce childhood obesity rates in Hawai'i. A community partnership was formed to address this issue in Hawai'i's Opportunity for Active Living Advancement (HO'ĀLA), a quasi-experimental study of active transportation in Hawai'i County. The purpose of this study was to determine baseline rates for active transportation rates to and from school and to track changes related to macro-level (statewide) policy, locally-based Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs and bicycle and pedestrian planning initiatives expected to improve the safety, comfort and ease of walking and bicycling to and from school. Measures included parent surveys, student travel tallies, traffic counts and safety observations. Assessments of the walking and biking environment around each school were made using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan. Complete Streets and SRTS policy implementation was tracked through the activities of a state transportation-led Task Force and an advocacy-led coalition, respectively. Planning initiatives were tracked through citizen-based advisory committees. Thirteen volunteer schools participated as the intervention (n=8) or comparison (n=5) schools. The majority of students were Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander in schools located in under-resourced communities. Overall, few children walked or biked to school. The majority of children were driven to and from school by their parents. With the influence of HO'ĀLA staff members, two intervention schools were obligated SRTS project funding from the state, schools were identified as key areas in the pedestrian master plan, and one intervention school was slated for a bike plan priority project. As the SRTS programs are implemented in the next phase of the project, post-test data will be collected to ascertain if changes in active transportation rates occur.

  14. Family Counseling and Childhood Obesity: A Review of Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissette, Patrick J.; Taylor, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to be one of the most refractory and resistant problems encountered by children. This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature and addresses the presumed influence of family members in relation to childhood obesity. Directions for future family counseling research into childhood obesity are also…

  15. Childhood Obesity: A School-Based Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Charlotte

    This model of an eight-week childhood obesity program for intermediate elementary through junior high school students addresses the social, psychological, and physical penalties often incurred by obese children. The materials detail the program format in terms of: (1) a daily food log; (2) a discussion of proper nutrition; (3) a contract for…

  16. Cultural considerations for treatment of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Davis, S P; Northington, L; Kolar, K

    2000-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become one of the most common health problems facing children in America. Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reveal that ethnic minority children in the United States are at particular risk for development of cardiovascular disease due to their disproportionate levels of obesity. In treating childhood obesity among ethnic minorities, practitioners need to be mindful of the cultural norms surrounding body size. Additional concerns that must be addressed include the effects of target marketing of unhealthy foods toward ethnic minorities and environmental deterrents to outside physical activities, to name a few. Strategies given to address the problem of childhood obesity among ethnic minorities include, increasing the child's physical activity, reducing television viewing and the adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyle practices for the entire family.

  17. The Role of School Counselors in the Childhood Obesity Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrier, Yvonne I.; Bakerson, Michelle A.; Linton, Jeremy M.; Walker, Lynne R.; Woolford, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant public health concern. Since 1960, the prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States increased dramatically from 5% to 16.9%. To date many interventions to address obesity in schools have focused on healthy changes to the content of vending machines, school lunches, and the addition of after school…

  18. 75 FR 7197 - Establishing a Task Force on Childhood Obesity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... country, childhood obesity has reached epidemic rates and, as a result, our children may live shorter.... Therefore, I have set a goal to solve the problem of childhood obesity within a generation so that children... obesity. Such strategies include updating child nutrition policies in a way that addresses the...

  19. Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demo...

  20. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  1. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  2. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  3. Obesity: the new childhood disability?

    PubMed

    Tsiros, M D; Coates, A M; Howe, P R C; Grimshaw, P N; Buckley, J D

    2011-01-01

    This review addresses the impact of obesity on paediatric physical functioning utilizing the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Framework (ICF). The ICF encompasses functioning (as it relates to all body functions and structures), activities (undertaking a particular task) and participation (in a life situation) with disability referring to impairments in body functions/structures, activity restrictions or participation limitations. Electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies published in English prior to May 2009 that examined aspects of physical functioning in children (≤18 years). Eligible studies (N = 104) were ranked by design and synthesized descriptively. Childhood obesity was found to be associated with deficits in function, including impaired cardiorespiratory fitness and performance of motor tasks; and there was some limited evidence of increased musculoskeletal pain and decrements in muscle strength, gait and balance. Health-related quality of life and the subset of physical functioning was inversely related to weight status. However, studies investigating impacts of obesity on wider activity and participation were lacking. Further research utilizing the ICF is required to identify and better characterize the effects of paediatric obesity on physical function, activity and participation, thereby improving targets for intervention to reduce disability in this population.

  4. Household, Parent, and Child Contributions to Childhood Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Sara; Lutz, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Sixty-five parent-child pairs were studied to portray the potential family processes that put children at risk for obesity and to illustrate the household environment, parenting beliefs, and child characteristics of obese and non-obese children. Results suggest that efforts to curb childhood obesity should address improving parent knowledge of…

  5. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  6. [Childhood obesity prevention from a community view].

    PubMed

    Ariza, Carles; Ortega-Rodríguez, Eduard; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Valmayor, Sara; Juárez, Olga; Pasarín, M Isabel

    2015-04-01

    The percentage of failure and relapse in the treatment of obesity is high. Where possible, the preferred strategy for preventing obesity is to modify eating habits and lifestyles. This article aims to provide a framework for evidence on the most effective interventions for addressing childhood obesity, both from a prevention point of view, as well as reducing it, when it is already established. After a review of the scientific literature, the issues that must be considered both in the universal and selective prevention of childhood obesity are presented. Also, in light of the controversy over the tools for measuring and controlling the problem, some clarification is provided on the criteria. Finally, the approach to the prevention of overweight and obesity with a community perspective is separated, with two short protocols being offered with diagrams of the basic procedure to follow.

  7. Factors associated with childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Dietz, W

    1991-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with host factors that enhance susceptibility and environmental factors that increase food intake and decrease energy expenditure. Obese children underreport food intake and probably consume more food to maintain their weight at increased levels. Prevalence of obesity is related to family variables, including parental obesity, family size and age, and socioeconomic status. Television viewing is strongly associated with the prevalence of obesity through its impact on food intake and activity. How these environmental variables are behaviorally interrelated to the genesis of obesity is unclear.

  8. An Innovative Approach to Addressing Childhood Obesity: A Knowledge-Based Infrastructure for Supporting Multi-Stakeholder Partnership Decision-Making in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Addy, Nii Antiaye; Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Buckeridge, David L.; Dubé, Laurette

    2015-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) have become a widespread means for deploying policies in a whole of society strategy to address the complex problem of childhood obesity. However, decision-making in MSPs is fraught with challenges, as decision-makers are faced with complexity, and have to reconcile disparate conceptualizations of knowledge across multiple sectors with diverse sets of indicators and data. These challenges can be addressed by supporting MSPs with innovative tools for obtaining, organizing and using data to inform decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of a knowledge-based infrastructure to support MSP decision-making processes. The paper emerged from a study to define specifications for a knowledge-based infrastructure to provide decision support for community-level MSPs in the Canadian province of Quebec. As part of the study, a process assessment was conducted to understand the needs of communities as they collect, organize, and analyze data to make decisions about their priorities. The result of this process is a “portrait”, which is an epidemiological profile of health and nutrition in their community. Portraits inform strategic planning and development of interventions, and are used to assess the impact of interventions. Our key findings indicate ambiguities and disagreement among MSP decision-makers regarding causal relationships between actions and outcomes, and the relevant data needed for making decisions. MSP decision-makers expressed a desire for easy-to-use tools that facilitate the collection, organization, synthesis, and analysis of data, to enable decision-making in a timely manner. Findings inform conceptual modeling and ontological analysis to capture the domain knowledge and specify relationships between actions and outcomes. This modeling and analysis provide the foundation for an ontology, encoded using OWL 2 Web Ontology Language. The ontology is developed to provide

  9. An innovative approach to addressing childhood obesity: a knowledge-based infrastructure for supporting multi-stakeholder partnership decision-making in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Addy, Nii Antiaye; Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Buckeridge, David L; Dubé, Laurette

    2015-02-01

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) have become a widespread means for deploying policies in a whole of society strategy to address the complex problem of childhood obesity. However, decision-making in MSPs is fraught with challenges, as decision-makers are faced with complexity, and have to reconcile disparate conceptualizations of knowledge across multiple sectors with diverse sets of indicators and data. These challenges can be addressed by supporting MSPs with innovative tools for obtaining, organizing and using data to inform decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of a knowledge-based infrastructure to support MSP decision-making processes. The paper emerged from a study to define specifications for a knowledge-based infrastructure to provide decision support for community-level MSPs in the Canadian province of Quebec. As part of the study, a process assessment was conducted to understand the needs of communities as they collect, organize, and analyze data to make decisions about their priorities. The result of this process is a "portrait", which is an epidemiological profile of health and nutrition in their community. Portraits inform strategic planning and development of interventions, and are used to assess the impact of interventions. Our key findings indicate ambiguities and disagreement among MSP decision-makers regarding causal relationships between actions and outcomes, and the relevant data needed for making decisions. MSP decision-makers expressed a desire for easy-to-use tools that facilitate the collection, organization, synthesis, and analysis of data, to enable decision-making in a timely manner. Findings inform conceptual modeling and ontological analysis to capture the domain knowledge and specify relationships between actions and outcomes. This modeling and analysis provide the foundation for an ontology, encoded using OWL 2 Web Ontology Language. The ontology is developed to provide semantic

  10. An innovative approach to addressing childhood obesity: a knowledge-based infrastructure for supporting multi-stakeholder partnership decision-making in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Addy, Nii Antiaye; Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Buckeridge, David L; Dubé, Laurette

    2015-01-23

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) have become a widespread means for deploying policies in a whole of society strategy to address the complex problem of childhood obesity. However, decision-making in MSPs is fraught with challenges, as decision-makers are faced with complexity, and have to reconcile disparate conceptualizations of knowledge across multiple sectors with diverse sets of indicators and data. These challenges can be addressed by supporting MSPs with innovative tools for obtaining, organizing and using data to inform decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of a knowledge-based infrastructure to support MSP decision-making processes. The paper emerged from a study to define specifications for a knowledge-based infrastructure to provide decision support for community-level MSPs in the Canadian province of Quebec. As part of the study, a process assessment was conducted to understand the needs of communities as they collect, organize, and analyze data to make decisions about their priorities. The result of this process is a "portrait", which is an epidemiological profile of health and nutrition in their community. Portraits inform strategic planning and development of interventions, and are used to assess the impact of interventions. Our key findings indicate ambiguities and disagreement among MSP decision-makers regarding causal relationships between actions and outcomes, and the relevant data needed for making decisions. MSP decision-makers expressed a desire for easy-to-use tools that facilitate the collection, organization, synthesis, and analysis of data, to enable decision-making in a timely manner. Findings inform conceptual modeling and ontological analysis to capture the domain knowledge and specify relationships between actions and outcomes. This modeling and analysis provide the foundation for an ontology, encoded using OWL 2 Web Ontology Language. The ontology is developed to provide semantic

  11. Markets and Childhood Obesity Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In…

  12. Childhood Obesity and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…

  13. Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2007-01-01

    According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

  14. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity and the importance of early life. Recommendations promoting optimal cardiovascular health in all children and youth are discussed. PMID:20190900

  15. Cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-02-01

    Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity is an important and increasingly prevalent public health problem in Canada and worldwide. High adiposity in youth is indicated in clinical practice by plotting body mass index on appropriate percentile charts normed for age and sex, although waist measures might be a further tool. High adiposity can lead to adiposopathy in youth, with associated increases in inflammation and oxidative stress, changes in adipokines, and endocrinopathy. This is manifest as cardiometabolic risk factors in similar patterns to those in noted in obese adults. Obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with vascular changes indicative of early atherosclerosis, and ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. These cardiovascular consequences are evident in youth, but childhood obesity is also predictive of similar consequences in adulthood. Childhood obesity and risk factors have been shown to track into adulthood and worsen in most individuals. The result is an exponential acceleration of atherosclerosis, which can be predicted to translate into an epidemic of premature cardiovascular disease and events. A change in paradigm is needed toward preventing and curing atherosclerosis and not just preventing cardiovascular disease. This would necessarily create an imperative for preventing and treating childhood obesity. Urgent attention, policy, and action are needed to avoid the enormous future social and health care costs associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obesity in youth. PMID:25661547

  16. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cote, Anita T; Harris, Kevin C; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Sandor, George G S; Devlin, Angela M

    2013-10-01

    Obesity-related cardiovascular disease in children is becoming more prevalent in conjunction with the rise in childhood obesity. Children with obesity are predisposed to an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Importantly, research in children with obesity over the last decade has demonstrated that children may exhibit early signs of cardiovascular dysfunction as a result of their excess adiposity, often independent of other obesity-related comorbidities such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. The clinical evidence is accumulating to suggest that the cardiovascular damage, once observed only in adults, is also occurring in obese children. The objective of this review is to provide a synopsis of the current research on cardiovascular abnormalities in children with obesity and highlight the importance and need for early detection and prevention programs to mitigate this potentially serious health problem.

  17. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  18. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  19. Childhood obesity: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Klish, W J

    1995-02-01

    Childhood obesity is among the most difficult problems which pediatricians treat. It is frequently ignored by the pediatrician or viewed as a form of social deviancy, and blame for treatment failure placed on the patients or their families. The definition of obesity is difficult. Using total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) technology, total body fat ranges between 12% and 30% of total body weight in normal children and adolescents. This is influenced not only by age, but also by physical fitness. Anthropometry is the easiest way to define obesity. Children whose weight exceeds 120% of that expected for their height are considered overweight. Skinfold thickness and body mass index are indices of obesity that are more difficult to apply to the child. Childhood obesity is associated with obese parents, a higher socioeconomic status, increased parental education, small family size and a sedentary lifestyle. Genetics also clearly plays a role. Studies have demonstrated that obese and non-obese individuals have similar energy intakes implying that obesity results from very small imbalances of energy intake and expenditure. An excess intake of only 418 kJ per day can result in about 4.5 kg of excess weight gain per year. Small differences in basal metabolic rate or the thermic effects of food may also account for the difference in energy balance between the obese and non-obese. In the Prader Willi Syndrome, there appears to be a link between appetite and body fatness. When placed on growth hormone, lean body mass increases, body fat decreases, sometimes to normal, and appetite becomes more normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Mahshid; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Merchant, Anwar T

    2005-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool

  1. 3 CFR 8702 - Proclamation 8702 of August 31, 2011. National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... children. By taking action to address the issue of childhood obesity, we can help America’s next generation... Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2011 8702 Proclamation 8702 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8702 of August 31, 2011 Proc. 8702 National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2011By...

  2. [Childhood obesity and dyslipidemia].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita Angélica; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels H

    2014-01-01

    Screening and treatment of plasma lipid abnormalities secondary to obesity are among the interventions that should be implemented in children who are overweight or obese, in order to prevent a cardiovascular event. Dyslipidemias are a group of asymptomatic diseases that are commonly caused by abnormal levels of lipoproteins in blood; they are a comorbidity that is commonly related to obesity, without considering the age of the patient. Among dyslipidemias, hypertriglyceridemia has the highest prevalence. The etiology of the dyslipidemia should be identified; it allows the proper selection of therapy for the patients and their family. The goal is the prevention of cardiovascular complications. Reduced caloric intake and a structured physical activity plan should be considered for initial treatment for all the overweight and obese patients. For adherence to treatment to be successful, the participation of the primary care physician and a multidisciplinary team is required. With treatment, the risks and complications can be reduced. The participation of a specialist in handling the pediatric obese patient with dyslipidemia should be limited to severe cases or those at risk for having pancreatitis.

  3. Childhood obesity: Determinants, evaluation, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Moutusi; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2012-12-01

    Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child's food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child's lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on 'junk' food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity. PMID:23565376

  4. Childhood obesity: Determinants, evaluation, and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Raychaudhuri, Moutusi; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child's food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child's lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on ‘junk’ food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity. PMID:23565376

  5. Childhood obesity: Determinants, evaluation, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Moutusi; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2012-12-01

    Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child's food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child's lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on 'junk' food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity.

  6. [New perspectives on childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Fodor, Miklós; Sófi, Gyula

    2013-08-11

    From preventional point of view, childhood obesity is very important, since proliferation of extra fatty tissue in childhood contribute metabolic processes favoring the development of type 2 diabetes, as well as it can accelerate cardiovascular complications. Anyone who is overweight in his or her life is likely to be confronted by such social stigma that could ultimately have a negative impact on self-esteem. The cornerstone of prevention is a healthy diet and age-adjusted physical training which may result in a physiological energy balance.

  7. [New perspectives on childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Fodor, Miklós; Sófi, Gyula

    2013-08-11

    From preventional point of view, childhood obesity is very important, since proliferation of extra fatty tissue in childhood contribute metabolic processes favoring the development of type 2 diabetes, as well as it can accelerate cardiovascular complications. Anyone who is overweight in his or her life is likely to be confronted by such social stigma that could ultimately have a negative impact on self-esteem. The cornerstone of prevention is a healthy diet and age-adjusted physical training which may result in a physiological energy balance. PMID:23916906

  8. Games and childhood obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

  9. Childhood obesity and the media.

    PubMed

    Hingle, Melanie; Kunkel, Dale

    2012-06-01

    This article assesses the role played by media in contributing to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. Electronic media use, often referred to as screen time, is significantly correlated with child adiposity. Although the causal mechanism that accounts for this relationship is unclear, it is well established that reducing screen time improves weight status. Media advertising for unhealthy foods contributes to obesity by influencing children's food preferences, requests, and diet. Industry efforts have failed to improve the nutritional quality of foods marketed on television to children, leading public health advocates to recommend government restrictions on child-targeted advertisements for unhealthy foods. PMID:22643173

  10. Impact of social marketing in the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2012-07-01

    Obesity, mainly childhood obesity, is a worldwide concern. Childhood obesity continues to adulthood, and it is associated with multiple noncommunicable diseases. One important aspect in the fight against obesity is prevention, the earlier, the better. Social marketing is a novel concept being increasingly used as an approach to address social problems and more and more included in the community-based interventions aiming to change unhealthy behaviors. Although there is limited evidence of its effectiveness, it seems that when conscientiously applied, social marketing principles may be useful to change behaviors and thus better health outcomes. PMID:22798001

  11. Impact of social marketing in the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2012-07-01

    Obesity, mainly childhood obesity, is a worldwide concern. Childhood obesity continues to adulthood, and it is associated with multiple noncommunicable diseases. One important aspect in the fight against obesity is prevention, the earlier, the better. Social marketing is a novel concept being increasingly used as an approach to address social problems and more and more included in the community-based interventions aiming to change unhealthy behaviors. Although there is limited evidence of its effectiveness, it seems that when conscientiously applied, social marketing principles may be useful to change behaviors and thus better health outcomes.

  12. [Childhood obesity and general medicine].

    PubMed

    Cailliez, Eric; Fanello, Serge; Gérard, Solène; Pietri, Maéva

    2012-01-01

    The results of a 2009-2010 survey of general practitioners in Maine-et-Loire show that their practices have improved over the last few years with regard to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. However, the recommendations of the French national health authority and the French national nutrition and health programme are not sufficiently applied and doctors face numerous difficulties, including a lack of parental involvement.

  13. Age-related consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zaepfel, Alysia; Bjornstad, Petter; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2014-01-01

    The severity and frequency of childhood obesity has increased significantly over the past three to four decades. The health effects of increased body mass index as a child may significantly impact obese youth as they age. However, many of the long-term outcomes of childhood obesity have yet to be studied. This article examines the currently available longitudinal data evaluating the effects of childhood obesity on adult outcomes. Consequences of obesity include an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and its associated retinal and renal complications, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, asthma, orthopedic complications, psychiatric disease, and increased rates of cancer, among others. These disorders can start as early as childhood, and such early onset increases the likelihood of early morbidity and mortality. Being obese as a child also increases the likelihood of being obese as an adult, and obesity in adulthood also leads to obesity-related complications. This review outlines the evidence for childhood obesity as a predictor of adult obesity and obesity-related disorders, thereby emphasizing the importance of early intervention to prevent the onset of obesity in childhood. PMID:24434909

  14. Age-related consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zaepfel, Alysia; Bjornstad, Petter; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2014-01-01

    The severity and frequency of childhood obesity has increased significantly over the past three to four decades. The health effects of increased body mass index as a child may significantly impact obese youth as they age. However, many of the long-term outcomes of childhood obesity have yet to be studied. This article examines the currently available longitudinal data evaluating the effects of childhood obesity on adult outcomes. Consequences of obesity include an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and its associated retinal and renal complications, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, asthma, orthopedic complications, psychiatric disease, and increased rates of cancer, among others. These disorders can start as early as childhood, and such early onset increases the likelihood of early morbidity and mortality. Being obese as a child also increases the likelihood of being obese as an adult, and obesity in adulthood also leads to obesity-related complications. This review outlines the evidence for childhood obesity as a predictor of adult obesity and obesity-related disorders, thereby emphasizing the importance of early intervention to prevent the onset of obesity in childhood.

  15. Childhood obesity: are genetic differences involved?

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Claude

    2009-05-01

    This brief review focuses on the genetic contribution to childhood obesity. Evidence for a genetic component to excess body weight during growth is presented from the perspective of genetic epidemiology studies. Parental obesity is a predictor of childhood excess weight. The familial risk ratio for childhood obesity when a parent is obese reaches >2.5. Birth weight is characterized by a genetic heritability component on the order of 30%, with significant maternal and paternal effects in addition to the newborn genes. About 5% of childhood obesity cases are caused by a defect that impairs function in a gene, and >/=5 of these genes have been uncovered. However, the common forms of childhood obesity seem to result from a predisposition that primarily favors obesogenic behaviors in an obesogenic environment. Candidate gene and genomewide association studies reveal that these obesogenic genes have small effect sizes but that the risk alleles for obesity are quite common in populations. The latter may translate into a highly significant population-attributable risk of obesity. Gene-environment interaction studies suggest that the effects of predisposing genes can be enhanced or diminished by exposure to relevant behaviors. It is possible that the prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing across generations as a result of positive assortative mating with obese husbands and wives contributing more obese offspring than normal-weight parents.

  16. Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence: A Decade in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: (1) current definitions of childhood and…

  17. Decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity: evidence from Ireland.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Brendan; Cullinan, John

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to quantify and decompose the socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity in the Republic of Ireland. The analysis is performed using data from the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland survey, a nationally representative survey of 8568 nine-year-old children conducted in 2007 and 2008. We estimate concentration indices to quantify the extent of the socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity and undertake a subsequent decomposition analysis to pinpoint the key factors underpinning the observed inequalities. Overall the results confirm a strong socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity in the Republic of Ireland. Concentration indices of obesity (CI=-0.168) and overweight/obese (CI=-0.057) show that the gradient is more pronounced in obese children, while results from the decomposition analysis suggest that the majority of the inequality in childhood obesity is explained by parental level variables. Our findings suggest that addressing childhood obesity inequalities requires coordinated policy responses at both the child and parental level.

  18. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

  19. [Economical costs and consequences of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Cortés, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is some concern because the generations born in the last decades of the 20th century could have lower longevity than the previous ones as a result of the diseases caused by obesity. Mexico has the highest index of prevalence of childhood obesity, and it has increased very fast. It is fundamental to generate healthcare models focused on obese patients, and oriented to the prevention of complications. Implementing preventive actions since childhood must be the priority. Health education in childhood obesity will be the only realistic way to solve the problem.

  20. The neuroendocrinology of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Lustig, R H

    2001-08-01

    important feature that can distinguish "organic" from "behavioral" weight gain in childhood is the age of the "adiposity rebound." The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now supplies BMI charts for boys and girls at www.cdc.gov/growthcharts. Plotting of the BMI versus age allows pediatricians to determine the age at which the BMI starts to increase (mean, 5.5 years). The earlier the adiposity rebound, the more likely the child will be obese as an adult, and the more likely that an organic cause can be determined. In such patients, thyroid levels and fasting insulin and leptin levels should be measured. An initial attempt at diet and exercise is essential; patients who do not respond with BMI stabilization should be investigated for a more ominous cause of their obesity. As the nosology of obesity improves, pediatricians will be able to increase the diagnostic efficiency and therapeutic success of this unfortunate, debilitating, and expensive epidemic.

  1. The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers are only gradually becoming aware of the gravity of the risk that overweight and obesity pose for children's health. In this article Stephen Daniels documents the heavy toll that the obesity epidemic is taking on the health of the nation's children. He discusses both the immediate risks associated with childhood obesity and the…

  2. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  3. The consequences of childhood overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    Researchers are only gradually becoming aware of the gravity of the risk that overweight and obesity pose for children's health. In this article Stephen Daniels documents the heavy toll that the obesity epidemic is taking on the health of the nation's children. He discusses both the immediate risks associated with childhood obesity and the longer-term risk that obese children and adolescents will become obese adults and suffer other health problems as a result. Daniels notes that many obesity-related health conditions once thought applicable only to adults are now being seen in children and with increasing frequency. Examples include high blood pressure, early symptoms of hardening of the arteries, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary disorder, and disordered breathing during sleep. He systematically surveys the body's systems, showing how obesity in adulthood can damage each and how childhood obesity exacerbates the damage. He explains that obesity can harm the cardiovascular system and that being overweight during childhood can accelerate the development of heart disease. The processes that lead to a heart attack or stroke start in childhood and often take decades to progress to the point of overt disease. Obesity in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood may accelerate these processes. Daniels shows how much the same generalization applies to other obesity-related disorders-metabolic, digestive, respiratory, skeletal, and psychosocial-that are appearing in children either for the first time or with greater severity or prevalence. Daniels notes that the possibility has even been raised that the increasing prevalence and severity of childhood obesity may reverse the modern era's steady increase in life expectancy, with today's youth on average living less healthy and ultimately shorter lives than their parents-the first such reversal in lifespan in modern history. Such a possibility, he concludes, makes obesity in children an

  4. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Nicosia, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on BMI, obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth-graders. Unlike previous studies, we address the endogeneity of the school food environment by controlling for children’s BMI at school entry and estimating instrumental variables regressions that leverage variation in the school’s grade span. Our main finding is that junk food availability does not significantly increase BMI or obesity among this fifth grade cohort despite the increased likelihood of in-school junk food purchases. The results are robust to alternate measures of junk food availability including school administrator reports of sales during school hours, school administrator reports of competitive food outlets, and children’s reports of junk food availability. Moreover, the absence of any effects on overall food consumption and physical activity further support the null findings for BMI and obesity. PMID:23729952

  5. Childhood obesity: trends and potential causes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Patricia M; Butcher, Kristin E

    2006-01-01

    The increase in childhood obesity over the past several decades, together with the associated health problems and costs, is raising grave concern among health care professionals, policy experts, children's advocates, and parents. Patricia Anderson and Kristin Butcher document trends in children's obesity and examine the possible underlying causes of the obesity epidemic. They begin by reviewing research on energy intake, energy expenditure, and "energy balance," noting that children who eat more "empty calories" and expend fewer calories through physical activity are more likely to be obese than other children. Next they ask what has changed in children's environment over the past three decades to upset this energy balance equation. In particular, they examine changes in the food market, in the built environment, in schools and child care settings, and in the role of parents-paying attention to the timing of these changes. Among the changes that affect children's energy intake are the increasing availability of energy-dense, high-calorie foods and drinks through schools. Changes in the family, particularly an increase in dual-career or single-parent working families, may also have increased demand for food away from home or pre-prepared foods. A host of factors have also contributed to reductions in energy expenditure. In particular, children today seem less likely to walk to school and to be traveling more in cars than they were during the early 1970s, perhaps because of changes in the built environment. Finally, children spend more time viewing television and using computers. Anderson and Butcher find no one factor that has led to increases in children's obesity. Rather, many complementary changes have simultaneously increased children's energy intake and decreased their energy expenditure. The challenge in formulating policies to address children's obesity is to learn how best to change the environment that affects children's energy balance.

  6. Childhood obesity and eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Obregón, Ana María; Pettinelli, Paulina P; Santos, Jose Luis

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased substantially in the recent decade as a result of the reduction in physical activity and the availability of high-fat and high-energy-density foods which the paediatric population faces daily. Although children are highly exposed to these foods, there is a wide variation in body weight, suggesting the presence of different patterns of response to an "obesogenic" environment. This wide variability from the point of view of eating behaviour involves a number of social issues (e.g., food availability, cost) as well as genuine behavioural traits such as the response to satiety, energy compensation, eating rate, responsiveness to food, food reward and dietary preferences. This article reviews the main physiological variables related to energy intake affecting eating behaviour in the paediatric population. PMID:25389988

  7. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  8. Food Away from Home and Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Mancino, Lisa; Todd, Jessica E; Guthrie, Joanne; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a number of serious health risks that can persist into adulthood. While trends in food away from home and fast-food consumption have paralleled trends in childhood obesity, it is important to identify whether this is a causal relationship. This paper reviews recent literature in this area to summarize if there is a consensus in research findings. We group the literature into two areas - consumption of and access to food away from home (FAFH). While no consensus findings have been reached in either area, the evidence of an association between FAFH consumption and childhood obesity has gained strength. Further, there is evidence that FAFH meals add calories to children's diets. The literature on the role of FAFH access and childhood obesity has continued producing mixed results. PMID:26626922

  9. Combating Childhood Obesity: School Leadership Makes a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisceglie, Rob

    2008-01-01

    An important first step in addressing any public health crisis is raising public awareness. However, getting everyone on board to help solve the underlying causes of that crisis is a daunting task. The childhood obesity epidemic poses such a challenge, particularly in terms of how to best engage and assist principals and other school leaders in…

  10. Biological, environmental, and social influences on childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M Karen

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased globally over the past three decades, with evidence of recent leveling off in developed countries. Reduction in the, currently high, prevalence of obesity will require a full understanding of the biological and social pathways to obesity in order to develop appropriately targeted prevention strategies in early life. Determinants of childhood obesity include individual level factors, including biological, social, and behavioral risks, acting within the influence of the child's family environment, which is, in turn, imbedded in the context of the community environment. These influences act across childhood, with suggestions of early critical periods of biological and behavioral plasticity. There is evidence of sex and gender differences in the responses of boys and girls to their environments. The evidence that determinants of childhood obesity act at many levels and at different stages of childhood is of policy relevance to those planning early health promotion and primary prevention programs as it suggests the need to address the individual, the family, the physical environment, the social environment, and social policy. The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize current, and emerging, literature in a multilevel, life course framework.

  11. 75 FR 54755 - National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... now face a national childhood obesity crisis, with nearly one in every three of America's children... obesity at every stage of a child's life. As President, I created a Task Force on Childhood Obesity to... Proclamation 8554--National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0;...

  12. Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Patricia M.; Butcher, Kristin F.

    2006-01-01

    The increase in childhood obesity over the past several decades, together with the associated health problems and costs, is raising grave concern among health care professionals, policy experts, children's advocates, and parents. Patricia Anderson and Kristin Butcher document trends in children's obesity and examine the possible underlying causes…

  13. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth graders. Unlike previous studies, we address…

  14. "Let's Move!" to End Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obama, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates in America have tripled in the last three decades. Almost one in three children are considered overweight or obese. Pediatricians are now treating children for adult diseases like type II diabetes and hypertension. All parents want the best for their children. They want children to succeed in school, fulfill their dreams,…

  15. Is Childhood Obesity Related to TV Addiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, David

    1988-01-01

    Excessive television viewing is associated with obesity in children because it decreases time spent on physical activity, and promotes overeating of snacks and high calorie foods. Childhood obesity demands physicians' concern because of the physical and psychological damage which follows its victims into adulthood. (IAH)

  16. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns.

  17. Linking psychosocial stressors and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, C; Mahatmya, D; Garasky, S; Lohman, B

    2011-05-01

    Research has established a wide array of genetic and environmental factors that are associated with childhood obesity. The focus of this review is on recent work that has established the relationship between one set of environmental factors, stressors and childhood obesity. These stressors are particularly prevalent for low-income children, a demographic group that has high rates of obesity in the USA and other developed countries. In this review, we begin by summarizing the psychosocial stressors faced by children followed by health outcomes associated with exposure to these stressors documented in the literature. We then summarize 11 articles which examined the connection between psychosocial stressors in the household and obesity and eight articles which examined the connection between individual psychosocial stressors and obesity. Policy recommendations emerging from this research include recognizing reductions in childhood obesity as a potential added benefit of social safety net programmes that reduce financial stress among families. In addition, policies and programmes geared towards childhood obesity prevention should focus on helping children build resources and capacities to teach them how to cope effectively with stressor exposure. We conclude with suggestions for future research.

  18. Adiponectin gene polymorphisms: Association with childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Vanêssa Gomes; Gomes, Karina Braga

    2014-03-01

    The current childhood obesity epidemic represents a particular challenge for public health. Understanding of the etiological mechanisms of obesity remains integral in treating this complex disorder. In recent years, studies have elucidated the influence of hormones secreted by adipose tissue named adipokines. Adiponectin is a adipokine that exhibits important anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic properties and it is strongly associated to obesity development. It is well known that adiponectin levels decrease with obesity. Furthermore, studies show that some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding adiponectin, ADIPOQ, may influence the expression of this protein. The objective of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in the context of childhood obesity. PMID:27625863

  19. Adiponectin gene polymorphisms: Association with childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Vanêssa Gomes; Gomes, Karina Braga

    2014-01-01

    The current childhood obesity epidemic represents a particular challenge for public health. Understanding of the etiological mechanisms of obesity remains integral in treating this complex disorder. In recent years, studies have elucidated the influence of hormones secreted by adipose tissue named adipokines. Adiponectin is a adipokine that exhibits important anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic properties and it is strongly associated to obesity development. It is well known that adiponectin levels decrease with obesity. Furthermore, studies show that some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding adiponectin, ADIPOQ, may influence the expression of this protein. The objective of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in the context of childhood obesity. PMID:27625863

  20. Childhood obesity: prevention is better than cure

    PubMed Central

    Pandita, Aakash; Sharma, Deepak; Pandita, Dharti; Pawar, Smita; Tariq, Mir; Kaul, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities have emerged as a major health problem garnering interests from both public health agencies and mainstream media consumers. With increasing awareness on its impact on health, finances, and community at large, it has come to the forefront for scientific research and development of health plans. The need for better strategies and novel interventions to manage obesity is now being recognized by the entire health care system. Obesity and overweight is now the fifth leading global risk factor for mortality. Strategic investment is thus urgently needed to implement population-based childhood obesity prevention programmes which are effective and also culturally appropriate. Population-based prevention is crucial to stem this rising tide of childhood obesity which is fast reaching epidemic proportions. Obesity has its onset very early in life; therefore, children constitute a major group of this disease. It is thus imperative to lay utmost importance on prevention of obesity in children and herald its progress, if present already. Furthermore, treatment is still in preliminary stage, so early prevention holds better than treatment at later stages. This article is an attempt to lay emphasis on childhood obesity as a problem that needs to be recognized early and measures for its prevention. PMID:27042133

  1. Perception of Childhood Obesity and Support for Prevention Policies among Latinos and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Puricelli Perin, Douglas M.; Frerichs, Leah; Costa, Sergio; Ramirez, Amelie G.; Huang, Terry T.-K.

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was administered to Latino and White residents of Omaha, NE, to assess perception of the childhood obesity problem, attribution of responsibility, and support for obesity-related policies. The sample included 40.8% (n = 271) Latinos and 59.2% (n = 393) Whites. Among Latinos, 25% did not see childhood obesity as a problem, compared to 6% of Whites (P < 0.001). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, gender, and education level (odds ratio (OR) 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07–4.14). Latinos were more likely to agree that government was responsible for addressing childhood obesity compared to Whites (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.82–4.35). Higher support for policy interventions was observed among individuals who perceived childhood obesity as a big problem compared to those who did not, independent of race, sex, age, or education level. The relationship between support for tax-based policies and perception of the childhood obesity problem was mainly evident among Latinos rather than Whites. Despite city-wide efforts to address obesity, differential penetration in community subgroups appears evident. There is room to further engage Latinos in the cause of obesity. Deepening community awareness about the consequences and complexity of childhood obesity can lead to stronger support for childhood obesity policy interventions. PMID:25045532

  2. Perception of childhood obesity and support for prevention policies among Latinos and Whites.

    PubMed

    Puricelli Perin, Douglas M; Frerichs, Leah; Costa, Sergio; Ramirez, Amelie G; Huang, Terry T-K

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was administered to Latino and White residents of Omaha, NE, to assess perception of the childhood obesity problem, attribution of responsibility, and support for obesity-related policies. The sample included 40.8% (n = 271) Latinos and 59.2% (n = 393) Whites. Among Latinos, 25% did not see childhood obesity as a problem, compared to 6% of Whites (P < 0.001). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, gender, and education level (odds ratio (OR) 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-4.14). Latinos were more likely to agree that government was responsible for addressing childhood obesity compared to Whites (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.82-4.35). Higher support for policy interventions was observed among individuals who perceived childhood obesity as a big problem compared to those who did not, independent of race, sex, age, or education level. The relationship between support for tax-based policies and perception of the childhood obesity problem was mainly evident among Latinos rather than Whites. Despite city-wide efforts to address obesity, differential penetration in community subgroups appears evident. There is room to further engage Latinos in the cause of obesity. Deepening community awareness about the consequences and complexity of childhood obesity can lead to stronger support for childhood obesity policy interventions.

  3. [Childhood obesity: definition, consequences, and prevalence].

    PubMed

    Chiolero, A; Lasserre, A M; Paccaud, F; Bovet, P

    2007-05-16

    Since the 1980s, an epidemic of obesity is occurring worldwide among adults and children. The body mass index (BMI) is useful to determine whether a child is overweight or obese because BMI relates strongly to body fat mass. However, contrary to adults, BMI changes with sex and age in children. Sex- and age-specific norms for BMI of the International obesity task force (IOTF) are now widely used. Approximately 15-20% of schoolchildren in Switzerland are currently overweight (or obese) and 2-5% are obese. Obesity is a major public health challenge. It is associated with numerous short and long term health hazards (in particular cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, e.g. diabetes) and it tracks form childhood throughout adulthood. This emphasizes the need for programs and polices aimed at preventing paediatric obesity.

  4. Etiology, Treatment and Prevention of Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence: A Decade in Review

    PubMed Central

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: 1) current definitions of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity; 2) demography of childhood and adolescent obesity both in the US and globally; 3) current topics in the physiology of fat and obesity; 4) psychosocial correlates of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity; 5) the three major obesity-related behaviors, i.e. dietary intake, physical activity and sleep; 6) genes components of childhood and adolescent obesity; 7) environment and childhood and adolescent obesity; and 8) progress in interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity. The article concludes with recommendations for future research, including the need for large-scale, high dose and long-term interventions that take into account the complex nature of the problem. PMID:21625328

  5. Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Updated:Aug 17, ... you boost your odds in the battle against childhood obesity. Studies have shown that children whose families eat ...

  6. Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caregivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caretakers Updated:Aug 27, ... gradually. Healthier Kids • Healthier Kids Home • Our Programs • Childhood Obesity Introduction Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is ...

  7. The role of parents in preventing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ana C; Sussner, Katarina M; Kim, Juhee; Gortmaker, Steven

    2006-01-01

    As researchers continue to analyze the role of parenting both in the development of childhood overweight and in obesity prevention, studies of child nutrition and growth are detailing the ways in which parents affect their children's development of food- and activity-related behaviors. Ana Lindsay, Katarina Sussner, Juhee Kim, and Steven Gortmaker argue that interventions aimed at preventing childhood overweight and obesity should involve parents as important forces for change in their children's behaviors. The authors begin by reviewing evidence on how parents can help their children develop and maintain healthful eating and physical activity habits, thereby ultimately helping prevent childhood overweight and obesity. They show how important it is for parents to understand how their roles in preventing obesity change as their children move through critical developmental periods, from before birth and through adolescence. They point out that researchers, policymakers, and practitioners should also make use of such information to develop more effective interventions and educational programs that address childhood obesity right where it starts-at home. The authors review research evaluating school-based obesity-prevention interventions that include components targeted at parents. Although much research has been done on how parents shape their children's eating and physical activity habits, surprisingly few high-quality data exist on the effectiveness of such programs. The authors call for more programs and cost-effectiveness studies aimed at improving parents' ability to shape healthful eating and physical activity behaviors in their children. The authors conclude that preventing and controlling childhood obesity will require multifaceted and community-wide programs and policies, with parents having a critical role to play. Successful intervention efforts, they argue, must involve and work directly with parents from the earliest stages of child development to support

  8. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  9. Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Danese, A; Tan, M

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a prevalent global-health problem associated with substantial morbidity, impairment and economic burden. Because most readily available forms of treatment are ineffective in the long term, it is essential to advance knowledge of obesity prevention by identifying potentially modifiable risk factors. Findings from experimental studies in non-human primates suggest that adverse childhood experiences may influence obesity risk. However, observations from human studies showed heterogeneous results. To address these inconsistencies, we performed Medline, PsycInfo and Embase searches till 1 August 2012 for articles examining the association between childhood maltreatment and obesity. We then conducted a meta-analysis of the identified studies and explored the effects of various possible sources of bias. A meta-analysis of 41 studies (190 285 participants) revealed that childhood maltreatment was associated with elevated risk of developing obesity over the life-course (odds ratio=1.36; 95% confidence interval=1.26-1.47). Results were not explained by publication bias or undue influence of individual studies. Overall, results were not significantly affected by the measures or definitions used for maltreatment or obesity, nor by confounding by childhood or adult socioeconomic status, current smoking, alcohol intake or physical activity. However, the association was not statistically significant in studies of children and adolescents, focusing on emotional neglect, or adjusting for current depression. Furthermore, the association was stronger in samples including more women and whites, but was not influenced by study quality. Child maltreatment is a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity. Future research should clarify the mechanisms through which child maltreatment affects obesity risk and explore methods to remediate this effect.

  10. Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Danese, A; Tan, M

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a prevalent global-health problem associated with substantial morbidity, impairment and economic burden. Because most readily available forms of treatment are ineffective in the long term, it is essential to advance knowledge of obesity prevention by identifying potentially modifiable risk factors. Findings from experimental studies in non-human primates suggest that adverse childhood experiences may influence obesity risk. However, observations from human studies showed heterogeneous results. To address these inconsistencies, we performed Medline, PsycInfo and Embase searches till 1 August 2012 for articles examining the association between childhood maltreatment and obesity. We then conducted a meta-analysis of the identified studies and explored the effects of various possible sources of bias. A meta-analysis of 41 studies (190 285 participants) revealed that childhood maltreatment was associated with elevated risk of developing obesity over the life-course (odds ratio=1.36; 95% confidence interval=1.26-1.47). Results were not explained by publication bias or undue influence of individual studies. Overall, results were not significantly affected by the measures or definitions used for maltreatment or obesity, nor by confounding by childhood or adult socioeconomic status, current smoking, alcohol intake or physical activity. However, the association was not statistically significant in studies of children and adolescents, focusing on emotional neglect, or adjusting for current depression. Furthermore, the association was stronger in samples including more women and whites, but was not influenced by study quality. Child maltreatment is a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity. Future research should clarify the mechanisms through which child maltreatment affects obesity risk and explore methods to remediate this effect. PMID:23689533

  11. 76 FR 55205 - National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... children. I urge all Americans to help us meet our goal of solving the problem of childhood obesity within... September 6, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8702--National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2011... August 31, 2011 National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States...

  12. Childhood obesity: contributing factors, consequences and intervention.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Ahmad, Rozali

    2004-03-01

    Childhood obesity has been growing at an alarming rate and is the most common nutritional problem among children in developed as well as in developing countries. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine and psychosocial morbidities. This unhealthy trend will progress to adulthood and is expected to lead to huge economic costs in health and social security systems. Among the many factors which contribute to the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity include environment and genetic factors. This paper discusses the aetiology, consequences and necessary interventions for this problem.

  13. Childhood Obesity and the Right to Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the committee on the CRC), the Special Rapporteur on the right to health, and the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights. It suggests how their engagement might be strengthened. It concludes that the final report of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity could provide the committee on the CRC with a more systematic basis for advising and assessing preventive measures taken by states. Moreover, while the interim report envisages a central role for states in childhood obesity prevention, it pays inadequate attention to their obligations under international human rights law. It is hoped that this will be remedied in the final report through the adoption of a child-centered approach inspired by the rights to health and play, and the general principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). PMID:27781014

  14. [WHAT IS THE RISK FOR CHILDHOOD OBESITY?].

    PubMed

    Nicolino, Marc; Villanueva, Cahine

    2015-12-01

    The complications of obesity may be observed during childhood. They include multiple and varied anomalies that are found in all major organ systems. These abnormalities occur in the more or less long term. In this context, the question of the impact of early development of obesity on overall health status and mortality is asked. The most frequent comorbidities are described and the different clinical and para-clinical indicators that allow to detect them.

