Science.gov

Sample records for addressing knowledge gaps

  1. Community-based participatory research: understanding a promising approach to addressing knowledge gaps in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Riffin, Catherine; Kenien, Cara; Ghesquiere, Angela; Dorime, Ashley; Villanueva, Carolina; Gardner, Daniel; Callahan, Jean; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Reid, M Carrington

    2016-07-01

    Concern over the need for effective and accessible healthcare for individuals with advanced chronic illness has drawn attention to the significant gaps in our knowledge of palliative medicine. To advance our understanding of this field, community-based participatory research (CBPR) is proposed as a tool for future research initiatives. This paper offers a rationale for how CBPR may be employed to address specific gaps in palliative care research. Several examples where this approach has been used previously are described, and potential obstacles to implementing this research method are delineated. Despite challenges to incorporating CBPR to palliative care research, this approach holds substantial potential to advance our current understanding of the field and promote sensitivity for future programs, practices and policies. PMID:27481321

  2. Using evidence-based practice to address gaps in nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Tagney, Jenny; Haines, Caroline

    Implementing evidence based-practice and research findings into nursing care has been identified as a challenge to nursing staff. This article identifies key barriers to the use of research in the international literature, however, there are limited suggestions as to how to improve this in the clinical arena. This article aims to identify how nurses could optimize the implementation of evidence and research into their clinical care and reviews barriers to implementing and undertaking nursing research, suggesting a framework for improvement. It considers the widely varied levels of knowledge of research and equally varied critical appraisal skills present both at a pre and post-registration nursing level. The authors discuss an innovative, collaborative approach that considers the role of the nurse consultant, clinical academic and research facilitator posts. To ensure quality evidence-based practice is implemented into clinical nursing care a realistic and practical structure must be applied. With the appropriate framework, clinical structure and organizational support, promotion of evidence-based practice and research for patient benefit can be optimized. The implications for practice are also discussed. The implementation of a realistic research framework into clinical nursing practice has the potential to influence and develop a more active nursing research culture and promote evidence-based care within the workplace.

  3. Addressing the Common Pathway Underlying Hypertension and Diabetes in People Who Are Obese by Maximizing Health: The Ultimate Knowledge Translation Gap

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Elizabeth; Lomi, Constantina; Bruno, Selma; Awad, Hamzeh; O'Donoghue, Grainne

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the WHO definition of health, this article examines the alarming discord between the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity and the low profile of noninvasive (nondrug) compared with invasive (drug) interventions with respect to their prevention, reversal and management. Herein lies the ultimate knowledge translation gap and challenge in 21st century health care. Although lifestyle modification has long appeared in guidelines for medically managing these conditions, this evidence-based strategy is seldom implemented as rigorously as drug prescription. Biomedicine focuses largely on reducing signs and symptoms; the effects of the problem rather than the problem. This article highlights the evidence-based rationale supporting prioritizing the underlying causes and contributing factors for hypertension and T2DM, and, in turn, obesity. We argue that a primary focus on maximizing health could eliminate all three conditions, at best, or, at worst, minimize their severity, complications, and medication needs. To enable such knowledge translation and maximizing health outcome, the health care community needs to practice as an integrated team, and address barriers to effecting maximal health in all patients. Addressing the ultimate knowledge translation gap, by aligning the health care paradigm to 21st century needs, would constitute a major advance. PMID:21423684

  4. Addressing the common pathway underlying hypertension and diabetes in people who are obese by maximizing health: the ultimate knowledge translation gap.

    PubMed

    Dean, Elizabeth; Lomi, Constantina; Bruno, Selma; Awad, Hamzeh; O'Donoghue, Grainne

    2011-03-06

    In accordance with the WHO definition of health, this article examines the alarming discord between the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity and the low profile of noninvasive (nondrug) compared with invasive (drug) interventions with respect to their prevention, reversal and management. Herein lies the ultimate knowledge translation gap and challenge in 21st century health care. Although lifestyle modification has long appeared in guidelines for medically managing these conditions, this evidence-based strategy is seldom implemented as rigorously as drug prescription. Biomedicine focuses largely on reducing signs and symptoms; the effects of the problem rather than the problem. This article highlights the evidence-based rationale supporting prioritizing the underlying causes and contributing factors for hypertension and T2DM, and, in turn, obesity. We argue that a primary focus on maximizing health could eliminate all three conditions, at best, or, at worst, minimize their severity, complications, and medication needs. To enable such knowledge translation and maximizing health outcome, the health care community needs to practice as an integrated team, and address barriers to effecting maximal health in all patients. Addressing the ultimate knowledge translation gap, by aligning the health care paradigm to 21st century needs, would constitute a major advance.

  5. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Future Suborbital Activities to Address Knowledge Gaps in Satellite and Model Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, J.; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J. M.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Vaughan, M. A.; Schmidt, S.; Flynn, C. J.; Song, S.; Schmid, B.; Luna, B.; Abel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is hindered both by the lack of knowledge on aerosol and cloud properties, as well as the lack of knowledge about detailed physical processes involved. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling. Recent efforts to make full use of A-Train aerosol sensor synergies will be highlighted. We describe planned field campaigns in the region to address the existing knowledge gaps. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the five synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing some of the key aerosol and cloud properties and a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: NASA

  6. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Future Suborbital Activities to Address Knowledge Gaps in Satellite and Model Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; LeBlanc, S.; Vaughan, M.; Schmidt, S.; Flynn, C.; Schmid, B.; Luna, B.; Abel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is hindered both by the lack of knowledge on aerosol and cloud properties, as well as the lack of knowledge about detailed physical processes involved. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling. Recent efforts to make full use of A-Train aerosol sensor synergies will be highlighted. We describe planned field campaigns in the region to address the existing knowledge gaps. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the five synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing some of the key aerosol and cloud properties and a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: NASA

  7. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines. PMID:21664679

  8. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines.

  9. Emergency preparedness: addressing a residency training gap.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayeedha Ghori; Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Links, Jonathan M; Alexander, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    As the importance of physician involvement and leadership in crisis preparedness is recognized, the literature suggests that few physicians are adequately trained to practice effectively in a large-scale crisis situation. A logical method for addressing the emergency preparedness training deficiency identified across several medical specialties is to include disaster and emergency preparedness training in residency curricula. In this article, the authors outline the development and implementation of an emergency preparedness curriculum for the Johns Hopkins General Preventive Medicine Residency (JHGPMR) from 2004 to 2006. The curriculum consists of two components. The first was developed for the academic year in the JHGPMR and includes didactic lectures, practical exercises to apply new knowledge, and an opportunity to integrate the knowledge and skills in a real-world exercise. The second, developed for the practicum year of the residency, includes Web-based lectures and online content and culminates in a tabletop preparedness exercise. Topics for both components include weapons of mass destruction, risk communication and personal preparedness, aspects of local emergency response planning, and mental health and psychological aspects of terrorism. On the basis of the emergency preparedness training gap that has been identified in the literature, and the success of the three-year experience in implementing a preparedness training curriculum in the JHGPMR, the authors recommend incorporation of competency-based emergency preparedness training for residencies of all specialties, and offer insights into how the described curriculum could be adapted for use in other residency settings.

  10. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  11. Knowledge Gaps, Social Locators, and Media Schemata: Gaps, Reverse Gaps, and Gaps of Disaffection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredin, Eric S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studies a public school controversy and finds a knowledge gap--a gap of disaffection. Finds that, among women only, higher education leads to greater knowledge but does so partly through reduced trust of government and lower perceived fairness of the news media. Shows similar findings with other less powerful groups. (SR)

  12. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Knowledge Gaps, Planned Observations to Address Them, and Implications for Global Climate Change Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Luna, B.; Abel, S.

    2015-01-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical Stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The stratocumulus "climate radiators" are critical to the regional and global climate system. They interact with dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and are mixed into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects. As emphasized in the latest IPCC report, the global representation of these aerosol-cloud interaction processes in climate models is one of the largest uncertainty in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling, and describe planned field campaigns in the region. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the following four synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: 1) ORACLES (Observations of Aerosols above Clouds and their interactions), a five-year investigation between 2015 and 2019 with three Intensive Observation Periods (IOP), recently funded by the NASA Earth-Venture Suborbital Program, 2) CLARIFY-2016 (Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Interactions and Forcing: Year 2016), a comprehensive observational and modeling programme funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), and supported by the UK Met Office. 3) LASIC (Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds), a funded

  13. Aerosol-cloud interactions in the South-East Atlantic: knowledge gaps, planned observations to address them, and implications for global climate change modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, Robert; Zuidema, Paquita; Haywood, James; Luna, Bernadette; Abel, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical Stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The stratocumulus "climate radiators" are critical to the regional and global climate system. They interact with dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and are mixed into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects. As emphasized in the latest IPCC report, the global representation of these aerosol-cloud interaction processes in climate models is one of the largest uncertainty in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling, and describe planned field campaigns in the region. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the following four synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: 1) ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS), a five-year investigation between 2015 and 2019 with three Intensive Observation Periods (IOP), recently funded by the NASA Earth-Venture Suborbital Program, 2) CLARIFY-2016 (CLoud-Aerosol-Radiation Interactions and Forcing: Year 2016), a comprehensive observational and modeling programme funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), and supported by the UK Met Office. 3) LASIC (Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds), a funded

  14. Acquisition of Simple and Complex Knowledge; A Knowledge Gap Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Heron, Judy; Sligo, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This paper assesses university students' acquisition of simple and complex knowledge, in exploring whether the knowledge gap hypothesis (KGH) with its origins in community-based research into people's informal learning from mass media, provides insights into students' acquisition and retention of information. The KGH posits that attempts to…

  15. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions: Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Johnson, James E. (Editor); Spry, James A. (Editor); Siegel, Bette; Conley, Catharine A.

    2015-01-01

    This report on Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions summarizes the presentations, deliberations and findings of a workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, March 24-26, 2015, which was attended by more than 100 participants representing a diverse mix of science, engineering, technology, and policy areas. The main objective of the three-day workshop was to identify specific knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to make incremental progress towards the development of NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for Planetary Protection during human missions to Mars.

  16. Bridging the gap: simulations meet knowledge bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gary W.; Morrison, Clayton T.; Westbrook, David L.; Cohen, Paul R.

    2003-09-01

    Tapir and Krill are declarative languages for specifying actions and agents, respectively, that can be executed in simulation. As such, they bridge the gap between strictly declarative knowledge bases and strictly executable code. Tapir and Krill components can be combined to produce models of activity which can answer questions about mechanisms and processes using conventional inference methods and simulation. Tapir was used in DARPA's Rapid Knowledge Formation (RKF) project to construct models of military tactics from the Army Field Manual FM3-90. These were then used to build Courses of Actions (COAs) which could be critiqued by declarative reasoning or via Monte Carlo simulation. Tapir and Krill can be read and written by non-knowledge engineers making it an excellent vehicle for Subject Matter Experts to build and critique knowledge bases.

  17. Usefulness of a KT Event to Address Practice and Policy Gaps Related to Integrated Care.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Karen; Boakye, Omenaa; Wallace, Nicole

    2016-02-01

    There are limited evaluations of the impact of knowledge translation (KT) activities aimed at addressing practice and policy gaps. We report on the impact of an interactive, end-of-grant KT event. Although action items were developed and key stakeholder support attained, minimal follow-through had occurred three months after the KT event. Several organizational obstacles to transitioning knowledge into action were identified: leadership, program policies, infrastructure, changing priorities, workload and physician engagement. Key messages include: (1) ensure ongoing and facilitated networking opportunities, (2) invest in building implementation capacity, (3) target multi-level implementation activities and (4) focus further research on KT evaluation.

  18. Evaluation of architectural paradigms for addressing theprocessor-memory gap

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, Leonid; Gorden, Grime; Husbands, Parry; Chame, Jacqualine

    2003-07-04

    Many high performance applications run well below the peak arithmetic performance of the underlying machine, with inefficiencies often attributed to poor memory system behavior. In the context of scientific computing we examine three emerging processors designed to address the well-known gap between processor and memory performance through the exploitation of data parallelism. The VIRAM architecture uses novel PIM technology to combine embedded DRAM with a vector co-processor for exploiting its large bandwidth potential. The DIVA architecture incorporates a collection of PIM chips as smart-memory coprocessors to a conventional microprocessor, and relies on superword-level parallelism to make effective use of the available memory bandwidth. The Imagine architecture provides a stream-aware memory hierarchy to support the tremendous processing potential of SIMD controlled VLIW clusters. First we develop a scalable synthetic probe that allows us to parametize key performance attributes of VIRAM, DIVA and Imagine while capturing the performance crossover points of these architectures. Next we present results for scientific kernels with different sets of computational characteristics and memory access patterns. Our experiments allow us to evaluate the strategies employed to exploit data parallelism, isolate the set of application characteristics best suited to each architecture and show a promising direction towards interfacing leading-edge processor technology with high-end scientific computations.

  19. ROSS Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities Training Evaluation. Gaps and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Ala, Maureen; Gruidl, Jeremiah; Buddemeier, Brooke

    2015-09-30

    This document describes the development of the ROSS SKAs, the cross-mapping of the SKAs to the available training, identifies gaps in the SKA and training, and provides recommendations to address those gaps.

  20. Bridging the Gap in Knowledge Transfer between Academia and Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gera, Rajat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper intends to identify the causes or gaps in transfer of managerial knowledge between academia and practitioners and to develop a framework that overcomes the gaps through knowledge management, information technology and human resource practices. The paper aims to suggest a strategic approach based on the knowledge transfer cycle.…

  1. Cybernetics: A Possible Solution for the "Knowledge Gap" between "External" and "Internal" in Evaluation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the knowledge gap between evaluators and the entity being evaluated: the dilemma of the knowledge of professional evaluators vs. the in-depth knowledge of the evaluated subjects. In order to optimize evaluative outcomes, the author suggests an approach based on ideas borrowed from the science of cybernetics as a…

  2. The Knowledge Gap Versus the Belief Gap and Abstinence-Only Sex Education.

    PubMed

    Hindman, Douglas Blanks; Yan, Changmin

    2015-08-01

    The knowledge gap hypothesis predicts widening disparities in knowledge of heavily publicized public affairs issues among socioeconomic status groups. The belief gap hypothesis extends the knowledge gap hypothesis to account for knowledge and beliefs about politically contested issues based on empirically verifiable information. This analysis of 3 national surveys shows belief gaps developed between liberals and conservatives regarding abstinence-only sex education; socioeconomic status-based knowledge gaps did not widen. The findings partially support both belief gap and knowledge gap hypotheses. In addition, the unique contributions of exposure to Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC in this process were investigated. Only exposure to Fox News was linked to beliefs about abstinence-only sex education directly and indirectly through the cultivation of conservative ideology. PMID:25950234

  3. The Knowledge Gap Versus the Belief Gap and Abstinence-Only Sex Education.

    PubMed

    Hindman, Douglas Blanks; Yan, Changmin

    2015-08-01

    The knowledge gap hypothesis predicts widening disparities in knowledge of heavily publicized public affairs issues among socioeconomic status groups. The belief gap hypothesis extends the knowledge gap hypothesis to account for knowledge and beliefs about politically contested issues based on empirically verifiable information. This analysis of 3 national surveys shows belief gaps developed between liberals and conservatives regarding abstinence-only sex education; socioeconomic status-based knowledge gaps did not widen. The findings partially support both belief gap and knowledge gap hypotheses. In addition, the unique contributions of exposure to Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC in this process were investigated. Only exposure to Fox News was linked to beliefs about abstinence-only sex education directly and indirectly through the cultivation of conservative ideology.

  4. Addressing the "Research Gap" in Special Education through Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.; Boardman, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    At least some of the challenges faced in special education, such as the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students, the gap between research and practice, and inequitable educational opportunities, can be explained in part by a research gap, or, in other words, a failure to conduct the different types of…

  5. Climate change and respiratory health: current evidence and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Knowlton, Kim; Balmes, John R

    2013-08-01

    Climate change is a key driver of the accelerating environmental change affecting populations around the world. Many of these changes and our response to them can affect respiratory health. This is an expert opinion review of recent peer-reviewed literature, focused on more recent medical journals and climate-health relevant modeling results from non-biomedical journals pertaining to climate interactions with air pollution. Global health impacts in low resource countries and migration precipitated by environmental change are addressed. The major findings are of respiratory health effects related to heat, air pollution, shifts in infectious diseases and allergens, flooding, water, food security and migration. The review concludes with knowledge gaps and research need that will support the evidence-base required to address the challenges ahead.

  6. Childbirth and infant development knowledge gaps in interpersonal settings.

    PubMed

    Gaziano, C; O'Leary, J

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge gap hypothesis predicts that infusions of information into an environment will lead to knowledge gain by groups with higher socioeconomic status (SES) at rates that outpace the knowledge gain of lower SES groups, leading to a growing relative gap between them. Four information source variables were examined in the present study: education, baby care experience, friend and relative networks, and interpersonal communication in a parent education setting. Study subjects were mothers and fathers in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and mothers in Belfast, Northern Ireland. In the sample, the classic pattern of widening gaps due to education was not supported by time trend data, although one-time data showed gaps. The interpersonal communication condition contributed most to knowledge levels and to widened knowledge gaps. PMID:10947373

  7. Addressing Excellence Gaps in K-12 Education. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Gifted Children, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Since the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, a major objective of federal and state education policy has been to narrow K-12 achievement gaps. This position statement notes that the available data suggest that the singular focus on the most struggling learners has resulted in meaningful progress in closing minimum-competency…

  8. Did the "Magic" Work? Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the Knowledge Gap Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanta, Wayne; Elliott, William R.

    1995-01-01

    Tests the knowledge gap hypothesis by examining the influence of Magic Johnson's announcement that he was HIV positive on people's knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Finds that all individuals moved from fairly low knowledge levels equally to higher levels, but the knowledge gap narrowed as a proportion of the difference between high and low education groups.…

  9. Childbirth and Infant Development Knowledge Gaps and "Reverse Gaps": When Books Are Not Enough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Joann; Gaziano, Cecilie

    The knowledge gap hypothesis predicts that infusions of information into an environment will lead to stronger relationships between education and knowledge for higher socioeconomic (SES) segments of the population, and ultimately, a relative gap between higher and lower SES groups. The hypothesis usually focuses on mass media but is also relevant…

  10. Collective Voluntarism and Public Affairs Knowledge: A Typology for Knowledge Gap Theory Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziano, Emanuel; Gaziano, Cecilie

    A "collective voluntarism" framework can be used to achieve greater analytical precision and improve theoretical development of the landmark "knowledge gap hypothesis" which has stimulated considerable research and debate about the nature and existence of socially structured public affairs knowledge. The original knowledge gap hypothesis locates…

  11. Common-Cause Failure Mitigation Practices and Knowledge Gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Pullum, Laura L; Smith, Cyrus M; Holcomb, David Eugene; Korsah, Kofi; Muhlheim, Michael David

    2012-11-01

    This technical report documents the findings from first phase of research activities by ORNL. Specifically, the report describes the results of the investigation of CCF mitigation practices and determination of knowledge gaps.

  12. Fill the Gap in the Legal Knowledge Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmirani, Monica; Contissa, Giuseppe; Rubino, Rossella

    There is a gap between the legal text description in XML trends and the legal knowledge representation of the norms that from the text starts. This gap affects the effectiveness of the legal resources exploitation and the integrity of the legal knowledge on the Web. This paper presents a legal document model for managing the legal resources in integrated way and linking all the different levels of representation.

  13. Addressing nutritional gaps with multivitamin and mineral supplements.

    PubMed

    Ward, Elizabeth

    2014-07-15

    A balanced and varied diet is the best source of essential vitamins and minerals; however, nutrient deficiencies occur, including in populations with bountiful food supplies and the means to procure nutrient-rich foods. For example, the typical American diet bears little resemblance to what experts recommend for fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, which serve as important sources of an array of vitamins and minerals. With time, deficiencies in one or more micronutrients may lead to serious health issues. A common reason people take multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements is to maintain or improve health, but research examining the effectiveness of MVMs in the prevention of certain chronic conditions is ongoing. In addition to the utility of MVMs for filling in relatively small but critical nutritional gaps, which may help prevent conditions such as anemia, neural tube defects, and osteoporosis, some evidence supports possible benefits of MVM supplementation with regard to cancer prevention (particularly in men) and prevention or delay of cataract, as well as some aspects of cognitive performance. Unlike some single-vitamin supplements, MVM supplements are generally well tolerated and do not appear to increase the risk of mortality, cerebrovascular disease, or heart failure. The potential benefits of MVM supplements likely outweigh any risk in the general population and may be particularly beneficial for older people.

  14. Addressing nutritional gaps with multivitamin and mineral supplements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A balanced and varied diet is the best source of essential vitamins and minerals; however, nutrient deficiencies occur, including in populations with bountiful food supplies and the means to procure nutrient-rich foods. For example, the typical American diet bears little resemblance to what experts recommend for fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, which serve as important sources of an array of vitamins and minerals. With time, deficiencies in one or more micronutrients may lead to serious health issues. A common reason people take multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements is to maintain or improve health, but research examining the effectiveness of MVMs in the prevention of certain chronic conditions is ongoing. In addition to the utility of MVMs for filling in relatively small but critical nutritional gaps, which may help prevent conditions such as anemia, neural tube defects, and osteoporosis, some evidence supports possible benefits of MVM supplementation with regard to cancer prevention (particularly in men) and prevention or delay of cataract, as well as some aspects of cognitive performance. Unlike some single-vitamin supplements, MVM supplements are generally well tolerated and do not appear to increase the risk of mortality, cerebrovascular disease, or heart failure. The potential benefits of MVM supplements likely outweigh any risk in the general population and may be particularly beneficial for older people. PMID:25027766

  15. Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

  16. School nurses can address existing gaps in school-age sleep research.

    PubMed

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A; Kieckhefer, Gail M

    2013-06-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults. School-age children exhibit increasing independence around health-related behaviors, which provide health professionals the opportunity to educate and promote healthy sleep behaviors. This commentary extends previous research reviews by identifying the current gaps in sleep research, highlighting future directions needed in sleep research, and explaining why school nurses are best suited to address this growing public health issue. PMID:23054101

  17. A Twenty-Five-Year Review of Knowledge Gap Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziano, Cecilie

    Evidence from 34 studies published since a 1983 review of 58 earlier studies underscores knowledge inequalities as an enduring phenomenon and emphasizes that interest in the knowledge gap phenomenon is accelerating. All 10 studies which varied "media publicity" supported the hypothesis. Eleven of 12 studies which varied some aspect of "media use"…

  18. The Knowledge Gap: An Analytical Review of Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziano, Cecilie

    Fifty-eight studies relating to the "knowledge gap" hypothesis (a theory that correlates public knowledge to educational level and mass media exposure) are examined in this report. In the opening sections, the theory is defined, and the early information diffusion studies and public opinion polls that led to its formulation in 1970 are described.…

  19. Connecting internet use with gaps in cancer knowledge.

    PubMed

    Shim, Minsun

    2008-09-01

    This study applies the knowledge gap hypothesis to the specific domain of Internet use for cancer information. In particular, this study examines disparities in online information seeking by education and ethnicity, and subsequent gaps in cancer knowledge. Perceived risk of cancer and ease of connection to the Internet are concerned as contingent factors influencing knowledge gaps. A subsample of the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey-t-hose who have ever been online--was analyzed. Data supported the hypothesis that high education groups and White Americans were more likely to use the Internet for cancer information than were their counterparts, and online information seeking enlarged to some degree the cancer knowledge gaps between education groups. Perceived cancer risk had a weak but significant three-way interaction effect with ethnicity and online seeking on cancer knowledge, which suggests the importance of motivation in attenuating the knowledge gaps. The moderating role of ease of connection to the Internet was not supported. Discussion about the findings and further suggestions are offered. PMID:18850392

  20. Animating Research with Counseling Values: A Training Model to Address the Research-to-Practice Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristi A.; Dewell, John A.; Holmes, Courtney M.

    2014-01-01

    The persistent research-to-practice gap poses a problem for counselor education. The gap may be caused by conflicts between the humanistic values that guide much of counseling and the values that guide research training. In this article, the authors address historical concerns regarding research training for students and the conducting of research…

  1. Bridging the Knowledge Gap towards more Resilient Environmental Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, C.

    2014-12-01

    Managing environmental risks including those from climate variability and change requires knowledge-intensive adaptive management and policy-making actively informed by scientific knowledge. However despite the rapid evolution and growing complexity in models of science-society interaction, the rate and breath of use of scientific knowledge in environmental decision making, especially related to climate variability and change, remain below expectations. This suggests a persistent gap between production and use that, to date, efforts to rethink and restructure science production have not been able to surmount. To begin to understand why this gap persists, I review different models of science-policy interfaces to understand how they have influenced the organization of knowledge production and application. Included in this review is a consideration of general and specific knowledge used (or not) for decision- and policy-making at different scales focusing on the water sector. Lastly, the review considers what structures or interconnections need to be in place to foster incorporation of knowledge in ways that foster more resilient governance and management decisions. Building on this review, I then explore how new approaches to the creation of knowledge have emerged and what gaps remain in fostering greater use of knowledge in environmental decision making.

  2. Interweaving Knowledge Resources to Address Complex Environmental Health Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth Ellen; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex problems do not respect academic disciplinary boundaries. Environmental health research is complex and often moves beyond these boundaries, integrating diverse knowledge resources to solve such challenges. Here we describe an evolving paradigm for interweaving approaches that integrates widely diverse resources outside of traditional academic environments in full partnerships of mutual respect and understanding. We demonstrate that scientists, social scientists, and engineers can work with government agencies, industry, and communities to interweave their expertise into metaphorical knowledge fabrics to share understanding, resources, and enthusiasm. Objective Our goal is to acknowledge and validate how interweaving research approaches can contribute to research-driven, solution-oriented problem solving in environmental health, and to inspire more members of the environmental health community to consider this approach. Discussion The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program (SRP), as mandated by Congress, has evolved to become a program that reaches across a wide range of knowledge resources. SRP fosters interweaving multiple knowledge resources to develop innovative multidirectional partnerships for research and training. Here we describe examples of how motivation, ideas, knowledge, and expertise from different people, institutions, and agencies can integrate to tackle challenges that can be as complex as the resources they bring to bear on it. Conclusions By providing structure for interweaving science with its stakeholders, we are better able to leverage resources, increase potential for innovation, and proactively ensure a more fully developed spectrum of beneficial outcomes of research investments. Citation Anderson BE, Naujokas MF, Suk WA. 2015. Interweaving knowledge resources to address complex environmental health challenges. Environ Health Perspect 123:1095–1099

  3. The developmental origins of fairness: the knowledge-behavior gap.

    PubMed

    Blake, Peter R; McAuliffe, Katherine; Warneken, Felix

    2014-11-01

    Recent research in developmental psychology shows that children understand several principles of fairness by 3 years of age, much earlier than previously believed. However, children's knowledge of fairness does not always align with their behavior, and immediate self-interest alone cannot explain this gap. In this forum paper, we consider two factors that influence the relation between fairness knowledge and behavior: relative advantage and how rewards are acquired.

  4. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  5. Gaps in knowledge and prospects for research of adjuvanted vaccines.

    PubMed

    Seder, Robert; Reed, Steven G; O'Hagan, Derek; Malyala, Padma; D'Oro, Ugo; Laera, Donatello; Abrignani, Sergio; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Steinman, Lawrence; Bertholet, Sylvie

    2015-06-01

    A panel of researchers working in different areas of adjuvanted vaccines deliberated over the topic, "Gaps in knowledge and prospects for research of adjuvanted vaccines" at, "Enhancing Vaccine Immunity and Value" conference held in July 2014. Several vaccine challenges and applications for new adjuvant technologies were discussed.

  6. The Role of Perceived Threat in Reducing Health Knowledge Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yows, Suzanne R.

    A study tested the knowledge gap hypothesis, a promising framework for research in the field of mass communication devised by P. Tichenor, G. Donohue, and C. Olien in 1970. The study investigated the relative contribution of two types of factors--structural and motivational--in predicting the degree to which persons will attend to health messages,…

  7. Wound infection: a knowledge deficit that needs addressing.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Maria A

    2016-03-01

    A survey was undertaken at a recent large wound-care exhibition, aimed at generalist nurses, podiatrists and other allied health professionals, to ascertain delegates' understanding of wound infection and its treatment options. The sample comprised 116 delegates, although not all of them answered every question. Results showed good knowledge in some areas, with most (90%) correctly identifying the symptoms of localised wound infection and the characteristics of an infected wound (97%). However, the results did reveal some alarming gaps in knowledge, with 64% unable to identify that it is the inability of the host to mount a robust immune response that can tip the balance between colonisation and infection. Similarly, over a third (38%) incorrectly considered that wounds should always be cleansed, regardless of the wound characteristics, while 5% stated that antimicrobial dressings should be used continuously until epithelialisation occurs. The results suggest that there is still a worrying trend for ritualistic wound care and that more ongoing education is needed on the core aspects of wound management.

  8. Tropical forests and global change: filling knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Zuidema, Pieter A; Baker, Patrick J; Groenendijk, Peter; Schippers, Peter; van der Sleen, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Sterck, Frank

    2013-08-01

    Tropical forests will experience major changes in environmental conditions this century. Understanding their responses to such changes is crucial to predicting global carbon cycling. Important knowledge gaps exist: the causes of recent changes in tropical forest dynamics remain unclear and the responses of entire tropical trees to environmental changes are poorly understood. In this Opinion article, we argue that filling these knowledge gaps requires a new research strategy, one that focuses on trees instead of leaves or communities, on long-term instead of short-term changes, and on understanding mechanisms instead of documenting changes. We propose the use of tree-ring analyses, stable-isotope analyses, manipulative field experiments, and well-validated simulation models to improve predictions of forest responses to global change.

  9. Social Stratification and the Knowledge Gap: Some Influences on Knowledge Disparities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziano, Cecilie

    Working from a knowledge gap hypothesis stating that as amounts of information in a community or society increase, segments of the population with more education and higher socioeconomic status acquire this information at a greater rate than do lower status groups, a study examined the contributions to neighborhood residents' knowledge of local…

  10. Media use and HIV/AIDS knowledge: a knowledge gap perspective.

    PubMed

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven

    2014-12-01

    Despite the widespread utilization of the mass media in HIV/AIDS prevention, little is known about the knowledge gap that results from disparities in mass media use. This study examined the relationship between HIV/AIDS-related mass media use and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among urban and rural residents of northwestern Ethiopia. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV/AIDS-related mass media use has both sequestering and mainstreaming effects in certain segments of the study population, although it was not a significant predictor of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge in the total population. The knowledge gaps between individuals with high and low education and between individuals who experience high and low levels of interpersonal communication about HIV/AIDS narrowed as HIV/AIDS-related media use increased, but the gap between urban and rural residents widened. The widening gap could be explained by differences in perceptions of information salience and several theoretical assumptions. Current mass media information campaigns, which are often prepared and broadcast from urban centers, may not only fail to improve the HIV/AIDS knowledge of the rural populace but also put rural populations at a disadvantage relative to their urban counterparts. Communication interventions informed by socioecological models might be helpful to redress and/or narrow the widening knowledge gap between urban and rural residents.

  11. Irrational Numbers: The Gap between Formal and Intuitive Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirotic, Natasa; Zazkis, Andrina

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on prospective secondary mathematics teachers' understanding of irrational numbers. Various dimensions of participants' knowledge regarding the relation between the two sets, rational and irrational, are examined. Three issues are addressed: richness and density of numbers, the fitting of rational and irrational numbers on the…

  12. Cross-National Gender Gaps in Political Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Fortin-Rittberger, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of studies on political knowledge document lingering gender-based differences in advanced industrial democracies, most contributors have drawn such conclusions from a single or a handful of countries, using limited batteries of political information items. Exploiting a pooled data set of the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems encompassing 106 post-election surveys in forty-seven countries between 1996 and 2011, this article demonstrates that survey instrument–related factors, such as question format and content, as well as the overall difficulty of questions, are more consequential in shaping the size of gender gaps in political knowledge than institutional factors, such as electoral rules or opportunity structures. The research design of this article draws from almost three hundred different items measuring factual political knowledge using the broadest country coverage and most comprehensive approach to measurement to date. PMID:27524874

  13. Newspaper Coverage of Cancer Prevention: Multilevel Evidence for Knowledge Gap Effects.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Hayes, Andrew F; Reineke, Jason B; Long, Marilee A; Bettinghaus, Erwin P

    2009-09-01

    Prior research on knowledge gap effects, in health as well as in other domains, has focused largely on assessing individual-level differences in exposure to news based on self-report of media use. Inherent inferential limitations of this approach are addressed by testing the hypothesis that the relationship between education and cancer prevention knowledge will be moderated by regional differences in U.S. news coverage of cancer prevention. The study also tests, using these methods, findings by Kwak (1999) suggesting that the importance of attention to relevant news in predicting knowledge decreases as information available in the news increases. Using a representative national sample of newspaper coverage to assess regional differences in cancer prevention coverage, a representative national probability sample to assess respondent education and cancer prevention knowledge, and multilevel analyses of the relationship between regional coverage differences and knowledge of persons in those regions, support is found for both of these propositions. PMID:20161669

  14. Newspaper Coverage of Cancer Prevention: Multilevel Evidence for Knowledge Gap Effects

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Michael D.; Hayes, Andrew F.; Reineke, Jason B.; Long, Marilee A.; Bettinghaus, Erwin P.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research on knowledge gap effects, in health as well as in other domains, has focused largely on assessing individual-level differences in exposure to news based on self-report of media use. Inherent inferential limitations of this approach are addressed by testing the hypothesis that the relationship between education and cancer prevention knowledge will be moderated by regional differences in U.S. news coverage of cancer prevention. The study also tests, using these methods, findings by Kwak (1999) suggesting that the importance of attention to relevant news in predicting knowledge decreases as information available in the news increases. Using a representative national sample of newspaper coverage to assess regional differences in cancer prevention coverage, a representative national probability sample to assess respondent education and cancer prevention knowledge, and multilevel analyses of the relationship between regional coverage differences and knowledge of persons in those regions, support is found for both of these propositions. PMID:20161669

  15. Cybernetics: a possible solution for the "knowledge gap" between "external" and "internal" in evaluation processes.

    PubMed

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-11-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the knowledge gap between evaluators and the entity being evaluated: the dilemma of the knowledge of professional evaluators vs. the in-depth knowledge of the evaluated subjects. In order to optimize evaluative outcomes, the author suggests an approach based on ideas borrowed from the science of cybernetics as a method of evaluation--one that enables in-depth perception of the evaluated field without jeopardizing a rigorous study or the evaluator's professionalism. The paper focuses on the main concepts that deal with this dilemma--showing how cybernetics combines the different bodies of knowledge of the different stakeholders, including the professional evaluator, resulting in a coherent body of knowledge created mainly by those internal to the process, owned by them, and relevant to all--those who are internal and those who are external and their different purposes.

  16. Current knowledge, gaps and challenges in the Southern European Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathanassiou, Evangelos

    2015-04-01

    New knowledge advances our current understanding on the selection and application of the appropriate tools for assessing the state of the marine environment in the Southern European Seas (SES). Diminishing the lack of knowledge is a prerequisite for sound policy decisions. Although gaps and knowledge are fewer today, the health of marine and coastal ecosystems in the SES is under pressure and shows, in places, some signs of deterioration and declining quality. Overall, there is a lack of data accessibility and long time series in the SES, while in many cases poorly constrained processes cannot really support knowledge-based policy making (e.g. ecosystem functioning, climate change, fisheries management, etc.). New knowledge has to be produced and excellence must be promoted to support sustainable economic growth. At the same time, existing and new capacities have to be upgraded and increased in order to support sustainable convergence between SES countries. There are several gaps that have been identified and processes that have been poorly understood in the SES, mainly from research projects that have been working at basin level. The main research priorities that have been identified from the SeasERA Project for both, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea include: the climate change and its impacts, the hydrological cycle, the ventilation and the inter-basin coupling, the marine biodiversity and the provision of goods and services, the marine protected areas, the deep sea ecosystems, the biological invasions, the marine pollution and the ocean and human health, the renewable energy, the maritime transport, the fisheries and aquaculture activities and the biotechnology and the exploitation of marine resources for industrial application. More important, however, is the fact that the economic, the social and the scientific and the environmental challenges must be collectively tackled. They should have prioritisation and clear objectives as well as data sharing for

  17. Bottom-Up Risk Regulation? How Nanotechnology Risk Knowledge Gaps Challenge Federal and State Environmental Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Maria C.; Griffin, Martin P. A.; Tai, Stephanie

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnologies have been called the “Next Industrial Revolution.” At the same time, scientists are raising concerns about the potential health and environmental risks related to the nano-sized materials used in nanotechnologies. Analyses suggest that current U.S. federal regulatory structures are not likely to adequately address these risks in a proactive manner. Given these trends, the premise of this paper is that state and local-level agencies will likely deal with many “end-of-pipe” issues as nanomaterials enter environmental media without prior toxicity testing, federal standards, or emissions controls. In this paper we (1) briefly describe potential environmental risks and benefits related to emerging nanotechnologies; (2) outline the capacities of the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act to address potential nanotechnology risks, and how risk data gaps challenge these regulations; (3) outline some of the key data gaps that challenge state-level regulatory capacities to address nanotechnologies’ potential risks, using Wisconsin as a case study; and (4) discuss advantages and disadvantages of state versus federal approaches to nanotechnology risk regulation. In summary, we suggest some ways government agencies can be better prepared to address nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps and risk management.

  18. Bottom-up risk regulation? How nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps challenge federal and state environmental agencies.

    PubMed

    Powell, Maria C; Griffin, Martin P A; Tai, Stephanie

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnologies have been called the "Next Industrial Revolution." At the same time, scientists are raising concerns about the potential health and environmental risks related to the nano-sized materials used in nanotechnologies. Analyses suggest that current U.S. federal regulatory structures are not likely to adequately address these risks in a proactive manner. Given these trends, the premise of this paper is that state and local-level agencies will likely deal with many "end-of-pipe" issues as nanomaterials enter environmental media without prior toxicity testing, federal standards, or emissions controls. In this paper we (1) briefly describe potential environmental risks and benefits related to emerging nanotechnologies; (2) outline the capacities of the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act to address potential nanotechnology risks, and how risk data gaps challenge these regulations; (3) outline some of the key data gaps that challenge state-level regulatory capacities to address nanotechnologies' potential risks, using Wisconsin as a case study; and (4) discuss advantages and disadvantages of state versus federal approaches to nanotechnology risk regulation. In summary, we suggest some ways government agencies can be better prepared to address nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps and risk management. PMID:18543023

  19. Bottom-up risk regulation? How nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps challenge federal and state environmental agencies.

    PubMed

    Powell, Maria C; Griffin, Martin P A; Tai, Stephanie

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnologies have been called the "Next Industrial Revolution." At the same time, scientists are raising concerns about the potential health and environmental risks related to the nano-sized materials used in nanotechnologies. Analyses suggest that current U.S. federal regulatory structures are not likely to adequately address these risks in a proactive manner. Given these trends, the premise of this paper is that state and local-level agencies will likely deal with many "end-of-pipe" issues as nanomaterials enter environmental media without prior toxicity testing, federal standards, or emissions controls. In this paper we (1) briefly describe potential environmental risks and benefits related to emerging nanotechnologies; (2) outline the capacities of the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act to address potential nanotechnology risks, and how risk data gaps challenge these regulations; (3) outline some of the key data gaps that challenge state-level regulatory capacities to address nanotechnologies' potential risks, using Wisconsin as a case study; and (4) discuss advantages and disadvantages of state versus federal approaches to nanotechnology risk regulation. In summary, we suggest some ways government agencies can be better prepared to address nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps and risk management.

  20. Procedural and Conceptual Knowledge: Exploring the Gap between Knowledge Type and Knowledge Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Jon R.; Stylianides, Gabriel J.

    2013-01-01

    Following Star (2005, 2007), we continue to problematize the entangling of type and quality in the use of conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge. Although those whose work is guided by types of knowledge and those whose work is guided by qualities of knowledge seem to be referring to the same phenomena, actually they are not. This lack of…

  1. Determinants of nurses' knowledge gap on pain management in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aziato, Lydia; Adejumo, Oluyinka

    2014-03-01

    There are concerns about adequacy of nurses' knowledge and skill in effective pain management since effective pain management promotes early recovery after surgery. This study explores factors that accounted for Ghanaian nurses' inadequate knowledge of postoperative pain management using a focused ethnographic design for data collection at a tertiary teaching hospital in Ghana. Fourteen nurses designated as key informants with different backgrounds as nurse educators and leaders were purposively sampled to participate. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews; all interviews were conducted in English, audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. The study revealed that nurses' inadequate pain management knowledge might have resulted from curriculum gaps during training; inadequate clinical supervision, study days, and workshops for practising nurses; lack of funding for organising regular workshops; and, negative attitudes of nurses whereby new information learned at workshops was not readily applied in clinical practice. It was concluded that nursing curricula at all levels of training in Ghana should incorporate credit-bearing courses on pain management, and appropriate pain management education programmes should be instituted for practising nurses. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the impact of such education programs is required.

  2. Inclusive Pedagogy and Knowledge in Special Education: Addressing the Tension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Joseph; Wyse, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus in policy and practice on adopting inclusive pedagogy as a way of reconceptualising how schools work with children with special educational needs (SEN). The paper considers the split between knowledge and pedagogy inherent in some dominant strains of "inclusive pedagogy". Drawing on the "knowledge…

  3. A Blueprint to Address Research Gaps in the Development of Biomarkers for Pediatric Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Mark Patrick; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Browning, Renee; Click, Eleanor S; Cuevas, Luis E; Detjen, Anne; Graham, Steve M; Levin, Michael; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Nahid, Payam; Perez-Velez, Carlos M; Reither, Klaus; Song, Rinn; Spiegel, Hans M L; Worrell, Carol; Zar, Heather J; Walzl, Gerhard

    2015-10-15

    Childhood tuberculosis contributes significantly to the global tuberculosis disease burden but remains challenging to diagnose due to inadequate methods of pathogen detection in paucibacillary pediatric samples and lack of a child-specific host biomarker to identify disease. Accurately diagnosing tuberculosis in children is required to improve case detection, surveillance, healthcare delivery, and effective advocacy. In May 2014, the National Institutes of Health convened a workshop including researchers in the field to delineate priorities to address this research gap. This blueprint describes the consensus from the workshop, identifies critical research steps to advance this field, and aims to catalyze efforts toward harmonization and collaboration in this area.

