Science.gov

Sample records for addressing environmental externalities

  1. Addressing Externalities From Swine Production to Reduce Public Health and Environmental Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, David; Wallinga, David

    2004-01-01

    Animal agriculture in the United States for the most part has industrialized, with negative consequences for air and water quality and antibiotic use. We consider health and environmental impacts of current US swine production and give an overview of current federal, state, and local strategies being used to address them. PMID:15451736

  2. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  3. 10 Core External Environmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

    This is an institutional report summarizing 10 core external environmental trends and their implications for El Camino College and the surrounding community. The report offers a brief description for the following trends: (1) there is more emphasis on colleges becoming learning institutions rather than teaching institutions; (2) the current and…

  4. EPA Addresses Environmental Justice in Houston

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Oct. 8, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced Texas Environmental Justice Advocacy Services (t.e.j.a.s.) was selected as a grant recipient to address environmental justice (EJ) issues in the Manchester area

  5. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  6. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company`s customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  7. Addressing Environmental Justice in EPA Brownfields Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Brownfields Program has a rich history rooted in environmental justice. The Brownfields Program and the environmental justice movement have evolved over a similar timeline, fueling one another and helping to build strong communities.

  8. Strategies for addressing global environmental health concerns.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A; Davis, E Ann

    2008-10-01

    While each region of the world faces unique public health challenges, environmental threats to vulnerable populations in Asia constitute a significant global public health challenge. Environmental threats to health are widespread and are increasing as nations in the region undergo rapid industrial development. One of the major predictors of ill health is poverty. Regional poverty puts large populations at risk for ill health, which exacerbates poverty and increases the exposure risk to environmental factors, such as pollution and disease. Patterns of illness have changed dramatically in the last century, and will continue to change in this century. Chemical toxicants in the environment, poverty, and little or no access to health care are all factors contributing to life-threatening diseases. Therefore, it is vital that we develop a better understanding of the mechanisms and interactions between nutrition, infectious disease, environmental exposures, and genetic predisposition in order to develop better prevention methods.

  9. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the field of environmental engineering, modeling tools are playing an ever larger role in addressing air quality issues, including source pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and human exposure risks. More detailed modeling of environmental flows requires tools for c...

  10. Issues and methods in incorporating environmental externalities into the integrated resource planning process

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Galen, P.S.

    1994-11-01

    This report is a review of current practices and policies in considering environmental externalities in the integrated resource planning and performance based regulation (IRP/PBR) process. The following issues are presented and examined: What are the pros and cons of treating environmental externalities in the IRP process? How are potential future environmental regulations being treated? Are externalities being qualitatively or quantitatively considered, or monetized? Are offsets being allowed? How are externality policies being coordinated among different levels and branches of governments? Should environmental externalities be considered in dispatching a utility`s existing resources? What are the procedures for addressing uncertainty in incorporating environmental externalities into IRP? How are externalities valued? What are other approaches to addressing environmental externalities. This report describes seven major approaches for addressing environmental externalities in the IRP process: qualitative treatment, weighting and ranking, cost of control, damage function, percentage adders, monetization by emission, and multiattribute trade-off analysis. The discussion includes a taxonomy of the full range of alternative methods for addressing environmental externalities, a summary of state PUC actions, the role of state laws, the debate on environmental adders, and the choice of methodologies. In addition, this report characterizes the interests of stakeholders such as the electric industry, fuel suppliers, energy consumers, governmental agencies, public interest groups, consultants, and others. It appears that the views, positions, and interests of these stakeholders are affected by their perceptions of the potential impacts on their economic interests or the viability of their position on environmental policy, by the societal perspective they take, and by the orientation of the analysts toward market competition and their respective accumulated expertise.

  11. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the status and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics )CFD) models to address environmental engineering challenges for more detailed understanding of air pollutant source emissions, atmospheric dispersion and resulting human exposure. CFD simulations ...

  12. Environmental Mis-Education? Addressing the Criticisms of Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Speculates on the negative effects on children while focusing on saving the environment. Proposes that children have been frightened by the presentation of this information and suggests acceptable ways of integrating environmental education topics into the curriculum. (DDR)

  13. EPA Addresses Environmental Justice in Espaola, N.M.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Oct. 8, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced TEWA Woman United was selected as a grant recipient to address environmental justice (EJ) issues in Española, N. M. The grant enables the organization to cond

  14. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Asia. [Including external environmental costs

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy technology demands of the Asian Pacific Basin, including Indonesia, Thailand, and the Republic of China (ROC-Taiwan). The US Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program provides a proving ground for innovative coal-related technologies that can be applied domestically and abroad. These innovative US CCTs are expected to satisfy increasingly stringent environmental requirements while substantially improving power generation efficiencies. They should also provide distinct advantages over conventional pulverized coal-fired combustors. Finally, they are expected to be competitive with other energy options currently being considered in the region. This paper presents potential technology scenarios for Indonesia, Thailand, and the ROC-Taiwan and considers an environmental cost-benefit approach employing a newly developed method of applying environmental externalities. Results suggest that the economic benefits from increased emission control can indeed be quantified and used in cost-benefit comparisons, and that US CCTs can be very cost effective in reducing emissions.

  15. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  16. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    This dissertation consists of three essays which examine environmental policy, employer mandates and energy consumption. The essays explore how firms respond to government policies such as environmental regulation and employer mandates. Understanding how firms adjust to government policies is crucial to law makers attempting to design optimal policies that maximize net benefits to society. The first essay, titled Who Loses under Power Plant Cap-and-Trade Programs tests how a major cap-and-trade program, known as the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), affected labor markets in the region where it was implemented. The cap-and-trade program dramatically decreased levels of NOx emissions and added substantial costs to energy producers. Using a triple-differences approach that takes advantage of the geographic and time variation of the program as well as variation in industry energy-intensity levels, I examine how employment dynamics changed in manufacturing industries whose production process requires high levels of energy. After accounting for a variety of flexible state, county and industry trends, I find that employment in the manufacturing sector dropped by 1.7% as a result of the NBP. Young workers experienced the largest employment declines and earnings of newly hired workers fell after the regulation began. Employment declines are shown to have occurred primarily through decreased hiring rates rather than increased separation rates, thus mitigating the impact on incumbent workers. The second essay, titled Evaluating Workplace Mandates with Flows versus Stocks: An Application to California Paid Family Leave uses an underexploited data set to examine the impact of the California Paid Family Leave program on employment outcomes for young women. Most papers on mandated benefits examine labor outcomes by looking at earnings and employment levels of all workers. Examining these levels will be imprecise if the impacts of the program develop over time and firms are wary

  17. Implications of environmental externalities assessments for solar thermal powerplants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, A. D.; Baechler, M. C.

    1991-03-01

    Externalities are those impacts of one activity on other activities that are not priced in the marketplace. An externality is said to exist when two conditions hold: (1) the utility or operations of one economic agent, A, include nonmonetary variables whose values are chosen by another economic agent, B, without regard to the effects on A, and (2) B does not pay A compensation equal to the incremental costs inflicted on A. Electricity generation involves a wide range of potential and actual environmental impacts. Legislative, permitting, and regulatory requirements directly or indirectly control certain environmental impacts, implicitly causing them to become internalized in the cost of electricity generation. Electricity generation, however, often produces residual environmental impacts that meet the definition of an externality. Mechanisms have been developed by several states to include the costs associated with externalities in the cost-effectiveness analyses of new powerplants. This paper examines these costs for solar thermal plants and applies two states' scoring methodologies to estimate how including externalities would affect the levelized costs of power from a solar plant in the Pacific Northwest. It concludes that including externalities in the economics can reduce the difference between the levelized cost of a coal and solar plant by between 0.74 and 2.42 cents/kWh.

  18. Information and issues related to the quantification of environmental externalities for new powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Callaway, J.M.; Glantz, C.S.; Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.

    1990-10-01

    This report provides background information for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its efforts to quantify the environmental externalities associated with new electricity resources. A more detailed companion document has been provided to Bonneville for internal use. This report defines what is meant by externalities, particularly in the context of electricity resources. It outlines the economics issues associated with assigning an economic value, such as cents per kilowatt hour, to the residual environmental impacts of electricity powerplants. It examines two generic theoretical approaches for estimating such values and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. The report also addresses the need to include relevant stages in the fuel cycle in estimating the costs of externalities. The fuel-cycle concept is defined and its importance is discussed. The approaches used by several states to quantify externalities are described. A review of the valuation efforts of various states and utilities indicates that three states have actually developed methodologies for assigning economic values to externalities. Information that Bonneville may need to request from resource developers to quantify externalities is discussed, and an appendix presents suggested forms for obtaining the required information. Summary information also is presented on models for analyzing the dispersion of powerplant plumes for the purpose of estimating environmental externality costs. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  20. Interweaving Knowledge Resources to Address Complex Environmental Health Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth Ellen; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex problems do not respect academic disciplinary boundaries. Environmental health research is complex and often moves beyond these boundaries, integrating diverse knowledge resources to solve such challenges. Here we describe an evolving paradigm for interweaving approaches that integrates widely diverse resources outside of traditional academic environments in full partnerships of mutual respect and understanding. We demonstrate that scientists, social scientists, and engineers can work with government agencies, industry, and communities to interweave their expertise into metaphorical knowledge fabrics to share understanding, resources, and enthusiasm. Objective Our goal is to acknowledge and validate how interweaving research approaches can contribute to research-driven, solution-oriented problem solving in environmental health, and to inspire more members of the environmental health community to consider this approach. Discussion The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program (SRP), as mandated by Congress, has evolved to become a program that reaches across a wide range of knowledge resources. SRP fosters interweaving multiple knowledge resources to develop innovative multidirectional partnerships for research and training. Here we describe examples of how motivation, ideas, knowledge, and expertise from different people, institutions, and agencies can integrate to tackle challenges that can be as complex as the resources they bring to bear on it. Conclusions By providing structure for interweaving science with its stakeholders, we are better able to leverage resources, increase potential for innovation, and proactively ensure a more fully developed spectrum of beneficial outcomes of research investments. Citation Anderson BE, Naujokas MF, Suk WA. 2015. Interweaving knowledge resources to address complex environmental health challenges. Environ Health Perspect 123:1095–1099

  1. The concept of externality: Implications for TVA Environmental Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, T.H.

    1994-06-01

    Pollution of the environment is a result of the economic activities of production and consumption. And although the market system is touted as the superior method of organizing and operating an economic system, society frequently is dissatisfied with some of the side effects. In these cases of market failure, a cry for intervention often is raised to obtain more socially-desirable solutions. Environmental pollution is one symptom of market failure. If the TVA Environmental Research Center is to focus on defining solutions to environmental problems and designing policy options for implementing such solutions, its efforts should benefit from an understanding of why the market fails and how it may be adjusted to produce more socially-desirable results. The purposes of this report are to: (1) promote an appreciation for and understanding of the concept of externality; (2) demonstrate the utility of the concept in the design and packaging of policy and technology for improved environmental performance; (3) provide a brief summary of the externality valuation issue currently being debated by the electric power industry; and (4) identify environmental research and development agenda opportunities or strategic considerations suggested for the Center by this review.

  2. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  3. Building on Strengths and Addressing Challenges: Enhancing External School Counseling Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ian; Rallis, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual paper outlines the implications associated with increasing external evaluation within school counseling programs. The authors propose that enhancing external evaluation may help to both strengthen school counseling programs and enhance their legitimacy within increasingly competitive and academically focused school systems. More…

  4. 49 CFR 520.25 - External review of draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External review of draft environmental impact... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Procedures § 520.25 External review of draft environmental impact statements. (a... by law or special expertise with respect to the possible environmental impact involved, and from...

  5. Membrane materials for addressing energy and environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Drioli, Enrico; Fontananova, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    Our modern society must solve various severe problems to maintain and increase our quality of life: from water stress to global warming, to fossil fuel depletion, to environmental pollution. The process intensification (PI) strategy is expected to contribute to overcoming many of these issues by facilitating the transition from a resource-intensive to a knowledge-intensive industrial system that will guarantee sustainable growth. Membrane operations, which respond efficiently to the requirements of the PI strategy, have the potential to replace conventional energy-intensive separation techniques, which will boost the efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of separations as well as conversion processes. This work critically reviews the current status and emerging applications of (integrated) membrane operations with a special focus on energy and environmental applications.

  6. 78 FR 18589 - EPA Office of External Affairs and Environmental Education; Request for Nominations of Candidates...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... environmental education research; (f) evaluation methodology; professional development for teachers and other... curriculum vitae or resume; the specific area of expertise in environmental education; recent service on... AGENCY EPA Office of External Affairs and Environmental Education; Request for Nominations of...

  7. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  8. Expanding the role for psychology in addressing environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia; Steg, Linda; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Environmental challenges, though daunting, present an important area for psychologists to apply their knowledge. Psychological theories, research methods, and interventions are essential for examining the questions about human impacts, tendencies, and capacities that are integral to constructing effective responses to these challenges. Although a great deal of relevant research has been done, there is scope for psychologists to be more extensively involved. Following a brief review of existing research, we outline some important new directions. We also highlight 2 key divergences, arguing that psychological research needs to expand beyond a traditional, theory-based and decontextualized approach to environmental issues to incorporate a contextualized or "place-based" approach and a willingness to collaborate in interdisciplinary research teams that focus on specific environmental problems. Suggestions for promoting such interdisciplinary collaborations are reviewed. We encourage psychologists to expand their engagement with important environmental issues through multiple research approaches in order to further their understanding of human behavior, contributions to human well-being, and relevance to other disciplines and to society.

  9. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J; Larson, Theodore C; Pfau, Jean C; Gavett, Stephen H; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials).

  10. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Theodore C.; Pfau, Jean C.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  11. External Quality Assurance in Higher Education: How Can It Address Corruption and Other Malpractices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Corruption and malpractices in higher education are today a major concern in nearly all higher education systems worldwide. It is a multifaceted phenomenon and has become particularly visible in the academic domain. This paper represents an exploration of the possible role that quality assurance can play in addressing corruption and malpractices.…

  12. Addressing environmental health Implications of mold exposure after major flooding.

    PubMed

    Metts, Tricia A

    2008-03-01

    Extensive water damage resulting from major flooding is often associated with mold growth if materials are not quickly and thoroughly dried. Exposure to fungal contamination can lead to several infectious and noninfectious health effects impacting the respiratory system, skin, and eyes. Adverse health effects can be categorized as infections, allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, or toxic-irritant reactions. Workers and building occupants can minimize their exposure to mold by avoiding areas with excessive mold growth, using personal protective equipment, and implementing environmental controls. Occupational health professionals should encourage workers to seek health care if they experience any symptoms that may be linked to mold exposure.

  13. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  14. Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation "demands basic research," Obama said, adding that Congress should not "gut these investments in our budget." Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to "open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources."

  15. Optimizing available network resources to address questions in environmental biogeochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn; Suzanne Andersen,; Baron, Jill S.; Peter Blanken,; Gordon Bonan,; William Bowman,; Sarah Elmendorf,; Fierer, Noah; Andrew Fox,; Keli Goodman,; Katherine Jones,; Danica Lombardozzi,; Claire Lunch,; Jason Neff,; Michael SanClements,; Katherine Suding,; Will Wieder,

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of network observatories have been established globally to collect long-term biogeochemical data at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although many outstanding questions in biogeochemistry would benefit from network science, the ability of the earth- and environmental-sciences community to conduct synthesis studies within and across networks is limited and seldom done satisfactorily. We identify the ideal characteristics of networks, common problems with using data, and key improvements to strengthen intra- and internetwork compatibility. We suggest that targeted improvements to existing networks should include promoting standardization in data collection, developing incentives to promote rapid data release to the public, and increasing the ability of investigators to conduct their own studies across sites. Internetwork efforts should include identifying a standard measurement suite—we propose profiles of plant canopy and soil properties—and an online, searchable data portal that connects network, investigator-led, and citizen-science projects.

  16. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study.

  17. Using External Environmental Scanning and Forecasting to Improve Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Joel D.

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of community colleges is increasingly dependent on their understanding of the external environment and their capacity to forecast and respond to the changing external landscape. As a result, they need to establish a system to continuously monitor changes in that environment and to identify and weigh the implications of changes on…

  18. Comparative analysis of monetary estimates of external environmental costs associated with combustion of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.

    1990-07-01

    Public utility commissions in a number of states have begun to explicitly treat costs of environmental externalities in the resource planning and acquisition process (Cohen et al. 1990). This paper compares ten different estimates and regulatory determinations of external environmental costs associated with fossil fuel combustion, using consistent assumptions about combustion efficiency, emissions factors, and resource costs. This consistent comparison is useful because it makes explicit the effects of various assumptions. This paper uses the results of the comparison to illustrate pitfalls in calculation of external environmental costs, and to derive lessons for design of policies to incorporate these externalities into resource planning. 38 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. EVALUATION OF WASTE PACKAGE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    E. N. Lindner and E. F. Dembowski

    1998-07-23

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is studying Yucca Mountain as the possible site for a permanent underground repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level waste (HLW). The emplacement of high-level radioactive waste in Yucca Mountain will release a large amount of heat into the rock above and below the repository. Due to this heat, the rock temperature will rise, and then decrease when the production of decay heat falls below the rate at which heat escapes from the hot zone. In addition to raising the rock temperature, the heat will vaporize water, which will condense in cooler regions. The condensate water may drain back toward the emplacement drifts or it may ''shed'' through the pillars between emplacement drifts. Other effects, such as coupled chemical and mechanical processes, may influence the movement of water above, within, and below the emplacement drifts. This study examined near field environmental parameters that could have an effect on the waste package, including temperature, humidity, seepage rate, pH of seepage, chemistry (dissolved salts/minerals) of seepage, composition of drift atmosphere, colloids, and biota. This report is a Type I analysis performed in support of the development of System Description Documents (SDDs). A Type I analysis is a quantitative or qualitative analysis that may fulfill any of a variety of purposes associated with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR), other than providing direct analytical support for design output documents. A Type I analysis may establish design input, as defined in the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998). This study establishes a technical basis for emplacement drift (i.e. at the waste package surface) environment criteria to be considered in the development of the waste package design. The information will support development of several SDDs and resolve emplacement drift external environment questions in the criteria of those

  20. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  1. Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, T.M.; Bleakly, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.

  2. Issues and options in addressing the environmental consequences of livestock sector's growth.

    PubMed

    Gerber, P J; Vellinga, T V; Steinfeld, H

    2010-02-01

    The growth of the livestock sector is being achieved at substantial environmental costs. Today, livestock are a major stressor of the global environmental, occupying a quarter of emerged land (including a third of arable land), contributing close to a fifth of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, using eight percent of all water resources and threatening a wide range of endangered species. At the same time, livestock are also a crucial engine of rural growth and a tool for improving food security. Policies are required to guide the sector in achieving sometimes conflicting development objectives. Potential pathways include encouraging resource use efficiency, correcting for environmental externalities and accelerating technological change.

  3. Worldwide Report, Environmental Quality, No. 388, China Addresses Environmental Issues -- IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    period of national economic readjustment" promulgated by the State Council, and actively propose suggestions . Environmental protection is a...did not follow a routine. In March 1981, the State Planning Commission included the suggestions of the environmental protection departments in its...industrial waste residue (%) To better control environmental pollution, some comrades suggested adding several more planned goals, such as: the amounts of

  4. Teaching undergraduate nursing students about environmental health: addressing public health issues through simulation.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Mary Jo; Rojas, Deb

    2014-01-01

    Schools of nursing are challenged to find clinical placements in public health settings. Use of simulation can address situations unique to public health, with attention to specific concerns, such as environmental health. Environmental health is an integral part of public health nursing and is a standard of professional practice. Current simulations focus on acute care situations, offering limited scenarios with a public health perspective and excluding environmental health. This study's simulation scenario was created to enhance nursing students' understanding of public health concepts within an environmental health context. Outcomes from the simulation include the need for integration of environmental issues in public health teaching. Students stated that this scenario provided a broader understanding of the environmental influences that can affect the client's and family's health. This scenario fills a void in simulation content, while providing an interactive teaching and learning strategy to help students to apply knowledge to practice.

  5. Is climate change an unforeseen, irresistible and external factor - A force majeure in marine environmental law?

    PubMed

    Saul, Roxanne; Barnes, Richard; Elliott, Michael

    2016-12-15

    Several environmental laws include provisions on natural causes or force majeure, which except States from their commitments if it can be proven that the failure to meet the commitment is due to factors outside their control. The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) has a pivotal role in managing EU marine waters. This paper analyses natural causes and force majeure provisions of the MFSD and other marine legislation, and addresses their interaction with climate change and its consequences, especially the effect on the obligation of ensuring seas are in Good Environmental Status. Climate change is an exogenic unmanaged pressure in that it emanates from outside the area being managed but in which the management authority has to respond to the consequences of climate change, such as sea level rise and temperature elevation, rather than its causes. It is suggested that a defence by a Member State of force majeure may be accepted if an event was proven to be due to an externality of control, irresistible and unforeseeable. The analysis contends that countering such a legal defence would centre on the fact that climate change is a well-accepted phenomenon, is foreseen with an accepted level of confidence and probability and is due to human actions. However, as yet, this has not been legally tested.

  6. 49 CFR 520.25 - External review of draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... jurisdiction of the Environmental Protection Agency (air or water quality, solid wastes, pesticides, radiation... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External review of draft environmental impact statements. 520.25 Section 520.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  7. 49 CFR 520.25 - External review of draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... jurisdiction of the Environmental Protection Agency (air or water quality, solid wastes, pesticides, radiation... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External review of draft environmental impact statements. 520.25 Section 520.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  8. 49 CFR 520.25 - External review of draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... jurisdiction of the Environmental Protection Agency (air or water quality, solid wastes, pesticides, radiation... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External review of draft environmental impact statements. 520.25 Section 520.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  9. 49 CFR 520.25 - External review of draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... jurisdiction of the Environmental Protection Agency (air or water quality, solid wastes, pesticides, radiation... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External review of draft environmental impact statements. 520.25 Section 520.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  10. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  11. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  12. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Building Demolition at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    DATE APR 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Building...prepared. This analysis fulfills the requirements ofNEPA and the CEQ Regulations. Date Signature on f ile, Signed 12 April 2010 MICHAELS. DUVALL...after the effective date of the designation of that area for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS. The effective designation date for most areas was June 15, 2004

  13. How Does an Environmental Educator Address Student Engagement in a Meaningful Watershed Educational Experience (MWEE)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, Chelia

    Children represent the future and thus by providing them with effective environmental educational experiences, educators may be taking a critical step in preventing "the probable serious environmental problems in the future" (Gokhan, 2010, p. 56). The Meaningful Watershed Educational Experience (MWEE) is an excellent example of one such education program. MWEEs aim to educate and enhance the students' relationship with the Chesapeake Bay Watershed through an integration of classroom activities and fieldwork. As environmental educators and role models, field interpreters are a major component and significant influence on the local MWEE programs, however their perspective as to how they have impacted the programs has yet to be examined. Through a qualitative analysis and specific focus on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement, the researcher intended to address this void. The focus of the study was to examine how the local MWEE field interpreters understood and addressed student engagement in a field setting. This was measured via data collected from observations of and semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with each field interpreter involved with the local MWEE programs. Data analysis uncovered that field interpreters demonstrated a strong awareness of student engagement. Furthermore, they defined, recognized, and addressed student engagement within the constructs of the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Ultimately, the individual experiences of each MWEE field interpreter provides insight into the phenomenon, however further research is required to strengthen the awareness of how, if at all, their perspectives of student engagement directly impact student outcomes.

  14. 76 FR 77997 - Office of External Affairs and Environmental Education; Request for Nominations of Candidates for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... partnerships; (d) leveraging resources for environmental education; (e) design and implementation of..., phone and fax numbers and an email address; a curriculum vitae or resume; the specific area of...

  15. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Objectives: Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. Methods: U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. Results: More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. Conclusions: The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world’s most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Citation: Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic

  16. Advancing environmental toxicology through chemical dosimetry: External exposures versus tissue residues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarty, L.S.; Landrum, P.F.; Luoma, S.N.; Meador, J.P.; Merten, A.A.; Shephard, B.K.; van Wezelzz, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The tissue residue dose concept has been used, although in a limited manner, in environmental toxicology for more than 100 y. This review outlines the history of this approach and the technical background for organic chemicals and metals. Although the toxicity of both can be explained in tissue residue terms, the relationship between external exposure concentration, body and/or tissues dose surrogates, and the effective internal dose at the sites of toxic action tends to be more complex for metals. Various issues and current limitations related to research and regulatory applications are also examined. It is clear that the tissue residue approach (TRA) should be an integral component in future efforts to enhance the generation, understanding, and utility of toxicity testing data, both in the laboratory and in the field. To accomplish these goals, several key areas need to be addressed: 1) development of a risk-based interpretive framework linking toxicology and ecology at multiple levels of biological organization and incorporating organism-based dose metrics; 2) a broadly applicable, generally accepted classification scheme for modes/mechanisms of toxic action with explicit consideration of residue information to improve both single chemical and mixture toxicity data interpretation and regulatory risk assessment; 3) toxicity testing protocols updated to ensure collection of adequate residue information, along with toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics information, based on explicitly defined toxicological models accompanied by toxicological model validation; 4) continued development of residueeffect databases is needed ensure their ongoing utility; and 5) regulatory guidance incorporating residue-based testing and interpretation approaches, essential in various jurisdictions. ??:2010 SETAC.