  15. Global metabolomic profiling targeting childhood obesity in the Hispanic population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolomics may unravel important biological pathways involved in the pathophysiology of childhood obesity. We aimed to 1) identify metabolites that differ significantly between nonobese and obese Hispanic children; 2) collapse metabolites into principal components (PCs) associated with obesity and...

  16. Obesity and Metabolic Disease After Childhood Cancer.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Dana; Raghunathan, Nirupa; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Tonorezos, Emily S

    2015-11-01

    As care for the childhood cancer patient has improved significantly, there is an increasing incidence of treatment-related late effects. Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are common and significant metabolic conditions in some populations of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Results from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and other large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors reveal that long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and those who received total body irradiation or abdominal radiotherapy are at highest risk. The potential mechanisms for the observed increase in risk, including alterations in leptin and adiponectin, pancreatic insufficiency, poor dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle, and perhaps changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, are reviewed. Discussion of exercise and diet intervention studies shows that further research about the barriers to a healthy lifestyle and other interventions in childhood cancer survivors is warranted.

  17. Research opportunities with curanderos to address childhood overweight in Latino families.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lauren; Bunik, Maya; Johnson, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Curanderos are consulted as an adjunct or alternative to biomedical health care in the greater southwest, although the extent of their involvement in obesity prevention and treatment is poorly understood. Seven curanderos participated in audiotaped interviews about their work with families and beliefs about childhood feeding and overweight. Themes reflected curanderos' beliefs about their practice and childhood obesity. Curanderos approach their work as a calling, emphasizing elements from nature in etiology and cure. From the curandero's standpoint, essential elements of obesity management must acknowledge the socially marginalized experiences of Latinos. We encountered working with curanderos as problematic, and this likely reflected our differing personal characteristics and a tension between our healing professions. Curanderos could serve as collaborators in childhood obesity interventions if we craft health messages and delivery modes that resonate with Latino families and address ethical and communication issues on the research team. PMID:19933354

  18. An integrative review of Canadian childhood obesity prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Conroy, S; Ellis, R; Murray, C; Chaw-Kant, J

    2007-01-01

    To examine successful Canadian nursing and health promotion intervention programmes for childhood obesity prevention during gestation and infancy, an integrative review was performed of the literature from 1980 to September 2005. The following databases were used: PubMed; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Cochrane Controlled Trials Register; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; ACP Journal Club; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; Scopus; Sociological Abstracts; Sport Discus; PsycInfo; ERIC and HealthStar. MeSH headings included: infancy (0-24 months), gestation, gestational diabetes, nutrition, prenatal care, pregnancy, health education, pregnancy outcome, dietary services with limits of Canadian, term birth. Of 2028 articles found, six Canadian childhood obesity prevention programmes implemented during gestation and/or infancy were found; three addressed gestational diabetes with five targeting low-income Canadian urban and/or Aboriginal populations. No intervention programmes specifically aimed to prevent childhood obesity during gestation or infancy. This paucity suggests that such a programme would be innovative and much needed in an effort to stem the alarming increase in obesity in children and adults. Any attempts either to develop new approaches or to replicate interventions used with obese adults or even older children need careful evaluation and pilot testing prior to sustained use within the perinatal period.

  19. Violence from parents in childhood and obesity in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2009-01-01

    Guided by a life course perspective and concepts from models of stress and coping, this study tested the extent to which self-reported profiles of physical and psychological violence in childhood from parents were associated with greater odds of obesity in adulthood. This study also examined the extent to which adults’ greater use of food in response to stress served as a mediator of potential associations of risk. Multivariate regression models were estimated using data from 1650 respondents in the 1995–2005 National Survey of Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS). Results indicated that respondents who reported having experienced both psychological and physical violence from parents—with at least one type of violence having reportedly occurred frequently—were more likely to be classified as obese in contrast to respondents who reported never having experienced either type of violence from parents. Evidence from a sequence of models that tested mediation effects indicated that greater use of food in response to stress among respondents with problematic histories of violence explained, in part, their higher risk of adult obesity. Findings contribute to the growing body of evidence regarding psychosocial predictors of obesity, as well as the physical health consequences of childhood family violence. Results further suggest the importance of addressing particular aspects of life course social relationships—such as violence in childhood from parents—and their implications for psycho-behavioral uses of food within efforts to reduce rates of adult obesity. PMID:19185965

  20. Postpartum Obesity: The Root Problem of Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, Valencia Browning; Potts, Claudia Sealey

    2011-01-01

    Remedying childhood obesity cannot take place without first identifying relevant issues commonly influencing gatekeepers of food for children as well as the role modeling for encouraging or discouraging daily activities. Children cannot drive to the store, form grocery lists or complete menu management tasks without adult assistance. Excessive…

  1. Ethnic issues in the epidemiology of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Crawford, P B; Story, M; Wang, M C; Ritchie, L D; Sabry, Z I

    2001-08-01

    overweight on subsequent risk for obesity in middle age are not known until future longitudinal data can be collected. It seems likely, however, that future health consequences of current early and severe childhood obesity will be staggering. Funding for adult follow-up of longitudinal studies of high-risk African American, Hispanic, and Native-American children is needed urgently to provide information on the long-term effects of childhood obesity. Halting the obesity epidemic is a formidable task, but the success in recent decades of drastically reducing childhood undernutrition offers hope and should spur similar action and leadership efforts. Promotion of efforts to reduce excess caloric intake with efforts to increase energy expenditure should receive paramount attention in the design of health programs. Given the relatively few published obesity-prevention and treatment studies that are designed to address specific cultural issues, it is important to promote the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that are shown to be effective among youth of diverse backgrounds. Although the dietary and activity goals will be similar, parental, family, and community messages and techniques grounded in cultural traditions and norms will be different for each ethnic group. This approach is crucial in the United States, a country with an increasingly diverse population. PMID:11494640

  2. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  3. Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD): Evaluation plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project evaluation will determine the extent to which the CORD model of linking primary care (PC) interventions to public health (PH) interventions in multiple community sectors affects BMI and behavior in children (2 to 12 years). The evaluation c...

  4. Pediatric obesity: preventive measures in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Lake, Alan M

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the factors contributing to early childhood obesity and the options for recognition and early intervention. The role for developing preschool wellness programs that incorporate nutrition education and physical activity is presented with a model under development in the state of Maryland.

  5. Childhood Obesity: Review of a growing Problem

    PubMed Central

    Shivpuri, Abhay; Sharma, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The consequences of obesity in adulthood are well known. Obesity has a direct influence on mortality and acts as a risk factor for various diseases and health problems. It is associated with nonfatal but debilitating illnesses, such as respiratory difficulties, musculoskeletal disorders, skin problems and infertility. The association with fatal chronic diseases includes cardiovascular diseases, conditions related to insulin resistance and noninsulin-dependent diabetes. There has been a marked increase in the number of obese children coming for treatment to dentists, thus it is the moral responsibility of the dentists to educate both the patient and the parents of the problems of obesity and its control. A dentist may actually be the first person to inform the patient about this problem thus, a basic knowledge about it is important. How to cite this article: Shivpuri A, Shivpuri A, Sharma S. Childhood Obesity: Review of a growing Problem. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):237-241. PMID:25206177

  6. Disorders of childhood growth and development: childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Robert; Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity in the United States is estimated at 17%, or 12 million children ages 2 to 19 years. Obesity is a multifactorial condition with syndromic and nonsyndromic variants. Genetic, social, ethnic, endocrinologic, and behavioral issues are all potential etiologic factors. Preventive efforts should begin with monitoring from birth and include breastfeeding until age 6 months, avoiding juices, and promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and adequate exercise. Childhood obesity is diagnosed based on body mass index; a child is considered overweight at the 85th to 95th percentiles and obese at or above the 95th percentile. After obesity is diagnosed, testing should include blood pressure levels, fasting lipid profile, diabetes screening, and liver function tests. The physician should obtain a detailed history of the physical activity level and food intake and assess possible complications of obesity, including depression and hypertension, annually. Lifestyle interventions with family involvement are the mainstay of management, with pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery considered for adolescents only if intensive lifestyle modifications have failed and in the presence of comorbidities. Intervention by multiple disciplines (ie, medicine, nutrition, psychology) is recommended, and family physicians are encouraged to become more involved in encouraging physical activity and improved nutrition for children. PMID:23869391

  7. Disorders of childhood growth and development: childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Robert; Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity in the United States is estimated at 17%, or 12 million children ages 2 to 19 years. Obesity is a multifactorial condition with syndromic and nonsyndromic variants. Genetic, social, ethnic, endocrinologic, and behavioral issues are all potential etiologic factors. Preventive efforts should begin with monitoring from birth and include breastfeeding until age 6 months, avoiding juices, and promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and adequate exercise. Childhood obesity is diagnosed based on body mass index; a child is considered overweight at the 85th to 95th percentiles and obese at or above the 95th percentile. After obesity is diagnosed, testing should include blood pressure levels, fasting lipid profile, diabetes screening, and liver function tests. The physician should obtain a detailed history of the physical activity level and food intake and assess possible complications of obesity, including depression and hypertension, annually. Lifestyle interventions with family involvement are the mainstay of management, with pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery considered for adolescents only if intensive lifestyle modifications have failed and in the presence of comorbidities. Intervention by multiple disciplines (ie, medicine, nutrition, psychology) is recommended, and family physicians are encouraged to become more involved in encouraging physical activity and improved nutrition for children.

  8. Stop Subsidizing Childhood Obesity Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. DeLauro, Rosa L. [D-CT-3

    2016-05-13

    09/19/2016 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Analyzing Screening Policies for Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Wein, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the health and economic costs of childhood obesity, coupled with studies suggesting the benefits of comprehensive (dietary, physical activity and behavioral counseling) intervention, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended childhood screening and intervention for obesity beginning at age six. Using a longitudinal data set consisting of the body mass index of 3164 children up to age 18 and another longitudinal data set containing the body mass index at ages 18 and 40 and the presence or absence of disease (hypertension and diabetes) at age 40 for 747 people, we formulate and numerically solve – separately for boys and girls – a dynamic programming problem for the optimal biennial (i.e., at ages 2, 4, …, 16) obesity screening thresholds. Unlike most screening problem formulations, we take a societal viewpoint, where the state of the system at each age is the population-wide probability density function of the body mass index. Compared to the biennial version of the task force’s recommendation, the screening thresholds derived from the dynamic program achieve a relative reduction in disease prevalence of 3% at the same screening (and treatment) cost, or – due to the flatness of the disease vs. screening tradeoff curve – achieves the same disease prevalence at a 28% relative reduction in cost. Compared to the task force’s policy, which uses the 95th percentile of body mass index (from cross-sectional growth charts tabulated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) as the screening threshold for each age, the dynamic programming policy treats mostly 16 year olds (including many who are not obese) and very few males under 14 years old. While our results suggest that adult hypertension and diabetes are minimized by focusing childhood obesity screening and treatment on older adolescents, the shortcomings in the available data and the narrowness of the medical outcomes considered prevent us from making a

  10. Childhood obesity: Current and novel approaches.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Matthew A; Kiess, Wieland

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over the last fifty years by approximately 5% per decade, and approximately a quarter of all children are now either overweight or obese. These children have a significantly increased risk of many future health problems including adult obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Despite this relentless increase, common-sense approaches aimed at prevention and treatment have failed to solve the problem. Current approaches at prevention have faced major challenges with some progress in implementing smaller scale programs and social marketing, but little action on broad public policy approaches which often appears unpalatable to society or individual governments. Meanwhile, treatment approaches have mainly focused on lifestyle change, and novel approaches are urgently needed. Prevention needs to shift to improving maternal health prior to conception, with more research focussed on the impact of early years in programming offspring to future overweight/obesity. Likewise, treatment paradigms need to move from simply thinking that obesity can be solved by readdressing diet and activity levels. Novel approaches are needed which take into consideration the complex physiology which regulates early childhood growth and the development of obesity in susceptible individuals. PMID:26051294

  11. Systems Science and Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review and New Directions

    PubMed Central

    Foster, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    As a public health problem, childhood obesity operates at multiple levels, ranging from individual health behaviors to school and community characteristics to public policies. Examining obesity, particularly childhood obesity, from any single perspective is likely to fail, and systems science methods offer a possible solution. We systematically reviewed studies that examined the causes and/or consequences of obesity from a systems science perspective. The 21 included studies addressed four general areas of systems science in obesity: (1) translating interventions to a large scale, (2) the effect of obesity on other health or economic outcomes, (3) the effect of geography on obesity, and (4) the effect of social networks on obesity. In general, little research addresses obesity from a true, integrated systems science perspective, and the available research infrequently focuses on children. This shortcoming limits the ability of that research to inform public policy. However, we believe that the largely incremental approaches used in current systems science lay a foundation for future work and present a model demonstrating the system of childhood obesity. Systems science perspective and related methods are particularly promising in understanding the link between childhood obesity and adult outcomes. Systems models emphasize the evolution of agents and their interactions; such evolution is particularly salient in the context of a developing child. PMID:23710344

  12. [Health hazards in childhood obesity: Evidence based on Chinese population].

    PubMed

    Ye, Peiyu; Chen, Fangfang; Mi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a critical issue in public health area. We searched Wanfang Data and PubMed databases for published studies on health hazards of childhood obesity in China during 2000-2015. From the evidence of the Chinese population studies, we know childhood obesity brings not only cardiovascular, endocrine and respiratory system health hazards, but also other health hazards to liver, moving skeleton, psychological behavior and cognition intelligence, et al. Only to understand the health hazards of childhood obesity, and put the key preventable period of chronic diseases forward to childhood, can pandemic of chronic diseases be controlled from the sources.

  13. The Role of Urbanization in Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Pirgon, Özgür; Aslan, Nagehan

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is becoming the most frequently diagnosed chronic disease in many countries affecting all age groups and specifically the pediatric population. To date, most approaches have focused on changing the behavior of individuals with respect to diet and exercise. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may be achieved by changes in lifestyle through a variety of interventions targeting the urban environment, physical activity, time spent watching television and playing computer games and consumption of carbonated drinks. However, as yet, these strategies seem to have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. In this article, we aimed to discuss the effect of rapid urbanization on childhood obesity and to suggest solutions to this problem. PMID:26831548

  14. Childhood obesity and adult morbidities1234

    PubMed Central

    Wien, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased in recent years, likely the result of complex interactions between genes, dietary intake, physical activity, and the environment. The expression of genes favoring the storage of excess calories as fat, which have been selected for over many millennia and are relatively static, has become maladaptive in a rapidly changing environment that minimizes opportunities for energy expenditure and maximizes opportunities for energy intake. The consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity include earlier puberty and menarche in girls, type 2 diabetes and increased incidence of the metabolic syndrome in youth and adults, and obesity in adulthood. These changes are associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with several cancers in adults, likely through insulin resistance and production of inflammatory cytokines. Although concerns have arisen regarding environmental exposures, there have been no formal expert recommendations. Currently, the most important factors underlying the obesity epidemic are the current opportunities for energy intake coupled with limited energy expenditure. PMID:20335542

  15. The Role of Urbanization in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pirgon, Özgür; Aslan, Nagehan

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is becoming the most frequently diagnosed chronic disease in many countries affecting all age groups and specifically the pediatric population. To date, most approaches have focused on changing the behavior of individuals with respect to diet and exercise. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may be achieved by changes in lifestyle through a variety of interventions targeting the urban environment, physical activity, time spent watching television and playing computer games and consumption of carbonated drinks. However, as yet, these strategies seem to have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. In this article, we aimed to discuss the effect of rapid urbanization on childhood obesity and to suggest solutions to this problem. PMID:26831548

  16. Prevention: The First Line of Defense against Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milano, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become an alarming problem in this country. Risk factors associated with childhood obesity include having obese parents, a history of low or high birth weight, Black or Hispanic ethnicity, and low socioeconomic background. Although most healthy American infants and toddlers have adequate diets, many parents and health…

  17. 3 CFR - Establishing a Task Force on Childhood Obesity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., childhood obesity has reached epidemic rates and, as a result, our children may live shorter lives than... the problem of childhood obesity within a generation so that children born today will reach adulthood... problem of obesity among our Nation's children within a generation. The Assistant to the President...

  18. Childhood obesity: a role for gut microbiota?

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marina; Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

    2014-12-23

    Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  19. Childhood Obesity: A Heavy Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.; Leggett, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The youth of today are faced with a big problem; they are becoming more obese every day. The time of children playing outside all day and being extremely active has been overtaken by the television and video games. The days of sitting down as a family and eating a good healthy meal has been replaced by the rush to the nearest fast food…

  20. Childhood Obesity: Problems and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Staveren, Tonia; Dale, Darren

    2004-01-01

    Schools and homes both play a role in contributing to the rising numbers of obese children. School teachers and administrators must do all they can to create a school environment that is conducive to children maintaining a healthy weight. Legislation designed to add quality physical education time to the school curriculum is imperative. Changes to…

  1. Treating Obesity As a Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  2. Obesity in Infants to Preschoolers

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  3. [Focus of childhood obesity from pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-López, Erika F; Macías-Rosales, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    The prevalences of overweight and obesity have increased dramatically in the last two decades in the adult and children population. The Organization for Cooperation and Economic Development reported in 2010 that Mexico ranks first worldwide in childhood obesity. The 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey reported that one of every three teenagers are overweight and obese. In the last decades, pediatric hospitals in different parts of the world reported the prevalence of secondary malnutrition, since in those days overweight and obesity did not represent health problems. Currently, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been scarcely studied in pediatric hospitals. In the Hospital de Pediatría (Children's Hospital) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social's Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente it is reported a prevalence of overweight of 15.4 % and obesity of 12.2 %, which reflects a nutritional transition.Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in this pediatric hospital of reference, one could conclude that the pediatrician should be able to make a correct evaluation of the nutritional state, because, if he does not detect these problems, we will be condemning children to suffer from a chronic disease for the rest of their lives, and with all the implications in the short, medium and long term.

  4. Childhood Obesity: Immune Response and Nutritional Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is characterized by a low-grade inflammation status depending on the multicellular release of cytokines, adipokines, and reactive oxygen species. In particular, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory T regulatory cells and inflammatory T helper 17 cells seems to sustain such a phlogistic condition. Alterations of gut microbiota since childhood also contribute to the maintenance of inflammation. Therefore, besides preventive measures and caloric restrictions, dietary intake of natural products endowed with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may represent a valid interventional approach for preventing and/or attenuating the pathological consequences of obesity. In this regard, the use of prebiotics, probiotics, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and melatonin in human clinical trials will be described. PMID:25759691

  5. Implementing 12345 Fit-Tastic: A Tool for Combating Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Wade, Kerri; Summar, Shelly; Dewit, Emily

    2016-03-01

    Childhood obesity is epidemic in the United States. School nurses are in a unique position to address weight with the students they serve. This article provides tools for school nurses to be able to conduct an obesity screening, demonstrate the basic skills of motivational interviewing in treatment of obesity in a school age child, and utilize the 12345 Fit-Tastic program in their practice. This article is the seventh and final article in a series on the topic of childhood obesity and the accompanying comorbidities. PMID:26822132

  6. Impact of Social Marketing in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity123

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, mainly childhood obesity, is a worldwide concern. Childhood obesity continues to adulthood, and it is associated with multiple noncommunicable diseases. One important aspect in the fight against obesity is prevention, the earlier, the better. Social marketing is a novel concept being increasingly used as an approach to address social problems and more and more included in the community-based interventions aiming to change unhealthy behaviors. Although there is limited evidence of its effectiveness, it seems that when conscientiously applied, social marketing principles may be useful to change behaviors and thus better health outcomes. PMID:22798001

  7. Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

    2010-05-01

    The increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is not unique to industrialized societies; dramatic increases are occurring in urbanized areas of developing countries. In light of the consensus that obesity is a significant public health concern and that many weight-loss interventions have been unsuccessful in the long term, an exploration of food patterns that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity. Epidemiologic studies indicate that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower prevalence of obesity in adults and children. A meta-analysis of adult vegetarian diet studies estimated a reduced weight difference of 7.6 kg for men and 3.3 kg for women, which resulted in a 2-point lower BMI (in kg/m(2)). Similarly, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarian children are leaner, and their BMI difference becomes greater during adolescence. Studies exploring the risk of overweight and food groups and dietary patterns indicate that a plant-based diet seems to be a sensible approach for the prevention of obesity in children. Plant-based diets are low in energy density and high in complex carbohydrate, fiber, and water, which may increase satiety and resting energy expenditure. Plant-based dietary patterns should be encouraged for optimal health and environmental benefits. Food policies are warranted to support social marketing messages and to reduce the cultural and economic forces that make it difficult to promote plant-based dietary patterns.

  8. Evaluation of a childhood obesity awareness campaign targeting head start families: designed by parents for parents.

    PubMed

    GreenMills, Lisa L; Davison, Kirsten K; Gordon, Karen E; Li, Kaigang; Jurkowski, Janine M

    2013-01-01

    The Communities for Healthy Living program used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to empower Head Start parents in designing and pilot testing a multi-component family-centered obesity prevention program. One program component was a childhood obesity awareness campaign addressing common parental misconceptions about obesity. The campaign was designed by a community advisory board of parents to target specific issues identified within their own community. Results from pre-post intervention surveys (N=108) showed that campaign exposure was high; 92% of responding parents reported noticing the campaign. Parents also demonstrated significant increases in awareness of childhood obesity, along with decreases in obesity-related misconceptions. Findings, supported by growing literature on CBPR, suggest a CBPR approach to campaign development is an effective strategy to promote parent awareness of childhood obesity. PMID:23727962

  9. Ecological influences of early childhood obesity: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Boonpleng, Wannaporn; Park, Chang Gi; Gallo, Agatha M; Corte, Colleen; McCreary, Linda; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to determine the contributing factors for early childhood overweight/obesity within the contexts of the child's home, school, and community, and to determine how much each of the ecological contexts contributes to childhood overweight/obesity. The framework was developed from Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Data for 2,100 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, were used in a series of multilevel modeling analyses. There was significant variation in childhood overweight/obesity by school and community. The majority of variation in childhood overweight/obesity was explained by the child and family factors in addition to school and community factors. Explained variance of childhood overweight/obesity at the school level was 27% and at the community level, 2%. The variance composition at children's family level alone was 71%. Therefore, overweight/obesity prevention efforts should focus primarily on child, family, and school factors and then community factors, to be more effective.

  10. Accelerating efforts to prevent childhood obesity: spreading, scaling, and sustaining healthy eating and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Debbie I; Gertel-Rosenberg, Allison; Snyder, Kim

    2014-12-01

    During the past decade, progress has been made in addressing childhood obesity through policy and practice changes that encourage increased physical activity and access to healthy food. With the implementation of these strategies, an understanding of what works to prevent childhood obesity is beginning to emerge. The task now is to consider how best to spread, scale, and sustain promising childhood obesity prevention strategies. In this article we examine a project led by Nemours, a children's health system, to address childhood obesity. We describe Nemours's conceptual approach to spreading, scaling, and sustaining a childhood obesity prevention intervention. We review a component of a Nemours initiative in Delaware that focused on early care and education settings and its expansion to other states through the National Early Care and Education Learning Collaborative to prevent childhood obesity. We also discuss lessons learned. Focusing on the spreading, scaling, and sustaining of promising strategies has the potential to increase the reach and impact of efforts in obesity prevention and help ensure their impact on population health.

  11. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) than the European (20–30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10–20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity–SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639

  12. News media framing of childhood obesity in the United States from 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Barry, Colleen L; Jarlenski, Marian; Grob, Rachel; Schlesinger, Mark; Gollust, Sarah E

    2011-07-01

    The American public holds mixed views about the desirability of government action to combat childhood obesity. The framing of coverage by news media may affect citizens' views about the causes of childhood obesity and the most appropriate strategies for addressing the problem. We analyzed the content of a 20% random sample of news stories on childhood obesity published in 18 national and regional news sources in the United States over a 10-year period (2000-2009). News media coverage patterns indicated that by 2003, childhood obesity was firmly on the news media's agenda and remained so until 2007, after which coverage decreased. We identified changes in news media framing over time and significant differences according to news source. News coverage of causes of childhood obesity that were linked to the food and beverage industry increased in the early years of the study but then decreased markedly in later years. Similarly, mention of solutions to the problem of childhood obesity that involved restrictions on the food and beverage industry followed a reverse U-shaped pattern over the 10-year study period. News stories consistently mentioned individual behavioral changes most often as a solution to the problem of childhood obesity. Television news was more likely than other news sources to focus on behavior change as a solution, whereas newspapers were more likely to identify system-level solutions such as changes that would affect neighborhoods, schools, and the food and beverage industry. PMID:21690111

  13. News media framing of childhood obesity in the United States from 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Barry, Colleen L; Jarlenski, Marian; Grob, Rachel; Schlesinger, Mark; Gollust, Sarah E

    2011-07-01

    The American public holds mixed views about the desirability of government action to combat childhood obesity. The framing of coverage by news media may affect citizens' views about the causes of childhood obesity and the most appropriate strategies for addressing the problem. We analyzed the content of a 20% random sample of news stories on childhood obesity published in 18 national and regional news sources in the United States over a 10-year period (2000-2009). News media coverage patterns indicated that by 2003, childhood obesity was firmly on the news media's agenda and remained so until 2007, after which coverage decreased. We identified changes in news media framing over time and significant differences according to news source. News coverage of causes of childhood obesity that were linked to the food and beverage industry increased in the early years of the study but then decreased markedly in later years. Similarly, mention of solutions to the problem of childhood obesity that involved restrictions on the food and beverage industry followed a reverse U-shaped pattern over the 10-year study period. News stories consistently mentioned individual behavioral changes most often as a solution to the problem of childhood obesity. Television news was more likely than other news sources to focus on behavior change as a solution, whereas newspapers were more likely to identify system-level solutions such as changes that would affect neighborhoods, schools, and the food and beverage industry.

  14. Childhood obesity: a life-long health risk.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Childhood obesity has become major health concern for physicians, parents, and health agencies around the world. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for other diseases not only during youth but also later in life, including diabetes, arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, and fatty liver disease. Importantly, obesity accelerates atherosclerosis progression already in children and young adults. With regard to pathophysiological changes in the vasculature, the striking similarities between physiological changes related to aging and obesity-related abnormalities are compatible with the concept that obesity causes "premature" vascular aging. This article reviews factors underlying the accelerated vascular disease development due to obesity. It also highlights the importance of recognizing childhood obesity as a disease condition and its permissive role in aggravating the development of other diseases. The importance of childhood obesity for disease susceptibility later in life, and the need for prevention and treatment are also discussed.

  15. Views of City, County, and State Policy Makers About Childhood Obesity in New York State, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Rebecca; Lundell, Helen; Meyerson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction No single solution exists to reduce rates of childhood obesity in the United States, but public policy action is essential. A greater understanding of policy maker views on childhood obesity would provide insight into ways that public health advocates can overcome barriers to propose, enact, and implement obesity prevention policies. Methods We conducted 48 in-depth, qualitative interviews with town/city, county, and state policy makers in the state of New York from December 14, 2010, through June 10, 2011. We used a semistructured interview protocol to solicit policy maker views on the causes of, solutions to, and responsibility for addressing the issue of childhood obesity. Results Most policy makers considered the issue of childhood obesity to be of high importance. Respondents cited changes to family structures as a major cause of childhood obesity, followed by changes in the external environment and among children themselves. Respondents offered varied solutions for childhood obesity, with the most common type of solution being outside of the respondent’s sphere of policy influence. Policy makers cited the need for joint responsibility among parents, government, schools, and the food industry to address childhood obesity. Conclusion Beliefs of many policy makers about childhood obesity are similar to those of the general public. Findings highlight the need for future research to inform the development of communication strategies to promote policy action among those with authority to pass and implement it. PMID:24262027

  16. Childhood Obesity – 2010: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joan C.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kimm, Sue Y.S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly over the past 3 decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from this, the elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us only limited lessons on how to prevent or reverse obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need to be re-assessed and better quantified, on a population level, given the more sedentary life of children today. For individual treatment, the currently recommended calorie prescriptions may be too conservative given the evolving insight on the “energy gap.” Whilst quality of research in both prevention and treatment has improved, there is still a need for high-quality multi-centre trials with long-term follow-up. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches that aim to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake need to continue. Most recently, the spiralling increase in obesity prevalence may be abating for children. Thus, even greater efforts need to be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244

  17. Interculturalism: Addressing Diversity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponciano, Leslie; Shabazian, Ani

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators work with children and families from a range of diverse backgrounds. As society becomes increasingly multiracial, multilingual, and multicultural, so too grows the need for educators' abilities to support children's development by instilling in them the tools they need to live together respectfully and stand up to…

  18. Childhood obesity-an insight into preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Dube, Rajani; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is now a global problem throughout the world. The major factors affecting weight regulation and the development of obesity in children are the result of a large number of biological, behavioral, social, environmental, and economic factors and the complex interactions between them that promote a positive energy balance. The changes in the dietary habits with the adoption of sedentary life style increases manifold obesity-related diseases and their complications. An obese child later on grows up to become an obese adult. Therefore, the role of primary prevention along with methodical diet control, behavioral changes, and physical activity are the important strategies against the battle of childhood obesity. PMID:25298951

  19. Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project: Cross-site evaluation method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project links public health and primary care interventions in three projects described in detail in accompanying articles in this issue of Childhood Obesity. This article describes a comprehensive evaluation plan to determine the extent to which th...

  20. Childhood Obesity Prevention and Physical Activity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this literature review is to summarise and synthesise the research base concerning childhood obesity and physical activity, particularly in relation to teachers and schools and within a policy context of the UK. The review investigates childhood obesity, physical activity, physical education, the role of teachers, the role of…

  1. Too Much Tube Time? Television Viewing and Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Tiffany M.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2007-01-01

    The rates of overweight in infancy and childhood are rapidly growing. One contributor to the rising tide of childhood obesity, and a target included in many obesity prevention and intervention programs, is television (TV) use. This article examines the amount of media to which young children are exposed, and considers the evidence for the…

  2. [Childhood obesity--assessment, prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Berry, Elliot M; Constantini, Naama W

    2009-12-01

    As in other parts of the western world, the rates of pediatric overweight and obesity are also rising in Israel. This fact warrants immediate action by several government offices and health care providers, and also by the trinity of physician, parent(s) and child. An overweight child is likely to remain undiagnosed if relying on observation alone, unless height and weight are objectively measured by the caring medical staff. This review is based on recommendations on the assessment, prevention, and treatment of children and youth who are overweight and obese, recently published on behalf of the American Medical Association and additional health organizations. In general, preventing and treating pediatric obesity is fairly similar: adhering to a healthy lifestyle which emphasizes healthy food choices and habits, regular physical activity, and limiting screen time. Treating and preventing obesity is a timely, but extremely difficult task. Medical personnel and parents should be continuously educated in this field, while supplied with practical tools for childhood lifestyle modification.

  3. Childhood obesity: a simple equation with complex variables.

    PubMed

    Strock, Gregory A; Cottrell, Erika R; Abang, Anthony E; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Hannon, Tamara S

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is rising rapidly, as are the associated medical complications, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. This has significant medical and socioeconomic implications. The definition of obesity in adults is based on body mass index (BMI), which has been correlated with morbidity and mortality. Similarly, the definition of childhood obesity is currently based on BMI; however, there are currently no data to relate morbidity and mortality to BMI values in children. The known and potential causes of childhood obesity are many, but they can be categorized as genetic, endocrine, prenatal/early life, physical activity, diet, and socioeconomic. These factors influence the basic equation: energy input = energy output. Imbalances in this equation can result in obesity. Here we present a review of recent literature and highlight the etiologies, certain complications, and potential prevention and treatment strategies of childhood obesity.

  4. Predicting adult obesity from childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, M; Llewellyn, A; Owen, C G; Woolacott, N

    2016-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index (BMI) to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Study quality was assessed. Studies were pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis methods. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. BMI was the only measure of obesity reported in any study, with 200,777 participants followed up. Obese children and adolescents were around five times more likely to be obese in adulthood than those who were not obese. Around 55% of obese children go on to be obese in adolescence, around 80% of obese adolescents will still be obese in adulthood and around 70% will be obese over age 30. Therefore, action to reduce and prevent obesity in these adolescents is needed. However, 70% of obese adults were not obese in childhood or adolescence, so targeting obesity reduction solely at obese or overweight children needs to be considered carefully as this may not substantially reduce the overall burden of adult obesity.

  5. Relationship between breastfeeding and obesity in childhood.

    PubMed

    Vafa, Mohammadreza; Moslehi, Nazanin; Afshari, Shirin; Hossini, Aghafatemeh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza

    2012-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the weight status and the relationship of infant-feeding variables, birthweight and birth order with BMI in a group of Iranian children. Five hundred and eleven students of both sexes at the first grade in elementary schools (aged 7 years) were recruited randomly from all 19 educational districts of Tehran. Weights and heights of children and their mothers were measured. Data on breastfeeding (BF), formula-feeding, the timing of introduction of complementary foods (CF), birthweight, and birth order were collected from the mothers. The 2007 WHO reference value was used for determining child's weight status. Regression analysis in single and a 2-level linear regression models was used for examining the independent relationships of infant-feeding variables, birthweight and birth order with childhood BMI. The prevalence of underweight and overweight in this group of children was 7.6% and 19.7%, respectively. Total time of BF and duration of exclusive BF were not associated with childhood BMI. The timing of introduction of CF was inversely related to childhood BMI after controlling for other variables (beta:-0.34; 95% CI:-0.58,-0.10). Children with an early introduction of CF had significantly higher mean BMI (p for linear trend=0.012). Birth order and birthweight were related to childhood BMI significantly. These data suggest that overweight and obesity are nutritional problems among 7 years old Teharani children. The timing of introduction of CF, birth order, and birthweight were independent predictors of childhood BMI. Neither total time of BF nor duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with adiposity in children. PMID:23082632

  6. Exploring Service Providers' Perspectives in Improving Childhood Obesity Prevention among CALD Communities in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cyril, Sheila; Green, Julie; Nicholson, Jan M.; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers’ perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities’ participation in these services. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. Results Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers. Conclusion This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health

  7. The impact of childhood obesity on musculoskeletal form.

    PubMed

    Wearing, S C; Hennig, E M; Byrne, N M; Steele, J R; Hills, A P

    2006-05-01

    Despite the greater prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in obese adults, the consequences of childhood obesity on the development and function of the musculoskeletal system have received comparatively little attention within the literature. Of the limited number of studies performed to date, the majority have focused on the impact of childhood obesity on skeletal structure and alignment, and to a lesser extent its influence on clinical tests of motor performance including muscular strength, balance and locomotion. Although collectively these studies imply that the functional and structural limitations imposed by obesity may result in aberrant lower limb mechanics and the potential for musculoskeletal injury, empirical verification is currently lacking. The delineation of the effects of childhood obesity on musculoskeletal structure in terms of mass, adiposity, anthropometry, metabolic effects and physical inactivity, or their combination, has not been established. More specifically, there is a lack of research regarding the effect of childhood obesity on the properties of connective tissue structures, such as tendons and ligaments. Given the global increase in childhood obesity, there is a need to ascertain the consequences of persistent obesity on musculoskeletal structure and function. A better understanding of the implications of childhood obesity on the development and function of the musculoskeletal system would assist in the provision of more meaningful support in the prevention, treatment and management of the musculoskeletal consequences of the condition.

  8. "Salud America!" Developing a National Latino Childhood Obesity Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J.; Green, Lawrence W.; Ottoson, Judith

    2011-01-01

    U.S. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, with one third of children overweight or obese. Latino children have some of the highest obesity rates, a concern because they are part of the youngest and fastest-growing U.S. minority group. Unfortunately, scarce research data on Latinos hinders the development and implementation of…

  9. 77 FR 55093 - National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8852 of August 31, 2012 National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2012 By... obesity has become a serious public health issue that puts millions of our sons and daughters at risk. The..., heart disease, cancer, and other health problems associated with obesity. Thankfully, while more...

  10. Pharmacotherapy for childhood obesity: present and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Sherafat-Kazemzadeh, Roya; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is a serious medical condition associated with significant comorbidities during childhood and adulthood. Lifestyle modifications are essential for treating children with obesity, yet many have insufficient response to improve health with behavioral approaches alone. This review summarizes the relatively sparse data on pharmacotherapy for pediatric obesity and presents information on obesity medications in development. Most previously studied medications demonstrated, at best, modest effects on body weight and obesity-related conditions. It is to be hoped that the future will bring new drugs targeting specific obesity phenotypes that will allow clinicians to use etiology-specific, and therefore more effective, anti-obesity therapies. PMID:22929210

  11. Lifestyle changes in the management of adulthood and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Orio, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Ascione, Antonio; Marciano, Francesca; Savastano, Silvia; Colarieti, Giorgio; Orio, Marcello; Colao, Annamaria; Palomba, Stefano; Muscogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-12-01

    Adulthood and childhood obesity is rapidly becoming an epidemic problem and it has a short and long-term impact on health. Short-term consequences are mostly represented by psychological effects; in fact obese children have more chances to develop psychological or psychiatric problems than non-obese children. The main long-term effect is represented by the fact that childhood obesity continues into adulthood obesity and this results in negative effects in young adult life, since obesity increases the risk to develop morbidity and premature mortality. The obesity-related diseases are mostly represented by hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases. Medical treatment should be discouraged in childhood because of the side effects and it should be only reserved for obese children with related medical complications. Lifestyle changes should be encouraged in both adulthood and childhood obesity. This review focuses on the management of obesity both in adulthood and in childhood, paying particular attention to lifestyle changes that should be recommended.

  12. Lifestyle changes in the management of adulthood and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Orio, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Ascione, Antonio; Marciano, Francesca; Savastano, Silvia; Colarieti, Giorgio; Orio, Marcello; Colao, Annamaria; Palomba, Stefano; Muscogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-12-01

    Adulthood and childhood obesity is rapidly becoming an epidemic problem and it has a short and long-term impact on health. Short-term consequences are mostly represented by psychological effects; in fact obese children have more chances to develop psychological or psychiatric problems than non-obese children. The main long-term effect is represented by the fact that childhood obesity continues into adulthood obesity and this results in negative effects in young adult life, since obesity increases the risk to develop morbidity and premature mortality. The obesity-related diseases are mostly represented by hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases. Medical treatment should be discouraged in childhood because of the side effects and it should be only reserved for obese children with related medical complications. Lifestyle changes should be encouraged in both adulthood and childhood obesity. This review focuses on the management of obesity both in adulthood and in childhood, paying particular attention to lifestyle changes that should be recommended. PMID:27600645

  13. Perception of Childhood Obesity in Mothers of Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Ok; Kim, Gyo Nam; Park, Euna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology. Methods A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results. Results There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the “authoritative discipline type,” the “generous home meal focused type,” and the “home meal based on household financial situation type.” Conclusion The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity. PMID:25938022

  14. Addressing childhood trauma in a developmental context

    PubMed Central

    Gregorowski, Claire; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    With the anticipated publication of the DSM-5 in May 2013, much reflection and work has been done on reviewing existing psychiatric nomenclature including, but not limited to the field of traumatic exposure. Traditionally, understanding of the psychiatric and psychological effects of trauma have been developed from studies with adults and then applied to trauma-exposed children with some modifications. While this is an important step to understanding the sequelae of trauma in children and adolescents, the adverse developmental effects of traumatic exposures on the rapidly evolving neurological, physical, social and psychological capacities of children calls for a developmentally sensitive framework for understanding, assessing and treating trauma-exposed children. The importance of early attachment relationships in infancy and childhood means that severely disrupted early caregiving relationships may have far-reaching and lifelong developmental consequences and can therefore be considered traumatic. Given the high rates of violence and trauma exposure of South African children and adolescents, the need for a developmentally based understanding of the effects of trauma on child and adolescent mental health becomes even more pronounced. In this paper, we draw on theoretical perspectives to provide a practical, clinically driven approach to the management of developmental trauma. PMID:25104963

  15. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  16. Epidemiology of childhood overweight & obesity in India: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ranjani, Harish; Mehreen, T.S.; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Garg, Renu; Anand, Krishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Childhood obesity is a known precursor to obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. However, the magnitude of the problem among children and adolescents in India is unclear due to paucity of well-conducted nationwide studies and lack of uniformity in the cut-points used to define childhood overweight and obesity. Hence an attempt was made to review the data on trends in childhood overweight and obesity reported from India during 1981 to 2013. Methods: Literature search was done in various scientific public domains from the last three decades using key words such as childhood and adolescent obesity, overweight, prevalence, trends, etc. Additional studies were also identified through cross-references and websites of official agencies. Results: Prevalence data from 52 studies conducted in 16 of the 28 States in India were included in analysis. The median value for the combined prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity showed that it was higher in north, compared to south India. The pooled data after 2010 estimated a combined prevalence of 19.3 per cent of childhood overweight and obesity which was a significant increase from the earlier prevalence of 16.3 per cent reported in 2001-2005. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that overweight and obesity rates in children and adolescents are increasing not just among the higher socio-economic groups but also in the lower income groups where underweight still remains a major concern. PMID:27121514

  17. Impact of maternal obesity on perinatal and childhood outcomes.

    PubMed

    Santangeli, Louise; Sattar, Naveed; Huda, Shahzya S

    2015-04-01

    Maternal obesity is of major consequence, affecting every aspect of maternity care including both short- and long-term effects on the health of the offspring. Obese mothers are at a higher risk of developing gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia, potentially exposing the foetus to an adverse intrauterine environment. Maternal obesity is linked to foetal macrosomia, resulting in increased neonatal and maternal morbidity. Foetal macrosomia is a result of a change in body composition in the neonate with an increase in both percentage fat and fat mass. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with childhood obesity, and this effect extends into adulthood. Childhood obesity in turn increases chances of later life obesity, thus type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. Further clinical trials of lifestyle and, potentially, pharmacological interventions in obese pregnant women are required to determine whether short- and long-term adverse effects for the mother and child can be reduced.

  18. Crowdsourcing novel childhood predictors of adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Swain, Robert; Dohle, Simone; Bongard, Josh C; Hines, Paul D H; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0) registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI) and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children's lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors. PMID:24505310

  19. Crowdsourcing Novel Childhood Predictors of Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Robert; Dohle, Simone; Bongard, Josh C.; Hines, Paul D. H.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0) registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI) and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children’s lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors. PMID:24505310

  20. Evaluating the perceived impact of an interprofessional childhood obesity course on competencies for collaborative practice.

    PubMed

    Iachini, Aidyn L; Dunn, Brianne L; Blake, Christine; Blake, Elizabeth W

    2016-05-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is needed to prepare health professional students to address the complexities of childhood obesity in practice. This mixed-method study sought to evaluate the perceived impact of a childhood obesity IPE intervention on health professional students' collaborative competency development within two domains: roles/responsibilities and teams/teamwork. Fourteen health professional students participated in this mixed-methods study. Quantitative data were collected through pre/post surveys, while qualitative data were collected through reflection assignments. Survey findings indicated that students reported significant increases in growth within both interprofessional competency domains. Qualitative data elaborated on the types of learning students experienced relative to each domain. Implications of this study for research and practice related to IPE to address complex health issues, such as childhood obesity, are shared.

  1. Evaluating the perceived impact of an interprofessional childhood obesity course on competencies for collaborative practice.

    PubMed

    Iachini, Aidyn L; Dunn, Brianne L; Blake, Christine; Blake, Elizabeth W

    2016-05-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is needed to prepare health professional students to address the complexities of childhood obesity in practice. This mixed-method study sought to evaluate the perceived impact of a childhood obesity IPE intervention on health professional students' collaborative competency development within two domains: roles/responsibilities and teams/teamwork. Fourteen health professional students participated in this mixed-methods study. Quantitative data were collected through pre/post surveys, while qualitative data were collected through reflection assignments. Survey findings indicated that students reported significant increases in growth within both interprofessional competency domains. Qualitative data elaborated on the types of learning students experienced relative to each domain. Implications of this study for research and practice related to IPE to address complex health issues, such as childhood obesity, are shared. PMID:27152544

  2. IV. The cognitive implications of obesity and nutrition in childhood.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Donovan, Sharon M; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has tripled since the 1980s and is strongly linked to the early onset of several metabolic diseases. Recent studies indicate that lower cognitive function may be another complication of childhood obesity. This review considers the research to date on the role of obesity and nutrition on childhood cognition and brain health. Although a handful of studies point to a maladaptive relationship between obesity and aspects of cognitive control, remarkably little is known regarding the impact of fat mass on brain development and cognitive function. Further, missing from the literature is the role of nutrition in the obesity-cognition interaction. Nutrition may directly or indirectly influence cognitive performance via several pathways including provision of key substrates for optimal brain health, modulation of gut microbiota, and alterations in systemic energy balance. However, in the absence of malnutrition, the functional benefits of specific nutrient intake on particular cognitive domains are not well characterized. Here, we examine the literature linking childhood obesity and cognition while considering the effects of nutritional intake. Possible mechanisms for these relationships are discussed and suggestions are made for future study topics. Although childhood obesity prevalence rates in some developed countries have recently stabilized, significant disparities remain among groups based on sex and socioeconomic status. Given that the elevated prevalence of pediatric overweight and obesity may persist for the foreseeable future, it is crucial to develop a comprehensive understanding of the influence of obesity and nutrition on cognition and brain health in the pediatric population.