  4. Mind the Gap: Privileging Epistemic Access to Knowledge in the Transition from Leaving Certificate Music to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, music at Leaving Certificate level has come under increasing focus in media and higher education discourse as an easy option. In particular, scant attention has been paid to the musical knowledge and skills needed in the transition to higher music education within the Irish context. This paper addresses the perceived gap in…

  5. Efforts to Bridge the Gap between Research and Practice in Social Work: Precedents and Prospects: Keynote Address at the Bridging the Gap Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This keynote address discusses previous and ongoing efforts to reduce the persistent gap between research and practice in social work and offers recommendations for further bridging that gap. Key among those recommendations is the need to conduct descriptive outcome studies of efforts to adapt research-supported interventions in everyday practice…

  6. Nutraceuticals for older people: facts, fictions and gaps in knowledge.

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Larrosa, Mar; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2013-08-01

    In the last decades nutraceuticals have entered the health market as an easy and attractive means of preventing diseases. These products are of interest for an increasingly health-concerned society and may be especially relevant for preventing or delaying a number of age-related diseases, i.e. arthritis, cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, cataracts, brain disorders, etc. Nutraceuticals are marketed in a variety of forms, composition and potential applications which have made their definition ambiguous and their use uncontrolled and poorly funded. Although epidemiological, animal and in vitro studies have given evidence of the potential benefits of some of these nutraceuticals or of their components, definitive proof of their effects in appropriate human clinical trials is still lacking in most cases, more critically among people above 65 years of age. We cover the well-established nutraceuticals (polyvitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, etc.) and will focus on many other 'novel' commercial nutraceuticals where the scientific evidence is more limited (food extracts, polyphenols, carotenoids, etc.). Solid scientific evidence has been reported only for a few nutraceuticals, which have some health claims approved by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Further well-designed trials are needed to improve the current knowledge on the health benefits of nutraceuticals in the elderly. Overall, there are some facts, a lot of fiction and many gaps in the knowledge of nutraceutical benefits. PMID:23791247

  7. Nutraceuticals for older people: facts, fictions and gaps in knowledge.

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Larrosa, Mar; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2013-08-01

    In the last decades nutraceuticals have entered the health market as an easy and attractive means of preventing diseases. These products are of interest for an increasingly health-concerned society and may be especially relevant for preventing or delaying a number of age-related diseases, i.e. arthritis, cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, cataracts, brain disorders, etc. Nutraceuticals are marketed in a variety of forms, composition and potential applications which have made their definition ambiguous and their use uncontrolled and poorly funded. Although epidemiological, animal and in vitro studies have given evidence of the potential benefits of some of these nutraceuticals or of their components, definitive proof of their effects in appropriate human clinical trials is still lacking in most cases, more critically among people above 65 years of age. We cover the well-established nutraceuticals (polyvitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, etc.) and will focus on many other 'novel' commercial nutraceuticals where the scientific evidence is more limited (food extracts, polyphenols, carotenoids, etc.). Solid scientific evidence has been reported only for a few nutraceuticals, which have some health claims approved by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Further well-designed trials are needed to improve the current knowledge on the health benefits of nutraceuticals in the elderly. Overall, there are some facts, a lot of fiction and many gaps in the knowledge of nutraceutical benefits.

  8. The Time Is Now: Attention Increases to Transgender Health in the United States but Scientific Knowledge Gaps Remain.

    PubMed

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Reisner, Sari L; Nunn, Amy; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Operario, Don

    2015-12-01

    Attention to transgender health has dramatically increased in the U.S. Scientific knowledge gaps in empirical research, however, remain and act as barriers to achieving transgender-related health equity. We conducted a search using PubMed and PsycINFO to identify gaps in empirical, peer-reviewed publications related to adult transgender health in the U.S. between 1981 and 2013. We synthesized these findings and commented on opportunities for improving health research. Reducing health disparities and advancing transgender-related health equity requires greater investment in research that addresses current gaps to more comprehensively respond to the diverse health needs of transgender people.

  9. Bridging the gap between knowledge and action for health: Case studies.

    PubMed Central

    Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2006-01-01

    Biomedical discoveries could improve people's health only if they are suited to the diverse political and social contexts, health systems and population groups. Knowledge generated through evidence-informed health policy and practice when applied to the local situation enhances the quality and efficiency of health care. This article describes four case studies on bridging the gap between knowledge and action for health in a tertiary care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. Gaps between knowledge and action for health are classified into "know-do" and "do-know" gaps with knowledge implementation and knowledge generation being the key measures for bridging the gap. PMID:16917646

  10. Mammalian Metabolism of β-Carotene: Gaps in Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Shete, Varsha; Quadro, Loredana

    2013-01-01

    β-carotene is the most abundant provitamin A carotenoid in human diet and tissues. It exerts a number of beneficial functions in mammals, including humans, owing to its ability to generate vitamin A as well as to emerging crucial signaling functions of its metabolites. Even though β-carotene is generally considered a safer form of vitamin A due to its highly regulated intestinal absorption, detrimental effects have also been ascribed to its intake, at least under specific circumstances. A better understanding of the metabolism of β-carotene is still needed to unequivocally discriminate the conditions under which it may exert beneficial or detrimental effects on human health and thus to enable the formulation of dietary recommendations adequate for different groups of individuals and populations worldwide. Here we provide a general overview of the metabolism of this vitamin A precursor in mammals with the aim of identifying the gaps in knowledge that call for immediate attention. We highlight the main questions that remain to be answered in regards to the cleavage, uptake, extracellular and intracellular transport of β-carotene as well as the interactions between the metabolism of β-carotene and that of other macronutrients such as lipids. PMID:24288025

  11. Knowledge gaps between nanotoxicological research and nanomaterial safety.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiangang; Li, Dandan; Gao, Yue; Mu, Li; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-09-01

    With the wide research and application of nanomaterials in various fields, the safety of nanomaterials attracts much attention. An increasing number of reports in the literature have shown the adverse effects of nanomaterials, representing the quick development of nanotoxicology. However, many studies in nanotoxicology have not reflected the real nanomaterial safety, and the knowledge gaps between nanotoxicological research and nanomaterial safety remain large. Considering the remarkable influence of biological or environmental matrices (e.g., biological corona) on nanotoxicity, the situation of performing nanotoxicological experiments should be relevant to the environment and humans. Given the possibility of long-term and low-concentration exposure of nanomaterials, the reversibility of and adaptation to nanotoxicity, and the transgenerational effects should not be ignored. Different from common pollutants, the specific analysis methodology for nanotoxicology need development and exploration furthermore. High-throughput assay integrating with omics was highlighted in the present review to globally investigate nanotoxicity. In addition, the biological responses beyond individual levels, special mechanisms and control of nanotoxicity deserve more attention. The progress of nanotoxicology has been reviewed by previous articles. This review focuses on the blind spots in nanotoxicological research and provides insight into what we should do in future work to support the healthy development of nanotechnology and the evaluation of real nanomaterial safety.

  12. Mammalian metabolism of β-carotene: gaps in knowledge.

    PubMed

    Shete, Varsha; Quadro, Loredana

    2013-11-27

    β-carotene is the most abundant provitamin A carotenoid in human diet and tissues. It exerts a number of beneficial functions in mammals, including humans, owing to its ability to generate vitamin A as well as to emerging crucial signaling functions of its metabolites. Even though β-carotene is generally considered a safer form of vitamin A due to its highly regulated intestinal absorption, detrimental effects have also been ascribed to its intake, at least under specific circumstances. A better understanding of the metabolism of β-carotene is still needed to unequivocally discriminate the conditions under which it may exert beneficial or detrimental effects on human health and thus to enable the formulation of dietary recommendations adequate for different groups of individuals and populations worldwide. Here we provide a general overview of the metabolism of this vitamin A precursor in mammals with the aim of identifying the gaps in knowledge that call for immediate attention. We highlight the main questions that remain to be answered in regards to the cleavage, uptake, extracellular and intracellular transport of β-carotene as well as the interactions between the metabolism of β-carotene and that of other macronutrients such as lipids.

  13. Bridging the PSI Knowledge Gap: A Multi-Scale Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Brian D.

    2015-01-08

    Plasma-surface interactions (PSI) pose an immense scientific hurdle in magnetic confinement fusion and our present understanding of PSI in confinement environments is highly inadequate; indeed, a recent Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee report found that 4 out of the 5 top five fusion knowledge gaps were related to PSI. The time is appropriate to develop a concentrated and synergistic science effort that would expand, exploit and integrate the wealth of laboratory ion-beam and plasma research, as well as exciting new computational tools, towards the goal of bridging the PSI knowledge gap. This effort would broadly advance plasma and material sciences, while providing critical knowledge towards progress in fusion PSI. This project involves the development of a Science Center focused on a new approach to PSI science; an approach that both exploits access to state-of-the-art PSI experiments and modeling, as well as confinement devices. The organizing principle is to develop synergistic experimental and modeling tools that treat the truly coupled multi-scale aspect of the PSI issues in confinement devices. This is motivated by the simple observation that while typical lab experiments and models allow independent manipulation of controlling variables, the confinement PSI environment is essentially self-determined with few outside controls. This means that processes that may be treated independently in laboratory experiments, because they involve vastly different physical and time scales, will now affect one another in the confinement environment. Also, lab experiments cannot simultaneously match all exposure conditions found in confinement devices typically forcing a linear extrapolation of lab results. At the same time programmatic limitations prevent confinement experiments alone from answering many key PSI questions. The resolution to this problem is to usefully exploit access to PSI science in lab devices, while retooling our thinking from a linear and de

  14. Strategies to Address Identified Education Gaps in the Preparation of a National Security Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-30

    This report will discuss strategies available to address identified gaps and weaknesses in education efforts aimed at the preparation of a skilled and properly trained national security workforce.The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This is contributing to an inability to fill vacant positions at NNSA resulting from high personnel turnover from the large number of retirements. Further, many of the retirees are practically irreplaceable because they are Cold War scientists that have experience and expertise with nuclear weapons.

  15. KNOWLEDGE GAPS AMONG SCHOOL STAFF AND THE ROLE OF HIGH QUALITY ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS IN SCHOOLS

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Natasha K.; Powers, Joelle. D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the current study was to examine the practice validity of a new ecological assessment instrument for 3rd through 5th graders in terms of whether it provided school staff with new knowledge about students. Method Pre-assessment knowledge of school staff was compared to data obtained from 21 children and their parents on 29 measures. Data were collected using the Elementary School Success Profile (ESSP). School staff pre-assessment knowledge was compared to obtained data across seven domains of children’s lives (neighborhood, school, family, peers, parent educational involvement, well-being, and home behavior), data sources (child and parent), and grade level of students. Results Pre-assessment knowledge was not highly correlated with obtained data; pre-assessment expectations matched obtained data only about 41% of the time; and knowledge varied by domain, source, and grade level. Conclusions Ecological assessments can address gaps in school staff’s knowledge of targetable factors that influence the success of students. PMID:21709823

  16. KNOWLEDGE GAPS AMONG SCHOOL STAFF AND THE ROLE OF HIGH QUALITY ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS IN SCHOOLS.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Powers, Joelle D

    2005-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to examine the practice validity of a new ecological assessment instrument for 3(rd) through 5(th) graders in terms of whether it provided school staff with new knowledge about students. METHOD: Pre-assessment knowledge of school staff was compared to data obtained from 21 children and their parents on 29 measures. Data were collected using the Elementary School Success Profile (ESSP). School staff pre-assessment knowledge was compared to obtained data across seven domains of children's lives (neighborhood, school, family, peers, parent educational involvement, well-being, and home behavior), data sources (child and parent), and grade level of students. RESULTS: Pre-assessment knowledge was not highly correlated with obtained data; pre-assessment expectations matched obtained data only about 41% of the time; and knowledge varied by domain, source, and grade level. CONCLUSIONS: Ecological assessments can address gaps in school staff's knowledge of targetable factors that influence the success of students.

  17. Closing the Gap between Knowledge and Clinical Application: Challenges for Genomic Translation

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Wylie; Korngiebel, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite early predictions and rapid progress in research, the introduction of personal genomics into clinical practice has been slow. Several factors contribute to this translational gap between knowledge and clinical application. The evidence available to support genetic test use is often limited, and implementation of new testing programs can be challenging. In addition, the heterogeneity of genomic risk information points to the need for strategies to select and deliver the information most appropriate for particular clinical needs. Accomplishing these tasks also requires recognition that some expectations for personal genomics are unrealistic, notably expectations concerning the clinical utility of genomic risk assessment for common complex diseases. Efforts are needed to improve the body of evidence addressing clinical outcomes for genomics, apply implementation science to personal genomics, and develop realistic goals for genomic risk assessment. In addition, translational research should emphasize the broader benefits of genomic knowledge, including applications of genomic research that provide clinical benefit outside the context of personal genomic risk. PMID:25719903

  18. Closing the gap between knowledge and clinical application: challenges for genomic translation.

    PubMed

    Burke, Wylie; Korngiebel, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    Despite early predictions and rapid progress in research, the introduction of personal genomics into clinical practice has been slow. Several factors contribute to this translational gap between knowledge and clinical application. The evidence available to support genetic test use is often limited, and implementation of new testing programs can be challenging. In addition, the heterogeneity of genomic risk information points to the need for strategies to select and deliver the information most appropriate for particular clinical needs. Accomplishing these tasks also requires recognition that some expectations for personal genomics are unrealistic, notably expectations concerning the clinical utility of genomic risk assessment for common complex diseases. Efforts are needed to improve the body of evidence addressing clinical outcomes for genomics, apply implementation science to personal genomics, and develop realistic goals for genomic risk assessment. In addition, translational research should emphasize the broader benefits of genomic knowledge, including applications of genomic research that provide clinical benefit outside the context of personal genomic risk.

  19. Biochar effects on soils: overview and knowledge gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheijen, F. G. A.; Jeffery, S.; Bastos, A. C.; van der Velde, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the cornerstones of the sustainable biochar concept is to improve, or at least to not deteriorate, soil quality and functioning. The idea of global sustainable biochar systems, with biochar applied to global cropland and grassland soils, has highlighted limitations in: i) current scientific understanding of biochar interactions with soil components, ii) the capacity to assess ecosystem services provided by soils, and iii) the uncertainty in spatio-temporal representation of both (i) and (ii). Pyrolysis conditions and feedstock characteristics largely control the physico-chemical properties of the resulting biochar, which in turn determine the suitability for a given application. Soils are highly heterogeneous systems at a range of scales. Combinations of land use, soil management and changing climatic conditions further enhance this heterogeneity. While this leads to difficulties in identifying the underlying mechanisms behind reported effects in the scientific literature, it also provides an opportunity for 'critical matching' of biochar properties that are best suited to a particular site (depending on soil type, hydrology, climate, land use, soil contaminants, etc.). Biochar's relatively long mean residence times in soils (100s of years) make it a potential instrument for sequestering carbon (if done sustainably). However, that same long mean residence time sets biochar apart from conventional soil amendments (such as manures and other organic fertilizers) that are considered as transient in the soil (1-10s of years). The functional life time of biochar in soils essentially moves biochar from a soil management tool to a geo-engineering technique. One of the consequences is that desired ecosystem services that are provided by soils, have to be projected for the same time period. This presentation aims to discuss critical knowledge gaps in biochar-soil-ecosystem interactions against a background of ecosystem services.

  20. The value of health information technology: filling the knowledge gap.

    PubMed

    Rudin, Robert S; Jones, Spencer S; Shekelle, Paul; Hillestad, Richard J; Keeler, Emmett B

    2014-11-01

    Despite rapid growth in the rate of adoption of health information technology (HIT), and in the volume of evaluation studies, the existing knowledge base for the value of HIT is not advancing at a similar rate. Most evaluation articles are limited in that they use incomplete measures of value and fail to report the important contextual and implementation characteristics that would allow for an adequate understanding of how the study results were achieved. To address these deficiencies, we present a conceptual framework for measuring HIT value and we propose a checklist of characteristics that should be considered in HIT evaluation studies. The framework consists of 3 key principles: 1) value includes both costs and benefits; 2) value accrues over time; and 3) value depends on which stakeholder's perspective is used. Through examples, we show how these principles can be used to guide and improve HIT evaluation studies. The checklist includes a list of contextual and implementation characteristics that are important for interpretation of results. These improvements will make future studies more useful for policy makers and more relevant to the current needs of the healthcare system.

  1. Adult Education and Training in Canada: Key Knowledge Gaps. [Research Paper Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Joni; Berube, Gilles; Roy, Richard; Salmon, Wendy

    This paper identifies important knowledge gaps in adult education and training (AET) in Canada and starts to explore strategies to fill these gaps. Following an introduction in English and French, each of the next three sections is comprised of a review of the current state of knowledge on three topics (outcomes of adult learning, motivations and…

  2. Mitigating the Mathematical Knowledge Gap between High School and First Year University Chemical Engineering Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basitere, Moses; Ivala, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out at a University of Technology, South Africa, aimed at identifying the existence of the mathematical knowledge gap and evaluating the intervention designed to bridge the knowledge gap amongst students studying first year mathematics at the Chemical Engineering Extended Curriculum Program (ECP). In this…

  3. Filling Knowledge Gaps with Five Fuel Cycle Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Jess Gehin; William Halsey; Temitope Taiwo

    2010-11-01

    During FY 2010, five studies were conducted of technology families’ applicability to various fuel cycle strategies to fill in knowledge gaps in option space and to better understand trends and patterns. Here, a “technology family” is considered to be defined by a type of reactor and by selection of which actinides provide fuel. This report summarizes the higher-level findings; the detailed analyses and results are documented in five individual reports, as follows: • Advanced once through with uranium fuel in fast reactors (SFR), • Advanced once through (uranium fuel) or single recycle (TRU fuel) in high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), • Sustained recycle with Th/U-233 in light water reactors (LWRs), • Sustained recycle with Th/U-233 in molten salt reactors (MSR), and • Several fuel cycle missions with Fusion-Fission Hybrid (FFH). Each study examined how the designated technology family could serve one or more designated fuel cycle missions, filling in gaps in overall option space. Each study contains one or more illustrative cases that show how the technology family could be used to meet a fuel cycle mission, as well as broader information on the technology family such as other potential fuel cycle missions for which insufficient information was available to include with an illustrative case. None of the illustrative cases can be considered as a reference, baseline, or nominal set of parameters for judging performance; the assessments were designed to assess areas of option space and were not meant to be optimized. There is no implication that any of the cases or technology families are necessarily the best way to meet a given fuel cycle mission. The studies provide five examples of 1-year fuel cycle assessments of technology families. There is reasonable coverage in the five studies of the performance areas of waste management and uranium utilization. The coverage of economics, safety, and proliferation resistance and physical protection in

  4. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S K; Adjeroud, M; Bellwood, D R; Berumen, M L; Booth, D; Bozec, Y-Marie; Chabanet, P; Cheal, A; Cinner, J; Depczynski, M; Feary, D A; Gagliano, M; Graham, N A J; Halford, A R; Halpern, B S; Harborne, A R; Hoey, A S; Holbrook, S J; Jones, G P; Kulbiki, M; Letourneur, Y; De Loma, T L; McClanahan, T; McCormick, M I; Meekan, M G; Mumby, P J; Munday, P L; Ohman, M C; Pratchett, M S; Riegl, B; Sano, M; Schmitt, R J; Syms, C

    2010-03-15

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.

  5. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective.

    PubMed

    Smale, Dan A; Burrows, Michael T; Moore, Pippa; O'Connor, Nessa; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Kelp forests along temperate and polar coastlines represent some of most diverse and productive habitats on the Earth. Here, we synthesize information from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors. We collated existing data on kelp distribution and abundance and reanalyzed these data to describe the structure of kelp forests along a spatial gradient spanning more than 10° of latitude. We then examined ecological goods and services provided by kelp forests, including elevated secondary production, nutrient cycling, energy capture and flow, coastal defense, direct applications, and biodiversity repositories, before discussing current and future threats posed to kelp forests and identifying key knowledge gaps. Recent evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the structure of kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is changing in response to climate- and non-climate-related stressors, which will have major implications for the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. However, kelp-dominated habitats along much of the NE Atlantic coastline have been chronically understudied over recent decades in comparison with other regions such as Australasia and North America. The paucity of field-based research currently impedes our ability to conserve and manage these important ecosystems. Targeted observational and experimental research conducted over large spatial and temporal scales is urgently needed to address these knowledge gaps.

  6. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Smale, Dan A; Burrows, Michael T; Moore, Pippa; O'Connor, Nessa; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Kelp forests along temperate and polar coastlines represent some of most diverse and productive habitats on the Earth. Here, we synthesize information from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors. We collated existing data on kelp distribution and abundance and reanalyzed these data to describe the structure of kelp forests along a spatial gradient spanning more than 10° of latitude. We then examined ecological goods and services provided by kelp forests, including elevated secondary production, nutrient cycling, energy capture and flow, coastal defense, direct applications, and biodiversity repositories, before discussing current and future threats posed to kelp forests and identifying key knowledge gaps. Recent evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the structure of kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is changing in response to climate- and non-climate-related stressors, which will have major implications for the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. However, kelp-dominated habitats along much of the NE Atlantic coastline have been chronically understudied over recent decades in comparison with other regions such as Australasia and North America. The paucity of field-based research currently impedes our ability to conserve and manage these important ecosystems. Targeted observational and experimental research conducted over large spatial and temporal scales is urgently needed to address these knowledge gaps. PMID:24198956

  7. Caffeine-containing energy drinks: beginning to address the gaps in what we know.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Barbara C; Coates, Paul M

    2014-09-01

    Energy drinks are relatively new to the United States but are the fastest growing segment of the beverage market. Humans have a long history of consuming caffeine in traditional beverages, such as cocoa, coffee, tea, and yerba maté, but 2 workshops held at the Institute of Medicine (http://www.iom.edu/Activities/Nutrition/PotentialHazardsCaffeineSupplements/2013-AUG-05.aspx) and the NIH (http://ods.od.nih.gov/News/EnergyDrinksWorkshop2013.aspx) in 2013 highlighted many critical gaps in understanding the biologic and behavioral effects of the mixtures of caffeine, vitamins, herbs, sugar or other sweeteners, and other ingredients that typify caffeine-containing energy drinks (CCEDs). For example, different surveys over the same 2010–2012 timeframe report discrepant prevalence of CCED use by teenagers, ranging from 10.3% in 13–17 y olds to >30% of those in grades 10 and 12. Understanding of functional interactions between CCED ingredients, drivers of use, and biologic and behavioral effects is limited. The 4 speakers in the Experimental Biology 2014 symposium titled “Energy Drinks: Current Knowledge and Critical Research Gaps” described recent progress by their groups in extending our understanding of prevalence of CCED use, sources of caffeine in the United States, drivers of CCED use, and behavioral correlations and effects of CCEDs, including effects on attractiveness of both alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.

  8. Addressing Achievement Gaps: School Finance and the Achievement Gap--Funding Programs That Work. Policy Notes. Volume 16, Number 3, Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    In education reform, money matters, but so does spending it wisely--on programs designed to meet the ambitious goal of helping low-income and minority children achieve at the same levels as their more affluent peers. The latest in the Educational Testing Service's (ETS's) series of symposia on Addressing Achievement Gaps brought researchers,…

  9. The politics of knowledge: implications for understanding and addressing mental health and illness.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Emily K

    2014-03-01

    While knowledge represents a valuable commodity, not all forms of knowledge are afforded equal status. The politics of knowledge, which entails the privileging of particular ways of knowing through linkages between the producers of knowledge and other bearers of authority or influence, represents a powerful force driving knowledge development. Within the health research and practice community, biomedical knowledge (i.e. knowledge pertaining to the biological factors influencing health) has been afforded a privileged position, shaping the health research and practice community's view of health, illness and appropriate intervention. The aim of this study is to spark critical reflection and dialogue surrounding the ways in which the politics of knowledge have constrained progress in addressing mental health and illness, one of today's leading public health issues. I argue that the hegemony of biological knowledge represents an ethical issue as it limits the breadth of knowledge available to support practitioners to 'do good' in terms of addressing mental illness. Given the power and influence inherent within the nursing community, I propose that nurses ought to engage in critical reflection and action in an effort to better situate the health research and practice community to effectively address the mental health of populations.

  10. The Knowledge Gap Hypothesis and Media Dependence: An Initial Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Donald L.

    Interviews with 548 heads of household randomly selected from the Columbus, Ohio, telephone directory provided data on the subjects' political knowledge, news information sources (television, newspapers), and educational level. These data supported three of five hypotheses about the relation between knowledge level and media dependence. There was…

  11. "Knowledge Gap" Phenomena: Effect of Situation-Specific and Transsituational Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovrich, Nicholas P., Jr.; Pierce, John C.

    1984-01-01

    Findings suggest that knowledge of public policy (on water resources, for example) reflects personal motivation, with people differing in knowledgeability from one policy area to the other; and that lower socioeconomic status people can narrow the knowledge gap if they can be convinced of their individual stake in particular issues. (PD)

  12. The gap in your knowledge: gender on wheels.

    PubMed

    Crisp, A H; Lincoln, H; Mintram, M K; Crutchfield, M; Bhat, A V

    Among a group of young car drivers the size of the gap perceived as necessary to allow them to drive their cars through was related to their degree of measured fatness. This relationship extended to measured height and shoulder breadth in women and self-perception of shoulder breadth in men. No relationship could be found with the premenstrual phase in women. These findings may have important social implications.

  13. Knowledge gaps regarding APN roles: what hospital decision-makers tell us.

    PubMed

    Carter, Nancy; Dobbins, Maureen; Ireland, Sandra; Hoxby, Heather; Peachey, Gladys; DiCenso, Alba

    2013-12-01

    The implementation of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles can yield improvements in patient and health system outcomes, and supportive leadership is integral in facilitating the implementation of such roles. The purpose of this study was to explore the awareness and understanding of APN roles among hospital decision-makers, and to learn about the information they require and the ways in which they prefer to receive that information. Fifteen administrators and leaders from two multi-site acute care organizations were interviewed. Their practical knowledge of APN roles was based on experience developing the roles or working with APNs in hospital programs. The most common sources of APN information were internal contacts (i.e., APNs) and documents from nursing organizations. Participants reported difficulty distinguishing between the roles of nurse practitioners (NPs) and clinical nurse specialists (CNSs), and identified knowledge regarding CNS roles as their greatest need. They required specific information regarding the "value-added" benefits offered by an APN role. Strategies to address the knowledge gaps of healthcare leaders are urgently needed in order to support the implementation of new APN roles and to sustain existing ones.

  14. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  15. Learner Strategies for Filling the Knowledge Gap during Collaborative Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearon, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    Recent research by Swain (2000a, 2000b, 1998, 1995), Swain and Lapkin (2001, 1998, 1995) and Kowal and Swain (1997, 1994) has examined the role of collaborative tasks in focusing immersion students' attention on the need for explicit knowledge of grammatical forms and lexical items in the production (especially written) of French texts. This is…

  16. Gaps in Alzheimer's Knowledge among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of the disease, it appears that there may be a need for increased education for formal and family caregivers of those with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Today's college students will be asked to fill both of these roles in the future. This study examined the level of knowledge of Alzheimer's…

  17. Sister chromatid decatenation: bridging the gaps in our knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Ronan; Niedzwiedz, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation is critical in preventing genome loss or damage during cell division. Failure to properly disentangle catenated sister chromatids can lead to the formation of bulky or ultrafine anaphase bridges, and ultimately genome instability. In this review we present an overview of the current state of knowledge of how sister chromatid decatenation is carried out, with particular focus on the role of TOP2A and TOPBP1 in this process. PMID:26266709

  18. Review article: Assessing the costs of natural hazards - state of the art and knowledge gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, V.; Becker, N.; Markantonis, V.; Schwarze, R.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.; Bouwer, L. M.; Bubeck, P.; Ciavola, P.; Genovese, E.; Green, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Kreibich, H.; Lequeux, Q.; Logar, I.; Papyrakis, E.; Pfurtscheller, C.; Poussin, J.; Przyluski, V.; Thieken, A. H.; Viavattene, C.

    2013-05-01

    Efficiently reducing natural hazard risks requires a thorough understanding of the costs of natural hazards. Current methods to assess these costs employ a variety of terminologies and approaches for different types of natural hazards and different impacted sectors. This may impede efforts to ascertain comprehensive and comparable cost figures. In order to strengthen the role of cost assessments in the development of integrated natural hazard management, a review of existing cost assessment approaches was undertaken. This review considers droughts, floods, coastal and Alpine hazards, and examines different cost types, namely direct tangible damages, losses due to business interruption, indirect damages, intangible effects, and the costs of risk mitigation. This paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art cost assessment approaches and discusses key knowledge gaps. It shows that the application of cost assessments in practice is often incomplete and biased, as direct costs receive a relatively large amount of attention, while intangible and indirect effects are rarely considered. Furthermore, all parts of cost assessment entail considerable uncertainties due to insufficient or highly aggregated data sources, along with a lack of knowledge about the processes leading to damage and thus the appropriate models required. Recommendations are provided on how to reduce or handle these uncertainties by improving data sources and cost assessment methods. Further recommendations address how risk dynamics due to climate and socio-economic change can be better considered, how costs are distributed and risks transferred, and in what ways cost assessment can function as part of decision support.

  19. Self and Social Interest in News Events and the Knowledge Gap Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genova, B. K. L.; Greenberg, Bradley S.

    This study attempted to clarify the interplay of self/social interest and education level as factors in the "knowledge gap" hypothesis, which states that knowledge of heavily publicized topics is accrued faster over time by better educated persons. In each of two telephone surveys in the Lansing, Michigan, area, the same 253 adults were measured…

  20. Motivation and the Knowledge Gap: Effects of a Campaign to Reduce Diet-Related Cancer Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viswanath, K.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines whether knowledge gaps decrease when motivation to acquire information is similar among more and less educated groups. Compares two groups with differing motivations to acquire cancer and diet information in a community that received a year-long health campaign. Finds evidence of education-based differences in knowledge even among members…

  1. Integrating Data Analysis (IDA): Working with Sociology Departments to Address the Quantitative Literacy Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howery, Carla B.; Rodriguez, Havidan

    2006-01-01

    The NSF-funded Integrating Data Analysis (IDA) Project undertaken by the American Sociological Association (ASA) and the Social Science Data Analysis Network sought to close the quantitative literacy gap for sociology majors. Working with twelve departments, the project built on lessons learned from ASA's Minority Opportunities through School…

  2. Forum on Addressing Performance Gaps of Low-Performing Students: Implications for Assessment and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, S.; Christensen, L.; Shyyan, V.; Thurlow, M.

    2013-01-01

    Sixty-two individuals representing sixteen states, three school districts, eleven testing and testing-related companies, and eleven other organizations participated in a forum on June 19, 2013, in National Harbor, Maryland, to discuss the performance gaps of low-performing students and their implications for assessment and instruction. The forum…

  3. Developing Deep Understanding and Literacy while Addressing a Gender-Based Literacy Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yanqing; Zhang, Jianwei; Scardamalia, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    Online discourse from a class of 22 students (11 boys and 11 girls) was analysed to assess advances in conceptual understanding and literacy. The students worked over a two-year period (Grades 3-4), during which they contributed notes to an online Knowledge Building environment--Knowledge Forum[R]. Contributions revealed that both boys and girls…

  4. The Role of Theatre and Embodied Knowledge in Addressing Race in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the role of theatrical performance as a means of addressing the embodied and spatio-temporal manifestations of race and racism within South African higher education. As part of Jansen's proposal for a post-conflict pedagogy in South Africa, the article argues for the development and inclusion of embodied knowledges as an…

  5. Bridging the knowledge gap between Big Data producers and consumers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, G. S.; Worley, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most weather data is produced, disseminated and consumed by expert users in large national operational centers or laboratories. Data 'ages' off their systems in days or weeks. While archives exist, would-be users often lack the credentials necessary to obtain an account to access or search its contents. Moreover, operational centers and many national archives lack the mandate and the resources to serve non-expert users. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Research Data Archive (RDA), rda.ucar.edu, was created over 40 years ago to collect data for NCAR's internal Big Science projects such as the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project. Over time, the data holdings have grown to 1.8+ Petabytes spanning 600+ datasets. The user base has also grown; in 2014, we served 1.1 Petabytes of data to over 11,000 unique users. The RDA works with national centers, such as NCEP, ECMWF and JMA to make their data available to worldwide audiences and mutually support data access at the production source. We have become not just an open-access data center, but also a data education center. Each dataset archived at the RDA is assigned to a data specialist (DS) who curates the data. If a user has a question not answered in the dataset information web pages prepared by the DS, they can call or email a skilled DS for further clarification. The RDA's diverse staff—with academic training in meteorology, oceanography, engineering (electrical, civil, ocean and database), mathematics, physics, chemistry and information science—means we likely have someone who "speaks your language." Erroneous data assumptions are the Achilles heel of Big Data. It doesn't matter how much data you crunch if the data is not what you think it is. Data discovery is another difficult Big Data problem; one can only solve problems with data if one can find the right data. Metadata, both machine and human-generated, underpin the RDA data search tools. The RDA has stepped in to fill the gap between data

  6. Incinerator Ash Management: Knowledge and information gaps to 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Goldin, A.; Bigelow, C.; Veneman, P.L.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Incinerator Ash Management Project at the University of Massachusetts was established in 1986 to gather written and numerical test data from existing literature and from persons knowledgeable about incinerator ash management. Information was solicited on sampling and testing methods; incinerator ash properties, and incinerator and fuel characteristics that may affect ash properties; the different components of ash management systems; and regulatory concerns. The principal data were collected on total metals, EP toxicity test results, dioxins and furans, and the composition of refuse. Cadmium and lead are apparently the most important elements affecting the ash toxicity. The values for total metals and values from the EP toxicity test are both extremely variable. Unfortunately, information about incinerator conditions at the time of sampling is often missing, which severely limits statistical interpretation of the data. The selection of an appropriate ash-management option depends on factors such as ash composition; availability, location, and nature of landfills; and the availability of alternative use or disposal techniques. Many states and the federal government are currently considering how to regulate incinerator ash management and are at various stages in this process.

  7. South American mega cities: Knowledge gaps and collaboration opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, L.

    2012-04-01

    Urbanization and population concentration are outstanding phenomena in South America. About 83% of the 530 million South Americans live already in large coastal or near coastal cities (> 750 k inhabitants), many of which are heavily polluted. Curbing measures have been implemented on a relatively fast pace taking advantage of lessons learned elsewhere. However, as environmental objectives become more ambitious, considering for instance chronic health effects, impacts on ecosystems and agriculture, addressing secondary particles and climatic impacts, the need for cost-effective measures requires of more reliable and locally representative data. Such data include: emission fluxes (both natural and anthropogenic) and emission scenarios; characterization of vertical mixing; speciation and distribution of pollutants and precursors. In this presentation, we review the current situation in terms of atmospheric modeling, emission modeling, measuring and observations in a number of South American cities. Also, we describe low-cost actions oriented towards improving our understanding of: 1) vertical mixing by means of a modeling inter comparison exercise using data already collected in Santiago de Chile; 2) aerosol composition and speciation of volatile organic compounds by means of a coordinated sampling of filters and canisters at various locations highlighting the diversity of our cities. These actions were collectively convened by ca. 50 leading scientists and local policy makers during an international symposium held in Santiago in January 2012 (http://ossaf.cmm.uchile.cl/). This activity marked the closure of a five year project sponsored by the Inter American Institute on Global Change Research that tackled South American Emissions Megacities and Climate (SAEMC, CRN 2017). It was also a regional activity promoted and sponsored by the international Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (iCACGP), and by the World

  8. Bridging the implementation gap between knowledge and action for health.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Andy; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Borchert, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    There is widespread evidence of failure to implement health interventions that have been demonstrated to be cost-effective by high-quality research; this failure affects both high-income and low-income countries. Low-income countries face additional challenges to using research evidence including: the weakness of their health systems, the lack of professional regulation and a lack of access to evidence. There is a need to strengthen institutions and mechanisms that can more systematically promote interactions between researchers, policy-makers and other stakeholders who can influence the uptake of research findings. The concept of public engagement with health research requires a public that is both informed and active. Even when systematic reviews are available further work is needed to translate their findings into guidelines or messages that are understandable to patients and health professionals. Many of the commonly used approaches for keeping health professionals' knowledge up-to-date appear to have small or inconsistent effects. The evidence-base is more extensive for interventions directed towards professionals, such as education, reminders or feedback, than for those directed at organizations or patients. The effect of interventions varies according to the setting and the behaviour that is targeted. Case studies in low-income settings suggest that some strategies can result in increased coverage of evidence-based interventions, but there is a lack of evidence from systematic reviews of rigorous research. Given the potential for near-term improvements in health, finding more effective ways of promoting the uptake of evidence-based interventions should be a priority for researchers, practitioners and policy-makers. PMID:15643791

  9. Opinion: nickel and urease in plants: still many knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Polacco, Joe C; Mazzafera, Paulo; Tezotto, Tiago

    2013-02-01

    We propose experimental strategies to expand our understanding of the role of Ni in plants, beyond the Ni-metallocenter of urease, still the only identified Ni-containing plant enzyme. While Ni has been considered an essential mineral for plants there is a clear lack of knowledge of its involvement in metabolic steps except the urease-catalyzed conversion of urea to ammonia and bicarbonate. We argue that urease (and hence, Ni) plays an important role in optimal N-use efficiency under various N regimes by recycling urea-N, which is generated endogenously exclusively from arginase action on arginine. We further suggest that urease and arginase may connect different metabolic compartments under stress situations, and therefore may be involved in stress tolerance. To determine possible non-urease roles of Ni we call for experimental manipulation of both Ni and N availability in urease-negative mutants. Plant ureases have been shown to have defense roles, distinct from their ureolytic activity, and we call for investigation of whether Ni helps maintain a urease conformation or stability for these non-ureolytic defense roles. The beneficial effects of Ni at upper concentration limits have not been fully examined. We posit a "Ni strategy" of plants whose growth/performance is stimulated by unusual amounts of soil Ni, for defense and/or for maximal N-use efficiency. While we know little about Ni and urease roles in N metabolism and defense, virtually nothing is known about Ni roles in plant-microbial 'consortia.' And, much of what we know of Ni and urease is limited to only a few plants, e.g. soybean, potato and Arabidopsis, and we suggest studies vigorously extended to other plants. PMID:23265321

  10. Knowledge gaps in tropical Southeast Asian seagrass systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, Jillian Lean Sim; Kendrick, Gary A.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Affendi, Yang Amri

    2011-03-01

    Seagrasses are habitats with significant ecological and economic functions but we have limited knowledge of seagrasses in Southeast Asia, the hypothesized centre-of-origin for tropical seagrasses. There have been only 62 ISI-cited publications on the seagrasses of Southeast Asia in the last three decades and most work has been in few sites such as Northwest Luzon in the Philippines and South Sulawesi in Indonesia. Our understanding of the processes driving spatial and temporal distributions of seagrass species here has focussed primarily on backreef and estuarine seagrass meadows, with little work on forereef systems. We used Pulau Tinggi, an island off the southeast coast of Peninsular Malaysia, as an example of a subtidal forereef system. It is characterized by a community of small and fast growing species such as Halophila ovalis (mean shoot density 1454.6 ± 145.1 m -2) and Halodule uninervis (mean shoot density 861.7 ± 372.0 m -2) growing in relatively low light conditions (mean PAR 162.1 ± 35.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 10 m depth to 405.8 ± 99.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 3 m water depth) on sediment with low carbonate (mean 9.24 ± 1.74 percentage dry weight), organic matter (mean 2.56 ± 0.35 percentage dry weight) and silt-clay content (mean 2.28 ± 2.43 percentage dry weight). The literature reveals that there is a range of drivers operating in Southeast Asian seagrass systems and we suggest that this is because there are various types of seagrass habitats in this region, i.e. backreef, forereef and estuary, each of which has site characteristics and ecological drivers unique to it. Based on our case study of Pulau Tinggi, we suggest that seagrasses in forereef systems are more widespread in Southeast Asia than is reflected in the literature and that they are likely to be driven by recurring disturbance events such as monsoons, sediment burial and herbivory.

  11. Another (methodological) look at knowledge gaps and the Internet's potential for closing them.

    PubMed

    Cacciatore, Michael A; Scheufele, Dietram A; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2014-05-01

    Members of the World Economic Forum recently identified the economic, health and knowledge disparities between the "haves" and "have-nots" in the world as one of the central risks in the global risk landscape. However, research on the role of communication in reducing knowledge disparities for emerging technologies is rare. More importantly, little research has tracked knowledge gaps about emerging technologies in representative populations over time. In this study we examine U.S. public knowledge levels across different levels of education and media use using data from two nationally representative telephone surveys. Our results show that increased science Internet and television use among low education groups can help narrow, or significantly reduce the growth of knowledge gaps that are forming based on educational disparities.