  17. Addressing the complexity of water chemistry in environmental fate modeling for engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sani-Kast, Nicole; Scheringer, Martin; Slomberg, Danielle; Labille, Jérôme; Praetorius, Antonia; Ollivier, Patrick; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticle (ENP) fate models developed to date - aimed at predicting ENP concentration in the aqueous environment - have limited applicability because they employ constant environmental conditions along the modeled system or a highly specific environmental representation; both approaches do not show the effects of spatial and/or temporal variability. To address this conceptual gap, we developed a novel modeling strategy that: 1) incorporates spatial variability in environmental conditions in an existing ENP fate model; and 2) analyzes the effect of a wide range of randomly sampled environmental conditions (representing variations in water chemistry). This approach was employed to investigate the transport of nano-TiO2 in the Lower Rhône River (France) under numerous sets of environmental conditions. The predicted spatial concentration profiles of nano-TiO2 were then grouped according to their similarity by using cluster analysis. The analysis resulted in a small number of clusters representing groups of spatial concentration profiles. All clusters show nano-TiO2 accumulation in the sediment layer, supporting results from previous studies. Analysis of the characteristic features of each cluster demonstrated a strong association between the water conditions in regions close to the ENP emission source and the cluster membership of the corresponding spatial concentration profiles. In particular, water compositions favoring heteroaggregation between the ENPs and suspended particulate matter resulted in clusters of low variability. These conditions are, therefore, reliable predictors of the eventual fate of the modeled ENPs. The conclusions from this study are also valid for ENP fate in other large river systems. Our results, therefore, shift the focus of future modeling and experimental research of ENP environmental fate to the water characteristic in regions near the expected ENP emission sources. Under conditions favoring heteroaggregation in these

  18. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Tammy R.; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A.; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant. PMID:27338429

  19. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Tammy R; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-06-08

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant.

  20. Biofuel production system with operation flexibility: Evaluation of economic and environmental performance under external disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Nannan

    Biomass derived liquid hydrocarbon fuel (biofuel) has been accepted as an effective way to mitigate the reliance on petroleum and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. An increasing demand for second generation biofuels, produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstock and compatible with current infrastructure and vehicle technologies, addresses two major challenges faced by the current US transportation sector: energy security and global warming. However, biofuel production is subject to internal disturbances (feedstock supply and commodity market) and external factors (energy market). The biofuel industry has also heavily relied on government subsidy during the early development stages. In this dissertation, I investigate how to improve the economic and environmental performance of biorefineries (and biofuel plant), as well as enhance its survivability under the external disturbances. Three types of disturbance are considered: (1) energy market fluctuation, (2) subsidy policy uncertainty, and (3) extreme weather conditions. All three factors are basically volatile, dynamic, and even unpredictable, which makes them difficult to model and have been largely ignored to date. Instead, biofuel industry and biofuel research are intensively focused on improving feedstock conversion efficiency and capital cost efficiency while assuming these advancements alone will successfully generate higher profit and thus foster the biofuel industry. The collapse of the largest corn ethanol biofuel company, Verasun Energy, in 2008 calls into question this efficiency-driven approach. A detailed analysis has revealed that although the corn ethanol plants operated by Verasun adopted the more efficient (i.e. higher ethanol yield per bushel of corn and lower capital cost) dry-mill technology, they could not maintain a fair profit margin under fluctuating market condition which made ethanol production unprofitable. This is because dry-mill plant converts a single type of biomass feedstock (corn

  1. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  2. Institutional misfit and environmental change: A systems approach to address ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Ekstrom, Julia A; Crona, Beatrice I

    2017-01-15

    Emerging environmental threats often lack sufficient governance to address the full extent of the problem. An example is ocean acidification which is a growing concern in fishing and aquaculture economies worldwide, but has remained a footnote in environmental policy at all governance levels. However, existing legal jurisdictions do account for some aspects of the system relating to ocean acidification and these may be leveraged to support adapting to and mitigating ocean acidification. We refine and apply a methodological framework that helps objectively evaluate governance, from a social-ecological systems perspective. We assess how well a set of extant US institutions fits with the social-ecological interactions pertinent to ocean acidification. The assessment points to measured legal gaps, for which we evaluate the government authorities most appropriate to help fill these gaps. The analysis is conducted on United State federal statutes and regulations. Results show quantitative improvement of institutional fit over time (2006 to 2013), but a substantial number of measured legal gaps persist especially around acknowledging local sources of acidification and adaptation strategies to deal with or avoid impacts. We demonstrate the utility of this framework to evaluate the governance surrounding any emerging environmental threat as a first step to guiding the development of jurisdictionally realistic solutions.

  3. Addressing China’s grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C.; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J.; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    China’s increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  4. Earth Institute at Columbia University ADVANCE Program: Addressing Needs for Women in Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Cane, M.; Mutter, J.; Miller, R.; Pfirman, S.; Laird, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Institute has received a major NSF ADVANCE grant targeted at increasing the participation and advancement of women scientists and engineers in the Academy through institutional transformation. The Earth Institute at Columbia University includes 9 research institutes including Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), International Research Institute (IRI) for Climate Prediction, Earth Engineering Center, NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Center for Risks and Hazards, Center for Globalization and Sustainable Development, and Center for Global Health and Economic Development and six academic departments including Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology (E3B, School of Arts and Sciences), Earth and Environmental Engineering (DEEE, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences), Department of Environmental Health (School of Public Health), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (DEES, School of Arts and Sciences), Department of International and Public Affairs (School of International and Policy Affairs), and Barnard College Department of Environmental Science. The Earth Institute at Columbia University's ADVANCE program is based both on a study of the status of women at Columbia and research on the progression of women in science elsewhere. The five major targets of the Columbia ADVANCE program are to (1) change the demographics of the faculty through intelligent hiring practices, (2) provide support to women scientists through difficult life transitions including elder care and adoption or birth of a child, (3) enhance mentoring and networking opportunities, (4) implement transparent promotion procedures and policies, and (5) conduct an institutional self study. The Earth Institute ADVANCE program is unique in that it addresses issues that tend to manifest themselves in the earth and environmental fields, such as extended

  5. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    During the Anthropocene, mankind will face several global environmental challenges. One of the first and more successful responses provided by Science to these challenges is the collecting of long-term series of biophysical variables in order to improve our knowledge of natural systems. The huge amount of information gathered during the last decades by Research Infrastructures (RIs) has helped to understand the structure and functioning of natural systems at local and regional scales. But how can we address the global cross-scale and cross-disciplinary challenges posed by the global environment change? We believe that it will be necessary to observe, model better and understand the whole biosphere using long term data generated by international RIs. RIs play a key role on many of the last advances and discoveries in science, from the observation of the Higgs Boson at CERN to the exploration of the Universe by the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The scale of complexity, instrumentation, computing resources, technological advances, and also of the investments, and the size of research collaborations, do not have precedents in Science. RIs in environmental field are developing fast, but the corresponding communities need yet to further reflect the need for a wider global collaboration because the challenges to tackle are in essence of global nature. This contribution describes how COOP+ project (EU Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action) will promote the cooperation among RIs at a global scale to address global environmental challenges. Our project evolves from the experience of the sucessful FP7 COOPEUS project (see http://www.coopeus.eu), which explored the use and access to data from RIs in environmental research in Europe and USA. The general goal of COOP+ is to strengthen the links and coordination of the ESFRI RIs related to Marine Science (EMSO), Arctic and Atmospheric Research (EISCAT), Carbon Observation (ICOS) and Biodiversity

  6. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  7. Foreign direct investment, institutional development, and environmental externalities: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danny T; Chen, Wendy Y

    2014-03-15

    The question of how foreign direct investment (FDI) affects a host country's natural environment has generated much debate but little consensus. Building on an institution-based theory, this article examines how the institutional development of a host setting affects the degree of FDI-related environmental externalities in China (specifically, industrial sulfur dioxide emissions). With a panel data set of 287 Chinese cities, over the period 2002-2009, this study reveals that FDI in general induces negative environmental externalities. Investments from OECD countries increase sulfur dioxide emissions, whereas FDI from Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan shows no significant effect. Institutional development reduces the impacts of FDI across the board. By focusing on the moderating role of institutions, this study sheds new light on the long-debated relationships among FDI, institutions, and the environments of the host countries.

  8. Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan = 1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary.

  9. PM₂.₅ opened a door to public participation addressing environmental challenges in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ganlin

    2015-02-01

    China has long been regarded as a centralized society where the public has little influence on decision-making. Such a top-down management scheme is perceived as a major obstacle to address complicated environment issues. The recent public campaign in China to urge creation of a nationwide PM₂.₅ monitoring network and mitigation plan provides an unprecedented case of how the public participated and influenced policy-making in a centralized society. This paper reviews key incidents in the campaign chronologically. Here we identify information technology, public awareness of air quality's health impacts and the fact air quality affects everyone as public goods as the major factors promoting public participation. This case demonstrates that public participation can happen in a centralized, top-down society such as China. Continued environmental deterioration may stimulate similar campaigns for other issues. We anticipate this essay to be a starting point for more studies on how environmental issues stimulate incremental social change by making people involved in decision-making process, especially in societies where they are rarely able to do so.

  10. Addressing Human Variability in Next-Generation Human Health Risk Assessments of Environmental Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Bois, Frederic Y.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Hattis, Dale; Rusyn, Ivan; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Characterizing variability in the extent and nature of responses to environmental exposures is a critical aspect of human health risk assessment. Objective: Our goal was to explore how next-generation human health risk assessments may better characterize variability in the context of the conceptual framework for the source-to-outcome continuum. Methods: This review was informed by a National Research Council workshop titled “Biological Factors that Underlie Individual Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors and Their Implications for Decision-Making.” We considered current experimental and in silico approaches, and emerging data streams (such as genetically defined human cells lines, genetically diverse rodent models, human omic profiling, and genome-wide association studies) that are providing new types of information and models relevant for assessing interindividual variability for application to human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. Discussion: One challenge for characterizing variability is the wide range of sources of inherent biological variability (e.g., genetic and epigenetic variants) among individuals. A second challenge is that each particular pair of health outcomes and chemical exposures involves combinations of these sources, which may be further compounded by extrinsic factors (e.g., diet, psychosocial stressors, other exogenous chemical exposures). A third challenge is that different decision contexts present distinct needs regarding the identification—and extent of characterization—of interindividual variability in the human population. Conclusions: Despite these inherent challenges, opportunities exist to incorporate evidence from emerging data streams for addressing interindividual variability in a range of decision-making contexts. PMID:23086705

  11. The evaluation of the environmental impact and the external factors of urban transport in Constanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanca, C.; Stîngă, V. G.; Georgescu, S.; Cupşa, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    Transport activities are known to have a substantial negative environmental impact especially when referring to the urban transport. Studies have shown that external costs (as accidents, congestion, air emissions, climate change or noise) are an important subject of the European Union, that is why were carried out several research projects. This paper will highlight the current requirements and methodologies used by the European Union regarding the impact of the external costs of urban transport in most of the growth poles of Europe. Taking into consideration that Constanta is considered to be one of the seven major growth poles of Romania for the 2014-2020 period, this study aims at analyzing how the results of similar studies made in others centers of the European Union can be applied in Constanta, showing different methodologies and evaluations regarding the external costs and their impact. We will analyze how the conclusions obtained in previous projects are applicable to data collected by us throughout a field research on the technical description of the means of transport used it this city. As methodology, we will use one that was adopted by the European Union regarding the estimation of urban external costs, taking into consideration that each externality has a different method for estimating it. The results of this study may be useful in developing the sustainable urban mobility plan for Constanta, as a strategic plan design to reduce the impact of urban transport for a better quality of life at present and in the future. Through this paper we will get an insight into the urban transport in Constanta, but also data on external costs generated by the urban transport, given that road transport is considered to be the most polluting transport mode.

  12. Environmental Assessment for the Warren Station externally fired combined cycle demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The proposed Penelec project is one of 5 projects for potential funding under the fifth solicitation under the Clean Coal Technology program. In Penelec, two existing boilers would be replaced at Warren Station, PA; the new unit would produce 73 MW(e) in a combined cycle mode (using both gas-fired and steam turbines). The project would fill the need for a full utility-size demonstration of externally fire combined cycle (EFCC) technology as the next step toward commercialization. This environmental assessment was prepared for compliance with NEPA; its purpose is to provide sufficient basis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or to issue a finding of no significant impact. It is divided into the sections: purpose and need for proposed action; alternatives; brief description of affected environment; environmental consequences, including discussion of commercial operation beyond the demonstration period.

  13. Environmental contamination and external radiation dose rates from radionuclides released from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevitc, Alexander; Kazlovsky, Alexander; Takamura, Noboru

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analysed by gamma spectrometry. Six artificial radionuclides ((131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (129m)Te, (95)Nb and (136)Cs) were detected in soil samples around FNPP. Calculated external effective doses from artificial radionuclide contamination in soil samples around FNPP were 1.9-2.9 μSv h(-1) (8.7-17.8 mSv y(-1)) in Fukushima city on 22 March 2011. After several months, these calculated external effective doses were 0.25-0.88 μSv h(-1) (2.2-7.6 mSv y(-1)) in Fukushima city on 29 June 2011. The present study revealed that the detected artificial radionuclides around FNPP mainly shifted to long-lived radionuclides such as radioactive caesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) even though current levels are decreasing gradually due to the decay of short-lived radionuclides such as (131)I, (129m)Te, (95)Nb and (136)Cs. Thus, radiation exposure potency still exists even though the national efforts are ongoing for reducing the annual exposure dose closer to 1 mSv, the public dose limit. Long-term environmental monitoring around FNPP contributes to radiation safety, with a reduction in unnecessary exposure to the residents.

  14. 25 CFR 224.102 - Must a tribe establish a comment or hearing process for addressing environmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Must a tribe establish a comment or hearing process for... or hearing process for addressing environmental concerns? Yes. The Act (25 U.S.C. 3504(e)(2)(C)(iii... establish an environmental review process under a TERA that: (a) Ensures that the public is notified...

  15. Heterogeneity in Externalizing Problems at Age 3: Association With Age 15 Biological and Environmental Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Kimonis, Eva

    2017-04-13

    Investigating heterogeneity in antisocial behavior early in life is essential for understanding the etiology, development, prognosis, and treatment of these problems. Data from the longitudinal National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) study of Early Child Care were used to identify homogeneous groups of young antisocial children differentiated on externalizing problems, internalizing problems, and callous-unemotional (CU) traits using latent profile analysis (LPA). We examined how identified subgroups were differentiated on adolescent social, biological, cognitive, and environmental outcomes, controlling for dispositional and contextual antecedents during the first 2 years of life. The sample consisted of 1,167 children (52% male) followed from toddlerhood to adolescence. LPA identified a large "low problems" group (n = 795; 49.9% male) as well as 3 antisocial groups at age 3: the first scored high on internalizing and externalizing problems but low on CU traits (Ext/Int, n = 125), the second scored high on CU traits and externalizing problems but low on internalizing problems (primary CU variant, n = 135), and the third scored high on CU traits, internalizing, and externalizing problems (secondary CU variant, n = 112), and these differences persisted into adolescence. Primary and secondary CU variants were further differentiated from one another on adolescent measures of aggression (reactive and relational), biological indices (cortisol, heart rate), cognitive abilities, and parental psychopathology, after controlling for early life risk factors (i.e., maternal sensitivity, difficult temperament, and maternal depression). We discuss implications of our findings for research, theory, and practice on early childhood externalizing problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Compendium of selected references on air emissions; health, risk, and valuation research; and environmental externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-07-01

    In preparing to develop a cost-benefit methodology that could be applied to potential projects abroad involving new coal-fired power plants that make use of US clean coal technologies, the author reviewed a wide variety of reference sources. These are listed in this publication. Before this review, the author had conducted a number of literature searches that identified source material in the newly rediscovered field of environmental externalities and related topics that might also be of value to other energy and environmental researchers. Those sources that appeared to be appropriate but that the author was unable to review are also listed in this document. Thus, this document serves as a comprehensive compendium of source material on these subjects, arranged alphabetically within categories.

  17. Final Environmental Assessment: Addressing Construction of a New Civil Engineering Workshop at Bellows Air Force Station, O’ahu, Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Craig Gorsuch , Det 2, 18 FSS/CEE Environmental Program Manager, 515 Tinker Road, Waimanalo, Hawai?i 96795-1903. Requests can also be made by addressing...this document should be directed to Craig Gorsuch , Det 2, 18 FSS/CEE, Environmental Program Manager, 515 Tinker Road, Waimanalo, Hawai‘i 96795-1903...be conducted to rul611 Sect. 106, and CZMA requirements. 5. Please provide comments directly to Mr. Craig Gorsuch , Det 2, 18 FSS/CEE, Civil

  18. Tracking Dissipation Reduction, Externalities, Stability and Sustainability for Environmental Management of New Orleans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D.; Werner, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainability requires stability, but in promoting economic development, modern economies and political systems reduce stabilizing dissipation by facilitating use and management of the environment through engineered mitigation of disturbances, which externalizes dissipation over the short to medium term. To quantitatively investigate the relationship between a range of environmental management approaches and sustainability, and the implications for Earth's future, we track the impact of management strategies on dissipation within the system and its externalities in a numerical model for the coupled economic, political/management and flooding dynamics of New Orleans. The model simulates river floods, hurricane storm-surge-induced floods, subsidence, and agent-based market interactions leading to development of port services, hotels, homes and labor relations. Flood protection decisions for levee construction based on the baseline case of cost-benefit analyses designed to prevent short-term economic loss from future floods qualitatively reproduce historical expansion of New Orleans and increases in levee height. Alternative management strategies explored include majority voting, consensus-based decision-making, and variations in discounting of costs and benefits. Enhanced dissipation is measured relative to optimal economic development without floods. The focus of modern economies on commodification is exploited to track dissipation as a scalar representing value or power, but this approach might not be applicable to more complicated traditional/indigenous cultures or cultures of resistance. For the baseline case, short-to-medium-term reductions in dissipation destabilize the coupled system, resulting in episodic bursts of externalized dissipation during flooding. Comparisons of results for a range of management options and generalizations of this approach for alternative cultural systems will be discussed.

  19. Governance reform, external support, and environmental regulation enforcement in rural China: the case of Guangdong province.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shui-Yan; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Fryxell, Gerald E

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines how configurations of external support factors have evolved alongside governance reform in recent years and how these evolving configurations have affected regulatory enforcement in four counties in Guangdong Province in China. Based on in-depth interviews with leading officials in the local environmental protection bureaus (EPBs), we show that there have been increases in government and societal support for local EPBs in their regulatory work, thanks partly to a number of recent governance reform efforts, but many problems have remained. Based on a questionnaire survey of enforcement officials, we examine how the perceptions of government and societal support are related to EPB officials' self-perception of effectiveness. It is found that both local government support and societal support have an influence on enforcement officials' self-assessment of effectiveness, but the relationships varied considerably depending on various dimensions of effectiveness and the patterns of interactions between government and societal support.

  20. A Multi-scale Spatial Approach to Address Environmental Effects of Small Hydropower Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Hetrick, Shelaine C.

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  1. A multi-scale approach to address environmental impacts of small hydropower development

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole M; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine L

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  2. A multi-scale spatial approach to address environmental effects of small hydropower development.

    PubMed

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine C

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  3. CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH - EPA AND DHHS COLLABORATE TO ADDRESS LONG-TERM HEALTH ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's environmental health is important to the mission of both the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Over the past seven years, federal experts from a variety of disciplines including survey sampling desi...

  4. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  5. Behind the wheel and on the map: Genetic and environmental associations between drunk driving and other externalizing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Harden, K Paige

    2013-11-01

    Drunk driving, a major contributor to alcohol-related mortality, has been linked to a variety of other alcohol-related (e.g., Alcohol Dependence, early age at first drink) and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. In a sample of 517 same-sex twin pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined 3 conceptualizations of the etiology of drunk driving in relation to other externalizing behaviors. A series of behavioral-genetic models found consistent evidence for drunk driving as a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a spectrum of alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. Most notably, multidimensional scaling analyses produced a genetic "map" with drunk driving located near its center, supporting the strength of drunk driving's genetic relations with a broad range of externalizing behaviors. In contrast, nonshared environmental associations with drunk driving were weaker and more diffuse. Drunk driving may be a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a broad externalizing spectrum.

  6. Final Report: Research Study on Development of Environmental Friendly Spray-on Foam Insulation (SOFI) for the External Tank (ET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, James M.

    1996-01-01

    The selection and quantification of four foams using a more environmentally friendly HCFC-141b blowing agent replacing foams that used the CFC-11 blowing agent for the external tank (ET) LWT has been addressed along with problems and solutions that were encountered during verification. The effort on two lower density spray foams for the ET SLWT are presented, but predicted weight savings were not encouraging. Suggestions for possible problem solving are included along with a new approach for selecting foams for qualification as back-up foams for the foams used on the ET LWT. We investigated three resins for use as thermally sprayed coatings for corrosion prevention on metal. The best coating was obtained with a thermoplastic polyimide resin. This coating has a good chance of meeting ET requirements. Possible third generation blowing agents have been shown usable in polyurethane spray and pour foams, and solubility in isocyannate foam components are acceptable. We considered aerogels as insulation materials on space vehicles, and suggested a liner for a liquid oxygen (LOX) composite tank.

  7. Report: EPA Has Not Implemented Adequate Management Procedures to Address Potential Fraudulent Environmental Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #14-P-0270, May 29, 2014. The EPA is not ensuring that fraudulent laboratory environmental data is being communicated to appropriate program offices and data users, reviewed, and analyzed for its impact on human health and the environment.

  8. Addressing transportation energy and environmental impacts: technical and policy research directions

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenberger, S.; Pasternak, A.; Smith, J.R.; Wallman, H.

    1995-08-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is establishing a local chapter of the University of California Energy Institute (UCEI). In order to most effectively contribute to the Institute, LLNL sponsored a workshop on energy and environmental issues in transportation. This workshop took place in Livermore on August 10 and brought together researchers from throughout the UC systems in order to establish a joint LLNL-UC research program in transportation, with a focus on energy and environmental impacts.

  9. Making Pedagogical Decisions to Address Challenges of Joint Jewish-Bedouin Environmental Projects in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkaher, Iris; Tal, Tali

    2016-01-01

    This interpretive study identifies challenges of working with Bedouin and Jewish Israeli youth in two multicultural projects: education for sustainability and place-conscious education. It also describes the ways the adult project leaders addressed these challenges and their views on the effectiveness of their decisions. Participants comprised 16…

  10. Atlanta Conference Highlights How College Students are Helping Underserved Communities Address Environmental Problems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4 office in Atlanta, Ga., hosted a day-long conference about the College/Underserved Community Partnership Program (CUPP) at the Sam Nunn Federal Center. EPA's Senior Advisor to

  11. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of a Security Forces Complex at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...Regulations. Date cc: Attachment ROBERT L. MANESS, Colonel, USAF Commander FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ADDRESSING CONSTRUCTION...effective date of the designation of that area for the 8-hour O3 NAAQS. The effective designation date for most areas was June 15, 2004. The USEPA

  12. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    Models in the environmental sciences are repositories in a sense of the current state of understanding of critical processes. However, as our understanding of these processes (and their accompanying models) become more granular, the data requirements to parameterize them become more limiting. In addition, as these models become more useful, they are often pressed into service for decision support, meaning that they cannot accept the data latency typical of most environmental observations. Finally, the vast majority of environmental data is generated at highly-instrumented, infrastructure-rich "mega sites" in the US/Europe, while many of the most pressing environmental issues are in rural locales and in the developing world. Cellular-based environmental sensing is a promising means to provide granular data in real time from remote locales to improve model-based forecasting using data assimilation. Applications we are working on include drought forecasting and food security; forest and crop responses to weather and climate change; and rural water usage. Over the past two years, we have developed a suite of integrated hardware, firmware, and backend APIs that accommodates an unlimited variety of sensors, and propagates these data onto the internet over mobile networks. Scientific data holds a unique role for demanding well-characterized information on sensor error and our design attempts to balance error reduction with low costs. The result is a deployment system that undercuts competing commercial products by as much as 90%, allowing more ubiquitous deployment with lower risks associated with sensor loss. Enclosure design and power management are critical ingredients for remote deployments under variable environmental conditions. Sensors push data onto cloud storage and make this data available via public API's via a backend server that accommodates additional metadata essential for interpreting observations, particularly their measurement errors. The data these pods

  13. Understanding the covariation among childhood externalizing symptoms: genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dick, Danielle M; Viken, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J

    2005-04-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common childhood externalizing disorders that frequently co-occur. However, the causes of their comorbidity are not well understood. To address that question, we analyzed data from >600 Finnish twin pairs, who completed standardized interviews at age 14. Behavior genetic methods were used to examine how genetic/environmental factors contribute to each disorder's symptoms and to their covariation. We found significant genetic effects on each disorder with only modest evidence of shared environmental influences. Our data suggest the comorbidity among CD, ADHD, and ODD is primarily explained by shared genetic influences; however, each disorder was also under unique genetic influence, supporting the distinction of each disorder.

  14. Does problem complexity matter for environmental policy delivery? How public authorities address problems of water governance.

    PubMed

    Kirschke, Sabrina; Newig, Jens; Völker, Jeanette; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2017-03-08

    Problem complexity is often assumed to hamper effective environmental policy delivery. However, this claim is hardly substantiated, given the dominance of qualitative small-n designs in environmental governance research. We studied 37 types of contemporary problems defined by German water governance to assess the impact of problem complexity on policy delivery through public authorities. The analysis is based on a unique data set related to these problems, encompassing both in-depth interview-based data on complexities and independent official data on policy delivery. Our findings show that complexity in fact tends to delay implementation at the stage of planning. However, different dimensions of complexity (goals, variables, dynamics, interconnections, and uncertainty) impact on the different stages of policy delivery (goal formulation, stages and degrees of implementation) in various ways.

  15. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria (First External Review Draft, Dec 2007)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur – Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise ...

  16. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur Environmental Criteria (Second External Review Draft, Aug 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a conci...

  17. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria (Second External Review Draft, Aug 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a conci...

  18. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-01-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

  19. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-05-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable.

  20. Addressing the Highest Risk: Environmental Programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, Elaine E

    2012-06-08

    Report topics: Current status of cleanup; Shift in priorities to address highest risk; Removal of above-ground waste; and Continued focus on protecting water resources. Partnership between the National Nuclear Security Administration's Los Alamos Site Office, DOE Carlsbad Field Office, New Mexico Environment Department, and contractor staff has enabled unprecedented cleanup progress. Progress on TRU campaign is well ahead of plan. To date, have completed 130 shipments vs. 104 planned; shipped 483 cubic meters of above-ground waste (vs. 277 planned); and removed 11,249 PE Ci of material at risk (vs. 9,411 planned).