  3. Childhood obesity, bone development, and cardiometabolic risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Norman K.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis and obesity are both major public health concerns. It has long been considered that these are distinct disorders rarely found in the same individual; however, emerging evidence supports an important interaction between adipose tissue and the skeleton. Whereas overweight per se may augment bone strength, animal studies suggest that the metabolic impairment that accompanies obesity is detrimental to bone. Obesity during childhood, a critical time for bone development, likely has profound and lasting effects on bone strength and fracture risk. This notion has received little attention in children and results are mixed, with studies reporting that bone strength development is enhanced or impaired by obesity. Whether obesity is a risk factor for osteoporosis or childhood bone health, in general, remains an important clinical question. Here, we will focus on clarifying the controversial relationships between childhood obesity and bone strength development, and provide insights into potential mechanisms that may regulate the effect of excess adiposity on bone. PMID:25817542

  4. Childhood obesity affects adult metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yajun; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Liang; Hu, Yuehua; Liu, Junting; Cheng, Hong; Yang, Ping; Shan, Xinying; Yan, Yinkun; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Mi, Jie

    2015-09-01

    We seek to observe the association between childhood obesity by different measures and adult obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diabetes. Thousand two hundred and nine subjects from "Beijing Blood Pressure Cohort Study" were followed 22.9 ± 0.5 years in average from childhood to adulthood. We defined childhood obesity using body mass index (BMI) or left subscapular skinfold (LSSF), and adult obesity as BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2). MetS was defined according to the joint statement of International Diabetes Federation and American Heart Association with modified waist circumference (≥ 90/85 cm for men/women). Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or blood glucose 2 h after oral glucose tolerance test ≥ 11.1 mmol/L or currently using blood glucose-lowering agents. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association. The incidence of adult obesity was 13.4, 60.0, 48.3, and 65.1 % for children without obesity, having obesity by BMI only, by LSSF only, and by both, respectively. Compared to children without obesity, children obese by LSSF only or by both had higher risk of diabetes. After controlling for adult obesity, childhood obesity predicted independently long-term risks of diabetes (odds ratio 2.8, 95 % confidence interval 1.2-6.3) or abdominal obesity (2.7, 1.6-4.7) other than MetS as a whole (1.2, 0.6-2.4). Childhood obesity predicts long-term risk of adult diabetes, and the effect is independent of adult obesity. LSSF is better than BMI in predicting adult diabetes.

  5. Weighty Issues for Kids: Taking Aim at Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a Healthy Weight Weight-control Information Network Tools and Resources To Help Prevent Childhood Obesity (We Can!) Media-Smart Youth CONTACT US NIH Office of Communications and Public Liaison Building 31, Room ...

  6. Cesarean Birth Linked to Risk of Obesity in Childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160810.html Cesarean Birth Linked to Risk of Obesity in Childhood Odds even greater when compared to ... from not exposing the infant to the helpful bacteria in the vagina that gives the baby "an ...

  7. The effect of childhood obesity on cardiac functions.

    PubMed

    Üner, Abdurrahman; Doğan, Murat; Epcacan, Zerrin; Epçaçan, Serdar

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder defined as excessive accumulation of body fat, which is made up of genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors and has various social, psychological, and medical complications. Childhood obesity is a major indicator of adult obesity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac functions via electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography (ECHO), and treadmill test in childhood obesity. A patient group consisting of 30 obese children and a control group consisting of 30 non-obese children were included in the study. The age range was between 8 and 17 years. Anthropometric measurements, physical examination, ECG, ECHO, and treadmill test were done in all patients. P-wave dispersion (PD) was found to be statistically significantly high in obese patients. In ECHO analysis, we found that end-diastolic diameter, end-systolic diameter, left ventricle posterior wall thickness, and interventricular septum were significantly greater in obese children. In treadmill test, exercise capacity was found to be significantly lower and the hemodynamic response to exercise was found to be defective in obese children. Various cardiac structural and functional changes occur in childhood obesity and this condition includes important cardiovascular risks. PD, left ventricle end-systolic and end-diastolic diameter, left ventricle posterior wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness, exercise capacity, and hemodynamic and ECG measurements during exercise testing are useful tests to determine cardiac dysfunctions and potential arrhythmias even in early stages of childhood obesity. Early recognition and taking precautions for obesity during childhood is very important to intercept complications that will occur in adulthood.

  8. Modeling social transmission dynamics of unhealthy behaviors for evaluating prevention and treatment interventions on childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, Leah M; Araz, Ozgur M; Huang, Terry T-K

    2013-01-01

    Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2) to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively). Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence) than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally, targeting adults may

  9. "Couch-potatoeism" and childhood obesity: The inverse causality hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Fröberg, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The bulk of cross-sectional studies suggests that lower levels of physical activity are associated with childhood obesity. Although this has led to the general understanding that "couch-potatoes" are fat on account of their inactive lifestyles, cross-sectional studies do not imply causality. On the contrary, the contribution of physical activity to obesity during childhood is currently unclear, and lately, studies have suggested that "couch-potatoeism" could be the result of obesity rather than its cause. Coupled with evidence suggesting that interventions have had little effect on children's physical activity levels as well as on obesity, this inverse causality challenges the role of physical activity in childhood obesity prevention strategies.

  10. Childhood Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: January 1985-May 1990. Quick Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegrove, Natalie A.

    This bibliography consists of 212 recent citations (January 1985 through May 1990) from AGRICOLA, the National Agricultural Library (NAL) computerized database. The bibliography addresses issues concerning childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease. Each citation includes the NAL call number, the title, the author(s) the city of publication, the…

  11. Current & future medical costs of childhood obesity in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Guettabi, Mouhcine

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the medical costs of childhood obesity in Alaska, today and in the future. We estimate that 15.2 percent of those ages 2 to 19 in Alaska are obese. Using parameters from published reports and studies, we estimate that the total excess medical costs due to obesity for both adults and children in Alaska in 2012 were $226 million, with medical costs of obese children and adolescents accounting for about $7 million of that total. And those medical costs will get much higher over time, as today's children transition into adulthood. Aside from the 15.2 percent currently obese, another estimated 20 percent of children who aren't currently obese will become obese as adults, if current national patterns continue. We estimate that the 20-year medical costs--discounted to present value--of obesity among the current cohort of Alaska children and adolescents will be $624 million in today's dollars. But those future costs could be decreased if Alaskans found ways to reduce obesity. We consider how reducing obesity in several ways could reduce future medical costs: reducing current rates of childhood obesity, rates of obese children who become obese adults, or rates of non-obese children and adolescents who become obese adults. We undertake modest reductions to showcase the potential cost savings associated with each of these channels. Clearly the financial savings are a direct function of the obesity reductions and therefore the magnitude of the realized savings will vary accordingly. Also keep in mind that these figures are only for the current cohort of children and adolescents; over time more generations of Alaskans will grow from children into adults, repeating the same cycle unless rates of obesity decline. And finally, remember that medical costs are only part of the broader range of social and economic costs obesity creates.

  12. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development.

    PubMed

    Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B

    2012-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input--drawing on the evidence-base--together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. PMID:22106871

  13. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development

    PubMed Central

    Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B

    2012-01-01

    Summary Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multistakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. ‘Ensemble Prévenons l'ObésitéDes Enfants’ (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input – drawing on the evidence-base – together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. PMID:22106871

  14. Obesity in pregnancy: addressing risks to improve outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kriebs, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing rates of obesity among women of childbearing age, not only in the United States but also across the globe, contribute to increased risks during pregnancy and childbirth. Overweight and obesity are quantified by body mass index (BMI) for clinical purposes. In 2010, 31.9% of U.S. women aged 20 to 39 years met the definition of obesity, a BMI of 30 kg/m or greater. Across the life span, obesity is associated with increased risks of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, sleep apnea, and other diseases. During pregnancy, increasing levels of prepregnancy BMI are associated with increases in both maternal and fetal/neonatal risks. This article reviews current knowledge about obesity in pregnancy and health risks related to increased maternal BMI, addresses weight stigma as a barrier to care and interventions that have evidence of benefit, and discusses the development of policies and guidelines to improve care.

  15. Stay Smart: Lost Weight--Childhood Obesity and Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosa-Postl, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Prevention is the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic levels of childhood obesity. Current statistics show that obesity has more than doubled for preschool children aged 2-5 years and adolescents aged 12-19 years, and it has more than tripled for children aged 6-11 years. It is generally recognized that nutrition education for the…

  16. 78 FR 54739 - National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9007 of August 30, 2013 National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In the United States, obesity affects millions of children and teenagers, raising their risk of developing serious health problems,...

  17. Childhood Obesity: A Growing Phenomenon for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gregory; Reese, Shirley A.

    2006-01-01

    The greatest health risk facing children today is obesity. The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has risen dramatically in the past several decades. Because children on the average spend up to five or six hours a day involved in sedentary activities, including excessive time watching television, using the computer and playing…

  18. Social influence in childhood obesity interventions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jalali, M S; Sharafi-Avarzaman, Z; Rahmandad, H; Ammerman, A S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the pathways through which social influence at the family level moderates the impact of childhood obesity interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity interventions in which parents' behaviours are targeted to change children's obesity outcomes, because of the potential social and environmental influence of parents on the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of children. PubMed (1966-2013) and the Web of Science (1900-2013) were searched, and 32 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Results for existing mechanisms that moderate parents' influence on children's behaviour are discussed, and a causal pathway diagram is developed to map out social influence mechanisms that affect childhood obesity. We provide health professionals and researchers with recommendations for leveraging family-based social influence mechanisms to increase the efficacy of obesity intervention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:27138986

  19. Social influence in childhood obesity interventions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jalali, M S; Sharafi-Avarzaman, Z; Rahmandad, H; Ammerman, A S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the pathways through which social influence at the family level moderates the impact of childhood obesity interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity interventions in which parents' behaviours are targeted to change children's obesity outcomes, because of the potential social and environmental influence of parents on the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of children. PubMed (1966-2013) and the Web of Science (1900-2013) were searched, and 32 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Results for existing mechanisms that moderate parents' influence on children's behaviour are discussed, and a causal pathway diagram is developed to map out social influence mechanisms that affect childhood obesity. We provide health professionals and researchers with recommendations for leveraging family-based social influence mechanisms to increase the efficacy of obesity intervention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity.

  20. The role of both parents' attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Laghezza, Loredana; Radi, Giulia; Battistini, Dalila; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children's obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent-child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates, and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents' attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers and fathers. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father's attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity.

  1. The role of both parents’ attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Laghezza, Loredana; Radi, Giulia; Battistini, Dalila; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children’s obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent–child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates, and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents’ attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers and fathers. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father’s attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:25120507

  2. Raising healthy children: Moral and political responsibility for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Megan

    2010-12-01

    Childhood obesity and chronic disease rates continue to climb, but policy and programme responses are mainly limited to education and awareness activities. These encourage individuals to make responsible lifestyle choices. Regulation and environmental change have a minor role, as they involve more intrusive roles for government, invading traditionally private domains of nutrition and physical activity. But to address children's health needs, today's emphasis on self-management is inappropriate. Children, especially the very young, are dependent and vulnerable. I describe why the current public health strategies, with their political and moral foundations, remain ineffective. The foundations are based primarily upon the traditional liberal understanding of the public/private divide, while neglecting to recognize the legal obligations and implications of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and theories of justice and citizenship as they apply to children.

  3. Raising healthy children: Moral and political responsibility for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Megan

    2010-12-01

    Childhood obesity and chronic disease rates continue to climb, but policy and programme responses are mainly limited to education and awareness activities. These encourage individuals to make responsible lifestyle choices. Regulation and environmental change have a minor role, as they involve more intrusive roles for government, invading traditionally private domains of nutrition and physical activity. But to address children's health needs, today's emphasis on self-management is inappropriate. Children, especially the very young, are dependent and vulnerable. I describe why the current public health strategies, with their political and moral foundations, remain ineffective. The foundations are based primarily upon the traditional liberal understanding of the public/private divide, while neglecting to recognize the legal obligations and implications of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and theories of justice and citizenship as they apply to children. PMID:21119650

  4. Reducing Childhood Obesity through U.S. Federal Policy

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Alyson H.; Flottemesch, Thomas J.; Maciosek, Michael V.; Jenson, Jennifer; Barclay, Gillian; Ashe, Marice; Sanchez, Eduardo J.; Story, Mary; Teutsch, Steven M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity prevalence remains high in the U.S., especially among racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. Federal policy is important in improving public health given its broad reach. Information is needed about federal policies that could reduce childhood obesity rates and by how much. Purpose To estimate the impact of three federal policies on childhood obesity prevalence in 2032, after 20 years of implementation. Methods Criteria were used to select the three following policies to reduce childhood obesity from 26 recommended policies: afterschool physical activity programs, a $0.01/ounce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) excise tax, and a ban on child-directed fast food TV advertising. For each policy, the literature was reviewed from January 2000 through July 2012 to find evidence of effectiveness and create average effect sizes. In 2012, a Markov microsimulation model estimated each policy’s impact on diet or physical activity, and then BMI, in a simulated school-aged population in 2032. Results The microsimulation predicted that afterschool physical activity programs would reduce obesity the most among children aged 6–12 years (1.8 percentage points) and the advertising ban would reduce obesity the least (0.9 percentage points). The SSB excise tax would reduce obesity the most among adolescents aged 13–18 years (2.4 percentage points). All three policies would reduce obesity more among blacks and Hispanics than whites, with the SSB excise tax reducing obesity disparities the most. Conclusions All three policies would reduce childhood obesity prevalence by 2032. However, a national $0.01/ounce SSB excise tax is the best option. PMID:25175764

  5. The Role of Care Neglect and Supervisory Neglect in Childhood Obesity in a Disadvantaged Sample

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Sarah M.; Murray, Amanda J.; Valles, Nizete-Ly; Koeppl, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Objective Assess the roles of care neglect and supervisory neglect, and the moderating influence of child age on childhood obesity. Study Design Child BMI, parental care neglect, and supervisory neglect were assessed in an ethnically diverse sample of 571 young children from two Midwestern States. Hierarchical linear regression was used to assess the influence of both forms of neglect and the moderating role of age. Results Fifteen percent of the children were overweight and 16.3% were obese. Care neglect significantly correlated with child BMI for younger but not older children, while supervisory neglect significantly correlated with child BMI for older but not younger children. Conclusions The impact of two types of neglect on obesity varied across age, highlighting the importance of differentiating between types of neglectful parenting when addressing the high rate of childhood obesity in disadvantaged children. PMID:19996153

  6. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factors tend to persist over time. However, whether childhood obesity causes adult CVD directly, or does so by persisting as adult obesity, or both, is less clear. Regardless, sufficient data exist to warrant early implementation of both obesity prevention and treatment in youth and adults. In this Review, we examine the evidence supporting the impact of childhood obesity on adult obesity, surrogate markers of CVD, components of the metabolic syndrome, and the development of CVD. We also evaluate how obesity treatment strategies can improve risk factors and, ultimately, adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:21670745

  7. Research contributions on childhood obesity from a public-private partnership

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity remains a significant global problem with immediate and long-term individual health and societal consequences. Targets for change should include the most potent and predictive factors for obesity at all levels of the personal, social and physical environments. The Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living (‘the Center’) is a public-private partnership that was developed to address child health issues through research, service, and education. This overview paper introduces a special issue of seven articles on childhood obesity from the Center, and the implications of this research for obesity prevention. Methods and results A review of the literature on public-private partnerships was undertaken and key components of the partnership between the Michael & Susan Dell Foundation and the Center were compared for compatibility. The conceptual framework for Center research, based on social cognitive theory and the social-ecological model, is explained. An overview of papers in this special issue, relative to the conceptual framework, and the implications of this research for childhood obesity prevention, are provided. Conclusions The public-private partnership that created the Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living has been instrumental in motivating the Center’s academic faculty to focus their research on improvements in child, family and community health through etiologic, epidemiologic, methodologic and intervention research. This special issue extends this work and places particular emphasis on socioeconomic inequalities in addressing the obesity problem in the U.S. and worldwide. PMID:26222489

  8. Is there a healthy foreign born effect for childhood obesity in the United States?

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Strobino, Donna; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Minkovitz, Cynthia S

    2011-04-01

    Objective of the study was to explore factors associated with early childhood obesity and assess whether having a foreign born mother is protective against childhood obesity. Data sources include 9 months and 4 years parent interviews and direct assessments of possessive children's weight and height (4 years) or length (9 months) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Subjects were children with anthropometric measures who lived with their mothers (n = 9,700 at 9 months and 8,200 at 4 years). Overweight is defined as a weight-for-length ratio at or above the 95th percentile at 9 months; obesity is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile at 4 years. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 15.4% at 9 months and 18.0% at 4 years. After adjustment for potential confounders, having a foreign-born mother was not associated with the odds of overweight at 9 months or 4 years. At 9 months and 4 years, low birth weight, pre-pregnancy weight and weight gain during pregnancy were protective of overweight. In addition to these factors, at 4 years, excessive weight gain in the first 9 months was the strongest predictors for obesity. Living in a safe neighborhood and ever having breastfed were protective against obesity. Having a foreign born mother is not protective of early childhood obesity. A focus on health of women prior to conception and on women's and infants' health in the perinatal period are key to addressing childhood obesity.

  9. The effect of prenatal and postnatal care on childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Seipel, Michael M O; Shafer, Kevin

    2013-07-01

    Childhood obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. If this problem is unresolved, some children will be at risk for disorders such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and cancer and will become a high economic and social burden for society. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child and Young Adult sample (N = 6,643), this study examined the relationship between the effect of pre- and postnatal characteristics and obesity. The findings of this study show that the probability of childhood obesity can be lessened if pregnant women do not smoke and do not gain significant pregnancy-related weight. Moreover, breast feeding and health insurance were also found to be correlated to avoiding childhood obesity.

  10. What money can buy: family income and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between family income and childhood obesity. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), I report three new findings. First, family income and childhood obesity are generally negatively correlated, but for children in very low-income families, they are positively correlated. Second, the negative association between family income and Body Mass Index (BMI) is especially strong and significant among high-BMI children. Third, the difference in obesity rates between children from low- and high-income families increases as children age. This study further investigates potential factors that might contribute to a rapid increase in the obesity rate among low-income children. I find that their faster weight gain, rather than slower height growth, is a greater contributor to the rapid increase in their BMI over time. On the other hand, I also find that the faster weight gain by low-income children cannot be attributed to any single factor, such as participation in school meal programs, parental characteristics, or individual characteristics. These findings add to the current obesity debate by demonstrating that the key to curbing childhood obesity may lie in factors generating different obesity rates across income levels.

  11. Family mealtimes: a contextual approach to understanding childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Fiese, Barbara H; Hammons, Amber; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana

    2012-12-01

    There has been a growing interest in the role that shared family mealtimes may play in promoting the health and well-being of children. Families that regularly eat their main meal together four or more times a week are more likely to have children who do better in school, are of average weight, less likely to use drugs and alcohol at an early age, and consume more fruits and vegetables. The mere fact that families eat together does not address the process by which shared family mealtimes may protect children from unhealthy weight gain. Just as there is no simple explanation for the rising rates of obesity, the link between shared family mealtimes and childhood obesity is a complex one including socioeconomic and cultural context. In this paper, we provide an overview of how shared family mealtimes are embedded in a socio-cultural context that may either support or derail healthy eating patterns for children and youth. Evidence from an observational study of 200 family mealtimes demonstrates the complex interplay between socio-economic factors, family mealtime behaviors, and child obesity status. Families who had a child of healthy weight spent more time engaged with each other during the meal, expressed more positive communication, and considered mealtimes more important and meaningful than families who had a child who was overweight or obese. Using a cumulative risk model, it was found that the combination of family level and neighborhood risk factors predicted child overweight status. Recommendations are made for future research directions and policies directed toward families living in diverse economic circumstances.

  12. Trends of childhood obesity in China and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guiju; Jia, Genmei; Peng, Honglei; Dickerman, Barbra; Compher, Charlene; Liu, Jianghong

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity is worsening at dramatic rates and has become a public health crisis. This study investigated these trends in childhood obesity and examined parental factors that may contribute to overweight and obesity. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight measurements taken annually from 2004 to 2007 in a subsample of 136 children (2-4 years old), from the Jintan Child Health Project in China. Parental factors were assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity rose from 6.6% and 2.2% in 2004 to 15.4% and 6.6% in 2007 (p < .05). Overweight was significantly associated with maternal employment (p < .05), but not with parental education level, maternal age at birth, or breast-feeding. To counter this rapid increase of obesity and overweight prevalence, nurses should regularly monitor children's weight and advise parents, especially working mothers, on the nutritional benefits of home-cooked meals.

  13. Atherosclerosis prevention starts in childhood: the obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Medina-Ruiz, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and advances rapidly triggered by multiple genetic and environmental factors, including obesity. Obesity has reach epidemic proportions mainly by the consumption of junk food and a sedentary lifestyle. Our children spend long time inactive in front of the television and video games, further aggravated by the consumption of excessive calories of unhealthy food bombardment from TV commercials. The health related expenses of the obese is in average $1,500 annually higher than for persons with normal weight. The annual cost of diseases associated to obesity is estimated on $147 billion in the United States, a 10% of the national medical expenses. We must uncover strategies conducting to healthier lifestyles. School and home initiatives together with community and governmental efforts are necessary to stimulate our youngsters to live healthy lifestyles. The commitment of the food industry is critical to achieve the difficult goal of reducing childhood obesity to the prevalent 5% of the 1970's.

  14. The Impact of Familial Predisposition to Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease on Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Louise Aas; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has reached alarming rates world-wide. The aetiology seems to be an interplay between genetic and environmental factors, and a surrogate measure of this complex interaction is suggested as familial predisposition. Familial predisposition to obesity and related cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications constitute the presence of obesity and/or obesity-related complications in primarily blood-related family members. The approaches of its measurement and applicability vary, and the evidence especially of its influence on obesity and obesity treatment in childhood is limited. Studies have linked a familial predisposition of obesity, CVD (hypertension, dyslipidaemia and thromboembolic events), and type 2 diabetes mellitus to BMI as well as other adiposity measures in children, suggesting degrees of familial aggregation of metabolic derangements. A pattern of predispositions arising from mothers, parents or grandparents as being most influential have been found, but further comprehensive studies are needed in order to specify the exact implications of familial predisposition. In the scope of childhood obesity this article reviews the current literature regarding familial predisposition to obesity and obesity-related complications, and how these familial predispositions may impact obesity in the offspring. PMID:26465142

  15. Using performance-based regulation to reduce childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sugarman, Stephen D; Sandman, Nirit

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the public health community has recognized the growing problem of childhood obesity. But, unlike tobacco control policy, there is little evidence about what public policies would work to substantially reduce childhood obesity. Public health leaders currently tend to support traditional "command and control" schemes that order private enterprises and governments to stop or start doing specific things that, is it hoped, will yield lower childhood obesity rates. These include measures such as 1) taking sweetened beverages out of schools, 2) posting calorie counts on fast-food menu boards, 3) labeling foods with a "red light" if they contain high levels of fat or sugar, 4) limiting the density of fast food restaurants in any neighborhood, 5) requiring chain restaurants to offer "healthy" alternatives, and 6) eliminating junk food ads on television shows aimed at children. Some advocates propose other regulatory interventions such as 1) influencing the relative prices of healthy and unhealthy foods through taxes and/or subsidies and 2) suing private industry for money damages as a way of blaming childhood obesity on certain practices of the food industry (such as its marketing, product composition, or portion size decisions). The food industry generally seeks to deflect blame for childhood obesity onto others, such as parents and schools. PMID:19017402

  16. Economic Evaluation of Childhood Obesity Interventions: Reflections and Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Frew, Emma

    2016-08-01

    Rising levels of childhood obesity present a serious global public health problem amounting to 7 % of GDP in developed countries and affecting 14 % of children. As such, many countries are investing increasingly large quantities of resource towards treatment and prevention. Whilst it is important to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of any intervention, it is equally as important to demonstrate cost effectiveness as policy makers strive to get the best value for money from increasingly limited public resources. Economic evaluation assists with making these investment decisions and whilst it can offer considerable support in many healthcare contexts, applying it to a childhood obesity context is not straightforward. Childhood obesity is a complex disease with interventions being multi-component in nature. Furthermore, the interventions are implemented in a variety of settings such as schools, the community, and the home, and have costs and benefits that fall outside the health sector. This paper provides a reflection from a UK perspective on the application of the conventional approach to economic evaluation to childhood obesity. It offers suggestions for how evaluations should be designed to fit better within this context, and to meet the needs of local decision makers. An excellent example is the need to report costs using a micro-costing format and for benefit measurement to go beyond a health focus. This is critical as the organisation and commissioning of childhood obesity services is done from a Local Authority setting and this presents further challenges for what is the most appropriate economic evaluation approach to use. Given that adult obesity is now of epidemic proportions, the accurate assessment of childhood obesity interventions to support public health decision making is critical.

  17. Associations between childhood socioeconomic position and adulthood obesity.

    PubMed

    Senese, Laura C; Almeida, Nisha D; Fath, Anne Kittler; Smith, Brendan T; Loucks, Eric B

    2009-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Obesity in adulthood may be a biologic mechanism. Objectives were to systematically review literature published between 1998 and 2008 that examined associations of childhood SEP with adulthood obesity. Five databases (Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science) were searched for studies from any country, in any language. Forty-eight publications based on 30 studies were identified. In age-adjusted analyses, inverse associations were found between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity in 70% (14 of 20) of studies in females and 27% (4 of 15) in males. In studies of females showing inverse associations between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity, typical effect sizes in age-adjusted analyses for the difference in body mass index between the highest and lowest SEP were 1.0-2.0 kg/m(2); for males, effect sizes were typically 0.2-0.5 kg/m(2). Analyses adjusted for age and adult SEP showed inverse associations in 47% (8 of 17) of studies in females and 14% (2 of 14) of studies in males. When other covariates were additionally adjusted for, inverse associations were found in 4 of 12 studies in females and 2 of 8 studies in males; effect sizes were typically reduced compared with analyses adjusted for age only. In summary, the findings suggest that childhood SEP is inversely related to adulthood obesity in females and not associated in males after adjustment for age. Adulthood SEP and other obesity risk factors may be the mechanisms responsible for the observed associations between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity.

  18. Prevention of childhood obesity in India: Way forward

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a burden in developed and developing countries. Overweight and obesity are caused by numerous social and environmental factors that influence people's food habit and physical activity. Role of primary or secondary prevention is the mainstay plan for controlling this epidemic. Various adaptable best practice models are available in the developed nations. However, further research needs to be done to examine the most effective strategies of intervention, prevention, and treatment of obesity in our setting. Through this paper, we would like to highlight best practices and potential interventions to reduce the burden of obesity in India. PMID:25810628

  19. The relation between childhood obesity and adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Daar, Ghaniya; Sarı, Kamran; Gencer, Zeliha Kapusuz; Ede, Hüseyin; Aydın, Reha; Saydam, Levent

    2016-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a common and significant public health problem all over the world. As a well-known fact obese children have an increased risk of obesity-associated comorbidities, including obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders at an earlier age compared to their normal weight peers. They also have an increased risk of poor self-esteem, greater body dissatisfaction, and increased peer teasing that lead to a lower health-related quality of life. While the presence of adenoid hypertrophy and increased rate of obstructive sleep apnea frequently co-exists in majority of cases. We have limited knowledge about the effect of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on development of childhood obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between obesity, presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and the quality of life parameters in obese children as measured by the OSA-18 quality of life questionnaire. Fifty obese children aged between 3 and 18 years and 50 age- and gender-matched otherwise children were enrolled to the study. All subjects were routinely examined by the otolaryngologist before enrollment. The size of adenoid hypertrophy was measured using lateral cephalometric radiographs. The tonsils were also graded using the schema recommended by Brodsky et al. We used OSA-18 questionnaires to evaluate the subjects' quality of life issues. We found, 34 % of obese group had tonsillar hypertrophy while the rate was 6 % in control group. Similarly 16 % of obese group had tonsillar hypertrophy compared to only 4 % in non-obese group. It was also noted that total OSA-18 scores of obese group were significantly higher than those of non-obese group. In subgroup analysis of obese group, total OSA-18 score of obese subjects with either adenoid and/or tonsillar hypertrophy was significantly higher than that of obese subjects without adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy. As the related literature suggests that the impact of adenotonsillar size on OSA

  20. Effective partnership: how school nurses and physical education teachers can combat childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Charity; Broussard, Lisa; Bellar, David

    2013-01-01

    School systems face many challenges in attempting to address the childhood overweight and obesity epidemic. Given the accumulated nature of the required physical activity and the likelihood that only one meal will be delivered while on school grounds, the potential for impactful change in obese or overweight children through school policy is limited. From this vantage point, it is easy to see that physical education programs alone cannot ensure that children participate in 60 minutes of daily physical activity. The necessary multifaceted approach requires opportunities for physical activity to be obtained throughout the school day. The school nurse and physical education teachers are the school personnel most likely to be involved in efforts to curtail the childhood overweight and obesity epidemic at the school level. These individuals are in critical roles of assisting both parents and children when it comes to understanding the devastating effects of being overweight and obese and in helping children identify positive health behaviors that may help reverse this condition. The purpose of this article is to describe the ways in which the school nurse and physical education teacher can work collaboratively to better address the childhood overweight and obesity epidemic.

  1. The importance of systems thinking to address obesity.

    PubMed

    Finegood, Diane T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is clearly a complex problem for both the individual and for society. Complex or 'wicked' problems have common characteristics such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, interdependence, and self-organization. As such they require solutions appropriate for complex problems, rather than a reductionist search for the causes. 'Systems thinking' provides new ways to consider how to collectively address complex societal problems like obesity, where biology interacts with social, cultural and built environmental factors in infinite permutations and combinations. The systems that give rise to the obesity epidemic function at multiple levels, and there are important interactions between these levels. At any given level, individual actors and organizations matter and system function is optimized when individual and organizational capacity to respond is well matched to the complexity of individual tasks. Providing system supports to help networks of individuals become 'communities of practice' and 'systems of influence' may also help to accelerate the pace of effective action against obesity. Research efforts need to move away from the relentless search for the specific isolated causes of obesity and focus on solutions that have been shown to work in addressing other 'wicked' problems.

  2. Interactions between Obesity-Related Copy Number Variants and Dietary Behaviors in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Li, Zhenli; Wang, Hao; Yang, Min; Liang, Li; Fu, Junfen; Wang, Chunling; Ling, Jie; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shuai; Xu, Yuyang; Zhu, Yimin; Lai, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated as an important genetic marker of obesity, and gene-environment interaction has been found to modulate risk of obesity. To evaluate the associations between CNVs and childhood obesity, as well as the interactions between CNVs and dietary behaviors, we recruited 534 obese children and 508 controls from six cities in China and six candidate CNVs were screened through published genome-wide studies (GWAS) on childhood obesity. We found three loci (10q11.22, 4q25 and 11q11) to be significantly associated with obesity after false discovery rate (FDR) correction (all the p ≤ 0.05). Cumulative effect of the three positive loci was measured by the genetic risk score (GRS), showing a significant relationship with the risk of obesity (Ptrend < 0.001). The OR of obesity increased to 21.38 (95% CI = 21.19–21.55) among the 10q11.22 deletion carriers who had meat-based diets, indicating prominent multiplicative interaction (MI) between deletions of 10q11.22 and preference for a meat-based diet. Simultaneous deletions of 5q13.2 and duplications of 6q14.1 had significant MI with a preference for salty foods. Our results suggested that CNVs may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of childhood obesity, and the CNV-diet interactions modulate the risk of obesity. PMID:25912042

  3. Examining the temporal relationships between childhood obesity and asthma.

    PubMed

    Green, Tiffany L

    2014-07-01

    Childhood obesity has become an issue of increasing concern to health researchers and policymakers in the United States. One important chronic health condition linked to obesity is pediatric asthma. Although researchers have speculated that both conditions may have common origins, the majority of research in this area has focused on a unidirectional relationship between obesity and later asthma. However, much of the literature is limited by its reliance on cross-sectional data and its failure to examine the possibility that asthma may influence weight fluctuations through changes in physical and sedentary activity. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), I explore the bidirectional relationships between childhood obesity and asthma. The results in this paper suggest that past asthma levels are positively correlated with changes in BMI and the onset of obesity. However, only new onset asthma is positively correlated with subsequent changes in BMI. The potential mechanisms are unclear, as I find little evidence that asthma is structurally related to changes in physical or sedentary activity over time. When testing the prevailing hypothesis that obesity is related to subsequent asthma, I find that lagged weight status is strongly related to asthma prevalence levels but that the onset of overweight or obesity is not associated with the subsequent onset of asthma. These results suggest that the onset of asthma may be related to subsequent weight gain over time.

  4. Metabolic effects of exercise on childhood obesity: a current view

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Santiago Tavares; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Andreazzi, Ana Eliza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. DATA SOURCE: A search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. DATA SYNTHESIS: Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of these effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in fighting obesity. PMID:25662015

  5. Clinical aspects of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kiess, W; Galler, A; Reich, A; Müller, G; Kapellen, T; Deutscher, J; Raile, K; Kratzsch, J

    2001-02-01

    The level of fatness of a child at which morbidity acutely and/or later in life increases is determined on an acturial basis. Direct measurements of body fat content, e.g. hydrodensitometry, bioimpedance, or DEXA, are useful tools in scientific studies. However, body mass index (BMI) is easy to calculate and is generally accepted now to be used to define obesity in children and adolescents clinically. An increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease in adults has been found in subjects whose BMI had been greater than the 75th percentile as adolescents. Childhood obesity seems to substantially increase the risk of subsequent morbidity whether or not obesity persists into adulthood. The genetic basis of childhood obesity has been elucidated to some extent through the discovery of leptin, the ob gene product, and the increasing knowledge on the role of neuropeptides such as POMC, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the melanocyte concentrating hormone receptors (for example, MC4R). Environmental/exogenous factors largely contribute to the development of a high degree of body fatness early in life. Twin studies suggest that approximately 50% of the tendency toward obesity is inherited. There are numerous disorders including a number of endocrine disorders (Cushing's syndrome, hypothyroidism, etc.) and genetic syndromes (Prader-Labhard-Willi syndrome, Bardet Biedl syndrome, etc.) that can present with obesity. A simple diagnostic algorithm allows for the differentiation between primary or secondary obesity. Among the most common sequelae of primary childhood obesity are hypertension, dyslipidemia, back pain and psychosocial problems. Therapeutic strategies include psychological and family therapy, lifestyle/behaviour modification and nutrition education. The role of regular exercise and exercise programmes is emphasized. Surgical procedures and drugs used in adult obesity are still not generally recommended in children and adolescents with obesity. As obesity is the most

  6. Might video games help remedy childhood obesity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is the most prevalent health problem among children in the United States and globally, leading to diverse health problems and staggering costs. Most child obesity prevention interventions are not working well, or not at all. Part of the problem is that the causes of child obesity are not cle...

  7. Gooey Stuff, Intra-Activity, and Differential Obesities: Foregrounding Agential Adiposity within Childhood Obesity Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, forces such as the media, medical discourse, and public policy work to position childhood obesity as increased body fat content or excess adiposity due to various personal, social, and economic factors. Drawing on Barad's "agential realist ontology", this article aims to inhabit-with obesity in an effort to disrupt dominant…

  8. A systematic review of health videogames on childhood obesity prevention and intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health video games are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health video games on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health video ames published betwee...

  9. Improving Childhood Obesity Treatment Using New Technologies: The ETIOBE System

    PubMed Central

    Baños, Rosa. M; Cebolla, Ausias; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Oliver, Elia; Zaragoza, Irene; Alcaniz, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem in western culture. Sedentary lifestyles and an “obesogenic environment” are the main influences on children leading to an increase in obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe an e-health platform for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity called ETIOBE. This e-health platform is an e-therapy system for the treatment of obesity, aimed at improving treatment adherence and promoting the mechanisms of self-control in patients, to obtain weight loss maintenance and to prevent relapse by establishing healthy lifestyle habits. ETIOBE is composed of three different applications, the Clinician Support System (CSS), the Home Support System (HSS) and the Mobile Support System (MSS). The use of new Information and Communication (ICT) technologies can help clinicians to improve the effectiveness of weight loss treatments, especially in the case of children, and to achieve designated treatment goals. PMID:21559232

  10. Improving Childhood Obesity Treatment Using New Technologies: The ETIOBE System.

    PubMed

    Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausias; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Oliver, Elia; Zaragoza, Irene; Alcaniz, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem in western culture. Sedentary lifestyles and an "obesogenic environment" are the main influences on children leading to an increase in obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe an e-health platform for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity called ETIOBE. This e-health platform is an e-therapy system for the treatment of obesity, aimed at improving treatment adherence and promoting the mechanisms of self-control in patients, to obtain weight loss maintenance and to prevent relapse by establishing healthy lifestyle habits. ETIOBE is composed of three different applications, the Clinician Support System (CSS), the Home Support System (HSS) and the Mobile Support System (MSS). The use of new Information and Communication (ICT) technologies can help clinicians to improve the effectiveness of weight loss treatments, especially in the case of children, and to achieve designated treatment goals.

  11. Maternal employment and childhood obesity--a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Eiben, Gabriele; M Fernandéz-Alvira, Juan; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kovács, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin

    2013-07-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity. PMID:23721884

  12. Improving Childhood Obesity Treatment Using New Technologies: The ETIOBE System.

    PubMed

    Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausias; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Oliver, Elia; Zaragoza, Irene; Alcaniz, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem in western culture. Sedentary lifestyles and an "obesogenic environment" are the main influences on children leading to an increase in obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe an e-health platform for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity called ETIOBE. This e-health platform is an e-therapy system for the treatment of obesity, aimed at improving treatment adherence and promoting the mechanisms of self-control in patients, to obtain weight loss maintenance and to prevent relapse by establishing healthy lifestyle habits. ETIOBE is composed of three different applications, the Clinician Support System (CSS), the Home Support System (HSS) and the Mobile Support System (MSS). The use of new Information and Communication (ICT) technologies can help clinicians to improve the effectiveness of weight loss treatments, especially in the case of children, and to achieve designated treatment goals. PMID:21559232

  13. The epidemiological transition and the global childhood obesity epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Broyles, S T; Denstel, K D; Church, T S; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is now recognized as a global public health issue. Social patterning of obesity, consistent with the theory of epidemiologic transition, has not been well described in children, and the limited research has focused on developed settings. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between childhood obesity and household income using objective measures of adiposity and to explore how this relationship differs across levels of country human development. METHODS: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) was a multi-national cross-sectional study conducted in 12 urban/suburban study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of development. ISCOLE collected objectively measured height, body mass and percentage body fat in 7341 10-year-old children. Multi-level random-effects models were used to examine income gradients in several obesity measures. RESULTS: The mean age of the children was 10.4 years, and 12.6% were obese, ranging from 5.4% (Finland) to 23.8% (China). For both boys and girls, obesity prevalence, body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) z-score increased linearly with higher income at lower levels of development (all P for trend ⩽0.0012), but decreased linearly with higher income at higher levels of development (all P for trend ⩽0.0003). Country human development explained 75% of the variation in the country-specific income–obesity relationships (r=−0.87, P=0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Results are consistent with the theory of epidemiologic transition. Global efforts to control obesity must account for socioeconomic factors within a country's context. Future research should seek to understand global socioeconomic patterns in obesity-related lifestyle behaviors. PMID:27152182

  14. A new childhood asthma phenotype: obese with early menarche.

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2016-03-01

    Three concomitant phenomena occur in the later years of childhood: increases in the incidence of asthma, obesity and early menarche. This article is an overview of the current epidemiologic, basic, genetic and epigenetic evidence about this relationship. As a consequence we propose that obese girls who have an early menarche (≤ 11 years of age) constitute a new asthma phenotype in childhood. Future studies need to be carried out in order to find the best control and treatment of this new asthma phenotype. PMID:26644272

  15. Prevention of childhood obesity: sociocultural and familial factors.

    PubMed

    Bruss, Mozhdeh B; Morris, Joseph; Dannison, Linda

    2003-08-01

    This study examined sociocultural and familial factors related to the prevention of childhood obesity. Primary caregivers of 6- to 10-year-old children representing several ethnic populations in Saipan participated in 4 focus groups (N=32). Trained moderators used semi-structured interviews and qualitative methods were used in data analysis. A central theme with several related factors emerged. The theme was a conflict expressed by the primary caregiver between sociocultural values, family expectations, traditional dietary beliefs and attitudes, and knowledge about food and disease. These findings have important implications for designing culturally sensitive interventions for prevention of childhood obesity.

  16. Mental health, wellness, and childhood overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; McVey, Gail; Bardick, Angela; Ireland, Alana

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc.), little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems); psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape), and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors). We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status. PMID:22778915

  17. International epidemic of childhood obesity and television viewing.

    PubMed

    Guran, T; Bereket, A

    2011-12-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity.

  18. International epidemic of childhood obesity and television viewing.

    PubMed

    Guran, T; Bereket, A

    2011-12-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity. PMID:22075803

  19. [Can we stop the epidemic of childhood obesity?].

    PubMed

    Puder, J J; Kriemler, S

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity influences body weight in the adult and is intrinsically associated with multiple co-morbidities. In the past 20 years, the prevalence of overweight and obese school children in Switzerland has increased by three to six-fold. One out of every four to five children is overweight or obese. Thus, primary prevention is absolutely essential. Excess weight results from a positive energy balance. According to the current literature, changes in the quantity and quality of nutrition, a reduction in physical activity, an increase in sedentary lifestyles, including media consumption, as well as a reduction of sleep time are the most important external factors that promote the development of childhood obesity after infancy. Hereby, the intrauterine milieu and genetic factors also play a role. The obesity epidemic particularly affects children born to overweight parents, children with low socio-economic status, and migrants. Randomized, controlled studies aimed at medium to long-term (> or =1 year) reductions in BMI or fat tissue have mainly been school-based and sometimes involved the family as well. Unfortunately, these studies only produced unanimously negative or modest results. We believe that successful and sustainable prevention must contain 3 elements: (1) A relatively intensive and sustained modification of the individual's behavior that appropriately accounts for the multifactorial causes of childhood obesity. (2) A concurrent adaptation of external conditions that enable behavioral modifications. (3) Incorporation of socio-economic and political aspects.

  20. Sensitizing Future Health Professionals to Determinants of Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosemond, Tiara N; Blake, Christine E; Buff, Scotty M; Blake, Elizabeth W; Dunn, Brianne L; Browne, Teri; Bell, Bethany A; Iachini, Aidyn L

    2016-07-01

    Long-term solutions to the childhood obesity epidemic will require concerted interdisciplinary efforts that are sensitive to both individual and social determinants of health. The Junior Doctors of Health© (JDOH) program involves interprofessional education (IPE) with university students from health science fields (e.g., medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health) who deliver an interactive program in teams to at-risk school-aged youth. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of participation in the JDOH IPE program on university students' beliefs about childhood obesity. Fifty-three of the 71 health sciences students enrolled in the JDOH IPE program between 2011 and 2013 participated in this study. Pre- and post-surveys assessed students' beliefs about the importance, causes of, and responsibility for reducing childhood obesity with both closed- and open-ended questions. In 2013, quantitative data were analyzed using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests and qualitative data were analyzed through open coding to identify emergent themes. Results indicate that after participation in the JDOH IPE program, students' identification of social and environmental causes of childhood obesity increased significantly. Further, students' ranking of the importance of obesity was initially higher than those of different issues typically portrayed as social or environmental (e.g., youth violence) but it was similarly ranked after participation in JDOH. This suggests a greater sensitivity to social and environmental challenges faced by youth. Findings suggest that IPE experiences that bring clinical and community-oriented health professions together to engage with disadvantaged youth foster sensitivity to the complexities of childhood obesity in low-income settings.