  12. Bridging the Gap: Essential Issues to Address in Recurring Writing Center Appointments with Chinese ELL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    As the population of international--and particularly Chinese--students grows in US academic institutions, it is critical that writing center tutors be able to address these students' needs. However, whereas writing tutors at the author's institution are often taught to be indirect and focus on higher order concerns, such strategies are not always…

  13. Addressing Information Gaps: Disparities in Financial Awareness and Preparedness on the Road to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George-Jackson, Casey; Gast, Melanie Jones

    2014-01-01

    The rising cost of higher education and questions of affordability are concerns for many families in the United States, but particularly for those from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds. The knowledge of, information about, and perceptions related to how to pay for college can impact preparatory actions taken by families to prepare to pay…

  14. School Nurses Can Address Existing Gaps in School-Age Sleep Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers,…

  15. Avoiding a knowledge gap in a multiethnic statewide social marketing campaign: is cultural tailoring sufficient?

    PubMed

    Buchthal, O Vanessa; Doff, Amy L; Hsu, Laura A; Silbanuz, Alice; Heinrich, Katie M; Maddock, Jay E

    2011-03-01

    In 2007, the State of Hawaii, Healthy Hawaii Initiative conducted a statewide social-marketing campaign promoting increased physical activity and nutrition. The campaign included substantial formative research to develop messages tailored for Hawaii's multiethnic Asian and Pacific Islander populations. The authors conducted a statewide random digital dialing telephone survey to assess the campaign's comparative reach among individuals with different ethnicities and different levels of education and income. This analysis suggests that the intervention was successful in reaching its target ethnic audiences. However, a knowledge gap related to the campaign appeared among individuals with incomes less than 130% of the poverty level and those with less than a high school education. These results varied significantly by message and the communication channel used. Recall of supermarket-based messages was significantly higher among individuals below 130% of the poverty level and those between 18 and 35 years of age, 2 groups that showed consistently lower recall of messages in other channels. Results suggest that cultural tailoring for ethnic audiences, although important, is insufficient for reaching low-income populations, and that broad-based social marketing campaigns should consider addressing socioeconomic status-related channel preferences in formative research and campaign design. PMID:21298585

  16. Avoiding a knowledge gap in a multiethnic statewide social marketing campaign: is cultural tailoring sufficient?

    PubMed

    Buchthal, O Vanessa; Doff, Amy L; Hsu, Laura A; Silbanuz, Alice; Heinrich, Katie M; Maddock, Jay E

    2011-03-01

    In 2007, the State of Hawaii, Healthy Hawaii Initiative conducted a statewide social-marketing campaign promoting increased physical activity and nutrition. The campaign included substantial formative research to develop messages tailored for Hawaii's multiethnic Asian and Pacific Islander populations. The authors conducted a statewide random digital dialing telephone survey to assess the campaign's comparative reach among individuals with different ethnicities and different levels of education and income. This analysis suggests that the intervention was successful in reaching its target ethnic audiences. However, a knowledge gap related to the campaign appeared among individuals with incomes less than 130% of the poverty level and those with less than a high school education. These results varied significantly by message and the communication channel used. Recall of supermarket-based messages was significantly higher among individuals below 130% of the poverty level and those between 18 and 35 years of age, 2 groups that showed consistently lower recall of messages in other channels. Results suggest that cultural tailoring for ethnic audiences, although important, is insufficient for reaching low-income populations, and that broad-based social marketing campaigns should consider addressing socioeconomic status-related channel preferences in formative research and campaign design.

  17. Addressing prospective elementary teachers' mathematics subject matter knowledge through action research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourigan, Mairéad; O'Donoghue, John

    2015-01-01

    There is international dissatisfaction regarding the standard of mathematics subject matter knowledge (MSMK) evident among both qualified and prospective elementary teachers. Ireland is no exception. Following increasing anecdotal evidence of prospective elementary teachers in one Irish College of Education (provider of initial teacher education programme) demonstrating weaknesses in this regard, this study sought to examine and address the issue through two cycles of action research. The examination of the nature of prospective teachers' MSMK (as well as related beliefs in the main study) informed the design and implementation of an intervention to address the issue. A mixed method approach was taken throughout. In both cycles, Shapiro's criteria were used as a conceptual framework for the evaluation of the initiative. This paper focuses on the perceived and actual effects of the intervention on participants' MSMK. As well as its contribution at a local and national level, the study provides an Irish perspective on approaches taken to address the phenomenon internationally.

  18. Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  19. Addressing the leadership gap in medicine: residents' need for systematic leadership development training.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Daniel M; Bernard, Ken; Bohnen, Jordan; Bohmer, Richard

    2012-04-01

    All clinicians take on leadership responsibilities when delivering care. Evidence suggests that effective clinical leadership yields superior clinical outcomes. However, few residency programs systematically teach all residents how to lead, and many clinicians are inadequately prepared to meet their day-to-day clinical leadership responsibilities. The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to make the case for the need to refocus residency education around the development of outstanding "frontline" clinical leaders and, second, to provide an evidence-based framework for designing formal leadership development programs for residents. The authors first present a definition of clinical leadership and highlight evidence that effective frontline clinical leadership improves both clinical outcomes and satisfaction for patients and providers. The authors then discuss the health care "leadership gap" and describe barriers to implementing leadership development training in health care. Next, they present evidence that leaders are not just "born" but, rather, can be "made," and offer a set of best practices to facilitate the design of leadership development programs. Finally, the authors suggest approaches to mitigating barriers to implementing leadership development programs and highlight the major reasons why health care delivery organizations, residency programs, and national accreditation bodies must make comprehensive leadership education an explicit goal of residency training. PMID:22361800

  20. Addressing the leadership gap in medicine: residents' need for systematic leadership development training.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Daniel M; Bernard, Ken; Bohnen, Jordan; Bohmer, Richard

    2012-04-01

    All clinicians take on leadership responsibilities when delivering care. Evidence suggests that effective clinical leadership yields superior clinical outcomes. However, few residency programs systematically teach all residents how to lead, and many clinicians are inadequately prepared to meet their day-to-day clinical leadership responsibilities. The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to make the case for the need to refocus residency education around the development of outstanding "frontline" clinical leaders and, second, to provide an evidence-based framework for designing formal leadership development programs for residents. The authors first present a definition of clinical leadership and highlight evidence that effective frontline clinical leadership improves both clinical outcomes and satisfaction for patients and providers. The authors then discuss the health care "leadership gap" and describe barriers to implementing leadership development training in health care. Next, they present evidence that leaders are not just "born" but, rather, can be "made," and offer a set of best practices to facilitate the design of leadership development programs. Finally, the authors suggest approaches to mitigating barriers to implementing leadership development programs and highlight the major reasons why health care delivery organizations, residency programs, and national accreditation bodies must make comprehensive leadership education an explicit goal of residency training.

  1. Filling gaps in a large reserve network to address freshwater conservation needs.

    PubMed

    Hermoso, Virgilio; Filipe, Ana Filipa; Segurado, Pedro; Beja, Pedro

    2015-09-15

    Freshwater ecosystems and biodiversity are among the most threatened at global scale, but efforts for their conservation have been mostly peripheral to terrestrial conservation. For example, Natura 2000, the world's largest network of protected areas, fails to cover adequately the distribution of rare and endangered aquatic species, and lacks of appropriate spatial design to make conservation for freshwater biodiversity effective. Here, we develop a framework to identify a complementary set of priority areas and enhance the conservation opportunities of Natura 2000 for freshwater biodiversity, using the Iberian Peninsula as a case study. We use a systematic planning approach to identify a minimum set of additional areas that would help i) adequately represent all freshwater fish, amphibians and aquatic reptiles at three different target levels, ii) account for key ecological processes derived from riverscape connectivity, and iii) minimize the impact of threats, both within protected areas and propagated from upstream unprotected areas. Addressing all these goals would need an increase in area between 7 and 46%, depending on the conservation target used and strength of connectivity required. These new priority areas correspond to subcatchments inhabited by endangered and range restricted species, as well as additional subcatchments required to improve connectivity among existing protected areas and to increase protection against upstream threats. Our study should help guide future revisions of the design of Natura 2000, while providing a framework to address deficiencies in reserve networks for adequately protecting freshwater biodiversity elsewhere. PMID:26203875

  2. Knowledge Management Practices and Enablers in Public Universities: A Gap Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran, Sharimllah Devi; Chong, Siong-Choy; Wong, Kuan-Yew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the gap between knowledge management (KM) practices and key strategic enablers in public universities. For this purpose, a 57-item survey on two dimensions--"use" and "importance"--was used as the instrument for this study. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire was administered to academics…

  3. The Development of Children's Ability to Fill the Gaps in Their Knowledge by Consulting Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Naomi R.; Stoess, Caryn J.; Taylor, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated children's ability to recognize gaps in their knowledge and seek missing information from appropriate informants. In Experiment 1, forty-five 4- and 5-year-olds were adept in assigning questions from 3 domains (medicine, firefighting, and farming) to corresponding experts (doctor, firefighter, or farmer). However, when…

  4. Beyond Knowledge Gaps: Examining Socioeconomic Differences in Response to Cancer News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This article tested a model, informed by the knowledge gap hypothesis, to predict information seeking about cancer immediately following news about the diagnosis or death from cancer of a national celebrity. I identified five celebrity news events and examined their impact using data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey. News…

  5. What College Students Do Not Know: Where Are the Gaps in Sexual Health Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Erin W.; Smith, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to understand the gaps in college students' knowledge regarding sexual health information. Participants: A sample of 242 participants enrolled in an introductory college course participated in this study in the Fall 2009 semester. Methods: Students participated in 1 of 2 brief interventions and wrote a response paper…

  6. Practice Patterns of School-Based Occupational Therapists Targeting Handwriting: A Knowledge-to-Practice Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, Heidi; Egan, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Poor handwriting is a common reason for referral to school-based occupational therapy. A survey was used to explore the extent to which current practice patterns in Ontario, Canada, align with evidence on effective intervention for handwriting. Knowledge-to-practice gaps were identified related to focus on performance components versus…

  7. Primary Health Care Providers' Knowledge Gaps on Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Megan R.; Stone, Ramona F.; Ochs, V. Dan; Litvan, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine primary health care providers' (PCPs) knowledge gaps on Parkinson's disease, data were collected before and after a one-hour continuing medical education (CME) lecture on early Parkinson's disease recognition and treatment from a sample of 104 PCPs participating at an annual meeting. The main outcome measure…

  8. Gaps in Mind: Problems in Environmental Knowledge-Behaviour Modelling Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtenay-Hall, Pamela; Rogers, Larson

    2002-01-01

    Explores conceptual, epistemological, methodological, and practical 'gaps' that seem to reproduce themselves in successive instantiations of this quest. Aims to help build the critical perspective that comes with problematizing the very project of knowledge-behavior modeling by identifying the positivistic residues still present in the enterprise…

  9. Addressing the implementation gap in global road safety: exploring features of an effective response and introducing a 10-country program.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Adnan A; Allen, Katharine A; Di Pietro, Gayle; Adriazola, Claudia A; Sobel, Rochelle; Larson, Kelly; Peden, Margie

    2012-06-01

    Yearly, more than 1.2 million people are killed by road traffic injuries (RTIs) around the globe, and another 20 to 50 million are injured. The global burden of RTIs is predicted to rise. We explored the need for concerted action for global road safety and propose characteristics of an effective response to the gap in addressing RTIs. We propose that a successful response includes domains such as strong political will, capacity building, use of evidence-based interventions, rigorous evaluation, increased global funding, multisectoral action, and sustainability. We also present a case study of the global Road Safety in 10 Countries project, which is a new, 5-year, multipartner initiative to address the burden of RTIs in 10 low- and middle-income countries.

  10. Addressing the Implementation Gap in Global Road Safety: Exploring Features of an Effective Response and Introducing a 10-Country Program

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Katharine A.; Di Pietro, Gayle; Adriazola, Claudia A.; Sobel, Rochelle; Larson, Kelly; Peden, Margie

    2012-01-01

    Yearly, more than 1.2 million people are killed by road traffic injuries (RTIs) around the globe, and another 20 to 50 million are injured. The global burden of RTIs is predicted to rise. We explored the need for concerted action for global road safety and propose characteristics of an effective response to the gap in addressing RTIs. We propose that a successful response includes domains such as strong political will, capacity building, use of evidence-based interventions, rigorous evaluation, increased global funding, multisectoral action, and sustainability. We also present a case study of the global Road Safety in 10 Countries project, which is a new, 5-year, multipartner initiative to address the burden of RTIs in 10 low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22515864

  11. A Framework for Addressing Implementation Gap in Global Drowning Prevention Interventions: Experiences from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alonge, Olakunle; He, Siran; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Rahman, Fazlur; Rahman, Aminur; Arifeen, Shams El

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drowning is the commonest cause of injury-related deaths among under-five children worldwide, and 95% of deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where there are implementation gaps in the drowning prevention interventions. This article reviews common interventions for drowning prevention, introduces a framework for effective implementation of such interventions, and describes the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) Project in Bangladesh, which is based on this framework. A review of the systematic reviews on drowning interventions was conducted, and original research articles were pulled and summarized into broad prevention categories. The implementation framework builds upon two existing frameworks and categorizes the implementing process for drowning prevention interventions into four phases: planning, engaging, executing, and evaluating. Eleven key characteristics are mapped in these phases. The framework was applied to drowning prevention projects that have been undertaken in some LMICs to illustrate major challenges to implementation. The implementation process for the SoLiD Project in Bangladesh is used as an example to illustrate the practical utilization of the framework. Drowning interventions, such as pool fencing and covering of water hazards, are effective in high-income countries; however, most of these interventions have not been tested in LMICs. The critical components of the four phases of implementing drowning prevention interventions may include: (i) planning—global funding, political will, scale, sustainability, and capacity building; (ii) engaging—coordination, involvement of appropriate individuals; (iii) executing—focused action, multisectoral actions, quality of execution; and (iv) evaluating—rigorous monitoring and evaluation. Some of the challenges to implementing drowning prevention interventions in LMICs include insufficient funds, lack of technical capacity, and limited coordination among stakeholders

  12. Addressing the Process Improvement Science Knowledge and Skills of Program Directors and Associate Program Directors

    PubMed Central

    Gravdal, Judith A.; Hyziak, Pamela; Belmonte, Frank; Clemens, Mary Ann; Sulo, Suela

    2015-01-01

    Background Process improvement (PI) science is relatively new to healthcare and has only recently been introduced to medical education. Most residency faculty lack training or experience in PI science activities. We assessed the impact of PI science education on the knowledge and attitudes of a group of residency and fellowship program directors and associate program directors using their respective Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual program evaluations (APEs) as an experiential object. Methods For this pre/post study, 16 program directors and 7 associate program directors were surveyed before and after 4 didactic modules. The APEs for the 2 years prior to the intervention and in the fall after the intervention were analyzed. Mentoring in the use of these skills in the preparation of the APEs was provided. Results The participants demonstrated improved knowledge in some areas and increased awareness of deficits in other areas. APE quality did not show consistent improvement following the intervention. Conclusion The PI science knowledge and skill gaps of program directors and associate program directors are likely to impact the content and success of residency curricula. The designed PI science curriculum was slightly effective. Using the APE as the experiential object was convenient, but the APE was not the best project for a PI exercise. New, effective strategies and interventions to develop expertise in PI science are important as programs grapple with meeting new requirements, ensuring quality programs, and preparing residents and fellows for practice. PMID:25829878

  13. Molecular profiling--a tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Jack A; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Quist, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessing the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is required by both international agreement and domestic legislation. Many view the use of the "omics" tools for profiling classes of molecules as useful in risk assessment, but no consensus has formed on the need or value of these techniques for assessing the risks of all GMOs. In this and many other cases, experts support case-by-case use of molecular profiling techniques for risk assessment. We review the latest research on the applicability and usefulness of molecular profiling techniques for GMO risk assessment. As more and more kinds of GMOs and traits are developed, broader use of molecular profiling in a risk assessment may be required to supplement the comparative approach to risk assessment. The literature-based discussions on the use of profiling appear to have settled on two findings: 1. profiling techniques are reliable and relevant, at least no less so than other techniques used in risk assessment; and 2. although not required routinely, regulators should be aware of when they are needed. The dismissal of routine molecular profiling may be confusing to regulators who then lack guidance on when molecular profiling might be worthwhile. Molecular profiling is an important way to increase confidence in risk assessments if the profiles are properly designed to address relevant risks and are applied at the correct stage of the assessment.

  14. Molecular profiling--a tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Jack A; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Quist, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessing the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is required by both international agreement and domestic legislation. Many view the use of the "omics" tools for profiling classes of molecules as useful in risk assessment, but no consensus has formed on the need or value of these techniques for assessing the risks of all GMOs. In this and many other cases, experts support case-by-case use of molecular profiling techniques for risk assessment. We review the latest research on the applicability and usefulness of molecular profiling techniques for GMO risk assessment. As more and more kinds of GMOs and traits are developed, broader use of molecular profiling in a risk assessment may be required to supplement the comparative approach to risk assessment. The literature-based discussions on the use of profiling appear to have settled on two findings: 1. profiling techniques are reliable and relevant, at least no less so than other techniques used in risk assessment; and 2. although not required routinely, regulators should be aware of when they are needed. The dismissal of routine molecular profiling may be confusing to regulators who then lack guidance on when molecular profiling might be worthwhile. Molecular profiling is an important way to increase confidence in risk assessments if the profiles are properly designed to address relevant risks and are applied at the correct stage of the assessment. PMID:21624662

  15. Priorities and realities: addressing the rich-poor gaps in health status and service access in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Over the past four decades, the Indonesian health care system has greatly expanded and the health of Indonesian people has improved although the rich-poor gap in health status and service access remains an issue. The government has been trying to address these gaps and intensify efforts to improve the health of the poor following the economic crisis in 1998. Methods This paper examines trends and levels in socio-economic inequity of health and identifies critical factors constraining efforts to improve the health of the poor. Quantitative data were taken from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys and the National Socio-Economic Surveys, and qualitative data were obtained from interviews with individuals and groups representing relevant stakeholders. Results The health of the population has improved as indicated by child mortality decline and the increase in community access to health services. However, the continuing prevalence of malnourished children and the persisting socio-economic inequity of health suggest that efforts to improve the health of the poor have not yet been effective. Factors identified at institution and policy levels that have constrained improvements in health care access and outcomes for the poor include: the high cost of electing formal governance leaders; confused leadership roles in the health sector; lack of health inequity indicators; the generally weak capacity in the health care system, especially in planning and budgeting; and the leakage and limited coverage of programs for the poor. Conclusions Despite the government's efforts to improve the health of the poor, the rich-poor gap in health status and service access continues. Factors at institutional and policy levels are critical in contributing to the lack of efficiency and effectiveness for health programs that address the poor. PMID:22067727

  16. More than Anecdotes: Fishers’ Ecological Knowledge Can Fill Gaps for Ecosystem Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, Ana Helena V.; Carvalho, Adriana R.; Angelini, Ronaldo; Christensen, Villy

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecosystem modeling applied to fisheries remains hampered by a lack of local information. Fishers’ knowledge could fill this gap, improving participation in and the management of fisheries. Methodology The same fishing area was modeled using two approaches: based on fishers’ knowledge and based on scientific information. For the former, the data was collected by interviews through the Delphi methodology, and for the latter, the data was gathered from the literature. Agreement between the attributes generated by the fishers’ knowledge model and scientific model is discussed and explored, aiming to improve data availability, the ecosystem model, and fisheries management. Principal Findings The ecosystem attributes produced from the fishers’ knowledge model were consistent with the ecosystem attributes produced by the scientific model, and elaborated using only the scientific data from literature. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that fishers’ knowledge may suitably complement scientific data, and may improve the modeling tools for the research and management of fisheries. PMID:27196131

  17. A Meta-Analysis of Seaweed Impacts on Seagrasses: Generalities and Knowledge Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Mads S.; Wernberg, Thomas; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Tuya, Fernando; Vanderklift, Mat A.; Holmer, Marianne; McGlathery, Karen J.; Arenas, Francisco; Kotta, Jonne; Silliman, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Seagrasses are important habitat-formers and ecosystem engineers that are under threat from bloom-forming seaweeds. These seaweeds have been suggested to outcompete the seagrasses, particularly when facilitated by eutrophication, causing regime shifts where green meadows and clear waters are replaced with unstable sediments, turbid waters, hypoxia, and poor habitat conditions for fishes and invertebrates. Understanding the situations under which seaweeds impact seagrasses on local patch scales can help proactive management and prevent losses at greater scales. Here, we provide a quantitative review of available published manipulative experiments (all conducted at the patch-scale), to test which attributes of seaweeds and seagrasses (e.g., their abundances, sizes, morphology, taxonomy, attachment type, or origin) influence impacts. Weighted and unweighted meta-analyses (Hedges d metric) of 59 experiments showed generally high variability in attribute-impact relationships. Our main significant findings were that (a) abundant seaweeds had stronger negative impacts on seagrasses than sparse seaweeds, (b) unattached and epiphytic seaweeds had stronger impacts than ‘rooted’ seaweeds, and (c) small seagrass species were more susceptible than larger species. Findings (a) and (c) were rather intuitive. It was more surprising that ‘rooted’ seaweeds had comparatively small impacts, particularly given that this category included the infamous invasive Caulerpa species. This result may reflect that seaweed biomass and/or shading and metabolic by-products like anoxia and sulphides could be lower for rooted seaweeds. In conclusion, our results represent simple and robust first-order generalities about seaweed impacts on seagrasses. This review also documented a limited number of primary studies. We therefore identified major knowledge gaps that need to be addressed before general predictive models on seaweed-seagrass interactions can be build, in order to effectively

  18. Knowledge gaps among public librarians seeking vaccination information: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine Arnott; Hundal, Savreen; Keselman, Alla

    2014-01-01

    Public libraries have been called the “first responders” to the specialized health information needs of the general public. The challenges inherent in consumer health information (CHI) service are centered around the Patron, the Librarian, the Information Resources, and the Library itself. The pilot study involved interviews with nine individual library workers in eight public libraries in four library systems: the District of Columbia, Montgomery and Prince George’s Counties in Maryland, and Fairfax County in Virginia. Library workers were asked about common consumer health information requests, the nature of their collections, and the role of public libraries in meeting these information needs. The subjects were also presented with a hypothetical scenario, and their responses suggest knowledge gaps. The findings point to the increasing necessity and importance of training and support for public librarians, as well as the importance of understanding where the medical knowledge gaps exist. Public librarians need to commit to formal evaluation of their skill sets and knowledge gaps, in order to identify areas to which libraries can devote limited resources. PMID:26550002

  19. AIDS knowledge gaps: results from the first decade of the epidemic and implications for future public information efforts.

    PubMed

    Salmon, C T; Wooten, K; Gentry, E; Cole, G E; Kroger, F

    1996-01-01

    Throughout the first decade of AIDS, certain populations have been disproportionately affected by its spread, particularly men, blacks, Hispanics, and the young. Just as there are population differences in the spread of the disease, there are differences in knowledge about the disease as well. This article applies the knowledge gap framework to examine the nature and magnitude of gaps in knowledge among different populations. The analysis shows that persons of low education lag behind other groups in true-transmission knowledge (i.e., knowledge about ways in which HIV/AIDS actually is transmitted) and false-transmission knowledge (i.e., misconceptions about how the disease is spread). PMID:10947357

  20. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Vegetation:Knowledge Gain and Knowledge Gap after 40 years of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thenkabail, P. S.; Huete, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation summarizes the advances made over 40+ years in understanding, modeling, and mapping terrestrial vegetation as reported in the new book on "Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Vegetation" (Publisher: Taylor and Francis inc.). The advent of spaceborne hyperspectral sensors or imaging spectroscopy (e.g., NASA's Hyperion, ESA's PROBA, and upcoming Italy's ASI's Prisma, Germany's DLR's EnMAP, Japanese HIUSI, NASA's HyspIRI) as well as the advancements in processing large volumes of hyperspectral data have generated tremendous interest in expanding the hyperspectral applications' knowledge base to large areas. Advances made in using hyperspectral data, relative to broadband spectral data, include: (a) significantly improved characterization and modeling of a wide array of biophysical and biochemical properties of vegetation, (b) the ability to discriminate plant species and vegetation types with high degree of accuracy, (c) reduced uncertainty in determining net primary productivity or carbon assessments from terrestrial vegetation, (d) improved crop productivity and water productivity models, (e) the ability to assess stress resulting from causes such as management practices, pests and disease, water deficit or water excess, and (f) establishing wavebands and indices with greater sensitivity for analyzing vegetation characteristics. Current state of knowledge on hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) for agricultural and vegetation studies inferred from the Book entitled hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation by Thenkabail et al., 2011. Six study areas of the World for which we have extensive data from field spectroradiometers for 8 major world crops (wheat, corn, rice, barley, soybeans, pulses, and cotton). Approx. 10,500 such data points will be used in crop modeling and in building spectral libraries.

  1. Knowledge and Practice Gaps among Pediatric Nurses at a Tertiary Care Hospital Karachi Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Roshan Essani, Rozina; Ali, Tazeen Saeed

    2011-01-01

    The advancement in medical science has created health care environments that require nursing professionals who posses specialized clinical knowledge and skills to provide care and deal with critically and acutely ill children. This study explored gaps between knowledge and practice as perceived by the registered nurses of pediatric units by further recommending the changes suggested by them. A descriptive exploratory study design under the quantitative research methodology was utilized using universal sampling of all pediatric nurses working at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. The gaps between knowledge and practice, as perceived by the participants, were categorized into five major categories: (1) medication (34%), (2) skills (28.3%), (3) knowledge (13.36%), (4) handling of code blue and intubations (12.6%), and (5) operating medical devices (11.58%). As a result, anxiety and incompetency were notably seen in the participants which had great amount of impact on the level of care provided to the patients. The implications of the findings for quality patient care were also analyzed. PMID:22389778

  2. Ontology-Based Gap Analysis for Technology Selection: A Knowledge Management Framework for the Support of Equipment Purchasing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macris, Aristomenis M.; Georgakellos, Dimitrios A.

    Technology selection decisions such as equipment purchasing and supplier selection are decisions of strategic importance to companies. The nature of these decisions usually is complex, unstructured and thus, difficult to be captured in a way that will be efficiently reusable. Knowledge reusability is of paramount importance since it enables users participate actively in process design/redesign activities stimulated by the changing technology selection environment. This paper addresses the technology selection problem through an ontology-based approach that captures and makes reusable the equipment purchasing process and assists in identifying (a) the specifications requested by the users' organization, (b) those offered by various candidate vendors' organizations and (c) in performing specifications gap analysis as a prerequisite for effective and efficient technology selection. This approach has practical appeal, operational simplicity, and the potential for both immediate and long-term strategic impact. An example from the iron and steel industry is also presented to illustrate the approach.

  3. Canopy and knowledge gaps when invasive alien insects remove foundation species

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E.; Lawrence, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui invaded the northern range of the cycad Cycas micronesica in 2003, and epidemic tree mortality ensued due to a lack of natural enemies of the insect. We quantified cycad demographic responses to the invasion, but the ecological responses to the selective removal of this foundation species have not been addressed. We use this case to highlight information gaps in our understanding of how alien invasive phytophagous insects force cascading adverse ecosystem changes. The mechanistic role of unique canopy gaps, oceanic island examples and threatened foundation species with distinctive traits are three issues that deserve research efforts in a quest to understand this facet of ecosystem change occurring across multiple settings globally. PMID:23847712

  4. DCS: A Case Study of Identification of Knowledge and Disposition Gaps Using Principles of Continuous Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason; Steinberg, Susan; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John

    2011-01-01

    The Human Research Program (HRP) is formulated around the program architecture of Evidence-Risk-Gap-Task-Deliverable. Review of accumulated evidence forms the basis for identification of high priority risks to human health and performance in space exploration. Gaps in knowledge or disposition are identified for each risk, and a portfolio of research tasks is developed to fill them. Deliverables from the tasks inform the evidence base with the ultimate goal of defining the level of risk and reducing it to an acceptable level. A comprehensive framework for gap identification, focus, and metrics has been developed based on principles of continuous risk management and clinical care. Research towards knowledge gaps improves understanding of the likelihood, consequence or timeframe of the risk. Disposition gaps include development of standards or requirements for risk acceptance, development of countermeasures or technology to mitigate the risk, and yearly technology assessment related to watching developments related to the risk. Standard concepts from clinical care: prevention, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and surveillance, can be used to focus gaps dealing with risk mitigation. The research plan for the new HRP Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS) used the framework to identify one disposition gap related to establishment of a DCS standard for acceptable risk, two knowledge gaps related to DCS phenomenon and mission attributes, and three mitigation gaps focused on prediction, prevention, and new technology watch. These gaps were organized in this manner primarily based on target for closure and ease of organizing interim metrics so that gap status could be quantified. Additional considerations for the knowledge gaps were that one was highly design reference mission specific and the other gap was focused on DCS phenomenon.

  5. An Exploration of the Utility of a Knowledge Utilization Framework to Study the Gap between Reading Disabilities Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Katherine; Nowicki, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This pre-pilot study explored the usefulness of a knowledge utilization framework comprised of Knott and Wildavsky's (1980) seven stages of knowledge use and Stone's (2002) three routes to knowledge use to investigate the gap between reading disabilities research and teachers' self-reported use of that research. Semi-structured interviews of ten…

  6. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health. PMID:20377862

  7. Project T.A.C.K.L.E. (Together, Addressing the Challenges of Knowledge and Literacy for Employees). Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI.

    Project TACKLE (Together, Addressing the Challenge of Knowledge and Literacy for Employees) was a cooperative project, jointly developed to address employees with the inadequate basic skills necessary to operate modernized, technical equipment and maintain job security. Approximately 500 current employees of General Motors, Flint, Michigan, used…

  8. Results of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) Gap Review: Specific Action Team (SAT), Examination of Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for Human Exploration of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Eppler, D.; Farrell, W.; Gruener, J.; Lawrence, S.; Pellis, N.; Spudis, P. D.; Stopar, J.; Zeigler, R.; Neal, C; Bussey, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) was tasked by the Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to establish a Specific Action Team (SAT) to review lunar Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) within the context of new lunar data and some specific human mission scenarios. Within this review, the SAT was to identify the SKGs that have been fully or partially retired, identify new SKGs resulting from new data and observations, and review quantitative descriptions of measurements that are required to fill knowledge gaps, the fidelity of the measurements needed, and if relevant, provide examples of existing instruments or potential missions capable of filling the SKGs.

  9. Critical maternal health knowledge gaps in low- and middle-income countries for the post-2015 era.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Tamil; Langer, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Effective interventions to promote maternal health and address obstetric complications exist, however 800 women die every day during pregnancy and childbirth from largely preventable causes and more than 90% of these deaths occur in low and middle income countries (LMIC). In 2014, the Maternal Health Task Force consulted 26 global maternal health researchers to identify persistent and critical knowledge gaps to be filled to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality and improve maternal health. The vision of maternal health articulated was comprehensive and priorities for knowledge generation encompassed improving the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of institutional labor and delivery services and other effective interventions, such as contraception and safe abortion services. Respondents emphasized the need for health systems research to identify models that can deliver what is known to be effective to prevent and treat the main causes of maternal death at scale in different contexts and to sustain coverage and quality over time. Researchers also emphasized the development of tools to measure quality of care and promote ongoing quality improvement at the facility, district, and national level. Knowledge generation to improve distribution and retention of healthcare workers, facilitate task shifting, develop and evaluate training models to improve "hands-on" skills and promote evidence-based practice, and increase managerial capacity at different levels of the health system were also prioritized. Interviewees noted that attitudes, behavior, and power relationships between health professionals and within institutions must be transformed to achieve coverage of high-quality maternal health services in LMIC. The increasing burden of non-communicable diseases, urbanization, and the persistence of social and economic inequality were identified as emerging challenges that require knowledge generation to improve health system responses and evaluate

  10. Knowledge Diffusion in the Context of Development in Rural Areas. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Brawley, Emilia E.

    This paper analyzes principles of knowledge diffusion and provides a framework for applying new ideas or innovations, particularly in relation to rural community development. As new knowledge is created or old knowledge is found to have new applications, the art of spreading knowledge and managing innovation has become more crucial in both urban…

  11. HIV Treatment in the Criminal Justice System: Critical Knowledge and Intervention Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jaimie P.; Chen, Nadine E.; Springer, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    The criminal justice system bears a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. Continuity of care is critical for HAART-based prevention of HIV-related morbidity and mortality. This paper describes four major challenges to successful management of HIV in the criminal justice system: relapse to substance use, homelessness, mental illness, and loss of medical and social benefits. Each of these areas constitutes a competing priority upon release that demands immediate attention and diverts time, energy, and valuable resources away from engagement in care and adherence to HAART. Numerous gaps exist in scientific knowledge about these issues and potential solutions. In illuminating these knowledge deficits, we present a contemporary research agenda for the management of HIV in correctional systems. Future empirical research should focus on these critical issues in HIV-infected prisoners and releasees while interventional research should incorporate evidence-based solutions into the criminal justice setting. PMID:21776379

  12. Knowledge diffusion in social work: a new approach to bridging the gap.

    PubMed

    Herie, Marilyn; Martin, Garth W

    2002-01-01

    The continuing gap between research and practice has long been a problem in social work. A great deal of the empirical practice literature has emphasized practice evaluation (usually in the form of single-case methodologies) at the expense of research dissemination and utilization. An alternative focus for social work researchers can be found in the extensive theoretical and research literature on knowledge diffusion, technology transfer, and social marketing. Knowledge diffusion and social marketing theory is explored in terms of its relevance to social work education and practice, including a consideration of issues of culture and power. The authors present an integrated dissemination model for social work and use a case example to illustrate the practical application of the model. The OPTIONS (OutPatient Treatment In ONtario Services) project is an example of the effective dissemination of two research-based addiction treatment modalities to nearly 1,000 direct practice clinicians in Ontario, Canada.

  13. A gap between acceptance and knowledge of herbal remedies by physicians: The need for educational intervention

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Yuri N; Williams, Arlene F; Khan, Kristi; Bernard, Tricia; Bhola, Savrina; Fortuné, Maurice; Medupe, Oneil; Nagee, Kerry; Seaforth, Compton E

    2005-01-01

    Background The unprecedented global increase in the use of herbal remedies is set to continue apace well into the foreseeable future. This raises important public health concerns, especially as it relates to safety issues including adverse effects and herb-drug interactions. Most Western-trained physicians are ignorant of the risks and benefits of this healthcare modality and assessment of acceptance and knowledge would identify appropriate intervention strategies to improve physician-patient communication in this area. Methods A cross-sectional survey was done using an interviewer-administered pilot tested de novo questionnaire at six public hospitals in Trinidad between May–July 2004. The questionnaire utilized weighed questions to quantify acceptance (maximum score = 14 points) and knowledge (maximum score = 52 points). Acceptance and knowledge scores were analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Results Of 192 physicians interviewed, most (60.4%) believed that herbal remedies were beneficial to health. Respondents had relatively high acceptance levels (mean = 5.69 ± 0.29 points or 40% of total possible score) and poor knowledge (mean = 7.77 ± 0.56 points or 15% of total possible score). Seventy-eight physicians (40.6%) admitted having used herbs in the past, and 60 of these (76.9%) were satisfied with the outcome. Although 52 physicians (27.1%) recommended the use of herbs to their patients only 29 (15.1%) were able to identify at least one known herb-drug interaction. Conclusion The use of herbal remedies is relatively high in Trinidad, as throughout the world, and most patients self-medicate with or without the knowledge of their attending physician. Surprisingly, we demonstrated relatively high acceptance levels and use of herbs among physicians in Trinidad. This interesting scenario of high acceptance levels and poor knowledge creates a situation that demands urgent intervention. We recommend educational intervention to narrow the gap between

  14. Reflecting on explanatory ability: A mechanism for detecting gaps in causal knowledge.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dan R; Murphy, Meredith P; Messer, Riley M

    2016-05-01

    People frequently overestimate their understanding-with a particularly large blind-spot for gaps in their causal knowledge. We introduce a metacognitive approach to reducing overestimation, termed reflecting on explanatory ability (REA), which is briefly thinking about how well one could explain something in a mechanistic, step-by-step, causally connected manner. Nine experiments demonstrated that engaging in REA just before estimating one's understanding substantially reduced overestimation. Moreover, REA reduced overestimation with nearly the same potency as generating full explanations, but did so 20 times faster (although only for high complexity objects). REA substantially reduced overestimation by inducing participants to quickly evaluate an object's inherent causal complexity (Experiments 4-7). REA reduced overestimation by also fostering step-by-step, causally connected processing (Experiments 2 and 3). Alternative explanations for REA's effects were ruled out including a general conservatism account (Experiments 4 and 5) and a covert explanation account (Experiment 8). REA's overestimation-reduction effect generalized beyond objects (Experiments 1-8) to sociopolitical policies (Experiment 9). REA efficiently detects gaps in our causal knowledge with implications for improving self-directed learning, enhancing self-insight into vocational and academic abilities, and even reducing extremist attitudes. PMID:26999047

  15. Two approaches to bridging the knowledge-practice gap in oncology nursing.

    PubMed

    Peek, Gloanna J

    2015-01-01

    The field of oncology nursing is continually changing. New drugs to aid in the fight against cancer are being developed, complementary therapies to ease symptoms are gaining prominence, and survivorship care is becoming a welcome yet challenging area of subspecialty. For oncology nurses to provide quality care and to develop improved care delivery systems, they must not only have access to the most current knowledge in the field, but also be equipped with the skills necessary to integrate that knowledge into practice for the benefit of patients and families (LoBiondo-Wood et al., 2014). The importance of nursing research and its relationship to the practice of oncology nursing cannot be minimized (Moore & Badger, 2014). Oncology nurse researchers advance knowledge and, consequently, improve the quality of care for patients with cancer and their families. For example, the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) regularly surveys its membership to identify key areas of research focus that then guide the work of nurse investigators (LoBiondo-Wood et al., 2014; ONS Research Agenda Team, 2009). Unfortunately, the shortage of nurse scientists, particularly in oncology nursing, continues to increase as senior doctoral faculty reach retirement age and doctoral education program development remains stagnant (Glasgow & Dreher, 2010; LoBiondo-Wood et al., 2014). This shortage has and will continue to lead to gaps in the generation and implementation of new knowledge, negatively affecting the quality of patient care. As a result, an urgent need exists for innovative and quality doctoral educational programs to develop nurse scientists (Moore & Badger, 2014).

  16. Health Care Providers' Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance. PMID:27579311

  17. Health Care Providers' Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gemeda, Desta Hiko; Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa; Tafese, Wubit; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance. PMID:27579311

  18. Gaps in Science Content Knowledge Encountered during Teaching Practice: A Study of Early-Career Middle-School Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinghorn, Brian Edward

    2013-01-01

    Subject-specific content knowledge is crucial for effective science teaching, yet many teachers are entering the field not fully equipped with all the science content knowledge they need to effectively teach the subject. Learning from practice is one approach to bridging the gap between what practicing teachers know and what they need to know.…

  19. Crowdsourcing Awareness: Exploration of the Ovarian Cancer Knowledge Gap through Amazon Mechanical Turk

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Rebecca R.; DiFeo, Analisa; Bogie, Kath; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Sun, Jiayang

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic disease in the United States, with more women dying from this cancer than all gynecological cancers combined. Ovarian cancer has been termed the “silent killer” because some patients do not show clear symptoms at an early stage. Currently, there is a lack of approved and effective early diagnostic tools for ovarian cancer. There is also an apparent severe knowledge gap of ovarian cancer in general and of its indicative symptoms among both public and many health professionals. These factors have significantly contributed to the late stage diagnosis of most ovarian cancer patients (63% are diagnosed at Stage III or above), where the 5-year survival rate is less than 30%. The paucity of knowledge concerning ovarian cancer in the United States is unknown. Methods The present investigation examined current public awareness and knowledge about ovarian cancer. The study implemented design strategies to develop an unbiased survey with quality control measures, including the modern application of multiple statistical analyses. The survey assessed a reasonable proxy of the US population by crowdsourcing participants through the online task marketplace Amazon Mechanical Turk, at a highly condensed rate of cost and time compared to traditional recruitment methods. Conclusion Knowledge of ovarian cancer was compared to that of breast cancer using repeated measures, bias control and other quality control measures in the survey design. Analyses included multinomial logistic regression and categorical data analysis procedures such as correspondence analysis, among other statistics. We confirmed the relatively poor public knowledge of ovarian cancer among the US population. The simple, yet novel design should set an example for designing surveys to obtain quality data via Amazon Mechanical Turk with the associated analyses. PMID:24465580

  20. Preparing for Humans at Mars, MPPG Updates to Strategic Knowledge Gaps and Collaboration with Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Wargo, Michael J.; Beaty, David

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Program Planning Group (MPPG) was an agency wide effort, chartered in March 2012 by the NASA Associate Administrator for Science, in collaboration with NASA's Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, the Chief Scientist, and the Chief Technologist. NASA tasked the MPPG to develop foundations for a program-level architecture for robotic exploration of Mars that is consistent with the President's challenge of sending humans to the Mars system in the decade of the 2030s and responsive to the primary scientific goals of the 2011 NRC Decadal Survey for Planetary Science. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) also sponsored a Precursor measurement Strategy Analysis Group (P-SAG) to revisit prior assessments of required precursor measurements for the human exploration of Mars. This paper will discuss the key results of the MPPG and P-SAG efforts to update and refine our understanding of the Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) required to successfully conduct human Mars missions.

  1. Summary of knowledge gaps related to quality and efficacy of current influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pfleiderer, Michael; Trouvin, Jean-Hugues; Brasseur, Daniel; Gränstrom, Marta; Shivji, Ragini; Mura, Manuela; Cavaleri, Marco

    2014-07-31

    Influenza viruses are a public health threat, as they are pathogenic, highly transmissible and prone to genetic changes. For decades vaccination strategies have been based on trivalent inactivated vaccines, which are regulated by specific guidelines. The progress in scientific knowledge and the lessons learned from the A(H1N1)2009 pandemic have highlighted further the need to improve current guidelines, including the immunogenicity criteria set by the CHMP in 1997, and to promote the discussion on the shortcomings encountered, e.g. the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in the paediatric and elderly populations, the measurement of the naivety of a population, the impact of prior immunity on subsequent vaccinations, and the technical issues with the serological assays for detection of immunity and immunogenicity. The authors attempted to summarise and tackle key gaps in the existing evidence concerning quality and efficacy of influenza vaccines, aiming at favouring a common understanding and a coordinated approach across stakeholders.

  2. Atherosclerosis in Sjögren's syndrome: evidence, possible mechanisms and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Valim, Valéria; Gerdts, Eva; Jonsson, Roland; Ferreira, Gilda Aparecida; Brokstad, Karl Albert; Brun, Johan G; Midtbø, Helga; Mydel, Piotr Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation has been associated with higher cardiovascular risk in rheumatic autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus. More recently, primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) was also demonstrated as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, emerging as a new interesting model to study atherosclerosis in autoimmune diseases. Patients with pSS have a higher prevalence of developing traditional cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension and dyslipidaemia predisposing for endothelial dysfunction and premature atherosclerosis. However, the disease-specific mechanisms for premature atherosclerosis in pSS are not fully understood. The aim of this review was to critically analyse the current literature on cardiovascular risks in pSS and to discuss the traditional and disease-associated risk factors. We also suggest possible new mechanisms that should be explored in future research to close the current knowledge gaps on the association of pSS, premature atherosclerosis, and clinical cardiovascular disease. PMID:26812164

  3. Atherosclerosis in Sjögren's syndrome: evidence, possible mechanisms and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Valim, Valéria; Gerdts, Eva; Jonsson, Roland; Ferreira, Gilda Aparecida; Brokstad, Karl Albert; Brun, Johan G; Midtbø, Helga; Mydel, Piotr Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation has been associated with higher cardiovascular risk in rheumatic autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus. More recently, primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) was also demonstrated as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, emerging as a new interesting model to study atherosclerosis in autoimmune diseases. Patients with pSS have a higher prevalence of developing traditional cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension and dyslipidaemia predisposing for endothelial dysfunction and premature atherosclerosis. However, the disease-specific mechanisms for premature atherosclerosis in pSS are not fully understood. The aim of this review was to critically analyse the current literature on cardiovascular risks in pSS and to discuss the traditional and disease-associated risk factors. We also suggest possible new mechanisms that should be explored in future research to close the current knowledge gaps on the association of pSS, premature atherosclerosis, and clinical cardiovascular disease.