  1. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  2. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  3. Negative Affect Shares Genetic and Environmental Influences with Symptoms of Childhood Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Hart, Sara A.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Taylor, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing disorders suggests that they may have common underlying vulnerability factors. Research has shown that negative affect is moderately positively correlated with both internalizing and externalizing disorders in children. The present study is the first to provide an examination of negative affect…

  4. Environmentally responsive material to address human-system interaction in the automotive cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehkopf, Jackie D.; Barbat, Saeed D.; Goldman, Neil M.; Samus, Marsha A.; Gold, Harris

    2001-06-01

    There is significant human-system interaction in an automotive cockpit, and for particular components this interaction can be ever-present while being transient in nature. It is envisioned that environmentally responsive materials can be used in some components to accommodate personal and transient differences in the desired human-system interaction. Systems containing responsive gels have been developed to provide user activation and adjustment of the physical properties of a particular interior automotive component. Proprietary reverse viscosification gel formulations were developed that are thermally responsive. Formulations were modified to adjust the dynamic modulus and viscosity in terms of magnitude, amount of change over the viscosification transition, and the temperature over which the transition occurs. Changes in the physical properties of two orders of magnitude and more were achieved over a narrow transition region. Preliminary human factors assessment indicates that this order of magnitude of change is desirable. As the system of responsive gel, encapsulating material and activation mechanism is developed further, additional human factors studies will refine the desired physical properties and thermal activation mechanism. Ultimately, this system will have to perform over the broad range of temperatures imposed on interior automotive components and exhibit long-term durability chemically, physically and mechanically.

  5. Langley's DEVELOP Team Applies NASA's Earth Observations to Address Environmental Issues Across the Country and Around the Globe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Lauren M.; Miller, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program was established over a decade ago to provide students with experience in the practical application of NASA Earth science research results. As part of NASA's Applied Sciences Program, DEVELOP focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to address environmental issues. Cultivating a diverse and dynamic group of students and young professionals, the program conducts applied science research projects during three terms each year (spring, summer, and fall) that focus on topics ranging from water resource management to natural disasters.

  6. Behind the Wheel and on the Map: Genetic and Environmental Associations between Drunk Driving and Other Externalizing Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    Drunk driving, a major contributor to alcohol-related mortality, has been linked to a variety of other alcohol-related (e.g., Alcohol Dependence, early age at first drink) and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. In a sample of 517 same-sex twin pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined three conceptualizations of the etiology of drunk driving in relation to other externalizing behaviors. A series of behavioral-genetic models found consistent evidence for drunk driving as a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a spectrum of alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. Most notably, multidimensional scaling analyses produced a genetic “map” with drunk driving located near its center, supporting the strength of drunk driving’s genetic relations with a broad range of externalizing behaviors. In contrast, non-shared environmental associations with drunk driving were weaker and more diffuse. Drunk driving may be a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a broad externalizing spectrum. PMID:24128260

  7. Environmental Uncertainty and External Resource Acquisition: Implications for a Developing Research University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.

    External resource acquisition was investigated as one factor associated with the development of the University of New Mexico from an undergraduate teaching institution toward becoming a nationally-ranked graduate research university. A longitudinal, ethnohistorical study was undertaken for the 1967-1978 period. The qualitative research methodology…

  8. Further development of a robust workup process for solution-phase high-throughput library synthesis to address environmental and sample tracking issues.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Noritaka; Hird, Nick; Cork, David G

    2006-01-01

    During further improvement of a high-throughput, solution-phase synthesis system, new workup tools and apparatus for parallel liquid-liquid extraction and evaporation have been developed. A combination of in-house design and collaboration with external manufacturers has been used to address (1) environmental issues concerning solvent emissions and (2) sample tracking errors arising from manual intervention. A parallel liquid-liquid extraction unit, containing miniature high-speed magnetic stirrers for efficient mixing of organic and aqueous phases, has been developed for use on a multichannel liquid handler. Separation of the phases is achieved by dispensing them into a newly patented filter tube containing a vertical hydrophobic porous membrane, which allows only the organic phase to pass into collection vials positioned below. The vertical positioning of the membrane overcomes the hitherto dependence on the use of heavier-than-water, bottom-phase, organic solvents such as dichloromethane, which are restricted due to environmental concerns. Both small (6-mL) and large (60-mL) filter tubes were developed for parallel phase separation in library and template synthesis, respectively. In addition, an apparatus for parallel solvent evaporation was developed to (1) remove solvent from the above samples with highly efficient recovery and (2) avoid the movement of individual samples between their collection on a liquid handler and registration to prevent sample identification errors. The apparatus uses a diaphragm pump to achieve a dynamic circulating closed system with a heating block for the rack of 96 sample vials and an efficient condenser to trap the solvents. Solvent recovery is typically >98%, and convenient operation and monitoring has made the apparatus the first choice for removal of volatile solvents.

  9. 78 FR 14090 - EPA Office of External Affairs and Environmental Education; Request for Nominations of Candidates...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... demonstrate experience in any of the following areas: Environmental education, public-private partnerships..., private sector sustainability practices, formal education from K-12, community college and/or...

  10. Using the PACE EH model to mobilize communities to address local environmental health issues--a case study in Island County, Washington.

    PubMed

    Higman, Keith; Servatius, Celine; Webber, Whitney L; McDonald, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The Island County Environmental Health Initiative (ICEHI) is a demonstration project in the use of the Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health (PACE EH) to build capacity in the 10 essential services of environmental health. The PACE EH methodology systematically applies the 10 essential services of environmental health through the completion of 13 tasks derived from a community-based environmental health assessment process. The ICEHI has successfully engaged community members, identified environmental health issues important to the community, and led to the implementation of action plans aimed at reducing environmental health risks through use of community resources. This paper describes the methodology utilized by the ICEHI to address locally important environmental health issues so that other local and state environmental health agencies may replicate the process in their communities.

  11. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  12. Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, J.J.; Rizkalla, E.I.

    2007-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management

  13. 75 FR 44255 - EPA Office of External Affairs and Environmental Education Staff Office; Request for Nominations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    .... ADDRESSES: Submit non-electronic application materials to Ginger Potter, Designated Federal Officer...-564-0443, FAX: 202-564-2754, e-mail: potter.ginger@epa.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information regarding this Request for Nominations, please contact Ms. Ginger Potter, Designated...

  14. MISSE-X: An ISS External Platform for Space Environmental Studies in the Post-Shuttle Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibeault, Sheila A.; Cooke, Stuart A.; Ashe, Melissa P.; Saucillo, Rudolph J.; Murphy, Douglas G.; deGroh, Kim K.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2011-01-01

    Materials International Space Station Experiment-X (MISSE-X) is a proposed International Space Station (ISS) external platform for space environmental studies designed to advance the technology readiness of materials and devices critical for future space exploration. The MISSE-X platform will expand ISS utilization by providing experimenters with unprecedented low-cost space access and return on investment (ROI). As a follow-on to the highly successful MISSE series of ISS experiments, MISSE-X will provide advances over the original MISSE configurations including incorporation of plug-and-play experiments that will minimize return mass requirements in the post-Shuttle era, improved active sensing and monitoring of the ISS external environment for better characterization of environmental effects, and expansion of the MISSE-X user community through incorporation of new, customer-desired capabilities. MISSE-X will also foster interest in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in primary and secondary schools through student collaboration and participation.1,2

  15. Final Report on the External Peer Review of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's IRIS Reassessment of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Naphthalene

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the final report for the 2004 external peer review for the IRIS Reassessment of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Naphthalene, prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), for the Integrated Risk...

  16. Patterns in Clam Excurrent Siphon Velocity According to External Environmental Cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; Delavan, S. K.

    2010-11-01

    This study attempts to determine the patterns and/or randomness of the excurrent velocity of actively feeding clams, Mercenaria mercenaria. We hypothesize that clams alter their feeding current velocity patterns or randomness according to external cues in the environment such as hydrodynamic characteristics, density of the clam patch, and presence of predators in the upstream flow. A PIV system measured vector fields for two-dimensional planes that bisect the clam excurrent siphons, and time records were extracted at the siphon exit position. Fractal and lacunarity analysis of the jet velocity time records revealed that clams alter their jet excurrent velocity unsteadiness according to the horizontal crossflow velocity. The results also reveal that the effect of clam patch density on the feeding activity was dependent on the size of the organism. This size/density dependent relationship suggests that predation by blue crabs dominates the system since larger clams are no longer susceptible to blue crab predation, whereas clams of all sizes are susceptible to whelk predation. Finally, clams increase the randomness of their excurrent jet velocity values when predator cues are located in the upstream flume flow. This suggests that the presence of predators elicits clam behavior that promotes the mixing and dilution of their chemical metabolites.

  17. Summary of Executive Order 12898 - Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summarizes E.O. 12898, which focuses on the environmental and human health effects of federal actions on minority and low-income populations. It directs each agency to develop a strategy for implementing environmental justice.

  18. Environmental externalities: An ASEAN application to coal-based power generation. Extract

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1992-06-01

    Significant benefits to human health that result from emissions control programs may justify the costs of pollution control policies. Many scientists, economists, risk analysts, and policymakers believe that comparisons of the benefits with the costs of pollution control demonstrate that the US stationary source, air emissions control program is justified. This justification is based upon pronounced benefits to human health, especially from controlling suspended particulates and sulfur compounds. Market decisions are usually made on the basis of a consideration of traditional costs such as capital, operating and maintenance, fuel costs, and fixed charges. Social costs, which could be significant, are not incorporated explicitly into such decisions. These social costs could result in a net reduction in the welfare of individuals, and of society as a whole. Because these social costs and their effects are not represented in the price of energy, individual have no way to explicitly value them; hence, they remain unaccounted for in market decisions. By accounting for external costs, the selection of energy sources and production of energy products can lead to and equilibrium, where the total cost of energy and energy products, together with resulting social costs, can be brought to an economic minimum. The concept of an air emissions control program is of interest to the ASEAN countries (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) and their governments, especially if such a program could be justified in cost-benefit terms and shown to be directly applicable to ASEAN conditions. It is the intent of the effort described herein to demonstrate that technical options are available to control emissions from coal-based, electric power plants and that that costs of these options may be justified in cost-benefit terms.

  19. Nonshared environmental mediation of the association between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent externalizing behaviors over time: results from a cross-lagged monozygotic twin differences design.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2009-11-01

    It has been argued that peers are the most important agent of adolescent socialization and, more specifically, that this socialization process occurs at the child-specific (or nonshared environmental) level (J. R. Harris, 1998; R. Plomin & Asbury, 2005). The authors sought to empirically evaluate this nonshared environmental peer influence hypothesis by examining the association between externalizing behaviors and deviant peer affiliation in a sample of 454 pairs of monozygotic (genetically identical) twins, assessed at ages 14 and 17, within a cross-lagged twin differences design. Results argued against a causal nonshared environmental influence of peer affiliation on the development of externalizing behaviors and in favor of nonshared environmental "selection." In particular, the twin with more externalizing behaviors at age 14 reported increased deviant peer affiliation relative to his or her co-twin 3 years later, regardless of his or her genetic predispositions toward externalizing behavior. Such findings suggest that adolescents with higher levels of externalizing behaviors select or shape (either intentionally or inadvertently) subsequent environmental experiences to involve increased affiliation with deviant peers. Implications are discussed.

  20. Potential External Contamination with Bisphenol A and Other Ubiquitous Organic Environmental Chemicals during Biomonitoring Analysis: An Elusive Laboratory Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Hennings, Ryan; Kramer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Background: Biomonitoring studies are conducted to assess internal dose (i.e., body burden) to environmental chemicals. However, because of the ubiquitous presence in the environment of some of these chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), external contamination during handling and analysis of the biospecimens collected for biomonitoring evaluations could compromise the reported concentrations of such chemicals. Objectives: We examined the contamination with the target analytes during analysis of biological specimens in biomonitoring laboratories equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation. Discussions: We present several case studies using the quantitative determination of BPA and other organic chemicals (i.e., benzophenone-3, triclosan, parabens) in human urine, milk, and serum to identify potential contamination sources when the biomarkers measured are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Conclusions: Contamination with target analytes during biomonitoring analysis could result from solvents and reagents, the experimental apparatus used, the laboratory environment, and/or even the analyst. For biomonotoring data to be valid—even when obtained from high-quality analytical methods and good laboratory practices—the following practices must be followed to identify and track unintended contamination with the target analytes during analysis of the biological specimens: strict quality control measures including use of laboratory blanks; replicate analyses; engineering controls (e.g., clean rooms, biosafety cabinets) as needed; and homogeneous matrix-based quality control materials within the expected concentration ranges of the study samples. PMID:23458838

  1. 77 FR 1079 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement To Address Grazing Permit Renewals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ...In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (NEPA), as amended, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Owyhee Field Office in Marsing, Idaho intends to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS), and by this notice, is announcing the beginning of the scoping process to solicit public comments and......

  2. Addressing the Challenge of Preparing Australian Pre-Service Primary Teachers in Environmental Education: An Evaluation of a Dedicated Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Maxwell, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns have been raised for some time about the preparation of Australian teachers in the area of environmental education. Few tertiary institutions that undertake teacher education in Australia have specific units or modules dedicated to environmental education. This article reports on an evaluation of such a dedicated unit recently introduced…

  3. EPA Hosts Environmental Justice Interagency Working Group Meeting in Atlanta to address Concerns in North Birmingham Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (ATLANTA - February 17, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will host a Federal Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice Meeting (EJ IWG) on Thursday, February 18, 2016 in the Sam Nunn Federal Building in Atlanta, GA. The EJ IWG

  4. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  5. Fostering youth leadership to address workplace and community environmental health issues: a university-school-community partnership.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Brown, Marianne; Domenzain, Alejandra

    2005-07-01

    Many communities of color are disproportionately exposed to workplace and community environmental hazards. This article presents the results of a pilot project designed by a university-school-community partnership to develop youth leadership to confront these exposures. Using a popular empowerment education approach, students applied peer education, research, and organizing skills learned in the classroom to community-based internships in a service-learning model. Evaluation results from pretests and posttests, focus groups, and in-depth interviews demonstrated that students shared what they learned about young workers' rights and environmental justice with family and friends. They developed a critical analysis of environmental inequities, created a citywide youth coalition that advocates around legal, educational, and environmental issues affecting youth, and implemented campaigns to enforce child labor laws and to prevent school construction on contaminated land. This multifaceted model can serve as an important foundation to develop youth leaders to influence environmental policies in a variety of communities.

  6. Understanding the Covariation among Childhood Externalizing Symptoms: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Danielle M.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common childhood externalizing disorders that frequently co-occur. However, the causes of their comorbidity are not well understood. To address that question, we analyzed data from >600 Finnish twin pairs, who completed standardized…

  7. Defining health by addressing individual, social, and environmental determinants: New opportunities for health care and public health

    PubMed Central

    Bircher, Johannes; Kuruvilla, Shyama

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) mobilized global commitments to promote health, socioeconomic, and sustainable development. Trends indicate that the health MDGs may not be achieved by 2015, in part because of insufficient coordination across related health, socioeconomic, and environmental initiatives. Explicitly acknowledging the need for such collaboration, the Meikirch Model of Health posits that: Health is a state of wellbeing emergent from conducive interactions between individuals' potentials, life's demands, and social and environmental determinants. Health results throughout the life course when individuals' potentials – and social and environmental determinants – suffice to respond satisfactorily to the demands of life. Life's demands can be physiological, psychosocial, or environmental, and vary across contexts, but in every case unsatisfactory responses lead to disease. This conceptualization of the integrative nature of health could contribute to ongoing efforts to strengthen cooperation across actors and sectors to improve individual and population health – leading up to 2015 and beyond. PMID:24943659

  8. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Overview of EPA's Methodology to Address the Environmental Footprint of Site Cleanup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contaminated site cleanups involving complex activities may benefit from a detailed environmental footprint analysis to inform decision-making about application of suitable best management practices for greener cleanups.

  9. Perceived health status and environmental quality in the assessment of external costs of waste disposal facilities. An empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Giaccaria, Sergio; Frontuto, Vito

    2012-08-01

    Taxation for urban waste management has been reformed in Italy by the introduction of an environmental law in 2006. In the planning phase of waste management, externalities generated by new facilities remain widely unaccounted, with a consequent distortion for prices, often raising local conflicts. The paper presents a survey based on the choice modelling methodology, aimed to evaluate on a monetary scale the disamenity effect perceived by incinerator and landfills in an Italian urban context: the city of Turin. In a random utility framework the behaviour of respondents, whose choices are found to be driven by the endowment of information about technological options, socio-economic characteristics as income, education, family composition, and also by their health status was modelled. Furthermore, empirical evidence that the behaviour in residential location choices is affected by different aspects of the respondent life and in particular by the health status was found. Distinct estimates of willingness to accept compensation for disamenity effects of incinerator (Euro 2670) and landfill (Euro 3816) are elicited. The effect of health status of the respondents, their level of information about the waste disposal infrastructure, the presence of a subjective strong aversion (NIMBY) and the actual endowment and concentration of infrastructures are demonstrated to be significant factors determining the choice behaviour, but differentiated and specific for incinerators and landfills.

  10. Addressing Structural and Environmental Factors for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marni; Mmari, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    A deeper understanding of how structure and environment shape the sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities of youths across a range of outcomes has implications for the development of successful policies and programs. We have discussed some of the key structural and environmental factors that influence the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, and the importance of engaging adolescents in identifying solutions. We have highlighted 2 case studies that describe structural or environmental approaches to improving adolescent sexual and reproductive health and made recommendations to more systematically incorporate attention to structure and environment to improve global adolescent health.

  11. Assessment of the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative: Addressing Environmental and Siting Issues Associated with Wind Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; States, Jennifer C.

    2010-11-09

    The National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) is a consensus-based stakeholder group comprised of representatives from the utility, wind industry, environmental, consumer, regulatory, power marketer, agricultural, tribal, economic development, and state and federal government sectors. The purpose of the NWCC is to support the development of an environmentally, economically, and politically sustainable commercial market for wind power (NWCC 2010). The NWCC has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) since its inception in 1994. In order to evaluate the impact of the work of the NWCC and how this work aligns with DOE’s strategic priorities, DOE tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a series of informal interviews with a small sample of those involved with NWCC.

  12. Programmatic Environmental Assessment Addressing the Development, Use, and Maintenance of Military Training Areas at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-30

    Record LBP lead-based paint LID Low Impact Design MBTA Migratory Bird Treaty Act mg/m3 milligrams per cubic meter MGD million gallons per day...Manzano Mountains. These mountains define the eastern boundary of an area called East Mesa. Kirtland AFB encompasses 51,585 acres of East Mesa and...Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) Coordination U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) • Clean Water Act (CWA) Section 404 Permit U.S. Environmental

  13. Remotely sensing the German Wadden Sea-a new approach to address national and international environmental legislation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Gabriele; Stelzer, Kerstin; Smollich, Susan; Gade, Martin; Adolph, Winny; Melchionna, Sabrina; Kemme, Linnea; Geißler, Jasmin; Millat, Gerald; Reimers, Hans-Christian; Kohlus, Jörn; Eskildsen, Kai

    2016-10-01

    The Wadden Sea along the North Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands is the largest unbroken system of intertidal sand and mud flats in the world. Its habitats are highly productive and harbour high standing stocks and densities of benthic species, well adapted to the demanding environmental conditions. Therefore, the Wadden Sea is one of the most important areas for migratory birds in the world and thus protected by national and international legislation, which amongst others requires extensive monitoring. Due to the inaccessibility of major areas of the Wadden Sea, a classification approach based on optical and radar remote sensing has been developed to support environmental monitoring programmes. In this study, the general classification framework as well as two specific monitoring cases, mussel beds and seagrass meadows, are presented. The classification of mussel beds profits highly from inclusion of radar data due to their rough surface and achieves agreements of up to 79 % with areal data from the regular monitoring programme. Classification of seagrass meadows reaches even higher agreements with monitoring data (up to 100 %) and furthermore captures seagrass densities as low as 10 %. The main classification results are information on area and location of individual habitats. These are needed to fulfil environmental legislation requirements. One of the major advantages of this approach is the large areal coverage with individual satellite images, allowing simultaneous assessment of both accessible and inaccessible areas and thus providing a more complete overall picture.

  14. Fifth amendment taking and environmental protection under the police power: Historical development and a modest proposal to address the muddle

    SciTech Connect

    Root, T.E.; Dotterrer, I.L.

    1995-12-01

    Under its developing {open_quotes}just compensation{close_quotes} jurisprudence, the United States Supreme Court has applied the constitutional requirement (of just compensation for taking private property for public use) to overly intrusive regulations. The application of the just compensation clause to governmental environmental protection activity has pitted the basic principle of protection of private property from government confiscation against another basic principle-the police power (which allows the government to regulate the use of property to protect the health, safety, and welfare of the people). The authors outline the muddle resulting from the conflict of these two constitutional principles after tracing the development of each. This article first outlines the general trend of increasing regulation of the uses of private property under environmental laws pursuant to the police power, and then outlines the development of Fifth Amendment just compensation jurisprudence (from eminent domain, through inverse condemnation, to regulatory taking). The authors urge Congress to authorize a Commission to review exercise of the police power and environmental protection legislation in light of the Fifth Amendment just compensation provision and to recommend legislation that will reconcile the two principles.

  15. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of a Hot Cargo Pad at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final...Environmental Impact Statement does not need to be prepared. This analysis fulfills the requirements of NEPA and the CEQ Regulations. Date Signature on f...longer apply to an area 1 year after the effective date of the designation of that area for the 8-hour O3 NAAQS. The effective designation date for

  16. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  17. Environmental geographic information system.

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, Dennis W; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  18. Aggregate resource availability in the conterminous United States, including suggestions for addressing shortages, quality, and environmental concerns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Although potential sources of aggregate are widespread throughout the United States, many sources may not meet certain physical property requirements, such as soundness, hardness, strength, porosity, and specific gravity, or they may contain contaminants or deleterious materials that render them unusable. Encroachment by conflicting land uses, permitting considerations, environmental issues, and societal pressures can prevent or limit development of otherwise suitable aggregate. The use of sustainable aggregate resource management can help ensure an economically viable supply of aggregate. Sustainable aggregate resource management techniques that have successfully been used include (1) protecting potential resources from encroachment; (2) using marginal-quality local aggregate for applications that do not demand a high-quality resource; (3) using substitute materials such as clinker, scoria, and recycled asphalt and concrete; and (4) using rail and water to transport aggregates from remote sources.

  19. Recommendations for implementing policy, systems, and environmental improvements to address chronic diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-11-20

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities.

  20. The Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed-based Approach: where social and natural sciences meet to address today's water resource challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddle, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of governmental organizations at the local, state, and federal level collaborate with nongovernmental organizations and individuals to solve watershed scale problems (Imperial and Koontz, 2007). Such a shift in policy approach from hierarchical regulation to bottom-up collaboration is largely a result of regulator’s recognition of the interdependence of natural and socio-economic systems on a watershed scale (Steelman and Carmin, 2002. Agencies throughout the federal government increasingly favored new governing institutions that encourage cooperation between local actors with conflicting interests, divergent geographic bases, and overlapping administrative jurisdictions to resolve continuing disputes over resource management (Bardach 1998). This favoritism of collaborative over command-and-control approaches for managing nonpoint source pollution led to the development of watershed partnerships and the watershed-based approach (Lubell et al., 2002). This study aims to further collaborative governance scholarship and aid decision-makers in identifying the critical elements of collaborative governance resulting in environmental improvements. To date, this relationship has not been empirically determined, in spite of the fact that collaborative governance is used routinely by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in resolving issues related to watershed management and other applications. This gap in the research is largely due to the lack of longitudinal data. In order to determine whether changes have occurred, environmental data must be collected over relatively long time periods (Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Sabatier, et al., 2005). However, collecting these data is often cost prohibitive. Monitoring water quality is expensive and requires technical expertise, and is often the first line item cut in environmental management budgets. This research is interdisciplinary, looking at the physical, chemical, and biological parameters for 44 waterbodies

  1. Recommendations for Implementing Policy, Systems, and Environmental Improvements to Address Chronic Diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

  2. Confronting Decision Cliffs: Diagnostic Assessment of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms' Performance for Addressing Uncertain Environmental Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, V. L.; Singh, R.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.

    2014-12-01

    As water resources problems typically involve several stakeholders with conflicting objectives, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are now key tools for understanding management tradeoffs. Given the growing complexity of water planning problems, it is important to establish if an algorithm can consistently perform well on a given class of problems. This knowledge allows the decision analyst to focus on eliciting and evaluating appropriate problem formulations. This study proposes a multi-objective adaptation of the classic environmental economics "Lake Problem" as a computationally simple but mathematically challenging MOEA benchmarking problem. The lake problem abstracts a fictional town on a lake which hopes to maximize its economic benefit without degrading the lake's water quality to a eutrophic (polluted) state through excessive phosphorus loading. The problem poses the challenge of maintaining economic activity while confronting the uncertainty of potentially crossing a nonlinear and potentially irreversible pollution threshold beyond which the lake is eutrophic. Objectives for optimization are maximizing economic benefit from lake pollution, maximizing water quality, maximizing the reliability of remaining below the environmental threshold, and minimizing the probability that the town will have to drastically change pollution policies in any given year. The multi-objective formulation incorporates uncertainty with a stochastic phosphorus inflow abstracting non-point source pollution. We performed comprehensive diagnostics using 6 algorithms: Borg, MOEAD, eMOEA, eNSGAII, GDE3, and NSGAII to ascertain their controllability, reliability, efficiency, and effectiveness. The lake problem abstracts elements of many current water resources and climate related management applications where there is the potential for crossing irreversible, nonlinear thresholds. We show that many modern MOEAs can fail on this test problem, indicating its suitability as a

  3. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  4. The role of integrated resource planning, environmental externalities, and anticipation of future regulation in compliance planning under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.; Biewald, B.; Wulfsberg, K.