  1. Childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop

    2013-03-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (< 40 y). Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG'). PMID:23334584

  2. Childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop

    2013-03-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (< 40 y). Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG').

  3. Gendered dimensions of obesity in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen N

    2008-01-01

    Background The literature on childhood and adolescent obesity is vast. In addition to producing a general overview, this paper aims to highlight gender differences or similarities, an area which has tended not to be the principal focus of this literature. Methods Databases were searched using the terms 'obesity' and 'child', 'adolescent', 'teenager', 'youth', 'young people', 'sex', 'gender', 'masculine', 'feminine', 'male', 'female', 'boy' and 'girl' (or variations on these terms). In order to limit the potential literature, the main focus is on other reviews, both general and relating to specific aspects of obesity. Results The findings of genetic studies are similar for males and females, and differences in obesity rates as defined by body mass index are generally small and inconsistent. However, differences between males and females due to biology are evident in the patterning of body fat, the fat levels at which health risks become apparent, levels of resting energy expenditure and energy requirements, ability to engage in certain physical activities and the consequences of obesity for the female reproductive system. Differences due to society or culture include food choices and dietary concerns, overall physical activity levels, body satisfaction and the long-term psychosocial consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Conclusion This review suggests differences between males and females in exposure and vulnerability to obesogenic environments, the consequences of child and adolescent obesity, and responses to interventions for the condition. A clearer focus on gender differences is required among both researchers and policy makers within this field. PMID:18194542

  4. A new insight into food addiction in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Keser, Alev; Yüksel, Ayşegül; Yeşiltepe-Mutlu, Gül; Bayhan, Asuman; Özsu, Elif; Hatun, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled eating behavior in obese subjects is very similar to behavior in food addiction, suggesting a relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between childhood obesity and food addiction and to determine the frequency of food addiction among obese children and adolescents. The study included 100 overweight and obese children. Food addiction was evaluated by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The cutoff value for food addiction was defined as the presence of 3 or more symptoms. Participants were between 10 and 18 years of age; 63% were girls. Of the participants, 71% had food addiction. The most addictive foods were chocolate, ice cream, carbonated beverages, French fries, white bread, rice, candy, chips and pasta, in decreasing order of frequency. Experiencing a frequent feeling of hunger was associated with a 2.2-fold increase in food addiction risk, while consumption of French fries ≥1-2 times per week was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in risk (p<0.05). The high YFAS scores in obese and overweight adolescents suggest that food addiction plays an important role in childhood obesity. Evaluation of food addiction in more detail may open a new perspective on the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  5. Childhood Obesity: Implications for Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heston, Melissa L.

    1983-01-01

    Physical education teachers can help obese children develop effective movement patterns while encouraging an active lifestyle. Teachers should be familiar with: (1) the impact of obesity on children's physical and mental health; (2) the importance of exercise for weight control; and (3) implications for the physical education program. (PP)

  6. School Nutrition Programs and the Incidence of Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention. Using panel data on more than 13,500 primary school students, we assess the relationship between SBP and NSLP participation and (relatively) long-run measures of child weight. After documenting a…

  7. Teachers as Partners in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruss, Mozhdeh B.; Dannison, Linda; Morris, Joseph R.; Quitugua, Jackie; Palacios, Rosa T.; McGowan, Judy; Michael, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the…

  8. What Can We Do to Prevent Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumeng, Julie

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the growing problem of childhood obesity and suggests guidelines for professionals to recommend to parents. Research has shown that an overweight child at 3 years is nearly eight times as likely to become an overweight young adult as is a typically developing 3-year-old. More of America's children are becoming overweight, and…

  9. The Role of Parents in Preventing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Ana C.; Sussner, Katarina M.; Kim, Juhee; Gortmaker, Steven

    2006-01-01

    As researchers continue to analyze the role of parenting both in the development of childhood overweight and in obesity prevention, studies of child nutrition and growth are detailing the ways in which parents affect their children's development of food- and activity-related behaviors. Ana Lindsay, Katarina Sussner, Juhee Kim, and Steven Gortmaker…

  10. Effectiveness of interventions in the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Doreste, Jorge; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity, as with that of adulthood, has increased considerably over the past few years and has become a serious public health problem. Once established, its treatment is very difficult and, hence, prevention of childhood obesity using different types of intervention appears promising. The objective of this present report is to review interventions that had been conducted over the past 11 years in the environment of the family, schools and community, and directed towards the prevention of childhood obesity. We reviewed the different strategies employed, the different criteria used in defining weight status, the evaluation and follow-up methods, and the degree of effectiveness. Benefits other than reduced weight gain were assessed, as well. In our review, we selected 14 intervention studies. The differences in design, duration and outcome assessments make direct comparison difficult. Nevertheless, it seems that nutritional education and promotion of physical activity together with behaviour modifications, decrease in sedentary activities and the collaboration of the family could be the determining factors in the prevention of childhood obesity. Other important benefits regarding healthy habits apart from the changes in weight status were pursued in the majority of the studies reviewed. The need for well-designed studies that examine a range of interventions remains a priority.

  11. Bariatric Bypass Surgery to Resolve Complicated Childhood Morbid Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Elbanna, Abduh; Eldin, Mohammed Tag; Fathy, Mohammad; Osman, Osama; Abdelfattah, Mohammed; Safwat, Abdelrahman; Elkader, Mohammed Sedki Abd; Bilasy, Shymaa E.; salama, Khaled; Elnour, Asim A.; Shehab, Abdullah; Baghdady, Shazly; Amer, Mohamed; Alboraie, Mohamed; ragb, Aly; Elrazek, Abd Elrazek Abd

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Children obesity has become one of the most important public health problems in many countries worldwide. Although the awareness of childhood obesity as a modifiable health risk is high, but many societies do not prioritize this issue as a health care problem, which may lead to comorbidities and even premature death. Despite the rising interest in bariatric surgery for children, only laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is being considered in resolving childhood obesity who failed other dietary or drug therapies; however many of LSG procedures failed to reduce the weight in children or resulted in complications postsurgery. Here, we present a novel bariatric procedure to clue out a female child 13 years old presented with Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease-associated morbid obesity. The surgical bariatric technique applied both fundal resection and surgical bypass in pediatric obesity using the Elbanna novel bariatric technique. Bariatric surgical bypass may be considered in complicated-childhood cases who failed all other options. PMID:26656361

  12. Major initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada: the year in review.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews 15 significant initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada between September 2010 and September 2011. These include the: announcement of a Federal-Provincial-Territorial framework for action to promote healthy weights; implementation of the nutrition labeling initiative; launch of the CBC "Live Right Now" campaign; announcement of the Public Health Agency of Canada's innovation strategy funding related to obesity; publication of the Canadian Health Measures Survey physical activity findings; release of new Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines; launch of ParticipACTION's "Think Again" campaign; workshop on building trust to address the epidemic of obesity; start of the Canadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry; initiation of "Our Health Our Future: A National Dialogue on Healthy Weights"; release of the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth; National Obesity Summit; Nature Play Day and Sports Day in Canada; development of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy; and the creation of Active Canada 20/20--A National Physical Activity Plan. The diversity and intensity of activity addressing the childhood obesity and physical inactivity "epidemic" in Canada is encouraging and must be maintained and enhanced.

  13. Major initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada: the year in review.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews 15 significant initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada between September 2010 and September 2011. These include the: announcement of a Federal-Provincial-Territorial framework for action to promote healthy weights; implementation of the nutrition labeling initiative; launch of the CBC "Live Right Now" campaign; announcement of the Public Health Agency of Canada's innovation strategy funding related to obesity; publication of the Canadian Health Measures Survey physical activity findings; release of new Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines; launch of ParticipACTION's "Think Again" campaign; workshop on building trust to address the epidemic of obesity; start of the Canadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry; initiation of "Our Health Our Future: A National Dialogue on Healthy Weights"; release of the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth; National Obesity Summit; Nature Play Day and Sports Day in Canada; development of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy; and the creation of Active Canada 20/20--A National Physical Activity Plan. The diversity and intensity of activity addressing the childhood obesity and physical inactivity "epidemic" in Canada is encouraging and must be maintained and enhanced. PMID:22905632

  14. Primary care providers' knowledge, practices, and perceived barriers to the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Spivack, Jordan G; Swietlik, Maggie; Alessandrini, Evaline; Faith, Myles S

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated primary care providers' (PCPs, pediatricians, and nurse practitioners) knowledge, current practices, and perceived barriers to childhood obesity prevention and treatment, with an emphasis on first-year well-child care visits. A questionnaire was distributed to 192 PCPs in the primary care network at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) addressing (i) knowledge of obesity and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines, (ii) anticipatory guidance practices at well visits regarding nutrition and exercise, and (iii) perceived barriers to childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Eighty pediatricians and seven nurse practitioners responded, and a minority correctly identified the definition (26%) and prevalence (9%) of childhood overweight and AAP guidelines for exercise (39%) and juice consumption (44%). Most PCPs (81%) spent 11-20 min per well visit during the first 2 years, and 79% discussed diet, nutrition, and exercise for > or =3 min. Although >95% of PCPs discussed juice, fruits and vegetables, sippy cups, and finger foods during the first year, over 35% never discussed fast food, TV, or candy, and 55% never discussed exercise. Few rated current resources as adequate to treat or prevent childhood obesity. Over 90% rated the following barriers for obesity prevention and treatment as important or very important: parent is not motivated, child is not motivated, parents are overweight, families often have fast food, watch too much TV, and do not get enough exercise. In conclusion, there is much room to improve PCPs' knowledge of obesity and AAP guidelines. Although PCPs rate fast-food consumption, TV viewing, and lack of exercise as important treatment barriers, many never discussed these topics during the first year.

  15. Oxidative Stress Status in Childhood Obesity: A Potential Risk Predictor

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Elif; Özer, Ömer Faruk; Erek, Aybala Toprak; Erman, Hayriye; Torun, Emel; Ayhan, Sıddıka Kesgin; Caglar, Hifa Gülru; Selek, Sahbettin; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity characterized by excessive fat in the body is one of the most serious health problems worldwide due to the social, medical, and physiological complications. Obesity and associated diseases are triggering factors for oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between childhood obesity and inflammatory and oxidative status. Material/Methods Thirty-seven obese children and 37 healthy controls selected from among children admitted to BLIND University Paediatrics Department were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements were performed using standard methods. Glucose, lipid parameters, CRP, insulin, total oxidant status (TOS), total anti-oxidant status (TAS) levels, and total thiol levels (TTL) were measured in serum. HOMA index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. The differences between the groups were evaluated statistically using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results Body mass index was significantly higher in the obese group (median: 28.31(p<0.001). Glucose metabolism, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in the obese group (both p<0.001). Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the obese group (p<0.001). TAS (med: 2.5 μmol Trolox eq/L (1.7–3.3)) and TOS (med: 49.1 μmol H2O2 eq/L (34.5–78.8)) levels and TTL (med: 0.22 mmol/L (0.16–0.26)) were significantly higher in the obese group (p=0.001). CRP levels showed positive correlation with TOS and negative correlation with TTL levels (p=0.005, r=0.473; p=0.01, r=−0.417; respectively). TTL levels exhibited negative correlation with TOS levels (p=0.03, r=−0.347). Conclusions In conclusion, obese children were exposed to more oxidative burden than children with normal weight. Increased systemic oxidative stress induced by childhood obesity can cause development of obesity-related complications and diseases. Widely focussed studies are required on the use

  16. Childhood obesity: are we missing the big picture?

    PubMed

    Maziak, W; Ward, K D; Stockton, M B

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide, raising alarm about future trends of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. This article discusses what may underlie our failure to respond effectively to the obesity epidemic, and presents a wider perspective for future research and public health agendas. So far targeting individual-level determinants and clinical aspects of childhood obesity has produced limited success. There is growing interest in understanding the wider determinants of obesity such as the built environment (e.g. walkability), social interactions, food marketing and prices, but much needs to be learned. Particularly, we need to identify distal modifiable factors with multiple potential that would make them attractive for people and policymakers alike. For example, walking-biking-friendly cities can reduce obesity as well as energy consumption, air pollution and traffic delays. Such agenda needs to be driven by strong evidence from research involving multi-level influences on behaviour, as well as the study of wider politico-economic trends affecting people's choices. This article highlights available evidence and arguments for research and policy needed to curb the obesity epidemic. The upstream approach underlying these arguments aims to make healthy choices not only the most rational, but also the most feasible and affordable.

  17. Electronic Health Records and Community Health Surveillance of Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Tracy L.; Zhao, Ying-Qi; Tomayko, Emily J.; Tandias, Aman; Carrel, Aaron L.; Hanrahan, Lawrence P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity remains a public health concern, and tracking local progress may require local surveillance systems. Electronic health record data may provide a cost-effective solution. Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of estimating childhood obesity rates using de-identified electronic health records for the purpose of public health surveillance and health promotion. Methods Data were extracted from the Public Health Information Exchange (PHINEX) database. PHINEX contains de-identified electronic health records from patients primarily in south central Wisconsin. Data on children and adolescents (aged 2–19 years, 2011–2012, n=93,130) were transformed in a two-step procedure that adjusted for missing data and weighted for a national population distribution. Weighted and adjusted obesity rates were compared to the 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Data were analyzed in 2014. Results The weighted and adjusted obesity rate was 16.1% (95% CI=15.8, 16.4). Non-Hispanic white children and adolescents (11.8%, 95% CI=11.5, 12.1) had lower obesity rates compared to non-Hispanic black (22.0%, 95% CI=20.7, 23.2) and Hispanic (23.8%, 95% CI=22.4, 25.1) patients. Overall, electronic health record–derived point estimates were comparable to NHANES, revealing disparities from preschool onward. Conclusions Electronic health records that are weighted and adjusted to account for intrinsic bias may create an opportunity for comparing regional disparities with precision. In PHINEX patients, childhood obesity disparities were measurable from a young age, highlighting the need for early intervention for at-risk children. The electronic health record is a cost-effective, promising tool for local obesity prevention efforts. PMID:25599907

  18. Policy Approaches to Offset Childhood Food Insecurity and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broberg, Danielle M.; Broberg, Katharine A.; McGuire, Jenifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Policies originally designed to address food insecurity are in need of revision due to rising rates of obesity among those they serve. Within the context of national policies, this article uses an ecological perspective to consider the links between food insecurity and obesity. The recommendations include adjusting the nutritional standards of the…

  19. Childhood obesity in Taiwan: review of the Taiwanese literature.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Lin; FitzGerald, Mary

    2005-06-01

    In a number of countries, including Taiwan, the prevalence of childhood obesity has been steadily increasing. A study to assess school nurses' perspective on their role in supporting children and preventing childhood obesity in Taiwan is currently being undertaken. A search of the literature reveals that most research publications come from the West and these studies have been useful. However, it is important to isolate the research and policy materials that take into account the contextually and culturally relevant factors in Taiwan and neighboring countries. Findings from a review of the Taiwanese literature are presented in this paper. The literature reveals the factors associated with the prevalence of childhood obesity and prevention strategies. A significant proportion of the research is medical and focuses on cardiovascular disease rather than health promotion and education. However, there are findings in this review that generally support health promotion activities and programs that are school based. There appears to be an urgent need for investment in research that assesses the long-term effectiveness of interventions designed to promote the maintenance of healthy weight during childhood in the Taiwanese society. Western literature is referred to occasionally in this paper in order to introduce an issue or to compare with a Taiwanese paper.

  20. Assessment of Endothelial Dysfunction in Childhood Obesity and Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Hoymans, Vicky Y.; Van Craenenbroeck, Amaryllis H.; Vissers, Dirk K.; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Conraads, Viviane M.

    2013-01-01

    The association of obesity with noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular complications and diabetes, is considered a major threat to the management of health care worldwide. Epidemiological findings show that childhood obesity is rapidly rising in Western society, as well as in developing countries. This pandemic is not without consequences and can affect the risk of future cardiovascular disease in these children. Childhood obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction, the first yet still reversible step towards atherosclerosis. Advanced research techniques have added further insight on how childhood obesity and associated comorbidities lead to endothelial dysfunction. Techniques used to measure endothelial function were further brought to perfection, and novel biomarkers, including endothelial progenitor cells, were discovered. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical overview on both in vivo as well as in vitro markers for endothelial integrity. Additionally, an in-depth description of the mechanisms that disrupt the delicate balance between endothelial damage and repair will be given. Finally, the effects of lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy on endothelial dysfunction will be reviewed. PMID:23691262

  1. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-09-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors.

  2. Childhood obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muzumdar, Hiren

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity in children seems to be associated with an increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to this association include the following: adenotonsillar hypertrophy due to increased somatic growth, increased critical airway closing pressure, altered chest wall mechanics, and abnormalities of ventilatory control. However, the details of these mechanisms and their interactions have not been elucidated. In addition, obesity and OSAS are both associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a constellation of features such as hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory states. There is some evidence that OSAS may contribute to the progression of metabolic syndrome with a potential for significant morbidity. The treatment of OSAS in obese children has not been standardized. Adenotonsillectomy is considered the primary intervention followed by continuous positive airway pressure treatment if OSAS persists. Other methods such as oral appliances, surgery, positional therapy, and weight loss may be beneficial for individual subjects. The present review discusses these issues and suggests an approach to the management of obese children with snoring and possible OSAS. PMID:19875714

  3. Motivational Interviewing in Childhood Obesity Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Borrello, Maria; Pietrabissa, Giada; Ceccarini, Martina; Manzoni, Gian M.; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is one of today’s most diffused and severe public health problems worldwide. It affects both adults and children with critical physical, social, and psychological consequences. The aim of this review is to appraise the studies that investigated the effects of motivational interviewing techniques in treating overweight and obese children. The electronic databases PubMed and PsychINFO were searched for articles meeting inclusion criteria. The review included studies based on the application of motivational interviewing (MI) components and having the objective of changing body mass index (BMI) in overweight or obese children from age 2 to age 11. Six articles have been selected and included in this review. Three studies reported that MI had a statistically significant positive effect on BMI and on secondary obesity-related behavior outcomes. MI can be applicable in the treatment of overweight and obese children, but its efficacy cannot be proved given the lack of studies carried out on this specific sample. PMID:26617555

  4. Preventing childhood obesity through state policy: qualitative assessment of enablers and barriers.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Elizabeth A; Fleming, Chris; Boehmer, Tegan K; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Luke, Douglas A; Brownson, Ross C

    2009-01-01

    As the prevalence of obesity rapidly climbs among youth in the United States, public health practitioners and policymakers seek effective means of slowing and reversing these trends. Recently, many state laws and regulations addressing childhood obesity have been introduced and enacted. Understanding determinants of such legislation may inform the development and passage of future policies. For this study, key-informant interviews were conducted with 16 legislators and staffers from 11 states in 2005-2006 to examine qualitative factors that enable and impede state-level childhood obesity prevention legislation. Commonly cited factors positively influencing the passage of childhood obesity prevention legislation included national media exposure, introduction of the policy by senior legislators, and gaining the support of key players including parents, physicians, and schools. Noteworthy barriers included powerful lobbyists of companies that produce unhealthy foods and misconceptions about legislating foods at schools. Although the total number of informants was modest, their valuable insights provide policymakers and practitioners with a set of enablers and barriers to be considered when pursuing state-level policy. PMID:19190572

  5. 3 CFR 8852 - Proclamation 8852 of August 31, 2012. National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2012 8852 Proclamation 8852 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8852 of August 31, 2012 Proc. 8852 National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2012By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Over the past several decades, childhood...

  6. Shaping a Healthier Generation: Successful State Strategies to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulheron, Joyal; Vonasek, Kara

    2009-01-01

    Studies show that childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Today, more than 23 million American children--or nearly one in every three--are overweight or obese. If childhood obesity is left unaddressed, a generation of individuals could face health, social, and economic challenges that promise to stress government…

  7. Childhood Obesity and Schools: Evidence from the National Survey of Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ji; Hooker, Neal H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The international prevalence of childhood obesity and obesity-related diseases has received increasing attention. Applying data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we explore relationships between childhood obesity and school type, National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) eligibility,…

  8. 3 CFR 9007 - Proclamation 9007 of August 30, 2013. National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2013 9007 Proclamation 9007 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9007 of August 30, 2013 Proc. 9007 National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2013By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In the United States, obesity affects millions...

  9. Designing Insurance to Promote Use of Childhood Obesity Prevention Services

    PubMed Central

    Rask, Kimberly J.; Gazmararian, Julie A.; Kohler, Susan S.; Hawley, Jonathan N.; Bogard, Jenny; Brown, Victoria A.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a recognized public health crisis. This paper reviews the lessons learned from a voluntary initiative to expand insurance coverage for childhood obesity prevention and treatment services in the United States. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with key informants from 16 participating health plans and employers in 2010-11. Key informants reported difficulty ensuring that both providers and families were aware of the available services. Participating health plans and employers are beginning new tactics including removing enrollment requirements, piloting enhanced outreach to selected physician practices, and educating providers on effective care coordination and use of obesity-specific billing codes through professional organizations. The voluntary initiative successfully increased private health insurance coverage for obesity services, but the interviews described variability in implementation with both best practices and barriers identified. Increasing utilization of obesity-related health services in the long term will require both family- and provider-focused interventions in partnership with improved health insurance coverage. PMID:23691284

  10. Childhood obesity, adipose tissue distribution, and the pediatric practitioner.

    PubMed

    Slyper, A H

    1998-07-01

    The prevalence of pediatric obesity is increasing in the United States. Sequelae from pediatric obesity are increasingly being seen, and long-term complications can be anticipated. Obesity is the most common cause of abnormal growth acceleration in childhood. Obesity in females is associated with an early onset of puberty and early menarche. Puberty is now occurring earlier in females than in the past, and this is probably related either directly or indirectly to the population increase in body weight. The effect of obesity on male pubertal maturation is more variable, and obesity can lead to both early and delayed puberty. Pubertal gynecomastia is a common problem in the obese male. Many of the complications of obesity seen in adults appear to be related to increased accumulation of visceral fat. It has been proposed that subcutaneous fat may be protective against the adverse effects of visceral fat. Males typically accumulate fat in the upper segment of the body, both subcutaneously and intraabdominally. In females, adiposity is usually subcutaneous and is found particularly over the thighs, although visceral fat deposition also occurs. Gender-related patterns of fat deposition become established during puberty and show significant familial associations. There are no reliable means for assessing childhood and adolescent visceral fat other than radiologically. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes is being seen more commonly in the pediatric population. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are noted particularly in obese children with a family history of diabetes. In this situation, a glucose tolerance test may be indicated, even in the presence of fasting normoglycemia. Hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels are the primary lipid abnormalities of obesity and are related primarily to the amount of visceral fat. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels are not typically elevated in simple obesity. The offspring of parents with early

  11. Childhood obesity, adipose tissue distribution, and the pediatric practitioner.

    PubMed

    Slyper, A H

    1998-07-01

    The prevalence of pediatric obesity is increasing in the United States. Sequelae from pediatric obesity are increasingly being seen, and long-term complications can be anticipated. Obesity is the most common cause of abnormal growth acceleration in childhood. Obesity in females is associated with an early onset of puberty and early menarche. Puberty is now occurring earlier in females than in the past, and this is probably related either directly or indirectly to the population increase in body weight. The effect of obesity on male pubertal maturation is more variable, and obesity can lead to both early and delayed puberty. Pubertal gynecomastia is a common problem in the obese male. Many of the complications of obesity seen in adults appear to be related to increased accumulation of visceral fat. It has been proposed that subcutaneous fat may be protective against the adverse effects of visceral fat. Males typically accumulate fat in the upper segment of the body, both subcutaneously and intraabdominally. In females, adiposity is usually subcutaneous and is found particularly over the thighs, although visceral fat deposition also occurs. Gender-related patterns of fat deposition become established during puberty and show significant familial associations. There are no reliable means for assessing childhood and adolescent visceral fat other than radiologically. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes is being seen more commonly in the pediatric population. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are noted particularly in obese children with a family history of diabetes. In this situation, a glucose tolerance test may be indicated, even in the presence of fasting normoglycemia. Hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels are the primary lipid abnormalities of obesity and are related primarily to the amount of visceral fat. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels are not typically elevated in simple obesity. The offspring of parents with early

  12. Making a Difference in Early Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Dan

    2009-01-01

    News reports calling attention to the steady increase in the number of overweight adults have become an accepted part of our media landscape. Worse still, warnings continue that more and more young children, like the adults who care for them, are carrying too much weight. Unfortunately, this bad news about our growing obesity problem isn't just…

  13. Poverty, Food Programs, and Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Curtin, Sally

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen percent of children 6-11 years of age were classified as overweight in 1999-2002, four times the percentage in 1965. Although poverty has traditionally been associated with underweight as a result of poor diet, researchers have recently pointed to a paradox in the U.S., which is that low income and obesity can coexist in the same…

  14. Stopping Childhood Obesity before It Begins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Deborah; Arens, Sheila A.; Germeroth, Carrie; Hein, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Preschool is a crucial time for obesity prevention, as children are developing eating and physical activity habits. A lack of physical activity at preschool may contribute more to overweight children than parental influences such as modeling and supporting physical activity or providing fitness equipment in the home. Let Me Play is a comprehensive…

  15. Birth weight and childhood obesity: a 12-country study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Y; Ma, J; Wang, Y; Li, W; Katzmarzyk, P T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Johnson, W D; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Church, T S; Zhao, P; Hu, G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated the association between the full range of birth weight and the risk of childhood obesity in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between different levels of birth weight and the risk of obesity among children aged 9–11 years in 12 countries. METHODS: A multinational, cross-sectional study of 5141 children aged 9–11 years was conducted in 12 countries. Height and weight were obtained using standardized methods. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary and sleeping were objectively measured using 24-h, waist-worn accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+) monitored for 7 days. Birth weight and other factors (regions, parental education, maternal history of gestational diabetes, children age, gender, breast feeding, gestational age, unhealthy diet scores and healthy diet scores) were collected by parental and children's questionnaires. Multilevel modeling was used to account for the nested nature of the data. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of obesity (BMI z-score>+2 s.d.) was 15.4% for boys and 10.0% for girls. There was a positive association between birth weight and BMI z-scores. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of childhood obesity were significantly higher among children whose birth weights were 3500–3999 g (OR 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–1.92), and >4000 g (OR 2.08; 95% CI: 1.47–2.93), compared with the reference group (2500–2999 g). The positive association between birth weight and the odds of childhood obesity was seen in girls, whereas a U-shaped association appeared in boys. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of birth weight, defined as birth weight ⩾3500 g, were associated with increased odds of obesity among 9–11-year-old children in 12 countries. However, sex differences in the association between birth weight and the risk of obesity need to be considered when planning interventions to reduce

  16. Environmental influences on childhood obesity: ethnic and cultural influences in context.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2008-04-22

    Ethnicity is associated with differences in food-related beliefs, preferences, and behaviors, and cultural influences may contribute to the higher than average risk of obesity among children and youth in U.S. ethnic minority populations. However, cultural attitudes and beliefs are not the only potential source of ethnic variation in childhood obesity prevalence and should not be studied in isolation. Demographic, socio-structural, and environmental variables must also be considered. Available evidence indicates ethnic differences along several pathways that may increase risks of obesity development during gestation, infancy, childhood and adolescence. These include above-average prevalence of obesity in adult females and of maternal diabetes during pregnancy, parental attitudes and practices that may lead to overfeeding children, above-average levels of consumption of certain high calorie foods and beverages, and inadequate physical activity. Environments with lower than average neighborhood availability of healthful foods and higher than average availability of fast food restaurants, along with exposure to ethnically targeted food marketing may contribute to reliance on high calorie foods and beverages, and these foods may be socially and culturally valued. Attitudes about and environmental contexts for physical activity are also relevant. Increasingly, it is acknowledged that individual behaviors and lifestyles, e.g. food choices or child feeding practices, are responsive to the ecological contexts in which they are practiced. Focusing attention on the fluid interactions of cultural influences with contextual factors, of recognized importance for the study of childhood undernutrition, can also lead to further understanding of how to address ethnic disparities in childhood obesity. PMID:18158165

  17. Addressing Obesity in the Workplace: The Role of Employers

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Luann; Darling, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Context: Employers have pursued many strategies over the years to control health care costs and improve care. Disappointed by efforts to manage costs through the use of insurance-related techniques (e.g., prior authorization, restricted provider networks), employers have also begun to try to manage health by addressing their employees' key lifestyle risks. Reducing obesity (along with tobacco use and inactivity) is a priority for employers seeking to lower the incidence and severity of chronic illness and the associated demand for health services. Methods: This article describes the employer's perspective on the cost impact of obesity, discusses current practices in employer-sponsored wellness and weight management programs, provides examples from U.S. companies illustrating key points of employers' leverage and opportunities, and suggests policy directions to support the expansion of employers' initiatives, especially for smaller employers. Findings: Researchers and policymakers often overlook the extensive efforts and considerable impact of employer-sponsored wellness and health improvement programs. Greater focus on opportunities in the workplace is merited, however, for the evidence base supporting the economic and health impacts of employer-sponsored health promotion and wellness is growing, although not as quickly as the experience base of large employers. Conclusions: Public and private employers can serve their own economic interests by addressing obesity. Health care organizations, particularly hospitals, as well as public employers can be important role models. Policy development is needed to accelerate change, especially for smaller employers (those with fewer than 500 employees), which represent the majority of U.S. employers and are far less likely to offer health promotion programs. PMID:19298417

  18. A Positive Deviance Approach to Early Childhood Obesity: Cross-Sectional Characterization of Positive Outliers

    PubMed Central

    Farragher, Jill; Parker, Paige; Hale, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Positive deviance methodology has been applied in the developing world to address childhood malnutrition and has potential for application to childhood obesity in the United States. We hypothesized that among children at high-risk for obesity, evaluating normal weight children will enable identification of positive outlier behaviors and practices. Methods: In a community at high-risk for obesity, a cross-sectional mixed-methods analysis was done of normal weight, overweight, and obese children, classified by BMI percentile. Parents were interviewed using a semistructured format in regard to their children's general health, feeding and activity practices, and perceptions of weight. Results: Interviews were conducted in 40 homes in the lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas with a largely Hispanic (87.5%) population. Demographics, including income, education, and food assistance use, did not vary between groups. Nearly all (93.8%) parents of normal weight children perceived their child to be lower than the median weight. Group differences were observed for reported juice and yogurt consumption. Differences in both emotional feeding behaviors and parents' internalization of reasons for healthy habits were identified as different between groups. Conclusions: We found subtle variations in reported feeding and activity practices by weight status among healthy children in a population at high risk for obesity. The behaviors and attitudes described were consistent with previous literature; however, the local strategies associated with a healthy weight are novel, potentially providing a basis for a specific intervention in this population. PMID:25885174

  19. [How to treat childhood obesity? Importance of primary prevention].

    PubMed

    Farpour-Lambert, N J; Nydegger, A; Kriemler, S; L'Allemand, D; Puder, J J

    2008-02-27

    The prevalence of childhood obesity increases dramatically. First signs of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes appear early in life. The treatment of childhood obesity aims at weight maintenance during growth, normalization of body mass index at long-term and prevention of complications. The family based behavioural therapy is a promising approach. It provides simultaneous treatment for the overweight parent and child in order to modify the family environment, to provide role models and support for child behaviour changes. However, this requires group leaders and multiple counselors to meet with families. The treatment should be initiated as soon as possible, as its efficacy is reduced after the onset of puberty. Early preventive interventions that aim to modify both individual's behaviours and the environment are needed.

  20. Childhood obesity treatment: targeting parents exclusively v. parents and children.

    PubMed

    Golan, Moria; Kaufman, Vered; Shahar, Danit R

    2006-05-01

    There is a consensus that interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity should involve the family; however, the extent of the child's involvement has received little attention. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of treating childhood obesity via a family-based health-centred intervention, targeting parents alone v. parents and obese children together. Thirty-two families with obese children of 6-11 years of age were randomised into groups, in which participants were provided for 6 months a comprehensive educational and behavioural programme for a healthy lifestyle. These groups differed in their main agent of change: parents-only v. the parents and the obese child. In both groups, parents were encouraged to foster authoritative parenting styles (parents are both firm and supportive; assume a leadership role in the environmental change with appropriate granting of child's autonomy). Only the intervention aimed at parents-only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage overweight at the end of the programme (P=0.02) as well as at the 1-year follow-up meeting. The differences between groups at both times were significant (P<0.05). A greater reduction in food stimuli in the home (P<0.05) was noted in the parents-only group. In both groups, the parents' weight status did not change. Regression analysis shows that the level of attendance in sessions explained 28 % of the variability in the children's weight status change, the treatment group explained another 10 %, and the improvement in the obesogenic load explained 11 % of the variability. These results suggest that omitting the obese child from active participation in the health-centred programme may be beneficial for weight loss and for the promotion of a healthy lifestyle among obese children.

  1. Childhood Obesity & Dental Disease: Common Causes, Common Solutions. Oral Health & Obesity Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…

  2. Determinants of childhood obesity: ANIBES study.

    PubMed

    Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem, which is associated with physical, psychological and social problems. The prevalence in children and adolescents has increased dramatically in developed countries and economies in transition in recent decades. It is more common in population groups with lower educational and socioeconomic status. The increase has been attributed to changes in eating habits, with higher consumption of highly processed energy dense foods and low consumption of fruits and vegetables. It has also been associated with low levels of physical activities and with sedentary lifestyles. Some analyses suggest that dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and sleep time tend to cluster, so that such combinations could increase the risk of overweight and obesity. It is important to consider the different clustering patterns of lifestyles when designing intervention strategies for preventive purposes. PMID:27571858

  3. [Epigenetics of childhood obesity and diabetes].

    PubMed

    Valladares-Salgado, Adán; Suárez-Sánchez, Fernando; Burguete-García, Ana I; Cruz, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) result from sedentary lifestyle, high-carbohydrate diets and genetic predisposition. Epigenetics is a form of genetic regulation in specialized cells that does not involve changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence, but it can be inherited to one or more generations through mitosis or meiosis. Children whose mothers develop gestational diabetes are more likely to become obese and diabetic in adult life. DNA methylation is a major mechanism in the regulation of transcription and gene expression of several genes. High levels of glucose and insulin during pregnancy modify the risk of developing T2DM, suggesting that the expression pattern is modified due to cell memory in a specific tissue. If T2DM is linked to adaptation in utero, the obvious primary prevention is to protect the fetal development. Future epidemiological studies need to employ more accurate indicators or markers of development to show the relationship between a specific disease and the exposure to environmental factors. The mechanisms by which malnutrition, and intrauterine growth retardation produce changes in the metabolism of glucose and insuline are worth to explore in order to control obesity and T2DM. PMID:24866314

  4. [Epigenetics of childhood obesity and diabetes].

    PubMed

    Valladares-Salgado, Adán; Suárez-Sánchez, Fernando; Burguete-García, Ana I; Cruz, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) result from sedentary lifestyle, high-carbohydrate diets and genetic predisposition. Epigenetics is a form of genetic regulation in specialized cells that does not involve changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence, but it can be inherited to one or more generations through mitosis or meiosis. Children whose mothers develop gestational diabetes are more likely to become obese and diabetic in adult life. DNA methylation is a major mechanism in the regulation of transcription and gene expression of several genes. High levels of glucose and insulin during pregnancy modify the risk of developing T2DM, suggesting that the expression pattern is modified due to cell memory in a specific tissue. If T2DM is linked to adaptation in utero, the obvious primary prevention is to protect the fetal development. Future epidemiological studies need to employ more accurate indicators or markers of development to show the relationship between a specific disease and the exposure to environmental factors. The mechanisms by which malnutrition, and intrauterine growth retardation produce changes in the metabolism of glucose and insuline are worth to explore in order to control obesity and T2DM.

  5. Psychosocial Perspectives and the Issue of Prevention in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Daniel; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L.; Latzer, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50 years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review, we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors, lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries), being female, belonging to a minority group, and being exposed to adverse life events may all be associated with a greater risk of childhood overweight/obesity. These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above-average food intake of low nutritional quality and reduction in physical activity. Other important psychosocial mediators include the influence of the family and peer environment, and exposure to the media. In the second part of the review, we discuss the potential of psychosocial prevention programs to intervene in the processes involved in the rise of childhood overweight/obesity. Two points are emphasized. First, prevention programs should be multidisciplinary, combining the knowledge of experts from different professions, and taking into consideration the important role of the family environment and relevant influential social organizations, particularly school. Second, effective change is unlikely to occur without large-scale programs carried out on a public policy level. PMID:25133140

  6. Assessment and management of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Baur, Louise A; Hazelton, Briony; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A

    2011-11-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence highlights the need for effective treatment approaches. Initial assessments of these patients should include taking a careful history (investigating comorbidities, family history and potentially modifiable behaviors) and physical examination with BMI plotted on a BMI-for-age chart. The degree of investigation is dependent on the patient's age and severity of obesity, the findings on history and physical examination, and associated familial risk factors. There are several broad principles of conventional management: management of comorbidities; family involvement; taking a developmentally appropriate approach; the use of a range of behavior change techniques; long-term dietary change; increased physical activity; and decreased sedentary behaviors. Orlistat can be useful as an adjunct to lifestyle changes in severely obese adolescents and metformin can be used in older children and adolescents with clinical insulin resistance. Bariatric surgery should be considered in those who are severely obese, with recognition of the need for management in centers with multidisciplinary weight management teams and for surgery to be performed in tertiary institutions experienced in bariatric surgery. Finally, given the high prevalence and chronic nature of obesity, coordinated models of care for health-service delivery for the management of pediatric obesity are needed.

  7. Obesity during and after Treatment for Childhood Cancer.

    PubMed

    Reilly, John J

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a common complication of treatment for some childhood cancers, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and craniopharyngioma. Evidence-based guidance is available for the general paediatric population on the diagnosis, aetiology, consequences, prevention and treatment of obesity, and this should be considered as the starting point for considering such issues in patients with malignancy. In ALL, a high proportion of patients show rapid and excessive weight gain soon after diagnosis which originates partly in lifestyle, in particular via markedly reduced levels of physical activity. Good evidence on risk factors for obesity in ALL is available, and the natural history and aetiology of obesity in ALL are now fairly well understood, while for craniopharyngioma the natural history is reasonably well understood. Understanding the natural history and aetiology of obesity should facilitate preventive interventions in the future. Evidence on preventive interventions is required urgently, and it should focus on promotion of a reduction in sedentary behaviour and increases in physical activity. Such interventions should be helpful in obesity prevention, but could also have a wide range of additional benefits in the prevention or amelioration of other late effects of treatment.

  8. Psychological and physiological correlates of childhood obesity in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of associations between psychopathology and obesity in childhood remains inconsistent, and most studies have been conducted in Western countries. This study investigated psychological and physiological correlates of obesity in a community sample of children in Taiwan. In total, 302 children (157 overweight/obese and 145 healthy-weight children) were selected from first- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in eight elementary schools in 2009. These children participated in a comprehensive health examination, including a physical examination, blood sample analysis, and questionnaire administration. We found that regarding physiological characteristics, compared with the healthy-weight children, the overweight/obese children had significantly higher values for body fat estimated using the bioelectrical impedance method (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.001); lower values for high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001); and worse values for glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), and fasting blood glucose (p = 0.049). In logistic models adjusted for parental and child traits and physiological characteristics, children’s overweight/obesity was significantly associated with lower self-concept (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93–0.99) and less disruptive behavior (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92–0.99). Less disruptive behavior and the lack of a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression in childhood obesity appear to be a unique pattern in Taiwan that warrants further investigation. PMID:26612264

  9. Psychological and physiological correlates of childhood obesity in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of associations between psychopathology and obesity in childhood remains inconsistent, and most studies have been conducted in Western countries. This study investigated psychological and physiological correlates of obesity in a community sample of children in Taiwan. In total, 302 children (157 overweight/obese and 145 healthy-weight children) were selected from first- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in eight elementary schools in 2009. These children participated in a comprehensive health examination, including a physical examination, blood sample analysis, and questionnaire administration. We found that regarding physiological characteristics, compared with the healthy-weight children, the overweight/obese children had significantly higher values for body fat estimated using the bioelectrical impedance method (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.001); lower values for high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001); and worse values for glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), and fasting blood glucose (p = 0.049). In logistic models adjusted for parental and child traits and physiological characteristics, children's overweight/obesity was significantly associated with lower self-concept (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93-0.99) and less disruptive behavior (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99). Less disruptive behavior and the lack of a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression in childhood obesity appear to be a unique pattern in Taiwan that warrants further investigation. PMID:26612264

  10. Preventing childhood obesity: the sentinel site for obesity prevention in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bell, A Colin; Simmons, Anne; Sanigorski, Andrea M; Kremer, Peter J; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2008-12-01

    In spite of greater awareness of the need for action to reduce obesity, the evidence on sustainable community approaches to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity is surprisingly sparse. This paper describes the design and methodological components of the Sentinel Site for Obesity Prevention, a demonstration site in the Barwon-South West region of Victoria, Australia, that aims to build the programs, skills and evidence necessary to attenuate and eventually reverse the obesity epidemic in children and adolescents. The Sentinel Site for Obesity Prevention is based on a partnership between the region's university (Deakin University) and its health, education and local government agencies. The three basic foundations of the Sentinel Site are: multi-strategy, multi-setting interventions; building community capacity; and undertaking program evaluations and population monitoring. Three intervention projects have been supported that cover different age groups (preschool: 2-5 years, primary school: 5-12 years, secondary school: 13-17 years), but that have many characteristics in common including: community participation and ownership of the project; an intervention duration of at least 3 years; and full evaluations with impact (behaviours) and outcome measures (anthropometry) compared with regionally representative comparison populations. We recommend the Sentinel Site approach to others for successfully building evidence for childhood obesity prevention and stimulating action on reducing the epidemic.

  11. A health literate approach to the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard O.; Thompson, Jessica R.; Rothman, Russell L.; Scott, Amanda M. McDougald; Heerman, William J.; Sommer, Evan C.; Barkin, Shari L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe a systematic assessment of patient educational materials for the Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) trial, a childhood obesity prevention study targeting a low health literate population. Methods Process included: (1) expert review of educational content, (2) assessment of the quality of materials including use of the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) tool, and (3) material review and revision with target population. Results 12 core modules were developed and assessed in an iterative process. Average readability was at the 6th grade reading level (SMOG Index 5.63 ± 0.76, and Fry graph 6.0 ± 0.85). SAM evaluation resulted in adjustments to literacy demand, layout & typography, and learning stimulation & motivation. Cognitive interviews with target population revealed additional changes incorporated to enhance participant's perception of acceptability and feasibility for behavior change. Conclusion The GROW modules are a collection of evidence-based materials appropriate for parents with low health literacy and their preschool aged children, that target the prevention of childhood overweight/obesity. Practice implications Most trials addressing the treatment or prevention of childhood obesity use written materials. Due to the ubiquitous prevalence of limited health literacy, our described methods may assist researchers in ensuring their content is both understood and actionable. PMID:24001660

  12. Childhood obesity prevention: an intervention targeting primary caregivers of school children.

    PubMed

    Bruss, Mozhdeh B; Michael, Timothy J; Morris, Joseph R; Applegate, Brooks; Dannison, Linda; Quitugua, Jackie A; Palacios, Rosa T; Klein, David J

    2010-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) was used to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally relevant, science-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a US Commonwealth in the western Pacific. This cognitive behavioral lifestyle intervention, Project Familia Giya Marianas (PFGM), was offered during the 2005-2007 school years in all CNMI public elementary schools over eight sessions to primary caregivers of 3rd grade children (N = 407). A crossover design was utilized with half of the schools offering the intervention in the Fall term, while the other half delivered the sessions in the Spring term. The primary outcome measure was change in BMI z-score. There was an intervention-dependent effect on BMI z-score, with program impact being a function of baseline BMI and the number of lessons attended. This effect was most apparent in students whose baseline BMI z-score was in healthy range (>/=5 to <85 percentile). In both Asian and Pacific Island groups, children whose caregivers completed 5-8 lessons experienced a significant change in BMI z-score as compared to those with 0 lessons (P < 0.05). Research that integrates multidisciplinary and multimethod approaches is effective in identifying and/or devising solutions to address a complex condition such as childhood obesity. PFGM demonstrated that community participation can be successfully utilized in the development and implementation of childhood obesity prevention programs.