  4. Bioinvasion in a Brazilian Bay: Filling Gaps in the Knowledge of Southwestern Atlantic Biota

    PubMed Central

    Ignacio, Barbara L.; Julio, Luciana M.; Junqueira, Andrea O. R.; Ferreira-Silva, Maria A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Biological invasions are a major cause of global species change. Nevertheless, knowledge about the distribution and ecology of introduced species is regionally biased, and many gaps in knowledge exist for most developing countries. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the zoobenthos on the hard substratum of the Ilha Grande Bay, a survey was conducted on both natural and artificial substrata at three depths and seven sites. The species recorded were classified as native, cryptogenic or introduced. Multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence of introduced species in these communities and to compare the distribution of species on natural and artificial substrata of this bay to identify possible discrepancies in habitat use. Of the 61 species, 25 were cryptogenic, 10 were introduced and 26 were native. Similar numbers of introduced species were found on both natural and artificial substrata, though the community composition was significantly different between them. We also compared the species composition of the Ilha Grande Bay survey to other inventories taken around the world. The highest similarities were found between the Ilha Grande Bay inventory and the Atlantic coastal region (Tampa Bay, USA and the Gulf of Mexico), American Samoa and Pearl Harbor (USA) inventories. Conclusions/Significance This study presents the first published comprehensive list of hard substratum sessile marine invertebrate species in a Brazilian bay. The high percentage of cryptogenic species reveals gaps in both zoological records and information on introduced species for the Brazilian coast. The introduced species successfully colonized different sites in the Ilha Grande Bay, including both natural and artificial substrata. In addition, we find that artificial structures may not be good surrogates for natural rocky shores and may represent an ecological threat. Comparisons with other inventories suggest a history of broad-scale invasion, though more

  5. Assessing and Addressing Safe Food Handling Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Susan E.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1122) on an urban college campus using a previously piloted survey tool. Data obtained found that while students reported high levels of confidence in their ability to engage in safe food handling practices, their knowledge and self-reported behaviors…

  6. Evaluation of water, sanitation and hygiene program outcomes shows knowledge-behavior gaps in Coast Province, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Schlegelmilch, Michael Paul; Lakhani, Amyn; Saunders, Leslie Duncan; Jhangri, Gian Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Water related diseases constitute a significant proportion of the burden of disease in Kenya. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programs are in operation nation-wide to address these challenges. This study evaluated the impact of the Sombeza Water and Sanitation Improvement Program (SWASIP) in Coast Province, Kenya. Methods This study is a cluster randomized, follow-up evaluation that compared baseline (2007) to follow-up (2013) indicators from 250 households. Twenty-five villages were selected with probability proportional to size sampling, and ten households were selected randomly from each village. Follow-up data were collected by in-person interviews using pre-tested questionnaires, and analyzed to compare indicators collected at baseline. Cross-sectional results from the follow-up data were also reported. Results Statistically significant improvements from baseline were observed in the proportions of respondents with latrine access at home, who washed their hands after defecation, who treated their household drinking water and the average time to collect water in the dry season. However, this study also observed significant decreases in the proportion of respondents who washed their hands before preparing their food, or feeding their children, and after attending to a child who has defecated. The analysis also revealed a knowledge-behavior gap in WASH behaviors. Conclusion SWASIP contributed to improvements from baseline, but further progress still needs to be seen. The findings challenge the assumption that providing infrastructure and knowledge will result in behavior change. Further understanding of specific, non-knowledge predictors of WASH related behavior is needed. PMID:27279970

  7. Linking concepts in the ecology and evolution of invasive plants: network analysis shows what has been most studied and identifies knowledge gaps

    PubMed Central

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Brown, Cynthia S; Tepolt, Carolyn K; Tsutsui, Neil D; Vanparys, Valérie; Atkinson, Sheryl; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders’ success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate recognize well-documented relationships and identify gaps in our knowledge. In this study, we used a network-based method for visualizing the connections between major aspects of ecology and evolution in the primary research literature. Using the family Poaceae as an example, we show that ecological concepts were more studied and better interconnected than were evolutionary concepts. Several possible connections were not documented at all, representing knowledge gaps between ecology and evolution of invaders. Among knowledge gaps, the concepts of plasticity, gene flow, epigenetics and human influence were particularly under-connected. We discuss five possible research avenues to better understand the relationships between ecology and evolution in the success of Poaceae, and of alien plants in general. PMID:25567919

  8. Linking concepts in the ecology and evolution of invasive plants: network analysis shows what has been most studied and identifies knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Brown, Cynthia S; Tepolt, Carolyn K; Tsutsui, Neil D; Vanparys, Valérie; Atkinson, Sheryl; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2010-03-01

    In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders' success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate recognize well-documented relationships and identify gaps in our knowledge. In this study, we used a network-based method for visualizing the connections between major aspects of ecology and evolution in the primary research literature. Using the family Poaceae as an example, we show that ecological concepts were more studied and better interconnected than were evolutionary concepts. Several possible connections were not documented at all, representing knowledge gaps between ecology and evolution of invaders. Among knowledge gaps, the concepts of plasticity, gene flow, epigenetics and human influence were particularly under-connected. We discuss five possible research avenues to better understand the relationships between ecology and evolution in the success of Poaceae, and of alien plants in general.

  9. Progress Addressing Safeguards Capability Development Needs through Educational Outreach and Knowledge Management

    SciTech Connect

    Leek, K. M.; Seward, Amy M.; Dickman, Deborah A.; Toomey, Charles J.; Greenfield, Bryce A.; Mathews, Caroline E.; Fishbone, L.; Graham, T.; Rosenthal, Michael; Ward, B.

    2010-11-08

    This paper describes the NGSI Human Capital Development Program's domestic and international activities, and offers specific case studies to exemplify the outcomes and progress achieved in this area over the past several years. The paper highlights the importance of a sustained effort to address the human dimension of safeguards and nonproliferation and to address critical work force issues in the U.S. and abroad.

  10. A MSFD complementary approach for the assessment of pressures, knowledge and data gaps in Southern European Seas: The PERSEUS experience.

    PubMed

    Crise, A; Kaberi, H; Ruiz, J; Zatsepin, A; Arashkevich, E; Giani, M; Karageorgis, A P; Prieto, L; Pantazi, M; Gonzalez-Fernandez, D; Ribera d'Alcalà, M; Tornero, V; Vassilopoulou, V; Durrieu de Madron, X; Guieu, C; Puig, P; Zenetos, A; Andral, B; Angel, D; Altukhov, D; Ayata, S D; Aktan, Y; Balcıoğlu, E; Benedetti, F; Bouchoucha, M; Buia, M-C; Cadiou, J-F; Canals, M; Chakroun, M; Christou, E; Christidis, M G; Civitarese, G; Coatu, V; Corsini-Foka, M; Cozzi, S; Deidun, A; Dell'Aquila, A; Dogrammatzi, A; Dumitrache, C; Edelist, D; Ettahiri, O; Fonda-Umani, S; Gana, S; Galgani, F; Gasparini, S; Giannakourou, A; Gomoiu, M-T; Gubanova, A; Gücü, A-C; Gürses, Ö; Hanke, G; Hatzianestis, I; Herut, B; Hone, R; Huertas, E; Irisson, J-O; İşinibilir, M; Jimenez, J A; Kalogirou, S; Kapiris, K; Karamfilov, V; Kavadas, S; Keskin, Ç; Kideyş, A E; Kocak, M; Kondylatos, G; Kontogiannis, C; Kosyan, R; Koubbi, P; Kušpilić, G; La Ferla, R; Langone, L; Laroche, S; Lazar, L; Lefkaditou, E; Lemeshko, I E; Machias, A; Malej, A; Mazzocchi, M-G; Medinets, V; Mihalopoulos, N; Miserocchi, S; Moncheva, S; Mukhanov, V; Oaie, G; Oros, A; Öztürk, A A; Öztürk, B; Panayotova, M; Prospathopoulos, A; Radu, G; Raykov, V; Reglero, P; Reygondeau, G; Rougeron, N; Salihoglu, B; Sanchez-Vidal, A; Sannino, G; Santinelli, C; Secrieru, D; Shapiro, G; Simboura, N; Shiganova, T; Sprovieri, M; Stefanova, K; Streftaris, N; Tirelli, V; Tom, M; Topaloğlu, B; Topçu, N E; Tsagarakis, K; Tsangaris, C; Tserpes, G; Tuğrul, S; Uysal, Z; Vasile, D; Violaki, K; Xu, J; Yüksek, A; Papathanassiou, E

    2015-06-15

    PERSEUS project aims to identify the most relevant pressures exerted on the ecosystems of the Southern European Seas (SES), highlighting knowledge and data gaps that endanger the achievement of SES Good Environmental Status (GES) as mandated by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A complementary approach has been adopted, by a meta-analysis of existing literature on pressure/impact/knowledge gaps summarized in tables related to the MSFD descriptors, discriminating open waters from coastal areas. A comparative assessment of the Initial Assessments (IAs) for five SES countries has been also independently performed. The comparison between meta-analysis results and IAs shows similarities for coastal areas only. Major knowledge gaps have been detected for the biodiversity, marine food web, marine litter and underwater noise descriptors. The meta-analysis also allowed the identification of additional research themes targeting research topics that are requested to the achievement of GES. PMID:25892079

  11. A MSFD complementary approach for the assessment of pressures, knowledge and data gaps in Southern European Seas: The PERSEUS experience.

    PubMed

    Crise, A; Kaberi, H; Ruiz, J; Zatsepin, A; Arashkevich, E; Giani, M; Karageorgis, A P; Prieto, L; Pantazi, M; Gonzalez-Fernandez, D; Ribera d'Alcalà, M; Tornero, V; Vassilopoulou, V; Durrieu de Madron, X; Guieu, C; Puig, P; Zenetos, A; Andral, B; Angel, D; Altukhov, D; Ayata, S D; Aktan, Y; Balcıoğlu, E; Benedetti, F; Bouchoucha, M; Buia, M-C; Cadiou, J-F; Canals, M; Chakroun, M; Christou, E; Christidis, M G; Civitarese, G; Coatu, V; Corsini-Foka, M; Cozzi, S; Deidun, A; Dell'Aquila, A; Dogrammatzi, A; Dumitrache, C; Edelist, D; Ettahiri, O; Fonda-Umani, S; Gana, S; Galgani, F; Gasparini, S; Giannakourou, A; Gomoiu, M-T; Gubanova, A; Gücü, A-C; Gürses, Ö; Hanke, G; Hatzianestis, I; Herut, B; Hone, R; Huertas, E; Irisson, J-O; İşinibilir, M; Jimenez, J A; Kalogirou, S; Kapiris, K; Karamfilov, V; Kavadas, S; Keskin, Ç; Kideyş, A E; Kocak, M; Kondylatos, G; Kontogiannis, C; Kosyan, R; Koubbi, P; Kušpilić, G; La Ferla, R; Langone, L; Laroche, S; Lazar, L; Lefkaditou, E; Lemeshko, I E; Machias, A; Malej, A; Mazzocchi, M-G; Medinets, V; Mihalopoulos, N; Miserocchi, S; Moncheva, S; Mukhanov, V; Oaie, G; Oros, A; Öztürk, A A; Öztürk, B; Panayotova, M; Prospathopoulos, A; Radu, G; Raykov, V; Reglero, P; Reygondeau, G; Rougeron, N; Salihoglu, B; Sanchez-Vidal, A; Sannino, G; Santinelli, C; Secrieru, D; Shapiro, G; Simboura, N; Shiganova, T; Sprovieri, M; Stefanova, K; Streftaris, N; Tirelli, V; Tom, M; Topaloğlu, B; Topçu, N E; Tsagarakis, K; Tsangaris, C; Tserpes, G; Tuğrul, S; Uysal, Z; Vasile, D; Violaki, K; Xu, J; Yüksek, A; Papathanassiou, E

    2015-06-15

    PERSEUS project aims to identify the most relevant pressures exerted on the ecosystems of the Southern European Seas (SES), highlighting knowledge and data gaps that endanger the achievement of SES Good Environmental Status (GES) as mandated by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A complementary approach has been adopted, by a meta-analysis of existing literature on pressure/impact/knowledge gaps summarized in tables related to the MSFD descriptors, discriminating open waters from coastal areas. A comparative assessment of the Initial Assessments (IAs) for five SES countries has been also independently performed. The comparison between meta-analysis results and IAs shows similarities for coastal areas only. Major knowledge gaps have been detected for the biodiversity, marine food web, marine litter and underwater noise descriptors. The meta-analysis also allowed the identification of additional research themes targeting research topics that are requested to the achievement of GES.

  12. Identification of Knowledge Gaps Regarding Healthcare Workers' Exposure to Antineoplastic Drugs: Review of Literature, North America versus Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Barzan, Cris; Astrakianakis, George

    2014-01-01

    We have been examining the issue of healthcare workers' exposure to antineoplastic drugs for nearly a decade and have observed that there appears to be more publications on the subject matter originating from Europe than from North America. The concern is that findings from Europe may not be generalizable to North America because of differences in handling practices, regulatory requirements, and training. Our objective was to perform a literature review to confirm our observation and, in turn, identify gaps in knowledge that warrants addressing in North America. Using select keywords, we searched for publications in PubMed and Web of Science. All papers were initially classified according to the originating continent and then categorized into one or more subject categories (analytical methods, biological monitoring, occupational exposure, surface contamination, and probability of risk/exposure). Our review identified 16 papers originating from North America and 55 papers from Europe with surface contamination being the subject matter most often studied overall. Based on our results, we are of the opinion that North American researchers need to further conduct dermal and/or urinary drug contamination studies as well as assess the exposure risk faced by healthcare workers who handle antineoplastic drugs. Trends in exposure levels should also be explored. PMID:25516807

  13. Addressing Achievement Gaps: The Family--America's Smallest School. Policy Notes. Volume 19, Number 1, Winter 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    When parents are married and employed, when they turn off the television and monitor homework, their children are more likely to succeed in school. Today, however, many families are struggling, and their struggles contribute to the stubborn achievement gap separating low-income and minority students from their more affluent White and Asian peers.…

  14. Addressing the STEM Gender Gap by Designing and Implementing an Educational Outreach Chemistry Camp for Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Mindy; Serio, Nicole; Radaram, Bhasker; Chaudhuri, Sauradip; Talbert, William

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be a persistent, widespread gender gap in multiple STEM disciplines at all educational and professional levels: from the self-reported interest of preschool aged students in scientific exploration to the percentages of tenured faculty in these disciplines, more men than women express an interest in science, a confidence in their…

  15. Understanding and Addressing the California Latino Achievement Gap in Early Elementary School. Working Paper 2004-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumberger, Russell W.; Anguiano, Brenda Arellano

    2004-01-01

    One of the most pressing problems in California is improving student academic performance, especially the state's burgeoning Latino student population. This study examined the extent of the achievement gap between Latino and White students over the first two years of elementary school and the characteristics of students and schools that contribute…

  16. Addressing Prospective Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Subject Matter Knowledge through Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourigan, Mairéad; O'Donoghue, John

    2015-01-01

    There is international dissatisfaction regarding the standard of mathematics subject matter knowledge (MSMK) evident among both qualified and prospective elementary teachers. Ireland is no exception. Following increasing anecdotal evidence of prospective elementary teachers in one Irish College of Education (provider of initial teacher education…

  17. Addressing the challenge of encoding causal epidemiological knowledge in formal ontologies: a practical perspective.

    PubMed

    Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Lavigne, Maxime; Buckeridge, David L

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of approaches to encoding uncertain causal knowledge in formal ontologies and demonstrates how these approaches can be used in a semantic-driven application for public health using the Population Health Record (PopHR) platform as an example.

  18. Community Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity, the Feasibility of Programs Addressing Childhood Obesity, and Persisting Gaps.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts.

  19. Community Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity, the Feasibility of Programs Addressing Childhood Obesity, and Persisting Gaps.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts. PMID:26433725

  20. The 'third wave' of HIV prevention: filling gaps in integrated interventions, knowledge, and funding.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Jaime

    2012-07-01

    There is growing optimism in the global health community that the HIV epidemic can be halted. After decades of relying primarily on behavior change to prevent HIV transmission, a second generation of prevention efforts based on medical or biological interventions such as male circumcision and preexposure prophylaxis--the use of antiretroviral drugs to protect uninfected, at-risk individuals--has shown promising results. This article calls for a third generation of HIV prevention efforts that would integrate behavioral, biological, and structural interventions focused on the social, political, and environmental underpinnings of the epidemic, making use of local epidemiological evidence to target affected populations. In this third wave, global programs should deliver HIV prevention services together with cost-effective interventions for reproductive health and for tuberculosis, malaria, and other diseases. Additionally, new efforts are needed to address gaps in HIV prevention research, evaluation, and implementation. Increased and sustained funding, along with evidence-based allocation of funds, will be necessary to accelerate the decline in new HIV infections. PMID:22778344

  1. Environmental Impact on DNA Methylation in the Germline: State of the Art and Gaps of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Pacchierotti, Francesca; Spanò, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The epigenome consists of chemical changes in DNA and chromatin that without modifying the DNA sequence modulate gene expression and cellular phenotype. The epigenome is highly plastic and reacts to changing external conditions with modifications that can be inherited to daughter cells and across generations. Whereas this innate plasticity allows for adaptation to a changing environment, it also implies the potential of epigenetic derailment leading to so-called epimutations. DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic mark. DNA methylation changes have been associated with cancer, infertility, cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, immunologic, and neurodegenerative pathologies. Experiments in rodents demonstrate that exposure to a variety of chemical stressors, occurring during the prenatal or the adult life, may induce DNA methylation changes in germ cells, which may be transmitted across generations with phenotypic consequences. An increasing number of human biomonitoring studies show environmentally related DNA methylation changes mainly in blood leukocytes, whereas very few data have been so far collected on possible epigenetic changes induced in the germline, even by the analysis of easily accessible sperm. In this paper, we review the state of the art on factors impinging on DNA methylation in the germline, highlight gaps of knowledge, and propose priorities for future studies. PMID:26339587

  2. Programming the brain: Common outcomes and gaps in knowledge from animal studies of IUGR.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Damien S; Hazel, Susan J; Kind, Karen L; Owens, Julie A; Pitcher, Julia B; Gatford, Kathryn L

    2016-10-01

    IUGR in humans is associated with impaired pre- and postnatal neurodevelopment, and subsequent postnatal cognition, resulting in lower IQ, poorer memory, visuomotor and executive function skills, as well as behavioural and attentional problems. Experimental models of IUGR are needed to allow direct testing of causality and interventions, and have benefits in reducing both confounding by comorbidities such as prematurity, and variation due to environment and genetics. This review describes and discusses experimental models of IUGR in which neurodevelopmental and cognitive outcomes of IUGR have been reported. We consider the timing of neurodevelopment relative to birth and to the period of restriction, as well as the effects of each experimental perturbation on the fetal environment and development, before discussing neurodevelopmental and cognitive outcomes for progeny as fetuses, neonates and into adolescent and adult life. Experimental IUGR induces broadly similar outcomes to human IUGR, with altered brain morphology, in particular grey matter loss and discordant trajectory of white matter development, and poorer cognition and memory reported in various studies. Nevertheless, there remain gaps in knowledge of neurodevelopment in experimental models. We end the review with recommendations for the design of future studies to further investigate the mechanisms underlying adverse neurodevelopmental consequences of IUGR, and to evaluate interventions that may subsequently improve outcomes of IUGR in humans.

  3. Immunotherapy for house dust mite sensitivity: where are the knowledge gaps?

    PubMed

    Biagtan, Mark; Viswanathan, Ravi; Bush, Robert K

    2014-12-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) are found in the environments where human habitation exists. Their density is dependent on environmental relative humidity; therefore, higher populations are present in areas of the world with higher humidity levels, e.g., coastal areas and tropics. To date, 24 HDM allergens have been identified. Many of these represent digestive enzymes since HDM feces are the major source of allergen exposure. IgE- medicated sensitization to HDM allergens is an important factor in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases since it is the most common aeroallergen detected by skin testing or in vitro IgE assays. Sensitization to HDM allergens often occurs early in life and appears to play an important role in the progression from allergic rhinitis to asthma (the so-called Allergic March) in children. HDM sensitization is also associated with asthma across all age groups. Efforts to control environmental exposure to HDM allergens have often proven to be unsuccessful. While medications can improve symptoms, only immunotherapy currently provides disease-modifying effects in allergic rhinitis and asthma. Several systemic reviews and meta-analysis indicate that both subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma for HDM sensitivity. In this report, we review recent studies and the evidence for the use of HDM SCIT and SLIT. Fundamental gaps in knowledge are identified which could lead to improved approaches to HDM allergy. PMID:25354663

  4. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus "MERS-CoV": current knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Banik, G R; Khandaker, G; Rashid, H

    2015-06-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that causes a severe lower respiratory tract infection in humans is now considered a pandemic threat to the Gulf region. Since its discovery in 2012, MERS-CoV has reached 23 countries affecting about 1100 people, including a dozen children, and claiming over 400 lives. Compared to SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), MERS-CoV appears to kill more people (40% versus 10%), more quickly, and is especially more severe in those with pre-existing medical conditions. Most MERS-CoV cases (>85%) reported thus far have a history of residence in, or travel to the Middle East. The current epidemiology is characterised by slow and sustained transmission with occasional sparks. The dromedary camel is the intermediate host of MERS-CoV, but the transmission cycle is not fully understood. In this current review, we have briefly summarised the latest information on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of MERS-CoV especially highlighting the knowledge gaps in its transmission dynamics, diagnosis and preventive strategy. PMID:26002405

  5. Expanding Knowledge Gaps: The Function of Fictions in Teaching Materials after the 2011 Swedish High School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graeske, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The aim in the study is to analyze how work with fiction is organized in six textbooks for senior high school in Sweden after the school reform 2011. Research into Swedish teaching materials has been neglected in recent years and there is a knowledge gap about how the work with fictions is affected by the reform in 2011. In the study quantitative…

  6. The "Chugakuryoko" and Hogan's Heroes: The Experience Gap between U.S. and Japanese Students' Knowledge of World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olwell, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Based on his own teaching experiences and findings, the author discusses the experience gap between U.S. and Japanese students' knowledge of World War II. He compares and contrasts how the subject of World War II is taught in the United States versus Japan. While it takes teacher effort to enrich the history experiences of U.S. students, the…

  7. Knowledge and therapeutic gaps: a public health problem in the rare coagulation disorders population.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Amy D; Soucie, J Michael; Peyvandi, Flora; Aschman, Diane J; DiMichele, Donna M

    2011-12-01

    Rare coagulation disorders (RCDs) present a considerable and multifaceted public health risk. Although inherited RCDs affect a minor segment of any local healthcare delivery system, their global impact is major and highlight the challenges of delivering healthcare services to any rare disease population. These include but are not limited to: (1) a general lack of knowledge about and familiarity with the genetic and clinical implications of the disorder among affected patients, and both urgent and specialty care providers; (2) the potential for preventable morbidity and mortality related to delayed diagnosis and treatment; (3) the lack of safe and effective therapies; and (4) minimal research activity to establish and improve standards of care. A multiagency national partnership has established an approach to address these problems through development of a clinical, genetic, and treatment-related web-based data-collection tool that will: (1) generate a reliable, sufficient knowledge base for these disorders; (2) facilitate new product licensure through subject identification and access to comparative historical treatment data; and (3) serve as an effective tool for outcomes research and post-licensure product surveillance. To maximize impact, this database is being harmonized with a European data-collection effort. Database development and harmonization is in progress. A resource library was completed and disseminated to major national and international bleeding disorder websites to provide state-of-the-art patient and provider education on each RCD. We believe that this model is effective and adaptable to other rare conditions.

  8. Engineered inorganic nanoparticles and cosmetics: facts, issues, knowledge gaps and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wiechers, Johann W; Musee, Ndeke

    2010-10-01

    The cosmetic industry is among the first adaptors of nanotechnology through the use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to enhance the performance of their products and meet the customers' needs. Recently, there have been increasing concerns from different societal stakeholders (e.g., governments, environmental activist pressure groups, scientists, general public, etc.) concerning the safety and environmental impact of ENPs used in cosmetics. This review paper seeks to address the twin concerns of the safety of cosmetics and the potential environmental impacts due to the constituent chemicals-the ENPs. The safety aspect is addressed by examining recently published scientific data on the possibility of ENPs penetrating human skin. Data indicates that although particular types of ENPs can penetrate into the skin, until now no penetration has been detected beyond the stratum corneum of the ENPs used in cosmetics. Yet, important lessons can be learned from the more recent studies that identify the characteristics of ENPs penetrating into and permeating through human skin. On the part of the environmental impact, the scientific literature has very limited or none existent specific articles addressing the environmental impacts of ENPs owing to the cosmetic products. Therefore, general ecotoxicological data on risk assessment of ENPs has been applied to ascertain if there are potential environmental impacts from cosmetics. Results include some of the first studies on the qualitative and quantitative risk assessment of ENPs from cosmetics and suggest that further research is required as the knowledge is incomplete to make definitive conclusions as is the case with skin penetration. The authors conclude that the cosmetic industry should be more transparent in its use of nanotechnology in cosmetic products to facilitate realistic risk assessments as well as scientists and pressure groups being accurate in their conclusions on the general applicability of their findings

  9. Knowledge translation in Africa for 21st century integrative biology: the "know-do gap" in family planning with contraceptive use among Somali women.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Abdullahi A; Guled, Ibrahim A; Elamin, Hayfa M; Abou-Zeid, Alaa H

    2014-11-01

    An emerging dimension of 21(st) century integrative biology is knowledge translation in global health. The maternal mortality rate in Somalia is amongst the highest in the world. We set out to study the "know-do" gap in family planning measures in Somalia, with a view to inform future interventions for knowledge integration between theory and practice. We interviewed 360 Somali females of reproductive age and compared university-educated females to women with less or no education, using structured interviews, with a validated questionnaire. The mean age of marriage was 18 years, with 4.5 pregnancies per marriage. The mean for the desired family size was 9.3 and 10.5 children for the university-educated group and the less-educated group, respectively. Importantly, nearly 90% of the university-educated group knew about family planning, compared to 45.6% of the less-educated group. All of the less-educated group indicated that they would never use contraceptives, as compared to 43.5% of the university-educated group. Prevalence of contraceptive use among ever-married women was 4.3%. In the less-educated group, 80.6% indicated that they would not recommend contraceptives to other women as compared to 66.0% of the university-educated group. There is a huge gap between knowledge and practice regarding family planning in Somalia. The attendant reasons for this gap, such as level of education, expressed personal religious beliefs and others, are examined here. For primary health care to gain traction in Africa, we need to address the existing "know-do" gaps that are endemic and adversely impacting on global health. This is the first independent research study examining the knowledge gaps for family planning in Somalia in the last 20 years, with a view to understanding knowledge integration in a global world. The results shall guide policy makers, donors, and implementers to develop a sound family planning policy and program to improve maternal and child health in 21(st

  10. Social health insurance: a knowledge-do gap in eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Jha, N; Karki, P; Das, B P; Chapagain, N

    2007-01-01

    Health care costs, and those for inpatient care in particular, pose a barrier to seeking health care, and cost be a major cause of indebtedness and impoverishment, particularly among the poor. The Ministry of Health in Nepal intends to initiate alternative financing schemes such as community and social health insurance schemes as a means to supplement the government health sector financing source. Social Health Insurance (SHI) is a mechanism for financing and purchasing / delivering health care to workers in the formal sector regulated by the government. Considering all these facts BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) has introduced SHI scheme in 2000 as an alternative health care financing mechanism to the community people of Sunsari and Morang districts. In the beginning small area was elected as a pilot project to launch the scheme. A major objective of SHI is to reduce poverty caused by paying for health care and to prevent already vulnerable families from falling into deeper poverty when facing health problems. A total of 26 organizations with 19799 populations are at present in SHI scheme. Sixteen rural based organizations with 14,047 populations and 10 urban based organizations with 5752 people are the beneficiaries in this scheme. BPKIHS SHI Scheme is the outcome of the visionary thinking on social solidarity and as an alternative health care financing mechanism to the community. BPKIHS is mobilizing people's organizations and is offering health services through its health insurance scheme at subsidized expenses. This has helped people to avail with health facilities who otherwise would have been left vulnerable because of their penetrating health needs. There is huge gap between premium collection and expenditures. The expenditures are more and this may be due to knowledge - do gap in the program. If conditions are unsuitable, SHI can lead to higher costs of care, inefficient allocation of health care resources, inequitable provision and

  11. Social health insurance: a knowledge-do gap in eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Jha, N; Karki, P; Das, B P; Chapagain, N

    2007-01-01

    Health care costs, and those for inpatient care in particular, pose a barrier to seeking health care, and cost be a major cause of indebtedness and impoverishment, particularly among the poor. The Ministry of Health in Nepal intends to initiate alternative financing schemes such as community and social health insurance schemes as a means to supplement the government health sector financing source. Social Health Insurance (SHI) is a mechanism for financing and purchasing / delivering health care to workers in the formal sector regulated by the government. Considering all these facts BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) has introduced SHI scheme in 2000 as an alternative health care financing mechanism to the community people of Sunsari and Morang districts. In the beginning small area was elected as a pilot project to launch the scheme. A major objective of SHI is to reduce poverty caused by paying for health care and to prevent already vulnerable families from falling into deeper poverty when facing health problems. A total of 26 organizations with 19799 populations are at present in SHI scheme. Sixteen rural based organizations with 14,047 populations and 10 urban based organizations with 5752 people are the beneficiaries in this scheme. BPKIHS SHI Scheme is the outcome of the visionary thinking on social solidarity and as an alternative health care financing mechanism to the community. BPKIHS is mobilizing people's organizations and is offering health services through its health insurance scheme at subsidized expenses. This has helped people to avail with health facilities who otherwise would have been left vulnerable because of their penetrating health needs. There is huge gap between premium collection and expenditures. The expenditures are more and this may be due to knowledge - do gap in the program. If conditions are unsuitable, SHI can lead to higher costs of care, inefficient allocation of health care resources, inequitable provision and

  12. Addressing Achievement Gaps: Advancing Success for Black Men in College. Policy Notes. Volume 22, Number 1, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This issue of ETS Policy Notes (Vol. 22, No. 1) provides highlights from a recent symposium sponsored by ETS and the Children Defense Fund (CDF), "Advancing Success for Black Men in College," held on June 23, 2014, in Washington, DC. The symposium is part of a two-conference series: It was the 18th of ETS's "Addressing Achievement…

  13. Bridging the Gap between Scientific and Indigenous knowledge to Better Understand Social Impacts of Changing Rainfall Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, A. H.; Joachim, L.; Zhu, X.; Hammer, C.; Harris, M.; Griggs, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin incorporates Australia's three longest rivers and is important for an agricultural industry worth more than $9 billion per annum, a rich biodiversity of habitat and species, and the very life of its traditional owners. The complex and sometimes enigmatic relationships between modes of variability and Australian regional rainfall distribution means that reliable projections of future water availability remain highly uncertain. Persistent drought, with associated heat stress and high fire danger, and episodic flooding rains present further challenges. Indeed, recent extremes likely herald a tipping point for the communities and ecosystems that rely on the river system. The Barmah-Millewa region in the Murray-Darling Basin is the heart of Yorta Yorta Traditional Tribal Lands. The Yorta Yorta continue to assert their inherent rights to country and have shown through oral, documentary and material evidence, that their social, spiritual, economic and cultural links with country have never been broken. Current water policy and practice, highly contested community consultation processes, cross-border governance issues and a changing social landscape create in this region a microcosm for understanding the complex demands of economic, environmental and cultural security along the Murray-Darling Basin as the climate changes. New approaches to bridging the gap between scientific and Indigenous epistemologies have emerged in recent years, including for example ecosystem-based adaptation (Vignola et al. 2009) and the analysis of cultural water flows (Weir 2010). The potential for innovation using these approaches has informed a study that investigates how the deep knowledge of country of the Yorta Yorta people can be combined with state of the art climate science to develop a better understanding of the competing demands on water resources in the Barmah-Millewa region now and in the future. An important dimension of this collaborative work with the Yorta

  14. Radiotelemetry and wildlife: Highlighting a gap in the knowledge on radiofrequency radiation effects.

    PubMed

    Balmori, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    Radio transmitters and associated devices may induce negative effects that can bias the results of ongoing research. The main documented effects of radio transmitters on animals include reduced survival, decreased productivity, changes in behaviour and movement patterns and a biased sex ratio. The only factors that have claimed responsibility for these possible damages are the weight of the radio transmitter and associated devices, and the attachment type. The electromagnetic radiation produced by radio transmitters has not been considered so far in research. There have been no studies evaluating the effects of non-ionising electromagnetic radiation (radiofrequency signals) necessary for tracking, although the problems found were significantly associated with the length of time that animals had been carrying their radio transmitters. Similar problems as those in radiotracked animals have been found in numerous studies with animals exposed to radiofrequency radiation for a sufficient amount of time. Laboratory scientists investigating the orientation of animals know they have to shield the place where experiments are performed to prevent interference from man-made radiation, as anthropogenic signals may distort the results. It is paradoxical that, at the same time, field scientists investigating the movements and other aspects of animal biology are providing animals with radio transmitters that emit the same type of radiation, since this may affect the results concerning their orientation and movement. This paper identifies gaps in the knowledge that should be investigated in-depth. The possibility that the radiofrequency radiation from radiotracking devices is responsible for the findings should be considered. Considering this factor may allow researchers to best understand the long-term effects found.

  15. Tropical Forests, Savannas and Grasslands: Bridging the Knowledge Gap Between Ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudena, M.; Dekker, S. C.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S. I.; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.; Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2014-12-01

    Due to global climate change, tropical forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are largely used to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we present the results of a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM) with regard to their different representations of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modelling. We compared model outcomes to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. Through these comparisons, and by drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need an improved representation in the DGVMs. The first mechanism encompasses water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna occurrence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savannas in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings), and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant savanna trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant forest trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and especially

  16. A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Nguyen, Thi Mai Huong; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms, e.g., fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here, we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics. PMID:25941519

  17. Radiotelemetry and wildlife: Highlighting a gap in the knowledge on radiofrequency radiation effects.

    PubMed

    Balmori, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    Radio transmitters and associated devices may induce negative effects that can bias the results of ongoing research. The main documented effects of radio transmitters on animals include reduced survival, decreased productivity, changes in behaviour and movement patterns and a biased sex ratio. The only factors that have claimed responsibility for these possible damages are the weight of the radio transmitter and associated devices, and the attachment type. The electromagnetic radiation produced by radio transmitters has not been considered so far in research. There have been no studies evaluating the effects of non-ionising electromagnetic radiation (radiofrequency signals) necessary for tracking, although the problems found were significantly associated with the length of time that animals had been carrying their radio transmitters. Similar problems as those in radiotracked animals have been found in numerous studies with animals exposed to radiofrequency radiation for a sufficient amount of time. Laboratory scientists investigating the orientation of animals know they have to shield the place where experiments are performed to prevent interference from man-made radiation, as anthropogenic signals may distort the results. It is paradoxical that, at the same time, field scientists investigating the movements and other aspects of animal biology are providing animals with radio transmitters that emit the same type of radiation, since this may affect the results concerning their orientation and movement. This paper identifies gaps in the knowledge that should be investigated in-depth. The possibility that the radiofrequency radiation from radiotracking devices is responsible for the findings should be considered. Considering this factor may allow researchers to best understand the long-term effects found. PMID:26615484

  18. Environmental genotoxicants/carcinogens and childhood cancer: bridgeable gaps in scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lucy M

    2006-09-28

    Cancer in children is a major concern in many countries. An important question is whether these childhood cancers are caused by something, or are just tragic random events. Causation of at least some children's cancers is suggested by direct and indirect evidence, including epidemiological data, and animal studies that predict early life sensitivity of humans to carcinogenic effects. Candidate risk factors include genotoxic agents (chemicals and radiation), but also diet/nutrition, and infectious agents/immune responses. With regard to likelihood of risks posed by genotoxicants, there are pros and cons. The biological properties of fetuses and infants are consistent with sensitivity to preneoplastic genotoxic damage. Recent studies of genetic polymorphisms in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes confirm a role for chemicals. On the other hand, in numerous epidemiological studies, associations between childhood cancers and exposure to genotoxicants, including tobacco smoke, have been weak and hard to reproduce. Possibly, sensitive genetic or ontogenetic subpopulations, and/or co-exposure situations need to be discovered to allow identification of susceptible individuals and their risk factors. Among the critical knowledge gaps needing to be bridged to aid in this effort include detailed tissue and cellular ontogeny of carcinogen metabolism and DNA repair enzymes, and associations of polymorphisms in DNA repair enzymes with childhood cancers. Perinatal bioassays in animals of specific environmental candidates, for example, benzene, could help guide epidemiology. Genetically engineered animal models could be useful for identification of chemical effects on specific genes. Investigations of interactions between factors may be key to understanding risk. Finally, fathers and newborn infants should receive more attention as especially sensitive targets. PMID:16829162

  19. Forests, savannas, and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudena, M.; Dekker, S. C.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S. I.; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.; Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2015-03-01

    The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future due to global climate change. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are very useful for understanding vegetation dynamics under the present climate, and for predicting its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM) with regard to their representation of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modeling. The outcomes of the models, which include different mechanisms, are compared to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. By drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need improved representation in the examined DGVMs. The first mechanism includes water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna presence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savanna presence in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings), and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant forest trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant savanna trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and

  20. A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Nguyen, Thi Mai Huong; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms, e.g., fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here, we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics. PMID:25941519

  1. A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Nguyen, Thi Mai Huong; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms, e.g., fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here, we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics.