    1993-07-01

    Utilities are developing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission compliance plans to meet limitations of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Compliance plans will have long-term effects on resource selection, fuel choice, and system dispatch. Use of integrated resource planning (IRP) is necessary to ensure compliance plans are consistent with the overall societal goals. In particular, environmental externalities must be integrated with the compliance planning process. The focus of the CAAA is on air pollution reduction, specifically acid gases and toxics, and attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants. Title IV specifically focuses on sulfur dioxide with a national allowance trading system, while further regulation of toxics and nitrogen oxides is slated for additional study. Yet, compliance planning based narrowly upon today`s environmental regulations could fail to meet the broad goals of IRP if a larger array of environmental externalities is excluded from the analysis. Compliance planning must consider a broad range of environmental effects from energy production and use to (1) protect society`s long-term stake in environmental quality, and (2) ensure that today`s plans are rich enough to accommodate potential changes in regulation and national environmental goals. The explicit recognition of environmental effects, such as those associated with CO{sub 2} release, will result in prudent compliance plans that take advantage of current opportunities for pollution avoidance and have long-term viability in the face of regulatory change. By including such considerations, the mix of resources acquired and operated (supply and demand, existing and new, conventional and renewable, fuel type and fuel quality, pollution control, and dispatch protocols) will be robust and truly least-cost.

  5. KEYNOTE ADDRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past two decades an environmental conference series has emerged in Poland to become one of the premier forums on the chemical aspects of environmental protection. The forum is called Chemistry for the Protection of the Environment CPE). The first conference of this serie...

  6. External radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  7. Parasite fitness traits under environmental variation: disentangling the roles of a chytrid's immediate host and external environment.

    PubMed

    Van den Wyngaert, Silke; Vanholsbeeck, Olivier; Spaak, Piet; Ibelings, Bas W

    2014-10-01

    Parasite environments are heterogeneous at different levels. The first level of variability is the host itself. The second level represents the external environment for the hosts, to which parasites may be exposed during part of their life cycle. Both levels are expected to affect parasite fitness traits. We disentangle the main and interaction effects of variation in the immediate host environment, here the diatom Asterionella formosa (variables host cell volume and host condition through herbicide pre-exposure) and variation in the external environment (variables host density and acute herbicide exposure) on three fitness traits (infection success, development time and reproductive output) of a chytrid parasite. Herbicide exposure only decreased infection success in a low host density environment. This result reinforces the hypothesis that chytrid zoospores use photosynthesis-dependent chemical cues to locate its host. At high host densities, chemotaxis becomes less relevant due to increasing chance contact rates between host and parasite, thereby following the mass-action principle in epidemiology. Theoretical support for this finding is provided by an agent-based simulation model. The immediate host environment (cell volume) substantially affected parasite reproductive output and also interacted with the external herbicide exposed environment. On the contrary, changes in the immediate host environment through herbicide pre-exposure did not increase infection success, though it had subtle effects on zoospore development time and reproductive output. This study shows that both immediate host and external environment as well as their interaction have significant effects on parasite fitness. Disentangling these effects improves our understanding of the processes underlying parasite spread and disease dynamics.

  8. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  9. Enforcement Alert: U.S. EPA Encourages Iron and Steel Minimills to Self Audits to Address Noncompliance with Environmental Requirements; Nucor Corp. agrees to Control Practices; Provides Model for Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is the enforcement alert for U.S. EPA Encourages Iron and Steel Minimills to Self Audits to Address Noncompliance with Environmental Requirements; Nucor Corp. agrees to Control Practices; Provides Model for Industry

  10. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-19

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  11. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Love, David C.; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production. PMID:25415208

  12. Long-term use of galvanized steel in external applications. Aspects of patina formation, zinc runoff, barrier properties of surface treatments, and coatings and environmental fate.

    PubMed

    Lindström, David; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2011-02-01

    Galvanized steel structures are used in a large variety of external constructions in the modern urban society, and their beneficial properties from a corrosion and oxidation perspective are well known. Less investigated is the extent of their contribution to the diffuse dispersion of zinc in the society and also to the environmental fate of corrosion-induced released zinc. This paper presents long-term runoff rates of zinc from galvanized steel surfaces with main focus on hot-dipped galvanized steel exposed for up to 10 years at nonsheltered urban atmospheric conditions. The long-term capacities of a naturally formed patina and the presence of surface treatments and coatings to hinder and reduce corrosion-induced zinc runoff from galvanized steel are elucidated. The environmental interaction of zinc runoff and concrete surfaces in pavement and urban storm drain systems is highlighted and the high capacity of concrete to retain released zinc presented.

  13. Common Genetic and Nonshared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…

  14. Externalizing Problems in Childhood and Adolescence Predict Subsequent Educational Achievement but for Different Genetic and Environmental Reasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Gary J.; Asbury, Kathryn; Plomin, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavior problems predict subsequent educational achievement; however, little research has examined the etiology of these links using a longitudinal twin design. Moreover, it is unknown whether genetic and environmental innovations provide incremental prediction for educational achievement from childhood to adolescence.…

  15. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  16. External Practicum-Year Residency Training in Occupational and Environmental Medicine: the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center Program.

    PubMed

    Emmett, E A; Green-McKenzie, J

    2001-05-01

    We describe a competency-based training program that allows physicians employed full-time in occupational and environmental medicine to satisfy the supervised practicum year of training required by the American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM). The program is designed for trainees with greater clinical experience than the 1 clinical year required by the ABPM. To date, 25 physicians from clinic-based, academic, corporate, and government employment across most geographic regions of the United States have been admitted into the program. Most completed a master's in public health (MPH) in a distance-learning, on-job, on-campus, or executive program. The practicum-year training has been highly successful, as evidenced by improvements in resident self-assessment of competency, resident satisfaction with the training, faculty evaluation of resident performance, and success rate in the ABPM examination. The program has opened a new pathway for physicians making a mid-career shift to occupational and environmental medicine to obtain high-quality, in-depth education and board certification.

  17. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  18. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  19. Environmental externalities: An ASEAN application to coal-based power generation. [Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1992-06-01

    Significant benefits to human health that result from emissions control programs may justify the costs of pollution control policies. Many scientists, economists, risk analysts, and policymakers believe that comparisons of the benefits with the costs of pollution control demonstrate that the US stationary source, air emissions control program is justified. This justification is based upon pronounced benefits to human health, especially from controlling suspended particulates and sulfur compounds. Market decisions are usually made on the basis of a consideration of traditional costs such as capital, operating and maintenance, fuel costs, and fixed charges. Social costs, which could be significant, are not incorporated explicitly into such decisions. These social costs could result in a net reduction in the welfare of individuals, and of society as a whole. Because these social costs and their effects are not represented in the price of energy, individual have no way to explicitly value them; hence, they remain unaccounted for in market decisions. By accounting for external costs, the selection of energy sources and production of energy products can lead to and equilibrium, where the total cost of energy and energy products, together with resulting social costs, can be brought to an economic minimum. The concept of an air emissions control program is of interest to the ASEAN countries (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) and their governments, especially if such a program could be justified in cost-benefit terms and shown to be directly applicable to ASEAN conditions. It is the intent of the effort described herein to demonstrate that technical options are available to control emissions from coal-based, electric power plants and that that costs of these options may be justified in cost-benefit terms.

  20. Addressing the impact of environmental uncertainty in plankton model calibration with a dedicated software system: the Marine Model Optimization Testbed (MarMOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, J. C. P.; Challenor, P. G.

    2011-08-01

    A wide variety of different marine plankton system models have been coupled with ocean circulation models, with the aim of understanding and predicting aspects of environmental change. However, an ability to make reliable inferences about real-world processes from the model behaviour demands a quantitative understanding of model error that remains elusive. Assessment of coupled model output is inhibited by relatively limited observing system coverage of biogeochemical components. Any direct assessment of the plankton model is further inhibited by uncertainty in the physical state. Furthermore, comparative evaluation of plankton models on the basis of their design is inhibited by the sensitivity of their dynamics to many adjustable parameters. The Marine Model Optimization Testbed is a new software tool designed for rigorous analysis of plankton models in a multi-site 1-D framework, in particular to address uncertainty issues in model assessment. A flexible user interface ensures its suitability to more general inter-comparison, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, including model comparison at the level of individual processes, and to state estimation for specific locations. The principal features of MarMOT are described and its application to model calibration is demonstrated by way of a set of twin experiments, in which synthetic observations are assimilated in an attempt to recover the true parameter values of a known system. The experimental aim is to investigate the effect of different misfit weighting schemes on parameter recovery in the presence of error in the plankton model's environmental input data. Simulated errors are derived from statistical characterizations of the mixed layer depth, the horizontal flux divergences of the biogeochemical tracers and the initial state. Plausible patterns of uncertainty in these data are shown to produce strong temporal and spatial variability in the expected simulation error over an annual cycle, indicating

  1. Addressing the impact of environmental uncertainty in plankton model calibration with a dedicated software system: the Marine Model Optimization Testbed (MarMOT 1.1 alpha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, J. C. P.; Challenor, P. G.

    2012-04-01

    A wide variety of different plankton system models have been coupled with ocean circulation models, with the aim of understanding and predicting aspects of environmental change. However, an ability to make reliable inferences about real-world processes from the model behaviour demands a quantitative understanding of model error that remains elusive. Assessment of coupled model output is inhibited by relatively limited observing system coverage of biogeochemical components. Any direct assessment of the plankton model is further inhibited by uncertainty in the physical state. Furthermore, comparative evaluation of plankton models on the basis of their design is inhibited by the sensitivity of their dynamics to many adjustable parameters. Parameter uncertainty has been widely addressed by calibrating models at data-rich ocean sites. However, relatively little attention has been given to quantifying uncertainty in the physical fields required by the plankton models at these sites, and tendencies in the biogeochemical properties due to the effects of horizontal processes are often neglected. Here we use model twin experiments, in which synthetic data are assimilated to estimate a system's known "true" parameters, to investigate the impact of error in a plankton model's environmental input data. The experiments are supported by a new software tool, the Marine Model Optimization Testbed, designed for rigorous analysis of plankton models in a multi-site 1-D framework. Simulated errors are derived from statistical characterizations of the mixed layer depth, the horizontal flux divergence tendencies of the biogeochemical tracers and the initial state. Plausible patterns of uncertainty in these data are shown to produce strong temporal and spatial variability in the expected simulation error variance over an annual cycle, indicating variation in the significance attributable to individual model-data differences. An inverse scheme using ensemble-based estimates of the

  2. Environmental Security: United Nations Doctrine for Managing Environmental Issues in Military Actions. Volume 2. Selected International Treaties, Conventions and Protocols that Address Environment-Related Issues. Selected International Organizations Relevant to Environmental Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    including, but not be limited to: 1) The common seas; 2) Land-resources and land-based pollution; 3) Tropical rain forests ; 4) Air quality; and 5...ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY THREATS 1. Ozone layer depletion 2. Global climate change (rising sea level, changing rain distribution) due to greenhouse gas...and earthquake-prone zones) and in ecologically sensitive zones (certain forest , desert, wetland and marine environments) 20. Human migration as

  3. Environmental Scan for the Colorado Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This document addresses an environmental scan done in the Colorado Community College System (CCCS). The goals of an environmental scan include collecting external information, predicting future trends, and analyzing how these trends might affect an organization. The environmental scan completed for the CCCS focused on emerging trends that may…

  4. 78 FR 7779 - Office of Environmental Information; Announcement of Availability and Comment Period for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Quality Standard for Environmental Data Collection, Production, and Use by Non-EPA (External... Draft Quality Standard for Environmental Data Collection, Production, and Use by Non-EPA (External...; email address: quality@epa.gov . Dated: January 29, 2013. Monica D. Jones, Director, Quality...

  5. 78 FR 13056 - Office of Environmental Information; Announcement of Availability and Comment Period for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Quality Standard for Environmental Data Collection, Production, and Use by Non-EPA (External... Draft Quality Standard for Environmental Data Collection, Production, and Use by Non-EPA (External... address: quality@epa.gov . Dated: February 20, 2013. Monica D. Jones, Director, Quality Staff....

  6. Easing the Burden of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoGrasso, Marc F.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, the author presents suggestions for improving the effectiveness of external reporting while minimizing burden. Recommendations include repurposing existing internal reports to address the needs of external reports.

  7. Has Clinton made externalities extraneous

    SciTech Connect

    Haites, E.

    1993-08-01

    Over the past several years state utility regulators have become increasingly concerned with the environmental externalities associated with electricity generation. Currently, 26 states have requirements in place, although these vary considerably in scope and complexity. The vast majority apply only to the selection of new resources; the most detailed specify a monetary value for each discharge to the environment. Regulatory concern with environmental externalities stems from the desire to minimize the cost of electricity service to society. Externalities requirements focus on the residual discharges after environmental regulations are complied with. Ignoring externalities leads to inefficient use of resources and environmental damage beyond with may be called a [open quotes]socially optimal[close quotes] level of pollution. Adjusting to the cost options for environmental externalities should lead utilities to select a combination of resources that is closer to the socially optimal mix. President Bill Clinton's recent announcement that the United States will limit its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) to 1990 levels by 2000 may make externalities regulation superfluous. National limits on sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]), nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]), and CO[sub 2] emissions by utilities will likely be in effect by 2000. It will not be possible to comply with emissions limits solely through changes to the mix of resource additions, even though consideration of environmental externalities in resource addition decisions can reduce incremental emissions. Other strategies to reduce the emissions of existing generating stations, as well as new sources, will be needed.

  8. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  9. Environmental Assessment Addressing FTFA07-1174, Repair Approach Lighting System at the North End of Runway 01/19 at Eglin AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    photovoltaic panels, solar collection, heat recovery systems, wind turbines , green roofs, and habitat-oriented storm water management) would be...and im pacts on the installation ’s habitats will be reduced with the im plementation of BMPs and environmental protection measures. Most wildlife wi...disturbing activities occurring at the same time and in lhe same vicinity could have temporary cumulative effects on habitats and wildlife . However. these

  10. Addressing Analytical Challenges of the Environmental Monitoring for the Water Framework Directive: ERM-CE100, a New Biota Certified Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Dosis, Ioannis; Ricci, Marina; Majoros, Laszlo; Lava, Roberto; Emteborg, Håkan; Held, Andrea; Emons, Hendrik

    2017-02-21

    In the context of supporting the EU Member States in the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), a project for the production of a fish reference material (ERM-CE100) certified for its content of the two priority substances hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) was carried out at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. The starting material was naturally contaminated Wels catfish (Silurus glanis), caught in the Ebro River (Spain). A novel approach for the processing of the fish was tested that resulted in a homogeneous and stable reference material in the form of a wet paste. The fresh-like texture of the matrix enhances the comparability of this material toward routinely analyzed environmental biota samples and facilitates its use as a quality assurance tool given that the WFD environmental quality standards (EQS) for biota are expressed as wet weight. Certified values for the mass fractions of HCB and HCBD were assigned with 120 ± 8 and 36 ± 4 μg/kg, respectively. The related interlaboratory comparison involved 13 expert laboratories applying a range of analytical methodologies. It is the first biota CRM ever available for HCBD. ERM-CE100 can be used to assess the performance of analytical methods employed in the mandatory monitoring of water bodies under the WFD, thus, providing a benchmark for establishing comparability among measurement results.

  11. Potential application of population models in the European ecological risk assessment of chemicals. II. Review of models and their potential to address environmental protection aims.

    PubMed

    Galic, Nika; Hommen, Udo; Baveco, J M Hans; van den Brink, Paul J

    2010-07-01

    Whereas current chemical risk assessment (RA) schemes within the European Union (EU) focus mainly on toxicity and bioaccumulation of chemicals in individual organisms, most protection goals aim at preserving populations of nontarget organisms rather than individuals. Ecological models are tools rarely recommended in official technical documents on RA of chemicals, but are widely used by researchers to assess risks to populations, communities and ecosystems. Their great advantage is the relatively straightforward integration of the sensitivity of species to chemicals, the mode of action and fate in the environment of toxicants, life-history traits of the species of concern, and landscape features. To promote the usage of ecological models in regulatory risk assessment, this study tries to establish whether existing, published ecological modeling studies have addressed or have the potential to address the protection aims and requirements of the chemical directives of the EU. We reviewed 148 publications, and evaluated and analyzed them in a database according to defined criteria. Published models were also classified in terms of 5 areas where their application would be most useful for chemical RA. All potential application areas are well represented in the published literature. Most models were developed to estimate population-level responses on the basis of individual effects, followed by recovery process assessment, both in individuals and at the level of metapopulations. We provide case studies for each of the proposed areas of ecological model application. The lack of clarity about protection goals in legislative documents made it impossible to establish a direct link between modeling studies and protection goals. Because most of the models reviewed here were not developed for regulatory risk assessment, there is great potential and a variety of ecological models in the published literature.

  12. Integrating Research and Action: A Systematic Review of Community-based Participatory Research To Address Health Disparities In Environmental and Occupational Health in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Integrating research and action represents a goal and key principles of CBPR, but there has been little effort to synthesize the literature to evaluate if such integration is occurring. Objectives 1) To examine the extent to which CBPR integrates action to effect community-level change; and 2) to ascertain factors that facilitates such integration. Methods Original articles reporting on CBPR in environmental and occupational health in the United States were identified primarily through a MEDLINE search. Inceptions, processes, methods, and outcomes of the projects were reviewed. Results In fourteen of the twenty studies reviewed, CBPR led to community-level action to improve the health and well-being of the community members. Observational studies that investigated problems posed by the affected community and that incorporated qualitative methods were more likely to lead to action. The collaboration among government scientists, university researchers, and community partners emerged as a new model of CBPR partnerships that effectively integrates research and action. Conclusions To help CBPR better integrate research and action, a shift towards community-initiated and action-oriented observational studies might be needed. PMID:18621950

  13. Influence of a Non-Formal Environmental Education Programme on Junior High-School Students; Environmental Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben Zvi; Shaharabani, Dina

    2013-01-01

    One of the solutions implemented by schools for conducting value-based environmental education (EE) is outsourcing: allocating external environmental organizations that develop and conduct EE programmes. This study addressed such a programme--the Green Council Programme (GCP)--developed and implemented in schools by the Israeli Society for…

  14. Technical assistance to Ohio closure sites; Technologies to address leachate from the on-site disposal facility at Fernald Environmental Management Project, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-08-26

    On August 6-7, 2002, a Technical Assistance Team (''Team'') from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) personnel in Ohio to assess approaches to remediating uranium-contaminated leachate from the On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF). The Team was composed of technical experts from national labs, technology centers, and industry and was assembled in response to a request from the FEMP Aquifer Restoration Project. Dave Brettschneider of Fluor Fernald, Inc., requested that a Team of experts be convened to review technologies for the removal of uranium in both brine ion exchange regeneration solution from the Advanced Wastewater Treatment facility and in the leachate from the OSDF. The Team was asked to identify one or more technologies for bench-scale testing as a cost effective alternative to remove uranium so that the brine regeneration solution from the Advanced Waste Water Treatment facility and the leachate from the OSDF can be discharged without further treatment. The Team was also requested to prepare a recommended development and demonstration plan for the alternative technologies. Finally, the Team was asked to make recommendations on the optimal technical solution for field implementation. The Site's expected outcomes for this effort are schedule acceleration, cost reduction, and better long-term stewardship implementation. To facilitate consideration of the most appropriate technologies, the Team was divided into two groups to consider the brine and the leachate separately, since they represent different sources with different constraints on solutions, e.g., short-term versus very long-term and concentrated versus dilute contaminant matrices. This report focuses on the technologies that are most appropriate for the leachate from the OSDF. Upon arriving at FEMP, project personnel asked the Team to concentrate its efforts on evaluating potential technologies and

  15. External dose reconstruction for the former village of Metlino (Techa River, Russia) based on environmental surveys, luminescence measurements, and radiation transport modelling.

    PubMed

    Hiller, M M; Woda, C; Bougrov, N G; Degteva, M O; Ivanov, O; Ulanovsky, A; Romanov, S

    2017-04-03

    In the first years of its operation, the Mayak Production Association, a facility part of the Soviet nuclear weapons program in the Southern Urals, Russia, discharged large amounts of radioactively contaminated effluent into the nearby Techa River, thus exposing the people living at this river to external and internal radiations. The Techa River Cohort is a cohort intensely studied in epidemiology to investigate the correlation between low-dose radiation and health effects on humans. For the individuals in the cohort, the Techa River Dosimetry System describes the accumulated dose in human organs and tissues. In particular, organ doses from external exposure are derived from estimates of dose rate in air on the Techa River banks which were estimated from measurements and Monte Carlo modelling. Individual doses are calculated in accordance with historical records of individuals' residence histories, observational data of typical lifestyles for different age groups, and age-dependent conversion factors from air kerma to organ dose. The work here describes an experimentally independent assessment of the key input parameter of the dosimetry system, the integral air kerma, for the former village of Metlino, upper Techa River region. The aim of this work was thus to validate the Techa River Dosimetry System for the location of Metlino in an independent approach. Dose reconstruction based on dose measurements in bricks from a church tower and Monte Carlo calculations was used to model the historic air kerma accumulated in the time from 1949 to 1956 at the shoreline of the Techa River in Metlino. Main issues are caused by a change in the landscape after the evacuation of the village in 1956. Based on measurements and published information and data, two separate models for the historic pre-evacuation geometry and for the current geometry of Metlino were created. Using both models, a value for the air kerma was reconstructed, which agrees with that obtained in the Techa

  16. International Labor Migration and External Debt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustamante, Jorge A.

    1987-01-01

    Mexico and the United States have different perspectives on undocumented migrant workers. Possible solutions to this dilemma are (1) deciding on a common definition; (2) bilateral negotiations on the status of migrant workers; (3) addressing Mexico's external debt and scarce money resources; and (4) addressing the ways the American economy…

  17. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  18. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  19. Community-Based Participatory Research and Gene-Environment Interaction Methodologies Addressing Environmental Justice among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Women and Children in Texas: “From Mother to Child Project”

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Valero, María A.; Herrera, Angelica P.; Zahm, Sheila H.; Jones, Lovell A.

    2013-01-01

    The “From Mother to Child Project” is a molecular epidemiological study that employs a community- based participatory research (CBPR) approach and gene-environment interaction research to address environmental justice in migrant and seasonal farmworker (MSF) women and children of Mexican origin home-based in Baytown and La Joya, Texas. This paper presents the background and rationale for the study and describes the study design and methodology. Preliminary data showed that MSF women and children in Texas have measurable levels of pesticides in their blood and urine, some of which were banned in the United States decades ago and are possible human carcinogens. Polymorphisms in genes involved in chemical detoxification and DNA repair have been associated with susceptibility to genetic damage and cancer development in populations exposed to environmental toxins. The “From Mother to Child Project” is testing three hypotheses: (1) MSF women and children who are occupationally exposed to pesticides are at higher risk for DNA damage than are non-exposed women and children. (2) Both, the extent of pesticide exposure and type of polymorphisms in chemical detoxification and DNA repair genes contribute to the extent of DNA damage observed in study participants. (3) The mutagenic potency levels measured in the organic compounds extracted from the urine and serum of study participants will correlate with the total concentrations of pesticides and with the measured DNA damage in study participants. The study will enroll 800 participants: 200 MSF mother-child pairs; 200 children (one per family) whose parents have never worked in agriculture, matched with the MSF children by ethnicity, age ± 2 years, gender, and city of residence; and these children’s mothers. Personal interviews with the mothers are used to gather data for both mothers and children on sociodemographic characteristics; pesticide exposure at work and home; medical and reproductive history; dietary

  20. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. In manned spacecraft, environmental health risks are mitigated by a multi-disciplinary effort, employing several measures including active and passive controls, by establishing environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits), and through environmental monitoring. Human Health and Performance (HHP) scientists and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. ECLS engineers use environmental monitoring data to monitor and confirm the health of ECLS systems, whereas HHP scientists use the data to manage the health of the human system. Because risks can vary between missions and change over time, environmental monitoring is critical. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in environmental health knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of the roadmap development and findings are presented in this paper.

  1. External Community Review Committee:

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives: We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods: Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results: This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions: The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice. PMID:24056512

  2. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  3. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  4. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  5. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  6. Should economic impacts be treated as externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Sanghi, A.K. )

    1991-03-01

    There is considerable debate over what is properly considered an externality. In a growing number of states, the inclusion of environmental externalities in bidding programs has gained a measure of acceptance. But many planners are going further, treating economic impacts - such as the creation of new jobs - as externalities. Studies which attempt to monetize the creation of new jobs for inclusion in the price of resources have also appeared in the literature. In this paper, the author argues against including economic impacts in the list of externalities. He maintains that such impacts do not constitute true externalities associated with electricity production, nor is there a justifiable economic method of assigning monetary values to them. This should not be construed as a recommendation to ignore economic impacts in the selection of utility resources; rather, it is simply a recommendation not to consider these impacts within the framework established for other externalities. 2 tabs.

  7. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  8. Distributional conflicts in environmental-resource policy

    SciTech Connect

    Schnaiberg, A.; Watts, N.; Zimmerman, K.

    1986-01-01

    Why is an allocation-oriented policy like environmental and resources policy relatively unsuccessful. How could this problem be overcome-by means of what institutional reform or policy initiatives. These two questions are addressed in this book. CONTENTS: Preface Introduction: From Consensus to Dissensus; Efficiency and Distribution in Corrective Mechanisms for Environmental Externality; Equity and Efficiency in Environmental Policy Analysis; The Welfare State, the New Regulation and the Rule of Law; How and Why Environmental Consciousness Has Trickled Down; Capitol and Labor Reallocation in the Face of Environmental Policy; Contradictions and Changes in Labor Response to Distributional Implications of Environmental-Resource Policies; State Roles in the Articulation and Mediation of Distributional Conflicts; Solidarity Between Generations; Future Projectories of Resource Distributional Conflicts.

  9. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  10. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Externalizing problems are multi-determined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who were at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research has established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. Further, research points to the importance of maintaining high treatment fidelity through systematic quality assurance procedures to replicate positive clinical outcomes. This paper presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as two adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  11. Mini external fixation in the hand.