  13. Brazil's national programs targeting childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C F; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C

    2013-06-01

    In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5-9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10-19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided to overweight individuals. The Brazilian Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Strategy was launched in 2009 to support health teams to counsel families about healthy feeding, focused on child health and obesity prevention. Within the school environment, the School Health Program offers activities that are developed by PHC teams together with education professionals to focus on assessing health conditions, prevention and health promotion. To improve the nutritional profile of processed foods, terms of cooperation have been signed with the food industry to reduce fat and sodium content. Food industry advertising and marketing to infants and young children are now regulated by the Brazilian Regulation for the Marketing of Foods to Infants and Young Children. PMID:27152158

  14. Brazil's national programs targeting childhood obesity prevention

    PubMed Central

    Silva, A C F; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5–9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10–19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided to overweight individuals. The Brazilian Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Strategy was launched in 2009 to support health teams to counsel families about healthy feeding, focused on child health and obesity prevention. Within the school environment, the School Health Program offers activities that are developed by PHC teams together with education professionals to focus on assessing health conditions, prevention and health promotion. To improve the nutritional profile of processed foods, terms of cooperation have been signed with the food industry to reduce fat and sodium content. Food industry advertising and marketing to infants and young children are now regulated by the Brazilian Regulation for the Marketing of Foods to Infants and Young Children. PMID:27152158

  15. Innovative Tools Help Counselors Discuss Childhood Obesity with Parents

    PubMed Central

    Lockner, Donna; Kibbe, Debra; Marley, Scott C.; Trowbridge, Frederick; Bailey, Angie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Childhood overweight and obesity pose potential health risks for many children under the age of 5 years. Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) nutritionists are in a unique position to help reduce this problem because of their frequent counseling contacts with clients during certification visits. Therefore, four new tools to facilitate nutritional counseling of parents of overweight children during certifications were developed and systematically evaluated. Methods The Nutrition and Activity Self-History (NASH) form, Report Card/Action Plan (ReCAP), Talking Tips, and Healthy Weight Poster were evaluated by WIC nutritionists via an online survey. Anchors on the Likert scale were 0 for Strongly Disagree to 6 for Strongly Agree. Four regional focus groups were also conducted. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results The response rate on the survey was 83% (n=63). Focus groups were comprised of staff that volunteered to participate (n=34). The NASH form, which replaces a food frequency questionnaire for identifying nutrition risk, had a mean rating of 5.20 as “Helpful when counseling about weight.” The ReCAP, Talking Tips, and Healthy Weight Poster achieved mean ratings of 5.70, 4.75, and 5.30, respectively, in this category. Focus group responses were very positive about the usefulness of the ReCAP and Healthy Weight Poster to visually convey the concept of BMI percentile for age using a green, yellow, and red color-coded “traffic light” approach to showing healthy versus unhealthy BMI values. Conclusions WIC programs and other pediatric health care settings may want to consider adopting these innovative tools to better serve their clients and address pediatric overweight in the populations they serve. PMID:23496294

  16. 3 CFR 8554 - Proclamation 8554 of September 1, 2010. National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... obesity crisis, with nearly one in every three of America’s children being overweight or obese. There are... to ensure that our children are able to live full and active lives. During National Childhood Obesity... obesity-related medical conditions. This is not the future to which we want to consign our children,...

  17. Poverty, food programs, and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Hofferth, Sandra L; Curtin, Sally

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen percent of children 6-11 years of age were classified as overweight in 1999-2002, four times the percentage in 1965. Although poverty has traditionally been associated with underweight as a result of poor diet, researchers have recently pointed to a paradox in the U.S., which is that low income and obesity can coexist in the same population. This paper first examines whether income is linked to overweight in school-age children. Second, it explores whether food programs such as the Food Stamp Program, the National School Lunch Program, and the School Breakfast Program are associated with overweight among children in different income groups. The data come from the nationally representative 1997 Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement. No evidence either that poor children are more likely to be overweight or that food programs contribute to overweight among poor children was found. PMID:16201056

  18. Childhood obesity as a predictor of morbidity in adulthood: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, A; Simmonds, M; Owen, C G; Woolacott, N

    2016-01-01

    Obese children are at higher risk of being obese as adults, and adult obesity is associated with an increased risk of morbidity. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the ability of childhood body mass index (BMI) to predict obesity-related morbidities in adulthood. Thirty-seven studies were included. High childhood BMI was associated with an increased incidence of adult diabetes (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.30-2.22), coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.10-1.31) and a range of cancers, but not stroke or breast cancer. The accuracy of childhood BMI when predicting any adult morbidity was low. Only 31% of future diabetes and 22% of future hypertension and CHD occurred in children aged 12 or over classified as being overweight or obese. Only 20% of all adult cancers occurred in children classified as being overweight or obese. Childhood obesity is associated with moderately increased risks of adult obesity-related morbidity, but the increase in risk is not large enough for childhood BMI to be a good predictor of the incidence of adult morbidities. This is because the majority of adult obesity-related morbidity occurs in adults who were of healthy weight in childhood. Therefore, targeting obesity reduction solely at obese or overweight children may not substantially reduce the overall burden of obesity-related disease in adulthood.

  19. Opportunities to Strengthen Childhood Obesity Prevention in Two Mexican Health Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Cespedes, Elizabeth; Andrade, Gloria Oliva Martínez; Rodríguez-Oliveros, Guadalupe; Perez-Cuevas, Ricardo; González-Unzaga, Marco A.; Trejo, Amalia Benitez; Haines, Jess; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine Mexican caregivers’ perceptions of the role of primary care in childhood obesity management, understand the barriers and facilitators of behavior change, and identify opportunities to strengthen obesity prevention and treatment in clinical settings. Methods We conducted 52 in-depth interviews with parents and caregivers of overweight and obese children age 2–5 years in 4 Ministry of Health (public, low SES) and 4 Social Security Institute (insured, higher SES) primary care clinics in Mexico City and did systematic thematic analysis. Results In both health systems, caregivers acknowledged childhood overweight but not its adverse health consequences. Although the majority of parents had not received nutrition or physical activity recommendations from health providers, many were open to clinician guidance. Despite knowledge of healthful nutrition and physical activity, parents identified several barriers to change including child feeding occurring in the context of competing priorities (work schedules, spouses’ food preferences), and cultural norms (heavy as healthy, food as nurturance) that take precedence over adherence to dietary guidelines. Physical activity, while viewed favorably, is not a structured part of most preschooler’s routines as reported by parents. Conclusions The likelihood of success for clinic-based obesity prevention among Mexican preschoolers will be higher by addressing contextual barriers such as cultural norms regarding children’s weight and support of family members for behavior change. Similarities in caregivers’ perceptions across 2 health systems highlight the possibility of developing comprehensive interventions for the population as a whole. PMID:25530836

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity in the United Kingdom: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Scarborough, Peter; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge worldwide. There is a growing literature documenting socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity risk. Here we draw inference from the literature about inequalities in childhood obesity risk in the UK. We summarize and appraise the extant peer-reviewed literature about socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity in the UK. Common area-level indices of socioeconomic position, including the Carstairs Deprivation Index, the Index of Multiple Deprivation and the Townsend Deprivation Index, as well as common household and individual-level metrics of childhood socioeconomic position, including head-of-household social class and maternal education, were generally inversely associated with childhood obesity in the UK. We summarize key methodological limitations to the extant literature and suggest avenues for future research. PMID:23108336

  1. The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE): design and methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) was to determine the relationships between lifestyle behaviours and obesity in a multi-national study of children, and to investigate the influence of higher-order characteristics such as behavioural settings, and the physical, social and policy environments, on the observed relationships within and between countries. Methods/design The targeted sample included 6000 10-year old children from 12 countries in five major geographic regions of the world (Europe, Africa, the Americas, South-East Asia, and the Western Pacific). The protocol included procedures to collect data at the individual level (lifestyle, diet and physical activity questionnaires, accelerometry), family and neighborhood level (parental questionnaires), and the school environment (school administrator questionnaire and school audit tool). A standard study protocol was developed for implementation in all regions of the world. A rigorous system of training and certification of study personnel was developed and implemented, including web-based training modules and regional in-person training meetings. Discussion The results of this study will provide a robust examination of the correlates of adiposity and obesity in children, focusing on both sides of the energy balance equation. The results will also provide important new information that will inform the development of lifestyle, environmental, and policy interventions to address and prevent childhood obesity that may be culturally adapted for implementation around the world. ISCOLE represents a multi-national collaboration among all world regions, and represents a global effort to increase research understanding, capacity and infrastructure in childhood obesity. PMID:24079373

  2. Neighborhoods, Schools and Obesity: The Potential for Place-Based Approaches to Reduce Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Elbel, Brian; Corcoran, Sean P; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    A common policy approach to reducing childhood obesity aims to shape the environment in which children spend most of their time: neighborhoods and schools. This paper uses richly detailed data on the body mass index (BMI) of all New York City public school students in grades K-8 to assess the potential for place-based approaches to reduce child obesity. We document variation in the prevalence of obesity across NYC public schools and census tracts, and then estimate the extent to which this variation can be explained by differences in individual-level predictors (such as race and household income). Both unadjusted and adjusted variability across neighborhoods and schools suggest place-based policies have the potential to meaningfully reduce child obesity, but under most realistic scenarios the improvement would be modest. PMID:27309533

  3. Neighborhoods, Schools and Obesity: The Potential for Place-Based Approaches to Reduce Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Brian; Corcoran, Sean P.; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    A common policy approach to reducing childhood obesity aims to shape the environment in which children spend most of their time: neighborhoods and schools. This paper uses richly detailed data on the body mass index (BMI) of all New York City public school students in grades K-8 to assess the potential for place-based approaches to reduce child obesity. We document variation in the prevalence of obesity across NYC public schools and census tracts, and then estimate the extent to which this variation can be explained by differences in individual-level predictors (such as race and household income). Both unadjusted and adjusted variability across neighborhoods and schools suggest place-based policies have the potential to meaningfully reduce child obesity, but under most realistic scenarios the improvement would be modest. PMID:27309533

  4. Endocrine and Metabolic Biomarkers Predicting Early Childhood Obesity Risk.

    PubMed

    Socha, Piotr; Hellmuth, Christian; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Demmelmair, Hans; Rzehak, Peter; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Escribano, Joaquin; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Dain, Elena; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Riva, Enrica; Verduci, Elvira; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of long-term effects of early dietary intervention in infancy on later obesity risk. Many studies showed reduced risk of obesity with breastfeeding in infancy, which could be related to the reduced protein intake with human milk compared to infant formula. In a randomized controlled trial (Childhood Obesity Project), we were able to show that infant formula with reduced protein content results in lower BMI both at 2 and 6 years. These effects seem to be mediated mainly by branched-chain amino acids which stimulate the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin release. In this trial, we also showed an influence of high-protein diet on larger kidney size, which seems to be partly explained by a significant effect of free IGF-1 on kidney volume. The IGF-1 axis was shown to regulate early growth, adipose tissue differentiation and early adipogenesis in animals and in humans. Leptin and adiponectin can also be regarded as important endocrine regulators of obesity. These markers were tested in observational studies. Leptin seems to be closely correlated with BMI but changes in adiponectin require further exploration. Still, there is a lack of good data or some results are contradictory to indicate the role of either leptin or adiponectin in infancy for determining later obesity risk.

  5. Endocrine and Metabolic Biomarkers Predicting Early Childhood Obesity Risk.

    PubMed

    Socha, Piotr; Hellmuth, Christian; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Demmelmair, Hans; Rzehak, Peter; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Escribano, Joaquin; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Dain, Elena; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Riva, Enrica; Verduci, Elvira; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of long-term effects of early dietary intervention in infancy on later obesity risk. Many studies showed reduced risk of obesity with breastfeeding in infancy, which could be related to the reduced protein intake with human milk compared to infant formula. In a randomized controlled trial (Childhood Obesity Project), we were able to show that infant formula with reduced protein content results in lower BMI both at 2 and 6 years. These effects seem to be mediated mainly by branched-chain amino acids which stimulate the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin release. In this trial, we also showed an influence of high-protein diet on larger kidney size, which seems to be partly explained by a significant effect of free IGF-1 on kidney volume. The IGF-1 axis was shown to regulate early growth, adipose tissue differentiation and early adipogenesis in animals and in humans. Leptin and adiponectin can also be regarded as important endocrine regulators of obesity. These markers were tested in observational studies. Leptin seems to be closely correlated with BMI but changes in adiponectin require further exploration. Still, there is a lack of good data or some results are contradictory to indicate the role of either leptin or adiponectin in infancy for determining later obesity risk. PMID:27088335

  6. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood overweight: heterogeneity across five countries in the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Lissner, L; Wijnhoven, T M A; Mehlig, K; Sjöberg, A; Kunesova, M; Yngve, A; Petrauskiene, A; Duleva, V; Rito, A I; Breda, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excess risk of childhood overweight and obesity occurring in socioeconomically disadvantaged families has been demonstrated in numerous studies from high-income regions, including Europe. It is well known that socioeconomic characteristics such as parental education, income and occupation are etiologically relevant to childhood obesity. However, in the pan-European setting, there is reason to believe that inequalities in childhood weight status may vary among countries as a function of differing degrees of socioeconomic development and equity. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we have examined socioeconomic differences in childhood obesity in different parts of the European region using nationally representative data from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Portugal and Sweden that were collected in 2008 during the first round of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. Results: Heterogeneity in the association between parental socioeconomic indicators and childhood overweight or obesity was clearly observed across the five countries studied. Positive as well as negative associations were observed between parental socioeconomic indicators and childhood overweight, with statistically significant interactions between country and parental indicators. Conclusions: These findings have public health implications for the WHO European Region and underscore the necessity to continue documenting socioeconomic inequalities in obesity in all countries through international surveillance efforts in countries with diverse geographic, social and economic environments. This is a prerequisite for universal as well as targeted preventive actions. PMID:27136760

  7. Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project: Cross-Site Evaluation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mehta, Paras; Thompson, Debbe; Bhargava, Alok; Carlson, Coleen; Kao, Dennis; Layne, Charles S.; Ledoux, Tracey; O'Connor, Teresia; Rifai, Hanadi; Gulley, Lauren; Hallett, Allen M.; Kudia, Ousswa; Joseph, Sitara; Modelska, Maria; Ortega, Dana; Parker, Nathan; Stevens, Andria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project links public health and primary care interventions in three projects described in detail in accompanying articles in this issue of Childhood Obesity. This article describes a comprehensive evaluation plan to determine the extent to which the CORD model is associated with changes in behavior, body weight, BMI, quality of life, and healthcare satisfaction in children 2–12 years of age. Design/Methods: The CORD Evaluation Center (EC-CORD) will analyze the pooled data from three independent demonstration projects that each integrate public health and primary care childhood obesity interventions. An extensive set of common measures at the family, facility, and community levels were defined by consensus among the CORD projects and EC-CORD. Process evaluation will assess reach, dose delivered, and fidelity of intervention components. Impact evaluation will use a mixed linear models approach to account for heterogeneity among project-site populations and interventions. Sustainability evaluation will assess the potential for replicability, continuation of benefits beyond the funding period, institutionalization of the intervention activities, and community capacity to support ongoing program delivery. Finally, cost analyses will assess how much benefit can potentially be gained per dollar invested in programs based on the CORD model. Conclusions: The keys to combining and analyzing data across multiple projects include the CORD model framework and common measures for the behavioral and health outcomes along with important covariates at the individual, setting, and community levels. The overall objective of the comprehensive evaluation will develop evidence-based recommendations for replicating and disseminating community-wide, integrated public health and primary care programs based on the CORD model. PMID:25679060

  8. Childhood obesity: what's health care policy got to do with it?

    PubMed

    Homer, Charles; Simpson, Lisa A

    2007-01-01

    The health care industry must acknowledge its critical role in addressing childhood obesity. All components of the industry--payers, plans, and providers--must act based on the best available evidence. This evidence now points to promoting breastfeeding and increased physical activity, decreased television time, and decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages; the use of more-effective counseling techniques; and linking practice and community-based strategies around a common message. Policies in support of these changes include reimbursement for counseling and community efforts; training; incentives; and support for traditional and pragmatic research, the latter including sharing outcomes using common metrics across programs.

  9. Weighing in on Education: A Study of Childhood Obesity and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guindon, John R., Sr.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative causal comparative study looked to see if there was a relationship between childhood obesity and student achievement. Because of the many conflicting results in the research available, it was not known if there was a relationship between childhood obesity and student achievement among inner-city middle school students in a school…

  10. Keeping Children Active: What You Can Do to Fight Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about childhood obesity and explores ways to fight this condition. The author shares some activities to get children moving to positively impact childhood obesity. These include: "Stand Up/Sit Down;" "Quick Clean-Up;" and "Get Ready Spaghetti."

  11. Childhood Obesity: Causes and Prevention. Symposium Proceedings (Washington, DC, October 27, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services (USDA), Washington, DC. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.

    This report documents the proceedings of a 1998 symposium on the causes and prevention of childhood obesity sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion to focus attention on the growing problem of childhood obesity in the United States and the link between nutrition and health. Following opening…

  12. Mexican American Mothers' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity: A Theory-Guided Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Erica T.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to increase, disproportionately affecting Mexican American children. The aims of this review are to (a) assess the literature regarding Mexican American mothers' knowledge and perceptions of childhood obesity, prevention, and their role in prevention; (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of the research…

  13. Perceptions of Childhood Obesity among Rural Parents, Teachers, and School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Paula J.; Choi, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this exploratory qualitative research were to describe perceptions related to childhood obesity of rural parents, teachers, and school administrators and to examine how their perceptions shape their choices and behaviors for children's eating and physical exercise. The results showed that the perceptions of childhood obesity in the…

  14. Matters of Size: Obesity as a Diversity Issue in the Field of Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    1999-01-01

    Notes that obesity is the primary reason for peer rejection in America; examines effects of obesity on wellness, self-esteem, peer relationships, and social status of children/families and early childhood teachers. Suggests that early childhood educators: (1) educate all stakeholders about nutrition and body size issues; (2) speak out against…

  15. Preventing Childhood Obesity: What Are We Doing Right?

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    After decades of increases, the prevalence of childhood obesity has declined in the past decade in New York City, as measured in children participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and public school students, with the greatest reductions occurring in the youngest children. Possible explanations were changes in demographics; WIC, day care, and school food policies; citywide obesity prevention policies, media messages; and family and community food consumption. Although the decreases cannot be attributed to any one cause, the most plausible explanation is changes in food consumption at home, prompted by media messages and reinforced by school and child care center policy changes. Continued media messages and policy changes are needed to sustain these improvements and extend them to other age groups. PMID:25033123

  16. The "childhood obesity epidemic": health crisis or social construction?

    PubMed

    Moffat, Tina

    2010-03-01

    There has been a meteoric rise over the past two decades in the medical research and media coverage of the so-called global childhood obesity epidemic. Recently, in response to this phenomenon, there has been a spate of books and articles in the fields of critical sociology and cultural studies that have argued that this "epidemic" is socially constructed, what Natalie Boero (2007) dubs a "postmodern epidemic." As an anthropologist who has studied child nutrition and obesity in relation to poverty and the school environment, I am concerned about both the lack of reflexivity among medical researchers as well as critical scholars' treatment of the problem as entirely socially constructed. In this article I present both sides of this debate and then discuss how wee can attempt to navigate a middle course that recognizes this health issue but also offers alternative approaches to those set by the biomedical agenda.

  17. Adiposity in childhood cancer survivors: insights into obesity physiopathology.

    PubMed

    Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2009-03-01

    As childhood cancer treatment has become more effective, survival rates have improved, and a number of complications have been described while many of these patients reach adulthood. Obesity is a well-recognized late effect, and its metabolic effects may lead to cardiovascular disease. Currently, studies concerning overweight have focused on acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors, since they are at risk for hypothalamic-pituitary axis damage secondary to cancer therapies (cranial irradiation, chemotherapy, and brain surgery) or to primary tumor location. Obesity and cancer have metabolic syndrome features in common. Thus, it remains controversial if overweight is a cause or consequence of cancer, and to date additional mechanisms involving adipose tissue and hypothalamic derangements have been considered, comprising premature adiposity rebound, hyperinsulinemia, leptin regulation, and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Overall, further research is still necessary to better understand the relationship between adipogenesis and hypothalamic control deregulation following cancer therapy.

  18. Ecological risk model of childhood obesity in Chinese immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L

    2015-07-01

    Chinese Americans are the largest and fastest growing Asian American subgroup, increasing about one-third during the 2000s. Despite the slender Asian stereotype, nearly one-third of 6-to-11 year old Chinese American children were found to be overweight (above the 85th percentile in BMI). Importantly, unique and severe health risks are associated with being overweight/obese in Chinese. Unfortunately, Chinese immigrant children have been neglected in the literature on obesity. This review aimed to identify factors at various levels of the ecological model that may place Chinese immigrant children at risk for being overweight/obese in the U.S. Key contextual factors at the micro-, meso-, exo-, macro- and chronosystem were identified guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. The corresponding mediating and moderating processes among the factors were also reviewed and proposed. By presenting a conceptual framework and relevant research, this review can provide a basic framework for directing future interdisciplinary research in seeking solutions to childhood obesity within this understudied population.

  19. Ecological Risk Model of Childhood Obesity in Chinese Immigrant Children

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Americans are the largest and fastest growing Asian American subgroup, increasing about one-third during the 2000s. Despite the slender Asian stereotype, nearly one-third of 6-to-11 years old Chinese American children were found to be overweight (above the 85th percentile in BMI). Importantly, unique and severe health risks are associated with being overweight/obese in Chinese. Unfortunately, Chinese immigrant children have been neglected in the literature on obesity. This review aimed to identify factors at various levels of the ecological model that may place Chinese immigrant children at risk for being overweight/obese in the U.S. Key contextual factors at the micro-, meso-, exo-, macro- and chronosystem were identified guided by Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. The corresponding mediating and moderating processes among the factors were also reviewed and proposed. By presenting a conceptual framework and relevant research, this review can provide a basic framework for directing future interdisciplinary research in seeking solutions to childhood obesity within this understudied population. PMID:25728887

  20. Mexican American mothers' perceptions of childhood obesity: a theory-guided systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Erica T

    2012-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to increase, disproportionately affecting Mexican American children. The aims of this review are to (a) assess the literature regarding Mexican American mothers' knowledge and perceptions of childhood obesity, prevention, and their role in prevention; (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of the research conducted on mothers' perceptions of childhood obesity; and (c) make recommendations for future research on parental perceptions of childhood obesity. Four databases were searched for relevant articles and 22 studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Social cognitive theory was used to sort findings across studies. Major findings included the following: (a) barriers to childhood obesity prevention included lack of education regarding prevention and role modeling, (b) only 23% of studies explicitly used a theoretical framework to guide their study, and (c) most studies used heterogeneous groups to examine perceptions. Implications for future research and practice are presented. PMID:21551423

  1. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95% CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95% CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  2. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95% CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95% CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26386682

  3. Development of a childhood obesity prevention programme with a focus on UK South Asian communities☆

    PubMed Central

    Pallan, Miranda; Parry, Jayne; Cheng, K.K.; Adab, Peymané

    2013-01-01

    Objective We report the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention for UK South Asian primary school-aged children, guided by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for complex intervention development and evaluation. Methods We combined information gained from a literature review, stakeholder focus groups, an expert group, review of local resources and mapping to the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO framework) in an intervention development process. The study took place in 2007 in Birmingham, UK. Results Contextual information from the stakeholder focus groups was essential for informing intervention development. The expert group defined guiding principles for the intervention. Informing intervention design by assessing existing local resources addressed intervention sustainability. The use of the ANGELO framework ensured a comprehensive environmental approach to intervention development. The intervention consisted of two broad processes; increasing children's physical activity levels through school, and increasing skills of families through activity-based learning. The developed intervention is being evaluated in a major study. Conclusions The intervention development process has resulted in a tailored intervention programme to prevent childhood obesity in UK South Asian communities, but also intervention processes that could be applied to other communities and tailored to local context. PMID:24012821

  4. Prenatal exposure to antibiotics, cesarean section and risk of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, NT; Whyatt, R; Hoepner, L; Oberfield, S; Dominguez-Bello, MG; Widen, EM; Hassoun, A; Perera, F; Rundle, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cesarean section (CS) and antibiotic use during pregnancy may alter normal maternal-offspring microbiota exchange, thereby contributing to aberrant microbial colonization of the infant gut and increased susceptibility to obesity later in life. We hypothesized that (i) maternal use of antibiotics in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and (ii) CS are independently associated with higher risk of childhood obesity in the offspring. SUBJECTS/METHODS Of the 727 mothers enrolled in the Northern Manhattan Mothers and Children Study, we analyzed the 436 mother–child dyads followed until 7 years of age with complete data. We ascertained prenatal antibiotic use by a questionnaire administered late in the third trimester, and delivery mode by medical record. We derived age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-scores using the CDC SAS Macro, and defined obesity as BMI z ≥ 95th percentile. We used binary regression with robust variance and linear regression models adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, pre-gravid BMI, maternal receipt of public assistance, birth weight, sex, breastfeeding in the first year and gestational antibiotics or delivery mode. RESULTS Compared with children not exposed to antibiotics during the second or third trimester, those exposed had 84% (33–154%) higher risk of obesity, after multivariable adjustment. Second or third trimester antibiotic exposure was also positively associated with BMI z-scores, waist circumference and % body fat (all P<0.05). Independent of prenatal antibiotic usage, CS was associated with 46% (8–98%) higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Associations were similar for elective and non-elective CS. CONCLUSIONS In our cohort, CS and exposure to antibiotics in the second or third trimester were associated with higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Future studies that address the limitations of our study are warranted to determine if prenatal antibiotic use is associated with

  5. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Wagner, Donald I; Wilkerson, Janice

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary children. A 52-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 159 fifth graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.072). Hours of TV watching were predicted by number of times taught about healthy eating at school and self-control through goal setting (R2 = 0.055). Glasses of water consumed were predicted by expectations for drinking water (R2 = 0.091). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.137). Social cognitive theory offers a practically useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.

  6. Towards Health in All Policies for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Gubbels, Jessica S.; Raat, Hein; de Vries, Nanne K.; Jansen, Maria W. J.

    2013-01-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from health and nonhealth sectors. Such intersectoral collaboration has been proved to be difficult. In this study, we investigated which resources influence intersectoral collaboration. The behavior change wheel framework was used to categorize motivation-, capability-, and opportunity-related resources for intersectoral collaboration. In-depth interviews were held with eight officials representing 10 non-health policy sectors within a local government. Results showed that health and non-health policy sectors did not share policy goals, which decreased motivation for intersectoral collaboration. Awareness of the linkage between health and nonhealth policy sectors was limited, and management was not involved in creating such awareness, which reduced the capability for intersectoral collaboration. Insufficient organizational resources and structures reduced opportunities for intersectoral collaboration. To stimulate intersectoral collaboration to prevent childhood obesity, we recommend that public health professionals should reframe health goals in the terminology of nonhealth policy sectors, that municipal department managers should increase awareness of public health in non-health policy sectors, and that flatter organizational structures should be established. PMID:24490059

  7. A Tale of Two ObesCities: The Role of Municipal Governance in Reducing Childhood Obesity in New York City and London

    PubMed Central

    Libman, Kimberly; O’Keefe, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    As rates of childhood obesity and overweight rise around the world, researchers and policy makers seek new ways to reverse these trends. Given the concentration of the world’s population, income inequalities, unhealthy diets, and patterns of physical activity in cities, urban areas bear a disproportionate burden of obesity. To address these issues, in 2008, researchers from the City University of New York and London Metropolitan University created the Municipal Responses to Childhood Obesity Collaborative. The Collaborative examined three questions: What role has city government played in responding to childhood obesity in each jurisdiction? How have municipal governance structures in each city influenced its capacity to respond effectively? How can policy and programmatic interventions to reduce childhood obesity also reduce the growing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic inequities in its prevalence? Based on a review of existing initiatives in London and New York City, the Collaborative recommended 11 broad strategies by which each city could reduce childhood obesity. These recommendations were selected because they can be enacted at the municipal level; will reduce socioeconomic and racial/ethnic inequalities in obesity; are either well supported by research or are already being implemented in one city, demonstrating their feasibility; build on existing city assets; and are both green and healthy. PMID:20811951

  8. The injustice of nonjudicial remedies to address childhood violence.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J C

    1991-06-01

    The hypothesis that nonjudicial remedies such as mediation, negotiation, and "fair fighting" are effective tools for use in dealing with childhood violence has enjoyed some speculation in recent years. This work evaluates the hypothesis that such methods are unjust to the victims of such violence and that these methods must be abandoned in favor of appropriate punishment for aggressors.

  9. 75 FR 12493 - Task Force on Childhood Obesity: Request for Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... obesity within a generation so that children born today will reach adulthood at a healthy weight. To reach... are at highest risk of obesity and children with disabilities? 6. What goals should we set within each... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Task Force on Childhood Obesity: Request...

  10. Invited Commentary: Childhood and Adolescent Obesity--Psychological and Behavioral Issues in Weight Loss Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…

  11. Sarah's Story: Using Ritual Therapy to Address Psychospiritual Issues in Treating Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Radha J.; Horton, H. Shelton, Jr.; Watson, Terri

    1997-01-01

    Describes an individual's healing from the trauma of childhood sexual abuse through counseling, spiritual growth, and the use of therapeutic ritual. Explores relationships between the psychospiritual issues associated with childhood sexual abuse and commonly designated treatment goals. Claims that addressing psychospiritual issues is crucial in…

  12. Childhood Obesity and Restrictions of Parental Liberty. A Response to "Paternalism, Obesity, and Tolerable Levels of Risk"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    This paper responds to Michael Merry's recent contribution on childhood obesity. Merry's analysis highlights the difficulties in finding an appropriate balance between children's and parents' interests in antiobesity interventions and emphasizes the importance of weight stigma and its effects on the obesity debate. He concludes by recommending…

  13. Evaluation of the Relationship between Childhood Traumas and Adulthood Obesity Development.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Hayrettin; Bilgiç, Vedat; Erten, Sebahattin; Aras, Şükrü; Tayfur, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to delineate the relationship between childhood traumas and adulthood obesity. A total of 314 individuals (157 obese and 157 nonobese) were recruited in the study. After obtaining anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was administered to the participants. Overall scores of CTQ were determined to be 42.6 ± 10.5 (higher trauma) in obese group and 37.2 ± 6.6 (lower trauma) in nonobese group (P < 0.001). Frequency rates of childhood traumatic experience were found to be 68.8% for obese people and 38.8% for nonobese people. In conclusion, an increased risk for adulthood obesity development was significantly associated with childhood traumatic experience. PMID:27399037

  14. Evaluation of the Relationship between Childhood Traumas and Adulthood Obesity Development.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Hayrettin; Bilgiç, Vedat; Erten, Sebahattin; Aras, Şükrü; Tayfur, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to delineate the relationship between childhood traumas and adulthood obesity. A total of 314 individuals (157 obese and 157 nonobese) were recruited in the study. After obtaining anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was administered to the participants. Overall scores of CTQ were determined to be 42.6 ± 10.5 (higher trauma) in obese group and 37.2 ± 6.6 (lower trauma) in nonobese group (P < 0.001). Frequency rates of childhood traumatic experience were found to be 68.8% for obese people and 38.8% for nonobese people. In conclusion, an increased risk for adulthood obesity development was significantly associated with childhood traumatic experience.

  15. Childhood Obesity Is a Chronic Disease Demanding Specific Health Care--a Position Statement from the Childhood Obesity Task Force (COTF) of the European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO).

    PubMed

    Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Baker, Jennifer L; Hassapidou, Maria; Holm, Jens Christian; Nowicka, Paulina; O'Malley, Grace; Weiss, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the greatest health challenges of the 21st century. The EASO COTF is convinced that classifying obesity as a chronic disease in children and adolescents is a crucial step for increasing individual and societal awareness, and for improving early diagnosis and intervention. Such a classification will enhance the development of novel preventive and treatment approaches, health care policies and systems, and the education of healthcare workers. The management of obesity prior to the appearance of co-morbidities may prevent their escalation into significant medical and psychosocial problems, and reduce their economic and societal impact. Childhood is a unique window of opportunity to influence lifetime effects on health, quality of life, prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and disabilities. The Convention on the Rights of the Child by UNICEF states that parties shall strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to health care services. The EASO COTF is aiming to address these issues via educational activities for health care workers, identification of research agendas, and the promotion of collaborations among clinicians, researchers, health institutions, organizations and states across Europe.

  16. Determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhai, F; Yang, X; Schouten, E G; Hu, X; He, Y; Luan, D; Ma, G

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was compared according to different dietary and physical activity patterns and parental body weight status. A total of 6826 children aged 7-17 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were included in the study. Information for dietary intake was collected using three consecutive 24-h recalls by trained interviewers. The amounts of cooking oil and condiments consumed were weighed. An interview-administered 1-year physical activity questionnaire was used to collect physical activity information. The results showed that the heavier the parental bodyweight, the higher the overweight prevalence in children. The prevalence ratio increased if parent(s) were overweight and/or obese, up to 12.2 if both parents were obese. Overweight children consumed significantly more dietary energy, protein and fat, but less carbohydrate than their normal weight counterparts. On average, overweight children spent 0.5 h less on moderate/vigorous activities and 2.3 h more on low intensity activities per week. The following prevalence ratios were statistically significant: walking to and from school (0.6); moderate/vigorous activities > or =45 min/d (0.8); low intensity physical activities >2 h/d (1.3); the consumption of > or =25 g/d cooking oil (1.4); > or =200 g/d meat and meat products consumption (1.5); > or =100g/d dairy products (1.8). After adjustment for parental body weight status and socioeconomic status, only cooking oil consumption and walking to and from school remained significantly related to child overweight. In conclusion, parental weight status is an import-ant determinant. Fat intake, low intensity activities and active transport to/from school may be suitable entry points for overweight prevention among Chinese school children.

  17. Using Metabolomic Profiles as Biomarkers for Insulin Resistance in Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue; Gang, Xiaokun; Liu, Yujia; Sun, Chenglin; Han, Qing; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown the intimate relationship between metabolomic profiles and insulin resistance (IR) in obese adults, while little is known about childhood obesity. In this review, we searched available papers addressing metabolomic profiles and IR in obese children from inception to February 2016 on MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and EMASE. HOMA-IR was applied as surrogate markers of IR and related metabolic disorders at both baseline and follow-up. To minimize selection bias, two investigators independently completed this work. After critical selection, 10 studies (including 2,673 participants) were eligible and evaluated by using QUADOMICS for quality assessment. Six of the 10 studies were classified as "high quality." Then we generated all the metabolites identified in each study and found amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism were the main affected metabolic pathways in obese children. Among identified metabolites, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids (AAAs), and acylcarnitines were reported to be associated with IR as biomarkers most frequently. Additionally, BCAAs and tyrosine seemed to be relevant to future metabolic risk in the long-term follow-up cohorts, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and prevention strategy. Because of limited scale and design heterogeneity of existing studies, future studies might focus on validating above findings in more large-scale and longitudinal studies with elaborate design. PMID:27517054

  18. Design of a Digital-Based, Multicomponent Nutrition Guidance System for Prevention of Early Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M.; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parenting focused modifiable factors to prevent obesity and promote healthy growth in the first 1000 days of life are needed. Scale-up of interventions to global populations is necessary to reverse trends in weight status among infants and toddlers, and large scale dissemination will require understanding of effective strategies. Utilizing nutrition education theories, this paper describes the design of a digital-based nutrition guidance system targeted to first-time mothers to prevent obesity during the first two years. The multicomponent system consists of scientifically substantiated content, tools, and telephone-based professional support delivered in an anticipatory and sequential manner via the internet, email, and text messages, focusing on educational modules addressing the modifiable factors associated with childhood obesity. Digital delivery formats leverage consumer media trends and provide the opportunity for scale-up, unavailable to previous interventions reliant on resource heavy clinic and home-based counseling. Designed initially for use in the United States, this system's core features are applicable to all contexts and constitute an approach fostering healthy growth, not just obesity prevention. The multicomponent features, combined with a global concern for optimal growth and positive trends in mobile internet use, represent this system's future potential to affect change in nutrition practice in developing countries. PMID:27635257

  19. Using Metabolomic Profiles as Biomarkers for Insulin Resistance in Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chenglin

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown the intimate relationship between metabolomic profiles and insulin resistance (IR) in obese adults, while little is known about childhood obesity. In this review, we searched available papers addressing metabolomic profiles and IR in obese children from inception to February 2016 on MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and EMASE. HOMA-IR was applied as surrogate markers of IR and related metabolic disorders at both baseline and follow-up. To minimize selection bias, two investigators independently completed this work. After critical selection, 10 studies (including 2,673 participants) were eligible and evaluated by using QUADOMICS for quality assessment. Six of the 10 studies were classified as “high quality.” Then we generated all the metabolites identified in each study and found amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism were the main affected metabolic pathways in obese children. Among identified metabolites, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids (AAAs), and acylcarnitines were reported to be associated with IR as biomarkers most frequently. Additionally, BCAAs and tyrosine seemed to be relevant to future metabolic risk in the long-term follow-up cohorts, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and prevention strategy. Because of limited scale and design heterogeneity of existing studies, future studies might focus on validating above findings in more large-scale and longitudinal studies with elaborate design. PMID:27517054

  20. Design of a Digital-Based, Multicomponent Nutrition Guidance System for Prevention of Early Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M.; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parenting focused modifiable factors to prevent obesity and promote healthy growth in the first 1000 days of life are needed. Scale-up of interventions to global populations is necessary to reverse trends in weight status among infants and toddlers, and large scale dissemination will require understanding of effective strategies. Utilizing nutrition education theories, this paper describes the design of a digital-based nutrition guidance system targeted to first-time mothers to prevent obesity during the first two years. The multicomponent system consists of scientifically substantiated content, tools, and telephone-based professional support delivered in an anticipatory and sequential manner via the internet, email, and text messages, focusing on educational modules addressing the modifiable factors associated with childhood obesity. Digital delivery formats leverage consumer media trends and provide the opportunity for scale-up, unavailable to previous interventions reliant on resource heavy clinic and home-based counseling. Designed initially for use in the United States, this system's core features are applicable to all contexts and constitute an approach fostering healthy growth, not just obesity prevention. The multicomponent features, combined with a global concern for optimal growth and positive trends in mobile internet use, represent this system's future potential to affect change in nutrition practice in developing countries.

  1. Design of a Digital-Based, Multicomponent Nutrition Guidance System for Prevention of Early Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Keriann H; Dattilo, Anne M; Black, Maureen M; Saavedra, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parenting focused modifiable factors to prevent obesity and promote healthy growth in the first 1000 days of life are needed. Scale-up of interventions to global populations is necessary to reverse trends in weight status among infants and toddlers, and large scale dissemination will require understanding of effective strategies. Utilizing nutrition education theories, this paper describes the design of a digital-based nutrition guidance system targeted to first-time mothers to prevent obesity during the first two years. The multicomponent system consists of scientifically substantiated content, tools, and telephone-based professional support delivered in an anticipatory and sequential manner via the internet, email, and text messages, focusing on educational modules addressing the modifiable factors associated with childhood obesity. Digital delivery formats leverage consumer media trends and provide the opportunity for scale-up, unavailable to previous interventions reliant on resource heavy clinic and home-based counseling. Designed initially for use in the United States, this system's core features are applicable to all contexts and constitute an approach fostering healthy growth, not just obesity prevention. The multicomponent features, combined with a global concern for optimal growth and positive trends in mobile internet use, represent this system's future potential to affect change in nutrition practice in developing countries. PMID:27635257

  2. Communities of Color Creating Healthy Environments to Combat Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Subica, Andrew M; Grills, Cheryl T; Douglas, Jason A; Villanueva, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic and racial health disparities present an enduring challenge to community-based health promotion, which rarely targets their underlying population-level determinants (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, health care inequity). We present a novel 3-lens prescription for using community organizing to treat these determinants in communities of color based on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Communities Creating Healthy Environments initiative, the first national project to combat childhood obesity in communities of color using community organizing strategies. The lenses--Social Justice, Culture-Place, and Organizational Capacity-Organizing Approach--assist health professional-community partnerships in planning and evaluating community organizing-based health promotion programs. These programs activate community stakeholders to alter their community's disease-causing, population-level determinants through grassroots policy advocacy, potentially reducing health disparities affecting communities of color. PMID:26562108

  3. Food environment and childhood obesity: the effect of dollar stores.

    PubMed

    Drichoutis, Andreas C; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Rouse, Heather L; Thomsen, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of dollar stores on children's Body Mass Index (BMI). We use a dataset compiled by the Arkansas Center for Health Improvement that reflects a BMI screening program for public school children in the state of Arkansas. We combine propensity score matching with difference-in-differences methods to deal with time-invariant as well time-varying unobserved factors. We find no evidence that the presence of dollar stores within a reasonably close proximity of the child's residence increases BMI. In fact, we see an increase in BMI when dollar stores leave a child's neighborhood. Given the proliferation of dollar stores in rural and low-income urban areas, the question of whether dollar stores are contributing to high rates of childhood obesity is policy relevant. However, our results provide some evidence that exposure to dollar stores is not a causal factor.

  4. Severe childhood obesity: an under-recognised and growing health problem.

    PubMed

    Bass, Rosara; Eneli, Ihuoma

    2015-11-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious and urgent public health problem. In the last 10 years, there has been a concerted effort in the USA and globally to develop and implement educational, medical and public health interventions designed to attenuate its growth. The success of these efforts was probably responsible for the plateau in the prevalence rate of childhood obesity noted in the last two years. While the attenuation of the overall prevalence of childhood obesity is promising, data from the same cohort reveal a concerning upward trend in the number of children with severe obesity. The consequences of severe childhood obesity can be devastating. When compared to their moderately obese peers, children with severe obesity are at greater risk for adult obesity, early atherosclerosis, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, fatty liver disease and premature death. The determinants for severe obesity include the same lifestyle, environmental, familial and societal risk factors reported for overweight or obesity. While all these risk factors must be screened for, genetic influences are distinct considerations that may have greater bearing especially with early-onset obesity. Treatments for severe childhood obesity include lifestyle intervention, specialised low-calorie diets and bariatric surgery. Outcomes of these treatments vary, with bariatric surgery clearly the most successful of the three for both short-term and long-term weight loss. Severe obesity in children and adolescents remains a challenging health condition. The enormous medical, emotional and financial burden these children and their families endure signals an urgent need to further investigate and standardise treatment modalities and improve outcomes.

  5. Severe childhood obesity: an under-recognised and growing health problem.

    PubMed

    Bass, Rosara; Eneli, Ihuoma

    2015-11-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious and urgent public health problem. In the last 10 years, there has been a concerted effort in the USA and globally to develop and implement educational, medical and public health interventions designed to attenuate its growth. The success of these efforts was probably responsible for the plateau in the prevalence rate of childhood obesity noted in the last two years. While the attenuation of the overall prevalence of childhood obesity is promising, data from the same cohort reveal a concerning upward trend in the number of children with severe obesity. The consequences of severe childhood obesity can be devastating. When compared to their moderately obese peers, children with severe obesity are at greater risk for adult obesity, early atherosclerosis, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, fatty liver disease and premature death. The determinants for severe obesity include the same lifestyle, environmental, familial and societal risk factors reported for overweight or obesity. While all these risk factors must be screened for, genetic influences are distinct considerations that may have greater bearing especially with early-onset obesity. Treatments for severe childhood obesity include lifestyle intervention, specialised low-calorie diets and bariatric surgery. Outcomes of these treatments vary, with bariatric surgery clearly the most successful of the three for both short-term and long-term weight loss. Severe obesity in children and adolescents remains a challenging health condition. The enormous medical, emotional and financial burden these children and their families endure signals an urgent need to further investigate and standardise treatment modalities and improve outcomes. PMID:26338983

  6. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  7. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  8. Harnessing the power of advertising to prevent childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. Methods A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005–2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns promoting the program and its key messages: drinking water; getting physically active and; eating more vegetables and fruit. Pre-post telephone surveys (n = 9) were undertaken to evaluate awareness of the campaigns among parents of children aged 2–15 years using repeat cross-sections of randomly selected cohorts. A total of 1,367 parents (HNE = 748, NSW = 619) participated. Results At each survey post baseline, HNE parents were significantly more likely to have seen, read or heard about the program and its messages in the media than parents in the remainder of the state (p < 0.001). Further, there was a significant increase in awareness of the program and each of its messages over time in HNE compared to no change over time in NSW (p < 0.001). Awareness was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in HNE compared to NSW after each specific campaign (except the vegetable one) and significantly higher awareness levels were sustained for each campaign until the end of the program. At the end of the program participants without a tertiary education were significantly more likely (p = 0.04) to be aware of the brand campaign (31%) than those with (20%) but there were no other statistically significant socio-demographic differences in awareness. Conclusions The Good for Kids communication campaigns increased and maintained awareness of childhood obesity prevention messages. Moreover, messages were delivered equitably to diverse socio-demographic groups within the

  9. Everyone Swims: A Community Partnership and Policy Approach to Address Health Disparities in Drowning and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stempski, Sarah; Liu, Lenna; Grow, H. Mollie; Pomietto, Maureen; Chung, Celeste; Shumann, Amy; Bennett, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Well-known disparities exist in rates of obesity and drowning, two public health priorities. Addressing these disparities by increasing access to safe swimming and water recreation may yield benefits for both obesity and injury prevention. "Everyone Swims," a community partnership, brought community health clinics and water recreation…

  10. [Regulation of food advertising on television for the prevention of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Catalina González; Samur, Eduardo Atalah

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is a serious global epidemic and the prevention strategies implemented have been insufficient. Numerous environmental factors have been associated with risk of obesity and their full consideration in prevention policies is important. The connection between food advertising on television and childhood obesity has been demonstrated. The large number of advertisements for unhealthy foods targeted at children through television and its possible impact on health has led some countries to legislate on this matter. However, a conceptual framework of reference enabling legislation must be internationally defined in order to achieve a real impact in preventing childhood obesity. This paper reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between food advertising and childhood obesity as a basis for developing public policies to regulate food marketing on television.