  2. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on forest trees and forest ecosystems: knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Karnosky, David F

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric CO(2) is rising rapidly, and options for slowing the CO(2) rise are politically charged as they largely require reductions in industrial CO(2) emissions for most developed countries. As forests cover some 43% of the Earth's surface, account for some 70% of terrestrial net primary production (NPP), and are being bartered for carbon mitigation, it is critically important that we continue to reduce the uncertainties about the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on forest tree growth, productivity, and forest ecosystem function. In this paper, I review knowledge gaps and research needs on the effects of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on forest above- and below-ground growth and productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, water relations, wood quality, phenology, community dynamics and biodiversity, antioxidants and stress tolerance, interactions with air pollutants, heterotrophic interactions, and ecosystem functioning. Finally, I discuss research needs regarding modeling of the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on forests.Even though there has been a tremendous amount of research done with elevated CO(2) and forest trees, it remains difficult to predict future forest growth and productivity under elevated atmospheric CO(2). Likewise, it is not easy to predict how forest ecosystem processes will respond to enriched CO(2). The more we study the impacts of increasing CO(2), the more we realize that tree and forest responses are yet largely uncertain due to differences in responsiveness by species, genotype, and functional group, and the complex interactions of elevated atmospheric CO(2) with soil fertility, drought, pests, and co-occurring atmospheric pollutants such as nitrogen deposition and O(3). Furthermore, it is impossible to predict ecosystem-level responses based on short-term studies of young trees grown without interacting stresses and in small spaces without the element of competition. Long-term studies using free-air CO(2) enrichment

  3. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on forest trees and forest ecosystems: knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Karnosky, David F

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric CO(2) is rising rapidly, and options for slowing the CO(2) rise are politically charged as they largely require reductions in industrial CO(2) emissions for most developed countries. As forests cover some 43% of the Earth's surface, account for some 70% of terrestrial net primary production (NPP), and are being bartered for carbon mitigation, it is critically important that we continue to reduce the uncertainties about the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on forest tree growth, productivity, and forest ecosystem function. In this paper, I review knowledge gaps and research needs on the effects of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on forest above- and below-ground growth and productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, water relations, wood quality, phenology, community dynamics and biodiversity, antioxidants and stress tolerance, interactions with air pollutants, heterotrophic interactions, and ecosystem functioning. Finally, I discuss research needs regarding modeling of the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on forests.Even though there has been a tremendous amount of research done with elevated CO(2) and forest trees, it remains difficult to predict future forest growth and productivity under elevated atmospheric CO(2). Likewise, it is not easy to predict how forest ecosystem processes will respond to enriched CO(2). The more we study the impacts of increasing CO(2), the more we realize that tree and forest responses are yet largely uncertain due to differences in responsiveness by species, genotype, and functional group, and the complex interactions of elevated atmospheric CO(2) with soil fertility, drought, pests, and co-occurring atmospheric pollutants such as nitrogen deposition and O(3). Furthermore, it is impossible to predict ecosystem-level responses based on short-term studies of young trees grown without interacting stresses and in small spaces without the element of competition. Long-term studies using free-air CO(2) enrichment

  4. AccrualNet: Addressing Low Accrual Via a Knowledge-Based, Community of Practice Platform

    PubMed Central

    Massett, Holly A.; Parreco, Linda K.; Padberg, Rose Mary; Richmond, Ellen S.; Rienzo, Marie E.; Leonard, Colleen E. Ryan; Quesenbery, Whitney; Killiam, H. William; Johnson, Lenora E.; Dilts, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Present the design and initial evaluation of a unique, Web-enabled platform for the development of a community of practice around issues of oncology clinical trial accrual. Methods: The National Cancer Institute (NCI) conducted research with oncology professionals to identify unmet clinical trial accrual needs in the field. In response, a comprehensive platform for accrual resources, AccrualNet, was created by using an agile development process, storyboarding, and user testing. Literature and resource searches identified relevant content to populate the site. Descriptive statistics were tracked for resource and site usage. Use cases were defined to support implementation. Results: AccrualNet has five levels: (1) clinical trial macrostages (prestudy, active study, and poststudy); (2) substages (developing a protocol, selecting a trial, preparing to open, enrolling patients, managing the trial, retaining participants, and lessons learned); (3) strategies for each substage; (4) multiple activities for each strategy; and (5) multiple resources for each activity. Since its launch, AccrualNet has had more than 45,000 page views, with the Tools & Resources, Conversations, and Training sections being the most viewed. Total resources have increased 69%, to 496 items. Analysis of articles in the site reveals that 22% are from two journals and 46% of the journals supplied a single article. To date, there are 29 conversations with 43 posts. Four use cases are discussed. Conclusion: AccrualNet represents a unique, centralized comprehensive-solution platform to systematically capture accrual knowledge for all stages of a clinical trial. It is designed to foster a community of practice by encouraging users to share additional strategies, resources, and ideas. PMID:22379429

  5. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006–2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Results Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006–2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient’s privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Conclusion Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community. PMID:22577965

  6. AMSSM Position Statement on Cardiovascular Preparticipation Screening in Athletes: Current Evidence, Knowledge Gaps, Recommendations and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Drezner, Jonathan A; O'Connor, Francis G; Harmon, Kimberly G; Fields, Karl B; Asplund, Chad A; Asif, Irfan M; Price, David E; Dimeff, Robert J; Bernhardt, David T; Roberts, William O

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular screening in young athletes is widely recommended and routinely performed prior to participation in competitive sports. While there is general agreement that early detection of cardiac conditions at risk for sudden cardiac arrest and death (SCA/D) is an important objective, the optimal strategy for cardiovascular screening in athletes remains an issue of considerable debate. At the center of the controversy is the addition of a resting electrocardiogram (ECG) to the standard preparticipation evaluation using history and physical examination. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) formed a task force to address the current evidence and knowledge gaps regarding preparticipation cardiovascular screening in athletes from the perspective of a primary care sports medicine physician. The absence of definitive outcomes-based evidence at this time precludes AMSSM from endorsing any single or universal cardiovascular screening strategy for all athletes, including legislative mandates. This statement presents a new paradigm to assist the individual physician in assessing the most appropriate cardiovascular screening strategy unique to their athlete population, community needs, and resources. The decision to implement a cardiovascular screening program, with or without the addition of ECG, necessitates careful consideration of the risk of SCA/D in the targeted population and the availability of cardiology resources and infrastructure. Importantly, it is the individual physician's assessment in the context of an emerging evidence-base that the chosen model for early detection of cardiac disorders in the specific population provides greater benefit than harm. AMSSM is committed to advancing evidenced-based research and educational initiatives that will validate and promote the most efficacious strategies to foster safe sport participation and reduce SCA/D in athletes. PMID:27618246

  7. AMSSM Position Statement on Cardiovascular Preparticipation Screening in Athletes: Current Evidence, Knowledge Gaps, Recommendations, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Drezner, Jonathan A; OʼConnor, Francis G; Harmon, Kimberly G; Fields, Karl B; Asplund, Chad A; Asif, Irfan M; Price, David E; Dimeff, Robert J; Bernhardt, David T; Roberts, William O

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) screening in young athletes is widely recommended and routinely performed before participation in competitive sports. While there is general agreement that early detection of cardiac conditions at risk for sudden cardiac arrest and death (SCA/D) is an important objective, the optimal strategy for CV screening in athletes remains an issue of considerable debate. At the center of the controversy is the addition of a resting electrocardiogram (ECG) to the standard preparticipation evaluation using history and physical examination. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) formed a task force to address the current evidence and knowledge gaps regarding preparticipation CV screening in athletes from the perspective of a primary care sports medicine physician. The absence of definitive outcomes-based evidence at this time precludes AMSSM from endorsing any single or universal CV screening strategy for all athletes including legislative mandates. This statement presents a new paradigm to assist the individual physician in assessing the most appropriate CV screening strategy unique to their athlete population, community needs, and resources. The decision to implement a CV screening program, with or without the addition of ECG, necessitates careful consideration of the risk of SCA/D in the targeted population and the availability of cardiology resources and infrastructure. Importantly, it is the individual physician's assessment in the context of an emerging evidence base that the chosen model for early detection of cardiac disorders in the specific population provides greater benefit than harm. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine is committed to advancing evidenced-based research and educational initiatives that will validate and promote the most efficacious strategies to foster safe sport participation and reduce SCA/D in athletes. PMID:27598018

  8. Cost assessment of natural hazards in Europe - state-of-the-art, knowledge gaps and recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, V.; Becker, N.; Markantonis, V.; Schwarze, R.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.; Bouwer, L. M.; Bubeck, P.; Ciavola, P.; Thieken, A. H.; Genovese, E.; Green, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Kreibich, H.; Lequeux, Q.; Viavattenne, C.; Logar, I.; Papyrakis, E.; Pfurtscheller, C.; Poussin, J.; Przyluski, V.

    2012-04-01

    Effective and efficient reduction of natural hazard risks requires a thorough understanding of the costs of natural hazards in order to develop sustainable risk management strategies. The current methods that assess the costs of different natural hazards employ a diversity of terminologies and approaches for different hazards and impacted sectors. This makes it difficult to arrive at robust, comprehensive and comparable cost figures. The CONHAZ (Costs of Natural Hazards) project aimed to compile and synthesise current knowledge on cost assessment methods in order to strengthen the role of cost assessments in the development of integrated natural hazard management and adaptation planning. In order to achieve this, CONHAZ has adopted a comprehensive approach, considering natural hazards ranging from droughts, floods and coastal hazards to Alpine hazards, as well as different impacted sectors and cost types. Its specific objectives have been 1) to compile the state-of-the-art methods for cost assessment; 2) to analyse and assess these methods in terms of technical aspects, as well as terminology, data quality and availability, and research gaps; and 3) to synthesise resulting knowledge into recommendations and to identify further research needs. This presentation summarises the main results of CONHAZ. CONHAZ differentiates between direct tangible damages, losses due to business interruption, indirect damages, intangible effects, and costs of risk mitigation. It is shown that the main focus of cost assessment methods and their application in practice is on direct costs, while existing methods for assessing intangible and indirect effects are rather rarely applied and methods for assessing indirect effects often cannot be used on the scale of interest (e.g. the regional scale). Furthermore, methods often focus on single sectors and/or hazards, and only very few are able to reflect several sectors or multiple hazards. Process understanding and its use in cost assessment

  9. Impact of learning nutrition on medical students: their eating habits, knowledge and confidence in addressing dietary issues of patients.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shama; Dwivedi, Shraddha; Khan, Maroof A

    2011-12-01

    Nutrition is an important component in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases and is a cornerstone in strategies for disease prevention and health promotion. Despite the acknowledged importance of nutrition, there is evidence to indicate that the nutrition training of medical students is inadequate in both quality and quantity. The study aimed to know the dietary/eating habits of medical students, assess their knowledge on nutrition and to assess their confidence in addressing the dietary issues of patients. It was a cross-sectional study conducted on final year medical students, interns and postgraduate students of Moti Lal Nehru Government Medical College, Allahabad. The sampling was purposive and a total of 218 participated in the study voluntarily. Overall 55% of the students were less knowledgeable and only 45% of them were more knowledgeable. Most (62%) postgraduates were more knowledgeable (p < 0.001). Majority of them (89.9%) were having healthy eating habits. There was no association between their healthy habits and more knowledge (p > 0.340). Only 45.4% of them were confident in assessing the diet of patients and 44% of them were confident in recommending change of diet in patients. However this study shows no association between increase in the level of knowledge and confidence levels of the students (p > 0.339 and p > 0.109) suggesting that we need to incorporate innovative teaching methods to increase their confidence. Most students (79%) said that the medical curriculum was either just enough or not enough in preparing them to deal with the dietary issues of patients and 55% of them were of the opinion that the faculty should be trained in nutrition. The study results intend to stimulate active consideration of proper role of nutrition learning in medical education.

  10. Human resource management in post-conflict health systems: review of research and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Roome, Edward; Raven, Joanna; Martineau, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In post-conflict settings, severe disruption to health systems invariably leaves populations at high risk of disease and in greater need of health provision than more stable resource-poor countries. The health workforce is often a direct victim of conflict. Effective human resource management (HRM) strategies and policies are critical to addressing the systemic effects of conflict on the health workforce such as flight of human capital, mismatches between skills and service needs, breakdown of pre-service training, and lack of human resource data. This paper reviews published literatures across three functional areas of HRM in post-conflict settings: workforce supply, workforce distribution, and workforce performance. We searched published literatures for articles published in English between 2003 and 2013. The search used context-specific keywords (e.g. post-conflict, reconstruction) in combination with topic-related keywords based on an analytical framework containing the three functional areas of HRM (supply, distribution, and performance) and several corresponding HRM topic areas under these. In addition, the framework includes a number of cross-cutting topics such as leadership and governance, finance, and gender. The literature is growing but still limited. Many publications have focused on health workforce supply issues, including pre-service education and training, pay, and recruitment. Less is known about workforce distribution, especially governance and administrative systems for deployment and incentive policies to redress geographical workforce imbalances. Apart from in-service training, workforce performance is particularly under-researched in the areas of performance-based incentives, management and supervision, work organisation and job design, and performance appraisal. Research is largely on HRM in the early post-conflict period and has relied on secondary data. More primary research is needed across the areas of workforce supply, workforce

  11. Human resource management in post-conflict health systems: review of research and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Roome, Edward; Raven, Joanna; Martineau, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In post-conflict settings, severe disruption to health systems invariably leaves populations at high risk of disease and in greater need of health provision than more stable resource-poor countries. The health workforce is often a direct victim of conflict. Effective human resource management (HRM) strategies and policies are critical to addressing the systemic effects of conflict on the health workforce such as flight of human capital, mismatches between skills and service needs, breakdown of pre-service training, and lack of human resource data. This paper reviews published literatures across three functional areas of HRM in post-conflict settings: workforce supply, workforce distribution, and workforce performance. We searched published literatures for articles published in English between 2003 and 2013. The search used context-specific keywords (e.g. post-conflict, reconstruction) in combination with topic-related keywords based on an analytical framework containing the three functional areas of HRM (supply, distribution, and performance) and several corresponding HRM topic areas under these. In addition, the framework includes a number of cross-cutting topics such as leadership and governance, finance, and gender. The literature is growing but still limited. Many publications have focused on health workforce supply issues, including pre-service education and training, pay, and recruitment. Less is known about workforce distribution, especially governance and administrative systems for deployment and incentive policies to redress geographical workforce imbalances. Apart from in-service training, workforce performance is particularly under-researched in the areas of performance-based incentives, management and supervision, work organisation and job design, and performance appraisal. Research is largely on HRM in the early post-conflict period and has relied on secondary data. More primary research is needed across the areas of workforce supply, workforce

  12. Human resource management in post-conflict health systems: review of research and knowledge gaps

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In post-conflict settings, severe disruption to health systems invariably leaves populations at high risk of disease and in greater need of health provision than more stable resource-poor countries. The health workforce is often a direct victim of conflict. Effective human resource management (HRM) strategies and policies are critical to addressing the systemic effects of conflict on the health workforce such as flight of human capital, mismatches between skills and service needs, breakdown of pre-service training, and lack of human resource data. This paper reviews published literatures across three functional areas of HRM in post-conflict settings: workforce supply, workforce distribution, and workforce performance. We searched published literatures for articles published in English between 2003 and 2013. The search used context-specific keywords (e.g. post-conflict, reconstruction) in combination with topic-related keywords based on an analytical framework containing the three functional areas of HRM (supply, distribution, and performance) and several corresponding HRM topic areas under these. In addition, the framework includes a number of cross-cutting topics such as leadership and governance, finance, and gender. The literature is growing but still limited. Many publications have focused on health workforce supply issues, including pre-service education and training, pay, and recruitment. Less is known about workforce distribution, especially governance and administrative systems for deployment and incentive policies to redress geographical workforce imbalances. Apart from in-service training, workforce performance is particularly under-researched in the areas of performance-based incentives, management and supervision, work organisation and job design, and performance appraisal. Research is largely on HRM in the early post-conflict period and has relied on secondary data. More primary research is needed across the areas of workforce supply, workforce

  13. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels: Variability, Knowledge Gaps, and the Concept of a Desirable Range.

    PubMed

    Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj; Bouillon, Roger; Clarke, Bart; Chakhtoura, Marlene; Cooper, Cyrus; McClung, Michael; Singh, Ravinder J

    2015-07-01

    Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent worldwide but proportions vary widely between regions, depending on genetic and lifestyle factors, the threshold to define deficiency, and accuracy of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) assays used. Latitude, pollution, concealing clothing, sun exposure, gender, dietary habits, and lack of government regulation account for up to 50% in variations in serum 25OHD levels, whereas genetic polymorphisms in the vitamin D pathway account for less than 5%. Organizations/societies have developed guidelines for recommended desirable 25OHD levels and vitamin D doses to reach them, but their applicability across age groups and populations are still debated. This article and the accompanying online Supporting Information highlight sources of variations in circulating 25OHD levels, uncertainties and knowledge gaps, and analytical problems facing 25OHD assays, while keeping efficacy and safety data as the dominant factors when defining a desirable range for 25OHD levels. We propose a desirable range of 20 to 40 ng/mL (50 to 100 nmol/L), provided precise and accurate assays are used. Although slightly lower levels, 15 to 20 ng/mL, may be sufficient for some infants and adults, higher levels, 40 to 60 ng/mL, may still be safe. This desirable range allows physicians to tailor treatment while taking season, lifestyle, vitamin D intake, and other sources of variation into account. We reserve 25OHD measurements for at-risk patients, defined by disease or lifestyle, and the use of 25OHD assays calibrated against the recommended international standards. Most target groups reach desirable target levels by a daily intake of 400 to 600 IU for children and 800 IU for adults. A total daily allowance of vitamin D of up to 1000 IU in the pediatric age groups, and up to 2000 IU in adults, tailored to an individual patient risk profile, is probably safe over long durations. Additional data are needed to validate the proposed range and vitamin D doses

  14. Conceptual Model-based Systems Biology: mapping knowledge and discovering gaps in the mRNA transcription cycle.

    PubMed

    Somekh, Judith; Choder, Mordechai; Dori, Dov

    2012-12-20

    We propose a Conceptual Model-based Systems Biology framework for qualitative modeling, executing, and eliciting knowledge gaps in molecular biology systems. The framework is an adaptation of Object-Process Methodology (OPM), a graphical and textual executable modeling language. OPM enables concurrent representation of the system's structure-the objects that comprise the system, and behavior-how processes transform objects over time. Applying a top-down approach of recursively zooming into processes, we model a case in point-the mRNA transcription cycle. Starting with this high level cell function, we model increasingly detailed processes along with participating objects. Our modeling approach is capable of modeling molecular processes such as complex formation, localization and trafficking, molecular binding, enzymatic stimulation, and environmental intervention. At the lowest level, similar to the Gene Ontology, all biological processes boil down to three basic molecular functions: catalysis, binding/dissociation, and transporting. During modeling and execution of the mRNA transcription model, we discovered knowledge gaps, which we present and classify into various types. We also show how model execution enhances a coherent model construction. Identification and pinpointing knowledge gaps is an important feature of the framework, as it suggests where research should focus and whether conjectures about uncertain mechanisms fit into the already verified model.

  15. Conceptual Model-Based Systems Biology: Mapping Knowledge and Discovering Gaps in the mRNA Transcription Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Somekh, Judith; Choder, Mordechai; Dori, Dov

    2012-01-01

    We propose a Conceptual Model-based Systems Biology framework for qualitative modeling, executing, and eliciting knowledge gaps in molecular biology systems. The framework is an adaptation of Object-Process Methodology (OPM), a graphical and textual executable modeling language. OPM enables concurrent representation of the system's structure—the objects that comprise the system, and behavior—how processes transform objects over time. Applying a top-down approach of recursively zooming into processes, we model a case in point—the mRNA transcription cycle. Starting with this high level cell function, we model increasingly detailed processes along with participating objects. Our modeling approach is capable of modeling molecular processes such as complex formation, localization and trafficking, molecular binding, enzymatic stimulation, and environmental intervention. At the lowest level, similar to the Gene Ontology, all biological processes boil down to three basic molecular functions: catalysis, binding/dissociation, and transporting. During modeling and execution of the mRNA transcription model, we discovered knowledge gaps, which we present and classify into various types. We also show how model execution enhances a coherent model construction. Identification and pinpointing knowledge gaps is an important feature of the framework, as it suggests where research should focus and whether conjectures about uncertain mechanisms fit into the already verified model. PMID:23308089

  16. Expanding the use of empiricism in nursing: can we bridge the gap between knowledge and clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Karen K

    2003-04-01

    The philosophy of Aristotle and its impact on the process of empirical scientific inquiry has been substantial. The influence of the clarity and orderliness of his thinking, when applied to the acquisition of knowledge in nursing, can not be overstated. Traditional empirical approaches have and will continue to have an important influence on the development of nursing knowledge through nursing research. However, as nursing is primarily a practice discipline, the transition from empirical and syllogistic reasoning is problematic. Other types of inquiry are essential in the application of nursing knowledge obtained by empirical scientific approaches and to understand how that knowledge can best be used in the care of patients. This paper reviews the strengths and limitations of syllogistic reasoning by applying it to a recently published study on temperature measurement in nursing. It then discusses possible ways that the empirical knowledge gained from that study and confirmed in its reasoning by logical analysis could be used in the daily care of critically ill patients. It concludes by highlighting the utility of broader approaches to knowledge development, including interpretative approaches and contemporary empiricism, as a way to bridge the gap between factual empirical knowledge and the practical application of that knowledge in everyday clinical nursing practice.

  17. STEMMING the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Jim; Valentine, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    America has a gap when it comes to youth pursuing science and technology careers. In an effort to improve the knowledge and application of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), after-school programs can work in conjunction with formal in-school curriculum to improve science education. One organization that actively addresses this…

  18. A method for addressing research gaps in HTA, developed whilst evaluating robotic-assisted surgery: a proposal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background When evaluating health technologies with insufficient scientific evidence, only innovative potentials can be assessed. A Regional policy initiative linking the governance of health innovations to the development of clinical research has been launched by the Region of Emilia Romagna Healthcare Authority. This program, aimed at enhancing the research capacity of health organizations, encourages the development of adoption plans that combine use in clinical practice along with experimental use producing better knowledge. Following the launch of this program we developed and propose a method that, by evaluating and ranking scientific uncertainty, identifies the moment (during the stages of the technology's development) where it would be sensible to invest in research resources and capacity to further its evaluation. The method was developed and tested during a research project evaluating robotic surgery. Methods A multidisciplinary panel carried out a 5-step evaluation process: 1) definition of the technology's evidence profile and of all relevant clinical outcomes; 2) systematic review of scientific literature and outline of the uncertainty profile differentiating research results into steady, plausible, uncertain and unknown results; 3) definition of the acceptable level of uncertainty for investing research resources; 4) analysis of local context; 5) identification of clinical indications with promising clinical return. Results Outputs for each step of the evaluation process are: 1) evidence profile of the technology and systematic review; 2) uncertainty profile for each clinical indication; 3) exclusion of clinical indications not fulfilling the criteria of maximum acceptable risk; 4) mapping of local context; 5) recommendations for research. Outputs of the evaluation process for robotic surgery are described in the paper. Conclusions This method attempts to rank levels of uncertainty in order to distinguish promising from hazardous clinical use and to

  19. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    collect can expand weather monitoring, but more crucially can monitor otherwise unobserved biological (including human) responses to environmental drivers. These data in turn can be assimilated into models, as a means to contextualize and distill these noisy observations into actionable knowledge.

  20. The Communication Skills of Accountants: What We Know and the Gaps in Our Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.; Durden, Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically reviews 19 studies published between 1972 and 2012 that investigated the written and/or oral communication skills of practicing accountants. The core aim of the review was to identify skills considered important and highlight gaps regarding what is known about existing and desired communication skills in the accounting…

  1. Microplastics in freshwater systems: a review of the emerging threats, identification of knowledge gaps and prioritisation of research needs.

    PubMed

    Eerkes-Medrano, Dafne; Thompson, Richard C; Aldridge, David C

    2015-05-15

    Plastic contamination is an increasing environmental problem in marine systems where it has spread globally to even the most remote habitats. Plastic pieces in smaller size scales, microplastics (particles <5 mm), have reached high densities (e.g., 100,000 items per m(3)) in waters and sediments, and are interacting with organisms and the environment in a variety of ways. Early investigations of freshwater systems suggest microplastic presence and interactions are equally as far reaching as are being observed in marine systems. Microplastics are being detected in freshwaters of Europe, North America, and Asia, and the first organismal studies are finding that freshwater fauna across a range of feeding guilds ingest microplastics. Drawing from the marine literature and these initial freshwater studies, we review the issue of microplastics in freshwater systems to summarise current understanding, identify knowledge gaps and suggest future research priorities. Evidence suggests that freshwater systems may share similarities to marine systems in the types of forces that transport microplastics (e.g. surface currents); the prevalence of microplastics (e.g. numerically abundant and ubiquitous); the approaches used for detection, identification and quantification (e.g. density separation, filtration, sieving and infrared spectroscopy); and the potential impacts (e.g. physical damage to organisms that ingest them, chemical transfer of toxicants). Differences between freshwater and marine systems include the closer proximity to point sources in freshwaters, the typically smaller sizes of freshwater systems, and spatial and temporal differences in the mixing/transport of particles by physical forces. These differences between marine and freshwater systems may lead to differences in the type of microplastics present. For example, rivers may show a predictable pattern in microplastic characteristics (size, shape, relative abundance) based on waste sources (e.g. household vs

  2. Microplastics in freshwater systems: a review of the emerging threats, identification of knowledge gaps and prioritisation of research needs.

    PubMed

    Eerkes-Medrano, Dafne; Thompson, Richard C; Aldridge, David C

    2015-05-15

    Plastic contamination is an increasing environmental problem in marine systems where it has spread globally to even the most remote habitats. Plastic pieces in smaller size scales, microplastics (particles <5 mm), have reached high densities (e.g., 100,000 items per m(3)) in waters and sediments, and are interacting with organisms and the environment in a variety of ways. Early investigations of freshwater systems suggest microplastic presence and interactions are equally as far reaching as are being observed in marine systems. Microplastics are being detected in freshwaters of Europe, North America, and Asia, and the first organismal studies are finding that freshwater fauna across a range of feeding guilds ingest microplastics. Drawing from the marine literature and these initial freshwater studies, we review the issue of microplastics in freshwater systems to summarise current understanding, identify knowledge gaps and suggest future research priorities. Evidence suggests that freshwater systems may share similarities to marine systems in the types of forces that transport microplastics (e.g. surface currents); the prevalence of microplastics (e.g. numerically abundant and ubiquitous); the approaches used for detection, identification and quantification (e.g. density separation, filtration, sieving and infrared spectroscopy); and the potential impacts (e.g. physical damage to organisms that ingest them, chemical transfer of toxicants). Differences between freshwater and marine systems include the closer proximity to point sources in freshwaters, the typically smaller sizes of freshwater systems, and spatial and temporal differences in the mixing/transport of particles by physical forces. These differences between marine and freshwater systems may lead to differences in the type of microplastics present. For example, rivers may show a predictable pattern in microplastic characteristics (size, shape, relative abundance) based on waste sources (e.g. household vs

  3. Knowledge Gaps and Rural Development in Tajikistan: Agricultural Advisory Services as a Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtaltovna, Anastasiya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse knowledge systems and channels of innovation diffusion in Tajikistan. In particular, I look at the formation of agricultural advisory services (AASs) and how these provide a vital source of knowledge and innovation for farmers during the transition process. Methodology: Empirically, this paper draws…

  4. Knowledge Gaps among School Staff and the Role of High Quality Ecological Assessments in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Natasha K.; Powers, Joelle D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine the practice validity of a new ecological assessment instrument for third through fifth graders in terms of whether it provided school staff with new knowledge about students. Method: Preassessment knowledge of school staff was compared to data obtained from 21 children and their parents…

  5. On the road to eliminate malaria in Sri Lanka: lessons from history, challenges, gaps in knowledge and research needs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases that has caused devastation throughout the history of mankind. Malaria eradication programmes in the past have had many positive effects but failed to wipe out malaria from most tropical countries, including Sri Lanka. Encouraged by the impressive levels of reduction in malaria case numbers during the past decade, Sri Lanka has launched a programme to eliminate malaria by year 2014. This article reviews the historical milestones associated with the malaria eradication programme that failed subsequently and the events that led to the launch of the ongoing malaria elimination plans at national-level and its strategies that are operational across the entire country. The existing gaps in knowledge are also discussed together with the priority areas for research to fill in these gaps that are posing as challenges to the envisaged goal of wiping out malaria from this island nation. PMID:24548783

  6. Responding to Australia's National Hepatitis B Strategy 2010-13: gaps in knowledge and practice in relation to Indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anna; Wallace, Jack; Maher, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The Australian National Hepatitis B Strategy 2010-13 outlines five priority areas for developing a comprehensive response to the hepatitis B virus (HBV): building partnerships and strengthening community action; preventing HBV transmission; optimising diagnosis and screening; clinical management of people with chronic hepatitis B (CHB); and developing health maintenance, care and support for people with HBV. A scoping study was used to map the main sources and types of evidence available on the epidemiology and natural history of HBV among Indigenous Australians as well as public health responses published since 2001 (January 2001-May 2013). Gaps in current knowledge were identified. While the literature documents the success of universal infant immunisation and indicates the potential for screening initiatives to identify infected and susceptible individuals, prevalence of CHB and hepatocellular cancer remain high in Indigenous Australians. Significant gaps in knowledge and practice were identified in relation to each of the five National Hepatitis B Strategy priority action areas. Successful implementation of the strategy in Indigenous communities and reducing the burden of HBV and hepatocellular cancer in Indigenous Australians will require increased investment in research and knowledge transfer across all priority areas.

  7. Gaps in knowledge: tracking and explaining gender differences in health information seeking.

    PubMed

    Manierre, Matthew J

    2015-03-01

    Self-directed health information seeking has become increasingly common in recent years, yet there is a substantial body of evidence suggesting that females are more likely to engage in information seeking than males. Previous research has largely ignored the significance of this difference as both an empirical and a theoretical finding. The current study has two goals, seeking to track this sex gap over time and to test explanations for its existence. The three explanations tested are based in past findings of gendered division of childcare labor, gendered reactivity to illness, and gendered perceived risk of illness. These were tested using multiple dependent variables from both repeated cross sectional data and 2012 data from the Health Information Trends Survey (HINTS). Results show that females are significantly more likely to look for cancer information, information in general, and information over the Internet over time than males, though the gap may be closing in the case of cancer information. The three explanations also received little clear support though perceived risk of getting cancer acted as a mediator through which men may be less likely to look for cancer information. Based on this analysis it is clear that a sex gap in information seeking is present and theories of masculinity and health may hold promise in some contexts but additional explanations are needed.

  8. Minimizing metabolic activation during pharmaceutical lead optimization: progress, knowledge gaps and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kassahun, Kelem; Tschirret-Guth, Richard A; Mitra, Kaushik; Baillie, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Minimizing the potential for drug candidates to form chemically reactive metabolites that can covalently modify cellular macromolecules represents a rational strategy to reduce the risk of drug-induced idiosyncratic toxicity in humans. In this review, the approaches that are currently available for addressing this issue during the lead optimization phase of drug discovery, their limitations, and future scientific directions that have the potential to address these limitations are discussed.

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation and agricultural crops: knowledge gain and knowledge gap after 40 years of research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo; Edited by Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this chapter was to summarize the advances made over last 40+ years, as reported in various chapters of this book, in understanding, modeling, and mapping terrestrial vegetation using hyperspectral remote sensing (or imaging spectroscopy) using sensors that are ground-based, truck-mounted, airborne, and spaceborne. As we have seen in various chapters of this book and synthesized in this chapter, the advances made include: (a) significantly improved characterization and modeling of a wide array of biophysical and biochemical properties of vegetation, (b) ability to discriminate plant species and vegetation types with high degree of accuracies (c) reducing uncertainties in determining net primary productivity or carbon assessments from terrestrial vegetation, (d) improved crop productivity and water productivity models, (b), (e) ability to access stress resulting from causes such as management practices, pests and disease, water deficit or excess; , and (f) establishing more sensitive wavebands and indices to detect plant water\\moisture content. The advent of spaceborne hyperspectral sensors (e.g., NASA’s Hyperion, ESA’s PROBA, and upcoming NASA’s HyspIRI) and numerous methods and techniques espoused in this book to overcome Hughes phenomenon or data redundancy when handling large volumes of hyperspectral data have generated tremendous interest in advancing our hyperspectral applications knowledge base over larger spatial extent such as region, nation, continent, and globe.

  10. A GAP in our knowledge of vascular signaling in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Basile, David P

    2011-08-01

    Injury resulting from ischemia-reperfusion injury is a multifactorial process involving compromised function in both the tubular and the vascular compartments. Multiple vasoactive compounds have been implicated in the profound vasoconstriction that occurs in response to ischemia-reperfusion injury, and many of these factors signal through common G protein-coupled receptors. The report by Siedlecki et al. highlights the important roles of RGS4, a GTPase-accelerating protein (GAP), in the regulation of vascular tone in the setting of acute kidney injury.

  11. Assessing Students' Accounting Knowledge: A Structural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldt, Margaret N.

    2001-01-01

    Comparisons of students' representations of financial accounting concepts with the knowledge structures of experts were depicted using Pathfinder networks. This structural approach identified the level of students' understanding of concepts and knowledge gaps that need to be addressed. (SK)

  12. Dissemination 2.0: closing the gap between knowledge and practice with new media and marketing.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Jay M; Mays, Darren; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2011-01-01

    Despite substantial investments in public health and clinical research at the national level, and significant advancements in these areas of science, few evidence-based programs and services are rapidly implemented in health care or public health practice as a result of failures of dissemination. A significant gap in current processes to disseminate and implement effective programs relates to the lack of systems and infrastructure to facilitate distribution of scientific research products to potential end users, including clinicians and other practitioners. In this article, the authors assert that Web 2.0 technologies can be leveraged to enhance dissemination efforts and increase the implementation of evidence-based programs and services in everyday practice. The authors describe the research-to-practice delivery process and highlight gaps in the supply chain necessary to translate research findings into evidence-based practice. The authors critically evaluate the 4 most prominent strategies currently used to promote dissemination and implementation of research evidence in practice, and they detail how each can be improved by leveraging Web 2.0 technologies to enhance dissemination of research evidence. Last, the authors provide examples and suggestions for capitalizing on Web 2.0 technologies to enhance dissemination efforts and ensure that evidence-based research products reach intended end users and are implemented in clinical practice.

  13. Dissemination 2.0: closing the gap between knowledge and practice with new media and marketing.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Jay M; Mays, Darren; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2011-01-01

    Despite substantial investments in public health and clinical research at the national level, and significant advancements in these areas of science, few evidence-based programs and services are rapidly implemented in health care or public health practice as a result of failures of dissemination. A significant gap in current processes to disseminate and implement effective programs relates to the lack of systems and infrastructure to facilitate distribution of scientific research products to potential end users, including clinicians and other practitioners. In this article, the authors assert that Web 2.0 technologies can be leveraged to enhance dissemination efforts and increase the implementation of evidence-based programs and services in everyday practice. The authors describe the research-to-practice delivery process and highlight gaps in the supply chain necessary to translate research findings into evidence-based practice. The authors critically evaluate the 4 most prominent strategies currently used to promote dissemination and implementation of research evidence in practice, and they detail how each can be improved by leveraging Web 2.0 technologies to enhance dissemination of research evidence. Last, the authors provide examples and suggestions for capitalizing on Web 2.0 technologies to enhance dissemination efforts and ensure that evidence-based research products reach intended end users and are implemented in clinical practice. PMID:21843094

  14. Filling the knowledge gap: Integrating quantitative genetics and genomics in graduate education and outreach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomics revolution provides vital tools to address global food security. Yet to be incorporated into livestock breeding, molecular techniques need to be integrated into a quantitative genetics framework. Within the U.S., with shrinking faculty numbers with the requisite skills, the capacity to ...

  15. Tackling the Knowledge: Action Gap in Sustainable Consumption--Insights from a Participatory School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Matthias; Fischer, Daniel; Michelsen, Gerd; Nemnich, Claudia; Rode, Horst

    2012-01-01

    In the international policy discourse on sustainable consumption and production, education is acknowledged to be a powerful tool in changing unsustainable patterns of consumption. Current educational policies and programmes have responded to the consumption challenge mainly by including and addressing consumption issues in formal tuition in…

  16. Electronic Continuous Professional Development (E-CPD) for Teachers: Bridging the Gap between Knowledge and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Yusop, Farah Dina; Halili, Siti Hajar; Chukumaran, Sri Raman

    2015-01-01

    The continuing professional development (CPD) is a concerted effort to ensure the educational service officers equip themselves with professional knowledge, skill, values and practices of teachers through in-service training programs organized based on competency development, lifelong learning and career path. Nonetheless, educators do not only…

  17. The Distribution of Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Cambodia: Gaps and Thresholds in Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Federick J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing teacher quality is a major objective of recent Cambodian education policy. In mathematics education literature, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has emerged as a critical component of teacher quality that is strongly linked to student achievement. In this study I use data from a large survey of Cambodian schools to investigate the…

  18. Pedagogical Content Knowledge for World History Teachers: Bridging the Gap between Knowing and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lauren McArthur; Bain, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    The authors are conducting studies to determine what knowledge world history teachers need and how they can use it to plan instruction. In this article, they report on a small but in-depth study designed to examine how four pre-service and six in-service world history teachers think about, organize, and make meaning of separate world historical…

  19. Visual-Verbal Synchrony and Television News: Decreasing the Knowledge Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee

    Noting that both the structural characteristics of television and the characteristics of the viewer may influence comprehension of television news, a study tested the hypothesis that the synchronous presentation of television news will maximize learning for viewers with low prior knowledge of program content. Synchronous and nonsynchronous…

  20. A DISCUSSION OF THE GAP BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF NEW PRACTICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOEWENSTEIN, DUANE E.; AND OTHERS

    A STUDY ON FARMERS' USE OF SUGGESTED PRACTICES IN HANDLING ALFALFA CROP PRODUCTION WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE (1) IF SELECTED PERSONAL AND OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS MIGHT AFFECT HAY PRODUCTION METHODS, (2) IF A DISCREPANCY EXISTS BETWEEN THE FARMER'S LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF QUALITY HAY PRODUCTION PRACTICES AND HIS USE OF THESE PRACTICES, AND (3)…

  1. Minding the Knowledge Gap: The Importance of Content in Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    In this article, author Daisy Christodoulou, a former teacher in the United Kingdom, debunks the myth that teaching facts prevents understanding, and she explains why teaching content knowledge is part of the primary mission of education. Throughout this article, she tries to stress that she shares the aims of many of the people whose methods she…

  2. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Rocha, A Cristina S; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-15

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  3. Addressing the treatment gap and societal impact of epilepsy in Rwanda — Results of a survey conducted in 2005 and subsequent actions

    PubMed Central

    Sebera, Fidèle; Munyandamutsa, Naasson; Teuwen, Dirk E.; Ndiaye, Ibrahim Pierre; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Tofighy, Azita; Boon, Paul; Dedeken, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study, supported by the Rwandan Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization, was conducted in 2005 to determine the prevalence of epilepsy and its sociocultural perception in Rwanda, as well as epilepsy-related knowledge and practices of health-care professionals (HCPs). A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey was conducted throughout Rwanda by trained investigators. Participants were recruited by random cluster sampling based on the organization of administrative units in the country. Overall, 1137 individuals (62% from rural areas) were interviewed. The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated to be 49 per 1000 people or 41 per 1000 for active epilepsy. Onset of epilepsy before the age of 2 years was reported in 32% of the cases. Family history of epilepsy, head trauma, and premature delivery were reported in 53%, 50%, and 68% of the cases, respectively. Most (68%) patients did not receive any medical treatment for epilepsy; 21.5% had received some form of traditional treatment. According to responses from the general population, people with epilepsy should not be entitled to schooling (according to 66%), to work (according to 72%), to the use of public places (according to 69%), or to marriage (according to 66%). Furthermore, 50% believed that epilepsy was untreatable, and 40% thought that it was transmissible. Of the 29 HCPs interviewed, the majority knew the definition of epilepsy and status epilepticus, as well as basic treatment options and side effects. However, 90% believed that treatment was only necessary in the first week after a seizure. Living with epilepsy was associated heavily with stigma, and a significant treatment gap (68%) was identified. Following this study, numerous actions have been taken by the Rwandan government, the Rwandan League Against Epilepsy, and several nongovernmental organizations to increase awareness about epilepsy and to close the treatment gap. An overview of these activities is provided. PMID:25936276

  4. Addressing the treatment gap and societal impact of epilepsy in Rwanda--Results of a survey conducted in 2005 and subsequent actions.

    PubMed

    Sebera, Fidèle; Munyandamutsa, Naasson; Teuwen, Dirk E; Ndiaye, Ibrahim Pierre; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Tofighy, Azita; Boon, Paul; Dedeken, Peter

    2015-05-01

    This study, supported by the Rwandan Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization, was conducted in 2005 to determine the prevalence of epilepsy and its sociocultural perception in Rwanda, as well as epilepsy-related knowledge and practices of health-care professionals (HCPs). A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey was conducted throughout Rwanda by trained investigators. Participants were recruited by random cluster sampling based on the organization of administrative units in the country. Overall, 1137 individuals (62% from rural areas) were interviewed. The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated to be 49 per 1000 people or 41 per 1000 for active epilepsy. Onset of epilepsy before the age of 2years was reported in 32% of the cases. Family history of epilepsy, head trauma, and premature delivery were reported in 53%, 50%, and 68% of the cases, respectively. Most (68%) patients did not receive any medical treatment for epilepsy; 21.5% had received some form of traditional treatment. According to responses from the general population, people with epilepsy should not be entitled to schooling (according to 66%), to work (according to 72%), to the use of public places (according to 69%), or to marriage (according to 66%). Furthermore, 50% believed that epilepsy was untreatable, and 40% thought that it was transmissible. Of the 29 HCPs interviewed, the majority knew the definition of epilepsy and status epilepticus, as well as basic treatment options and side effects. However, 90% believed that treatment was only necessary in the first week after a seizure. Living with epilepsy was associated heavily with stigma, and a significant treatment gap (68%) was identified. Following this study, numerous actions have been taken by the Rwandan government, the Rwandan League Against Epilepsy, and several nongovernmental organizations to increase awareness about epilepsy and to close the treatment gap. An overview of these activities is provided.

  5. Bridging the gap between the world of knowledge and the world that knows

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, P.R. . Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    The dichotomy between prevention principles discovered in a laboratory and their practical application in industry often is apparent at specialized conferences: scientists and operational engineers seem to speak different languages. The application of artificial intelligence in performing expert functions has opened new communication channels among the various strata of those with knowledge about corrosion. This article reviews recent efforts to apply expert system technology to corrosion prevention. 70 refs.

  6. 'Local Food-Nutraceuticals': bridging the gap between local knowledge and global needs.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Michael; Nebel, Sabine; Leonti, Marco; Rivera, Diego; Obón, Concepción

    2006-01-01

    Food use is changing very fast all over the world. This and other changes (e.g. reduced physical activity, increased longevity) result in novel health risks for the populations in European countries and beyond. Also, in recent decades the convenience food market has grown dramatically and offers novel opportunities for small and large industries alike. Simultaneously, there is a dramatic and irrevocable loss of the local knowledge which forms the basis of many cultural traditions (traditional food knowledge--TFK). The Mediterranean region is well known for a dietary tradition commonly called 'Mediterranean diet(s)', which is renowned for health benefits based among others on widely consumed foods and beverages. While the focus of research has mostly been on the more widely used elements of the Mediterranean diets (especially olive oil and red wine), in this review the focus is on 'local food'. These are ingredients, which are gathered, grown or produced locally and prepared into dishes, which often represent local specialities. Such food is derived from animals, fungi and plants, but in this paper the main subject is food of botanical origin. Particularly important among these local foods are vegetables and salads derived from wild greens (gathered food plants--GFPs) and local cultivars of fruit trees and shrubs. In this review we discuss the theoretical basis (including the concept of traditional knowledge systems) and general approach of an EU-funded multidisciplinary ethnobotanicalpharmacological project focusing on the use of such local resources in several regions of the Mediterranean including the ethnobotanical documentation of food products of selected communities in southern Italy, Spain, Greece (mostly Crete), the identification of extracts/pure compounds (leads for new health food supplements) with potent activity on a series of in vitro targets, especially ones relevant to assess for antioxidant activity, the more detailed in vivo study of some lead

  7. Excellence Gaps: What They Are, Why They Are Bad, and How Smart Contexts Can Address Them … or Make Them Worse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Jacob; McWilliams, Jenna; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Every country--and even every community--has populations of students who severely underperform relative to other groups and to their own potential. These performance differences are generally called achievement gaps, and they tend to focus on gaps at basic levels of academic proficiency. But such gaps also exist among the highest levels of…

  8. The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Danielle de Oliveira; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira de Siqueira, Marinez; Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2014-01-01

    The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats.

  9. Health effects and toxicity mechanisms of rare earth elements-Knowledge gaps and research prospects.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Giovanni; Guida, Marco; Tommasi, Franca; Oral, Rahime

    2015-05-01

    In the recent decades, rare earth elements (REE) have undergone a steady spread in several industrial and medical applications, and in agriculture. Relatively scarce information has been acquired to date on REE-associated biological effects, from studies of bioaccumulation and of bioassays on animal, plant and models; a few case reports have focused on human health effects following occupational REE exposures, in the present lack of epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed groups. The literature is mostly confined to reports on few REE, namely cerium and lanthanum, whereas substantial information gaps persist on the health effects of other REE. An established action mechanism in REE-associated health effects relates to modulating oxidative stress, analogous to the recognized redox mechanisms observed for other transition elements. Adverse outcomes of REE exposures include a number of endpoints, such as growth inhibition, cytogenetic effects, and organ-specific toxicity. An apparent controversy regarding REE-associated health effects relates to opposed data pointing to either favorable or adverse effects of REE exposures. Several studies have demonstrated that REE, like a number of other xenobiotics, follow hormetic concentration-related trends, implying stimulatory or protective effects at low levels, then adverse effects at higher concentrations. Another major role for REE-associated effects should be focused on pH-dependent REE speciation and hence toxicity. Few reports have demonstrated that environmental acidification enhances REE toxicity; these data may assume particular relevance in REE-polluted acidic soils and in REE mining areas characterized by concomitant REE and acid pollution. The likely environmental threats arising from REE exposures deserve a new line of research efforts.