    PubMed

    Ugwonali, Obinwanne Fidelis C; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2006-09-01

    External fixation is an effective means of addressing several pathologies of the hand. The advantages of its use include the ability to achieve stable fixation, minimize soft tissue trauma at the site of injury, and allow wound care and mobilization of adjacent joints. External fixators can be constructed from material readily available in the operating room or obtained from a commercial source. Sufficient rigidity can be achieved by any of these means. Improper placement, although achieving rigid fixation, may compromise motion and overall function if basic principles of external fixation are not followed or if the anatomy of the hand is not taken into consideration. The objective of this article is to describe the technique of application of mini external fixation, emphasizing the basic principles of external fixation as they relate to the specific anatomy of the hand. In addition to fracture fixation, various other uses are described including distraction lengthening, arthrodesis, treatment of nonunion, and infection.

  12. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  13. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  14. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  15. Thermoluminescent Dosimeter Use for Environmental Surveillance at the Hanford Site, 1971–2005

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, Ernest J.; Poston, Ted M.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-03-01

    This report describes the use of thermo luminescent dosimeters for environmental surveillance of external radiation on and around the Hanford Site for the period of 1970 to 2005. It addresses changes in the technology and associated quality control and assurance used in this work and summarizes the results of the 35 year period of external radiation surveillance. The appendices to this report provide trend plots for each location that comprised the shoreline, onsite, perimeter, and offsite sample design.

  16. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  17. Major Fertilizer Producer Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC to Ensure Proper Handling, Storage and Disposal of 60 Billion Pounds of Hazardous Waste / Manufacturer committing close to $2 billion in funding to address environmental impacts from fertilizer production

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) today announced a settlement with Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC that will ensure the proper treatment, storage, and disposal of an estimated 60 bill

  18. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  19. External approach to rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.

  20. Final Report from the External Peer Review of the IRIS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is the final report for the 2004 external peer review for the EPA IRIS Reassessment of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Naphthalene, prepared by the Office of Research and Development's National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), for the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Database. A panel of external peer reviewers met to discuss the IRIS report and their responses to the charge questions on July 30, 2004. This document contains the final written comments of the external peer reviewers. This document is the final report for the 2004 external peer review for the IRIS Reassessment of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Naphthalene, prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), for the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). A panel of external peer reviewers met to discuss their responses to the charge questions on July 30, 2004. This document contains the final written comments of the external peer reviewers.

  1. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  2. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  3. A Model for External Demographic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Barbara Ann

    A data-collection model is presented for the gathering of timely information on population demographic characteristics, as well as economic, educational, environmental, and social trends. First, the paper discusses the importance of anticipating internal and external changes and establishing priorities for resource allocation in the design of a…

  4. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-08-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites.

  5. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  6. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  7. Reconfigurable environmentally adaptive computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coxe, Robin L. (Inventor); Galica, Gary E. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Described are methods and apparatus, including computer program products, for reconfigurable environmentally adaptive computing technology. An environmental signal representative of an external environmental condition is received. A processing configuration is automatically selected, based on the environmental signal, from a plurality of processing configurations. A reconfigurable processing element is reconfigured to operate according to the selected processing configuration. In some examples, the environmental condition is detected and the environmental signal is generated based on the detected condition.

  8. External Barriers Experienced by Gifted and Talented Girls and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses current statistics about women and work and external barriers to achievement. Barriers include parental influences, media stereotypes, stereotyping in school, sexism in colleges and universities, and the burden of responsibilities females shoulder at home. Recommendations to help gifted girls address external barriers are…

  9. Essays on Environmental Economics and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W. Reed

    A central feature of modern government is its role in designing welfare improving policies to address and correct market failures stemming from externalities and public goods. The rationale for most modern environmental regulations stems from the failure of markets to efficiently allocate goods and services. Yet, as with any policy, distributional effects are important there exist clear winners and losers. Despite the clear theoretical justification for environmental and energy policy, empirical work credibly identifying both the source and consequences of these externalities as well as the distributional effects of existing policies remains in its infancy. My dissertation focuses on the development of empirical methods to investigate the role of environmental and energy policy in addressing market failures as well as exploring the distributional implications of these policies. These questions are important not only as a justification for government intervention into markets but also for understanding how distributional consequences may shape the design and implementation of these policies. My dissertation investigates these questions in the context of programs and policies that are important in their own right. Chapters 1 and 2 of my dissertation explore the economic costs and distributional implications associated with the largest environmental regulatory program in the United States, the Clean Air Act. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the social costs of air pollution in the context of transportation externalities, showing how effective transportation policy has additional co-benefits in the form of environmental policy. My dissertation remains unified in both its subject matter and methodological approach -- using unique sources of data and sound research designs to understand important issues in environmental policy.

  10. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  11. 40 CFR 150.17 - Addresses for applications and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... delivery address. Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 2777 S. Crystal Dr... physically located in Rm. S-4400, One Potomac Yard (South Bldg.), 2777 S. Crystal Dr., Arlington, VA...

  12. 40 CFR 150.17 - Addresses for applications and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... delivery address. Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 2777 S. Crystal Dr... physically located in Rm. S-4400, One Potomac Yard (South Bldg.), 2777 S. Crystal Dr., Arlington, VA...

  13. 40 CFR 150.17 - Addresses for applications and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... delivery address. Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 2777 S. Crystal Dr... physically located in Rm. S-4400, One Potomac Yard (South Bldg.), 2777 S. Crystal Dr., Arlington, VA...

  14. Addressing Uncertainty in Fecal Indicator Bacteria Dark Inactivation Rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal contamination is a leading cause of surface water quality degradation. Roughly 20% of all total maximum daily load assessments approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency since 1995, for example, address water bodies with unacceptably high fecal indicator...

  15. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  16. Estimating Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    The activities that produce electric power typically range from extracting and transporting a fuel, to its conversion into electric power, and finally to the disposition of residual by-products. This chain of activities is called a fuel cycle. A fuel cycle has emissions and other effects that result in unintended consequences. When these consequences affect third parties (i.e., those other than the producers and consumers of the fuel-cycle activity) in a way that is not reflected in the price of electricity, they are termed ''hidden'' social costs or externalities. They are the economic value of environmental, health and any other impacts, that the price of electricity does not reflect. How do you estimate the externalities of fuel cycles? Our previous report describes a methodological framework for doing so--called the damage function approach. This approach consists of five steps: (1) characterize the most important fuel cycle activities and their discharges, where importance is based on the expected magnitude of their externalities, (2) estimate the changes in pollutant concentrations or other effects of those activities, by modeling the dispersion and transformation of each pollutant, (3) calculate the impacts on ecosystems, human health, and any other resources of value (such as man-made structures), (4) translate the estimates of impacts into economic terms to estimate damages and benefits, and (5) assess the extent to which these damages and benefits are externalities, not reflected in the price of electricity. Each step requires a different set of equations, models and analysis. Analysts generally believe this to be the best approach for estimating externalities, but it has hardly been used! The reason is that it requires considerable analysis and calculation, and to this point in time, the necessary equations and models have not been assembled. Equally important, the process of identifying and estimating externalities leads to a number of complex issues

  17. Working with External Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Lauren; Burg, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Hiring an external evaluator is not right for every museum or every project. Evaluations are highly situational, grounded in specific times and places; each one is unique. The museum and the evaluator share equal responsibility in an evaluation's success, so it is worth investing time and effort to ensure that both are clear about the goals,…

  18. [Internal and external haemorrhoids].

    PubMed

    Schuurman, J P; Go, P M N Y H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present 3 cases of patients with different types of haemorrhoidal disease. The first patient is a 27-year-old woman who had been experiencing incidental rectal blood loss without pain during defecation for 3 months. The second patient is a 76-year-old woman who had been bothered by varying degrees of pain from a swelling nearby the anus for 1 year. The third case involves a 31-year-old man who had had continuous severe pain in the anal area for 3 consecutive days. The first patient appeared to have internal hemorrhoids, whereas different forms of external hemorrhoids affected the patients in the other 2 cases. Internal haemorrhoids develop from the intraluminal corpus cavernosum recti; external haemorrhoids from the perianal marginal veins. Patients with internal haemorrhoids present with symptoms that include blood loss and prolaps feeling during defecation. In patients with external haemorrhoids pain is the prominent symptom. Internal haemorrhoids are treated either conservatively or surgically, depending upon their severity. Considering external haemorrhoidal disease surgical treatment provides the most rapid and persistent relief of symptoms.

  19. External College Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    This report presents the results of a community survey which attempted to determine the demand for another college in the Los Angeles Community College District. The function of this "community campus" or "external college" would be to serve members of the community who are not already served by the eight existing colleges. Questionnaires received…

  20. External Interest Group Impingements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Richard M.

    The history of the interrelation among state approval, accreditation, and institutional eligibility is considered. It is suggested that faculty and college administrators can be either an internal or external group in relationship to the planning process. The federal government, or the state government, passes legislation that may have both…

  1. Update to An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United States for the Years 1987, 1995, and 2000 (2013, External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2006, EPA published an inventory of sources and environmental releases of dioxin-like compounds in the United States. This draft report presents an update and revision to that dioxin source inventory. It also presents updated estimates of environmental releases of dioxin-like...

  2. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    PubMed

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  3. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  4. Externally triggered microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.

  5. Idiopathic environmental intolerances: overview.

    PubMed

    Sparks, P J

    2000-01-01

    The editor discusses usage of the terms "iidiopathic environmental intolerance," "multiple chemical sensitivity," and "environmental illness." Also addressed are prevalence, theories of etiology, evaluation and treatment, and social and political implications.

  6. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  7. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs for Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. Environmental monitoring coupled with other measures including active and passive controls and the implementation of environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits) are used to ensure environmental health in manned spacecraft. NASA scientists and engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. Environmental monitoring data confirms the health of ECLS systems, in addition to contributing to the management of the health of human systems. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of Exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of this assessment and findings are presented in this paper.

  8. (Environmental technology)

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  9. Environmental surveillance and compliance at Los Alamos during 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report presents environmental data that characterize environmental performance and addresses compliance with environmental standards and requirements at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) during 1996. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive nonradioactive materials at Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1996 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions; and concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, the municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs. Using comparisons with standards and regulations, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. Laboratory operations were in compliance with all major environmental regulations.

  10. Children's Environmental Health Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Conducted in-house, with our federal partners like NIH’s National Institute of Environmental Health Services (NIEHS), and by external researchers through a research grants program administered through the agency’s Office of Research & Development.

  11. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1994. Data were collected to assess external penetrating radiation, airborne emissions, liquid effluents, radioactivity of environmental materials and food stuffs, and environmental compliance.

  12. External Ballistics. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-11

    clcsely related with aezodyzasics, ky gzavtaetry and the thecry cf the figure of Earth , by metecrology. Ballistic calculatica Sives all the bamic data...external tallistics. %he conteaFcrary state of the sciemce of the action cf rcckets and artillery ste]l cf different t)pes is such, that many of the e...height. L- 14near distance ovX tOf surface of thq Earth . ol - crbital velocity. V-1 - escape velocity. 2v_ - range angle. S- eaight of projqctile. Q

  13. External split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas George [Knoxville, TN; Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Vass, Arpad Alexander [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  14. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  15. Recognizing, Determining, and Addressing Entrepreneurial Innovations by Superintendents of Emerging or Established Educational Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfstrom, Kari M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation describes how entrepreneurial superintendents of educational service agencies (ESAs) recognize, determine and address common and distinct innovative characteristics within emerging or established regional educational environments. Because internal and external factors assist in recognizing innovative practices, this study…

  16. Environmental trade-offs of tunnels vs cut-and-cover subways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walton, M.

    1978-01-01

    Heavy construction projects in cities entail two kinds of cost - internal cost, which can be defined in terms of payments from one set of parties to another, and external cost, which is the cost borne by the community at large as the result of disutilities entailed in construction and operation. Environmental trade-offs involve external costs, which are commonly difficult to measure. Cut-and-cover subway construction probably entails higher external and internal cost than deep tunnel construction in many urban geological environments, but uncertainty concerning the costs and environmental trade-offs of tunneling leads to limited and timid use of tunneling by American designers. Thus uncertainty becomes a major trade-off which works against tunneling. The reverse is true in Sweden after nearly 30 years of subway construction. Econometric methods for measuring external costs exist in principle, but are limited in application. Economic theory based on market pressure does not address the real problem of urban environmental trade-offs. Nevertheless, the problem of uncertainty can be addressed by comparative studies of estimated and as-built costs of cut-and-cover vs tunnel projects and a review of environmental issues associated with such construction. Such a study would benefit the underground construction industry and the design of transportation systems. It would also help solve an aspect of the urban problem. ?? 1978.

  17. Addressing Asthma Health Disparities: A Multilevel Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Rand, Cynthia S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial research has documented pervasive disparities in the prevalence, severity, and morbidity of asthma among minority populations compared to non-Latino whites. The underlying causes of these disparities are not well understood, and as a result, the leverage points to address them remain unclear. A multilevel framework for integrating research in asthma health disparities is proposed in order to advance both future research and clinical practice. The components of the proposed model include health care policies and regulations, operation of the health care system, provider/clinician-level factors, social/environmental factors, and individual/family attitudes and behaviors. The body of research suggests that asthma disparities have multiple, complex and inter-related sources. Disparities occur when individual, environmental, health system, and provider factors interact with one another over time. Given that the causes of asthma disparities are complex and multilevel, clinical strategies to address these disparities must therefore be comparably multilevel and target many aspects of asthma care. Clinical Implications: Several strategies that could be applied in clinical settings to reduce asthma disparities are described including the need for routine assessment of the patient’s beliefs, financial barriers to disease management, and health literacy, and the provision of cultural competence training and communication skills to health care provider groups. PMID:19447484

  18. Swimming in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Holger

    2016-11-01

    Microswimmers move autonomously but are subject to external fields, which influence their swimming path and their collective dynamics. With three concrete examples we illustrate swimming in external fields and explain the methodology to treat it. First, an active Brownian particle shows a conventional sedimentation profile in a gravitational field but with increased sedimentation length and some polar order along the vertical. Bottom-heavy swimmers are able to invert the sedimentation profile. Second, active Brownian particles interacting by hydrodynamic flow fields in a three-dimensional harmonic trap can spontaneously break the isotropic symmetry. They develop polar order, which one can describe by mean-field theory reminiscent to Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, and thereby pump fluid. Third, a single microswimmer shows interesting non-linear dynamics in Poiseuille flow including swinging and tumbling trajectories. For pushers, hydrodynamic interactions with bounding surfaces stabilize either straight swimming against the flow or tumbling close to the channel wall, while pushers always move on a swinging trajectory with a specific amplitude as limit cycle.

  19. [External pancreatic fistulas management].

    PubMed

    Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S

    2017-01-01

    The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.

  20. How the National Estuary Programs Address Environmental Issues

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Estuaries face many challenges including, alteration of natural hydrologic flows, aquatic nuisance species, climate change, declines in fish and wildlife populations, habitat loss and degradation, nutrient loads, pathogens, stormwater and toxics.

  1. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  2. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  3. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  4. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  5. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  6. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  7. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  8. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  9. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  10. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  11. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  12. Bevalac external beamline optics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  13. External Measures of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cairό, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex, and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind. PMID:22065955

  14. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Impact of external influences on food packaging.

    PubMed

    Brody, A L

    1977-09-01

    Since the food supply is dependent upon an effective packaging system, threats to packaging represent implied threats to food processing and distribution. Enacted and potential legislation and regulation are retarding technological and commercial progress in food packaging and have already restricted some food packaging/processins systems. The results of these external influences is not simply the sum of the individual acts, but is a cascading self-imposed arresting of food packaging/processing advancement. The technological bases for the enacted and proposed legislation and regulation are presented in the enumeration of the external influences on food packaging. Economic and sociological arguments and facts surrounding the issues are also presented. Among the external influences on food packaging detailed are indirect additives, nutritional labeling, benefit:risk, solid waste and litter, environmental pollution, universal product code, and food industry productivity. The magnitude of the total impact of these external influences upon the food supply is so large that assertive action must be taken to channel these influences into more productive awareness. An objective and comprehensive public communications program supported by the technological community appears mandatory.

  16. Addressing Barriers to Ecological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Kim; Curthoys, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    Capra defines ecological literacy as "understanding the basic principles of ecology and being able to embody them in daily life." Roth describes ecological literacy as "the capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and to take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of…

  17. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  18. Strategies That Address Internal and External Barriers to Effective Educational Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Michael L.

    Englewood Learning Center in Chicago provides programs for severely and profoundly handicapped children (5 to 17 years old) in an urban area where many families live in subpoverty conditions. The program requires families to be involved in the individualized education program process and in the whole range of educational services. The program…

  19. A case study of the Australian Plague Locust Commission and environmental due diligence: why mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for environmentally responsible locust control in Australia.

    PubMed

    Story, Paul G; Walker, Paul W; McRae, Heath; Hamilton, John G

    2005-07-01

    The Australian Plague Locust Commission (APLC) manages locust populations across 2 million square kilometers of eastern Australia using the aerial application of chemical and biological control agents to protect agricultural production. This occurs via a preventative control strategy involving ultralow-volume spray equipment to distribute small droplets of control agent over a target area. The economic costs of, and potential gains stemming from, locust control are well documented. The application of insecticides, however, to fragile arid and semiarid ecosystems is a task that brings with it both real and perceived environmental issues. The APLC is proactive in addressing these issues through a combination of targeted environmental operational research, an ISO-14001-aligned Environmental Management System (EMS), and links with environmental regulatory and research institutions. Increasing due diligence components within Australian environmental legislation dictate that mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for industries to ensure that they meet their environmental obligations. The development of external research links and the formulation of an EMS for locust control have enabled the APLC to identify environmental issues and trends, quantify objective environmental targets and strategies, and facilitate continuous improvement in its environmental performance, while maintaining stakeholder support. This article outlines the environmental issues faced by the APLC, the research programs in place to address these issues, and the procedures in place to incorporate research findings into the organization's operational structure.

  20. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development.

  1. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  2. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  3. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  4. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  5. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  6. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  7. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  8. Externalities of oil imports revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.

    1980-09-01

    A re-analysis of the externalities associated with oil imports reaffirms the major findings of an earlier study: (1) The current externalities of oil imports are large even after several favorable assumptions are made, including the existence of a large buffer stock and enlightened monetary and fiscal policy. (2) The large externalities of oil imports call for increased domestic supplies, including conservation, if they are cost-effective and based on marginal social costs. (3) A corrective public policy could involve oil-import taxes and the subsidization of new domestic energy sources without large government externalities. 20 references.

  9. Optical modulation goes external

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loni, A.

    1995-02-01

    Digital or analog modulation of continuous-wave laser sources forms the basis of encoding and transmitting of information through optical fiber link systems. In digital systems, data are formatted in a simple periodic two-bit configuration, represented by high or low light intensities, whereas in analog systems data are represented by selective portions of a time-varying electronic waveform applied to the optical carrier. High speed optical communications and the distribution of cable television (CATV) signals are just two examples of digital and analog systems, respectively, that involve the transmission of data, voice and video over fiber networks. The basic layout of a fiber-optic link system is presented. The optical source wavelength is determined by the characteristics of the optical fiber. If the optical sources used is a semiconductor laser diode, information can be imprinted on the optical output by directly modulating the laser drive current with a radio frequency (RF) signal. In digital systems, the low (off) state generally corresponds to a position just below the lasing threshold on the characteristic intensity-current curve of the diode. This position is preferred to the zero current locus because the turn-on delays are then minimized. Analog systems require a bias current in addition to the threshold current in order to push the modulation into the linear region of the power-current curve. The main disadvantages associated with the direct modulation approach are discussed. The main disadvantage of the solid-state approach is its inability to modulate directly the laser at the data rates nominally entailed in optical communications. This inability causes further limitations associated with the inherently long excited state lifetime of the lasing species. External modulation overcomes this drawback by modulating the optical output from the laser rather than the material properties of the laser itself, and consequently, is set to play an increasingly

  10. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is

  11. Influence of a Non-formal Environmental Education Programme on Junior High-School Students' Environmental Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daphne; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Shaharabani, Dina

    2013-02-01

    One of the solutions implemented by schools for conducting value-based environmental education (EE) is outsourcing: allocating external environmental organizations that develop and conduct EE programmes. This study addressed such a programme-the Green Council Programme (GCP)-developed and implemented in schools by the Israeli Society for Protection of Nature. A pre-test/post-test design was used to investigate the influence of participation in the GCP on components of junior high-school students' environmental literacy. Conceptualizations of 'environment', environmental attitudes and sense of ability to act on environmental issues were studied employing quantitative and qualitative tools. Contribution of the programme to the cognitive domain, in developing a systemic understanding of the environment, was limited. On the other hand, participating in this programme heightened students' sensitivity to human-environment interrelationships and developed a more ecological worldview. After the programme, students demonstrated greater perception of humans as part of the environment, an increased sensitivity to human impact on the environment and their value for non-human nature moved from an anthropocentric to a more ecocentric orientation. While students' internal locus-of-control increased, when environmental protection entailed personal economic trade-offs, their support was limited and remained unchanged. The article concludes with recommendations, based on the findings, regarding supplementing the school (science) curriculum with external EE enrichment programmes.

  12. External Examining: Fit for Purpose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  13. Choosing a Truly External Evaluator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    This scenario discusses a situation in which a proposal has been published by a consortium of foundations for an "external" evaluator to evaluate a replication at two new sites of a program they have been funding for many years. A proposal is received from Dr. Porto-Novo, who has been the external evaluator of the initial program for about 10…

  14. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  15. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  16. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  17. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  18. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  20. TOMORROW: EPA Administrator to Address Council on Foreign Relations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -- Tomorrow, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy will address the Council on Foreign Relations to discuss the agency's work to cut carbon pollution from power plans and lead U.S. efforts to implement the presid

  1. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  2. Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP)

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    class I; 35% are in class II; 25%, class III; and 5%, class IV. Surveys (8) suggest that from 5% to 15% of patients with HF have persistent severe symptoms, and that the remainder of patients with HF is evenly divided between those with mild and moderately severe symptoms. To date, the diagnosis and management of chronic HF has concentrated on patients with the clinical syndrome of HF accompanied by severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Major changes in treatment have resulted from a better understanding of the pathophysiology of HF and the results of large clinical trials. Treatment for chronic HF includes lifestyle management, drugs, cardiac surgery, or implantable pacemakers and defibrillators. Despite pharmacologic advances, which include diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, spironolactone, and digoxin, many patients remain symptomatic on maximally tolerated doses. (6) The Technology Patients are typically treated by a trained technician in a medically supervised environment for 1 hour daily for a total of 35 hours over 7 weeks. The procedure involves sequential inflation and deflation of compressible cuffs wrapped around the patient’s calves, lower thighs and upper thighs. In addition to 3 sets of cuffs, the patient has finger plethysmogram and electrocardiogram (ECG) attachments that are connected to a control and display console. External counterpulsation was used in the United States to treat cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction. (9;10) More recently, an enhanced version namely “enhanced external counterpulsation” (EECP) was introduced as a noninvasive procedure for outpatient treatment of patients with severe, uncontrollable cardiac ischemia. EECP is said to increase coronary perfusion pressure and reduce the myocardial oxygen demand. Currently, EECP is not applicable for all patients with refractory angina pectoris. For example, many patients are considered ineligible for therapy due to co

  3. Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles, Report 3

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    The agreement between the US DOE and the EC established the specific objectives of the study: (a) to develop a methodological framework that uses existing data and models to quantify the external costs and benefits of energy; (b) to demonstrate the application of the framework to estimate the externalities of the coal, biomass, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, photovoltaic, and wind fuel cycles (by agreement with the EC, the US addressed the first six of these); and (c) to identify major gaps in the availability of information to quantify impacts, damages, benefits, and externalities of fuel cycles; and to suggest priorities for future research. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities, and a better method for estimating them.

  4. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors. FR-EXT was based on lifetime parental externalizing psychopathology and the different parenting styles (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) were based on the child's perspective. We also investigated whether different dimensions of perceived parenting styles had different effects on subdomains of externalizing behavior. We found main effects for FR-EXT (vs. no FR-EXT), emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection that were fairly consistent across rater and outcome measures. More specific, emotional warmth was the most consistent predictor of all outcome measures, and rejection was a stronger predictor of aggression and delinquency than of inattention. Interaction effects were found for FR-EXT and perceived parental rejection and overprotection; other interactions between FR-EXT and parenting styles were not significant. Correlations between FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles were absent or very low and were without clinical significance. Predominantly main effects of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles independently contribute to externalizing behaviors in preadolescents, suggesting FR-EXT and parenting styles to be two separate areas of causality. The relative lack of gene-environment interactions may be due to the epidemiological nature of the study, the preadolescent age of the subjects, the measurement level of parenting and the measurement level of FR-EXT, which might be a consequence of both genetic and

  5. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  6. Environmental Management

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Another key aspect of the NNSS mission is Environmental Management program, which addresses the environmental legacy from historic nuclear weapons related activities while also ensuring the health and safety of present day workers, the public, and the environment as current and future missions are completed. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management site receives low-level and mixed low-level waste from some 28 different generators from across the DOE complex in support of the legacy clean-up DOE Environmental Management project. Without this capability, the DOE would not be able to complete the clean up and proper disposition of these wastes. The program includes environmental protection, compliance, and monitoring of the air, water, plants, animals, and cultural resources at the NNSS. Investigation and implementation of appropriate corrective actions to address the contaminated ground water facilities and soils resulting from historic nuclear testing activities, the demolition of abandoned nuclear facilities, as well as installation of ground water wells to identify and monitor the extent of ground water contamination.