  11. [Regulation of food advertising on television for the prevention of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Catalina González; Samur, Eduardo Atalah

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is a serious global epidemic and the prevention strategies implemented have been insufficient. Numerous environmental factors have been associated with risk of obesity and their full consideration in prevention policies is important. The connection between food advertising on television and childhood obesity has been demonstrated. The large number of advertisements for unhealthy foods targeted at children through television and its possible impact on health has led some countries to legislate on this matter. However, a conceptual framework of reference enabling legislation must be internationally defined in order to achieve a real impact in preventing childhood obesity. This paper reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between food advertising and childhood obesity as a basis for developing public policies to regulate food marketing on television. PMID:22696898

  12. Bariatric Bypass Surgery to Resolve Complicated Childhood Morbid Obesity: Case Report Study.

    PubMed

    Elbanna, Abduh; Eldin, Mohammed Tag; Fathy, Mohammad; Osman, Osama; Abdelfattah, Mohammed; Safwat, Abdelrahman; Elkader, Mohammed Sedki Abd; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Salama, Khaled; Elnour, Asim A; Shehab, Abdullah; Baghdady, Shazly; Amer, Mohamed; Alboraie, Mohamed; Ragb, Aly; Abd Elrazek, Abd Elrazek

    2015-12-01

    Children obesity has become one of the most important public health problems in many countries worldwide. Although the awareness of childhood obesity as a modifiable health risk is high, but many societies do not prioritize this issue as a health care problem, which may lead to comorbidities and even premature death. Despite the rising interest in bariatric surgery for children, only laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is being considered in resolving childhood obesity who failed other dietary or drug therapies; however many of LSG procedures failed to reduce the weight in children or resulted in complications postsurgery.Here, we present a novel bariatric procedure to clue out a female child 13 years old presented with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease-associated morbid obesity. The surgical bariatric technique applied both fundal resection and surgical bypass in pediatric obesity using the Elbanna novel bariatric technique.Bariatric surgical bypass may be considered in complicated-childhood cases who failed all other options.

  13. Exploring the relationship between childhood obesity and proximity to the coast: A rural/urban perspective.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sophie L; Demougin, Philippe R; Higgins, Sahran; Husk, Kerryn; Wheeler, Benedict W; White, Mathew

    2016-07-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the 21st century's most serious global health challenges. Research suggests that better access to 'greenspace' (e.g. parks) may encourage physical activity and reduce the risk of obesity amongst children. We extend earlier work by considering childhood obesity in relation to proximity to the coast, using data from England's National Child Measurement Programme. Results suggest that although the overall prevalence of childhood obesity is slightly lower at the coast (-0.68% points comparing <1km to >20km, p<0.001), the relationship depends on area type. Specifically, although a coastal proximity gradient (lower obesity rates nearer the coast) was found for rural areas and smaller cities and towns, it was not present among large urban conurbations (interaction p-value<0.001). Coastal environments and access to them are changing in many areas, and research to explore potential impacts on child health is warranted.

  14. Exploring the relationship between childhood obesity and proximity to the coast: A rural/urban perspective.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sophie L; Demougin, Philippe R; Higgins, Sahran; Husk, Kerryn; Wheeler, Benedict W; White, Mathew

    2016-07-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the 21st century's most serious global health challenges. Research suggests that better access to 'greenspace' (e.g. parks) may encourage physical activity and reduce the risk of obesity amongst children. We extend earlier work by considering childhood obesity in relation to proximity to the coast, using data from England's National Child Measurement Programme. Results suggest that although the overall prevalence of childhood obesity is slightly lower at the coast (-0.68% points comparing <1km to >20km, p<0.001), the relationship depends on area type. Specifically, although a coastal proximity gradient (lower obesity rates nearer the coast) was found for rural areas and smaller cities and towns, it was not present among large urban conurbations (interaction p-value<0.001). Coastal environments and access to them are changing in many areas, and research to explore potential impacts on child health is warranted. PMID:27262662

  15. Parental obesity moderates the relationship between childhood appetitive traits and weight

    PubMed Central

    Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Lovelady, Cheryl A.; Zucker, Nancy L.; Østbye, Truls

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the independent and combined associations between childhood appetitive traits and parental obesity on weight gain from 0 to 24 months and body mass index (BMI) z score at 24 months in a diverse community-based sample of dual parent families (n = 213). Participants were mothers who had recently completed a randomized trial of weight loss for overweight/obese post-partum women. As measures of childhood appetitive traits, mothers completed subscales of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, including Desire to Drink (DD), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR), and a 24-hour dietary recall for their child. Heights and weights were measured for all children and mothers and self-reported for mothers’ partners. The relationship between children’s appetitive traits and parental obesity on toddler weight gain and BMI z score were evaluated using multivariate linear regression models, controlling for a number of potential confounders. Having two obese parents was related to greater weight gain from birth to 24 months independent of childhood appetitive traits, and while significant associations were found between appetitive traits (DD and SR) and child BMI z score at 24 months, these associations were observed only among children who had two obese parents. When both parents were obese, increasing DD and decreasing SR was associated with a higher BMI z-score. The results highlight the importance of considering familial risk factors when examining the relationship between childhood appetitive traits on childhood obesity. PMID:23712985

  16. Low levels of energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors: Implications for obesity prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (medi...

  17. Expanding Exposure: Can Increasing the Daily Duration of Head Start Reduce Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisvold, David E.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Coinciding with the work requirements of welfare reform in the mid-1990s, the early childhood education program, Head Start, significantly expanded to increase the availability of full-day classes. Using unique administrative data, we examine the effect of full-day compared to half-day attendance on childhood obesity. This effect is identified…

  18. Parental and Early Childhood Influences on Adolescent Obesity: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Paola; Parker, Helen; Bulsara, Max; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The influence of parental and early childhood factors on adolescent obesity was investigated using a longitudinal model of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years. Trajectories of BMI using linear mixed model (LMM) analysis were used to investigate the influence of early parental and childhood factors on BMI at 14 years in the Raine birth…

  19. Interventions to address maternal and childhood undernutrition: current evidence.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Das, Jai K

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of undernutrition remains high with little evidence of change in many countries. We reviewed the evidence of the potential nutritional interventions and estimated their effect on nutrition-related outcomes of women and children. Among the maternal interventions, daily iron supplementation results in a 69% reduction in incidence of anemia, 20% in incidence of low birthweight (LBW) and improves mean birthweight. MMN supplementation during pregnancy has been shown to significantly decrease the number of LBW infants by 14% and small for gestational age (SGA) by 13%. Balanced protein-energy supplementation reduces the incidence of SGA by 32% and risk of stillbirths by 38%. Antimalarials when given to pregnant women increase the mean birthweight significantly and were associated with a 43% reduction in LBW and severe antenatal anemia by 38%. Among the neonatal and child interventions, educational/counseling interventions increased exclusive breastfeeding by 43% at 4-6 weeks and 137% at 6 months. Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) reduces all-cause mortality by 24% and results in a 14% reduction in the risk of infant mortality at 6 months. Intermittent iron supplementation in children reduces the risk of anemia by 49% and iron deficiency by 76%, and significantly improves hemoglobin and ferritin concentration. Preventive zinc supplementation in populations at risk of zinc deficiency decreases morbidity from childhood diarrhea and acute lower respiratory infections, and increases linear growth and weight gain among infants and young children. Among the supportive interventions, hand washing with soap significantly reduces diarrhea morbidity by 48%, though it depends on access to water. The effect of water treatment on diarrhea morbidity also appears similarly large with a 17% reduction. Recent research has established linkages of preconception interventions with improved maternal, perinatal and neonatal health outcomes, and it has been suggested that several

  20. Interventions to address maternal and childhood undernutrition: current evidence.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Das, Jai K

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of undernutrition remains high with little evidence of change in many countries. We reviewed the evidence of the potential nutritional interventions and estimated their effect on nutrition-related outcomes of women and children. Among the maternal interventions, daily iron supplementation results in a 69% reduction in incidence of anemia, 20% in incidence of low birthweight (LBW) and improves mean birthweight. MMN supplementation during pregnancy has been shown to significantly decrease the number of LBW infants by 14% and small for gestational age (SGA) by 13%. Balanced protein-energy supplementation reduces the incidence of SGA by 32% and risk of stillbirths by 38%. Antimalarials when given to pregnant women increase the mean birthweight significantly and were associated with a 43% reduction in LBW and severe antenatal anemia by 38%. Among the neonatal and child interventions, educational/counseling interventions increased exclusive breastfeeding by 43% at 4-6 weeks and 137% at 6 months. Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) reduces all-cause mortality by 24% and results in a 14% reduction in the risk of infant mortality at 6 months. Intermittent iron supplementation in children reduces the risk of anemia by 49% and iron deficiency by 76%, and significantly improves hemoglobin and ferritin concentration. Preventive zinc supplementation in populations at risk of zinc deficiency decreases morbidity from childhood diarrhea and acute lower respiratory infections, and increases linear growth and weight gain among infants and young children. Among the supportive interventions, hand washing with soap significantly reduces diarrhea morbidity by 48%, though it depends on access to water. The effect of water treatment on diarrhea morbidity also appears similarly large with a 17% reduction. Recent research has established linkages of preconception interventions with improved maternal, perinatal and neonatal health outcomes, and it has been suggested that several

  1. Implementing Childhood Obesity Policy in a New Educational Environment: The Cases of Mississippi and Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Paul M.; Dyson, Ben; Vardaman, James M.; Ferry, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Our purpose was to investigate the processes involved in, and outcomes of, implementing 3 new state-level, school-oriented childhood obesity policies enacted between 2004 and 2007. Methods. We followed policy implementation in 8 high schools in Mississippi and Tennessee. We collected data between 2006 and 2009 from interviews with policymakers, administrators, teachers, and students; observations of school-based activities; and documents. Results. Significant barriers to the effective implementation of obesity-related policies emerged. These most notably include a value system that prioritizes performances in standardized tests over physical education (PE) and a varsity sport system that negatively influences opportunities for PE. These and other factors, such as resource constraints and the overloading of school administrators with new policies, mitigate against the implementation of policies designed to promote improvements in student health through PE. Conclusions. Policies designed to address health and social problems in high-school settings face significant barriers to effective implementation. To have a broad impact, obesity-related policies must be tied to mainstream educational initiatives that both incentivize, and hold accountable, the school-level actors responsible for their implementation. PMID:22420819

  2. CDC's Health Equity Resource Toolkit: disseminating guidance for state practitioners to address obesity disparities.

    PubMed

    Payne, Gayle Holmes; James, Stephen D; Hawley, Lisa; Corrigan, Bethany; Kramer, Rachel E; Overton, Samantha N; Farris, Rosanne P; Wasilewski, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been on the rise in the United States over the past three decades, and is high. In addition to population-wide trends, it is clear that obesity affects some groups more than others and can be associated with age, income, education, gender, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. To reverse the obesity epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) promotes evidence-based and practice-informed strategies to address nutrition and physical activity environments and behaviors. These public health strategies require translation into actionable approaches that can be implemented by state and local entities to address disparities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used findings from an expert panel meeting to guide the development and dissemination of the Health Equity Resource Toolkit for State Practitioners Addressing Obesity Disparities (available at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/health_equity/toolkit.html). The Toolkit helps public health practitioners take a systematic approach to program planning using a health equity lens. The Toolkit provides a six-step process for planning, implementing, and evaluating strategies to address obesity disparities. Each section contains (a) a basic description of the steps of the process and suggested evidence-informed actions to help address obesity disparities, (b) practical tools for carrying out activities to help reduce obesity disparities, and (c) a "real-world" case study of a successful state-level effort to address obesity with a focus on health equity that is particularly relevant to the content in that section. Hyperlinks to additional resources are included throughout.

  3. Prevalence and geographic distribution of childhood obesity in China in 2005.

    PubMed

    Ji, Cheng Ye; Cheng, Tsung O

    2008-12-17

    China now joins the world epidemic of childhood obesity. Because of the large disparity of environmental conditions across various sub-populations, accurate prevalence of obesity/overweight cannot be estimated by population-based approaches. Using a resident-based targeted approach, we determined the geographical distribution of childhood obesity in China and analyzed the specific factors related to the increasing prevalence of obesity in each of its ten regions. An alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity has spread all over China, except for the poverty western rural areas. In 2005, the prevalence of combined childhood overweight and obesity in China reached 32.5% for males and 17.6% for females in the northern coastal big cities, suggesting that the obesity prevalence in some urban Chinese populations has approached that of the developed countries. The prevalence of obesity in the affluent rural sub-populations first exceeded that in some urban populations; then, as they learned their lessons and revised their lifestyles, the prevalence declined to a lower level approaching that of the transitional societies of other countries. The geographical distribution of obesity prevalence in China is mainly caused by the large disparity in the socioeconomic status related to dietary and lifestyle changes in modern China. Multiple and integrated interventions are urgently needed to halt the epidemic of childhood obesity by tackling its basic causes such as fast food, automobiles, television and lack of exercise. The differing prevalences in different regions of China offer an opportunity to reverse this alarming, growing epidemic of childhood obesity in the world's most populous country.

  4. An Examination of Educators' Perceptions of the School's Role in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sharon Kay Harris

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a prevalent subject of research currently, and many researchers have studied the effectiveness of school programs in battling obesity among students. This case study, utilizing ethnographic tools of observation, interviews, and investigation of artifacts, examines educators' perceptions of the role of the school in the…

  5. The Governmentality of Childhood Obesity: Coca-Cola, Public Health and Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Darren; Gard, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the emergence of what might seem an unexpected policy outcome--a large multinational corporation, frequently blamed for exacerbating childhood obesity, operating as an officially sanctioned driver of anti-obesity initiatives in primary schools across the globe. We draw on Foucault's notion of governmentality to examine…

  6. Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings with Parental Involvement: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…

  7. Novel genetic loci identified for the pathophysiology of childhood obesity in the Hispanic population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variants responsible for susceptibility to obesity and its comorbidities among Hispanic children have not been identified. The VIVA LA FAMILIA Study was designed to genetically map childhood obesity and associated biological processes in the Hispanic population. A genome-wide association stu...

  8. A meta-analysis of school-based obesity prevention programs demonstrates limited efficacy of decreasing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ling-Shen; Tidwell, Diane K; Hall, Michael E; Lee, Michelle L; Briley, Chiquita A; Hunt, Barry P

    2015-03-01

    Childhood obesity is a global concern. The objectives of this meta-analytical study were to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based childhood obesity prevention programs, and to examine program components (moderators). The methods included searching databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and the university's EBSCOhost Web service) as well as handsearching reference lists of articles published in English. Selection criteria for studies to be included in the meta-analysis were limited to studies that reported body mass index (BMI) or skinfold thickness as outcome measures and were school-based obesity prevention interventions; cross-sectional design studies were excluded. We hypothesized the meta-analysis would yield a summary effect size of magnitude which would indicate that school-based interventions have been effective in improving children's BMI or skinfold thickness values. A total of 26 114 children from 27 school-based childhood obesity prevention programs provided 54 effect sizes. A random-effects model calculated a small summary effect size of 0.039 (95% confidence interval -0.013 to 0.092). Heterogeneity among studies was observed which disappeared after pooling studies that used a randomized controlled trial design with one program moderator (physical activity or nutrition). We failed to accept our hypothesis and concluded that overall, school-based interventions have not been effective for improving body mass index or skinfold thickness to curb childhood obesity; however, randomized controlled trials that focused on physical activity or nutrition appeared to produce promising results.

  9. Redesigning Health Care Practices to Address Childhood Poverty.

    PubMed

    Fierman, Arthur H; Beck, Andrew F; Chung, Esther K; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Siegel, Benjamin; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Conroy, Kathleen; Federico, Steven G; Flanagan, Patricia J; Garg, Arvin; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Grace, Aimee M; Gross, Rachel S; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri; Kraft, Colleen; Kuo, Alice; Lewis, Gena; Lobach, Katherine S; Long, Dayna; Ma, Christine T; Messito, Mary; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberley R; Osman, Cynthia; Sadof, Matthew D; Schickedanz, Adam B; Cox, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty.

  10. Redesigning Health Care Practices to Address Childhood Poverty.

    PubMed

    Fierman, Arthur H; Beck, Andrew F; Chung, Esther K; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Siegel, Benjamin; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Conroy, Kathleen; Federico, Steven G; Flanagan, Patricia J; Garg, Arvin; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Grace, Aimee M; Gross, Rachel S; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri; Kraft, Colleen; Kuo, Alice; Lewis, Gena; Lobach, Katherine S; Long, Dayna; Ma, Christine T; Messito, Mary; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberley R; Osman, Cynthia; Sadof, Matthew D; Schickedanz, Adam B; Cox, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty. PMID:27044692

  11. A Pilot Study of Parent Mentors for Early Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Foster, Byron A; Aquino, Christian A; Gil, Mario; Gelfond, Jonathan A L; Hale, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the feasibility of a parent mentor model of intervention for early childhood obesity using positive deviance-based methods to inform the intervention. Methods. In this pilot, randomized clinical trial, parent-child dyads (age: 2-5) with children whose body mass index (BMI) was ≥95th percentile were randomized to parent mentor intervention or community health worker comparison. The child's height and weight were measured at baseline, after the six-month intervention, and six months after the intervention. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment, participation, and retention. The primary clinical outcome was BMI z-score change. Results. Sixty participants were enrolled, and forty-eight completed the six-month intervention. At baseline, the BMI z-score in the parent mentor group was 2.63 (SD = 0.65) and in the community health worker group it was 2.61 (SD = 0.89). For change in BMI z-score over time, there was no difference by randomization group at the end of the intervention: -0.02 (95% CI: -0.26, 0.22). At the end of the intervention, the BMI z-score for the parent mentor group was 2.48 (SD = 0.58) and for the community health worker group it was 2.45 (SD = 0.91), both reduced from baseline, p < 0.001. Conclusion. The model of a parent mentor clinical trial is feasible, and both randomized groups experienced small, sustained effects on adiposity in an obese, Hispanic population. PMID:27379182

  12. A Pilot Study of Parent Mentors for Early Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Byron A.; Aquino, Christian A.; Gil, Mario; Gelfond, Jonathan A. L.; Hale, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the feasibility of a parent mentor model of intervention for early childhood obesity using positive deviance-based methods to inform the intervention. Methods. In this pilot, randomized clinical trial, parent-child dyads (age: 2–5) with children whose body mass index (BMI) was ≥95th percentile were randomized to parent mentor intervention or community health worker comparison. The child's height and weight were measured at baseline, after the six-month intervention, and six months after the intervention. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment, participation, and retention. The primary clinical outcome was BMI z-score change. Results. Sixty participants were enrolled, and forty-eight completed the six-month intervention. At baseline, the BMI z-score in the parent mentor group was 2.63 (SD = 0.65) and in the community health worker group it was 2.61 (SD = 0.89). For change in BMI z-score over time, there was no difference by randomization group at the end of the intervention: −0.02 (95% CI: −0.26, 0.22). At the end of the intervention, the BMI z-score for the parent mentor group was 2.48 (SD = 0.58) and for the community health worker group it was 2.45 (SD = 0.91), both reduced from baseline, p < 0.001. Conclusion. The model of a parent mentor clinical trial is feasible, and both randomized groups experienced small, sustained effects on adiposity in an obese, Hispanic population. PMID:27379182

  13. Managing early childhood obesity in the primary care setting: a behavior modification approach.

    PubMed

    Drohan, Samantha H

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to encourage primary care pediatric nurses to begin behavioral-based obesity treatment efforts as early as the preschool years. By examining the critical periods for obesity development and how the formation of food and activity behaviors interacts with those critical periods during the preschool years, the value of initiating early obesity treatment will be highlighted. Furthermore, the theory of behavior modification is presented and core principles are applied to early childhood weight management efforts.

  14. Healthy hospital food initiatives in the United States: time to ban sugar sweetened beverages to reduce childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wojcicki, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    While childhood obesity is a global problem, the extent and severity of the problem in United States, has resulted in a number of new initiatives, including recent hospital initiatives to limit the sale of sweetened beverages and other high calorie drinks in hospital vending machines and cafeterias. These proposed policy changes are not unique to United States, but are more comprehensive in the number of proposed hospitals that they will impact. Meanwhile, however, it is advised, that these initiatives should focus on banning sugar sweetened beverages, including sodas, 100% fruit juice and sports drinks, from hospital cafeterias and vending machines instead of limiting their presence, so as to ensure the success of these programs in reducing the prevalence of childhood obesity. If US hospitals comprehensively remove sugar sweetened beverages from their cafeterias and vending machines, these programs could subsequently become a model for efforts to address childhood obesity in other areas of the world. Conclusion Hospitals should be a model for health care reform in their communities and removing sugar sweetened beverages is a necessary first step. PMID:23445326

  15. Mixed reality virtual pets to reduce childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Kyle; Ahn, Sun Joo; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Robertson, Thomas P; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2014-04-01

    Novel approaches are needed to reduce the high rates of childhood obesity in the developed world. While multifactorial in cause, a major factor is an increasingly sedentary lifestyle of children. Our research shows that a mixed reality system that is of interest to children can be a powerful motivator of healthy activity. We designed and constructed a mixed reality system that allowed children to exercise, play with, and train a virtual pet using their own physical activity as input. The health, happiness, and intelligence of each virtual pet grew as its associated child owner exercised more, reached goals, and interacted with their pet. We report results of a research study involving 61 children from a local summer camp that shows a large increase in recorded and observed activity, alongside observational evidence that the virtual pet was responsible for that change. These results, and the ease at which the system integrated into the camp environment, demonstrate the practical potential to impact the exercise behaviors of children with mixed reality. PMID:24650979

  16. Mixed reality virtual pets to reduce childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Kyle; Ahn, Sun Joo; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Robertson, Thomas P; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2014-04-01

    Novel approaches are needed to reduce the high rates of childhood obesity in the developed world. While multifactorial in cause, a major factor is an increasingly sedentary lifestyle of children. Our research shows that a mixed reality system that is of interest to children can be a powerful motivator of healthy activity. We designed and constructed a mixed reality system that allowed children to exercise, play with, and train a virtual pet using their own physical activity as input. The health, happiness, and intelligence of each virtual pet grew as its associated child owner exercised more, reached goals, and interacted with their pet. We report results of a research study involving 61 children from a local summer camp that shows a large increase in recorded and observed activity, alongside observational evidence that the virtual pet was responsible for that change. These results, and the ease at which the system integrated into the camp environment, demonstrate the practical potential to impact the exercise behaviors of children with mixed reality.

  17. The role of emotion regulation in childhood obesity: implications for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, E; Canals, J; Arija, V; De Henauw, S; Michels, N

    2016-06-01

    Stress and negative emotions pose a major threat to public health, by increasing the risk of obesity. Since the management process for emotions (emotion regulation; ER) is developed in childhood, we present a novel conceptual framework model for the role of ER in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. A narrative review of the literature by electronic database search (MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and Scopus) was conducted of observational and interventional/experimental literature on ER and obesity and the underlying concepts. We also present an overview of ER intervention techniques. Our model indicates that childhood ER is a link between stress and obesity. Stress along with ineffective ER leads to abnormal cortisol patterns, emotional eating, sedentary lifestyle, reduction of physical activity, and sleep problems. Simultaneously, a healthy lifestyle could show benefits on ER and in developing adaptive ER strategies. In the development of obesity and ER, parents also play a role. By contrast, effective ER skills decrease obesity-related unhealthy behaviour and enhance protective factors, which boost health. The literature contains some observational studies of children but very few intervention studies, most of which are pilot or on-going studies. In conclusion, encouraging effective ER could be a useful new approach for combating and treating childhood obesity. Future ER intervention studies are needed to confirm the validity of this model in children.

  18. The Development and Evaluation of a Measure Assessing School Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Addressing Pediatric Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    School nurses represent an important resource for addressing pediatric obesity and weight-related health. However, school nurses perceive numerous barriers that prevent them from addressing the weight-related health of students. The current study developed and tested a new, comprehensive measure of nurses' perceptions of 10 types of barriers to…

  19. Exploring the relationship between parental concern and the management of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lucas C; Harris, Carole V; Bradlyn, Andrew S

    2012-05-01

    Parental concern about child weight has been identified as a factor in parental monitoring and regulation of child diet. However, little is known about factors that influence parental concern or about how concern may influence parent management of child physical activity. The objectives of the current study were to identify the factors associated with parental concern about child weight and determine if parental concern is associated with specific actions to improve diet and increase physical activity. A stratified random sample of 1,500 parents of children in kindergarten, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 9th grade were interviewed. Interviews addressed: (a) child and parent physical activity, (b) child and family nutrition, (c) child and parent BMI weight category, (d) interactions with health care providers, (e) parent obesity knowledge, (f) school assessment of BMI, and (g) parent perception of and concern about child weight. Child gender, weight status, and parent perception of child weight were significant predictors of parental concern. Parents were significantly more likely to report concern if their child was female, they believed their child to be overweight/obese, or their child was overweight/obese as indicated by BMI percentile. Concerned parents were significantly more likely to limit child screen time, take steps to improve child diet, and increase child physical activity than were parents who reported no concern. Treatment and prevention efforts should emphasize parental concern and awareness about child weight by providing accurate feedback on child weight status and education regarding the health risks associated with childhood overweight and obesity. Schools can play an important role in this process through the incorporation of BMI screenings.

  20. Lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms and risks of childhood obesity in Chinese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li N; Yu, Qing; Xiong, Yan; Liu, Lin F; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Xue N; Cheng, Hao; Wang, Bei

    2011-10-01

    Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in the community and is related to many adult diseases. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a central role in dyslipidemia, and polymorphisms of the LPL gene may result in the disturbance in the lipid's metabolism. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that genetic variants of LPL and serum lipid levels are associated with the risk of childhood obesity. We genotyped +495T > G and PvuII T > C in an LPL gene and measured the serum lipid levels in a case-control study of 124 obese children and 346 frequency-matched normal controls in preschool Chinese children. The variant genotypes of LPL + 495GG and PvuII CC were associated with a significantly increased risk of childhood obesity [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.09-5.23 for +495 GG; adjusted OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.04-3.83 for PvuII CC], compared with their wild-type genotypes, respectively. In addition, compared with the lower serum level cut off by the control median, the higher level of serum triglyceride (TG) (>0.59 mmol/L) was associated with a 1.32-fold increased risk of childhood obesity, and the higher level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) (>1.14 mmol/L) was associated with a 36% decrease in risk of childhood obesity. Furthermore, the median levels of TG were higher in obese children carrying LPL +495TT/TG and PvuII TT/CT genotypes than those in controls, the HDLC levels were lower in obese children carrying LPL +495TG and PvuII CT/CC genotypes than those in controls. In conclusion, the LPL gene +495T > G and PvuII T > C polymorphisms may modulate the magnitude of dyslipidemia in Chinese early-onset obesity.

  1. Nonnutritive, Low Caloric Substitutes for Food Sugars: Clinical Implications for Addressing the Incidence of Dental Caries and Overweight/Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Michael W.; Wright, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate. PMID:22505906

  2. Perceptions of employed parents about early childhood obesity and the need for prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Morin, Pascale; Roy, Marie-Andrée

    2013-01-01

    Responses to the increased prevalence of childhood obesity are merging, and employed parents will become targets for strategies designed to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed at describing their perceptions of employed parents about childhood obesity and determining which prevention strategies they would need the most. In this cross-sectional study, 504 employed parents were recruited from 33 child care centers in Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada) who completed a self-administered questionnaire on their perceptions about childhood obesity and the need for prevention strategies. Logistic regression was used to explore differences in needs for prevention strategies according to participant characteristics. Most participants were female, aged 32.9 ± 4.9 years, and perceived childhood obesity was an important problem. The prevention strategies that seemed most needed were the implementation of (a) physical and nutrition education programs in child care settings and (b) measures that give employed parents more time to cook for and be physically active with their children. Support for specific strategies differed across genders and education levels. Moreover, they depended on the perceived relationship between work and meal preparation. Policy makers should be aware of the needs of employed parents to develop policies that would have the greatest likelihood of success in this population.

  3. A Systematic Review of Health Videogames on Childhood Obesity Prevention and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Lu, Amy Shirong; Kharrazi, Hadi; Gharghabi, Fardad; Thompson, Debbe

    2013-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health videogames are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health videogames on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health videogames published between 2005 and 2013 in English were selected from 2433 articles identified through five major search engines. Results indicated that academic interest in using health videogames for childhood obesity prevention has increased during this time. Most games were commercially available. Most studies were of short duration. Diverse player and game play patterns have been identified. Most studies involved players of both genders with slightly more boys. The majority of players were non-white. Most studies had the players play the games at home, whereas some extended the play setting to school and sports/recreational facilities. Most of the games were commercially available. Positive outcomes related to obesity were observed in about 40 percent of the studies, all of which targeted overweight or obese participants.

  4. The dangerous link between childhood and adulthood predictors of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Wang, David Q H; Frühbeck, Gema; Garruti, Gabriella; Portincasa, Piero

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate whether some risk factors in childhood work as significant predictors of the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. These factors include exposures to risk factors in the prenatal period, infancy and early childhood, as well as other socio-demographic variables. We searched articles of interest in PubMed using the following terms: 'predictors AND obesity OR Metabolic syndrome AND (children OR adolescents) AND (dyslipidemia OR type 2 diabetes OR atherosclerosis OR hypertension OR hypercholesterolemia OR cardiovascular disease)' AND genetic OR epigenetic. Maternal age, smoking and weight gain during pregnancy, parental body mass index, birth weight, childhood growth patterns (early rapid growth and early adiposity rebound), childhood obesity and the parents' employment have a role in early life. Furthermore, urbanization, unhealthy diets, increasingly sedentary lifestyles and genetic/epigenetic variants play a role in the persistence of obesity in adulthood. Health promotion programs/agencies should consider these factors as reasonable targets to reduce the risk of adult obesity. Moreover, it should be a clinical priority to correctly identify obese children who are already affected by metabolic comorbidities.

  5. The dangerous link between childhood and adulthood predictors of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Wang, David Q H; Frühbeck, Gema; Garruti, Gabriella; Portincasa, Piero

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate whether some risk factors in childhood work as significant predictors of the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. These factors include exposures to risk factors in the prenatal period, infancy and early childhood, as well as other socio-demographic variables. We searched articles of interest in PubMed using the following terms: 'predictors AND obesity OR Metabolic syndrome AND (children OR adolescents) AND (dyslipidemia OR type 2 diabetes OR atherosclerosis OR hypertension OR hypercholesterolemia OR cardiovascular disease)' AND genetic OR epigenetic. Maternal age, smoking and weight gain during pregnancy, parental body mass index, birth weight, childhood growth patterns (early rapid growth and early adiposity rebound), childhood obesity and the parents' employment have a role in early life. Furthermore, urbanization, unhealthy diets, increasingly sedentary lifestyles and genetic/epigenetic variants play a role in the persistence of obesity in adulthood. Health promotion programs/agencies should consider these factors as reasonable targets to reduce the risk of adult obesity. Moreover, it should be a clinical priority to correctly identify obese children who are already affected by metabolic comorbidities. PMID:26758061

  6. Starting the Conversation – A Childhood Obesity Knowledge Project Using an App

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Hoa B.; Huang, Bu; Cole, Allison; James, Rosalina; Ai, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Starting the Conversation was a pilot project to test an intervention for childhood obesity, a major public health epidemic, using a free smartphone application (app). The primary aim was to assess students’ knowledge of nutritional indicators, physical exercise and use of screen time before and after the intervention. Methods The study was conducted in 2011–2012. The sample, recruited from seven high schools in Snohomish County, Washington, was 65.3% minority participants. Of the 118 participants in the sample (n=118), 79 handwrote their responses (n=78) and 36 responded via the app (n=39). We compared the frequency and types of physical exercise, frequency of screen time, and nutritional variables of high school students. Participants used the cell phone app or a handwritten log to record their daily entries for 20 days. Results Both males (n=43) and females (n=75) grades 9–12 used the app or handwritten entries. Participants who used the app ate less fast food and exercised more, as compared with those who recorded their entries by hand. Screen time usage decreased over the course of the study, based on a comparison of the post-survey level and the pre-survey level. Knowledge of recommended daily consumption of vegetables increased post-test in the app group and knowledge of water consumption increased significantly in both groups. There was no significant difference in BMI pre and post-test. Conclusions Patterns of nutritional intake, physical exercise and knowledge of these issues varied pre and post-test. It is critical to further examine factors associated with lack of physical activity and food intake patterns of youth using social media to further address the childhood obesity epidemic. Future research should focus on specific ethnic subgroups and an intervention at the school level aimed at the students with BMI ≥ 95th percentile. PMID:24678462

  7. Principles and pitfalls in the differential diagnosis and management of childhood obesities.

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Barrios, Vicente; Muñoz-Calvo, María T; Pozo, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is currently the most prevalent chronic childhood disease in Western countries. It is one of the most frequent consultations in general pediatrics and is even more common in pediatric endocrinology. As might be predicted, the prevalence of obesity-associated comorbidities is also increasing in children and adolescents. It is widely accepted that this increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the current lifestyle in Western countries. However, there is increasing evidence indicating that an individual's genetic background is important in determining obesity risk. The physiologic mechanisms controlling appetite and energy expenditure are being revealed in part because of the identification of new causes of human monogenic, syndromic, and endocrine-related obesity. Thus, it is no longer appropriate to talk about obesity, but rather about "obesities" or "different diseases causing obesity," because their pathophysiologic bases differ. Moreover, these obesities require different diagnostic and management approaches. The pediatrician must be aware of this issue and focus the clinical history and physical examination toward specific clinical signs and symptoms to better exploit the available diagnostic and therapeutic resources when facing a child with obesity. Genetic, genomic, and metabolomic studies are often necessary to obtain a more appropriate diagnosis. Cognitive behavioral therapy is fundamental in obese children. The identification of potential targets will hopefully result in new pharmacologic approaches for translational and personalized medicine for obesity in the near future.

  8. The Facts about Childhood Obesity and Overweightness. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lino, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Examines the issue of overweightness and obesity among children. Addresses the following: (1) magnitude of obesity and overweightness; (2) growth of the problem in recent years; (3) diet and other key roles; and (4) the relation of obesity to income, education, and ethnicity. (SD)

  9. A review of the psychological and familial perspectives of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise in both industrialized and developing countries. The investigation of the psychosocial aspects of childhood obesity has been the focus of long- standing theoretical and empirical endeavor. Overweight in children and adolescents is associated with a host of psychological and social problems such as reduced school and social performance, less favorable quality of life, societal victimization and peer teasing, lower self-and body-esteem, and neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Whereas community samples of obese youngsters usually do not show elevated psychopathology, clinically-referred overweight children show elevated depression, anxiety, behavior problems, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating. Parents’ perceptions of their child’s overweight highly influence the well-being of obese children and the way in which they perceive themselves. The present review paper aims to broaden the scope of knowledge of clinicians about several important psychosocial and familial dimensions of childhood obesity: the psychosocial functioning, self and body esteem and psychopathology of overweight youngsters, the influence of children’s perceptions of overweight, including those of the obese children themselves on their well being, and the influence of parental attitudes about weight and eating on the psychological condition of the obese child. PMID:24999389

  10. A review of the psychological and familial perspectives of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Latzer, Yael; Stein, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise in both industrialized and developing countries. The investigation of the psychosocial aspects of childhood obesity has been the focus of long- standing theoretical and empirical endeavor. Overweight in children and adolescents is associated with a host of psychological and social problems such as reduced school and social performance, less favorable quality of life, societal victimization and peer teasing, lower self-and body-esteem, and neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Whereas community samples of obese youngsters usually do not show elevated psychopathology, clinically-referred overweight children show elevated depression, anxiety, behavior problems, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating. Parents' perceptions of their child's overweight highly influence the well-being of obese children and the way in which they perceive themselves. THE PRESENT REVIEW PAPER AIMS TO BROADEN THE SCOPE OF KNOWLEDGE OF CLINICIANS ABOUT SEVERAL IMPORTANT PSYCHOSOCIAL AND FAMILIAL DIMENSIONS OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY: the psychosocial functioning, self and body esteem and psychopathology of overweight youngsters, the influence of children's perceptions of overweight, including those of the obese children themselves on their well being, and the influence of parental attitudes about weight and eating on the psychological condition of the obese child. PMID:24999389

  11. Childhood obesity: the impact on long-term risk of metabolic and CVD is not necessarily inevitable.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    The worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population is estimated to be 35%. These trends are reflected in childhood obesity prevalence, and the potential impact of early-onset obesity is of great concern. The aim of this review was to investigate the long-term implications of childhood obesity for metabolic and cardiovascular health, focusing on the independent contribution of childhood obesity to adult disease risk, as distinct from associations mediated by tracking of obesity across the lifespan. The data systematically reviewed provide little evidence to suggest that childhood overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular risk during adulthood. Instead, the data demonstrate that the relationships observed are dependent on tracking of BMI between childhood and adulthood, alongside persistence of dietary patterns and physical activity. Adjustment for adult BMI uncovers unexpected negative associations between childhood BMI and adult disease, suggesting a protective effect of childhood obesity at any given level of adult BMI. Further work is required to explain these findings, both in terms of pathways and statistical artefacts. To conclude, it must be stressed that it is not suggested that childhood obesity is without negative consequence. Childhood obesity is clearly associated with a range of adverse physical and psychological outcomes. However, the data are important in supporting a positive message that the long-term consequences of childhood obesity are avoidable; and that there remains opportunity for intervention across the lifespan. This nuance in understanding long-term risk is important when considering the effectiveness of interventions at different stages of the lifespan.

  12. Childhood obesity: the impact on long-term risk of metabolic and CVD is not necessarily inevitable.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    The worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population is estimated to be 35%. These trends are reflected in childhood obesity prevalence, and the potential impact of early-onset obesity is of great concern. The aim of this review was to investigate the long-term implications of childhood obesity for metabolic and cardiovascular health, focusing on the independent contribution of childhood obesity to adult disease risk, as distinct from associations mediated by tracking of obesity across the lifespan. The data systematically reviewed provide little evidence to suggest that childhood overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular risk during adulthood. Instead, the data demonstrate that the relationships observed are dependent on tracking of BMI between childhood and adulthood, alongside persistence of dietary patterns and physical activity. Adjustment for adult BMI uncovers unexpected negative associations between childhood BMI and adult disease, suggesting a protective effect of childhood obesity at any given level of adult BMI. Further work is required to explain these findings, both in terms of pathways and statistical artefacts. To conclude, it must be stressed that it is not suggested that childhood obesity is without negative consequence. Childhood obesity is clearly associated with a range of adverse physical and psychological outcomes. However, the data are important in supporting a positive message that the long-term consequences of childhood obesity are avoidable; and that there remains opportunity for intervention across the lifespan. This nuance in understanding long-term risk is important when considering the effectiveness of interventions at different stages of the lifespan. PMID:25027289

  13. Understanding Our Service-Learning Community: An Exploratory Study of Parent, Teacher, and Student Perceptions about Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey-Sokes, Marilyn; Meaney, Karen S.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. University health and physical education programs have a unique opportunity to assist in childhood obesity prevention through service-learning programs. However, prior to the implementation of service-learning curricula, it is imperative to gain insight in the unique needs of the…

  14. Update on Prepregnancy Maternal Obesity: Birth Defects and Childhood Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Iessa, Noha; Bérard, Anick

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a growing global health epidemic. It is estimated that more than 20% of pregnancies are complicated by obesity. Prepregnancy obesity has been associated with birth defects such as neural tube defects, macrosomia, fetal death, and long-term effects such as asthma on the offspring. We provide a summary of the most recent studies and meta-analyses on obesity and birth outcome. Possible mechanisms of actions are explored and recommendations for further research are highlighted. PMID:27617118

  15. Update on Prepregnancy Maternal Obesity: Birth Defects and Childhood Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Iessa, Noha; Bérard, Anick

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is a growing global health epidemic. It is estimated that more than 20% of pregnancies are complicated by obesity. Prepregnancy obesity has been associated with birth defects such as neural tube defects, macrosomia, fetal death, and long-term effects such as asthma on the offspring. We provide a summary of the most recent studies and meta-analyses on obesity and birth outcome. Possible mechanisms of actions are explored and recommendations for further research are highlighted. PMID:27617118

  16. Estimating the Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in Alaska Using Partial, Nonrandom Measurement Data

    PubMed Central

    Boles, Myde; Fink, Karol; Topol, Rebecca; Fenaughty, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although monitoring childhood obesity prevalence is critical for state public health programs to assess trends and the effectiveness of interventions, few states have comprehensive body mass index measurement systems in place. In some states, however, assorted school districts collect measurements on student height and weight as part of annual health screenings. To estimate childhood obesity prevalence in Alaska, we created a logistic regression model using such annual measurements along with public data on demographics and socioeconomic status. Our mixed-effects model-generated prevalence estimates validated well against weighted estimates, with 95% confidence intervals overlapping between methodologies among 7 of 8 participating school districts. Our methodology accounts for variation in school-level and student-level demographic factors across the state, and the approach we describe can be applied by other states that have existing nonrandom student measurement data to estimate childhood obesity prevalence. PMID:27010843

  17. An increasing socioeconomic gap in childhood overweight and obesity in China.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; James, Sherman A; Merli, M Giovanna; Zheng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We used a new conceptual framework that integrates tenets from health economics, social epidemiology, and health behavior to analyze the impact of socioeconomic forces on the temporal changes in the socioeconomic status (SES) gap in childhood overweight and obesity in China. In data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 1991 to 2006, we found increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity across all SES groups, but a greater increase among higher-SES children, especially after 1997, when income inequality dramatically increased. Our findings suggest that for China, the increasing SES gap in purchasing power for obesogenic goods, associated with rising income inequality, played a prominent role in the country's increasing SES gap in childhood obesity and overweight.

  18. A communications tool to recruit policymakers to a CBPR partnership for childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Winterbauer, Nancy L; Garrett, Kathy C; Hyde, Samantha; Feinberg, Valerie; Husband, Laureen; Landry, Karen; Sylvester, James E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a process and technical requirements for the development of a video and related communications strategy that CBPR partnerships can use to recruit policymakers to participatory research. Policymakers play a critical role in social change agendas, yet are often difficult to engage for a variety of reasons, including limited availability and multiple, competing demands and constituencies. This paper draws on the experience of the Healthy Jacksonville Childhood Obesity Prevention Coalition, a 10-year-old partnership with a large membership and strong community roots in Duval County, Florida. The objectives of the communications strategy were to engage local and state policymakers in policy change that would positively affect childhood obesity prevention; educate policymakers about the social determinants of health, particularly those related to childhood obesity; and to do so in a way that elicited champions for the coalition's goals. PMID:24375185

  19. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory among upper elementary African-American children.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Shakeyrah; Sharma, Manoj

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in the African-American community. Commonly suggested public health strategies to reduce childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily moderately intense physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day, increasing fruit and vegetable intake to five or more cups per day, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in African-American upper elementary children. A 56-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 222 students. Glasses of water consumed were predicted by self-control for drinking water and self-efficacy for drinking water (R2 = 0.123). Fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy for eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.083). For designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity in the African-American community, social cognitive theory provides a useful framework.

  20. Two patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion presenting with childhood obesity and hyperphagia.

    PubMed

    Bassett, J K; Chandler, K E; Douzgou, S

    2016-08-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a clinically heterogeneous condition of intellectual disability, parathyroid and thyroid hypoplasia, palatal abnormalities, cardiac malformations and psychiatric symptoms. Hyperphagia and childhood obesity is widely reported in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) but there is only one previous report of this presentation in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We describe two further cases of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in which hyperphagia and childhood obesity were the presenting features. This may be a manifestation of obsessive behaviour secondary to some of the psychiatric features commonly seen in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Serious complications may result from hyperphagia and childhood obesity therefore early recognition and intervention is crucial. Due to the similar clinical presentation of these two patients to patients with PWS, it is suggested that the hyperphagia seen here should be managed in a similar way to how it is managed in PWS.