  10. The Distributional Ecology of the Maned Sloth: Environmental Influences on Its Distribution and Gaps in Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2014-01-01

    The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

  11. The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Danielle de Oliveira; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira de Siqueira, Marinez; Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2014-01-01

    The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

  12. Marine biodiversity in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America: knowledge and gaps.

    PubMed

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Klein, Eduardo; Díaz, Juan M; Hernández, Cristián E; Bigatti, Gregorio; Campos, Lucia; Artigas, Felipe; Castillo, Julio; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E; Neill, Paula E; Carranza, Alvar; Retana, María V; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan M; Lewis, Mirtha; Yorio, Pablo; Piriz, María L; Rodríguez, Diego; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Gamboa, Luiz; Martín, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The marine areas of South America (SA) include almost 30,000 km of coastline and encompass three different oceanic domains--the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic--ranging in latitude from 12∘N to 55∘S. The 10 countries that border these coasts have different research capabilities and taxonomic traditions that affect taxonomic knowledge. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge of marine biodiversity in five subregions along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America (SA): the Tropical East Pacific, the Humboldt Current,the Patagonian Shelf, the Brazilian Shelves, and the Tropical West Atlantic, and it provides a review of ecosystem threats and regional marine conservation strategies. South American marine biodiversity is least well known in the tropical subregions (with the exception of Costa Rica and Panama). Differences in total biodiversity were observed between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the same latitude. In the north of the continent, the Tropical East Pacific is richer in species than the Tropical West Atlantic, however, when standardized by coastal length, there is very little difference among them. In the south, the Humboldt Current system is much richer than the Patagonian Shelf. An analysis of endemism shows that 75% of the species are reported within only one of the SA regions, while about 22% of the species of SA are not reported elsewhere in the world. National and regional initiatives focusing on new exploration, especially to unknown areas and ecosystems, as well as collaboration among countries are fundamental to achieving the goal of completing inventories of species diversity and distribution.These inventories will allow accurate interpretation of the biogeography of its two oceanic coasts and latitudinal trends,and will also provide relevant information for science based policies. PMID:21304960

  13. The knowledge gap in expanded newborn screening: survey results from paediatricians in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Gennaccaro, M; Waisbren, S E; Marsden, D

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts currently offers an optional expanded newborn screening programme that tests for 20 biochemical genetic disorders in addition to the mandated newborn screening tests, including phenylketonuria (PKU) and nine other biochemical genetic disorders. We conducted a mail survey of 550 paediatricians listed in the 2000 Massachusetts Healthcare Directory to determine paediatricians' preparedness in discussing expanded newborn screening and its results with families, and to determine in what specific format physicians in Massachusetts would prefer to receive educational materials and updates. Of surveys mailed, 35% (190/550) were returned within the allotted 3 weeks: 25 paediatricians (14%) were unaware of expanded newborn screening; 78 respondents (42%) indicated feeling less than prepared talking about test results with families; 100 paediatricians (54%) indicated a lack of information about metabolic disorders; 134 (73%) preferred information sent in postal mailings, 62 (34%) preferred grand rounds, 60 (33%) preferred educational seminars, and 58 (32%) preferred websites. Other formats receiving preferences of less than 30% included e-mail (27%), phone calls (8%), video (6%), and distance learning (1%). Paediatricians are ill-prepared for expanded newborn screening for biochemical genetic disorders. To address this problem, paediatricians in Massachusetts indicated a preference for unsolicited periodic mailings including short reviews and brochures. PMID:16435173

  14. Meeting Report: Knowledge and Gaps in Developing Microbial Criteria for Inland Recreational Waters

    PubMed Central

    Dorevitch, Samuel; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Ferguson, Christobel M.; Fujioka, Roger; McGee, Charles D.; Soller, Jeffrey A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has committed to issuing in 2012 new or revised criteria designed to protect the health of those who use surface waters for recreation. For this purpose, the U.S. EPA has been conducting epidemiologic studies to establish relationships between microbial measures of water quality and adverse health outcomes among swimmers. New methods for testing water quality that would provide same-day results will likely be elements of the new criteria. Although the epidemiologic studies upon which the criteria will be based were conducted at Great Lakes and marine beaches, the new water quality criteria may be extended to inland waters (IWs). Similarities and important differences between coastal waters (CWs) and IWs that should be considered when developing criteria for IWs were the focus of an expert workshop. Here, we summarize the state of knowledge and research needed to base IWs microbial criteria on sound science. Two key differences between CWs and IWs are the sources of indicator bacteria, which may modify the relationship between indicator microbes and health risk, and the relationship between indicators and pathogens, which also may vary within IWs. Monitoring using rapid molecular methods will require the standardization and simplification of analytical methods, as well as greater clarity about their interpretation. Research needs for the short term and longer term are described. PMID:20100678

  15. Mini-review of knowledge gaps in salt tolerance of plants applied to willows and poplars.

    PubMed

    Mirck, Jaconette; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2015-01-01

    Salt tolerance of agricultural crops has been studied since the 1940, but knowledge regarding salt tolerance of woody crops is still in its initial phase. Salt tolerance of agricultural crops has been expressed as the yield decrease due to a certain salt concentration within the root zone as compared to a non-saline control. The most well-known plant response curve to salinity has been a piece-wise linear regression relating crop yield to root zone salinity. This method used the hypothesis that crops tolerate salt up to a threshold after which their yield decreases approximately linearly. Critique to this method included its lack of sensitivity to dynamic factors such as weather conditions. As a result, other classification indices have been developed, but none is as well accepted as the threshold-slope model. In addition to a mini-review of the key salt tolerance studies, our objective was to classify salt tolerance levels of poplars and willows. Initial classification showed that salt tolerance of these genera ranged from sensitive to moderately tolerant.

  16. Demographic variation in the U.K. serotine bat: filling gaps in knowledge for management

    PubMed Central

    Chauvenet, Alienor L M; Hutson, Anthony M; Smith, Graham C; Aegerter, James N

    2014-01-01

    Species of conservation concern, or those in conflict with man, are most efficiently managed with an understanding of their population dynamics. European bats exemplify the need for successful and cost-effective management for both reasons, often simultaneously. Across Europe, bats are protected, and the concept of Favourable Conservation Status (FCS) is used as a key tool for the assessment and licensing of disruptive actions to populations. However, for efficient decision-making, this assessment requires knowledge on the demographic rates and long-term dynamics of populations. We used capture–mark–recapture to describe demographic rates for the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) at two sites in England and investigate the transition rates between three stages: juveniles, immatures, and breeders. We then use these rates in an individual-based population dynamics model to investigate the expected trajectories for both populations. Our results demonstrate for the first time the presence and scale of temporal variation in this species' demography. We describe the lengthy prereproductive period (3.5 years) that female Serotines experience. Finally, we show how site-specific variation in demographic rates can produce divergent population trajectories. Effective management of European bat populations can be achieved through the understanding of life histories, and local demographic rates and population dynamics, in order to anticipate the presence of source and sink sites in the landscape. Using the Serotine bat in England, we show that these can be obtained from rigorous and systematic studies of long-term demographic datasets. PMID:25614796

  17. Meeting report: knowledge and gaps in developing microbial criteria for inland recreational waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorevitch, Samuel; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Ferguson, Christobel M.; Fujioka, Roger; McGee, Charles D.; Soller, Jeffrey A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has committed to issuing in 2012 new or revised criteria designed to protect the health of those who use surface waters for recreation. For this purpose, the U.S. EPA has been conducting epidemiologic studies to establish relationships between microbial measures of water quality and adverse health outcomes among swimmers. New methods for testing water quality that would provide same-day results will likely be elements of the new criteria. Although the epidemiologic studies upon which the criteria will be based were conducted at Great Lakes and marine beaches, the new water quality criteria may be extended to inland waters (IWs). Similarities and important differences between coastal waters (CWs) and IWs that should be considered when developing criteria for IWs were the focus of an expert workshop. Here, we summarize the state of knowledge and research needed to base IWs microbial criteria on sound science. Two key differences between CWs and IWs are the sources of indicator bacteria, which may modify the relationship between indicator microbes and health risk, and the relationship between indicators and pathogens, which also may vary within IWs. Monitoring using rapid molecular methods will require the standardization and simplification of analytical methods, as well as greater clarity about their interpretation. Research needs for the short term and longer term are described.

  18. Overland flow in plot- to hillslope-scale hydrology: what are the major knowledge gaps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerley, David

    2016-04-01

    Though overland flow has been studied systematically for more than 70 years, knowledge has been built in a piecemeal fashion, through studies exploring only particular aspects of overland flow. Holistic investigations have been notably lacking. An overview of the literature suggests that the occurrence of overland flow on hillslopes is frequently characterised by very large spatio-temporal variability, reflecting the many factors that influence overland flow behaviour. These include rainfall intensity, duration, event profile, and other properties; antecedent soil moisture and soil hydraulic properties; the influence of vegetation canopies, ground litter, and associated throughfall, stemflow, and percolates; microtopography and soil surface roughness; soil erodibility; runon and interactive infiltration; raindrop impact; and surface detention and afterflow. Overland flow may be patchy and discontinuous over the groundsurface. The integration all of these influences, with support from suitable distributed data collected during rainfall, remains an unrealised need. Progress has been slowed by a lack of suitable field data collection apparatus, especially for the recording of flow depths and speeds in overland flows that are commonly < 1-3 mm deep. There is also a need to develop a view of overland flow that accords with existing field observations showing that in many cases overland flow does not result from soil infiltrability being exceeded. In this context, a new descriptive term for transitory forms of overland flow arising from other mechanisms is suggested - facilitated overland flow.

  19. Incinerator Ash Management: Knowledge and information gaps to 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldin, A.; Bigelow, C.; Veneman, P.L.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Incinerator Ash Management Project at the University of Massachusetts was established in 1986 to gather written and numerical test data from existing literature and from persons knowledgeable about incinerator ash management. Information was solicited on sampling and testing methods; incinerator ash properties, and incinerator and fuel characteristics that may affect ash properties; the different components of ash management systems; and regulatory concerns. The principal data were collected on total metals, EP toxicity test results, dioxins and furans, and the composition of refuse. Cadmium and lead are apparently the most important elements affecting the ash toxicity. The values for total metals and values from the EP toxicity test are both extremely variable. Unfortunately, information about incinerator conditions at the time of sampling is often missing, which severely limits statistical interpretation of the data. The selection of an appropriate ash-management option depends on factors such as ash composition; availability, location, and nature of landfills; and the availability of alternative use or disposal techniques. Many states and the federal government are currently considering how to regulate incinerator ash management and are at various stages in this process.

  20. Bridging the gap between clinical research and knowledge translation in pediatric emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Hartling, Lisa; Scott-Findlay, Shannon; Johnson, David; Osmond, Martin; Plint, Amy; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Klassen, Terry P

    2007-11-01

    In 2006, a multidisciplinary group of researchers from across Canada submitted a successful application to the Canadian Institutes for Health Research for a Canadian Institutes for Health Research Team in Pediatric Emergency Medicine. The conceptual foundation for the proposal was to bring together two areas deemed critical for optimizing health outcomes: clinical research and knowledge translation (KT). The framework for the proposed work is an iterative figure-eight model that provides logical steps for research and a seamless flow between the development and evaluation of therapeutic interventions (clinical research) and the implementation and uptake of those interventions that prove to be effective (KT). Under the team grant, we will conduct seven distinct projects relating to the two most common medical problems affecting children in the emergency department: respiratory illness and injury. The projects span the research continuum, with some projects targeting problems for which there is little evidence, while other projects involve problems with a strong evidence base but require further work in the KT realm. In this article, we describe the history of the research team, the research framework, the individual research projects, and the structure of the team, including coordination and administration. We also highlight some of the many advantages of bringing this research program together under the umbrella of a team grant, including opportunities for cross-fertilization of ideas, collaboration among multiple disciplines and centers, training of students and junior researchers, and advancing a methodological research agenda.

  1. Final Technical Report -- Bridging the PSI Knowledge Gap: A Multiscale Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Whyte, Dennis

    2014-12-12

    The Plasma Surface Interactions (PSI) Science Center formed by the grant undertook a multidisciplinary set of studies on the complex interface between the plasma and solid states of matter. The strategy of the center was to combine and integrate the experimental, diagnostic and modeling toolkits from multiple institutions towards specific PSI problems. In this way the Center could tackle integrated science issues which were not addressable by single institutions, as well as evolve the underlying science of the PSI in a more general way than just for fusion applications. The overall strategy proved very successful. The research result and highlights of the MIT portion of the Center are primarily described. A particular highlight is the study of tungsten nano-tendril growth in the presence of helium plasmas. The Center research provided valuable new insights to the mechanisms controlling the nano-tendrils by developing coupled modeling and in situ diagnostic methods which could be directly compared. For example, the role of helium accumulation in tungsten distortion in the surface was followed with unique in situ helium concentration diagnostics developed. These depth-profiled, time-resolved helium concentration measurements continue to challenge the numerical models of nano-tendrils. The Center team also combined its expertise on tungsten nano-tendrils to demonstrate for the first time the growth of the tendrils in a fusion environment on the Alcator C-Mod fusion experiment, thus having significant impact on the broader fusion research effort. A new form of isolated nano-tendril “columns” were identified which are now being used to understand the underlying mechanisms controlling the tendril growth. The Center also advanced PSI science on a broader front with a particular emphasis on developing a wide range of in situ PSI diagnostic tools at the DIONISOS facility at MIT. For example the strong suppression of sputtering by the certain combination of light

  2. The ecotoxicology of nanoparticles and nanomaterials: current status, knowledge gaps, challenges, and future needs.

    PubMed

    Handy, Richard D; Owen, Richard; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-07-01

    performed using the existing tiered approach and regulatory framework, but with modifications to methodology including chemical characterisation of the materials being used. There are many challenges ahead, and controversies (e.g., reference substances for ecotoxicology), but knowledge transfer from mammalian toxicology, colloid chemistry, as well as material and geological sciences, will enable ecotoxicology studies to move forward in this new multi-disciplinary field.

  3. The health impacts of exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in developing countries: knowledge, gaps, and data needs.

    PubMed Central

    Ezzati, Majid; Kammen, Daniel M

    2002-01-01

    Globally, almost 3 billion people rely on biomass (wood, charcoal, crop residues, and dung) and coal as their primary source of domestic energy. Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the combustion of solid fuels is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the relationship between IAP exposure and disease and on interventions for reducing exposure and disease. We take an environmental health perspective and consider the details of both exposure and health effects that are needed for successful intervention strategies. We also identify knowledge gaps and detailed research questions that are essential in successful design and dissemination of preventive measures and policies. In addition to specific research recommendations, we conclude that given the interaction of housing, household energy, and day-to-day household activities in determining exposure to indoor smoke, research and development of effective interventions can benefit tremendously from integration of methods and analysis tools from a range of disciplines in the physical, social, and health sciences. PMID:12417475

  4. Vector-borne diseases of small companion animals in Namibia: Literature review, knowledge gaps and opportunity for a One Health approach.

    PubMed

    Noden, Bruce H; Soni, Minty

    2015-11-06

    Namibia has a rich history in veterinary health but little is known about the vector-borne diseases that affect companion dogs and cats. The aim of this review is to summarise the existing published and available unpublished literature, put it into a wider geographical context, and explore some significant knowledge gaps. To date, only two filarial pathogens (Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides) and three tick-borne pathogens (Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia canis) have been reported. Most studies have focused solely on dogs and cats in the urban Windhoek and surrounding areas, with almost nothing reported in rural farming areas, in either the populous northern regions or the low-income urban areas where animal owners have limited access to veterinary services. With the development of several biomedical training programmes in the country, there is now an excellent opportunity to address zoonotic vector-borne diseases through a One Health approach so as to assess the risks to small companion animals as well as diseases of public health importance.

  5. Vector-borne diseases of small companion animals in Namibia: Literature review, knowledge gaps and opportunity for a One Health approach.

    PubMed

    Noden, Bruce H; Soni, Minty

    2015-01-01

    Namibia has a rich history in veterinary health but little is known about the vector-borne diseases that affect companion dogs and cats. The aim of this review is to summarise the existing published and available unpublished literature, put it into a wider geographical context, and explore some significant knowledge gaps. To date, only two filarial pathogens (Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides) and three tick-borne pathogens (Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia canis) have been reported. Most studies have focused solely on dogs and cats in the urban Windhoek and surrounding areas, with almost nothing reported in rural farming areas, in either the populous northern regions or the low-income urban areas where animal owners have limited access to veterinary services. With the development of several biomedical training programmes in the country, there is now an excellent opportunity to address zoonotic vector-borne diseases through a One Health approach so as to assess the risks to small companion animals as well as diseases of public health importance. PMID:26824340

  6. Filling Gaps in Biodiversity Knowledge for Macrofungi: Contributions and Assessment of an Herbarium Collection DNA Barcode Sequencing Project

    PubMed Central

    Osmundson, Todd W.; Robert, Vincent A.; Schoch, Conrad L.; Baker, Lydia J.; Smith, Amy; Robich, Giovanni; Mizzan, Luca; Garbelotto, Matteo M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances spearheaded by molecular approaches and novel technologies, species description and DNA sequence information are significantly lagging for fungi compared to many other groups of organisms. Large scale sequencing of vouchered herbarium material can aid in closing this gap. Here, we describe an effort to obtain broad ITS sequence coverage of the approximately 6000 macrofungal-species-rich herbarium of the Museum of Natural History in Venice, Italy. Our goals were to investigate issues related to large sequencing projects, develop heuristic methods for assessing the overall performance of such a project, and evaluate the prospects of such efforts to reduce the current gap in fungal biodiversity knowledge. The effort generated 1107 sequences submitted to GenBank, including 416 previously unrepresented taxa and 398 sequences exhibiting a best BLAST match to an unidentified environmental sequence. Specimen age and taxon affected sequencing success, and subsequent work on failed specimens showed that an ITS1 mini-barcode greatly increased sequencing success without greatly reducing the discriminating power of the barcode. Similarity comparisons and nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinations based on pairwise distance matrices proved to be useful heuristic tools for validating the overall accuracy of specimen identifications, flagging potential misidentifications, and identifying taxa in need of additional species-level revision. Comparison of within- and among-species nucleotide variation showed a strong increase in species discriminating power at 1–2% dissimilarity, and identified potential barcoding issues (same sequence for different species and vice-versa). All sequences are linked to a vouchered specimen, and results from this study have already prompted revisions of species-sequence assignments in several taxa. PMID:23638077

  7. Building Capacity of Occupational Therapy Practitioners to Address the Mental Health Needs of Children and Youth: A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation

    PubMed Central

    Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE. We explored the meaning and outcomes of a 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners participating in a Community of Practice. METHOD. A one-group (N = 117) mixed-methods design using a pretest–posttest survey and qualitative analysis of written reflections was used to explore the meaning and outcomes of the building capacity process. RESULTS. Statistically significant improvements (p < .02) in pretest–posttest scores of knowledge, beliefs, and actions related to a public health approach to mental health were found. Qualitative findings suggest that participation resulted in a renewed commitment to addressing children’s mental health. CONCLUSION. The building capacity process expanded practitioner knowledge, renewed energy, and promoted confidence, resulting in change leaders empowered to articulate, advocate for, and implement practice changes reflecting occupational therapy’s role in addressing children’s mental health. PMID:26565099

  8. Toward core inter-professional health promotion competencies to address the non-communicable diseases and their risk factors through knowledge translation: Curriculum content assessment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To increase the global impact of health promotion related to non-communicable diseases, health professionals need evidence-based core competencies in health assessment and lifestyle behavior change. Assessment of health promotion curricula by health professional programs is a first step. Such program assessment is a means of 1. demonstrating collective commitment across health professionals to prevent non-communicable diseases; 2. addressing the knowledge translation gap between what is known about non-communicable diseases and their risk factors consistent with ‘best’ practice; and, 3. establishing core health-based competencies in the entry-level curricula of established health professions. Discussion Consistent with the World Health Organization’s definition of health (i.e., physical, emotional and social wellbeing) and the Ottawa Charter, health promotion competencies are those that support health rather than reduce signs and symptoms primarily. A process algorithm to guide the implementation of health promotion competencies by health professionals is described. The algorithm outlines steps from the initial assessment of a patient’s/client’s health and the indications for health behavior change, to the determination of whether that health professional assumes primary responsibility for implementing health behavior change interventions or refers the patient/client to others. An evidence-based template for assessment of the health promotion curriculum content of health professional education programs is outlined. It includes clinically-relevant behavior change theory; health assessment/examination tools; and health behavior change strategies/interventions that can be readily integrated into health professionals’ practices. Summary Assessment of the curricula in health professional education programs with respect to health promotion competencies is a compelling and potentially cost-effective initial means of preventing and reversing non

  9. Evidence and knowledge gaps on the disease burden in sexual and gender minorities: a review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Blondeel, Karel; Say, Lale; Chou, Doris; Toskin, Igor; Khosla, Rajat; Scolaro, Elisa; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) include individuals with a wide range of sexual orientations, physical characteristics, and gender identities and expressions. Data suggest that people in this group face a significant and poorly understood set of additional health risks and bear a higher burden of some diseases compared to the general population. A large amount of data is available on HIV/AIDS, but far less on other health problems. In this review we aimed to synthesize the knowledge on the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases, mental health conditions and violence experienced by SGM, based on available systematic reviews. We conducted a global review of systematic reviews, including searching the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaboration libraries, as well as PubMed, using a range of search terms describing the populations of interest, without time or language restrictions. Google Scholar was also scanned for unpublished literature, and references of all selected reviews were checked to identify further relevant articles. We found 30 systematic reviews, all originally written in English. Nine reviews provided data on HIV, 12 on other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), 4 on cancer, 4 on violence and 3 on mental health and substance use. A quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. The findings are presented in a narrative format. Our review primarily showed that there is a high burden of disease for certain subpopulations of SGM in HIV, STIs, STI-related cancers and mental health conditions, and that they also face high rates of violence. Secondly, our review revealed many knowledge gaps. Those gaps partly stem from a lack of original research, but there is an equally urgent need to conduct systematic and literature reviews to assess what we already know on the disease burden in SGM. Additional reviews are needed on the non-biological factors that could contribute to the higher disease burden. In addition, to provide universal access to

  10. Assessing anthropogenic pressures on coastal marine ecosystems using stable CNS isotopes: State of the art, knowledge gaps, and community-scale perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, the analysis of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur stable isotopes (SIA) has emerged as a powerful, viable methodology for examining food web structure and dynamics, as well as addressing a number of applied issues. Here, we provide a state-of-the-art review of the use of SIA for assessing anthropogenic pressures on natural ecosystems, in order to establish current knowledge gaps and identify promising applications for evaluating the ecological status of marine coastal waters. Specifically, the potential of SIA to provide food web-scale indicators for estimating cumulative anthropogenic pressures is addressed. The review indicates that the methodology has been used for virtually the whole spectrum of human pressures known to influence marine ecosystems. However, only the effects of chemical pollution, release of dissolved and particulate nutrients, and invasive species have been extensively investigated. For the first two pressures, substantial efforts have been made to implement isotopic quantitative approaches and metrics for inter-system comparisons; however, with the exception of nutrient release, the majority of aquatic studies have been carried out in freshwater systems, and only limited information is available on marine environments. In particular, the effects of invasive species on coastal habitats have received scant attention. Trophic position of indicator species emerges as the isotopic metric most ubiquitously adopted for measuring the impact of anthropogenic pressures. Conversely, the application of other recently implemented metrics, proven to be highly effective in integrating information on the spatial-temporal dynamics of aquatic food webs, is to date still limited. The potential of stable isotope analysis to provide a unifying methodological-theoretical framework for effective, inter-ecosystem comparisons of both single and multiple anthropogenic pressures is emphasised. Additionally, a plea for the implementation and intercalibration

  11. A Professional Development Program for the Mother Tongue-Based Teacher: Addressing Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes about MTBMLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson Stone, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates teacher attitudes about language and education. The purpose of the study is to help program designers develop professional development efforts that successfully address some of the major identified challenges teachers face when transitioning into Mother Tongue Based Multi-Lingual Education (MTBMLE), including negative…

  12. Addressing the Challenges of Diverse Knowledge Systems through Landscape Analysis: A Case Study in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, A. H.; Griggs, D.; Joachim, L.; Heider, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Barmah-Millewa region of the Murray-Darling Basin is the heart of the Traditional Lands of the Yorta Yorta people. Management of water and ecosystem services in the region is governed by a wide array of sometimes inconsistent legislation and policies with differing rules, management focus and plans, and permitting and allocation procedures. Geographic information systems are a common framework for the integration of Indigenous knowledge and insights into natural resources management. But only with appropriate collection, management and database design protocols in place can geodatabase development and analysis support the effective and respectful participation of the Yorta Yorta community in management of this ecologically, economically and culturally important region. Here we describe the knowledge collection and protection protocols that were applied to develop the integrated geodatabase. We present approaches to generating meaningful guidance for water managers on the cultural implications of water allocation decisions.

  13. Beyond Knowledge and Awareness: Addressing Misconceptions in Ghana’s Preparation towards an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Adongo, Philip Baba; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Asampong, Emmanuel; Ansong, Joana; Robalo, Magda; Adanu, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is not new to the world. However, the West African EVD epidemic which started in 2014 evolved into the largest, most severe and most complex outbreak in the history of the disease. The three most-affected countries faced enormous challenges in stopping the transmission and providing care for all patients. Although Ghana had not recorded any confirmed Ebola case, social factors have been reported to hinder efforts to control the outbreak in the three most affected countries. This qualitative study was designed to explore community knowledge and attitudes about Ebola and its transmission. Methods This study was carried out in five of the ten regions in Ghana. Twenty-five focus group discussions (N = 235) and 40 in-depth interviews were conducted across the five regions with community members, stakeholders and opinion leaders. The interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was adopted in the analysis of the data using Nvivo 10. Results The results showed a high level of awareness and knowledge about Ebola. The study further showed that knowledge on how to identify suspected cases of Ebola was also high among respondents. However, there was a firm belief that Ebola was a spiritual condition and could also be transmitted through air, mosquito bites and houseflies. These misconceptions resulted in perceptions of stigma and discrimination towards people who may get Ebola or work with Ebola patients. Conclusion We conclude that although knowledge and awareness about Ebola is high among Ghanaians who participated in the study, there are still misconceptions about the disease. The study recommends that health education on Ebola disease should move beyond creating awareness to targeting the identified misconceptions to improve future containment efforts. PMID:26889683

  14. Addressing the Research-to-Practice Gap in Autism Treatments: Applying an Effectiveness Research Model to the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Alissa L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite expansive improvements in both treatments and research, the majority of persons with autism use non-empirically supported interventions. One way to decrease the research-to-practice gap involves increasing the direct applicability of research findings to clinical settings. Effectiveness research achieves this goal by identifying treatments…

  15. Neonicotinoid Insecticides and Their Impacts on Bees: A Systematic Review of Research Approaches and Identification of Knowledge Gaps.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Fries, Ingemar; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides threatens bees, but research on this topic has been surrounded by controversy. In order to synthesize which research approaches have been used to examine the effect of neonicotinoids on bees and to identify knowledge gaps, we systematically reviewed research on this subject that was available on the Web of Science and PubMed in June 2015. Most of the 216 primary research studies were conducted in Europe or North America (82%), involved the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (78%), and concerned the western honey bee Apis mellifera (75%). Thus, little seems to be known about neonicotinoids and bees in areas outside Europe and North America. Furthermore, because there is considerable variation in ecological traits among bee taxa, studies on honey bees are not likely to fully predict impacts of neonicotinoids on other species. Studies on crops were dominated by seed-treated maize, oilseed rape (canola) and sunflower, whereas less is known about potential side effects on bees from the use of other application methods on insect pollinated fruit and vegetable crops, or on lawns and ornamental plants. Laboratory approaches were most common, and we suggest that their capability to infer real-world consequences are improved when combined with information from field studies about realistic exposures to neonicotinoids. Studies using field approaches often examined only bee exposure to neonicotinoids and more field studies are needed that measure impacts of exposure. Most studies measured effects on individual bees. We suggest that effects on the individual bee should be linked to both mechanisms at the sub-individual level and also to the consequences for the colony and wider bee populations. As bees are increasingly facing multiple interacting pressures future research needs to clarify the role of neonicotinoids in relative to other drivers of bee declines.

  16. Preventing introduction of livestock associated MRSA in a pig population--benefits, costs, and knowledge gaps from the Swedish perspective.

    PubMed

    Höjgård, Sören; Aspevall, Olov; Bengtsson, Björn; Hæggman, Sara; Lindberg, Maria; Mieziewska, Kristina; Nilsson, Svante; Ericsson Unnerstad, Helle; Viske, Diana; Wahlström, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern in human, as well as in veterinary medicine. Part of the problem concerns how to respond to the risk presented by animal reservoirs of resistant bacteria with the potential of spreading to humans. One example is livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). In countries where LA-MRSA is endemic in the pig population, people in contact with pigs have a higher risk of being colonised with LA-MRSA, and persons from this group are subjected to precautionary measures when visiting health care facilities. In the present study, it is assumed that, if LA-MRSA was introduced to the Swedish pig population, the prevalence in the risk groups would be the same as in Denmark or the Netherlands (two countries with low human prevalence that have implemented measures to detect, trace and isolate human LA-MRSA cases and, therefore, have comprehensive data with good coverage regarding prevalence of LA-MRSA), and that similar interventions would be taken in Swedish health care facilities. It is also assumed that the Swedish pig population is free of MRSA or that the prevalence is very low. We analyse if it would be efficient for Sweden to prevent its introduction by testing imported live breeding pigs. Given that quarantining and testing at import will prevent introduction to the pig population, the study shows that the preventive measures may indeed generate a societal net benefit. Benefits are estimated to be between € 870 720 and € 1 233 511, and costs to € 211 129. Still, due to gaps in knowledge, the results should be confirmed when more information become available.

  17. Neonicotinoid Insecticides and Their Impacts on Bees: A Systematic Review of Research Approaches and Identification of Knowledge Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G.; Fries, Ingemar; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides threatens bees, but research on this topic has been surrounded by controversy. In order to synthesize which research approaches have been used to examine the effect of neonicotinoids on bees and to identify knowledge gaps, we systematically reviewed research on this subject that was available on the Web of Science and PubMed in June 2015. Most of the 216 primary research studies were conducted in Europe or North America (82%), involved the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (78%), and concerned the western honey bee Apis mellifera (75%). Thus, little seems to be known about neonicotinoids and bees in areas outside Europe and North America. Furthermore, because there is considerable variation in ecological traits among bee taxa, studies on honey bees are not likely to fully predict impacts of neonicotinoids on other species. Studies on crops were dominated by seed-treated maize, oilseed rape (canola) and sunflower, whereas less is known about potential side effects on bees from the use of other application methods on insect pollinated fruit and vegetable crops, or on lawns and ornamental plants. Laboratory approaches were most common, and we suggest that their capability to infer real-world consequences are improved when combined with information from field studies about realistic exposures to neonicotinoids. Studies using field approaches often examined only bee exposure to neonicotinoids and more field studies are needed that measure impacts of exposure. Most studies measured effects on individual bees. We suggest that effects on the individual bee should be linked to both mechanisms at the sub-individual level and also to the consequences for the colony and wider bee populations. As bees are increasingly facing multiple interacting pressures future research needs to clarify the role of neonicotinoids in relative to other drivers of bee declines. PMID:26313444

  18. Neonicotinoid Insecticides and Their Impacts on Bees: A Systematic Review of Research Approaches and Identification of Knowledge Gaps.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Fries, Ingemar; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides threatens bees, but research on this topic has been surrounded by controversy. In order to synthesize which research approaches have been used to examine the effect of neonicotinoids on bees and to identify knowledge gaps, we systematically reviewed research on this subject that was available on the Web of Science and PubMed in June 2015. Most of the 216 primary research studies were conducted in Europe or North America (82%), involved the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (78%), and concerned the western honey bee Apis mellifera (75%). Thus, little seems to be known about neonicotinoids and bees in areas outside Europe and North America. Furthermore, because there is considerable variation in ecological traits among bee taxa, studies on honey bees are not likely to fully predict impacts of neonicotinoids on other species. Studies on crops were dominated by seed-treated maize, oilseed rape (canola) and sunflower, whereas less is known about potential side effects on bees from the use of other application methods on insect pollinated fruit and vegetable crops, or on lawns and ornamental plants. Laboratory approaches were most common, and we suggest that their capability to infer real-world consequences are improved when combined with information from field studies about realistic exposures to neonicotinoids. Studies using field approaches often examined only bee exposure to neonicotinoids and more field studies are needed that measure impacts of exposure. Most studies measured effects on individual bees. We suggest that effects on the individual bee should be linked to both mechanisms at the sub-individual level and also to the consequences for the colony and wider bee populations. As bees are increasingly facing multiple interacting pressures future research needs to clarify the role of neonicotinoids in relative to other drivers of bee declines. PMID:26313444

  19. Eliciting climate experts' knowledge to address model uncertainties in regional climate projections: a case study of Guanacaste, Northwest Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, I.; Steyn, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    Global general circulation models typically cannot provide the detailed and accurate regional climate information required by stakeholders for climate adaptation efforts, given their limited capacity to resolve the regional topography and changes in local sea surface temperature, wind and circulation patterns. The study region in Northwest Costa Rica has a tropical wet-dry climate with a double-peak wet season. During the dry season the central Costa Rican mountains prevent tropical Atlantic moisture from reaching the region. Most of the annual precipitation is received following the northward migration of the ITCZ in May that allows the region to benefit from moist southwesterly flow from the tropical Pacific. The wet season begins with a short period of "early rains" and is interrupted by the mid-summer drought associated with the intensification and westward expansion of the North Atlantic subtropical high in late June. Model projections for the 21st century indicate a lengthening and intensification of the mid-summer drought and a weakening of the early rains on which current crop cultivation practices rely. We developed an expert elicitation to systematically address uncertainties in the available model projections of changes in the seasonal precipitation pattern. Our approach extends an elicitation approach developed previously at Carnegie Mellon University. Experts in the climate of the study region or Central American climate were asked to assess the mechanisms driving precipitation during each part of the season, uncertainties regarding these mechanisms, expected changes in each mechanism in a warming climate, and the capacity of current models to reproduce these processes. To avoid overconfidence bias, a step-by-step procedure was followed to estimate changes in the timing and intensity of precipitation during each part of the season. The questions drew upon interviews conducted with the regions stakeholders to assess their climate information needs. This

  20. An Innovative Approach to Addressing Childhood Obesity: A Knowledge-Based Infrastructure for Supporting Multi-Stakeholder Partnership Decision-Making in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Addy, Nii Antiaye; Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Buckeridge, David L.; Dubé, Laurette

    2015-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) have become a widespread means for deploying policies in a whole of society strategy to address the complex problem of childhood obesity. However, decision-making in MSPs is fraught with challenges, as decision-makers are faced with complexity, and have to reconcile disparate conceptualizations of knowledge across multiple sectors with diverse sets of indicators and data. These challenges can be addressed by supporting MSPs with innovative tools for obtaining, organizing and using data to inform decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of a knowledge-based infrastructure to support MSP decision-making processes. The paper emerged from a study to define specifications for a knowledge-based infrastructure to provide decision support for community-level MSPs in the Canadian province of Quebec. As part of the study, a process assessment was conducted to understand the needs of communities as they collect, organize, and analyze data to make decisions about their priorities. The result of this process is a “portrait”, which is an epidemiological profile of health and nutrition in their community. Portraits inform strategic planning and development of interventions, and are used to assess the impact of interventions. Our key findings indicate ambiguities and disagreement among MSP decision-makers regarding causal relationships between actions and outcomes, and the relevant data needed for making decisions. MSP decision-makers expressed a desire for easy-to-use tools that facilitate the collection, organization, synthesis, and analysis of data, to enable decision-making in a timely manner. Findings inform conceptual modeling and ontological analysis to capture the domain knowledge and specify relationships between actions and outcomes. This modeling and analysis provide the foundation for an ontology, encoded using OWL 2 Web Ontology Language. The ontology is developed to provide

  1. An innovative approach to addressing childhood obesity: a knowledge-based infrastructure for supporting multi-stakeholder partnership decision-making in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Addy, Nii Antiaye; Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Buckeridge, David L; Dubé, Laurette

    2015-02-01

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) have become a widespread means for deploying policies in a whole of society strategy to address the complex problem of childhood obesity. However, decision-making in MSPs is fraught with challenges, as decision-makers are faced with complexity, and have to reconcile disparate conceptualizations of knowledge across multiple sectors with diverse sets of indicators and data. These challenges can be addressed by supporting MSPs with innovative tools for obtaining, organizing and using data to inform decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of a knowledge-based infrastructure to support MSP decision-making processes. The paper emerged from a study to define specifications for a knowledge-based infrastructure to provide decision support for community-level MSPs in the Canadian province of Quebec. As part of the study, a process assessment was conducted to understand the needs of communities as they collect, organize, and analyze data to make decisions about their priorities. The result of this process is a "portrait", which is an epidemiological profile of health and nutrition in their community. Portraits inform strategic planning and development of interventions, and are used to assess the impact of interventions. Our key findings indicate ambiguities and disagreement among MSP decision-makers regarding causal relationships between actions and outcomes, and the relevant data needed for making decisions. MSP decision-makers expressed a desire for easy-to-use tools that facilitate the collection, organization, synthesis, and analysis of data, to enable decision-making in a timely manner. Findings inform conceptual modeling and ontological analysis to capture the domain knowledge and specify relationships between actions and outcomes. This modeling and analysis provide the foundation for an ontology, encoded using OWL 2 Web Ontology Language. The ontology is developed to provide semantic

  2. An innovative approach to addressing childhood obesity: a knowledge-based infrastructure for supporting multi-stakeholder partnership decision-making in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Addy, Nii Antiaye; Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Buckeridge, David L; Dubé, Laurette

    2015-01-23

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) have become a widespread means for deploying policies in a whole of society strategy to address the complex problem of childhood obesity. However, decision-making in MSPs is fraught with challenges, as decision-makers are faced with complexity, and have to reconcile disparate conceptualizations of knowledge across multiple sectors with diverse sets of indicators and data. These challenges can be addressed by supporting MSPs with innovative tools for obtaining, organizing and using data to inform decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of a knowledge-based infrastructure to support MSP decision-making processes. The paper emerged from a study to define specifications for a knowledge-based infrastructure to provide decision support for community-level MSPs in the Canadian province of Quebec. As part of the study, a process assessment was conducted to understand the needs of communities as they collect, organize, and analyze data to make decisions about their priorities. The result of this process is a "portrait", which is an epidemiological profile of health and nutrition in their community. Portraits inform strategic planning and development of interventions, and are used to assess the impact of interventions. Our key findings indicate ambiguities and disagreement among MSP decision-makers regarding causal relationships between actions and outcomes, and the relevant data needed for making decisions. MSP decision-makers expressed a desire for easy-to-use tools that facilitate the collection, organization, synthesis, and analysis of data, to enable decision-making in a timely manner. Findings inform conceptual modeling and ontological analysis to capture the domain knowledge and specify relationships between actions and outcomes. This modeling and analysis provide the foundation for an ontology, encoded using OWL 2 Web Ontology Language. The ontology is developed to provide semantic

  3. The effects of post-exposure smallpox vaccination on clinical disease presentation: addressing the data gaps between historical epidemiology and modern surrogate model data.

    PubMed

    Keckler, M Shannon; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L

    2013-10-25

    Decades after public health interventions - including pre- and post-exposure vaccination - were used to eradicate smallpox, zoonotic orthopoxvirus outbreaks and the potential threat of a release of variola virus remain public health concerns. Routine prophylactic smallpox vaccination of the public ceased worldwide in 1980, and the adverse event rate associated with the currently licensed live vaccinia virus vaccine makes reinstatement of policies recommending routine pre-exposure vaccination unlikely in the absence of an orthopoxvirus outbreak. Consequently, licensing of safer vaccines and therapeutics that can be used post-orthopoxvirus exposure is necessary to protect the global population from these threats. Variola virus is a solely human pathogen that does not naturally infect any other known animal species. Therefore, the use of surrogate viruses in animal models of orthopoxvirus infection is important for the development of novel vaccines and therapeutics. Major complications involved with the use of surrogate models include both the absence of a model that accurately mimics all aspects of human smallpox disease and a lack of reproducibility across model species. These complications limit our ability to model post-exposure vaccination with newer vaccines for application to human orthopoxvirus outbreaks. This review seeks to (1) summarize conclusions about the efficacy of post-exposure smallpox vaccination from historic epidemiological reports and modern animal studies; (2) identify data gaps in these studies; and (3) summarize the clinical features of orthopoxvirus-associated infections in various animal models to identify those models that are most useful for post-exposure vaccination studies. The ultimate purpose of this review is to provide observations and comments regarding available model systems and data gaps for use in improving post-exposure medical countermeasures against orthopoxviruses.