  7. Environmental Management

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-12

    Another key aspect of the NNSS mission is Environmental Management program, which addresses the environmental legacy from historic nuclear weapons related activities while also ensuring the health and safety of present day workers, the public, and the environment as current and future missions are completed. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management site receives low-level and mixed low-level waste from some 28 different generators from across the DOE complex in support of the legacy clean-up DOE Environmental Management project. Without this capability, the DOE would not be able to complete the clean up and proper disposition of these wastes. The program includes environmental protection, compliance, and monitoring of the air, water, plants, animals, and cultural resources at the NNSS. Investigation and implementation of appropriate corrective actions to address the contaminated ground water facilities and soils resulting from historic nuclear testing activities, the demolition of abandoned nuclear facilities, as well as installation of ground water wells to identify and monitor the extent of ground water contamination.

  8. Environmental forensic research for emerging contaminants in complex environmental matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has established criteria to address many of the significant traditional pollutants demonstrated to have adverse affects on environmental quality. However, new chemicals are being created almost daily, and these new chemicals, as ...

  9. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

  10. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-03

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making.

  11. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  12. Best Practices for Continuous Monitoring of Temperature and Flow in Wadeable Streams (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This external review draft report is a technical "best practices" document describing sensor deployment for and data collection of continuous temperature and flow at ungaged sites in wadeable streams. This document addresses questions related to equipment needs; configuration, pl...

  13. Environmental sources of fecal bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of the research on environmental occurrences of faecal indicator bacteria in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic habitats under different geographic and climatic conditions, and discusses how these external sources may affect surface water quality.

  14. Infancy Parenting and Externalizing Psychopathology from Childhood through Adulthood: Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorber, Michael F.; Egeland, Byron

    2009-01-01

    Developmental models and previous findings suggest that early parenting is more strongly associated with externalizing problems in early childhood than it is in adolescence. In this article, the authors address whether the association of poor-quality infancy parenting and externalizing problems "rebounds" in adulthood. Poor-quality infancy…

  15. Narrative Therapy and Non-Suicidal-Self-Injurious Behavior: Externalizing the Problem and Internalizing Personal Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Rachel M.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an intervention, the externalization of client problems, which can be used to address non-suicidal-self-injurious behavior. Specific externalization techniques are discussed, including naming the problem, letter writing, and drawing. A case application and implications for practice are presented.

  16. International labor migration and external debt.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, J A

    1987-01-01

    The prevailing Mexican and US definitions of undocumented migration are poles apart. The US views it as a criminal problem. Mexicans view the undocumented migrants as actors in an economic game in which the rules are extremely disadvantageous to these migrants. Migrants themselves and their communities view the undocumented as a positive element. It is necessary to move toward a bilateral focus and bilateral negotiation on the issue of migratory workers. This proposal derives from several assumptions: 1) the external debt is a bilateral or multilateral issue, 2) it is important to avoid forcing debtor countries to choose between stimulating economic growth or making payment on their foreign debt, 3) prevailing public opinion in the US favors halting undocumented migration, 4) the US views the migration of undocumented Mexicans as the result of forces endogenous to Mexico and exogenous to the US, 5) the US views both Mexico's ability to make payment on its external debt and to halt emigration as tied to the Mexican government's ability or inability to reconcile political stability with scarce monetary resources, and 6) political instability in Mexico could augment emigration to the US and undermine Mexico's ability to address its foreign debt. The following proposal suggests means to link negotiation on the external debt to that of undocumented migration: 1) The Mexican government could reach an accord with the US to channel a portion of the actual interest on the external debt as a fund to be invested in Mexico to construct a system of labor intensive agroindustrial productive units designed to attract former or potential migratory workers; 2) the total amount of these funds would be deducted from interest payments on the principal of the actual external debt and redefined as an ad hoc loan to Mexico to finance these production units; 3) part of the production from these units would be incorporated into ongoing US food relief and food assistance programs; 4) the

  17. Environmental analysis support

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Activities in environmental analysis support included assistance to the Morgantown and Pittsburgh Energy Technology Centers (METC and PETC) in reviewing and preparing documents required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for projects selected for the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. An important activity was the preparation for METC of a final Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) Project in Warren, Pennsylvania. In addition, a post-project environmental analysis was prepared for PETC to evaluate the Demonstration of Advanced Combustion Techniques for a Tangentially-Fired Boiler in Lynn Haven, Florida.

  18. Changing Learner Behavior through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; Volk, Trudi L.

    1990-01-01

    Addressed is the effectiveness of environmental education for promoting responsible citizenship behavior. A model of environmental citizenship behavior is presented. Goals for instruction in environmental education are discussed. (CW)

  19. Categorical and Continuous Models of Liability to Externalizing Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    Context Patterns of genetic, environmental, and phenotypic relationships among antisocial behavior and substance use disorders indicate the presence of a common externalizing liability. However, whether this liability is relatively continuous and graded, or categorical and class-like, has not been well established. Objectives To compare the fit of categorical and continuous models of externalizing liability in a large, nationally representative sample. Design Categorical and continuous models of externalizing liability were compared using interview data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Setting Face-to-face interviews conducted in the United States. Participants Random sample of 43 093 noninstitutionalized adult civilians living in the United States. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime and current (past 12 months) diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence, cocaine dependence, and other substance dependence. Results In the entire sample, as well as for males and females separately, using either lifetime or current diagnoses, the best-fitting model of externalizing liability was a continuous normal model. Moreover, there was a general trend toward latent trait models fitting better than latent class models, indicating that externalizing liability was continuous and graded, rather than categorical and class-like. Conclusions Liability to externalizing spectrum disorders is graded and continuous normal in distribution. Research regarding etiology, assessment, and treatment of externalizing disorders should target externalizing liability over a range of severity. Current diagnoses represent extremes of this continuous liability distribution, indicating that conditions currently classified as subthreshold are likely to provide important information regarding liability to externalizing phenomena. PMID:16330723

  20. Estimating Externalities of Hydro Fuel Cycles, Report 6

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-12-01

    There are three major objectives of this hydropower study: (1) to implement the methodological concepts that were developed in the background document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles and, by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the hydroelectric fuel cycle (different fuel cycles have unique characteristics that need to be addressed in different ways); (2) to develop, given the time and resources, the best range of estimates of externalities associated with hydroelectric projects, using two benchmark projects at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information that is available to support the estimation of externalities associated with the hydroelectric fuel cycle and, by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities and a better method for estimating them. As set forth in the agreement between the US and the EC, the study is explicitly and intentionally not directed at any one audience. This study is about a methodology for estimating externalities. It is not about how to use estimates of externalities in a particular policy context.

  1. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  2. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  3. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  4. Martian external magnetic field proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, Benoit; Civet, Francois

    2015-04-01

    Mars possesses no dynamic magnetic field of internal origin as it is the case for the Earth or for Mercury. Instead Mars is characterized by an intense and localized magnetic field of crustal origin. This field is the result of past magnetization and demagnetization processes, and reflects its evolution. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) interacts with Mars' ionized environment to create an external magnetic field. This external field is weak compared to lithospheric one but very dynamic, and may hamper the detailed analysis of the internal magnetic field at some places or times. Because there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the external field temporal variability as it is done in Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this study we examine to indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First we use the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission which measures the solar wind about one hour upstream of the bow-shock resulting from the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's internal magnetic field. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the velocity of particles carrying the IMF. Second we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We subtract from the measurements the internal field which is otherwise modeled, and bin the residuals first on a spatial and then on a temporal mesh. This allows to compute daily or semi daily index. We present a comparison of these two proxies and demonstrate their complementarity. We also illustrate our analysis by comparing our Martian external field proxies to terrestrial index at epochs of known strong activity. These proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.

  5. Space station neutral external environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  6. External hydrocephalus in two cats.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Curtis W; Coates, Joan R; Ducoté, Julie M; Stefanacci, Joseph D; Walker, Michael A; Marino, Dominic J

    2003-01-01

    External hydrocephalus describes an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the cerebral hemispheres and the overlying arachnoid membrane, rather than within the lateral ventricles. Two young cats with encephalopathic signs were diagnosed with external hydrocephalus, one via magnetic resonance imaging and one via computed tomography. Both cats had abnormally large, broad heads, with no evidence of open fontanelles. A surgical shunt was placed in each cat to divert the accumulated CSF within the cranial cavity to the peritoneal space. Both cats improved dramatically soon after surgical shunting was performed, and they continue to do well clinically, approximately 42 months and 8 months postoperatively, respectively.

  7. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  8. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  9. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  10. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  11. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  12. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  13. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  14. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  15. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  16. Ultralow noise miniature external cavity semiconductor laser

    PubMed Central

    Liang, W.; Ilchenko, V. S.; Eliyahu, D.; Savchenkov, A. A.; Matsko, A. B.; Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced applications in optical metrology demand improved lasers with high spectral purity, in form factors that are small and insensitive to environmental perturbations. While laboratory-scale lasers with extraordinarily high stability and low noise have been reported, all-integrated chip-scale devices with sub-100 Hz linewidth have not been previously demonstrated. Lasers integrated with optical microresonators as external cavities have the potential for substantial reduction of noise. However, stability and spectral purity improvements of these lasers have only been validated with rack-mounted support equipment, assembled with fibre lasers to marginally improve their noise performance. In this work we report on a realization of a heterogeneously integrated, chip-scale semiconductor laser featuring 30-Hz integral linewidth as well as sub-Hz instantaneous linewidth. PMID:26104321

  17. Successful external fertilization in turbulent environments.

    PubMed Central

    Serrao, E A; Pearson, G; Kautsky, L; Brawley, S H

    1996-01-01

    Mathematical and experimental simulations predict that external fertilization is unsuccessful in habitats characterized by high water motion. A key assumption of such predictions is that gametes are released in hydrodynamic regimes that quickly dilute gametes. We used fucoid seaweeds to examine whether marine organisms in intertidal and subtidal habitats might achieve high levels of fertilization by restricting their release of gametes to calm intervals. Fucus vesiculosus L. (Baltic Sea) released high numbers of gametes only when maximal water velocities were below ca. 0.2 m/s immediately prior to natural periods of release, which occur in early evening in association with lunar cues. Natural fertilization success measured at two sites was always close to 100%. Laboratory experiments confirmed that (i) high water motion inhibits gamete release by F. vesiculosus and by the intertidal fucoids Fucus distichus L. (Maine) and Pelvetia fastigiata (J. Ag.) DeToni (California), and (ii) showed that photosynthesis is required for high gamete release. These data suggest that chemical changes in the boundary layer surrounding adults during photosynthesis and/or mechanosensitive channels may modulate gamete release in response to changing hydrodynamic conditions. Therefore, sensitivity to environmental factors can lead to successful external fertilization, even for species living in turbulent habitats. PMID:11607682

  18. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    During the period 1971 to 1980, electricity consumption in Taiwan increased remarkably at an average rate of 12.2% per year. Despite experiencing a record low in 1982 and 1983, electricity demand returned to double digit growth, reaching 11.6% and 10.2% in 1987 and 1988, respectively, due to a strong economic recovery. In 1988, 71.6 TWh of electricity was produced, 21.1 TWh of which was from coal-fired units (29%). The electricity demand for Taiwan is expected to continue to grow at a very rapid rate during the 1990--2006 time frame. The average load is expected to grow at an annual rate of 5.6% while the peak load is projected to increase at an annual rate of 6.0%. All new coal-fired power plants are expected to comply with government regulations on S0{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulate emissions. Taper reports that all of its proposed coal-fired units will be equipped with modern flue gas emission reduction devices, such as electrostatic precipitators or baghouse filters, flue gas desulfurization and deco{sub x} devices, to reduce the pollutants to their minimum practical levels. New coal-based generation requirements in the sizes needed in Taiwan create an opportunity for several of the Cats currently under demonstration in the United States. Options to be considered are described.

  19. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1992-09-01

    During the period 1971 to 1980, electricity consumption in Taiwan increased remarkably at an average rate of 12.2% per year. Despite experiencing a record low in 1982 and 1983, electricity demand returned to double digit growth, reaching 11.6% and 10.2% in 1987 and 1988, respectively, due to a strong economic recovery. In 1988, 71.6 TWh of electricity was produced, 21.1 TWh of which was from coal-fired units (29%). The electricity demand for Taiwan is expected to continue to grow at a very rapid rate during the 1990--2006 time frame. The average load is expected to grow at an annual rate of 5.6% while the peak load is projected to increase at an annual rate of 6.0%. All new coal-fired power plants are expected to comply with government regulations on S0{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulate emissions. Taper reports that all of its proposed coal-fired units will be equipped with modern flue gas emission reduction devices, such as electrostatic precipitators or baghouse filters, flue gas desulfurization and deco{sub x} devices, to reduce the pollutants to their minimum practical levels. New coal-based generation requirements in the sizes needed in Taiwan create an opportunity for several of the Cats currently under demonstration in the United States. Options to be considered are described.

  20. External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith

    This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

  1. Structure and Etiology of Co-Occurring Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgrove, Victoria E.; Rhee, Soo H.; Gelhorn, Heather L.; Boeldt, Debra; Corley, Robin C.; Ehringer, Marissa A.; Young, Susan E.; Hewitt, John K.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that a two-factor model positing internalizing and externalizing factors explains the interrelationships among psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether the covariation between internalizing and externalizing disorders is due to common genetic or environmental influences. We examined whether a model positing two…

  2. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects...

  3. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects...

  4. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  5. Positional error in automated geocoding of residential addresses

    PubMed Central

    Cayo, Michael R; Talbot, Thomas O

    2003-01-01

    Background Public health applications using geographic information system (GIS) technology are steadily increasing. Many of these rely on the ability to locate where people live with respect to areas of exposure from environmental contaminants. Automated geocoding is a method used to assign geographic coordinates to an individual based on their street address. This method often relies on street centerline files as a geographic reference. Such a process introduces positional error in the geocoded point. Our study evaluated the positional error caused during automated geocoding of residential addresses and how this error varies between population densities. We also evaluated an alternative method of geocoding using residential property parcel data. Results Positional error was determined for 3,000 residential addresses using the distance between each geocoded point and its true location as determined with aerial imagery. Error was found to increase as population density decreased. In rural areas of an upstate New York study area, 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 2,872 m of their true location. Suburban areas revealed less error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 421 m. Urban areas demonstrated the least error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 152 m of their true location. As an alternative to using street centerline files for geocoding, we used residential property parcel points to locate the addresses. In the rural areas, 95 percent of the parcel points were within 195 m of the true location. In suburban areas, this distance was 39 m while in urban areas 95 percent of the parcel points were within 21 m of the true location. Conclusion Researchers need to determine if the level of error caused by a chosen method of geocoding may affect the results of their project. As an alternative method, property data can be used for geocoding addresses if the error caused by traditional methods is found to be unacceptable. PMID

  6. [Treatment by external insulin pump].

    PubMed

    Clavel, Sylvaine

    2010-12-01

    Since the recent recommendations by the French speaking association for research on diabetes and metabolic illnesses (Alfediam), treatment by insulin pump has found itself in competition with basal-bolus, a procedure using similar injections of insulin which has become a benchmark treatment. The latest Alfediam guidelines focus on defining ways of treating diabetics with an external insulin pump.

  7. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  8. External Communication. SPEC Kit 56.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    One section of a spring 1979 Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) survey on communication in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) institutions examined how members exchange information with external groups including the university administration, faculty, users, support groups, other libraries, and the profession in general. According…

  9. [Prostate cancer external beam radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Crevoisier, R; Pommier, P; Latorzeff, I; Chapet, O; Chauvet, B; Hennequin, C

    2016-09-01

    The prostate external beam radiotherapy techniques are described, when irradiating the prostate or after prostatectomy, with and without pelvic lymph nodes. The following parts are presented: indications of radiotherapy, total dose and fractionation, planning CT image acquisition, volume of interest delineation (target volumes and organs at risk) and margins, Intensity modulated radiotherapy planning and corresponding dose-volume constraints, and finally Image guided radiotherapy.

  10. Internal to external wavelength calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kailash C.

    1999-01-01

    The spectra of Hen 1357 (the Stingray nebula) were used to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the STIS first order CCD modes. The radial velocity of the Stingray nebula is known to high accuracy (< 1 km/sec) and the line with of the nebular line is very narrow (< 8 km/sec for the integrated nebula). Thus the observations of the Stingray nebula are ideal to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the first order modes. The observations were taken in G430L and G750M modes using a 52 x 0.05 arcsec slit covering the wavelength range 2900 to 5700 A and 6295 to 6867 A, respectively. The observed wavelength range includes many nebular emission lines. The wavelengths of the nebular lines derived using the pipeline internal wavelength calibration were compared with the wavelengths derived from other ground based observations. In all cases, the wavelength match between the two is of the same order as the accuracy to which the line center can be measured. These results imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibrations for these modes. The HDF-S QSO observations were also used for this test both for the first order and the Echelle modes. The results of the HDF-S QSO observations further confirm the above finding for the first order modes, and imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibration for the Echelle modes.

  11. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter

    2001-08-27

    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be

  12. 75 FR 56099 - Announcement of the Board of Trustees for the National Environmental Education Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...: Environmental Protection Agency; Office of External Affairs and Environmental Education. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... protection and sustainable, environmentally sound development. It provides the common ground upon...

  13. National environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Findings of the Council of Environmental Quality's interagency task force on environmental data and monitoring are summarized and the degree of followup on its recommendations is assessed. The quality of the data, coordination of environmental monitoring and data activities, and major issues that need to be addressed regarding monitoring of air and water quality are examined. Participation of the private sector in toxic monitoring is considered.

  14. Causal debates in environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Tesh, S N

    1994-01-01

    Many public health policy analysts celebrate the renewed popularity of environmentalism and its importance for public health. But few recognize that there are three competing versions of environmentalism. Each one assigns blame for environmental degradation and responsibility for addressing it to a different group of people. It is incumbent upon public health professionals to take note of the debate and to consider the ramifications for policy should one of these versions come to predominate.

  15. Externalities and electric power: an integrated assessment approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes an integrated assessment approach for considering the options that electric utilities have to meet the anticipated demand for their power. The objective that this paper considers is one of meeting the demand for power, with an acceptable degree of reliability, at minimum cost. The total cost is the sum of the private cost of producing the electric power plus the external costs that result from its production. These external costs, or externalities, are effects on the well-being of third parties that producers and consumers of electric power do not take into account in their decisions. The external costs include many different types of effects such as illness, ecosystem damage, and road damage. The solution to the problem of minimizing total cost is addressed in two steps. The first step uses damage function methods to establish a common metric for the weights of the different objectives (i.e., external costs). The damage function analysis also reduces the dimensionality of the analysis in the second step, and identifies criteria to include in that analysis. The second step uses multi-criteria decision methods. This analysis includes the most important externalities that the damage function analysis identifies and, in addition, potentially important factors that can not be quantified reliably using damage function methods. An example of the latter are the damages from global climate change. The two-step method that this paper describes addresses many of the limitations of the damage function method and multi-criteria methods, that arise when they are used separately. This linked method can be used by electric utilities for their integrated resource planning. It can also be adapted to other applications.

  16. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false External loads. 27.865 Section 27.865... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 27.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means...

  17. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false External loads. 29.865 Section 29.865... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 29.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means...

  18. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false External loads. 29.865 Section 29.865... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 29.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means...

  19. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false External loads. 29.865 Section 29.865... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 29.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means...

  20. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false External loads. 27.865 Section 27.865... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 27.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means...

  1. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false External loads. 27.865 Section 27.865... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 27.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means...

  2. 78 FR 14117 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... addressed in the environmental impact statement/ environmental impact report: 1. March 14, 2013, 1:30-3:30 p... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass... Water Resources intend to prepare an environmental impact statement/ environmental impact report...

  3. The impact of maternal depression and overcrowded housing on associations between autonomic nervous system reactivity and externalizing behavior problems in vulnerable Latino children.

    PubMed

    Waters, Sara F; Boyce, W Thomas; Eskenazi, Brenda; Alkon, Abbey

    2016-01-01

    The study of autonomic nervous system responses and contextual factors has shed light on the development of children's negative outcomes, but the majority of these studies have not focused on minority populations living under adversity. To address these gaps, the current longitudinal study included a sample of poor, immigrant Latino families to examine whether associations between children's autonomic nervous system reactivity at 6 months and their externalizing behavior problems at 7 years of age were moderated by two risk factors associated with poverty: the interpersonal factor of chronic maternal depression and the environmental factor of chronic overcrowded housing. Multiple linear regression (N = 99) revealed that children who exhibited less parasympathetic nervous system withdrawal in response to challenge during infancy had more externalizing problems during childhood only if they had mothers who experienced chronic depression. Children who exhibited greater sympathetic nervous system reactivity during infancy had the lowest levels of externalizing problems during childhood only if they had mothers who chronic depression. Chronic overcrowded housing did not moderate associations between physiological reactivity and level of externalizing problems. These findings extend our understanding of the interaction of physiology and context on child outcomes to the understudied population of impoverished Latino families.

  4. The impact of maternal depression and overcrowded housing on associations between autonomic nervous system reactivity and externalizing behavior problems in vulnerable Latino children

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Sara F.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Eskenazi, Brenda; Alkon, Abbey

    2015-01-01

    The study of autonomic nervous system responses and contextual factors has shed light on the development of children’s negative outcomes, but the vast majority of these studies have not focused on minority populations living under adversity. To address these gaps, the current longitudinal study included a sample of poor, immigrant Latino families to examine whether associations between children’s autonomic nervous system reactivity at six months and their externalizing behavior problems at seven years of age were moderated by two risk factors associated with poverty: the interpersonal factor of chronic maternal depression and the environmental factor of chronic overcrowded housing. Multiple linear regression (N = 99) revealed that children who exhibited less parasympathetic nervous system withdrawal in response to challenge during infancy had more externalizing problems during childhood only if they had mothers who experienced chronic depression. Children who exhibited greater sympathetic nervous system reactivity during infancy had the lowest levels of externalizing problems during childhood only if they had mothers who experienced low levels chronic depression. Chronic overcrowded housing did not moderate associations between physiological reactivity and level of externalizing problems. These findings extend our understanding of the interaction of physiology and context on child outcomes to the understudied population of impoverished Latino families. PMID:26681621

  5. Site Environmental Report for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Pauer, Ron; Baskin, David; Borglin, Ned; Fox, Robert; Harvey, Zachary; Jelinski, John; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Wehle, Petra; Xu, Suying

    2014-09-01

    This report, prepared by LBNL for the U.S. Department of Energy, Berkeley Site Office provides a comprehensive summary of the environmental program activities at LBNL for calendar year 2013 SERS are prepared annually for all DOE sites with significant environmental activities, and distributed to relevant external regulatory agencies and other interested organizations or individual.

  6. Report: Some States Cannot Address Assessment Needs and Face Limitations in Meeting Future Superfund Cleanup Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2004-P-00027, September 1, 2004. The five States have established hazardous waste site cleanup programs that address contaminated sites posing human health and environmental risks ranging from low to high.

  7. TODAY: U.S. EPA Administrator to Address National Congress of American Indians

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Gina McCarthy will address the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) today during the 2015 NCAI Executive Council Winter Session. Administrator McCarthy will speak about he

  8. WEDNESDAY: EPA Administrator McCarthy to Give Keynote Address at 2016 Climate Leadership Conference

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SEATTLE - On Wednesday, March 9, 2016, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy will give the keynote address at the 2016 Climate Leadership Conference in Seattle. The conference calls national attention to exemplary leadersh

  9. 40 CFR 86.445-2006 - What temporary provisions address hardship due to unusual circumstances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or otherwise address the lost environmental benefit or paying fees to offset any economic gain... letters in English, to a readily visible part of each motorcycle exempted under this section. This...

  10. 40 CFR 59.662 - What temporary provisions address hardship due to unusual circumstances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section, including provisions to recover or otherwise address the lost environmental benefit or paying...) Add a legible label, written in English, to a readily visible part of each container exempted...

  11. New generation of content addressable memories for associative processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, H. G., Jr.; Giambalov, Paul

    2000-05-01

    Content addressable memories (CAMS) store both key and association data. A key is presented to the CAN when it is searched and all of the addresses are scanned in parallel to find the address referenced by the key. When a match occurs, the corresponding association is returned. With the explosion of telecommunications packet switching protocols, large data base servers, routers and search engines a new generation of dense sub-micron high throughput CAMS has been developed. The introduction of this paper presents a brief history and tutorial on CAMS, their many uses and advantages, and describes the architecture and functionality of several of MUSIC Semiconductors CAM devices. In subsequent sections of the paper we address using Associative Processing to accommodate the continued increase in sensor resolution, number of spectral bands, required coverage, the desire to implement real-time target cueing, and the data flow and image processing required for optimum performance of reconnaissance and surveillance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). To be competitive the system designer must provide the most computational power, per watt, per dollar, per cubic inch, within the boundaries of cost effective UAV environmental control systems. To address these problems we demonstrate leveraging DARPA and DoD funded Commercial Off-the-Shelf technology to integrate CAM based Associative Processing into a real-time heterogenous multiprocessing system for UAVs and other platforms with limited weight, volume and power budgets.

  12. The Role of Advocacy Organizations in Reducing Negative Externalities.

    PubMed

    Biglan, Anthony

    2009-07-01

    An externality is a cost that a corporation's actions impose on society. For example, a power plant may emit mercury, but might not pay for the cost of that pollution to the people living near the plant. It is possible to analyze a diverse range of problems of society in these terms, including the health effects of corporate practices, the unsustainability of manufacturing processes, and marketing of products contributing to environmental damage, and economic policies that maintain high levels of poverty due to effective lobbying by the business community. This paper examines the problem of externalities in terms of metacontingencies. Externalities continue precisely because there is no cost to the organizations for practices that impose these costs on third parties. The paper describes the cultural practices needed to influence governments are motivated to make corporations bear the true costs of their practices-costs that are currently imposed on others.

  13. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  14. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  15. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  16. Safety design approach for external events in Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yamano, H.; Kubo, S.; Tani, A.; Nishino, H.; Sakai, T.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a safety design approach for external events in the design study of Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor. An emphasis is introduction of a design extension external condition (DEEC). In addition to seismic design, other external events such as tsunami, strong wind, abnormal temperature, etc. were addressed in this study. From a wide variety of external events consisting of natural hazards and human-induced ones, a screening method was developed in terms of siting, consequence, frequency to select representative events. Design approaches for these events were categorized on the probabilistic, statistical and deterministic basis. External hazard conditions were considered mainly for DEECs. In the probabilistic approach, the DEECs of earthquake, tsunami and strong wind were defined as 1/10 of exceedance probability of the external design bases. The other representative DEECs were also defined based on statistical or deterministic approaches. (authors)

  17. The developmental origins of externalizing behavioral problems: parental disengagement and the role of gene-environment interplay.