  1. Two patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion presenting with childhood obesity and hyperphagia.

    PubMed

    Bassett, J K; Chandler, K E; Douzgou, S

    2016-08-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a clinically heterogeneous condition of intellectual disability, parathyroid and thyroid hypoplasia, palatal abnormalities, cardiac malformations and psychiatric symptoms. Hyperphagia and childhood obesity is widely reported in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) but there is only one previous report of this presentation in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We describe two further cases of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in which hyperphagia and childhood obesity were the presenting features. This may be a manifestation of obsessive behaviour secondary to some of the psychiatric features commonly seen in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Serious complications may result from hyperphagia and childhood obesity therefore early recognition and intervention is crucial. Due to the similar clinical presentation of these two patients to patients with PWS, it is suggested that the hyperphagia seen here should be managed in a similar way to how it is managed in PWS. PMID:27184501

  2. An Increasing Socioeconomic Gap in Childhood Overweight and Obesity in China

    PubMed Central

    James, Sherman A.; Merli, M. Giovanna; Zheng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We used a new conceptual framework that integrates tenets from health economics, social epidemiology, and health behavior to analyze the impact of socioeconomic forces on the temporal changes in the socioeconomic status (SES) gap in childhood overweight and obesity in China. In data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 1991 to 2006, we found increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity across all SES groups, but a greater increase among higher-SES children, especially after 1997, when income inequality dramatically increased. Our findings suggest that for China, the increasing SES gap in purchasing power for obesogenic goods, associated with rising income inequality, played a prominent role in the country’s increasing SES gap in childhood obesity and overweight. PMID:24228657

  3. Effects of childhood abuse on adult obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemmingsson, E; Johansson, K; Reynisdottir, S

    2014-11-01

    Controversy exists surrounding the role of childhood abuse in obesity development. This is a meta-analysis of observational studies on the role of childhood abuse in adult obesity. Systematic searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, Medline and CINAHL resulted in 23 cohort studies (4 prospective, 19 retrospective) with n=112,708 participants, containing four abuse types (physical, emotional, sexual, general). Four studies reported dose-response effects. A random effects model was used to quantify effect sizes, meta-regression/subgroup analysis for identifying potential moderating variables and Egger's test for publication bias. Adults who reported childhood abuse were significantly more likely to be obese (odds ratio [OR]: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-1.45, P<0.001). All four types of abuse were significantly associated with adult obesity: physical (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13-1.46), emotional (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.08-1.71), sexual (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.13-1.53) and general abuse (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.25-1.69). Severe abuse (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.27-1.77) was significantly more associated with adult obesity (P=0.043) compared with light/moderate abuse (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.91-1.41). We found no significant effects of study design (prospective vs. retrospective, P=0.07), age (P=0.96) or gender (P=0.92). Publication bias was evident (Egger's test P=0.007), but effect sizes remained statistically significant in sensitivity analyses. Childhood abuse was clearly associated with being obese as an adult, including a positive dose-response association. This suggests that adverse life experiences during childhood plays a major role in obesity development, potentially by inducing mental and emotional perturbations, maladaptive coping responses, stress, inflammation and metabolic disturbances.

  4. Effects of childhood abuse on adult obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemmingsson, E; Johansson, K; Reynisdottir, S

    2014-11-01

    Controversy exists surrounding the role of childhood abuse in obesity development. This is a meta-analysis of observational studies on the role of childhood abuse in adult obesity. Systematic searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, Medline and CINAHL resulted in 23 cohort studies (4 prospective, 19 retrospective) with n=112,708 participants, containing four abuse types (physical, emotional, sexual, general). Four studies reported dose-response effects. A random effects model was used to quantify effect sizes, meta-regression/subgroup analysis for identifying potential moderating variables and Egger's test for publication bias. Adults who reported childhood abuse were significantly more likely to be obese (odds ratio [OR]: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-1.45, P<0.001). All four types of abuse were significantly associated with adult obesity: physical (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13-1.46), emotional (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.08-1.71), sexual (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.13-1.53) and general abuse (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.25-1.69). Severe abuse (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.27-1.77) was significantly more associated with adult obesity (P=0.043) compared with light/moderate abuse (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.91-1.41). We found no significant effects of study design (prospective vs. retrospective, P=0.07), age (P=0.96) or gender (P=0.92). Publication bias was evident (Egger's test P=0.007), but effect sizes remained statistically significant in sensitivity analyses. Childhood abuse was clearly associated with being obese as an adult, including a positive dose-response association. This suggests that adverse life experiences during childhood plays a major role in obesity development, potentially by inducing mental and emotional perturbations, maladaptive coping responses, stress, inflammation and metabolic disturbances. PMID:25123205

  5. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1994-02-01

    The association of various features of family life with obesity in childhood is well established, but less is known about the effect of these influences on the risk of later obesity. In this prospective, population-based study, we examined the influence of parental care in childhood on the risk of obesity in the offspring in young adulthood. In 1974, 1258 pupils aged 9-10 years were randomly selected from the third grade of Copenhagen schools. Information on 987 pupils was obtained from the form teachers on family structure and the perceived support from the parents; school medical services reported on the child's general hygiene. 756 (86%) of the 881 eligible participants were followed up 10 years later. The influence of family factors in childhood on the risk of obesity (body-mass index > 95th centile) in young adulthood was estimated by odds ratios with control for age and body-mass index in 1974, sex, and social background. Family structure (biological or other parents and number of siblings) did not significantly affect the risk of adult obesity. Parental neglect greatly increased the risk in comparison with harmonious support (odds ratio 7.1 [95% CI 2.6-19.3]). Dirty and neglected children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood, independent of age and body-mass index in childhood, sex, and social background. PMID:7905145

  6. Childhood, Adolescent, and Teenage Obesity: Recommendations for Community Initiatives in Central Harlem.

    PubMed

    Maidenberg, Michelle P

    2016-05-01

    Because ofpoverty, the high prevalence of obesity, and the lack of adequate supports, Central Harlem's children, adolescents, and teenagers are at risk for major physiological, psychological, and social issues. This article discusses the public health concerns related to this population, especially the prevalence of obesity. This article identifies the prevalence of illness and obesity in the inner city and stipulates the causes and consequences of obesity among children, adolescents, and teenagers. In addition, it reports on the appropriate community intervention, using a coalition and a community collaborative organization that serve as models to build support for Central Harlem. A proposal is offered for reducing obesity among youths in the community. The intervention outlines a logic model that identifies a multisystemic approach at the micro and macro level for community intervention and policy initiatives to advocate for fundamental change. Further research recommendations are described to reduce the prevalence of childhood, adolescent, and teenage obesity in urban communities.

  7. Childhood, Adolescent, and Teenage Obesity: Recommendations for Community Initiatives in Central Harlem.

    PubMed

    Maidenberg, Michelle P

    2016-05-01

    Because ofpoverty, the high prevalence of obesity, and the lack of adequate supports, Central Harlem's children, adolescents, and teenagers are at risk for major physiological, psychological, and social issues. This article discusses the public health concerns related to this population, especially the prevalence of obesity. This article identifies the prevalence of illness and obesity in the inner city and stipulates the causes and consequences of obesity among children, adolescents, and teenagers. In addition, it reports on the appropriate community intervention, using a coalition and a community collaborative organization that serve as models to build support for Central Harlem. A proposal is offered for reducing obesity among youths in the community. The intervention outlines a logic model that identifies a multisystemic approach at the micro and macro level for community intervention and policy initiatives to advocate for fundamental change. Further research recommendations are described to reduce the prevalence of childhood, adolescent, and teenage obesity in urban communities. PMID:27263198

  8. Our Choice/Nuestra Opción: The Imperial County, California, Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (CA-CORD)

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Leticia; Binggeli-Vallarta, Amy; Moody, Jamie; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Angulo, Janette; Hoyt, Helina; Chuang, Emmeline; Ganiats, Theodore G.; Gahagan, Sheila; Ji, Ming; Zive, Michelle; Schmied, Emily; Arredondo, Elva M.; Elder, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Despite recent declines among young children, obesity remains a public health burden in the United States, including among Latino/Hispanic children. The determining factors are many and are too complex to fully address with interventions that focus on single factors, such as parenting behaviors or school policies. In this article, we describe a multisector, multilevel intervention to prevent and control childhood obesity in predominantly Mexican-origin communities in Southern California, one of three sites of the CDC-funded Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CA-CORD) study. Methods: CA-CORD is a partnership between a university-affiliated research institute, a federally qualified health center, and a county public health department. We used formative research, advisory committee members' recommendations, and previous research to inform the development of the CA-CORD project. Our theory-informed multisector, multilevel intervention targets improvements in four health behaviors: fruit, vegetable, and water consumption; physical activity; and quality sleep. Intervention partners include 1200 families, a federally qualified health center (including three clinics), 26 early care and education centers, two elementary school districts (and 20 elementary schools), three community recreation centers, and three restaurants. Intervention components in these sectors target changes in behaviors, policies, systems, and the social and physical environment. Evaluation activities include assessment of the primary outcome, BMI z-score, at baseline, 12-, and 18-months post-baseline, and sector evaluations at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Conclusions: Identifying feasible and effective strategies to prevent and control childhood obesity has the potential to effect real changes in children's current and future health status. PMID:25584664

  9. Principles and Pitfalls in the Differential Diagnosis and Management of Childhood Obesities123

    PubMed Central

    Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á.; Barrios, Vicente; Muñoz-Calvo, María T.; Pozo, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Argente, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is currently the most prevalent chronic childhood disease in Western countries. It is one of the most frequent consultations in general pediatrics and is even more common in pediatric endocrinology. As might be predicted, the prevalence of obesity-associated comorbidities is also increasing in children and adolescents. It is widely accepted that this increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the current lifestyle in Western countries. However, there is increasing evidence indicating that an individual’s genetic background is important in determining obesity risk. The physiologic mechanisms controlling appetite and energy expenditure are being revealed in part because of the identification of new causes of human monogenic, syndromic, and endocrine-related obesity. Thus, it is no longer appropriate to talk about obesity, but rather about “obesities” or “different diseases causing obesity,” because their pathophysiologic bases differ. Moreover, these obesities require different diagnostic and management approaches. The pediatrician must be aware of this issue and focus the clinical history and physical examination toward specific clinical signs and symptoms to better exploit the available diagnostic and therapeutic resources when facing a child with obesity. Genetic, genomic, and metabolomic studies are often necessary to obtain a more appropriate diagnosis. Cognitive behavioral therapy is fundamental in obese children. The identification of potential targets will hopefully result in new pharmacologic approaches for translational and personalized medicine for obesity in the near future. PMID:24829481

  10. Low Levels of Energy Expenditure in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Implications for Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B.; Parsons, Susan K.; Must, Aviva; Kelly, Michael J.; Wong, William W.; Saltzman, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure (TEE) in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (median age 11.5 years). Mean TEE was 2,073 kcal/day, which was nearly 500 kcal/day lower than estimated energy requirements with recommended levels of physical activity. This energy gap is likely to contribute to the risk of obesity in this population and future trials are needed to assess implications and potential treatment strategies. PMID:25197775

  11. Faithful five: exploring African American faith leaders' perspectives on factors affecting childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    McFatrich, Molly; Weinhold, Andrew; Riggins, Linda; Blackman, Kate F; Lebow-Skelley, Erin; Little, Latasha N; Terry, Faye; Woods-Jaeger, Briana

    2013-01-01

    This study used a community-based participatory research tool called photovoice to understand African American faith leaders' perspectives on the factors that influence childhood obesity in their communities. Five African American women, who self-identified as faith leaders, took photographs and discussed photographs and emergent themes in 5 meetings. Qualitative analysis involved identifying recurring themes from the transcriptions of the photograph discussions, as well as the photographs themselves. The results suggest that the cycle of stress related to family responsibilities influences childhood obesity in this community. The implications for further research and public health practice are discussed.

  12. Low Levels of Energy Expenditure in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Implications for Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Parsons, Susan K; Must, Aviva; Kelly, Michael J; Wong, William W; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (median age, 11.5 y). Mean total energy expenditure was 2073 kcal/d, which was nearly 500 kcal/d lower than estimated energy requirements with recommended levels of physical activity. This energy gap is likely to contribute to the risk of obesity in this population and future trials are needed to assess implications and potential treatment strategies.

  13. Unique transcriptomic signature of omental adipose tissue in Ossabaw swine: a model of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Toedebusch, Ryan G; Roberts, Michael D; Wells, Kevin D; Company, Joseph M; Kanosky, Kayla M; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Perfield, James W; Ibdah, Jamal A; Booth, Frank W; Rector, R Scott

    2014-05-15

    To better understand the impact of childhood obesity on intra-abdominal adipose tissue phenotype, a complete transcriptomic analysis using deep RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on omental adipose tissue (OMAT) obtained from lean and Western diet-induced obese juvenile Ossabaw swine. Obese animals had 88% greater body mass, 49% greater body fat content, and a 60% increase in OMAT adipocyte area (all P < 0.05) compared with lean pigs. RNA-seq revealed a 37% increase in the total transcript number in the OMAT of obese pigs. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed transcripts in obese OMAT were primarily enriched in the following categories: 1) development, 2) cellular function and maintenance, and 3) connective tissue development and function, while transcripts associated with RNA posttranslational modification, lipid metabolism, and small molecule biochemistry were reduced. DAVID and Gene Ontology analyses showed that many of the classically recognized gene pathways associated with adipose tissue dysfunction in obese adults including hypoxia, inflammation, angiogenesis were not altered in OMAT in our model. The current study indicates that obesity in juvenile Ossabaw swine is characterized by increases in overall OMAT transcript number and provides novel data describing early transcriptomic alterations that occur in response to excess caloric intake in visceral adipose tissue in a pig model of childhood obesity.

  14. Childhood obesity and cardiac remodeling: from cardiac structure to myocardial mechanics.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Marijana; Cuspidi, Cesare

    2015-08-01

    Epidemic of obesity, especially morbid obesity, among children and adolescents, is a key factor associated with the dramatic increase in prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, and metabolic syndrome in this population. Furthermore, childhood obesity represents a very important predictor of obesity in adulthood that is related to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are associated with impairment of cardiac structure and function. The majority of studies investigated the influence of obesity on left ventricular remodeling. However, the impact of obesity on the right ventricle, both the atria, and myocardial mechanics has been insufficiently studied. The aim of this review article is to summarize all data about heart remodeling in childhood, from cardiac size, throughout systolic and diastolic function, to myocardial mechanics, using a wide range of mainly echocardiographic techniques and parameters. Additionally, we sought to present current knowledge about the influence of weight loss, achieved by various therapeutic approaches, on the improvement of cardiac geometry, structure, and function in obese children and adolescents. PMID:25798901

  15. Mediating pathways from central obesity to childhood asthma: a population-based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chih, An-Hsuan; Chen, Yang-Ching; Tu, Yu-Kang; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Lee, Yungling Leo

    2016-09-01

    The mediating pathways linking obesity and asthma are largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the mediating pathways and to search for the most prominent pathological mechanism between central obesity and childhood asthma.In the Taiwan Children Health Study, we collected data on an open cohort of children aged 9-13 years. Children's respiratory outcomes, atopic conditions, obesity measures and pulmonary function were surveyed annually between 2010 and 2012. Exhaled nitric oxide fraction concentrations were recorded in 2012. Generalised estimating equations and general linear models were used to examine the associations between central obesity, possible mediators and asthma. Structural equation models were applied to investigate the pathways that mediate the link between central obesity and asthma.Central obesity (waist-to-hip ratio) most accurately predicted childhood asthma. In the active asthma model, the percentage of mediation was 28.6% for pulmonary function, 18.1% for atopy and 5.7% for airway inflammation. The percentage of mediation for pulmonary function was 40.2% in the lifetime wheeze model. Pulmonary function was responsible for the greatest percentage of mediation among the three mediators in both models.Decline in pulmonary function is the most important pathway in central obesity related asthma. Pulmonary function screening should be applied to obese children for asthma risk prediction.

  16. IGFBP-2 at the interface of growth and metabolism--implications for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Matthew A; Russo, Vincenzo C; Azar, Walid J; Yau, Steven W; Kiess, Wieland; Werther, George A

    2011-06-01

    The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis is at the centre of normal human childhood growth. Six well characterised binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6) act as general carriers of IGF-I, but they also modulate IGF-I bioavailability and activity in a tissue-specific, and developmentally appropriate, manner. Recent findings also point to several binding proteins possessing specific 'lGF-independent' actions and, in particular, there is now substantial evidence linking IGFBP-2 with nutritional status and insulin sensitivity. IGFBP-2 concentrations are reduced in obesity, and further reductions are seen in those with Type 2 diabetes. As IGFBP-2 is the major IGFBP expressed in infancy, and is also the predominant IGFBP produced from adipocytes, it is ideally positioned to act as a keystone between nutrition, growth and metabolism. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk of long-term morbidity and mortality, but the factors that determine which obese children will develop these long-term complications are not fully understood. IGFBP-2 may be integrally involved in the molecular processes that govern the development of obesity and subsequent weight-related disease. Within this manuscript, we explore the associations between IGFBP-2 and obesity with a particular emphasis on how an increased understanding of the role of IGFBP-2 in metabolism may lead to improvements in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:21972778

  17. Three Interventions That Reduce Childhood Obesity Are Projected To Save More Than They Cost To Implement.

    PubMed

    Gortmaker, Steven L; Wang, Y Claire; Long, Michael W; Giles, Catherine M; Ward, Zachary J; Barrett, Jessica L; Kenney, Erica L; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Afzal, Amna Sadaf; Resch, Stephen C; Cradock, Angie L

    2015-11-01

    Policy makers seeking to reduce childhood obesity must prioritize investment in treatment and primary prevention. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of seven interventions high on the obesity policy agenda: a sugar-sweetened beverage excise tax; elimination of the tax subsidy for advertising unhealthy food to children; restaurant menu calorie labeling; nutrition standards for school meals; nutrition standards for all other food and beverages sold in schools; improved early care and education; and increased access to adolescent bariatric surgery. We used systematic reviews and a microsimulation model of national implementation of the interventions over the period 2015-25 to estimate their impact on obesity prevalence and their cost-effectiveness for reducing the body mass index of individuals. In our model, three of the seven interventions--excise tax, elimination of the tax deduction, and nutrition standards for food and beverages sold in schools outside of meals--saved more in health care costs than they cost to implement. Each of the three interventions prevented 129,000-576,000 cases of childhood obesity in 2025. Adolescent bariatric surgery had a negligible impact on obesity prevalence. Our results highlight the importance of primary prevention for policy makers aiming to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:26526252

  18. Three Interventions That Reduce Childhood Obesity Are Projected To Save More Than They Cost To Implement.

    PubMed

    Gortmaker, Steven L; Wang, Y Claire; Long, Michael W; Giles, Catherine M; Ward, Zachary J; Barrett, Jessica L; Kenney, Erica L; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Afzal, Amna Sadaf; Resch, Stephen C; Cradock, Angie L

    2015-11-01

    Policy makers seeking to reduce childhood obesity must prioritize investment in treatment and primary prevention. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of seven interventions high on the obesity policy agenda: a sugar-sweetened beverage excise tax; elimination of the tax subsidy for advertising unhealthy food to children; restaurant menu calorie labeling; nutrition standards for school meals; nutrition standards for all other food and beverages sold in schools; improved early care and education; and increased access to adolescent bariatric surgery. We used systematic reviews and a microsimulation model of national implementation of the interventions over the period 2015-25 to estimate their impact on obesity prevalence and their cost-effectiveness for reducing the body mass index of individuals. In our model, three of the seven interventions--excise tax, elimination of the tax deduction, and nutrition standards for food and beverages sold in schools outside of meals--saved more in health care costs than they cost to implement. Each of the three interventions prevented 129,000-576,000 cases of childhood obesity in 2025. Adolescent bariatric surgery had a negligible impact on obesity prevalence. Our results highlight the importance of primary prevention for policy makers aiming to reduce childhood obesity.

  19. Story Immersion in a Health Videogame for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Stories can serve as powerful tools for health interventions. Story immersion refers to the experience of being absorbed in a story. This is among the first studies to analyze story immersion's role in health videogames among children by addressing two main questions: Will children be more immersed when the main characters are similar to them? Do increased levels of immersion relate to more positive health outcomes? Subjects and Methods Eighty-seven 10–12-year-old African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic children from Houston, TX, played a health videogame, “Escape from Diab” (Archimage, Houston, TX), featuring a protagonist with both African-American and Hispanic phenotypic features. Children's demographic information, immersion, and health outcomes (i.e., preference, motivation, and self-efficacy) were recorded and then correlated and analyzed. Results African-American and Hispanic participants reported higher immersion scores than Caucasian participants (P=0.01). Story immersion correlated positively (P values<0.03) with an increase in Fruit and Vegetable Preference (r=0.27), Intrinsic Motivation for Water (r=0.29), Vegetable Self-Efficacy (r=0.24), and Physical Activity Self-Efficacy (r=0.32). Conclusion Ethnic similarity between videogame characters and players enhanced immersion and several health outcomes. Effectively embedding characters with similar phenotypic features to the target population in interactive health videogame narratives may be important when motivating children to adopt obesity prevention behaviors. PMID:24066276

  20. Prevention of childhood obesity in Spain: a focus on policies outside the health sector. SESPAS report 2010.

    PubMed

    Franco, Manuel; Sanz, Belén; Otero, Laura; Domínguez-Vila, Adrián; Caballero, Benjamín

    2010-12-01

    Obesity is currently a global public health problem. Obesity in early life increases the risk of long-term energy imbalance and adult obesity and its comorbidities, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Since infancy and childhood are critical periods for the adoption of food preferences and physical activity, prevention strategies must intervene in these early periods to promote healthy habits and reduce risk behaviors. Trends in the prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight in Spain have continuously increased in the last three decades. Obesity and overweight currently affect 15 and 20% of Spanish children, respectively, and these percentages are among the highest in Europe. Childhood obesity is determined by social and economic factors pertaining to sectors other than the health system, such as advertising, the built environment, education and the school environment, transportation and the food environment. Following the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach, the authors identified a series of multisector policy changes that may help to prevent and control the current rising trend of childhood obesity in Spain. The HiAP approach acknowledges that social factors including socioeconomic status, gender differences and the work-life balance are important to develop effective policy changes in the prevention of childhood obesity. A key to success in the prevention of childhood obesity in Spain through policy changes will depend on the ability to establish a policy with the explicit and primary goal of improving health outcomes, despite the anticipated resistance from various sectors and stakeholders.

  1. Prevention of childhood obesity in Spain: a focus on policies outside the health sector. SESPAS report 2010.

    PubMed

    Franco, Manuel; Sanz, Belén; Otero, Laura; Domínguez-Vila, Adrián; Caballero, Benjamín

    2010-12-01

    Obesity is currently a global public health problem. Obesity in early life increases the risk of long-term energy imbalance and adult obesity and its comorbidities, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Since infancy and childhood are critical periods for the adoption of food preferences and physical activity, prevention strategies must intervene in these early periods to promote healthy habits and reduce risk behaviors. Trends in the prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight in Spain have continuously increased in the last three decades. Obesity and overweight currently affect 15 and 20% of Spanish children, respectively, and these percentages are among the highest in Europe. Childhood obesity is determined by social and economic factors pertaining to sectors other than the health system, such as advertising, the built environment, education and the school environment, transportation and the food environment. Following the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach, the authors identified a series of multisector policy changes that may help to prevent and control the current rising trend of childhood obesity in Spain. The HiAP approach acknowledges that social factors including socioeconomic status, gender differences and the work-life balance are important to develop effective policy changes in the prevention of childhood obesity. A key to success in the prevention of childhood obesity in Spain through policy changes will depend on the ability to establish a policy with the explicit and primary goal of improving health outcomes, despite the anticipated resistance from various sectors and stakeholders. PMID:21074906

  2. Sugar, stress, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: early childhood obesity risks among a clinic-based sample of low-income Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Watt, Toni Terling; Appel, Louis; Roberts, Kelley; Flores, Bianca; Morris, Sarajane

    2013-06-01

    The nationwide epidemic of pediatric obesity is more prevalent among Hispanic children than white children. Recent literature suggests that obesity has early origins, leading scholars to call for interventions in pregnancy and infancy. However, there is little theoretical or empirical research to guide the development of early prevention programs for Hispanics. The present study seeks to identify risk factors for early childhood obesity among a low-income, predominately Hispanic sample. Data were gathered to inform the design of a primary care childhood obesity prevention program targeting pregnancy through age 12 months. Baseline data were gathered on 153 women attending the clinic for prenatal care or for their child's 2, 6 or 12 month well-check. All women completed surveys on diet, exercise, social support, food security, stress, infant feeding practices, health, and demographics. For women with children (n = 66), survey data were matched with medical records data on infant weight. Results reveal that 55 % of women in the sample had an infant profiling in the 85th percentile or higher, confirming the need for an early childhood obesity intervention. While mothers exhibited several potential risk factors for childhood obesity (e.g. fast food consumption), only maternal consumption of sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages, stress, and SNAP (food stamp receipt) were associated with infant overweight. Findings further reveal that stress and SNAP relate to child overweight, in part, through mothers' sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Results suggest that obesity prevention efforts must address specific individual choices as well as the external environment that shapes these consumption patterns. PMID:23197136

  3. Sugar, stress, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: early childhood obesity risks among a clinic-based sample of low-income Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Watt, Toni Terling; Appel, Louis; Roberts, Kelley; Flores, Bianca; Morris, Sarajane

    2013-06-01

    The nationwide epidemic of pediatric obesity is more prevalent among Hispanic children than white children. Recent literature suggests that obesity has early origins, leading scholars to call for interventions in pregnancy and infancy. However, there is little theoretical or empirical research to guide the development of early prevention programs for Hispanics. The present study seeks to identify risk factors for early childhood obesity among a low-income, predominately Hispanic sample. Data were gathered to inform the design of a primary care childhood obesity prevention program targeting pregnancy through age 12 months. Baseline data were gathered on 153 women attending the clinic for prenatal care or for their child's 2, 6 or 12 month well-check. All women completed surveys on diet, exercise, social support, food security, stress, infant feeding practices, health, and demographics. For women with children (n = 66), survey data were matched with medical records data on infant weight. Results reveal that 55 % of women in the sample had an infant profiling in the 85th percentile or higher, confirming the need for an early childhood obesity intervention. While mothers exhibited several potential risk factors for childhood obesity (e.g. fast food consumption), only maternal consumption of sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages, stress, and SNAP (food stamp receipt) were associated with infant overweight. Findings further reveal that stress and SNAP relate to child overweight, in part, through mothers' sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Results suggest that obesity prevention efforts must address specific individual choices as well as the external environment that shapes these consumption patterns.

  4. Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Feeding and Childhood Obesity among Mothers of Lower Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…

  5. Assessing Feasibility and Readiness to Address Obesity through Policy in American Indian Reservations

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Boe, Gail; Noonan, Carolyn; Carroll, Leslie; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have identified policy and environmental strategies as critical to the prevention and control of obesity. However such strategies are rare in American Indian communities despite significant obesity-related disparities. Tribal policymaking processes differ by tribal nation and are often poorly understood by researchers and public health practitioners, hindering the dissemination, implementation, and successful scale-up of evidence-base obesity strategies in tribal communities. To address these gaps in knowledge we surveyed 138 diverse stakeholders in two American Indian reservations to assess the feasibility of and readiness to implement CDC-recommended obesity policy strategies within their communities. We assessed general community readiness to address obesity using 18 questions from the Community Readiness Handbook. Means and standard deviations were evaluated and scores ranged from 1 (no readiness) to 9 (high readiness). We then assessed stakeholder attitudes regarding the feasibility of implementing specific strategies given tribal culture, infrastructure, leadership, and funding support. Average scores were calculated and mean values ranked from highest (best strategy) to lowest. Despite significant differences in their geographic and sociodemographic characteristics, both communities identified increasing the availability of healthy foods in tribal venues as the most feasible strategy and scored in the “preplanning” readiness stage. The survey design, implementation process, and findings generated significant community interest and discussion. Health planners in one of the communities used the survey findings to provide tribal decision-makers with measurable information to prioritize appropriate strategies for implementation.

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Relationship Between Obesity and Mental Health in Low-Income Women.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jennifer C; Milan, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether a history of self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the relationship between obesity and mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income women. A community sample of 186 women completed self-report measures and had their weight and height measured. Body mass index and CSA had an interactive effect on all mental health measures, such that obese women with a CSA history reported substantially higher levels of all symptoms. These results give greater specificity to the obesity-mental health link reported in previous studies and provide possible directions for targeted intervention.

  7. Clinical aspects of obesity in childhood and adolescence--diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Kiess, W; Reich, A; Müller, G; Meyer, K; Galler, A; Bennek, J; Kratzsch, J

    2001-05-01

    The level of fatness at which morbidity increases is determined on an acturial basis. Direct measurements of body fat content, eg hydrodensitometry, bioimpedance or DEXA, are useful tools in scientific studies. However, body mass index (BMI) is easy to calculate and is frequently used to define obesity clinically. An increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease in adults has been found in subjects whose BMI had been greater than the 75th percentile as adolescents. Childhood obesity seems to increase the risk of subsequent morbidity whether or not obesity persists into adulthood. The genetic basis of childhood obesity has been elucidated to some extent through the discovery of leptin, the ob gene product, and the increasing knowledge on the role of neuropeptides such as POMC, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the melanocyte concentrating hormone receptors (MC4R). Environmental/exogenous factors contribute to the development of a high degree of body fatness early in life. Twin studies suggest that approximately 50% of the tendency toward obesity is inherited. There are numerous disorders including a number of endocrine disorders (Cushing's syndrome, hypothyroidism, etc) and genetic syndromes (Prader-Labhard-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome etc) that can present with obesity. A simple diagnostic algorithm allows for the differentiation between primary or secondary obesity. Among the most common sequelae of primary childhood obesity are hypertension, dyslipidemia and psychosocial problems. Therapeutic strategies include psychological and family therapy, lifestyle/behavior modification and nutrition education. The role of regular exercise and exercise programs is emphasized. Surgical procedures and drugs used as treatments for adult obesity are still not recommended for children and adolescents with obesity. As obesity is the most common chronic disorder in the industrialized societies, its impact on individual lives as well as on health economics has to be

  8. Childhood and adolescent obesity and long-term cognitive consequences during aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Freire, Daniel; Knable, Lindsay; Zhao, Wei; Gong, Bing; Mazzola, Paolo; Ho, Lap; Levine, Samara; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance has reached an epidemic level. Obesity's immediate clinical impacts have been extensively studied; however, current clinical evidence underscores the long-term implications. The current study explored the impacts of brief childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance on cognitive function in later life. To mimic childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance, we exposed 9-week-old C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat diet for 15 weeks, after which the mice exhibited diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. We then put these mice back on a normal low-fat diet, after which the mice exhibited normal body weight and glucose tolerance. However, a spatial memory test in the forms of the Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual fear conditioning at 85 weeks of age showed that these mice had severe deficits in learning and long-term memory consolidation. Mechanistic investigations identified increased expression of histone deacetylases 5, accompanied by reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in the brains 61 weeks after the mice had been off the high-fat diet. Electrophysiology studies showed that hippocampal slices isolated from these mice are more susceptible to synaptic impairments compared with slices isolated from the control mice. We demonstrated that a 15-week occurrence of obesity and insulin resistance during childhood/adolescence induces irreversible epigenetic modifications in the brain that persist following restoration of normal metabolic homeostasis, leading to brain synaptic dysfunction during aging. Our study provides experimental evidence that limited early-life exposure to obesity and insulin resistance may have long-term deleterious consequences in the brain, contributing to the onset/progression of cognitive dysfunction during aging.

  9. Elementary School Personnel’s Perceptions on Childhood Obesity: Pervasiveness and Facilitating Factors

    PubMed Central

    McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Tisone, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Researchers in numerous disciplines have investigated the effects of the school environment on childhood obesity, one of the greatest current health concerns in the United States. There is a gap in current empirical evidence, however, on school personnel’s perspectives of this issue. This study examined school personnel’s perceptions of obesity as a problem among school-aged children and their views on factors contributing to obesity. METHODS Thirty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with elementary school personnel (teachers, administrators, and support staff) from 5 rural schools with a predominantly Hispanic (58.18%) and Black (30.24%) student population. The constant comparison method was used to identify emergent themes. RESULTS All but one participant considered obesity to be a problem among elementary children. Factors facilitating obesity most frequently cited by school personnel were home environment, poor nutrition, child control of dietary choices, child inactivity, and entertainment electronics. CONCLUSIONS Child control of dietary choices in both home and school environments was identified as a major contributor to obesity. Further exploration of this control is warranted to understand the complexity of this dynamic and its potential link to childhood obesity. PMID:23343321

  10. Family therapy as a model for treating childhood obesity: useful tools for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Paulina; Flodmark, Carl-Erik

    2011-01-01

    More than 15 percent of children in Europe are overweight; another 5 percent are obese. The high prevalence of obesity emphasizes the necessity of developing evidence-based treatment programs that are useful in a clinical setting. Management of childhood obesity is commonly based on lifestyle interventions where nutrition, physical activity, and behavior modification are the main targets. To incorporate lifestyle interventions, many childhood obesity treatment models use different psychological models, such as behavior modification or cognitive behavior therapy. This paper presents the key lessons from a research program on an empirically supported family-therapy-based treatment, Standardized Obesity Family Therapy (SOFT). SOFT is based on systemic and solution-focused theories and has shown positive effects on the child with respect to degree of obesity, physical fitness, self-esteem, and family functioning in several studies. The distinguishing features of SOFT are the focus on family interactions as an important source for implementing and maintaining lifestyle changes, the multidisciplinary team approach, and a limited number of sessions (three to four per year). The main aim of this paper is to provide tools for clinicians in the field of obesity who work with families, alone or in a multidisciplinary team.

  11. Technology: The Problem or the Solution to Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstone, Susan; Teatum, Jim

    2011-01-01

    One-third of the population of US children is considered obese and two-thirds of the adult population falls into the same category. These figures have tripled over the last 30 years. This demonstrates that the existing strategies to combat obesity do not work and it is time to look for alternatives. The recommendation is to turn the problem into a…

  12. The Future of Children: Spring 2006. Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina, Ed.; Donahue, Elisabeth, Ed.; Orleans, Tracy, Ed.; Grisso, Jeane Ann, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The third volume of "The Future of Children" examines the causes and consequences of increasing rates of obesity and overweight among children. It also reviews specific policies and programs aimed at reducing obesity and overweight and the related health problems that result. Contents include: (1) Introducing the Issue (Christina Paxson, Elisabeth…

  13. Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…

  14. Advocacy, Efficacy, and Engagement in an Online Network for Latino Childhood Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Gallion, Kipling J; Despres, Cliff; Aguilar, Rosalie P; Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Seidel, Sarah E; McAlister, Alfred L

    2015-11-01

    Salud America! is a national network created to engage Latino researchers, health professionals and community leaders in actions to reduce Latino childhood obesity. An online survey of 148 Salud America! network members investigated relationships between (1) their levels of engagement with the network, (2) self- and collective-efficacy, and (3) behavioral intentions to engage in advocacy for policies that can help reduce Latino childhood obesity. Analyses of these data found that higher levels of Salud America! engagement was associated with collective-advocacy efficacy-greater confidence in organized group advocacy as a way of advancing policies to reduce Latino childhood obesity. A multiple regression analysis found that this sense of collective-efficacy moderately predicted intentions to engage in advocacy behaviors. Salud America! engagement levels were less strongly associated with members' confidence in their personal ability to be an effective advocate, yet this sense of self-efficacy was a very strong predictor of a behavioral intention to advocate. Based on these findings, new online applications aimed at increasing self- and collective-efficacy through peer modeling are being developed for Salud America! in order to help individuals interested in Latino childhood obesity prevention to connect with each other and with opportunities for concerted local actions in their communities.

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Childhood Obesity, Weight Status Change, and Subsequent Academic Performance in Taiwanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Backround: This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. Methods: First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end…

  16. School Nutrition Programs and the Incidence of Childhood Obesity. NBER Working Paper No. 14297

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna

    2008-01-01

    In light of the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention. Using panel data on over 13,500 primary school students, we assess the relationship between SBP and NSLP participation and (relatively) long-run measures of child weight. After documenting a…

  17. The Preschool Nap as a Protective Factor in the Fight against Childhood Obesity: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kihm, Holly Spencer; Rolling, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Although the prevalence of childhood obesity has not increased in recent years, it remains unacceptably high and warrants continued study. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationship between weight status and length of sleep (both daytime and nighttime) among preschool children. Special attention was given to the role…

  18. Influence of Perceptions on School Nurse Practices to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quelly, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive childhood obesity prevention (COP) strategies should include increasing school nurse involvement. This study was conducted to determine the influence of key school nurse perceptions (self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers) on participation in COP practices at the individual child and school level. Florida…

  19. Moving Forward in Childhood Obesity Treatment: A Call for Translational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, P. M.; Dugdill, L.; Murphy, R.; Knowles, Z.; Cable, N. T.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious challenges of the 21st century and it is vital that evidence-based treatment approaches can be translated into practice to meet public health needs. Yet policy-makers cannot afford to wait for the results of lengthy trials before "probably efficacious" interventions are made available to the public, and…

  20. Rationale, design, and methods for process evaluation in the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cross-site process evaluation plan for the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project is described here. The CORD project comprises 3 unique demonstration projects designed to integrate multi-level, multi-setting health care and public health interventions over a 4-year funding peri...

  1. The effects of childhood obesity status on monocyte concentration and plasma chemokine concentration (ECRA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight/obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic diseases, such as type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In recent years, the prevalence of overweight in children has nearly tripled, especially among Mexican-American children. Childhood overweight greatly increases the ris...

  2. Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity: An Integrative Review of Recent Recommendations from Five Expert Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.; Gierut, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast 5 sets of expert recommendations about the treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity. Method: We reviewed 5 sets of recent expert recommendations: 2007 health care organizations' four stage model, 2007 Canadian clinical practice guidelines, 2008 Endocrine Society recommendations, 2009 seven step model, and…

  3. Finding common ground: perspectives on community-based childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Porter, Christine M; Pelletier, David L

    2012-11-01

    To support successful and inclusive community organizing for childhood obesity prevention, this research identified stakeholder perspectives on what communities should do to prevent childhood obesity. It employed factor analysis on statement sorts (Q methodology) conducted by 95 people in an upstate New York community. These participants sorted 36 statements about the issue by how much he or she agreed or disagreed with each. Participants were recruited through strategic snowball sampling to sample a variety of perspectives. The four resulting factors, or perspectives, were interpreted in the context of presort demographic surveys and postsort interviews. This research found one stance that fits the environmental perspective common in public health. The other three factors indicate important variations among perspectives centered on individual responsibility, ranging from libertarian to technocratic views. However, overall, results revealed a substantial degree of agreement among the four perspectives, including on providing access to family activities and on making fruits and vegetables more available and affordable, for example, through subsidies. This article points to common ground for community action on childhood obesity prevention, highlights areas likely to generate considerable contention, and shows whose views are not being accounted for in, at least, this community's childhood obesity prevention project.

  4. Obesity and Skill Attainment in Early Childhood. NBER Working Paper No. 13997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Spiess, C. Katharina

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between obesity and skill attainment in early childhood (aged 2-4 years). Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study are used to estimate models of developmental functioning in four critical areas (verbal skills, activities of daily living, motor skills, and social skills) as a function of various…

  5. Socioeconomic determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China: the long arm of institutional power.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; George, Linda K

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have widely reported that the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood overweight and obesity in China is significant and positive, which lends little support to the fundamental-cause perspective. Using multiple waves (1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) (N = 2,556, 2,063, 1,431 and 1,242, respectively) and continuous BMI cut-points obtained from a polynomial method, (mixed-effect) logistic regression analyses show that parental state-sector employment, an important, yet overlooked, indicator of political power during the market transformation has changed from a risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 1997 to a protective factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 2006. Results from quantile regression analyses generate the same conclusions and demonstrate that the protective effect of parental state sector employment at high percentiles of BMI is robust under different estimation strategies. By bridging the fundamental causes perspective and theories of market transformation, this research not only documents the effect of political power on childhood overweight/obesity but also calls for the use of multifaceted, culturally-relevant stratification measures in testing the fundamental cause perspective across time and space.

  6. Elementary School Personnel's Perceptions on Childhood Obesity: Pervasiveness and Facilitating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odum, Mary; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Tisone, Christine A.; Outley, Corliss W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers in numerous disciplines have investigated the effects of the school environment on childhood obesity (CHO), one of the greatest current health concerns in the United States. There is a gap in current empirical evidence, however, on school personnel's perspectives of this issue. This study examined school personnel's…

  7. Recess Activities of the Week (RAW): Promoting Free Time Physical Activity to Combat Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Christina D.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Partidge, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity and inactivity levels among young Americans have risen steadily over the last few decades, and has become a major concern. Participation in regular physical activity helps prevent excess adiposity in children and youth. Recess is a regularly occurring period of time in school children's days which is an opportunity to help them…

  8. Attitudes to Childhood Overweight and Obesity: The Limits of Cultural Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Suparna; Abbott, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore attitudes to and beliefs about childhood overweight and obesity among Bangladeshi mothers and to check maternal perceptions of their children's weight status. Design: Mixed methods cross-sectional study. Setting: A general practice in East London, UK. Methods: Qualitative interviews with 14 mothers; weighing and measuring 22…

  9. A Burger and Fries: The Dilemma of Childhood Obesity. For Parents Particularly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, MaryJane

    2003-01-01

    Discusses reasons childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and the numerous health problems that can result. Suggests parents incorporate physical activity into their family's lifestyle; advocate for daily outdoor recess at school; provide healthful meals; respect their child's appetite; not use food for comfort or as reward; and limit…

  10. Making the Grade: Reversing Childhood Obesity in School Districts Toolkit--What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In order to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States, it is critical to elevate the importance of physical education and physical activity as core components of a comprehensive curriculum in schools. It is also essential to explicitly state ways in which the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)…

  11. The Role of Built Environments in Physical Activity, Eating, and Obesity in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallis, James F.; Glanz, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Over the past forty years various changes in the U.S. "built environment" have promoted sedentary lifestyles and less healthful diets. James Sallis and Karen Glanz investigate whether these changes have had a direct effect on childhood obesity and whether improvements to encourage more physical activity and more healthful diets are likely to lower…

  12. Competitive Food Sales in Schools and Childhood Obesity: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Altman, Claire E.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of American middle schools and high schools sell what are known as "competitive foods," such as soft drinks, candy bars, and chips, to children. The relationship between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and snacks and childhood obesity is well established, but it remains unknown whether competitive food sales in schools are…

  13. Sustainable childhood obesity prevention through community engagement (SCOPE) program: evaluation of the implementation phase.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Bonnie; Daly, Amelia; Mâsse, Louise C; Collet, Jean-Paul; Higgins, Joan Wharf; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Amed, Shazhan

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity rates are steadily rising. Sustainable Childhood Obesity Prevention Through Community Engagement (SCOPE) is a community-based participatory action research (PAR) program aimed at preventing childhood obesity. This study aimed to describe community perspectives on, and elicit feedback about, SCOPE's first phase of implementation in two pilot cities in British Columbia, Canada. A case study was implemented using interviews and questionnaires to obtain feedback about SCOPE from two groups: SCOPE coordinators and stakeholders (i.e., individuals and organizations that were a member of the community and engaged with SCOPE coordinators). Participants were recruited via email and (or) by telephone. Coordinators completed a telephone interview. Stakeholders completed a questionnaire and (or) a telephone interview. Thematic analysis was conducted. Participants included 2 coordinators and 15 stakeholders. Participants similarly interpreted SCOPE as a program focused on raising awareness about childhood obesity prevention, while engaging multiple community sectors. Overall, participants valued the program's role in facilitating networking and partnership development, providing evidence-based resources, technical expertise, and contributing funding. Participants felt that SCOPE is sustainable. However, participants felt that barriers to achieving healthy weights among children included those related to the built environment, and social, behavioral, and economic obstacles. Perspectives on factors that facilitated and acted as barriers to SCOPE's first phase of implementation were obtained from the SCOPE communities and may be used to enhance the sustainability of SCOPE and its applicability to other BC communities.