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis of community and facility-based HIV testing to address linkage to care gaps in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monisha; Ying, Roger; Tarr, Gillian; Barnabas, Ruanne

    2015-12-01

    HIV testing and counselling is the first crucial step for linkage to HIV treatment and prevention. However, despite high HIV burden in sub-Saharan Africa, testing coverage is low, particularly among young adults and men. Community-based HIV testing and counselling (testing outside of health facilities) has the potential to reduce coverage gaps, but the relative impact of different modalities is not well assessed. We conducted a systematic review of HIV testing modalities, characterizing community (home, mobile, index, key populations, campaign, workplace and self-testing) and facility approaches by population reached, HIV positivity, CD4 count at diagnosis and linkage. Of 2,520 abstracts screened, 126 met eligibility criteria. Community HIV testing and counselling had high coverage and uptake and identified HIV-positive people at higher CD4 counts than facility testing. Mobile HIV testing reached the highest proportion of men of all modalities examined (50%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 47-54%) and home with self-testing reached the highest proportion of young adults (66%, 95% CI = 65-67%). Few studies evaluated HIV testing for key populations (commercial sex workers and men who have sex with men), but these interventions yielded high HIV positivity (38%, 95% CI = 19-62%) combined with the highest proportion of first-time testers (78%, 95% CI = 63-88%), indicating service gaps. Community testing with facilitated linkage (for example, counsellor follow-up to support linkage) achieved high linkage to care (95%, 95% CI = 87-98%) and antiretroviral initiation (75%, 95% CI = 68-82%). Expanding home and mobile testing, self-testing and outreach to key populations with facilitated linkage can increase the proportion of men, young adults and high-risk individuals linked to HIV treatment and prevention, and decrease HIV burden. PMID:26633769

  5. A systematic review and meta-analysis of community and facility-based approaches to address gaps in HIV testing and linkage in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Monisha; Ying, Roger; Tarr, Gillian; Barnabas, Ruanne

    2016-01-01

    HIV testing and counselling is the first crucial step for linkage to HIV treatment and prevention. However, despite high HIV burden in sub-Saharan Africa, testing coverage is low, particularly among young adults and men. Community-based HIV testing and counselling (testing outside of health facilities) has the potential to reduce coverage gaps, but the relative impact of different modalities is not well assessed. We conducted a systematic review of HIV testing and counselling modalities, characterizing facility and community (home, mobile, index, key populations, campaign, workplace and self-testing) approaches by population reached, HIV-positivity, CD4 count at diagnosis and linkage. Of 2,520 abstracts screened, 126 met eligibility criteria. Community HIV testing had high coverage and uptake and identified HIV-positive individuals at higher CD4 counts than facility testing. Mobile HIV testing reached the highest proportion of men of all modalities examined (50%, 95% CI = 47–54%) and home with self-testing reached the highest proportion of young adults (66%, 95% CI = 65–67%). Few studies evaluated HIV testing and counselling for key populations (commercial sex workers and men who have sex with men), but these interventions yielded high HIV positivity (38%, 95% CI = 19–62%) combined with the highest proportion of first-time testers (78%, 95% CI = 63–88%), indicating service gaps. Facilitated linkage (for example, counsellor follow-up to support linkage) achieved high linkage to care (95%, 95% CI = 87–98%) and ART initiation (75%, 95% CI = 68–82%). Expanding mobile HIV testing, self-testing and outreach to key populations with facilitated linkage can increase the proportion of men, young adults and high-risk individuals linked to HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:26633769

  6. Systematic review and meta-analysis of community and facility-based HIV testing to address linkage to care gaps in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monisha; Ying, Roger; Tarr, Gillian; Barnabas, Ruanne

    2015-12-01

    HIV testing and counselling is the first crucial step for linkage to HIV treatment and prevention. However, despite high HIV burden in sub-Saharan Africa, testing coverage is low, particularly among young adults and men. Community-based HIV testing and counselling (testing outside of health facilities) has the potential to reduce coverage gaps, but the relative impact of different modalities is not well assessed. We conducted a systematic review of HIV testing modalities, characterizing community (home, mobile, index, key populations, campaign, workplace and self-testing) and facility approaches by population reached, HIV positivity, CD4 count at diagnosis and linkage. Of 2,520 abstracts screened, 126 met eligibility criteria. Community HIV testing and counselling had high coverage and uptake and identified HIV-positive people at higher CD4 counts than facility testing. Mobile HIV testing reached the highest proportion of men of all modalities examined (50%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 47-54%) and home with self-testing reached the highest proportion of young adults (66%, 95% CI = 65-67%). Few studies evaluated HIV testing for key populations (commercial sex workers and men who have sex with men), but these interventions yielded high HIV positivity (38%, 95% CI = 19-62%) combined with the highest proportion of first-time testers (78%, 95% CI = 63-88%), indicating service gaps. Community testing with facilitated linkage (for example, counsellor follow-up to support linkage) achieved high linkage to care (95%, 95% CI = 87-98%) and antiretroviral initiation (75%, 95% CI = 68-82%). Expanding home and mobile testing, self-testing and outreach to key populations with facilitated linkage can increase the proportion of men, young adults and high-risk individuals linked to HIV treatment and prevention, and decrease HIV burden.

  7. There are big gaps in our knowledge, and thus approach, to zoo animal welfare: a case for evidence-based zoo animal management.

    PubMed

    Melfi, V A

    2009-11-01

    There are gaps in knowledge that hinder our ability within zoos to provide good animal welfare. This does not mean that zoos cannot or do not provide good welfare, only that currently this goal is hindered. Three reasons for these gaps are identified as: (1) there is an emphasis on the identification and monitoring of indicators that represent poor welfare and it is assumed that an absence of poor welfare equates to good welfare. This assumption is overly simplistic and potentially erroneous; (2) our understanding of how housing and husbandry (H&H) affects animals is limited to a small set of variables determined mostly by our anthropogenic sensitivities. Thus, we place more value on captive environmental variables like space and companionship, ignoring other factors that may have a greater impact on welfare, like climate; (3) finally, whether intentional or not, our knowledge and efforts to improve zoo animal welfare are biased to very few taxa. Most attention has been focused on mammals, notably primates, large cats, bears, and elephants, to the exclusion of the other numerous species about which very little is known. Unfortunately, the extent to which these gaps limit our ability to provide zoo animals with good welfare is exacerbated by our over reliance on using myth and tradition to determine zoo animal management. I suggest that we can fill these gaps in our knowledge and improve our ability to provide zoo animals with good welfare through the adoption of an evidence-based zoo animal management framework. This approach uses evidence gathered from different sources as a basis for making any management decisions, as good quality evidence increases the likelihood that these decisions result in good zoo animal welfare.

  8. Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  9. Back Translating: An Integrated Approach to Focus Learners' Attention on Their L2 Knowledge Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yun; Gao, Cun

    2014-01-01

    Integration of the four language skills can be enhanced by focusing on back translating--translating an English text into the students' first language and then back into English. This article describes a three-step process for using back translation in reading classes as a way to help students identify gaps in their English competence.

  10. Closing the gap in a regional health service in NSW: a multi-strategic approach to addressing individual and institutional racism.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    Building a culturally safe and respectful organisation that genuinely addresses individual and institutional racism is a substantial and complex undertaking. Achieving this outcome requires sustained commitment and a comprehensive strategy, including the active involvement of Aboriginal stakeholders. This paper describes the journey of a large regional health organisation in NSW. A multi-strategic approach is broadly described, with three strategies explored in depth. These are: staff education and training; leadership; and consultation, negotiation and partnerships. Challenges are discussed in the context of promising progress and an ongoing commitment to this important organisational goal.

  11. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  12. Maximizing the Nutritional Value of Produce Post-Harvest: Consumer Knowledge Gaps, Interests, and Opinions Regarding Nutrition Education Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Dan; Goard, Linnette Mizer; Taylor, Christopher A.; Ralston, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Although many consumers perceive locally produced, fresh fruits and vegetables to be healthier, they might not have the knowledge and skills to retain optimal nutritional quality following harvest or purchase. We surveyed Ohio farmers market consumers' and managers' knowledge and interests related to maximizing nutritional value of produce.…

  13. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  14. Addressing the "other" health literacy competencies--knowledge, dispositions, and oral/aural communication: development of TALKDOC, an intervention assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Helitzer, Deborah; Hollis, Christine; Sanders, Margaret; Roybal, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Most health literacy assessments evaluate literacy skills including reading, writing; numeracy and interpretation of tables, graphs, diagrams and charts. Some assess understanding of health systems, and the ability to adequately apply one's skills to specific health-related tasks or demands in health situations. However, to achieve functional health literacy, the ability to "obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions," other health literacy dimensions should be assessed: a person's knowledge and attitudes about a health issue affects his or her ability to and interest in participating in his or her own care. In patient care settings, the abilities to listen, ask questions and check one's understanding are crucial to making appropriate decisions and carrying out instructions. Although literacy is a skill associated with educational attainment and therefore difficult to change in a short time, health education interventions can address health literacy domains such as knowledge, attitudes and oral communication skills. For this reason, an instrument that can assess these constructs is a valuable part of a health educator's toolbox. The authors describe the development and process and outcomes of testing a novel instrument targeted to assess HPV and cervical cancer health literacy competencies, TALKDOC, including its validation with the Health Activities Literacy Scale. PMID:23030568

  15. Executive summary of NIH workshop on the Use and Biology of Energy Drinks: Current Knowledge and Critical Gaps.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Barbara C; Camp, Kathryn M; Haggans, Carol J; Deuster, Patricia A; Haverkos, Lynne; Maruvada, Padma; Witt, Ellen; Coates, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Sales of energy drinks in the United States reached $12.5 billion in 2012. Emergency department visits related to consumption of these products have increased sharply, and while these numbers remain small relative to product sales, they raise important questions regarding biological and behavioral effects. Although some common ingredients of energy drinks have been extensively studied (e.g., caffeine, B vitamins, sugars, inositol), data on other ingredients (e.g., taurine) are limited. Summarized here are data presented elsewhere in this issue on the prevalence and patterns of caffeine-containing energy drink use, the effects of these products on alertness, fatigue, cognitive functions, sleep, mood, homeostasis, as well as on exercise physiology and metabolism, and the biological mechanisms mediating the observed effects. There are substantial data on the effects of some energy drink ingredients, such as caffeine and sugars, on many of these outcomes; however, even for these ingredients many controversies and gaps remain, and data on other ingredients in caffeine-containing energy drinks, and on ingredient interactions, are sparse. This summary concludes with a discussion of critical gaps in the data and potential next steps.

  16. Comparison of the volatile emission profiles of ground almond and pistachio mummies: part 1 – addressing a gap in knowledge of current attractants of navel orangeworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the years various tissues of almond and pistachios have been evaluated for their ability to attract the navel orangeworm moth, a major insect pest to almond and pistachio orchards in California. Almond meal, which typically consists of ground almond kernels, is the current monitoring tool for n...

  17. Integrative Technologies and Knowledge Gatekeepers: Bridging the Gap between Epistemic Communities in the Case of Stem Cell Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wink, Rudiger

    2008-01-01

    The article analyses the role of gatekeepers between regional and disciplinary innovation systems in stem cell research as a case of integrative technologies. Which kind of gatekeepers is needed and which function can be fulfilled, differs along the knowledge value chain. Empirical results are used to explain the rationality of stem cell policies…

  18. Bridging the Educational Research-Teaching Practice Gap. Conceptual Understanding, Part 1: The Multifaceted Nature of Expert Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Trevor R.; Schonborn, Konrad J.

    2008-01-01

    The term "conceptual understanding" has been used rather loosely over the years in educational practice, with a tendency to focus on a few aspects of an extremely complex phenomenon. In this first article of a two-part miniseries on conceptual understanding, we describe the nature of expert (versus novice) knowledge and show how the conceptual…

  19. Bridging the Educational Research-Teaching Practice Gap: Conceptual Understanding, Part 2--Assessing and Developing Student Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonborn, Konrad J.; Anderson, Trevor R.

    2008-01-01

    The first paper in this two-part miniseries on conceptual understanding discussed expert and novice conceptual knowledge, the multifaceted nature of conceptual understanding, and the cognitive skills essential for constructing it. This second article presents examples of instruments for the assessment and development of five facets of conceptual…

  20. Gap Resolution

    2009-06-16

    With the continued improvements of next generation DNA sequencing technologies and their advantages over traditional Sanger sequencing, the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) has modified its sequencing pipeline to take advantage of the benefits of such technologies. Currently, standard 454 Titanium, paired end 454 Titanium, and Illumina GAll data are generated for all microbial projects and then assembled using draft assemblies at a much greater throughput than before. However, it also presents us with new challenges.more » In addition to the increased throughput, we also have to deal with a larger number of gaps in the Newbler genome assemblies. Gaps in these assemblies are usually caused by repeats (Newbler collapses repeat copies into individual contigs, thus creating gaps), strong secondary structures, and artifacts of the PCR process (specific to 454 paired end libraries). Some gaps in draft assemblies can be resolved merely by adding back the collapsed data from repeats. To expedite gap closure and assembly improvement on large numbers of these assemblies, we developed software to address this issue.« less

  1. Addressing Achievement Gaps with Psychological Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, David; Walton, Gregory; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Student psychology--how the classroom looks and feels from the perspective of the student--can powerfully affect motivation and learning, and experiments are increasingly showing that even brief interventions to change psychology can boost achievement over months or years. When paired with other structural reforms, social-psychological…

  2. A Synthesis Of Knowledge About Caregiver Decision Making Finds Gaps In Support For Those Who Care For Aging Loved Ones.

    PubMed

    Garvelink, Mirjam M; Ngangue, Patrice A G; Adekpedjou, Rheda; Diouf, Ndeye T; Goh, Larissa; Blair, Louisa; Légaré, France

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a mixed-methods knowledge synthesis to assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve caregivers' involvement in decision making with seniors, and to describe caregivers' experiences of decision making in the absence of interventions. We analyzed forty-nine qualitative, fourteen quantitative, and three mixed-methods studies. The qualitative studies indicated that caregivers had unmet needs for information, discussions of values and needs, and decision support, which led to negative sentiments after decision making. Our results indicate that there have been insufficient quantitative evaluations of interventions to involve caregivers in decision making with seniors and that the evaluations that do exist found few clinically significant effects. Elements of usual care that received positive evaluations were the availability of a decision coach and a supportive decision-making environment. Additional rigorously evaluated interventions are needed to help caregivers be more involved in decision making with seniors.

  3. Bridging the educational research-teaching practice gap: Conceptual understanding, part 1: The multifaceted nature of expert knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Trevor R; Schönborn, Konrad J

    2008-07-01

    The term "conceptual understanding" has been used rather loosely over the years in educational practice, with a tendency to focus on a few aspects of an extremely complex phenomenon. In this first article of a two-part miniseries on conceptual understanding, we describe the nature of expert (versus novice) knowledge and show how the conceptual understanding of experts is multifaceted in nature requiring competence in a wide range of cognitive skills. We then discuss five such facets of conceptual understanding that require competence in the cognitive skills of memorization, integration, transfer, analogical reasoning, and system thinking. We also argue for the importance of explicitly teaching and assessing such facets of understanding as part of all molecular life science curricula so as to better prepare our students to become experts in the field. Examples of the assessment tasks that can be used to promote the development of multifaceted conceptual understanding in students are presented in Part 2 of this series.

  4. Knowledge Gaps in Rodent Pancreas Biology: Taking Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells into Our Own Hands

    PubMed Central

    Santosa, Munirah Mohamad; Low, Blaise Su Jun; Pek, Nicole Min Qian; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong

    2016-01-01

    In the field of stem cell biology and diabetes, we and others seek to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. Traditionally, knowledge gathered from rodents is extended to human pancreas developmental biology research involving human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). While much has been learnt from rodent pancreas biology in the early steps toward Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitors, much less is known about the transition toward Ngn3+ pancreatic endocrine progenitors. Essentially, the later steps of pancreatic β cell development and maturation remain elusive to date. As a result, the most recent advances in the stem cell and diabetes field have relied upon combinatorial testing of numerous growth factors and chemical compounds in an arbitrary trial-and-error fashion to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells from hPSCs. Although this hit-or-miss approach appears to have made some headway in maturing human pancreatic β cells in vitro, its underlying biology is vaguely understood. Therefore, in this mini-review, we discuss some of these late-stage signaling pathways that are involved in human pancreatic β cell differentiation and highlight our current understanding of their relevance in rodent pancreas biology. Our efforts here unravel several novel signaling pathways that can be further studied to shed light on unexplored aspects of rodent pancreas biology. New investigations into these signaling pathways are expected to advance our knowledge in human pancreas developmental biology and to aid in the translation of stem cell biology in the context of diabetes treatments. PMID:26834702

  5. Physician preferences and knowledge gaps regarding the care of childhood cancer survivors: a mailed survey of pediatric oncologists.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Tara O; Hlubocky, Fay J; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Diller, Lisa; Daugherty, Christopher K

    2010-02-10

    PURPOSE Little is known about physicians' attitudes and knowledge regarding the health care needs of childhood cancer survivors (CCS). We sought to obtain pediatric cancer physicians' self-reported attitudes and knowledge regarding this population. METHODS A mailed survey was sent to 1,159 pediatric oncologists in the United States. Results A total of 655 surveys were returned (ie, 57% response rate). Median age of respondents was 47 years (range, 31 to 82 years); 57% were men. Respondents practiced for a median 14 years (range, 1 to 50 years) and reported seeing a median of 21 patients per week (range, 0 to 250 patients per week). When comfort levels in caring for CCS were described (ie, 1 = very uncomfortable; 7 = very comfortable), respondents were most comfortable with survivors < or = 21 years (mean +/- standard deviation, 6.2 +/- 1.3 level), were less comfortable (5.0 +/- 1.5 level) with those older than 21 years but less than 30 years old, and were uncomfortable with CCS > or = 30 years (2.9 +/- 1.7 level). In response to a clinical vignette of a 29-year-old woman treated with mantle radiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma at 16 years of age, and on the basis of available guidelines, 34% of respondents did not appropriately recommend yearly breast cancer surveillance; 43% of respondents did not appropriately recommend cardiac surveillance; and 24% of respondents did not appropriately recommend yearly thyroid surveillance. Those with greater self-reported familiarity with available long-term follow-up (LTFU) guidelines (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.54) and with receipt of training in the care of CCS (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.52) were more likely to have answered all three questions correctly. CONCLUSION Pediatric oncologists express a range of preferences with regard to LTFU of CCS. Many appear unfamiliar with LTFU surveillance guidelines.

  6. Mind the gap-deficits in our knowledge of aspects impacting the bioavailability of phytochemicals and their metabolites--a position paper focusing on carotenoids and polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Torsten; McDougall, Gordon J; Alegría, Amparo; Alminger, Marie; Arrigoni, Eva; Aura, Anna-Marja; Brito, Catarina; Cilla, Antonio; El, Sedef N; Karakaya, Sibel; Martínez-Cuesta, Marie C; Santos, Claudia N

    2015-07-01

    Various secondary plant metabolites or phytochemicals, including polyphenols and carotenoids, have been associated with a variety of health benefits, such as reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and several types of cancer, most likely due to their involvement in ameliorating inflammation and oxidative stress. However, discrepancies exist between their putative effects when comparing observational and intervention studies, especially when using pure compounds. These discrepancies may in part be explained by differences in intake levels and their bioavailability. Prior to exerting their bioactivity, these compounds must be made bioavailable, and considerable differences may arise due to their matrix release, changes during digestion, uptake, metabolism, and biodistribution, even before considering dose- and host-related factors. Though many insights have been gained on factors affecting secondary plant metabolite bioavailability, many gaps still exist in our knowledge. In this position paper, we highlight several major gaps in our understanding of phytochemical bioavailability, including effects of food processing, changes during digestion, involvement of cellular transporters in influx/efflux through the gastrointestinal epithelium, changes during colonic fermentation, and their phase I and phase II metabolism following absorption. PMID:25988374

  7. Mind the gap-deficits in our knowledge of aspects impacting the bioavailability of phytochemicals and their metabolites--a position paper focusing on carotenoids and polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Torsten; McDougall, Gordon J; Alegría, Amparo; Alminger, Marie; Arrigoni, Eva; Aura, Anna-Marja; Brito, Catarina; Cilla, Antonio; El, Sedef N; Karakaya, Sibel; Martínez-Cuesta, Marie C; Santos, Claudia N

    2015-07-01

    Various secondary plant metabolites or phytochemicals, including polyphenols and carotenoids, have been associated with a variety of health benefits, such as reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and several types of cancer, most likely due to their involvement in ameliorating inflammation and oxidative stress. However, discrepancies exist between their putative effects when comparing observational and intervention studies, especially when using pure compounds. These discrepancies may in part be explained by differences in intake levels and their bioavailability. Prior to exerting their bioactivity, these compounds must be made bioavailable, and considerable differences may arise due to their matrix release, changes during digestion, uptake, metabolism, and biodistribution, even before considering dose- and host-related factors. Though many insights have been gained on factors affecting secondary plant metabolite bioavailability, many gaps still exist in our knowledge. In this position paper, we highlight several major gaps in our understanding of phytochemical bioavailability, including effects of food processing, changes during digestion, involvement of cellular transporters in influx/efflux through the gastrointestinal epithelium, changes during colonic fermentation, and their phase I and phase II metabolism following absorption.

  8. Study protocol: Addressing evidence and context to facilitate transfer and uptake of consultation recording use in oncology: A knowledge translation implementation study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The time period from diagnosis to the end of treatment is challenging for newly diagnosed cancer patients. Patients have a substantial need for information, decision aids, and psychosocial support. Recordings of initial oncology consultations improve information recall, reduce anxiety, enhance patient satisfaction with communication, and increase patients' perceptions that the essential aspects of their disease and treatment have been addressed during the consultation. Despite the research evidence supporting the provision of consultation recordings, uptake of this intervention into oncology practice has been slow. The primary aim of this project is to conduct an implementation study to explicate the contextual factors, including use of evidence, that facilitate and impede the transfer and uptake of consultation-recording use in a sample of patients newly diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer. Methods Sixteen oncologists from cancer centres in three Canadian cities will participate in this three-phase study. The preimplementation phase will be used to identify and address those factors that are fundamental to facilitating the smooth adoption and delivery of the intervention during the implementation phase. During the implementation phase, breast and prostate cancer patients will receive a recording of their initial oncology consultation to take home. Patient interviews will be conducted in the days following the consultation to gather feedback on the benefits of the intervention. Patients will complete the Digital Recording Use Semi-Structured Interview (DRUSSI) and be invited to participate in focus groups in which their experiences with the consultation recording will be explored. Oncologists will receive a summary letter detailing the benefits voiced by their patients. The postimplementation phase includes a conceptual framework development meeting and a seven-point dissemination strategy. Discussion Consultation recording has been used in oncology

  9. Closing the Knowledge Gap: Effects of Land Use Conversion on Belowground Carbon near the 100th Meridian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, S. E.; Phillips, R. L.; Dell, R.; Suddick, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    Native prairie of the northern Great Plains near the 100th meridian is currently under land use conversion pressure due to high commodity prices. From 2002 to 2007, approximately 303,515 hectares of prairie were converted to crop production in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) from Montana to the Dakotas. The spatiotemporal effects of land-use conversion on soil organic matter are still unclear for the PPR. Effects will vary with management, soil properties and time, making regional experiments and simulation modeling necessary. Grassland conservationists are interested in soil carbon data and soil carbon simulation models to inform potential voluntary carbon credit programs. These programs require quantification of changes in soil carbon associated with land-use conversion and management. We addressed this issue by 1) designing a regional-scale experiment, 2) collecting and analyzing soil data, and 3) interviewing producers about land management practices, as required for regional, process-based biogeochemical models. We selected farms at random within a 29,000 km2 area of interest and measured soil properties at multiple depths for native prairie and adjacent annual crop fields. The cores were processed at six different depths (between 0 and 100 cm) for bulk density, pH, texture, total carbon, inorganic carbon, and total nitrogen. We found that the largest difference in soil organic carbon occurred at the 0-10 cm depth, but the magnitude of the effect of land use varied with soil properties and land management. Results from this project, coupled with regional model simulations (Denitrification-Decomposition, DNDC) represent the baseline data needed for future voluntary carbon credit programs and long-term carbon monitoring networks. Enrollment in such programs could help ranchers and farmers realize a new income stream from maintaining their native prairie and the carbon stored beneath it.

  10. The Presidential Address 2013: Promoting Enthusiasm, Imparting Knowledge! Science for the General Population and Science for Future Researchers Must All Start in the School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a transcript of the Presidential Address delivered by Martin Rees, Lord Rees of Ludlow, to the Association for Science Education (ASE) Annual Conference at the University of Reading, January 2013. The address is divided into five sections under the following headings: (1) Three Reasons Why the ASE's Mission Is So…

  11. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  12. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  13. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    ' mobility, and participation in tropical medicine and global health courses. The knowledge assessment revealed deficits and outlined needs to further analyse education gaps in global health. Developing concerted educational interventions aimed at fostering students' engagement with SDH could make full use of synergy effects inherent in student mobility, tropical medicine and global health education. PMID:20932278

  14. Mind the gap: knowledge and practice of providers treating uncomplicated malaria at public and mission health facilities, pharmacies and drug stores in Cameroon and Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Hanson, Kara; Mbacham, Wilfred; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Wiseman, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Background Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) has been the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Cameroon since 2004 and Nigeria since 2005, though many febrile patients receive less effective antimalarials. Patients often rely on providers to select treatment, and interventions are needed to improve providers’ practice and encourage them to adhere to clinical guidelines. Methods Providers’ adherence to malaria treatment guidelines was examined using data collected in Cameroon and Nigeria at public and mission facilities, pharmacies and drug stores. Providers’ choice of antimalarial was investigated separately for each country. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether providers were more likely to choose ACT if they knew it was the first-line antimalarial. Multiple imputation was used to impute missing data that arose when linking exit survey responses to details of the provider responsible for selecting treatment. Results There was a gap between providers’ knowledge and their practice in both countries, as providers’ decision to supply ACT was not significantly associated with knowledge of the first-line antimalarial. Providers were, however, more likely to supply ACT if it was the type of antimalarial they prefer. Other factors were country-specific, and indicated providers can be influenced by what they perceived their patients prefer or could afford, as well as information about their symptoms, previous treatment, the type of outlet and availability of ACT. Conclusions Public health interventions to improve the treatment of uncomplicated malaria should strive to change what providers prefer, rather than focus on what they know. Interventions to improve adherence to malaria treatment guidelines should emphasize that ACT is the recommended antimalarial, and it should be used for all patients with uncomplicated malaria. Interventions should also be tailored to the local setting, as there were differences between the two

  15. Bridging the Gap between Ethics and Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamric, Ann B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes attitude sets characterized as ethics as intuition, ethics as foreign language, and ethics as irrelevant to practice among nurses and physicians and the consequences they engender. Addresses strategies to bridge the gap between ethics knowledge and clinical practice, including interdisciplinary ethics education. (JOW)

  16. The application of fDOM sensors in freshwater systems: Limitations, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future enhancement and novel development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downing, B. D.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Pellerin, B. A.; Saraceno, J.; Kraus, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    Commercially-available, field deployable sensors designed to measure colored or chromophoric dissolved organic matter fluorescence (fDOM; ex370/em460 nm) in-situ are of considerable interest to researchers owing to their potential to serve as a proxy for continuous DOC concentrations in many freshwater environments. The major challenge with these sensors stems from non-linearity effects between measured fDOM and DOC concentration over the range of DOC encountered as well as interferences from organic and inorganic particles and temperature effects. A series of laboratory based evaluations were designed to compare inherent sensor optical geometries as well as reveal non-linearity effects due to (1) high fDOM concentrations (inner filter effects), (2), particle interference, and (3) temperature effects. In addition to evaluating the correlation between DOC concentration and fDOM, we considered sensor dynamic range and gain settings as well as data output protocol (e.g. analog or digital). Previous studies have illustrated the role of particle interference, which results in underestimates of fDOM greater than 50% at turbidities observed in many rivers and streams. Here, we present the results from the array of laboratory evaluations and discuss the practical limitations, propose correction methods and highlight knowledge gaps.

  17. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation in older adults: existing knowledge gaps and areas for innovation: a summary of an American Federation for Aging research seminar.

    PubMed

    Lubitz, Steven A; Bauer, Kenneth A; Benjamin, Emelia J; Besdine, Richard W; Forman, Daniel E; Gurol, Mahmut E; Reddy, Vivek Y; Singer, Daniel E

    2013-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common and morbid cardiac arrhythmia that increases in prevalence with advancing age. The risk of ischemic stroke, a primary and disabling hazard of AF, also increases with advancing age. The aging of the population is anticipated to contribute to a rising burden of AF-related morbidity and economic costs, given the close association between the arrhythmia and aging. Recent biological, diagnostic, and therapeutic developments raise hope that AF-related stroke can be largely prevented, yet despite advances in stroke prevention for individuals with AF, numerous scientific and clinical knowledge gaps remain, particularly as these developments are applied to older adults. Given the public health importance of AF-related stroke in elderly adults, a group of clinician-investigators convened on April 5, 2012, to identify promising areas for investigation that may ultimately reduce stroke-related morbidity. This article summarizes the meeting discussion and emphasizes innovative topic areas that may ultimately facilitate the application of novel preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic insights into the management of older adults with AF. The opinions of those that participated in the meeting limit this report, which may not represent all of the questions that other experts in this field might raise.

  18. In Search of Solutions to the Obesity Epidemic: K-12 Physical Education Teachers' Ratings of Their Knowledge, Skills, Preparation, Attitudes, Barriers, and Efforts to Address the Obesity Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kristie

    2013-01-01

    The New York State Physical Education Learning Standards for K-12 students were transformed into a survey administered to a sample of teachers of physical education (N = 261), ascertaining their ratings of their knowledge, ability/skill, education/training, and attitudes on the importance of future professionals receiving training to teach…

  19. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  20. Review of key knowledge gaps in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency detection with regard to the safe clinical deployment of 8-aminoquinoline treatment regimens: a workshop report.

    PubMed

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Auburn, Sarah; Espino, Fe; Shanks, Dennis; Cheng, Qin; McCarthy, James; Baird, Kevin; Moyes, Catherine; Howes, Rosalind; Ménard, Didier; Bancone, Germana; Winasti-Satyahraha, Ari; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Green, Justin; Domingo, Gonzalo; Yeung, Shunmay; Price, Ric

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a crucial aspect in the current phases of malaria control and elimination, which will require the wider use of 8-aminoquinolines for both reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and achieving the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, can induce severe haemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals, potentially creating significant morbidity and undermining confidence in 8-aminoquinoline prescription. On the other hand, erring on the side of safety and excluding large numbers of people with unconfirmed G6PD deficiency from treatment with 8-aminoquinolines will diminish the impact of these drugs. Estimating the remaining G6PD enzyme activity is the most direct, accessible, and reliable assessment of the phenotype and remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of patients who could be harmed by the administration of primaquine. Genotyping seems an unambiguous technique, but its use is limited by cost and the large range of recognized G6PD genotypes. A number of enzyme activity assays diagnose G6PD deficiency, but they require a cold chain, specialized equipment, and laboratory skills. These assays are impractical for care delivery where most patients with malaria live. Improvements to the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency are required for the broader and safer use of 8-aminoquinolines to kill hypnozoites, while lower doses of primaquine may be safely used to kill gametocytes without testing. The discussions and conclusions of a workshop conducted in Incheon, Korea in May 2012 to review key knowledge gaps in G6PD deficiency are reported here.

  1. Review of key knowledge gaps in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency detection with regard to the safe clinical deployment of 8-aminoquinoline treatment regimens: a workshop report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a crucial aspect in the current phases of malaria control and elimination, which will require the wider use of 8-aminoquinolines for both reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and achieving the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, can induce severe haemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals, potentially creating significant morbidity and undermining confidence in 8-aminoquinoline prescription. On the other hand, erring on the side of safety and excluding large numbers of people with unconfirmed G6PD deficiency from treatment with 8-aminoquinolines will diminish the impact of these drugs. Estimating the remaining G6PD enzyme activity is the most direct, accessible, and reliable assessment of the phenotype and remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of patients who could be harmed by the administration of primaquine. Genotyping seems an unambiguous technique, but its use is limited by cost and the large range of recognized G6PD genotypes. A number of enzyme activity assays diagnose G6PD deficiency, but they require a cold chain, specialized equipment, and laboratory skills. These assays are impractical for care delivery where most patients with malaria live. Improvements to the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency are required for the broader and safer use of 8-aminoquinolines to kill hypnozoites, while lower doses of primaquine may be safely used to kill gametocytes without testing. The discussions and conclusions of a workshop conducted in Incheon, Korea in May 2012 to review key knowledge gaps in G6PD deficiency are reported here. PMID:23537118

  2. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis among high-risk groups: Understanding the knowledge gap in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Melhem, Nada M; Rahhal, Nour; Charide, Rana; Kreidieh, Khalil; El-Khatib, Rolla

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify gaps in the existing knowledge on single, dual and triple infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region among men who have sex with men (MSMs), female sex workers (FSWs), injecting drug users (IDUs) and prisoners. METHODS: We performed an extensive literature search on articles published on the topic in the 25 countries of the MENA region. PubMed database was used as the main search engine. Case reports, case series, qualitative studies, editorials, commentaries, authors’ replies and animal studies were excluded. Original articles and reviews dealing with the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV and their co-infection were included. Data on population type, sample size, age and markers of infections were extracted from the relevant studies. RESULTS: HIV, HBV and HCV are blood-borne viruses with similar modes of transmission. The categories of people at high risk of acquiring HIV-1, HBV and HCV commonly include: MSMs, FSW and IDUs. It is well established that HIV-positive individuals co-infected with HBV or HCV suffer from liver pathology associated with morbidity and mortality. Moreover, HIV-infected individuals do not respond well to treatment for HBV or HCV and hence are at increased risk of hepatic toxicity. Consequently, co-infection of HIV-positive individuals with HBV and/or HCV is a global health problem of significant magnitude. Our review reveals the paucity of epidemiological data for key populations in many countries of the region. Limited number of studies exists in the MENA region on the status of HIV, HBV and HCV and their co-infections among prisoners, MSMs and FSWs. Evidence support the continued increase of the HIV epidemic among MSMs. In addition to the lack of studies on MSMs and FSWs in the MENA region, our review highlights the lack of data on the practices, characteristics, or the status of HIV infection and viral hepatitis

  4. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  5. Evidence-based decision-making 7: Knowledge translation.

    PubMed

    Manns, Braden J

    2015-01-01

    There is a significant gap between what is known and what is implemented by key stakeholders in practice (the evidence to practice gap). The primary purpose of knowledge translation is to address this gap, bridging evidence to clinical practice. The knowledge to action cycle is one framework for knowledge translation that integrates policy-makers throughout the research cycle. The knowledge to action cycle begins with the identification of a problem (usually a gap in care provision). After identification of the problem, knowledge creation is undertaken, depicted at the center of the cycle as a funnel. Knowledge inquiry is at the wide end of the funnel, and moving down the funnel, the primary data is synthesized into knowledge products in the form of educational materials, guidelines, decision aids, or clinical pathways. The remaining components of the knowledge to action cycle refer to the action of applying the knowledge that has been created. This includes adapting knowledge to local context, assessing barriers to knowledge use, selecting, tailoring implementing interventions, monitoring knowledge use, evaluating outcomes, and sustaining knowledge use. Each of these steps is connected by bidirectional arrows and ideally involves healthcare decision-makers and key stakeholders at each transition.

  6. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  7. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  8. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  9. Considering Human Capital Theory in Assessment and Training: Mapping the Gap between Current Skills and the Needs of a Knowledge-Based Economy in Northeast Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihm-Herold, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    In light of the current economic downturn, thousands of Iowans are unemployed and this is the ideal time to build the skills of the workforce to compete in the knowledge-based economy so businesses and entrepreneurs can compete in a global economy. A tool for assessing the skills and knowledge of dislocated workers and students as well as…

  10. Radiation Exposure from CT Scans: How to Close Our Knowledge Gaps, Monitor and Safeguard Exposure—Proceedings and Recommendations of the Radiation Dose Summit, Sponsored by NIBIB, February 24–25, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Boone, John M.; Hendee, William R.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a portion of the Radiation Dose Summit, which was organized by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering and held in Bethesda, Maryland, in February 2011. The current understandings of ways to optimize the benefit-risk ratio of computed tomography (CT) examinations are summarized and recommendations are made for priority areas of research to close existing gaps in our knowledge. The prospects of achieving a submillisievert effective dose CT examination routinely are assessed. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22966066

  11. Falls after Discharge from Hospital: Is There a Gap between Older Peoples' Knowledge about Falls Prevention Strategies and the Research Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Tammy; Beer, Christopher; McPhail, Steven; Hill, Keith D.; Oliver, David; Brauer, Sandra G.; Haines, Terry P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine whether older people are prepared to engage in appropriate falls prevention strategies after discharge from hospital. Design and Methods: We used a semi-structured interview to survey older patients about to be discharged from hospital and examined their knowledge regarding falls prevention strategies…

  12. Pedagogical Content Knowledge as Reflected in Teacher-Student Interactions: Analysis of Two Video Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Alicia C.; Kobarg, Mareike; Seidel, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Despite the theorized centrality of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching, we have little evidence of the relationship between PCK and students' learning and know relatively little about how to help teachers to develop PCK. This study is a preliminary attempt to address these gaps in our knowledge of PCK through exploration of two…

  13. Overview of Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serban, Andreea M.; Luan, Jing

    2002-01-01

    Defines knowledge management, its components, processes, and outcomes. Addresses the importance of knowledge management for higher education in general and for institutional research in particular. (EV)

  14. Bridging the semantic gap in sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoxin; Errico, James; Pan, Hao; Sezan, M. Ibrahim

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing current media management systems and the related applications is the so-called "semantic gap" between the rich meaning that a user desires and the shallowness of the content descriptions that are automatically extracted from the media. In this paper, we address the problem of bridging this gap in the sports domain. We propose a general framework for indexing and summarizing sports broadcast programs. The framework is based on a high-level model of sports broadcast video using the concept of an event, defined according to domain-specific knowledge for different types of sports. Within this general framework, we develop automatic event detection algorithms that are based on automatic analysis of the visual and aural signals in the media. We have successfully applied the event detection algorithms to different types of sports including American football, baseball, Japanese sumo wrestling, and soccer. Event modeling and detection contribute to the reduction of the semantic gap by providing rudimentary semantic information obtained through media analysis. We further propose a novel approach, which makes use of independently generated rich textual metadata, to fill the gap completely through synchronization of the information-laden textual data with the basic event segments. An MPEG-7 compliant prototype browsing system has been implemented to demonstrate semantic retrieval and summarization of sports video.

  15. Effectively addressing addiction requires changing the language of addiction.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

    2014-02-01

    Public knowledge and attitudes about addiction are largely inconsistent with scientific evidence. The gap between the facts and public and professional perceptions is due in part to the language used to describe the disease and those who have it. A key step in modifying public attitudes and improving how health professionals and policymakers address addiction is to better align the language of addiction with the scientific evidence. Unless we clarify the language, those with the disease will continue to experience the stigma associated with it and attempts to deliver comprehensive and effective evidence-based prevention, treatment, and disease management will be profoundly compromised. PMID:24226552

  16. Gender Differences in Economic Knowledge: An Extension of the Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results on gender differences in economic knowledge. Addresses the question of whether gender gaps in economic understanding widen as students progress through college. Reports that no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that significant and consistent gender differences exist in college students' performances on economic…

  17. Classroom Teachers' Craft Knowledge of Their Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black-Hawkins, Kristine; Florian, Lani

    2012-01-01

    Whilst recent decades have seen significant progress in research on inclusive education, many teachers still feel that the research literature does not fully address their professional concerns about how to enact a policy of inclusion in their classrooms. To help to bridge this gap, we drew on the concept of craft knowledge to undertake a detailed…

  18. Strategic Evaluation of University Knowledge and Technology Transfer Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thien Anh

    2013-01-01

    Academic knowledge and technology transfer has been growing in importance both in academic research and practice. A critical question in managing this activity is how to evaluate its effectiveness. The literature shows an increasing number of studies done to address this question; however, it also reveals important gaps that need more research.…

  19. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions.

  20. Assessing what to address in science communication

    PubMed Central

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-01-01

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  1. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  2. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Mitchell T.; Bunt, R.; Corradini, M.; Ellison, Paul B.; Francis, M.; Gabor, John D.; Gauntt, R.; Henry, C.; Linthicum, R.; Luangdilok, W.; Lutz, R.; Paik, C.; Plys, M.; Rabiti, Cristian; Rempe, J.; Robb, K.; Wachowiak, R.

    2015-01-31

    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  3. Understanding the influence of predation by introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Basin: Closing some knowledge gaps. Interim Report of Research 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2011-01-01

    In response to these recent concerns about the potential predatory impact of non-native piscivores on salmon survival, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA) co-hosted a workshop to address predation on juvenile salmonids in the CRB by non-native fish (Halton 2008). The purpose of the workshop was to review, evaluate, and develop strategies to reduce predation by non-native fishes on juvenile salmonids. In the end, discussion at the workshop and at subsequent meetings considered two potential ideas to reduce predation by non-native fish on juvenile salmonids; (1) understanding the role of juvenile American shad Alosa sapidissima in the diet of non-native predators in the fall; and (2) the effects of localized, intense reductions of smallmouth bass in areas of particularly high salmonid predation. In this report, we describe initial efforts to understand the influence of juvenile American shad as a prey item for introduced predators in the middle Columbia River. Our first objective, addressed in Chapter 1, was to evaluate the efficacy of nonlethal methods to describe the physiological condition of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish from late summer through late fall. Such information will be used to understand the contribution of juvenile American shad to the energy reserves of predaceous fish prior to winter. In Chapter 2, we describe the results of some limited sampling to document the food habits of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish in three reservoirs of the middle Columbia River during late fall. Collectively, we hope to increase our understanding of the contribution of juvenile American shad to the diets of introduced predators and the contribution of this diet to their energy reserves, growth, and perhaps over-winter survival. Managers should be able to use this information for deciding whether to control the population of American shad in the CRB or for managing introduced

  4. Increasing business resilience to flood risk: Developing an effective e-learning tool to bridge the knowledge gap between policy, practice and business owners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wragg, Amanda; McEwen, Lindsey; Harries, Tim

    2015-04-01

    part that their knowledges and learning play in decision-making have been explored. The co-production process engages regional/national stakeholders who form a Stakeholder Competency Group (from policy and practice), and, a Business Research Partnership Group comprising local business participants. The two groups have opportunities to liaise and network in discussing the prototype for the learning tool. Whatmore et al (2008) and McEwen et al (2014) show that stakeholder views, experience and expertise can strengthen research outputs. The approach reflects current ethics and practices of stakeholder participation in that alongside an academic approach to the research, other equally valid forms of knowledge are recognised: 'a lot can be learned from exploring parallels, controversies and frictions between different forms of competency and knowledge (McEwen et al, 2014), for example, scientific, local, tacit and embedded. This paper presents concerns identified by businesses and wider stakeholders in relation to how the tool is framed and its key design premises. The tool is planned as a living resource that can support a community of learning practice among SMEs to increase flood resilience in the face of increased risk. References Federation of Small Businesses (2014) http://www.fsb.org.uk/stats Whatmore, Lane and Ward et al (2007-2010) Understanding Environmental Knowledge Controversies ESRC/NERC funded interdisciplinary research project (2007-2010) McEwen et al (2014) https://floodmemories.wordpress.com/2011/04/06/advice-from-competent-stakeholders/.