    PubMed

    Boutwell, Brian B; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, James C; Vaske, Jamie

    2012-05-30

    A line of research has revealed that the influence of genes on behavioral development is closely tied to environmental experiences. Known as gene-environment interaction, research in this area is beginning to reveal that variation in parenting behaviors may moderate genetic influences on antisocial behaviors in children. Despite growing interest in gene-environment interaction research, little evidence exists concerning the role of maternal disengagement in the conditioning of genetic influences on childhood behavioral problems. The current study is intended to address this gap in the literature by analyzing a sample of twin pairs drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Analysis of the ECLS-B provided evidence that maternal disengagement moderates genetic influences on the development of externalizing problems.

  18. Perceptual and cognitive effects on the use of helmet-mounted displays due to external operational factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; Lang, Gregory T.

    2010-04-01

    This paper addresses the human component of the human-machine interface and the effects of operational stressors on the user as a system operator. Discussions will strive to link operational stress factors to perception, cognition, and human performance errors and their implications for the design of helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). While many operational stressors can be self-imposed (e.g., fatigue, medication use and smoking), this discussion will focus on environment-related (external) stressors. Generally these factors are characteristics of an environment that require unique countermeasure development versus being under the direct control of the user. These include altitude, noise, vibration, thermal extremes and ambient lighting. Thus, it becomes incumbent upon the HMD designers to be cognizant of these environmental stressors and understand how the Soldier will perform when exposed to these conditions.

  19. EPA Order 5700.7A1: EPA's Policy for Environmental Results under EPA Assistance Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This order establishes Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) policy for addressing environmental results under EPA assistance agreements, including results that advance EPA’s environmental and human health mission.

  20. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  1. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (a) Definitions—(1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  2. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions—(1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  3. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions—(1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  4. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (a) Definitions—(1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  5. Environmental Policy and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrigan, Philip J.; Carlson, Joy E.

    1995-01-01

    Considers how the unique vulnerabilities of children challenge environmental policymaking, particularly as it concerns environmental contamination through manufactured chemicals. Contributions of educational and advocacy efforts are addressed as well as the interests of industry and the problems of environmental equity. A new approach to…

  6. Apical phosphatidylserine externalization in auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaorui; Gillespie, Peter G; Nuttall, Alfred L

    2007-01-01

    In hair cells of the inner ear, phosphatidylserine (PS), detected with fluorescent annexin V labeling, was rapidly exposed on the external leaflet of apical plasma membranes upon dissection of the organ of Corti. PS externalization was unchanged by caspase inhibition, suggesting that externalization did not portend apoptosis or necrosis. Consistent with that conclusion, mitochondrial membrane potential and hair-cell nuclear structure remained normal during externalization. PS externalization was triggered by forskolin, which raises cAMP, and blocked by inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase. Blocking Na(+) influx by inhibiting the mechanoelectrical transduction channels and P2X ATP channels also inhibited external PS externalization. Diminished PS externalization was also seen in cells exposed to LY 294002, which blocks membrane recycling in hair cells by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. These results indicate that PS exposure on the external leaflet, presumably requiring vesicular transport, results from elevation of intracellular cAMP, which can be triggered by Na(+) entry into hair cells.

  7. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  8. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  9. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  10. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  11. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  12. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  13. 49 CFR 369.6 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.6 Address. The following address must be used by motor carriers when submitting a report, requesting an exemption from filing...

  14. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  15. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  16. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  17. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  18. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  19. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  20. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  1. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  2. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  3. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  4. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Internally and Externally Driven Temporal Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Mento, Giovanni; Tarantino, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    The ability to generate temporal prediction (TP) is fundamental to our survival since it allows us to selectively orient our attention in time in order to prioritize relevant environmental information. Studies on adult participants showed that externally and internally driven mechanisms can be engaged to establish TP, both resulting in better behavioural performance. However, few studies on children have investigated the ability to engage internally and externally driven TP, especially in relation to how these mechanisms change across development. In this study, 111 participants (88 children between six and eleven years of age, and 23 adults) were tested by means of a simple reaction time paradigm, in which temporal cueing and neutral conditions were orthogonally manipulated to induce externally and internally driven TP mechanisms, as well as an interaction between the two. Sequential effects (SEs) relative to both tasks were also investigated. Results showed that all children participating in the study were able to implement both external and internal TP in an independent fashion. However, children younger than eight years were not able to combine both strategies. Furthermore, in the temporal cueing blocks they did not show the typically-observed asymmetric SE pattern. These results suggest that children can flexibly use both external and internal TP mechanisms to optimise their behaviour, although their successful combined use develops only after eight years of age. PMID:26262878

  6. Automated measurement of printer effective addressability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Brian E.; Eid, Ahmed H.; Rippetoe, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating printer resolution, addressability is a key consideration. Addressability defines the maximum number of spots or samples within a given distance, independent of the size of the spots when printed. Effective addressability is the addressability demonstrated by the final, printed output. It is the minimum displacement possible between the centers of printed objects. In this paper, we present a measurement procedure for effective addressability that offers an automated way to experimentally determine the addressability of the printed output. It requires printing, scanning, and measuring a test target. The effective addressability test target contains two types of elements, repeated to fill the page: fiducial lines and line segments. The fiducial lines serve as a relative reference for the incremental displacements of the individual line segments, providing a way to tolerate larger-scale physical distortions in the printer. An ordinary reflection scanner captures the printed test target. By rotating the page on the scanner, it is possible to measure effective addressability well beyond the scanner's sampling resolution. The measurement algorithm computes the distribution of incremental displacements, forming either a unimodal or bimodal histogram. In the latter case, the mean of the second (non-zero) peak indicates the effective addressability. In the former case, the printer successfully rendered the target's resolution, requiring another iteration of the procedure after increasing the resolution of the test target. The algorithm automatically estimates whether the histogram is unimodal or bimodal and computes parameters describing the quality of the measured histogram. Several experiments have refined the test target and measurement procedure, including two round-robin evaluations by the ISO WG4 committee. Results include an analysis of approximately 150 printed samples. The effective addressability attribute and measurement procedure are included in

  7. International Space Station External Contamination Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    PResentation slides examine external contamination requirements; International Space Station (ISS) external contamination sources; ISS external contamination sensitive surfaces; external contamination control; external contamination control for pre-launch verification; flight experiments and observations; the Space Shuttle Orbiter waste water dump, materials outgassing, active vacuum vents; example of molecular column density profile, modeling and analysis tools; sources of outgassing induced contamination analyzed to date, quiescent sources, observations on optical degradation due to induced external contamination in LEO; examples of typical contaminant and depth profiles; and status of the ISS system, material outgassing, thruster plumes, and optical degradation.

  8. An empirical study on the driving mechanism of proactive corporate environmental management in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianbing; Liu, Beibei; Shishime, Tomohiro; Yu, Qinqin; Bi, Jun; Fujitsuka, Tetsuro

    2010-08-01

    Environmentalism in China is under transformation from the traditional command and control model to emphasize the advantages of economic tools and encourage the participation of the public. Firms are much more aware of the importance of environmental issues, and some of them have practiced environmental activities beyond compliance. In order to help understand the driving mechanism of proactive corporate environmental behaviors from the firm's perspective, this paper identifies the drivers affecting the proactive environmental management level (EML(p)) based on the institutional theory, and gives an empirical study on the firms based in Changshu city of Jiangsu Province, China. The usable data, collected from the 117 valid respondents in a questionnaire survey, indicates that EML(p) is still moderately low currently. Less than 10% of the samples are practicing all the six categorized types of voluntary environmental activities. The econometric exercise confirms a significantly positive effect of the externally mimetic pressure on EML(p), which may attribute to a higher sensitivity of Chinese companies to the market factors. However, the roles of the general public and industrial associations are not significant, showing the marginal power of selected normative pressures. Regarding internal factors, firms, which view environmental issues as opportunities and often arrange internal environmental training, are more likely to adopt proactive environmental activities. More concerns from the general public like neighborhood communities and mass media shall be addressed to enhance the normative power to improve EML(p) in China from the future perspective.

  9. Environmental justification for railroad electrification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, M.J. III; Thorpe, A.B.

    1993-12-01

    In a 1991 workshop, electric utility managers asked the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to address the question of railroad electrification in light of both urban air problems associated with transportation and our national transportation system`s dependence on petroleum fuels. In response, EPRI presents this economic and environmental analysis. This analysis is different from many previous studies in two ways: it determines the capital and operating cost differentials between diesel locomotive trains and electric locomotive trains; it also assigns a dollar value to the environmental costs associated with air pollution from diesel and electric train operations. This study`s purpose is to compare financial costs of rail electrification with environmental costs from air emissions impacts in four case studies: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. These urban regions were chosen because they have different railroad characteristics and they all have air quality problems. This study will present a snapshot of the year 2000 to compare the economics in each region of two scenarios: the rail lines remain diesel power or are electrified. Because of the increase in capital and operating cost, rail electrification is not financially viable in any of these regions. Yet when the benefit of reduced air emissions, typically an {open_quotes}external{close_quotes} value, is included in the analysis, rail electrification may be economically viable.

  10. The effect and role of environmental conditions on magnetosome synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Moisescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Ioan I.; Benning, Liane G.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are considered the model species for the controlled biomineralization of magnetic Fe oxide (magnetite, Fe3O4) or Fe sulfide (greigite, Fe3S4) nanocrystals in living organisms. In MTB, magnetic minerals form as membrane-bound, single-magnetic domain crystals known as magnetosomes and the synthesis of magnetosomes by MTB is a highly controlled process at the genetic level. Magnetosome crystals reveal highest purity and highest quality magnetic properties and are therefore increasingly sought after as novel nanoparticulate biomaterials for industrial and medical applications. In addition, “magnetofossils,” have been used as both past terrestrial and potential Martian life biosignature. However, until recently, the general belief was that the morphology of mature magnetite crystals formed by MTB was largely unaffected by environmental conditions. Here we review a series of studies that showed how changes in environmental factors such as temperature, pH, external Fe concentration, external magnetic fields, static or dynamic fluid conditions, and nutrient availability or concentrations can all affect the biomineralization of magnetite magnetosomes in MTB. The resulting variations in magnetic nanocrystals characteristics can have consequence both for their commercial value but also for their use as indicators for ancient life. In this paper we will review the recent findings regarding the influence of variable chemical and physical environmental control factors on the synthesis of magnetosome by MTB, and address the role of MTB in the global biogeochemical cycling of iron. PMID:24575087

  11. 40 CFR 150.17 - Addresses for the Office of Pesticide Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001. (2) Hand/courier delivery address...) Physical location. Environmental Protection Agency Docket Center (EPA/DC), Environmental Protection Agency, EPA West Bldg., Rm. 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001. This is not a...

  12. Estimating location without external cues.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Allen

    2014-10-01

    The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system.

  13. Therapeutic options for external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of treatment for external genital warts (EGWs) is to eradicate visible lesions and address symptoms that may accompany them, but it does not address the underlying virus. Left untreated, warts may grow, remain the same, or spontaneously regress as a result of being cleared by the immune system. However, recurrence is common with or without treatment and may occur within 3 months of ending treatment in one-quarter to two-thirds of cases. Treatment options fall into two categories: provider or patient applied. Provider-based therapies include cryotherapy, trichloroacetic and bichloroacetic acid, electrocautery, surgical excision, and CO2 laser therapy. Patient-applied therapy choices include imiquimod and podophyllotoxin. Imiquimod 3.75% is a fairly new, patient-administered topical cream approved by Health Canada in 2011. Another recently approved patient-applied choice is sinecatechins, a green tea extract with immunomodulatory effects. Self-treatment options are attractive to patients because they offer privacy, convenience, and autonomy. In contrast, provider-administered therapies may boast increased precision (especially for areas that are hard to reach) and closer monitoring, which can be augmented by patient education and counseling. Available topical and surgical therapies vary widely in terms of cost, efficacy, adverse effects, dosage/frequency, and length of treatment. No one treatment is ideally suited to all patients or constitutes a gold standard. Treatment regimens must be tailored to each patient's needs and preferences. The health care provider's skills and experience will also factor into treatment decisions. In addition, the size, number, and location of lesions and whether the infection is new or recurrent will help guide the decision process toward the best treatment for a given patient.

  14. External tank aft cargo carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, T. B.

    1984-01-01

    The External Tank (ET) Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) is a low cost, low risk augmentation of the Space Transportation System (STS). It almost doubles the cargo volume of the STS while minimally impacting other STS elements (orbiter, ET and solid rocket boosters SRBs, launch facilities and STS operations. In addition to increasing the potential volume of cargo carried on a Shuttle launch, the ACC provides the following additional benefits: (1) Increased STS competitiveness for payloads; (2) Increased cargo manifest flexibility; (3) Increased spacecraft design options; (4) Alternate manifesting for special payloads; and (5) Future space platform/station design options.

  15. Externally blown flap impingement noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.; Lasagna, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of externally blown flap impingement noise was conducted using a full-scale turbofan engine and aircraft wing. The noise produced with a daisy nozzle installed on the engine exhaust system was greater than that produced by a conical nozzle at the same thrust. The daisy nozzle caused the jet velocity to decay about 35 percent at the flap. The presence of the wing next to the conical nozzle increased the noise, as did increasing the flap deflection. Compared with the conical nozzle, the daisy nozzle produced slightly less noise at a flap deflection of 60 deg but produced more noise at the lower flap deflections tested.

  16. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  17. Addressing health disparities: Brown University School of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Wetle, Terrie Fox; Scanlan, Karen

    2014-09-02

    Health disparities are a public health concern in Rhode Island and around the world. Faculty members and students in the Brown University School of Public Health are working to understand, address, and ultimately eliminate disparities in health and health care affecting diverse populations. Our educational offerings and research efforts are directed toward understanding and addressing the social, cultural, and environmental factors that contribute to these health disparities. Research methods to carry out this work include implementing interdisciplinary, community-based, quantitative and qualitative research with the goal of preventing, reducing, and eliminating health disparities. This article focuses on some of the School's work with vulnerable communities confronting issues around the following: HIV/AIDS, obesity, nutrition, physical activity and delivery of health services.

  18. Use of multicriteria decision analysis to address conservation conflicts.

    PubMed

    Davies, A L; Bryce, R; Redpath, S M

    2013-10-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing on a global scale and instruments for reconciling competing interests are urgently needed. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured, decision-support process that can facilitate dialogue between groups with differing interests and incorporate human and environmental dimensions of conflict. MCDA is a structured and transparent method of breaking down complex problems and incorporating multiple objectives. The value of this process for addressing major challenges in conservation conflict management is that MCDA helps in setting realistic goals; entails a transparent decision-making process; and addresses mistrust, differing world views, cross-scale issues, patchy or contested information, and inflexible legislative tools. Overall we believe MCDA provides a valuable decision-support tool, particularly for increasing awareness of the effects of particular values and choices for working toward negotiated compromise, although an awareness of the effect of methodological choices and the limitations of the method is vital before applying it in conflict situations.

  19. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... authorized external load as demonstrated under § 27.25 and this section. (f) The fatigue evaluation of § 27.... For rotorcraft-load combinations to be used for human external cargo, the fatigue evaluation of §...

  20. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... authorized external load as demonstrated under § 27.25 and this section. (f) The fatigue evaluation of § 27.... For rotorcraft-load combinations to be used for human external cargo, the fatigue evaluation of §...

  1. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Bowen, B M; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Larson, J M; Laycak, D; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M J; Rueppel, D; Williams, R A; Wilson, K; Woods, N

    2005-11-23

    The purpose of the environmental monitoring plan (EMP) is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with DOE operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from DOE activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of the DOE activity. In addition, the EMP addresses the analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of radionuclide samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until recently, environmental monitoring at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was required by DOE Order 5400.1, which was canceled in January 2003. LLNL is in the process of adopting the ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, which contains requirements to perform and document environmental monitoring. The ISO 14001 standard is not as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, which expressly required an EMP. LLNL will continue to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that the work is conducted appropriately. The environmental monitoring addressed by the plan includes preoperational characterization and assessment, and effluent and surveillance monitoring. Additional environmental monitoring is conducted at LLNL as part of the compliance with the

  2. Exploring environmental literacy in low-literate communities of Pakistan: A descriptive study to recommend strategies for planning environmental education programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudi, Sabiha Shafique

    2000-10-01

    The widely accepted definition of environmental education as stated by The Tbilisi Declaration of 1978 focuses on developing an environmentally literate citizenry which is capable of working "...individually and collectively toward solutions of current [environmental] problems and the prevention of new ones". The two basic tenets of environmental literacy are further defined in this study as the ability to understand environmental problems and the ability to address those environmental problems in a responsible manner. Acquisition of knowledge has also been considered an important element when developing environmental literacy programs. However, a large sector of the world population is non- or low-literate and communication is through channels other than the written word. The challenge for environmental educators is to reach the low-literate learners who have not had many opportunities to participate in formal education activities through established institutions. The purpose of this study was to describe levels of environmental literacy in communities with varying levels of formal literacy in two cities, Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan to determine the role formal literacy plays in enhancing environmental literacy and decision making in relation to age, sex, location, number of years spent in formal education, and the socio-economic status (SES) of adult learners. Based on the outcomes, recommendations were made for designing effective programs to ensure involvement of low-literate communities in established decision-making processes through relevant program planning. This study suggested strategies to program planners and environmental educators for designing programs that reach low-literate communities, highlight local environmental concerns, and empower these communities in addressing local environmental issues. A purposive sample was identified from the constituencies of five non-governmental organizations in Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Two instruments

  3. Childhood Externalizing Behavior: Theory and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    TOPIC Childhood externalizing behavior PURPOSE To analyze the construct of externalizing behavior (aggression, delinquency, and hyperactivity), illustrate the biosocial model of childhood externalizing, and draw clinical implications for nursing research and practice. SOURCES A review of the literature based on psychological, psychiatric, and nursing journals. CONCLUSIONS A better understanding of childhood externalizing behavior problems and the risk factors underlying them are essential to prevent them. The employment of an integrative biosocial perspective is argued to be important in understanding this behavior. PMID:15535385

  4. Neural correlates of sound externalization.

    PubMed

    Callan, Akiko; Callan, Daniel E; Ando, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    When we listen to sounds through headphones without utilizing special transforms, sound sources seem to be located inside our heads. The sound sources are said to be lateralized to one side or the other to varying degree. This internal lateralization is different than sound source localization in the natural environment in which the sound is localized distal to the head. We used fMRI to investigate difference in neural responses between lateralization and localization. Individualized binaural recordings were used as externalized auditory stimuli and stereo recordings were used as internalized auditory stimuli. Brain activity was measured while 14 participants performed an active auditory localization task and while 12 participants performed a stimulus type identification task. Irrespective of the task condition, we observed enhanced activity in the bilateral posterior temporal gyri (pSTG) for the externalized stimuli relative to the internalized stimuli. Region of interest analysis indicated that both left and right pSTG were more sensitive to sound sources in contra- than ipsilateral hemifields. Moreover, greater back than front activity was also found in the left pSTG. Compared to impoverished spatial auditory stimuli, realistic spatial auditory stimuli enhance neural responses in the pSTG. This may be why we could observe contralateral hemifield preference in bilateral pSTG that many previous studies have failed to observe. Overall, the results indicate the importance of using ecologically valid stimuli for investigating neural processes in human cortex.

  5. Teaching Sustainability as a Large Format Environmental Science Elective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C.; Frisch, M.; Wagner, J.

    2012-12-01

    A challenge in teaching sustainability is engaging students in the global scale and immediacy of environmental impacts, and degree of societal change required to address environmental challenges. Succeeding in a large format Environmental Science elective course with a many as 100 students is an even greater challenge. ENVSC 322 Environmental Sustainability is an innovative new course integrating multiple disciplines, a wide range of external expert speakers and a hands-on community engagement project. The course, in its third year, has been highly successful and impacting for the students, community and faculty involved. The determination of success is based on student and community impacts. Students covered science topics on Earth systems, ecosystem complexity and services through readings and specialist speakers. The interconnection of society and climate was approached through global and local examples with a strong environmental justice component. Experts in a wide range of professional fields were engaged to speak with students on the role and impacts of sustainability in their particular field. Some examples are: Region VII Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Justice Director engaged students in both urban and rural aspects of environmental justice; a Principle Architect and national leader in Green architecture and redevelopment spoke with students regarding the necessity and potential for green urbanism; and industry innovators presented closed-cycle and alternative energy projects. The capstone project and highlight of the course was an individual or team community engagement project on sustainability, designed and implemented by the students. Community engagement projects completed throughout the Kansas City metro area have increased each year in number, quality and impact from 35 the first year to 70 projects this past spring. Students directly engage their communities and through this experience integrate knowledge of environmental systems

  6. The middle manager role in energy company environmental efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischhoff, Maya E.

    2005-12-01

    of the public, illuminates areas of very visible corporate impact. External interactions are also settings in which middle managers encounter alternative views about environmental issues. The study reveals the importance of middle managers in the challenge of environmental compliance. It provides knowledge that can be used by external entities seeking to connect with companies, and by companies seeking to address environmental issues better. It thus aids understanding of a critical societal challenge and opportunity.

  7. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  8. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  9. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  10. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  11. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  12. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  13. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  14. 76 FR 27020 - Representative and Address Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Representative and Address Provisions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of...

  15. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  16. Teaching Externally: Lecturers' Viewpoints. Occasional Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, David, Ed.

    Perspectives of academic staff who have been involved in teaching externally are presented in three papers. In "Teaching Students Externally: The First Twelve Years," Frank Molloy examines three aspects of teaching by the external mode: preparing materials, making assignments, and providing educational experiences for students at the…

  17. Your College Degree: The External Degree Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haponski, William C.; And Others

    Information on undertaking an external degree program to obtain a college education is presented. An external degree program is one that has no, or minimal requirements for residence (on-campus attendance). Most often it can be entered at any time of the year and usually grants credit for documented learning already acquired. An external degree…

  18. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  19. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  20. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  1. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  2. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  3. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  4. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  5. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  6. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  7. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  8. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  9. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  10. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  11. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  12. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  13. Contextual analysis of machine-printed addresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Peter B.; Ho, Tin K.; Hull, Jonathan J.; Prussak, Michal; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1992-08-01

    The assignment of a nine digit ZIP Code (ZIP + 4 Code) to the digital image of a machine printed address block is a problem of central importance in automated mail sorting. This problem is especially difficult since most addresses do not contain ZIP + 4 Codes and often the information that must be read to match an address to one of the 28 million entries in the ZIP + 4 file is either erroneous, incomplete, or missing altogether. This paper discusses a system for interpreting a machine printed address and assigning a ZIP + 4 Code that uses a constraint satisfaction approach. Words in an address block are first segmented and parsed to assign probable semantic categories. Word images are then recognized by a combination of digit, character, and word recognition algorithms. The control structure uses a constraint satisfaction problem solving approach to match the recognition results to an entry in the ZIP + 4 file. It is shown how this technique can both determine correct responses as well as compensate for incomplete or erroneous information. Experimental results demonstrate the success of this system. In a recent test on over 1000 machine printed address blocks, the ZIP + 4 encode rate was over 73 percent. This compares to the success rate of current postal OCRs which is about 45 percent. Additionally, the word recognition algorithm recognizes over 92 percent of the input images (over 98 percent in the top 10 choices.

  14. A Coordinated Effort to Address Space Weather and Environment Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joe; Spann, James F.; Edward, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Gallagher, Dennis; Xapos, Mike; DeGroh, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The growing need for coordination of the many aspects of space environments is directly related to our increasing dependence on space assets. An obvious result is that there is a need for a coordinated effort to organize and make accessible the increasing number of space environment products that include space environment models and observations, material testing, and forecasting tools. This paper outlines a concept to establish a NASA-level Applied Spaceflight Environments (ASE) office that will provide coordination and funding for sustained multi-program support in three technical areas; (1) natural environments characterization and modeling, (2) environmental effects on materials and systems, (3) and operational and forecasting space environments modeling. Additionally the ASE office will serve as an entry point of contact for external users who wish to take advantage of data and assets associated with space environments, including space weather.

  15. Environmental Justice Content in Mainstream US, 6-12 Environmental Education Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushmerick, Ann; Young, Lindsay; Stein, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the environmental justice movement has developed out of growing concern about unequal distribution of environmental harm and unequal access to environmental resources. The mainstream environmental movement has been criticized for failing to address adequately environmental justice issues. Several scholars have claimed…

  16. Site Environmental Report for 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.

    1999-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is committed to conducting its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner. It is mandatory that activities at SNL/California comply with all applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards. Moreover, SNL/California continuously strives to reduce risks to employees, the public, and the environment to the lowest levels reasonably possible. To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, SNL/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program monitors all significant effluents and the environment at the SNL/California site perimeter. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performs off-site external radiation monitoring for both sites. These monitoring efforts ensure that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of SNL/California's Environmental Monitoring Program, an environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of hazardous materials in groundwater, stormwater, and sewage. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. Each year, the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program are published in this report, the Site Environmental Report. This executive summary focuses on impacts to the environment. Chapter 3, ''Compliance Summary,'' reviews the site's various environmental protection activities and compliance status with applicable environmental regulations. The effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results for 1998 show that SNL/California operations had no harmful effects on the environment or the public.

  17. Spacecraft external molecular contamination analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1990-01-01

    Control of contamination on and around spacecraft is required to avoid adverse effects on the performance of instruments and spacecraft systems. Recent work in this area is reviewed and discussed. Specific issues and limitations to be considered as part of the effort to predict contamination effects using modeling techniques are addressed. Significant results of Space Shuttle missions in the field of molecule/surface interactions as well as their implications for space station design and operation are reviewed.