  14. Advocacy, Efficacy, and Engagement in an Online Network for Latino Childhood Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Gallion, Kipling J; Despres, Cliff; Aguilar, Rosalie P; Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Seidel, Sarah E; McAlister, Alfred L

    2015-11-01

    Salud America! is a national network created to engage Latino researchers, health professionals and community leaders in actions to reduce Latino childhood obesity. An online survey of 148 Salud America! network members investigated relationships between (1) their levels of engagement with the network, (2) self- and collective-efficacy, and (3) behavioral intentions to engage in advocacy for policies that can help reduce Latino childhood obesity. Analyses of these data found that higher levels of Salud America! engagement was associated with collective-advocacy efficacy-greater confidence in organized group advocacy as a way of advancing policies to reduce Latino childhood obesity. A multiple regression analysis found that this sense of collective-efficacy moderately predicted intentions to engage in advocacy behaviors. Salud America! engagement levels were less strongly associated with members' confidence in their personal ability to be an effective advocate, yet this sense of self-efficacy was a very strong predictor of a behavioral intention to advocate. Based on these findings, new online applications aimed at increasing self- and collective-efficacy through peer modeling are being developed for Salud America! in order to help individuals interested in Latino childhood obesity prevention to connect with each other and with opportunities for concerted local actions in their communities. PMID:26220280

  15. Socioeconomic determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China: the long arm of institutional power.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; George, Linda K

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have widely reported that the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood overweight and obesity in China is significant and positive, which lends little support to the fundamental-cause perspective. Using multiple waves (1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) (N = 2,556, 2,063, 1,431 and 1,242, respectively) and continuous BMI cut-points obtained from a polynomial method, (mixed-effect) logistic regression analyses show that parental state-sector employment, an important, yet overlooked, indicator of political power during the market transformation has changed from a risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 1997 to a protective factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 2006. Results from quantile regression analyses generate the same conclusions and demonstrate that the protective effect of parental state sector employment at high percentiles of BMI is robust under different estimation strategies. By bridging the fundamental causes perspective and theories of market transformation, this research not only documents the effect of political power on childhood overweight/obesity but also calls for the use of multifaceted, culturally-relevant stratification measures in testing the fundamental cause perspective across time and space. PMID:26178452

  16. Links between Childhood and Adult Social Circumstances and Obesity and Hypertension in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Teruel, Graciela M.; Thomas, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study examines links between early life circumstances and adult socioeconomic status and obesity and hypertension in the adult Mexican population. Methods We use data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) collected in 2002 for people aged 20 or older (N=14, 280). Results We found that men with low education and women with more education have significantly lower obesity. Women with higher education also have significantly less hypertension. Obesity triples the likelihood of hypertension among both men and women. Better childhood experiences are associated with less hypertension among women, but more hypertension among men in rural areas. Discussion Recent changes in income, nutrition, and infection in Mexico may be responsible for the observed high prevalence of overweight and obesity and the extremely high odds of hypertension among obese young adults. PMID:21948773

  17. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Cruz, A.; Wojcicki, J. M.; Bacardí-Gascón, M.; Castellón-Zaragoza, A.; García-Gallardo, J. L.; Schwartz, N.; Heyman, M. B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of maternal migration to Baja California, body mass index (BMI) status, children’s perceived food insecurity, and childhood lifestyle behaviors with overweight (BMI > 85% ile), obesity (BMI > 95% ile) and abdominal obesity (Waist Circumference > 90% ile). Methods Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of 4th, 5th and 6th grade children and their parents at Tijuana and Tecate Public Schools. Children‘s and parents’ weights and heights were measured. Children were considered to have migrant parents if parents were not born in Baja California. Results One hundred and twenty-two children and their parents were recruited. The mean age of the children was 10.1 ± 1.0 years. Forty nine per cent of children were overweight or obese. Children with obese parents (BMI > 30) had greater odds of being obese, Odds Ratio (OR) 4.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.2–19, p = 0.03). Children with migrant parents had greater odds of being obese, OR= 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6–8.3), p = 0.01) and of having abdominal obesity, OR = 3.2 (95% CI, 1.4–7.1, p = 0.01). Children from migrant parents have greater risk of higher consumption of potato chips, OR = 8.0 (95% CI, 2.1–29.1, p = 0.01). Children from non-migrant parents had greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Conclusions Parental obesity and migration are associated with increased risk of obesity among Mexican children. Children whose parents were born in Baja California have greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Further studies should evaluate the role of migration on risk for childhood obesity. PMID:21519746

  18. Economic Evaluation of Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood: Methods, Limitations and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Döring, Nora; Mayer, Susanne; Rasmussen, Finn; Sonntag, Diana

    2016-09-13

    Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention.

  19. Economic Evaluation of Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood: Methods, Limitations and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Döring, Nora; Mayer, Susanne; Rasmussen, Finn; Sonntag, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention. PMID:27649218

  20. Economic Evaluation of Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood: Methods, Limitations and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Nora; Mayer, Susanne; Rasmussen, Finn; Sonntag, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention. PMID:27649218

  1. Bariatric Bypass Surgery to Resolve Complicated Childhood Morbid Obesity: Case Report Study.

    PubMed

    Elbanna, Abduh; Eldin, Mohammed Tag; Fathy, Mohammad; Osman, Osama; Abdelfattah, Mohammed; Safwat, Abdelrahman; Elkader, Mohammed Sedki Abd; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Salama, Khaled; Elnour, Asim A; Shehab, Abdullah; Baghdady, Shazly; Amer, Mohamed; Alboraie, Mohamed; Ragb, Aly; Abd Elrazek, Abd Elrazek

    2015-12-01

    Children obesity has become one of the most important public health problems in many countries worldwide. Although the awareness of childhood obesity as a modifiable health risk is high, but many societies do not prioritize this issue as a health care problem, which may lead to comorbidities and even premature death. Despite the rising interest in bariatric surgery for children, only laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is being considered in resolving childhood obesity who failed other dietary or drug therapies; however many of LSG procedures failed to reduce the weight in children or resulted in complications postsurgery.Here, we present a novel bariatric procedure to clue out a female child 13 years old presented with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease-associated morbid obesity. The surgical bariatric technique applied both fundal resection and surgical bypass in pediatric obesity using the Elbanna novel bariatric technique.Bariatric surgical bypass may be considered in complicated-childhood cases who failed all other options. PMID:26656361

  2. Genetic susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Concepción M; Olza, Josune; Gil, Angel

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial origin disease characterised by body fat excess mainly due to an imbalance between dietary intake and energy expenditure. One of the major complications of obesity is metabolic syndrome, which comprises anthropometrical, clinical, and metabolic dysfunctions that predispose the affected individual to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. It is hypothesised that the variability in the susceptibility to obesity-mediated metabolic complications involves both environmental and genetic factors. Whereas advances in the knowledge of the variations in the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity and related disorders, relatively few studies have specifically focused on the interactions between obesity and genetic polymorphisms and the development of metabolic complications. Despite these limited efforts, an increasing amount of evidence suggests that the effects of some gene variants on metabolic traits are modified by or present only in the setting of obesity. Furthermore, some of these loci may have larger effects on metabolic phenotypes in the presence of certain dietary or lifestyle factors. In the present manuscript, we reviewed the genes and their variants that have been evidenced to play a role in obesity-associated metabolic complications through genetic association studies, including candidate gene and genome-wide association approaches in adults and children.

  3. Parents as health promoters: a theory of planned behavior perspective on the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kyle R; Silk, Kami S; Eneli, Ihuoma U

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States. A number of communication campaigns and interventions have been conducted to combat the problem, with parents being recognized as an important target audience. A critical aspect of involving parents in such campaigns is formative research on parents' perceptions of their role in preventing childhood obesity. To facilitate this process, a study was conducted in which parents (N = 201) responded to Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) survey items as they relate to providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods for their children. Results indicated support for TPB predictions. Additionally, the degree to which parents viewed providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods as effective in preventing obesity (response efficacy) was predictive of parent tracking of children's unhealthy eating behavior. Finally, parent TV viewing behavior was related to perceived response efficacy of limiting children's TV viewing hours. Practical implications for communication practitioners are discussed.

  4. Parents as health promoters: a theory of planned behavior perspective on the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kyle R; Silk, Kami S; Eneli, Ihuoma U

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States. A number of communication campaigns and interventions have been conducted to combat the problem, with parents being recognized as an important target audience. A critical aspect of involving parents in such campaigns is formative research on parents' perceptions of their role in preventing childhood obesity. To facilitate this process, a study was conducted in which parents (N = 201) responded to Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) survey items as they relate to providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods for their children. Results indicated support for TPB predictions. Additionally, the degree to which parents viewed providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods as effective in preventing obesity (response efficacy) was predictive of parent tracking of children's unhealthy eating behavior. Finally, parent TV viewing behavior was related to perceived response efficacy of limiting children's TV viewing hours. Practical implications for communication practitioners are discussed. PMID:20390979

  5. School based interventions versus family based interventions in the treatment of childhood obesity- a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood obesity, which has seen a rapid increase over the last decade, is now considered a major public health problem. Current treatment options are based on the two important frameworks of school- and family-based interventions; however, most research has yet to compare the two frameworks in the treatment of childhood obesity. The objective of this review is to compare the effectiveness of school-based intervention with family-based intervention in the treatment of childhood obesity. Methods Databases such as Medline, Pub med, CINAHL, and Science Direct were used to execute the search for primary research papers according to inclusion criteria. The review included a randomised controlled trial and quasi-randomised controlled trials based on family- and school-based intervention frameworks on the treatment of childhood obesity. Results The review identified 1231 articles of which 13 met the criteria. Out of the thirteen studies, eight were family-based interventions (n = 8) and five were school-based interventions (n = 5) with total participants (n = 2067). The participants were aged between 6 and 17 with the study duration ranging between one month and three years. Family-based interventions demonstrated effectiveness for children under the age of twelve and school-based intervention was most effective for those aged between 12 and 17 with differences for both long-term and short-term results. Conclusions The evidence shows that family- and school-based interventions have a considerable effect on treating childhood obesity. However, the effectiveness of the interventional frameworks depends on factors such as age, short- or long-term outcome, and methodological quality of the trials. Further research studies are required to determine the effectiveness of family- and school-based interventions using primary outcomes such as weight, BMI, percentage overweight and waist circumference in addition to the aforementioned

  6. Risk for obesity in adolescence starts in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, S; Bann, C; Das, A; Lester, B; Bada, H; Bauer, CR; La Gasse, L; Higgins, RD

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the predictive value of body mass index (BMI) at earlier ages on risk of overweight/obesity at age of 11 years. Study Design This is a longitudinal study of 907 children from birth to age of 11 years. Predictors include BMI at earlier ages and outcome is overweight/obesity status at age of 11 years. Analyses were adjusted for covariates known to affect BMI. Result At 11 years, 17% were overweight and 25% were obese. Children whose BMI was measured as ≥85th percentile once at preschool age had a twofold risk for overweight/obesity at 11 years of age. Risk increased by 11-fold if a child's BMI measured was noted more than once during this age. During early elementary years, if a child's BMI was>85th percentile once, risk for overweight/obesity at 11 years was fivefold and increased by 72-fold if noted more than two times. During late elementary years, if a child's BMI was>85th percentile once, risk for overweight/obesity was 26-fold and increased by 351-fold if noted more than two times. Risk of overweight/obesity at 11 years was noted with higher maternal prepregnancy weight, higher birth weight, female gender and increased television viewing. Conclusion Children in higher BMI categories at young ages have a higher risk of overweight/obesity at 11 years of age. Effect size was greater for measurements taken closer to 11 years of age. Pediatricians need to identify children at-risk for adolescent obesity and initiate counseling and intervention at earlier ages. PMID:21415836

  7. Childhood cardiometabolic outcomes of maternal obesity during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Romy; Steegers, Eric A P; Duijts, Liesbeth; Felix, Janine F; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-04-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with impaired cardiometabolic health in offspring. Whether these associations reflect direct intrauterine causal mechanisms remains unclear. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 4871 mothers, fathers, and their children, we examined the associations of both maternal and paternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) with childhood body fat distribution and cardiometabolic outcomes and explored whether any association was explained by pregnancy, birth, and childhood factors. We measured childhood BMI, total body and abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure, and blood levels of lipids, insulin, and C-peptide at the age of 6 years. We observed that higher maternal and paternal prepregnancy BMI were associated with higher childhood BMI, total body and abdominal fat mass measures, systolic blood pressure, and insulin levels and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P<0.05). Stronger associations were present for maternal than paternal BMI, with statistical support for heterogeneity between these associations. The associations for childhood fat mass and cardiometabolic outcomes attenuated after adjustment for childhood current BMI. Compared with children from normal-weight mothers, those from obese mothers had increased risks of childhood overweight (odds ratio, 3.84 [95% confidence interval, 3.01-4.90]) and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors (odds ratio, 3.00 [95% confidence interval, 2.09-4.34]). Smaller effect estimates for these outcomes were observed for paternal obesity. In conclusion, higher maternal and paternal prepregnancy BMI were associated with an adverse cardiometabolic profile in offspring, with stronger associations present for maternal prepregnancy BMI. These findings suggest that maternal prepregnancy BMI may influence the cardiometabolic health of offspring through direct intrauterine mechanisms.

  8. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (<2500 g). Low birthweight was associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome and central obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding

  9. Neighborhood socioeconomic conditions, built environments, and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad; Kogan, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic conditions and "built environments" on obesity and overweight prevalence among U.S. children and adolescents using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. The odds of a child's being obese or overweight were 20-60 percent higher among children in neighborhoods with the most unfavorable social conditions such as unsafe surroundings; poor housing; and no access to sidewalks, parks, and recreation centers than among children not facing such conditions. The effects were much greater for females and younger children; for example, girls ages 10-11 were two to four times more likely than their counterparts from more favorable neighborhoods to be overweight or obese. Our findings can contribute to policy decisions aimed at reducing health inequalities and promoting obesity prevention efforts such as community-based physical activity and healthy diet initiatives.

  10. Childhood Obesity. A Concern for the Physical Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plimpton, Carol E.

    1987-01-01

    Physical educators can help obese children to realize their worth and become healthy individuals. Physical educators should encourage a positive attitude toward exercise and fitness, individual counseling, nutrition instruction, and development of high self-esteem. (CB)

  11. Alteration of PON1 activity in adult and childhood obesity and its relation to adipokine levels.

    PubMed

    Seres, Ildikó; Bajnok, László; Harangi, Mariann; Sztanek, Ferenc; Koncsos, Peter; Paragh, György

    2010-01-01

    Obesity as a pathogenic disorder is a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases and shows an increasing incidence in the industrialized countries. Adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin have a great impact on the development of atherosclerosis in obesity. Elevated levels of leptin have been found to be atherogenic whereas decreased levels of adiponectin have been proved to be anti-atherogenic in recent studies. The exact role of resistin in the process of atherosclerosis has so far remained uncertain and controversial. In our recent work, we studied the alteration in human paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and adipokine levels; furthermore, we also aimed at identifying the potential correlation between these parameters in this metabolic disorder. We investigated the above-mentioned parameters both in adults and in children, with regard to the emerging role of childhood obesity and to get a clearer view of these factors during a whole lifetime. Investigating the adult population with a broad range of body mass index (BMI) we found significantly increased leptin and significantly decreased adiponectin and resistin levels and PON1 activity in the obese group compared to the lean controls. Adiponectin and resistin levels showed significantly positive correlation, while leptin and BMI showed significantly negative correlation with PON1 activity. Our findings were similar in childhood obesity: leptin showed significantly negative correlation, while adiponectin showed significantly positive correlation with PON1 activity. We found gender differences in the univariate correlations of leptin and adiponectin levels with PON1 activity in the adult population. In multiple regression analysis, adiponectin proved to be an independent factor of PON1 activity both in childhood and adult obesity, furthermore thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) also proved to be an independent predictor of the enzyme in adults, reflecting the important role of oxidative

  12. The association between childhood obesity and tooth eruption.

    PubMed

    Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M; Tybor, David J; Lividini, Keith; Hayes, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is a growth-promoting process as evidenced by its effect on the timing of puberty. Although studies are limited, obesity has been shown to affect the timing of tooth eruption. Both the timing and sequence of tooth eruption are important to overall oral health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between obesity and tooth eruption. Data were combined from three consecutive cycles (2001-2006) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed to examine associations between the number of teeth erupted (NET) and obesity status (BMI z-score >95th percentile BMI relative to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth reference) among children 5 up to 14 years of age, controlling for potential confounding by age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status (SES). Obesity is significantly associated with having a higher average NET during the mixed dentition period. On average, teeth of obese children erupted earlier than nonobese children with obese children having on average 1.44 more teeth erupted than nonobese children, after adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity (P < 0.0001). SES was not a confounder of the observed associations. Obese children, on average, have significantly more teeth erupted than nonobese children after adjusting for gender, age, and race. These findings may have clinical importance in the area of dental and orthodontic medicine both in terms of risk for dental caries due to extended length of time exposed in the oral cavity and sequencing which may increase the likelihood of malocclusions.

  13. Global metabolomic profiling targeting childhood obesity in the Hispanic population12

    PubMed Central

    Butte, Nancy F; Liu, Yan; Zakeri, Issa F; Mohney, Robert P; Mehta, Nitesh; Voruganti, V Saroja; Göring, Harald; Cole, Shelley A; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolomics may unravel important biological pathways involved in the pathophysiology of childhood obesity. Objectives: We aimed to 1) identify metabolites that differ significantly between nonobese and obese Hispanic children; 2) collapse metabolites into principal components (PCs) associated with obesity and metabolic risk, specifically hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperleptinemia, and hyperuricemia; and 3) identify metabolites associated with energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Design: This trial was a cross-sectional observational study of metabolomics by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analyses performed on fasting plasma samples from 353 nonobese and 450 obese Hispanic children. Results: Branched-chained amino acids (BCAAs) (Leu, Ile, and Val) and their catabolites, propionylcarnitine and butyrylcarnitine, were significantly elevated in obese children. Strikingly lower lysolipids and dicarboxylated fatty acids were seen in obese children. Steroid derivatives were markedly higher in obese children as were markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. PC6 (BCAAs and aromatic AAs) and PC10 (asparagine, glycine, and serine) made the largest contributions to body mass index, and PC10 and PC12 (acylcarnitines) made the largest contributions to adiposity. Metabolic risk factors and total energy expenditure were associated with PC6, PC9 (AA and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites), and PC10. Fat oxidation was inversely related to PC8 (lysolipids) and positively related to PC16 (acylcarnitines). Conclusions: Global metabolomic profiling in nonobese and obese children replicates the increased BCAA and acylcarnitine catabolism and changes in nucleotides, lysolipids, and inflammation markers seen in obese adults; however, a strong signature of reduced fatty acid catabolism and increased steroid derivatives may be unique to obese children. Metabolic

  14. Childhood overweight/obesity and pediatric asthma: the role of parental perception of child weight status.

    PubMed

    Musaad, Salma M A; Paige, Katie N; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Donovan, Sharon M; Fiese, Barbara H; The Strong Kids Research Team

    2013-09-23

    Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child's weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, observed body mass index (BMI) percentiles, and a measure of child feeding practices were explored in the context of asthma, food allergy, or both. Out of the children with asthma or food allergy that were classified as overweight/obese by BMI percentiles, 93% were not perceived as overweight/obese by the parent. Mean scores for concern about child weight were higher in children with both asthma and food allergy than either condition alone, yet there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of pressure to eat and restrictive feeding practices. In summary, parents of children with asthma or food allergy were less likely to recognize their child's overweight/obese status and their feeding practices did not differ from those without asthma and food allergy.

  15. Looking at childhood obesity through the lens of Baumrind's parenting typologies.

    PubMed

    Luther, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is becoming the leading negative health outcome for the current generation of children to a greater degree than for any previous generation. Pediatric orthopaedic nurses encounter many patients and families with concerns about obesity and need the ability to promote parenting capacity in order to detect, prevent, or treat childhood obesity. Parenting is a complex process with numerous two-way interactions between the parent and child. Pediatric orthopaedic nurses affect parenting capacity daily as they care for families in all care settings. Many family researchers use Baumrind's parenting typologies (styles) and their correlations to child health outcomes in research. Understanding Baumrind's theories can help pediatric orthopaedic nurses understand the mechanisms parents use to affect the health outcomes related to the obesity of their children. Baumrind's is one parenting theory that can help demonstrate how parental behaviors and practices affect a child's self-concept and self-care development and ultimately a child's health promotion beliefs and practices related to obesity prevention and care that continue into adulthood. Nurses can use reviews of literature and application to practice of parenting styles to expand their repertoire of parent guidance and anticipatory teaching directed to the prevention and care of childhood obesity.

  16. The role of parental motivation in family-based treatment for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Njardvik, Urdur; Olafsdottir, Anna S; Craighead, Linda W; Bjarnason, Ragnar

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the role of parental motivation (importance, confidence and readiness) for predicting dropout and outcome from family-based behavioral treatment for childhood obesity. Parent and child demographics, adherence to treatment, and weight loss parameters were also explored as potential predictors. Eighty-four obese children (BMI-standard deviation scores (SDS) >2.14) and a participating parent with each child started treatment consisting of 12 weeks of group and individual treatment sessions (24 sessions total) delivered over a period of 18 weeks. Sixty-one families (73%) completed treatment and attended follow-up at 1 year after treatment. Child session attendance and completion of self-monitoring records served as measures of adherence. In regression analyses, parent reports (pretreatment) of confidence for doing well in treatment was the strongest predictor of treatment completion (P = 0.003) as well as early treatment response (weight loss at week 5) (P = 0.003). This variable remained a significant predictor of child weight loss at post-treatment (P = 0.014), but was not associated with child outcome at 1-year follow-up (P > 0.05). The only significant predictor of child weight loss at that point was child baseline weight (P = 0.001). However, pretreatment parent ratings of importance of and readiness for treatment did not predict dropout or weight loss at any point. The results underscore the importance of addressing parental motivation, specifically parental confidence for changing lifestyle related behaviors, early in the treatment process. Doing so may reduce treatment dropout and enhance treatment outcome.

  17. Patterns of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity during health transition in Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    Dancause, Kelsey N; Vilar, Miguel; Chan, Chim; DeHuff, Christa; Wilson, Michelle; Soloway, Laura E; Tarivonda, Len; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Garruto, Ralph M; Lum, J Koji

    2013-01-01

    Objective Rapid economic development and subsequent changes in lifestyle and disease burdens (‘health transition’) is associated with increasing prevalence of obesity among both adults and children. However, because of continued infectious diseases and undernutrition during the early stages of transition, monitoring childhood obesity has not been prioritized in many countries and the scope of the problem is unknown. Therefore we sought to characterize patterns of childhood overweight and obesity in an early transitional area, the South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu. Design We completed an anthropometric survey among children from three islands with varying levels of economic development, from rural areas (where adult obesity prevalence is low) to urban areas (where adult obesity prevalence is high). Setting The islands of Ambae (rural), Aneityum (rural with tourism) and Efate (urban). Subjects Boys and girls (n 513) aged 6–17 years. Results Height-, weight- and BMI-for-age did not vary among islands, and prevalence of overweight/obesity based on BMI was low. However, girls from Aneityum – a rural island where the tourism industry increased rapidly after malaria eradication – had increased central adiposity compared with girls from the other islands. This is contrary to adult patterns, which indicate higher obesity prevalence in urban areas. Multiple factors might contribute, including stunting, biological responses after malaria control, sleeping patterns, diet and physical activity levels. Conclusions Measures of central adiposity highlight an emerging obesity risk among girls in Vanuatu. The data highlight the synergistic relationship among infectious diseases, undernutrition and obesity during the early stages of health transition. PMID:21835097

  18. Reducing childhood obesity through coordinated care: Development of a park prescription program.

    PubMed

    Messiah, Sarah E; Jiang, Sandy; Kardys, Jack; Hansen, Eric; Nardi, Maria; Forster, Lourdes

    2016-08-01

    Major hindrances to controlling the current childhood obesity epidemic include access to prevention and/or treatment programs that are affordable, provide minimal barriers for participation, and are available to the general public. Moreover, successful childhood obesity prevention efforts will require coordinated partnerships in multiple sectors such as government, health care, school/afterschool, and the community but very few documented sustainable programs currently exist. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on maintaining healthy weight via physical activity and healthy eating have the potential to be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians and other healthcare professionals who have young patients who are overweight/obese. The Miami Dade County Department of Parks, Recreation and Open Spaces in partnership with the University of Miami UHealth Systems have created a "Park Prescription Program (Parks Rx 4Health(TM))" that formally coordinates pediatricians, families, parents, caregivers, and child/adolescents to provide daily obesity-prevention activities. This Parks Rx 4Health(TM) program that we describe here allows UHealth pediatricians to seamlessly refer their overweight and obese patients to Fit2Play(TM), an evidence-based, park-based afterschool health and wellness program. Measurable outcomes that include body mass index, blood pressure, fitness, and nutrition knowledge are being collected at baseline and at 3-and 6-mo after referral to document patient progress. Results are then shared with the referring physician so they can follow up with the patient if necessary. Identifying successful models that integrate primary care, public health, and community-based efforts is important to accelerating progress in preventing childhood obesity. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on physical activity and nutrition education could be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians who have

  19. Reducing childhood obesity through coordinated care: Development of a park prescription program

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Sarah E; Jiang, Sandy; Kardys, Jack; Hansen, Eric; Nardi, Maria; Forster, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Major hindrances to controlling the current childhood obesity epidemic include access to prevention and/or treatment programs that are affordable, provide minimal barriers for participation, and are available to the general public. Moreover, successful childhood obesity prevention efforts will require coordinated partnerships in multiple sectors such as government, health care, school/afterschool, and the community but very few documented sustainable programs currently exist. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on maintaining healthy weight via physical activity and healthy eating have the potential to be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians and other healthcare professionals who have young patients who are overweight/obese. The Miami Dade County Department of Parks, Recreation and Open Spaces in partnership with the University of Miami UHealth Systems have created a “Park Prescription Program (Parks Rx 4HealthTM)” that formally coordinates pediatricians, families, parents, caregivers, and child/adolescents to provide daily obesity-prevention activities. This Parks Rx 4HealthTM program that we describe here allows UHealth pediatricians to seamlessly refer their overweight and obese patients to Fit2PlayTM, an evidence-based, park-based afterschool health and wellness program. Measurable outcomes that include body mass index, blood pressure, fitness, and nutrition knowledge are being collected at baseline and at 3-and 6-mo after referral to document patient progress. Results are then shared with the referring physician so they can follow up with the patient if necessary. Identifying successful models that integrate primary care, public health, and community-based efforts is important to accelerating progress in preventing childhood obesity. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on physical activity and nutrition education could be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians who have

  20. Reducing childhood obesity through coordinated care: Development of a park prescription program

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Sarah E; Jiang, Sandy; Kardys, Jack; Hansen, Eric; Nardi, Maria; Forster, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Major hindrances to controlling the current childhood obesity epidemic include access to prevention and/or treatment programs that are affordable, provide minimal barriers for participation, and are available to the general public. Moreover, successful childhood obesity prevention efforts will require coordinated partnerships in multiple sectors such as government, health care, school/afterschool, and the community but very few documented sustainable programs currently exist. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on maintaining healthy weight via physical activity and healthy eating have the potential to be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians and other healthcare professionals who have young patients who are overweight/obese. The Miami Dade County Department of Parks, Recreation and Open Spaces in partnership with the University of Miami UHealth Systems have created a “Park Prescription Program (Parks Rx 4HealthTM)” that formally coordinates pediatricians, families, parents, caregivers, and child/adolescents to provide daily obesity-prevention activities. This Parks Rx 4HealthTM program that we describe here allows UHealth pediatricians to seamlessly refer their overweight and obese patients to Fit2PlayTM, an evidence-based, park-based afterschool health and wellness program. Measurable outcomes that include body mass index, blood pressure, fitness, and nutrition knowledge are being collected at baseline and at 3-and 6-mo after referral to document patient progress. Results are then shared with the referring physician so they can follow up with the patient if necessary. Identifying successful models that integrate primary care, public health, and community-based efforts is important to accelerating progress in preventing childhood obesity. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on physical activity and nutrition education could be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians who have

  1. A crisis in the marketplace: how food marketing contributes to childhood obesity and what can be done.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Lobstein, Tim; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Reducing food marketing to children has been proposed as one means for addressing the global crisis of childhood obesity, but significant social, legal, financial, and public perception barriers stand in the way. The scientific literature documents that food marketing to children is (a) massive; (b) expanding in number of venues (product placements, video games, the Internet, cell phones, etc.); (c) composed almost entirely of messages for nutrient-poor, calorie-dense foods; (d) having harmful effects; and (e) increasingly global and hence difficult to regulate by individual countries. The food industry, governmental bodies, and advocacy groups have proposed a variety of plans for altering the marketing landscape. This article reviews existing knowledge of the impact of marketing and addresses the value of various legal, legislative, regulatory, and industry-based approaches to change.

  2. Public policy versus individual rights in childhood obesity interventions: perspectives from the Arkansas experience with Act 1220 of 2003.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Martha M; Ryan, Kevin; Raczynski, James M

    2011-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem. Experts recommend that prevention and control strategies include population-based policies. Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 is one such initiative and provides examples of the tensions between individual rights and public policy. We discuss concerns raised during the implementation of Act 1220 related to the 2 primary areas in which they emerged: body mass index measurement and reporting to parents and issues related to vending machine access. We present data from the evaluation of Act 1220 that have been used to address concerns and other research findings and conclude with a short discussion of the tension between personal rights and public policy. States considering similar policy approaches should address these concerns during policy development, involve multiple stakeholder groups, establish the legal basis for public policies, and develop consensus on key elements.

  3. A crisis in the marketplace: how food marketing contributes to childhood obesity and what can be done.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Lobstein, Tim; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Reducing food marketing to children has been proposed as one means for addressing the global crisis of childhood obesity, but significant social, legal, financial, and public perception barriers stand in the way. The scientific literature documents that food marketing to children is (a) massive; (b) expanding in number of venues (product placements, video games, the Internet, cell phones, etc.); (c) composed almost entirely of messages for nutrient-poor, calorie-dense foods; (d) having harmful effects; and (e) increasingly global and hence difficult to regulate by individual countries. The food industry, governmental bodies, and advocacy groups have proposed a variety of plans for altering the marketing landscape. This article reviews existing knowledge of the impact of marketing and addresses the value of various legal, legislative, regulatory, and industry-based approaches to change. PMID:18976142

  4. A randomized controlled trial to prevent childhood obesity through early childhood feeding and parenting guidance: rationale and design of study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early and rapid growth in Infants is strongly associated with early development and persistence of obesity in young children. Substantial research has linked child obesity/overweight to increased risks for serious health outcomes, which include adverse physical, psychological, behavioral, or social consequences. Methods/design The goal of this study is to compare the effectiveness of structured Community Health Worker (CHW)- provided home visits, using an intervention created through community-based participatory research, to standard care received through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) office visits in preventing the development of overweight (weight/length ≥85th percentile) and obesity (weight/length ≥95th percentile) in infants during their first 3 years of life. One hundred forty pregnant women in their third trimester (30–36 weeks) will be recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Discussion This study will provide prospective data on the effects of an intervention to prevent childhood obesity in children at high risk for obesity due to ethnicity, income, and maternal body mass index (BMI). It will have wide-ranging applicability and the potential for rapid dissemination through the WIC program, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of a community approach though employing CHWs in preventing obesity during the first 3 years of life. This easy-to-implement obesity prevention intervention can be adapted for many locales and diverse communities and can provide evidence for policy change to influence health throughout life. Trial registration Clinical Trials Number: NCT01905072 PMID:24063435

  5. Evaluating School Wellness Policy in Curbing Childhood Obesity in Anchorage, Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Wendy G.; Garcia, Gabriel M.; Hoffman, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Anchorage School District implemented a school wellness policy to address the problem of obesity among its elementary-aged students. We assessed whether the addition of this policy is effective in protecting or preventing students from becoming overweight/obese over time. The methods involved following two cohorts of students for 5…

  6. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

  7. Assessing Implementation Fidelity and Adaptation in a Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed…

  8. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management123

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors’ nutritional intake as well as how survivors’ nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:26374183

  9. Childhood obesity: food, nutrient, and eating-habit trends and influences.

    PubMed

    Roblin, Lynn

    2007-08-01

    The need has never been greater to support healthy eating and physical activity in children and youth; the numbers of overweight and obese children have doubled and tripled, respectively, over the past 3 decades. Poor eating habits, including inadequate intake of vegetables, fruit, and milk, and eating too many high-calorie snacks, play a role in childhood obesity. Grain products provide the highest percentage (31%) of daily calories, followed by "other foods," which have limited nutritional value (22% of daily calories). Snacks account for 27% of total daily calories, which is more than the calories consumed at breakfast (18%) and lunch (24%), but not dinner (31%). For Canadians older than 4 years of age, more than 41% of daily snack calories come from other foods, such as chips, chocolate bars, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sugars, syrup, preserves, fats, and oils. Habits that protect against childhood obesity include eating more vegetables and fruit, eating meals with family, and being physically active. Children's food habits and choices are influenced by family, caregivers, friends, schools, marketing, and the media. Successful interventions for preventing childhood obesity combine family- and school-based programs, nutrition education, dietary change, physical activity, family participation, and counseling. PMID:17622277

  10. Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: The Origin of Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Chiara; Mazzantini, Sara; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2016-08-23

    Childhood obesity is a major global issue. Its incidence is constantly increasing, thereby offering a threatening public health perspective. The risk of developing the numerous chronic diseases associated with this condition from very early in life is significant. Although complex and multi-factorial, the pathophysiology of obesity recognizes essential roles of nutritional and metabolic aspects. Particularly, several risk factors identified as possible determinants of later-life obesity act within the first 1000 days of life (i.e., from conception to age 2 years). The purpose of this manuscript is to review those key mechanisms for which a role in predisposing children to obesity is supported by the most recent literature. Throughout the development of the human feeding environment, three different stages have been identified: (1) the prenatal period; (2) breast vs. formula feeding; and (3) complementary diet. A deep understanding of the specific nutritional challenges presented within each phase might foster the development of future preventive strategies.

  11. Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: The Origin of Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Chiara; Mazzantini, Sara; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major global issue. Its incidence is constantly increasing, thereby offering a threatening public health perspective. The risk of developing the numerous chronic diseases associated with this condition from very early in life is significant. Although complex and multi-factorial, the pathophysiology of obesity recognizes essential roles of nutritional and metabolic aspects. Particularly, several risk factors identified as possible determinants of later-life obesity act within the first 1000 days of life (i.e., from conception to age 2 years). The purpose of this manuscript is to review those key mechanisms for which a role in predisposing children to obesity is supported by the most recent literature. Throughout the development of the human feeding environment, three different stages have been identified: (1) the prenatal period; (2) breast vs. formula feeding; and (3) complementary diet. A deep understanding of the specific nutritional challenges presented within each phase might foster the development of future preventive strategies. PMID:27563917

  12. Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: The Origin of Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mameli, Chiara; Mazzantini, Sara; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major global issue. Its incidence is constantly increasing, thereby offering a threatening public health perspective. The risk of developing the numerous chronic diseases associated with this condition from very early in life is significant. Although complex and multi-factorial, the pathophysiology of obesity recognizes essential roles of nutritional and metabolic aspects. Particularly, several risk factors identified as possible determinants of later-life obesity act within the first 1000 days of life (i.e., from conception to age 2 years). The purpose of this manuscript is to review those key mechanisms for which a role in predisposing children to obesity is supported by the most recent literature. Throughout the development of the human feeding environment, three different stages have been identified: (1) the prenatal period; (2) breast vs. formula feeding; and (3) complementary diet. A deep understanding of the specific nutritional challenges presented within each phase might foster the development of future preventive strategies. PMID:27563917

  13. Nutritional and other influences in childhood as predictors of adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Power, C; Parsons, T

    2000-05-01

    It has been proposed that there are critical periods during childhood that influence the development of obesity, including gestation and early infancy, the period of adiposity rebound that occurs between ages 5 and 7 years, and adolescence. Despite an extensive literature, there is to date only modest evidence for most of the factors such as nutrition, physical activity and other behavioural factors that are suspected as playing a role in the development of obesity. A recent review of this evidence (Parsons et al. 1999) showed, however, a consistent relationship between socio-economic status (SES) of origin and adult obesity, whereby those from lower SES backgrounds were fatter subsequently in adulthood. This association appeared to apply to both men and women, a finding that contrasts with the trends observed in cross-sectional studies, of an association with SES for women only. There are several potential explanations for the SES of origin-adult obesity relationship. SES of origin may be confounded by parental body size; studies to date provide insufficient evidence of an independent association with SES after allowing for parental body size. Alternatively, environment in early life (for which SES of origin is a proxy measure) may have a long-term impact on obesity later in adulthood, through one or more of several processes. Three major potential explanations can be identified: (1) nutrition in infancy and childhood, either over- or undenutrition, followed subsequently by overnutrition; (2) psychological factors, possibly involving emotional deprivation in childhood; (3) cultural or social norms regarding dietary restraint and attitudes to fatness that may be acquired during childhood.

  14. [Knowledge and gaps on the role of nutrition and physical activity on the onset of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Sangil-Monroy, Marta; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2004-12-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity has increased at alarming rates over the last few years, due to the concurrence of a variety of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of published studies in the past ten years evaluating the development of childhood obesity in relation to energy and macronutrients intake, their distribution throughout the day and physical activity patterns. 31 articles dealing with this subject were selected. Results obtained appear to indicate that reducing dietary fat and increasing dietary carbohydrate intakes along with consuming an adequate breakfast and carrying out leisure time physical activity on a regular basis act as determining factors to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity, even though the strength of the evidence from these studies is low. It should be a priority to conduct follow-up studies with comparable methodologies in Mediterranean countries, in order to establish parameters for the prevention and control of childhood and adolescent obesity.

  15. The impact of childhood obesity on morbidity and mortality in adulthood: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Park, M H; Falconer, C; Viner, R M; Kinra, S

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the evidence on whether childhood obesity is a risk factor for adult disease, independent of adult body mass index (BMI). Ovid MEDLINE (1948-May 2011), EMBASE (1980-2011 week 18) and the Cochrane Library (1990-2011) were searched for published studies of BMI from directly measured weight and height in childhood (2-19 years) and disease outcomes in adulthood. Data were synthesized in a narrative fashion. Thirty-nine studies (n 181-1.1 million) were included in the review. There was evidence for associations between childhood BMI and type 2 diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Few studies examined associations independent of adult BMI; these showed that effect sizes were attenuated after adjustment for adult BMI in standard regression analyses. Although there is a consistent body of evidence for associations between childhood BMI and cardiovascular outcomes, there is a lack of evidence for effects independent of adult BMI. Studies have attempted to examine independent effects using standard adjustment for adult BMI, which is subject to over-adjustment and problems with interpretation. Studies that use more robust designs and analytical techniques are needed to establish whether childhood obesity is an independent risk factor for adult disease. PMID:22731928

  16. Influence of physical inactivity on associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and genetic predisposition to childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Xi, Bo; Wang, Chunyu; Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Meixian; Shen, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Xingyu; Mi, Jie

    2011-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex disease that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The authors' aim was to determine whether sedentary behavior and physical activity modulate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and obesity risk in Chinese children. A population-based study was carried out in 2,848 children (6-18 years of age) in Beijing, China, in 2004. It included 1,229 obese cases and 1,619 normal-weight controls. Lifestyle information was collected through the use of a validated questionnaire, and 6 SNPs were genotyped. The association between the 6 SNPs and obesity risk was modulated by sedentary behavior and physical activity. A higher risk of obesity was observed in children who carried the high-risk alleles of the 6 SNPs and engaged in sedentary behavior ≥2 hours/day outside of school or participated in low or moderate physical activity. Most notably, the association between 5 SNPs (Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 rs7138803, Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 rs1805081, fat mass- and obesity-associated gene rs6499640, melanocortin 4 receptor gene rs17782313, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor rs6265) and obesity risk was only observed in children who had moderate-to-low physical activity levels or engaged in sedentary behavior, regardless of which risk alleles they carried. The results indicated that encouraging less sedentary behavior and higher levels of physical activity could alleviate the influence of risk alleles on genetic predisposition to childhood obesity, thereby serving as a promising prevention strategy.

  17. Beyond BMI: The Next Chapter in Childhood Obesity Management.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Tracey L; Wareham, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric obesity treatment has traditionally focused on body mass index (BMI) and has had limited success. Recent research has suggested new ways to approach this topic that focuses more on holistic measures of health and inclusion of a larger population of children. This paper discusses new evidence in the prevention of chronic disease and treatment of obesity that has a body positive and mental health lens as well as integrating research from several areas of health, including the prevention of chronic disease. Practical medical and mental health assessments tools are suggested for clinical use. Implications for an individualized, positive treatment future are presented. PMID:26626762

  18. Reducing racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity: the role of early life risk factors.

    PubMed

    Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Kleinman, Ken P; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L

    2013-08-01

    IMPORTANCE Many early life risk factors for childhood obesity are more prevalent among blacks and Hispanics than among whites and may explain the higher prevalence of obesity among racial/ethnic minority children. OBJECTIVE To examine the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in adiposity and overweight are explained by differences in risk factors during pregnancy (gestational diabetes and depression), infancy (rapid infant weight gain, feeding other than exclusive breastfeeding, and early introduction of solid foods), and early childhood (sleeping <12 h/d, presence of a television set in the room where the child sleeps, and any intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or fast food). DESIGN Prospective prebirth cohort study. SETTING Multisite group practice in Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS Participants included 1116 mother-child pairs (63% white, 17% black, and 4% Hispanic) EXPOSURE Mother's report of child's race/ethnicity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z score, total fat mass index from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and overweight or obesity, defined as a BMI in the 85th percentile or higher at age 7 years. RESULTS Black (0.48 U [95% CI, 0.31 to 0.64]) and Hispanic (0.43 [0.12 to 0.74]) children had higher BMI z scores, as well as higher total fat mass index and overweight/obesity prevalence, than white children. After adjustment for socioeconomic confounders and parental BMI, differences in BMI z score were attenuated for black and Hispanic children (0.22 U [0.05 to 0.40] and 0.22 U [-0.08 to 0.52], respectively). Adjustment for pregnancy risk factors did not substantially change these estimates. However, after further adjustment for infancy and childhood risk factors, we observed only minimal differences in BMI z scores between whites, blacks (0.07 U [-0.11 to 0.26]), and Hispanics (0.04 U [-0.27 to 0.35]). We observed similar attenuation of racial/ethnic differences in adiposity and prevalence of overweight or obesity

  19. Design of the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) Study

    PubMed Central

    Blaine, Rachel E.; Davison, Kirsten K.; Gortmaker, Steven; Anand, Shikha; Falbe, Jennifer; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Perkins, Meghan; Giles, Catherine; Criss, Shaniece; Colchamiro, Rachel; Woo Baidal, Jennifer; Land, Thomas; Smith, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Childhood obesity is highly prevalent, is associated with both short- and long-term adverse outcomes, disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority and economically deprived children, and represents a major threat to public health. Among the most promising approaches for its prevention and management are multilevel, multisector strategies. Methods/Design: The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) Study was a comprehensive, systematic intervention to prevent and reduce childhood obesity among low-income children ages 2–12 years in two selected cities in Massachusetts. Building on the Obesity Chronic Care Model, MA-CORD expanded a state public health department community-level obesity prevention initiative that incorporated evidence-based interventions in primary healthcare, the Women, Infants, and Children program, early care and education, schools/afterschool programs, as well as community-wide programs to improve food, beverage, physical activity (PA), and messaging environments. The study used a combination of pre– and post–time series and quasi-experimental designs to examine the extent to which the intervention resulted in changes in BMI, individual-level lifestyle behaviors, satisfaction with healthcare services, and quality of life among children, as well as changes in health policies, programs, and environments in the two intervention cities, compared to a comparison city. The intervention period was 2 years. Conclusions: MA-CORD will determine the extent to which a multisetting, multilevel intervention that integrates activities in primary care with broader public health interventions in schools, early care and education, and the community at large can improve children's dietary and PA behaviors and ultimately reduce obesity in low-income children. PMID:25469676

  20. Childhood Obesity and Nutrition Issues in the United States: An Update on School-based Policies and Practices. Education Policy Brief, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spradlin, Terry; Gard, Greta; Huang, Vivian; Kopp, Beth; Malik, Alanna

    2012-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief examines the latest research and statistics regarding childhood obesity. In addition to providing an overview of current trends and effects of childhood obesity, this brief considers the reasons for the increase in obesity rates among children, as well as the latest federal and state initiatives created to combat…