  18. Metro Nature, Environmental Health, and Economic Value

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Alicia S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. Objectives We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. Methods We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Discussion Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements—collectively termed metro nature—generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Conclusions Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits. Citation Wolf KL, Robbins AS. 2015. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environ Health Perspect 123:390–398; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408216 PMID:25626137

  19. Externally blown flap impingement noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasagna, P. L.; Putnam, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    Tests of the noise produced by the impingement of the jet exhaust on the wing and flap for an externally blown flap system were conducted with a CF700 turbofan engine and an F-111B wing panel. The noise produced with a daisy nozzle installed on the engine was greater than that produced by a conical nozzle at the same thrust. The presence of the wing next to the test nozzles increased the noise, as did increasing the flap deflection angle. Compared with the conical nozzle, the daisy nozzle produced slightly less noise at a flap deflection of 60 deg but produced more noise at the lower flap deflections tested. Tests showed that the single-slotted flap deflected 60 deg, produced less noise than the double-slotted flaps. Also, maintaining the maximum distance between the exit nozzle and flap system resulted in a minor reduction in noise.

  20. Automated external defibrillation: laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, E; Carroll, D; Vincent, R; Chamberlain, D A

    1984-04-01

    Twelve samples of ventricular fibrillation were fed into nine automated external defibrillator-pacemakers ( AEDP , "Heart Aid") of recent design. All the devices recognised and defibrillated ventricular fibrillation in seven of the samples within 30 sec. None of the devices reacted to two of the samples; in the remaining three there was inter-device variation ranging from an appropriate response to no response, as well as inappropriate pacing or delay in recognition and treatment. Poor recognition of some ventricular fibrillation waveforms with considerable inter-device variation limits the usefulness of this model. A new prototype responded more consistently and future models may be of value in community resuscitation. The difficulty of evaluating the diagnostic capability of AEDP devices in clinical use makes comprehensive laboratory testing essential prior to release.

  1. Does External Knowledge Sourcing Enhance Market Performance? Evidence from the Korean Manufacturing Industry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kibaek; Yoo, Jaeheung; Choi, Munkee; Zo, Hangjung; Ciganek, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Firms continuously search for external knowledge that can contribute to product innovation, which may ultimately increase market performance. The relationship between external knowledge sourcing and market performance is not well-documented. The extant literature primarily examines the causal relationship between external knowledge sources and product innovation performance or to identify factors which moderates the relationship between external knowledge sourcing and product innovation. Non-technological innovations, such as organization and marketing innovations, intervene in the process of external knowledge sourcing to product innovation to market performance but has not been extensively examined. This study addresses two research questions: does external knowledge sourcing lead to market performance and how does external knowledge sourcing interact with a firm's different innovation activities to enhance market performance. This study proposes a comprehensive model to capture the causal mechanism from external knowledge sourcing to market performance. The research model was tested using survey data from manufacturing firms in South Korea and the results demonstrate a strong statistical relationship in the path of external knowledge sourcing (EKS) to product innovation performance (PIP) to market performance (MP). Organizational innovation is an antecedent to EKS while marketing innovation is a consequence of EKS, which significantly influences PIP and MP. The results imply that any potential EKS effort should also consider organizational innovations which may ultimately enhance market performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed as well as concluding remarks.

  2. Does External Knowledge Sourcing Enhance Market Performance? Evidence from the Korean Manufacturing Industry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kibaek; Yoo, Jaeheung; Choi, Munkee; Zo, Hangjung; Ciganek, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Firms continuously search for external knowledge that can contribute to product innovation, which may ultimately increase market performance. The relationship between external knowledge sourcing and market performance is not well-documented. The extant literature primarily examines the causal relationship between external knowledge sources and product innovation performance or to identify factors which moderates the relationship between external knowledge sourcing and product innovation. Non-technological innovations, such as organization and marketing innovations, intervene in the process of external knowledge sourcing to product innovation to market performance but has not been extensively examined. This study addresses two research questions: does external knowledge sourcing lead to market performance and how does external knowledge sourcing interact with a firm’s different innovation activities to enhance market performance. This study proposes a comprehensive model to capture the causal mechanism from external knowledge sourcing to market performance. The research model was tested using survey data from manufacturing firms in South Korea and the results demonstrate a strong statistical relationship in the path of external knowledge sourcing (EKS) to product innovation performance (PIP) to market performance (MP). Organizational innovation is an antecedent to EKS while marketing innovation is a consequence of EKS, which significantly influences PIP and MP. The results imply that any potential EKS effort should also consider organizational innovations which may ultimately enhance market performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed as well as concluding remarks. PMID:28006022

  3. Environmental law deskbook. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-12

    JA 234 provides an overview of Environmental Law, particularly as it relates to the US Army and the Department of Defense. Chapter 1 addresses the development of the Army`s environmental program; funding, compliance, and enforcement issues associated with the program; and the Judge Advocate`s environmental role. Chapters 2--7 focus on environmental statutes that commonly impact on federal installations; specifically: The National Environmental Policy Act; The Clean Water Act; The Clean Air Act; The Endangered Species Act; The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act.

  4. A Swedish Population-Based Multivariate Twin Study of Externalizing Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lönn, Sara Larsson; Maes, Hermine H.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiological and twin populations, prior interview studies have identified an externalizing spectrum of disorders. Could this be detected utilizing objective registry data? In 20,603 twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Registry, we obtained information from national medical, criminal and pharmacy records on drug abuse (DA), criminal behavior (CB) and alcohol use disorders (AUD). Multivariate twin modeling was performed with the OpenMx package. A common pathway model with quantitative but not qualitative sex effects fit best with twin resemblance for the latent liability to externalizing syndromes due to both genetic and shared environmental factors. Heritability of the liability was higher in females (76 vs. 62 %) while shared environmental influences were considerably stronger in males (23 vs. 3 %). In both sexes, this latent liability was most strongly indexed by DA and least by CB. All three syndromes had specific genetic influences (especially CB and AUD in males, and CB in females) and specific shared environmental effects (especially DA and CB in males, and AUD in females). For DA, CB and AUD in men, and DA and AUD in women, at least 75 % of the genetic risk arose through the common factor. The best fit model assumed that genetic and environmental influences on these externalizing syndromes in males and females were the same. We identified, in registry data, a highly heritable externalizing spectrum. DA, CB and AUD share substantial genetic and modest to moderate shared environmental influences. The nature of the externalizing spectrum differed meaningfully between the sexes. PMID:26494460

  5. A Swedish Population-Based Multivariate Twin Study of Externalizing Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Maes, Hermine H; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-03-01

    In epidemiological and twin populations, prior interview studies have identified an externalizing spectrum of disorders. Could this be detected utilizing objective registry data? In 20,603 twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Registry, we obtained information from national medical, criminal and pharmacy records on drug abuse (DA), criminal behavior (CB) and alcohol use disorders (AUD). Multivariate twin modeling was performed with the OpenMx package. A common pathway model with quantitative but not qualitative sex effects fit best with twin resemblance for the latent liability to externalizing syndromes due to both genetic and shared environmental factors. Heritability of the liability was higher in females (76 vs. 62%) while shared environmental influences were considerably stronger in males (23 vs. 3%). In both sexes, this latent liability was most strongly indexed by DA and least by CB. All three syndromes had specific genetic influences (especially CB and AUD in males, and CB in females) and specific shared environmental effects (especially DA and CB in males, and AUD in females). For DA, CB and AUD in men, and DA and AUD in women, at least 75% of the genetic risk arose through the common factor. The best fit model assumed that genetic and environmental influences on these externalizing syndromes in males and females were the same. We identified, in registry data, a highly heritable externalizing spectrum. DA, CB and AUD share substantial genetic and modest to moderate shared environmental influences. The nature of the externalizing spectrum differed meaningfully between the sexes.

  6. Addressing sleep disturbances: An opportunity to prevent cardiometabolic disease?

    PubMed Central

    GRANDNER, MICHAEL A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of the role of sleep disturbance as an important factor in health and disease. Although subclinical sleep disturbances (insufficient sleep duration or inadequate sleep quality) may be difficult to assess with conceptual and/or methodological clarity, this review attempts to summarize and synthesize these findings. First, the concept of sleep disturbance in a public health context is introduced, to provide context and rationale. Second, operational definitions of ‘cardiometabolic disease’ and ‘sleep disturbance’ are offered, to address many unclear operationalizations. Third, the extant literature is summarized regarding short or long sleep duration and/or insufficient sleep, insomnia and insomnia symptoms, general (non-specific sleep disturbances), circadian rhythm abnormalities that result in sleep disturbances, and, briefly, sleep-disordered breathing. Fourth, the review highlights the social/behavioural context of sleep, including discussions of sleep and race/ethnicity, socio-economic position, and other social/environmental factors, in order to place these findings in a social-environmental context relevant to public health. Fifth, the review highlights the issue of sleep as a domain of health behaviour and addresses issues regarding development of healthy sleep interventions. Finally, a research agenda of future directions is proposed. PMID:24892892

  7. Single launch lunar habitat derived from an NSTS external tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Charles B.; Butterfield, Ansel J.; Hypes, Warren D.; Nealy, John E.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    1990-12-01

    A concept for using the spent external tank from a National Space Transportation System (NSTS) to derive a lunar habitat is described. The external tank is carried into low Earth orbit where the oxygen tank-intertank subassembly is separated from the hydrogen tank, berthed to Space Station Freedom and the subassembly outfitted as a 12-person lunar habitat using extravehicular activity (EVA) and intravehicular activity (IVA). A single launch of the NSTS orbiter can place the external tank in LEO, provide orbiter astronauts for disassembly of the external tank, and transport the required subsystem hardware for outfitting the lunar habitat. An estimate of the astronauts' EVA and IVA is provided. The liquid oxygen intertank modifications utilize existing structures and openings for man access without compromising the structural integrity of the tank. The modifications include installation of living quarters, instrumentation, and an airlock. Feasibility studies of the following additional systems include micrometeoroid and radiation protection, thermal control, environmental control and life support, and propulsion. The converted lunar habitat is designed for unmanned transport and autonomous soft landing on the lunar surface without need for site preparation. Lunar regolith is used to fill the micrometeoroid shield volume for radiation protection using a conveyer. The lunar habitat concept is considered to be feasible by the year 2000 with the concurrent development of a space transfer vehicle and a lunar lander for crew changeover and resupply.

  8. Single launch lunar habitat derived from an NSTS external tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Charles B.; Butterfield, Ansel J.; Hypes, Warren D.; Nealy, John E.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    1990-01-01

    A concept for using the spent external tank from a National Space Transportation System (NSTS) to derive a lunar habitat is described. The external tank is carried into low Earth orbit where the oxygen tank-intertank subassembly is separated from the hydrogen tank, berthed to Space Station Freedom and the subassembly outfitted as a 12-person lunar habitat using extravehicular activity (EVA) and intravehicular activity (IVA). A single launch of the NSTS orbiter can place the external tank in LEO, provide orbiter astronauts for disassembly of the external tank, and transport the required subsystem hardware for outfitting the lunar habitat. An estimate of the astronauts' EVA and IVA is provided. The liquid oxygen intertank modifications utilize existing structures and openings for man access without compromising the structural integrity of the tank. The modifications include installation of living quarters, instrumentation, and an airlock. Feasibility studies of the following additional systems include micrometeoroid and radiation protection, thermal control, environmental control and life support, and propulsion. The converted lunar habitat is designed for unmanned transport and autonomous soft landing on the lunar surface without need for site preparation. Lunar regolith is used to fill the micrometeoroid shield volume for radiation protection using a conveyer. The lunar habitat concept is considered to be feasible by the year 2000 with the concurrent development of a space transfer vehicle and a lunar lander for crew changeover and resupply.

  9. Inter-noise 89 - Engineering for environmental noise control; Proceedings of the International Conference on Noise Control Engineering, Newport Beach, CA, Dec. 4-6, 1989. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maling, George C., Jr.

    Recent advances in noise analysis and control theory and technology are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include noise generation; sound-wave propagation; noise control by external treatments; vibration and shock generation, transmission, isolation, and reduction; multiple sources and paths of environmental noise; noise perception and the physiological and psychological effects of noise; instrumentation, signal processing, and analysis techniques; and noise standards and legal aspects. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  10. Children's Environmental Health 2008 Highlights

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, eighth in an annual series from the Office of Children's Health Protection and Environmental Education, highlights the Agency's recent work on protecting the health of children by addressing the environments where they live, learn and play.

  11. Computer Communications and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Andy

    1992-01-01

    Describes computer networks and conferences dedicated to environmental education and activism. Gives the electronic and surface mail addresses of contacts for the Association for Progressive Communications in 12 countries. (SK)

  12. Economics, Environmental Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Issues of the state of the economy, fuel consumption, environmental protection, interdependence, and global competition are relevant to technology education and must be addressed to shape the economic and technological future of the United States. (SK)

  13. Frequency addressable beams for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. D.; Dubellay, G. G.

    1988-01-01

    Satellites used for mobile communications need to serve large numbers of small, low cost terminals. The most important parameters affecting the capacity of such systems are the satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and gain to noise temperature ratio (G/T) and available bandwidth. Satellites using frequency addressed beams provide high EIRP and G/T with high-gain antenna beams that also permit frequency reuse over the composite coverage area. Frequency addressing is easy to implement and compatible with low-cost terminals and offers higher capacity than alternative approaches.

  14. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  15. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  16. Does external funding help adaptation? Evidence from community-based water management in the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    Murtinho, Felipe; Eakin, Hallie; López-Carr, David; Hayes, Tanya M

    2013-11-01

    Despite debate regarding whether, and in what form, communities need external support for adaptation to environmental change, few studies have examined how external funding impacts adaptation decisions in rural resource-dependent communities. In this article, we use quantitative and qualitative methods to assess how different funding sources influence the initiative to adapt to water scarcity in the Colombian Andes. We compare efforts to adapt to water scarcity in 111 rural Andean communities with varied dependence on external funding for water management activities. Findings suggest that despite efforts to use their own internal resources, communities often need external support to finance adaptation strategies. However, not all external financial support positively impacts a community's abilities to adapt. Results show the importance of community-driven requests for external support. In cases where external support was unsolicited, the results show a decline, or "crowding-out," in community efforts to adapt. In contrast, in cases where communities initiated the request for external support to fund their own projects, findings show that external intervention is more likely to enhance or "crowds-in" community-driven adaptation.

  17. Relativistic Killingbeck energy states under external magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshghi, M.; Mehraban, H.; Ikhdair, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    We address the behavior of the Dirac equation with the Killingbeck radial potential including the external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields. The spin and pseudo-spin symmetries are considered. The correct bound state spectra and their corresponding wave functions are obtained. We seek such a solution using the biconfluent Heun's differential equation method. Further, we give some of our results at the end of this study. Our final results can be reduced to their non-relativistic forms by simply using some appropriate transformations. The spectra, in the spin and pseudo-spin symmetries, are very similar with a slight difference in energy spacing between different states.

  18. Environmental Justice Guidance Under National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), by the Council on Environmental Quality, 1997

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CEQ, in consultation with EPA and other affected agencies, has developed this guidance to further assist Federal agencies with their NEPA procedures so that environmental justice concerns are effectively identified and addressed.

  19. Naming and Address in Afghan Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miran, M. Alam

    Forms of address in Afghan society reflect the relationships between the speakers as well as the society's structure. In Afghan Persian, or Dari, first, second, and last names have different semantic dimensions. Boys' first names usually consist of two parts or morphemes, of which one may be part of the father's name. Girls' names usually consist…

  20. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to showcase…

  1. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  2. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  3. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  4. Transition through Teamwork: Professionals Address Student Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bube, Sue Ann; Carrothers, Carol; Johnson, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    Prior to 2013, there was no collaboration around the transition services for deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington State. Washington had numerous agencies providing excellent support, but those agencies were not working together. It was not until January 29, 2013, when pepnet 2 hosted the Building State Capacity to Address Critical…

  5. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  6. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  7. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  8. 50 CFR 18.78 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 18.78 Section 18.78 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.78 Mailing...

  9. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  10. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  11. Addressing Psychosocial Factors with Library Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Bridget; Alabi, Jaena; Whaley, Pambanisha; Jenda, Claudine

    2017-01-01

    The majority of articles on mentoring in the library and information science field address career development by emphasizing the orientation process for new librarians and building the requisite skills for a specific job. Few articles deal with the psychological and social challenges that many early-career and minority librarians face, which can…

  12. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  13. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores…

  14. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  15. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  16. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  17. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  18. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  19. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  20. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  1. 78 FR 35149 - Addresses of Regional Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Addresses of Regional Offices AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We... offices in our regulations at title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations. We are also making...

  2. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  3. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Copyright Royalty Board, P.O. Box 70977, Southwest Station, Washington, DC 20024-0977. (b) If hand delivered... Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000. (c) If hand delivered by a commercial...., Washington, DC, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., and be addressed as follows:...

  4. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Copyright Royalty Board, P.O. Box 70977, Southwest Station, Washington, DC 20024-0977. (b) If hand delivered... Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000. (c) If hand delivered by a commercial...., Washington, DC, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., and be addressed as follows:...

  5. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  6. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  7. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  8. Addressing Deaf Culture in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliaro, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    The importance of recognizing the culture of deaf people is often overlooked when addressing issues of student diversity in the schools. Including the culture of deaf students can add vitality and energy to the educational environment, providing an alternative and unique perspective. This paper describes deafness, explains deaf culture, and…

  9. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  10. Multimedia environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Soesilo, J.A.; Wiley, W.D.

    1999-09-01

    This book explores and supports the argument that effective environmental management must be based on a multimedia approach, which focuses simultaneously on air, water, and waste and enables managers to assess the resulting financial, operation, and management benefits. The multimedia approach, which can be used to design an effective compliance program, includes proper waste and material handling management, systematic monitoring, and record keeping requirements. This approach integrates a wide array of environmental requirements and decision processes, which the authors examine in sixteen chapters, organized into four parts: the role of environmental management; environmental aspects of business operation, environmental processes; and environmental management trends. Within these parts, the authors highlight the development of modern environmental management and provide an overview of federal laws pertinent to multimedia environmental management. They examine such issues as chemical storage and transportation, tank system operations and requirements, waste determination, spill response procedures, and employee training. Environmental processes addressed in the book include the management of solid and hazardous waste, wastewater treatment systems, stormwater management, air emission control, and site remediation. The authors also briefly discuss significant initiatives in US environmental management and look toward corporate sustainable development.

  11. Thermal design of the Space Shuttle External Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warmbrod, J. D.; Vaniman, J. L.; Elam, B. F.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the engineering and manufacturing requirements leading to the final Thermal Protection System (TPS) for the External Tank (ET) is presented. The thermal design for the ET must be optimized, based on considerations of cost, weight, and application of the TPS. The significant thermal requirements include the structural and component temperature limits, the propellant quality, the minimization of ice and frost, no air liquefaction, and no film boiling. The TPS materials selected to meet the requirements are a low density closed cell foam (CPR-488) and two light-weight ablators (SLA-56 and MA-25s). The first four flights of the Space Shuttle (1981) will measure and evaluate external environmental, structural, propulsion, electrical, and engine performance data. The ET will be instrumented to measure acoustics, pressures, heat transfer, vibration, temperatures, and structural strains. TPS weight reductions are planned for future ETs through the use of a comprehensive thermal instrumentation system.

  12. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  13. Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Kayser-Ames Laboratory

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 2007. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring activities. Ames Laboratory is located on the campus of Iowa State University (ISU) and occupies 11 buildings owned by the Department of Energy (DOE). See the Laboratory's Web page at www.external.ameslab.gov for locations and Laboratory overview. The Laboratory also leases space in ISU owned buildings. In 2007, the Laboratory accumulated and disposed of waste under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued generator numbers. All waste is handled according to all applicable EPA, State, Local and DOE Orders. In 2006 the Laboratory reduced its generator status from a Large Quantity Generator (LQG) to a Small Quantity Generator (SQG). EPA Region VII was notified of this change. The Laboratory's RCRA hazardous waste management program was inspected by EPA Region VII in April 2006. There were no notices of violations. The inspector was impressed with the improvements of the Laboratory's waste management program over the past ten years. The Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and DOE regulations and orders in 2007. There were no radiological air emissions or exposures to the general public due to Laboratory activities in 2007. See U.S. Department of Energy Air Emissions Annual Report in Appendix B. As indicated in prior SERs, pollution awareness, waste minimization and recycling programs have been in practice since 1990, with improvements implemented most recently in 2003. Included in these efforts were battery and CRT recycling, waste white paper and green computer paper-recycling. Ames Laboratory also recycles/reuses salvageable metal, used oil, styrofoam peanuts

  14. Benign External Hydrocephalus in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Adele Marino, Maria; Morabito, Rosa; Vinci, Sergio; Germanò, Antonino; Briguglio, Marilena; Alafaci, Concetta; Mormina, Enricomaria; Longo, Marcello; Granata, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Summary External hydrocephalus (EH) is a benign clinical entity in which macrocephaly is associated with an increase in volume of the subarachnoid space, especially overlying both frontal lobes, and a normal or only slight increase in volume of the lateral ventricles. Several pathogenic hypotheses have been proposed but the most accredited theory seems to be delayed maturation of the arachnoid villi. There is a consensus that this is a benign entity, correlated to a familial predisposition and, in some cases, inheritance. CT and MRI are very important to make a diagnosis but also to establish the prognosis in patients who encounter the rare complications such as subdural haematomas. In conclusion, CT and MRI can provide a highly accurate diagnosis in these patients, allowing a preliminary assessment of the prognosis, particularly regarding the enlarged subarachnoid space limits and the “cortical vein" sign which can predict a further complication. These results are obtained with the same examination performed in a standard CT or MRI study of the brain and no injection of contrast medium is needed. PMID:24750715

  15. Clinical governance and external audit.

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, S G; Buchanan, J G

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a model of clinical governance that was developed at South Auckland Health during the period 1995 to 2000. Clinical quality and safety are core objectives. A multidisciplinary Clinical Board is responsible for the development and publicising of sound clinical policies together with monitoring the effects of their implementation on quality and safety. The Clinical Board has several committees, including an organization-wide Continuous Quality Improvement Committee to enhance the explicit nature of the quality system in terms of structure, staff awareness and involvement, and to develop the internal audit system. The second stream stems from the Chief Medical Officer and clinical directors in a clinical management sense. The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors covers both clinical and financial audit. The reporting lines back to that committee are described and the role of the external auditor of clinical standards is explained. The aim has been to create a supportive culture where quality initiatives and innovation can flourish, and where the emphasis is not on censure but improvement.

  16. Externally fired combined cycle demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco, N.J.; Young, S.; LaHaye, P.G.; Strom-Olsen, J.; Seger, J.L.; Pickup, H.

    1995-11-01

    Externally Fired Combined Cycles (EFCCs) can increase the amount of electricity produced from ash bearing fuels up to 40%, with overall powerplant efficiencies in excess of 45%. Achieving such high efficiencies requires high temperature-high pressure air heaters capable of driving modern gas turbines from gas streams containing the products of coal combustion. A pilot plant has been constructed in Kennebunk, Maine to provide proof of concept and evaluation of system components. Tests using pulverized Western Pennsylvania bituminous coal have been carried out since April, 1995. The ceramic air heater extracts energy from the products of coal combustion to power a gas turbine. This air heater has operated at gas inlet temperatures over 1,095 C and pressures over 7.0 atm without damage to the ceramic tube string components. Stable gas turbine operation has been achieved with energy input from the air heater and a supplementary gas fired combustor. Efforts are underway to fire the cycle on coal only, and to increase the duration of the test runs. Air heater improvements are being implemented and evaluated. These improvements include installation of a second pass of ceramic tubes and evaluation of corrosion resistant coatings on the ceramic tubes.

  17. Assessing the Exposome with External Measures: Commentary on the State of the Science and Research Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michelle C; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Anderson, Kim; Balshaw, David; Cui, Yuxia; Dunton, Genevieve; Hoppin, Jane A; Koutrakis, Petros; Jerrett, Michael

    2017-03-20

    The exposome comprises all environmental exposures that a person experiences from conception throughout the life course. Here we review the state of the science for assessing external exposures within the exposome. This article reviews (a) categories of exposures that can be assessed externally, (b) the current state of the science in external exposure assessment, (c) current tools available for external exposure assessment, and (d) priority research needs. We describe major scientific and technological advances that inform external assessment of the exposome, including geographic information systems; remote sensing; global positioning system and geolocation technologies; portable and personal sensing, including smartphone-based sensors and assessments; and self-reported questionnaire assessments, which increasingly rely on Internet-based platforms. We also discuss priority research needs related to methodological and technological improvement, data analysis and interpretation, data sharing, and other practical considerations, including improved assessment of exposure variability as well as exposure in multiple, critical life stages.

  18. Genes mediate the association between P3 amplitude and externalizing disorders

    PubMed Central

    HICKS, BRIAN M.; BERNAT, EDWARD; MALONE, STEVEN M.; IACONO, WILLIAM G.; PATRICK, CHRISTOPHER J.; KRUEGER, ROBERT F.; MCGUE, MATT

    2008-01-01

    Reduced P3 amplitude has been consistently linked to a spectrum of externalizing disorders. Utilizing data from a large sample of adolescent male twins (N = 1196), we used biometric modeling to assess the genetic and environmental contributions to the association between reduced P3 amplitude and a general vulnerability to externalizing disorders. Externalizing vulnerability was indexed by a composite of symptoms of conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, and alcohol, nicotine, and drug dependence. The sample included two independent age cohorts, providing an internal replication of the findings. For the best-fitting model, genetic influences alone accounted for the association between P3 amplitude and externalizing disorders, with an estimated genetic correlation of rg = −.22. Results replicated across the two age cohorts and demonstrate that reduced P3 amplitude is a marker of the biological vulnerability to externalizing disorders. PMID:17241145

  19. Fishing for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Teaching students to fish not only develops a lifetime leisure skill but also leads to an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and encourages student connection with the natural environment. Addresses educational benefits of incorporating fishing into environmental education and describes how two fishing programs successfully met objectives of…

  20. Ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ji, Qing; Wilde, Stephen

    2005-12-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source.