  5. Reducing the White-Nonwhite Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Madelaine

    It is well documented that there continues to be a gap between white and nonwhite student achievement. A study develops and tests a measure of white-nonwhite achievement gap reduction. The ultimate purpose is to use the measure as the dependent variable in a qualitative study of what works in reducing the gap. The strategy used in addressing this…

  6. Human epithelial hair follicle stem cells and their progeny: current state of knowledge, the widening gap in translational research and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Purba, Talveen S; Haslam, Iain S; Poblet, Enrique; Jiménez, Francisco; Gandarillas, Alberto; Izeta, Ander; Paus, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Epithelial hair follicle stem cells (eHFSCs) are required to generate, maintain and renew the continuously cycling hair follicle (HF), supply cells that produce the keratinized hair shaft and aid in the reepithelialization of injured skin. Therefore, their study is biologically and clinically important, from alopecia to carcinogenesis and regenerative medicine. However, human eHFSCs remain ill defined compared to their murine counterparts, and it is unclear which murine eHFSC markers really apply to the human HF. We address this by reviewing current concepts on human eHFSC biology, their immediate progeny and their molecular markers, focusing on Keratin 15 and 19, CD200, CD34, PHLDA1, and EpCAM/Ber-EP4. After delineating how human eHFSCs may be selectively targeted experimentally, we close by defining as yet unmet key challenges in human eHFSC research. The ultimate goal is to transfer emerging concepts from murine epithelial stem cell biology to human HF physiology and pathology.

  7. Maternal activation of gap genes in the hover fly Episyrphus.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Steffen; Busch, Stephanie E; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Meyer, Folker; Domanus, Marc H; Schmidt-Ott, Urs

    2010-05-01

    The metameric organization of the insect body plan is initiated with the activation of gap genes, a set of transcription-factor-encoding genes that are zygotically expressed in broad and partially overlapping domains along the anteroposterior (AP) axis of the early embryo. The spatial pattern of gap gene expression domains along the AP axis is generally conserved, but the maternal genes that regulate their expression are not. Building on the comprehensive knowledge of maternal gap gene activation in Drosophila, we used loss- and gain-of-function experiments in the hover fly Episyrphus balteatus (Syrphidae) to address the question of how the maternal regulation of gap genes evolved. We find that, in Episyrphus, a highly diverged bicoid ortholog is solely responsible for the AP polarity of the embryo. Episyrphus bicoid represses anterior zygotic expression of caudal and activates the anterior and central gap genes orthodenticle, hunchback and Krüppel. In bicoid-deficient Episyrphus embryos, nanos is insufficient to generate morphological asymmetry along the AP axis. Furthermore, we find that torso transiently regulates anterior repression of caudal and is required for the activation of orthodenticle, whereas all posterior gap gene domains of knirps, giant, hunchback, tailless and huckebein depend on caudal. We conclude that all maternal coordinate genes have altered their specific functions during the radiation of higher flies (Cyclorrhapha).

  8. Genetic richness and diversity in Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum reveals major knowledge gaps and a need for the application of "next generation" technologies--research review.

    PubMed

    Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium species (apicomplexan protists) are a major cause of diarrhoeal disease (= cryptosporidiosis) in humans worldwide. The impact of cryptosporidiosis is also compounded by the spread of HIV/AIDS and a lack of cost-effective anti-cryptosporidial chemotherapeutics or vaccines. Mitigation of the impact of cryptosporidiosis in humans needs to focus on prevention and control strategies, built on a sound understanding of the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium species. Refined epidemiological studies rely on the use of molecular tools employing informative genetic markers. Currently, the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene (gp60) is the most suitable and widely used genetic marker for Cryptosporidium species infecting humans. Here, we undertake an analysis of all publicly-available gp60 sequence data and associated literature for C. hominis and C. parvum, and yield useful insights into the richness, diversity and distribution of genetic variants, and link these variants to human cryptosporidiosis. This global analysis reveals that, despite high genetic richness in Cryptosporidium isolates from humans, there is a surprisingly low diversity. It also highlights limited knowledge about the genetics of cryptosporidiosis in developing nations and in many animals that might act as infection sources. Clearly, there is a major need for more comprehensive studies of Cryptosporidium infecting humans and other animals in Africa and Asia. As molecular technologies improve and become affordable, future studies should utilize "next generation" sequencing and bioinformatic platforms to conduct comparative 'genome sequence surveys' to test the validity of current genetic classifications based on gp60 data. Complemented by in vitro and in vivo investigations, these biotechnological advances will also assist significantly in the search for new intervention strategies against human cryptosporidiosis.

  9. "Mind the Gap" in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsberg, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    This reflective essay describes a teacher's development of a student-centered approach to teaching which bridges the gap between students' knowledge before and after a course. In "mind the gap teaching," students' prior knowledge leads the conversation and, in turn, the teaching, allowing them to integrate new information more…

  10. Policy impacts of ecosystem services knowledge.

    PubMed

    Posner, Stephen M; McKenzie, Emily; Ricketts, Taylor H

    2016-02-16

    Research about ecosystem services (ES) often aims to generate knowledge that influences policies and institutions for conservation and human development. However, we have limited understanding of how decision-makers use ES knowledge or what factors facilitate use. Here we address this gap and report on, to our knowledge, the first quantitative analysis of the factors and conditions that explain the policy impact of ES knowledge. We analyze a global sample of cases where similar ES knowledge was generated and applied to decision-making. We first test whether attributes of ES knowledge themselves predict different measures of impact on decisions. We find that legitimacy of knowledge is more often associated with impact than either the credibility or salience of the knowledge. We also examine whether predictor variables related to the science-to-policy process and the contextual conditions of a case are significant in predicting impact. Our findings indicate that, although many factors are important, attributes of the knowledge and aspects of the science-to-policy process that enhance legitimacy best explain the impact of ES science on decision-making. Our results are consistent with both theory and previous qualitative assessments in suggesting that the attributes and perceptions of scientific knowledge and process within which knowledge is coproduced are important determinants of whether that knowledge leads to action.

  11. Policy impacts of ecosystem services knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Stephen M.; McKenzie, Emily; Ricketts, Taylor H.

    2016-01-01

    Research about ecosystem services (ES) often aims to generate knowledge that influences policies and institutions for conservation and human development. However, we have limited understanding of how decision-makers use ES knowledge or what factors facilitate use. Here we address this gap and report on, to our knowledge, the first quantitative analysis of the factors and conditions that explain the policy impact of ES knowledge. We analyze a global sample of cases where similar ES knowledge was generated and applied to decision-making. We first test whether attributes of ES knowledge themselves predict different measures of impact on decisions. We find that legitimacy of knowledge is more often associated with impact than either the credibility or salience of the knowledge. We also examine whether predictor variables related to the science-to-policy process and the contextual conditions of a case are significant in predicting impact. Our findings indicate that, although many factors are important, attributes of the knowledge and aspects of the science-to-policy process that enhance legitimacy best explain the impact of ES science on decision-making. Our results are consistent with both theory and previous qualitative assessments in suggesting that the attributes and perceptions of scientific knowledge and process within which knowledge is coproduced are important determinants of whether that knowledge leads to action. PMID:26831101

  12. Policy impacts of ecosystem services knowledge.

    PubMed

    Posner, Stephen M; McKenzie, Emily; Ricketts, Taylor H

    2016-02-16

    Research about ecosystem services (ES) often aims to generate knowledge that influences policies and institutions for conservation and human development. However, we have limited understanding of how decision-makers use ES knowledge or what factors facilitate use. Here we address this gap and report on, to our knowledge, the first quantitative analysis of the factors and conditions that explain the policy impact of ES knowledge. We analyze a global sample of cases where similar ES knowledge was generated and applied to decision-making. We first test whether attributes of ES knowledge themselves predict different measures of impact on decisions. We find that legitimacy of knowledge is more often associated with impact than either the credibility or salience of the knowledge. We also examine whether predictor variables related to the science-to-policy process and the contextual conditions of a case are significant in predicting impact. Our findings indicate that, although many factors are important, attributes of the knowledge and aspects of the science-to-policy process that enhance legitimacy best explain the impact of ES science on decision-making. Our results are consistent with both theory and previous qualitative assessments in suggesting that the attributes and perceptions of scientific knowledge and process within which knowledge is coproduced are important determinants of whether that knowledge leads to action. PMID:26831101

  13. Bilingual Cognitive Development: Addressing Three Gaps in Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Rafael M.

    1985-01-01

    Results question the validity of Cummins's threshold hypothesis and suggest that degree of bilingualism is related to variability in cognitive measures only before a certain threshold of proficiency in the second language is attained. A cause-effect model in which degree of bilingualism appears as the causal factor affecting children's cognitive…

  14. Addressing Research Gaps in the Intersection between Homophobia and Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Swearer, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Bullying, aggression, and peer victimization among adolescents are significant public health concerns. Recent research has demonstrated that bullying and peer victimization sometimes include homophobic epithets directed at heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. It appears that being at the receiving end of…

  15. Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  16. Addressing community concerns about asthma and air toxics.

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C; Berger-Frank, Sherri A; Middleton, Dannie C; Falk, Henry

    2002-01-01

    People with asthma who live near or downwind from a source of toxic emissions commonly express concerns about the possible impact of hazardous air pollution on their health, especially when these emissions are visible or odorous. Citizens frequently turn to their local and state health departments for answers, but health departments face many challenges in addressing these concerns. These challenges include a lack of asthma statistics at the local level, limited exposure information, and a paucity of scientific knowledge about the contributions of hazardous air pollutants to asthma induction or exacerbation. Health agencies are creatively developing methods to address these challenges while working toward improving asthma surveillance data at the state and local levels. Recent community health investigations suggest that hazardous air pollutants that are occupational asthmagens or associated with odors may deserve more attention. In seeking to address community concerns about hazardous air pollution and asthma, community health investigations may also help to fill gaps in our scientific knowledge and identify areas for further research or environmental intervention. The solutions to community problems associated with environmental contamination and asthma, however, require sustained, coordinated efforts by public and private groups and citizens. Public health agencies can make a unique contribution to this effort, but additional resources and support will be required to develop information systems and epidemiologic capacity at the state and local levels. PMID:12194887

  17. Updates and Knowledge Gaps in Cholesteatoma Research

    PubMed Central

    Shiao, An-Suey; Yung, Matthew; Sakagami, Masafumi; Sudhoff, Holger; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Lien, Chiang-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The existence of acquired cholesteatoma has been recognized for more than three centuries; however, the nature of the disorder has yet to be determined. Without timely detection and intervention, cholesteatomas can become dangerously large and invade intratemporal structures, resulting in numerous intra- and extracranial complications. Due to its aggressive growth, invasive nature, and the potentially fatal consequences of intracranial complications, acquired cholesteatoma remains a cause of morbidity and death for those who lack access to advanced medical care. Currently, no viable nonsurgical therapies are available. Developing an effective management strategy for this disorder will require a comprehensive understanding of past progress and recent advances. This paper presents a brief review of background issues related to acquired middle ear cholesteatoma and deals with practical considerations regarding the history and etymology of the disorder. We also consider issues related to the classification, epidemiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, and complications of acquired cholesteatoma and examine current diagnosis and management strategies in detail. PMID:25866816

  18. Effects of Mathematics Content Knowledge on Pre-School Teachers' Performance: A Video-Based Assessment of Perception and Planning Abilities in Informal Learning Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunekacke, Simone; Jenßen, Lars; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the relation of pre-school teachers' mathematics content knowledge and their performance--how they perceive mathematical learning situations and whether they are able to plan adequate actions that foster children's learning--in the informal settings of pre-schools. It thus addresses a serious gap in teacher research that has…

  19. A European framework to address psychosocial hazards.

    PubMed

    Leka, Stavroula; Kortum, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decades, emphasis has been placed on the changing nature of work and new forms of risk that could negatively affect employee health and safety. These are mainly associated with new types of occupational hazards that have been termed psychosocial. Issues such as work-related stress, bullying and harassment are now receiving attention on a global basis and efforts have been made to address them at the workplace level. However, it has been acknowledged that despite developments of policy in this area, there still appear to be a broad science-policy gap and an even broader one between policy and practice. The WHO Network of Collaborating Centers in Occupational Health has, since the late 1990s, been supporting a dedicated program of work on psychosocial factors and work-related stress. Part of the Network's work is currently focusing on the translation of existing knowledge into practice in the area of psychosocial risk management. This program has identified that the optimum way forward lies in the development of a European framework for psychosocial risk management. This framework will serve as the basis for coordination of research activities and preventive action with an emphasis on evidence based interventions and best practice on an international basis. PMID:18408344

  20. GAP Analysis Bulletin Number 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, Jill; Gergely, Kevin; Aycrigg, Jocelyn; Canonico, Gabrielle; Davidson, Anne; Coffey, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    The Mission of the Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is to promote conservation by providing broad geographic information on biological diversity to resource managers, planners, and policy makers who can use the information to make informed decisions. As part of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) ?a collaborative program to provide increased access to data and information on the nation?s biological resources--GAP data and analytical tools have been used in hundreds of applications: from basic research to comprehensive state wildlife plans; from educational projects in schools to ecoregional assessments of biodiversity. The challenge: keeping common species common means protecting them BEFORE they become threatened. To do this on a state or regional basis requires key information such as land cover descriptions, predicted distribution maps for native animals, and an assessment of the level of protection currently given to those plants and animals. GAP works cooperatively with Federal, state, and local natural resource professionals and academics to provide this kind of information. GAP activities focus on the creation of state and regional databases and maps that depict patterns of land management, land cover, and biodiversity. These data can be used to identify ?gaps? in conservation--instances where an animal or plant community is not adequately represented on the existing network of conservation lands. GAP is administered through the U.S. Geological Survey. Through building partnerships among disparate groups, GAP hopes to foster the kind of collaboration that is needed to address conservation issues on a broad scale. For more information, contact: John Mosesso National GAP Director 703-648-4079 Kevin Gergely National GAP Operations Manager 208-885-3565

  1. Stolen Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; Duguid, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Discusses situated learning in the workplace and in the classroom. Topics addressed include operationalization versus legitimization of educational theories; instruction versus learning; explicit versus implicit instruction and knowledge; individual versus social context; systems narrowly construed versus systems broadly construed; and legitimate…

  2. Practice and Educational Gaps in Abnormal Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2016-07-01

    Dyschromia refers to abnormal pigmentation and is one of the most common diagnoses in dermatology. However, there are many educational and practice gaps in this area, specifically in melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and vitiligo. This article aims to review the gold standard of care for these conditions as well as highlight common educational and practice gaps in these areas. Finally, possible solutions to these gaps are addressed. PMID:27363886

  3. The Gender Gap in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexakos, Konstantinos; Antoine, Wladina

    2003-01-01

    Reviews studies that address the gender gap in primary and secondary science classrooms concerning interest in the subject as well as academic performance. Suggests strategies to encourage female participation in science. (KHR)

  4. Knowledge Management, Codification and Tacit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimble, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method: The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who…

  5. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  6. The Bridge of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yu Ren

    2014-01-01

    Although many English language learners (ELLs) in the United States have knowledge gaps that make it hard for them to master high-level content and skills, ELLs also often have background knowledge relevant to school learning that teachers neglect to access, this author argues. In the Common Core era, with ELLs being the fastest growing population…

  7. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  8. Modulation of adrenal gap junction expression.

    PubMed

    Murray, S A; Shah, U S

    1998-01-01

    To increase our knowledge of the role of peptide hormone stimulation in gap junction protein expression and adrenal cortical cell function, primary rat adrenal cortical cells were treated with adrenocorticotropin, and gap junction proteins were measured. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis were used to detect and characterize gap junction type and distribution. The gap junction protein, connexin 43 (alpha 1), was detected. Analysis of six connexin protein types did not reveal gap junction species other than alpha 1. Cells of the inner adrenal cortical zones, zonae fasciculata and reticularis, were demonstrated to have the highest number of gap junctions per cell in the adrenal gland. Adrenal cell cultures enriched for the two inner cortical adrenal zones were established and demonstrated also to express alpha 1 gap junction protein. Adrenocorticotropin (40 mUnits/ml) and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (1 mM) treatments increased alpha 1 gap junction protein levels and decreased cell proliferation rates in the cell cultures. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that gap junction expression can be regulated by adrenocorticotropin acting through the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate. It can be suggested that gap junction expression in the adrenal gland may be under hormonal influence, and that gap junctions serve as passage for movement of molecules involved in control of cell proliferation. PMID:9694574

  9. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  10. Verb gapping: an action-gap compatibility study.

    PubMed

    Claus, Berry

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses the processing of verb-gapping sentences, e.g., John closes a juice bottle and Jim [ ] a lemonade bottle. The goal was to explore if there would be an interaction between language comprehension and motor action not only for overt action verbs but also for gapped verbs. Participants read gapping sentences that either described clockwise or counter-clockwise manual rotations (e.g., closes vs. opens a juice bottle). Adopting a paradigm developed by Zwaan and Taylor (2006), sentence presentation was frame-by-frame. Participants proceeded from frame to frame by turning a knob either clockwise or counter clockwise. Analyses of the frame reading-times yielded a significant effect of compatibility between the linguistically conveyed action and the knob turning for the overt-verb (e.g., closes/opens a juice bottle) as well as for the gapped-verb frame (e.g., a lemonade bottle) - with longer reading times in the match condition than in the mismatch condition - but not for any of the other frames (e.g., and Jim). The results are promising in providing novel evidence for the real-time reactivation of gapped verbs and in suggesting that action simulation is not bound to the processing of overt verbs. PMID:25103783

  11. Increasing gap junctional coupling: a tool for dissecting the role of gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Haugan, Ketil; Stahlhut, Martin; Kjølbye, Anne-Louise; Hennan, James K; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Nielsen, Morten Schak

    2007-03-01

    Much of our current knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological role of gap junctions is based on experiments where coupling has been reduced by either chemical agents or genetic modification. This has brought evidence that gap junctions are important in many physiological processes. In a number of cases, gap junctions have been implicated in the initiation and progress of disease, and experimental uncoupling has been used to investigate the exact role of coupling. The inverse approach, i.e., to increase coupling, has become possible in recent years and represents a new way of testing the role of gap junctions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge obtained with agents that selectively increase gap junctional intercellular coupling. Two approaches will be reviewed: increasing coupling by the use of antiarrhythmic peptide and its synthetic analogs and by interfering with the gating of gap junctional channels.

  12. Crop yield gaps in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Yengoh, Genesis T; Ardö, Jonas

    2014-03-01

    Although food crop yields per hectare have generally been increasing in Cameroon since 1961, the food price crisis of 2008 and the ensuing social unrest and fatalities raised concerns about the country's ability to meet the food needs of its population. This study examines the country's potential for increasing crop yields and food production to meet this food security challenge. Fuzzy set theory is used to develop a biophysical spatial suitability model for different crops, which in turn is employed to ascertain whether crop production is carried out in biophysically suited areas. We use linear regression to examine the trend of yield development over the last half century. On the basis of yield data from experimental stations and farmers' fields we assess the yield gap for major food crops. We find that yields have generally been increasing over the last half century and that agricultural policies can have significant effects on them. To a large extent, food crops are cultivated in areas that are biophysically suited for their cultivation, meaning that the yield gap is not a problem of biophysical suitability. Notwithstanding, there are significantly large yield gaps between actual yields on farmers' farms and maximum attainable yields from research stations. We conclude that agronomy and policies are likely to be the reasons for these large yield gaps. A key challenge to be addressed in closing the yield gaps is that of replenishing and properly managing soil nutrients.

  13. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  14. Gap analysis: synergies and opportunities for effective nursing leadership.

    PubMed

    Davis-Ajami, Mary Lynn; Costa, Linda; Kulik, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Gap analysis encompasses a comprehensive process to identify, understand, address, and bridge gaps in service delivery and nursing practice. onducting gap analysis provides structure to information gathering and the process of finding sustainable solutions to important deficiencies. Nursing leaders need to recognize, measure, monitor, and execute on feasible actionable solutions to help organizations make adjustments to address gaps between what is desired and the actual real-world conditions contributing to the quality chasm in health care. Gap analysis represents a functional and comprehensive tool to address organizational deficiencies. Using gap analysis proactively helps organizations map out and sustain corrective efforts to close the quality chasm. Gaining facility in gap analysis should help the nursing profession's contribution to narrowing the quality chasm.

  15. Forests under climate change and air pollution: gaps in understanding and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Calfapietra, C; de Vries, W; Dizengremel, P; Ernst, D; Jolivet, Y; Mikkelsen, T N; Mohren, G M J; Le Thiec, D; Tuovinen, J-P; Weatherall, A; Paoletti, E

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems ("supersites") will be conducive to addressing these gaps by enabling integration of experimentation and modelling within the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, as well as further model development.

  16. Lexical Gap-Filling Mechanisms in Foreign Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llach, M[a]. Pilar Agustin

    2010-01-01

    The present paper intends to investigate the lexical gap-filling behaviour of primary and secondary Spanish learners of English. When there is a mismatch between the learners lexical knowledge and their communicative needs, then a lexical gap arises. Learners resort to different mechanisms to compensate for that lack of lexical knowledge.…

  17. Evaluation of Iranian college athletes' sport nutrition knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Jessri, Maryam; RashidKhani, Bahram; Zinn, Caryn

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge and the factors determining this knowledge in Iranian college basketball and football athletes. By highlighting gaps in nutrition knowledge of these athletes, sport nutrition professionals may begin to address these gaps by educating athletes with a view toward minimizing injury and enhancing sport performance. Sixty-six basketball and 141 football players (response rate 78.4%) from 4 medical and 8 nonmedical universities in Tehran agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. A 2-part questionnaire was used; the first part comprised questions identifying demographic information, and the second part comprised a previously well-validated questionnaire on sport nutrition knowledge. The overall knowledge score was 33.2% (+/- 12.3%). Men scored 28.2% (+/- 12.7%), and women, 38.7% (+/- 14.2%). In both genders, the highest score was obtained for the nutrients subcategory, and the supplements subcategory was the most poorly answered. When compared with their peers, a significantly higher score was obtained by women (p < .001), athletes at medical universities (p < .001), and those obtaining nutrition information from reputable sources (p = .03). The coach was cited by 89.4% of athletes as their main source of nutrition information. This study showed that the sport nutrition knowledge of these athletes is inadequate. Considering that this substandard level of knowledge may contribute to poor dietary behaviors, these athletes would benefit from nutrition-related training and education. PMID:20601743

  18. Evaluation of Iranian college athletes' sport nutrition knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Jessri, Maryam; RashidKhani, Bahram; Zinn, Caryn

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge and the factors determining this knowledge in Iranian college basketball and football athletes. By highlighting gaps in nutrition knowledge of these athletes, sport nutrition professionals may begin to address these gaps by educating athletes with a view toward minimizing injury and enhancing sport performance. Sixty-six basketball and 141 football players (response rate 78.4%) from 4 medical and 8 nonmedical universities in Tehran agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. A 2-part questionnaire was used; the first part comprised questions identifying demographic information, and the second part comprised a previously well-validated questionnaire on sport nutrition knowledge. The overall knowledge score was 33.2% (+/- 12.3%). Men scored 28.2% (+/- 12.7%), and women, 38.7% (+/- 14.2%). In both genders, the highest score was obtained for the nutrients subcategory, and the supplements subcategory was the most poorly answered. When compared with their peers, a significantly higher score was obtained by women (p < .001), athletes at medical universities (p < .001), and those obtaining nutrition information from reputable sources (p = .03). The coach was cited by 89.4% of athletes as their main source of nutrition information. This study showed that the sport nutrition knowledge of these athletes is inadequate. Considering that this substandard level of knowledge may contribute to poor dietary behaviors, these athletes would benefit from nutrition-related training and education.

  19. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  20. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  1. Managing Uncertainty in Water Infrastructure Design Using Info-gap Robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irias, X.; Cicala, D.

    2013-12-01

    Info-gap theory, a tool for managing deep uncertainty, can be of tremendous value for design of water systems in areas of high seismic risk. Maintaining reliable water service in those areas is subject to significant uncertainties including uncertainty of seismic loading, unknown seismic performance of infrastructure, uncertain costs of innovative seismic-resistant construction, unknown costs to repair seismic damage, unknown societal impacts from downtime, and more. Practically every major earthquake that strikes a population center reveals additional knowledge gaps. In situations of such deep uncertainty, info-gap can offer advantages over traditional approaches, whether deterministic approaches that use empirical safety factors to address the uncertainties involved, or probabilistic methods that attempt to characterize various stochastic properties and target a compromise between cost and reliability. The reason is that in situations of deep uncertainty, it may not be clear what safety factor would be reasonable, or even if any safety factor is sufficient to address the uncertainties, and we may lack data to characterize the situation probabilistically. Info-gap is a tool that recognizes up front that our best projection of the future may be wrong. Thus, rather than seeking a solution that is optimal for that projection, info-gap seeks a solution that works reasonably well for all plausible conditions. In other words, info-gap seeks solutions that are robust in the face of uncertainty. Info-gap has been used successfully across a wide range of disciplines including climate change science, project management, and structural design. EBMUD is currently using info-gap to help it gain insight into possible solutions for providing reliable water service to an island community within its service area. The island, containing about 75,000 customers, is particularly vulnerable to water supply disruption from earthquakes, since it has negligible water storage and is

  2. Behind the Pay Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  3. Practice Gaps in Pruritus.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2016-07-01

    There are several practice gaps in the evaluation and management of itch. These gaps include a dearth of objective measures of itch, infrequent use of validated patient-reported outcomes for itch, non-evidence-based treatment, and lack of consensus about the ideal workup for generalized itch. The present article reviews these gaps and presents potential solutions. PMID:27363881

  4. Neural correlates of conceptual knowledge for actions.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Daniel; Kemmerer, David; Adolphs, Ralph; Damasio, Hanna; Damasio, Antonio R

    2003-05-01

    The neural correlates of conceptual knowledge for actions are not well understood. To begin to address this knowledge gap, we tested the hypothesis that the retrieval of conceptual knowledge for actions depends on neural systems located in higher-order association cortices of left premotor/prefrontal, parietal, and posterior middle temporal regions. The investigation used the lesion method and involved 90 subjects with damage to various regions of the left or right hemisphere. The experimental tasks measured retrieval of knowledge for actions, in a nonverbal format: Subjects evaluated attributes of pictured actions, and compared and matched pictures of actions. In support of our hypothesis, we found that the regions of highest lesion overlap in subjects with impaired retrieval of conceptual knowledge for actions were in the left premotor/prefrontal sector, the left parietal region, and in the white matter underneath the left posterior middle temporal region. These sites are partially distinct from those identified previously as being important for the retrieval of words for actions. We propose that a key function of the sites is to operate as two-way intermediaries between perception and concept retrieval, to promote the retrieval of the multidimensional aspects of knowledge that are necessary and sufficient for the mental representation of a concept of a given action. PMID:20957578

  5. Electronic patient records in action: Transforming information into professionally relevant knowledge.

    PubMed

    Winman, Thomas; Rystedt, Hans

    2011-03-01

    The implementation of generic models for organizing information in complex institutions like those in healthcare creates a gap between standardization and the need for locally relevant knowledge. The present study addresses how this gap can be bridged by focusing on the practical work of healthcare staff in transforming information in EPRs into knowledge that is useful for everyday work. Video recording of shift handovers on a rehabilitation ward serves as the empirical case. The results show how extensive selections and reorganizations of information in EPRs are carried out in order to transform information into professionally relevant accounts. We argue that knowledge about the institutional obligations and professional ways of construing information are fundamental for these transitions. The findings point to the need to consider the role of professional knowledge inherent in unpacking information in efforts to develop information systems intended to bridge between institutional and professional boundaries in healthcare.

  6. Addressing Chronic Malnutrition through Multi-Sectoral, Sustainable Approaches: A Review of the Causes and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Kristina; Fanzo, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Chronic malnutrition, including stunting, is an important example of a global challenge that spans multiple sectors, specifically health, agriculture, and the environment. The objective of this paper is to review current knowledge on the causes and consequences of chronic malnutrition and their relationship with multiple sectors. Understanding the causes includes approaching chronic malnutrition from the basic, underlying, and immediate levels. The causes reach from macro-level environmental influences to specific micronutrient intake. In order to effectively address stunting, it is important to understand the timing of stunting and the ability of individuals to catch up in terms of linear growth, cognitive ability, and immune function. The consequences of chronic malnutrition are transgenerational and they have an impact at the individual, community, and national level in the short- and long-term. There are still many gaps in knowledge regarding both the causes and consequences of chronic malnutrition, particularly when it comes to the interaction with agriculture and the environment, and understanding these gaps is important to addressing the burden of chronic malnutrition through evidence-based interventions. PMID:25988116

  7. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  8. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  9. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  10. Closing the condom KAP gap.

    PubMed

    Roberto, E L

    1977-01-01

    A number of program strategies have been suggested to close the gap between knowledge and awareness of family planning, and its practice. Most focus on the interim between awareness and usage. This article presents data to support the argument that the problem lies in the awareness stage. Its assumption is that the quality of the awareness is important. As opposed to the survey method of determining awareness, the author proposes the "Focus Group Discussion." As illustration, he presents results of a study using this method, on awareness about condoms, undertaken as part of a Population Center Foundation Condom Distribution Project, in 1975. Its purpose was to identify the more important attitudes toward condoms among married couples, the factors which motivate the couples to use or reject them, and the meanings associated with condoms and how these influence the time, manner, and reasons for rejecting or accepting them. 4 group discussions were carried out, with 8 or 10 married male and female respondents, age 18-35, with at least 2 children, of middle and lower class, and all having at least heard of condoms. Discussions were taped and subjected to content analysis. The 7 major findings are: 1) Quality of awareness depends on experience with use. 2) Experience with use does not guarantee positive quality awareness -- some regular users were still ignorant of some aspects of condom use. 3) Respondents perceive positive aspects of condoms, which should be reinforced. 4) Most of the negative qualities perceived by respondents were imaginary, but can be combatted by the positive statements of users. 5) Filipino men respond to their wives' reactions and project an image of sexual prowess, both possibly damaging to the reputation of condoms; communicators and educators must address the wives equally with their husbands. 6) Buying condoms is embarrassing: studies are needed on how this can be overcome at the places of purchase. 7) Brand awareness is low: only 3 or 4 out

  11. Rho/RacGAPs

    PubMed Central

    Csépányi-Kömi, Roland; Lévay, Magdolna; Ligeti, Erzsébet

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory proteins such as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) determine the activity of small GTPases. In the Rho/Rac family, the number of GEFs and GAPs largely exceeds the number of small GTPases, raising the question of specific or overlapping functions. In our recent study we investigated the first time ARHGAP25 at the protein level, determined its activity as RacGAP and showed its involvement in phagocytosis. With the discovery of ARHGAP25, the number of RacGAPs described in phagocytes is increased to six. We provide data that indicate the specific functions of selected Rho/RacGAPs and we show an example of differential regulation of a Rho/Rac family GAP by different kinases. We propose that the abundance of Rho/Rac family GAPs is an important element of the fine spatiotemporal regulation of diverse cellular functions. PMID:22751505

  12. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  13. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  14. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  15. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  16. Precision engineering for optical applications: knowledge transfer into UK industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, Christopher; Shore, Paul

    2009-06-01

    A means of facilitating the transfer of precision engineering knowledge and skills from academic institutions and their research partners into UK optics and optical engineering companies is described. The process involves the creation of an Integrated Knowledge Centre (IKC), a partnership led by Cranfield University with the support of the University of Cambridge, University College London, and the OpTIC technium. This paper describes the development of the three main vehicles for knowledge transfer. These are a Masters level postgraduate degree course (the Cranfield University led MSc in "Ultra Precision Technologies"), a portfolio of industrial short courses which are designed to address key skills shortages in the fields of precision engineering for optical applications, and an e-learning package in precision engineering. The main issues encountered during the development of the knowledge transfer teaching and learning packages are discussed, and the outcomes from the first year of knowledge transfer activities are described. In overall summary, the results demonstrate how the Integrated Knowledge Centre in Ultra Precision and Structured Surfaces' approach to knowledge transfer has been effective in addressing the engineering skills gap in precision optics based industries.

  17. The morally uncomfortable global drug gap.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kohler, J C

    2007-11-01

    Pharmaceuticals are one of the cornerstones of human development as their rational consumption can reduce morbidity and mortality rates and enhance the quality of life. Pharmaceuticals have curative and therapeutic qualities, so they cannot be considered as ordinary products. In line with this, ensuring public policy fosters access to medicines demands thoughtful and careful consideration, as it is often about whether a patient lives or dies. Despite the flow of international aid for pharmaceuticals, particularly used for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, there is a morally concerning drug gap globally; the World Health Organization (WHO) notes that one-third of the global population lacks regular access to essential medicines and that in some parts of Asia and Africa these figures are even more severe.(1) But what is troubling is that, despite the knowledge that we live in a world with inequitable access to medicines, we have not examined how we need to put in place policies that not only support drug access but also do not undermine it, which will be addressed later. What is promising, is that slowly, a paradigm shift is taking place. Access to essential medicines is increasingly viewed as a fundamental human right, with international human rights laws placing attendant obligations on states to ensure access.(2, 3) But governments also have to ensure that the policy environment is supportive of access to medicines. And this includes making sure that social policy is not undercut by economic interests.

  18. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  19. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  20. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  1. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  2. The 2009 Kurt Hahn Address: Seeking Deeper Understandings from Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    2010-01-01

    This address used a narrative style to convey several stories drawn from the speaker's life. These stories illustrated various points about the value of experience for expanding learners' deep understandings of the content through the use of know-how knowledge. Know-how knowledge was contrasted with know-that knowledge in order to demonstrate the…

  3. Teachers' Engagement with Published Research: Addressing the Knowledge Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in research impact, there is very little empirical evidence that educational research can inform practice directly, and furthermore, a body of literature which suggests that this is, in principle, impossible. This paper reports on a study in which secondary school teachers were given research findings about teaching…

  4. Barriers to the Use of Evidence-Supported Programs to Address School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have argued that there is a research-practice gap in the delivery of prevention and mental health services in the school setting. This national survey addresses that gap by identifying the barriers confronted by school social workers in implementing evidence-supported programs to address interpersonal violence in the school context. A…

  5. Pedagogical Content Knowledge Taxonomies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; MaKinster, James G.

    1999-01-01

    Presents two taxonomies that offer a relatively comprehensive categorization scheme for future studies of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development in teacher education. "The General Taxonomy of PCK" addresses distinctions within and between the knowledge bases of various disciplines, science subjects, and science topics. "The Taxonomy of…

  6. From knowledge presentation to knowledge representation to knowledge construction: Future directions for hypermedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Relationships between human memory systems and hypermedia systems are discussed with particular emphasis on the underlying importance of associational memory. The distinctions between knowledge presentation, knowledge representation, and knowledge constructions are addressed. Issues involved in actually developing individualizable hypermedia based knowledge construction tools are presented.

  7. Bridging the Gap: Multiple Players, Multiple Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Madeleine F.

    2000-01-01

    After reviewing suggestions offered in the other papers in this volume for addressing the research/practice gap in higher education, this final paper discusses how national organizations and professional associations can serve as change agents in building bridges between researchers and practitioners. (DB)

  8. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  9. Relationships between Knowledge(s): Implications for "Knowledge Integration"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evering, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to a critical dialogue about what is currently called "knowledge integration" in environmental research and related educational programming. Indigenous understandings in particular are seen as offering (re)new(ed) ways of thinking that have and will lead to innovative practices for addressing complex environmental issues.…

  10. Narrowing Participation Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Victoria; Kirtley, Karmen; Matassa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shrinking the achievement gap in mathematics is a tall order. One way to approach this challenge is to think about how the achievement gap manifests itself in the classroom and take concrete action. For example, opportunities to participate in activities that involve mathematical reasoning and argumentation in a safe and supportive manner are…

  11. The National "Expertise Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's report, "Diversity and the Ph.D.," released in May, which documents in troubling detail the exact dimensions of what the foundation's president, Dr. Robert Weisbuch, is calling the national "expertise gap." Weisbuch states that the expertise gap extends beyond the…

  12. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  13. California: Emigrant Gap

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Emigrant Gap Fire, California     View Larger ... The most prominent plume arises from the Emigrant Gap Fire, located about 40 kilometers west of Lake Tahoe. The animated panorama ... left is Mount Shasta. As of August 30, 2001, the US Forest Service reported the total year-to-date area burned in Northern ...

  14. The Parenting Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Richard V.; Howard, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    The parenting gap is a big factor in the opportunity gap. The chances of upward social mobility are lower for children with parents struggling to do a good job--in terms of creating a supportive and stimulating home environment. Children lucky enough to have strong parents are more likely to succeed at all the critical life stages, which means…

  15. Preparing Educational Leaders to Close Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joseph F., Jr.; Uline, Cynthia L.

    2005-01-01

    For more than 25 years, researchers have described the critical roles leaders play in creating effective schools and school districts. If U.S. schools are to close achievement gaps, their leaders must possess the appropriate knowledge, dispositions, and skills to assume these critical roles. The Interstate School Leadership Licensure Consortium…

  16. The treatment gap in mental health care.

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Robert; Saxena, Shekhar; Levav, Itzhak; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2004-01-01

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent and cause considerable suffering and disease burden. To compound this public health problem, many individuals with psychiatric disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. We examine the extent of this treatment gap. We reviewed community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, major depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and alcohol abuse or dependence. The median rates of untreated cases of these disorders were calculated across the studies. Examples of the estimation of the treatment gap for WHO regions are also presented. Thirty-seven studies had information on service utilization. The median treatment gap for schizophrenia, including other non-affective psychosis, was 32.2%. For other disorders the gap was: depression, 56.3%; dysthymia, 56.0%; bipolar disorder, 50.2%; panic disorder, 55.9%; GAD, 57.5%; and OCD, 57.3%. Alcohol abuse and dependence had the widest treatment gap at 78.1%. The treatment gap for mental disorders is universally large, though it varies across regions. It is likely that the gap reported here is an underestimate due to the unavailability of community-based data from developing countries where services are scarcer. To address this major public health challenge, WHO has adopted in 2002 a global action programme that has been endorsed by the Member States. PMID:15640922

  17. Adrenocortical Gap Junctions and Their Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Cheryl L.; Murray, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cortical steroidogenesis and proliferation are thought to be modulated by gap junction-mediated direct cell–cell communication of regulatory molecules between cells. Such communication is regulated by the number of gap junction channels between contacting cells, the rate at which information flows between these channels, and the rate of channel turnover. Knowledge of the factors regulating gap junction-mediated communication and the turnover process are critical to an understanding of adrenal cortical cell functions, including development, hormonal response to adrenocorticotropin, and neoplastic dedifferentiation. Here, we review what is known about gap junctions in the adrenal gland, with particular attention to their role in adrenocortical cell steroidogenesis and proliferation. Information and insight gained from electrophysiological, molecular biological, and imaging (immunocytochemical, freeze fracture, transmission electron microscopic, and live cell) techniques will be provided. PMID:27445985

  18. Athletic Trainers' Knowledge Regarding Airway Adjuncts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edler, Jessica R.; Eberman, Lindsey E.; Kahanov, Leamor; Roman, Christopher; Mata, Heather Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Context: Research suggests that knowledge gaps regarding the appropriate use of airway adjuncts exist among various health care practitioners, and that knowledge is especially limited within athletic training. Objective: To determine the relationship between perceived knowledge (PK) and actual knowledge (AK) of airway adjunct use and the…

  19. Downregulation of gap junctions in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Leithe, Edward; Sirnes, Solveig; Omori, Yasufumi; Rivedal, Edgar

    2006-12-01

    Gap junctions are intercellular plasma membrane domains enriched in channels that allow direct exchange of ions and small molecules between adjacent cells. Gap junction channels are composed of a family of transmembrane proteins called connexin. Connexins play important roles in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. Cancer cells usually have downregulated levels of gap junctions, and several lines of evidence suggest that loss of gap junctional intercellular communication is an important step in carcinogenesis. In support of this hypothesis are studies showing that reexpression of connexins in cancer cells causes normalization of cell growth control and reduced tumor growth. To gain a more detailed understanding of the role of connexins as tumor suppressors, a clearer picture of the mechanisms involved in loss of gap junctions in cancer cells is needed. Furthermore, defining the mechanisms involved in downregulation of connexins in carcinogenesis will be an important step toward utilizing the potential of connexins as targets in cancer prevention and therapy. Various mechanisms are involved in the loss of gap junctions in cancer cells, ranging from loss of connexin gene transcription to aberrant trafficking of connexin proteins. This review will discuss our current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in the downregulation of gap junctions in cancer cells. PMID:17425504

  20. Anion gap acidosis.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, K; Szerlip, H M

    1998-01-01

    Although an anion gap at less than 20 mEq/L rarely has a defined etiology, significant elevations in the anion gap almost always signify presence of an acidosis that can be easily identified. Anion gap acidoses can be divided into those caused by lactate accumulation, ketoacid production, toxin/drugs, and uremia. Lactic acidoses caused by decreased oxygen delivery or defective oxygen utilization are associated with high mortality. The treatment of lactic acidosis is controversial. The use of bicarbonate to increase pH is rarely successful and, by generating PCO2, may worsen outcome. Ketoacidosis is usually secondary to diabetes or alcohol. Treatment is aimed at turning off ketogenesis and repairing fluid and electrolyte abnormalities. Methanol, ethylene glycol, and salicylates are responsible for the majority of toxin-induced anion gap acidoses. Both methanol and ethylene glycol are associated with severe acidoses and elevated osmolar gaps. Treatment of both is alcohol infusion to decrease formation of toxic metabolites and dialyses to remove toxins. Salicylate toxicity usually is associated with a mild metabolic acidosis and a respiratory alkalosis. Uremia is associated with a mild acidosis secondary to decreased ammonia secretion and an anion gap caused by the retention of unmeasured anions. A decrease in anion gap is caused by numerous mechanisms and thus has little clinical utility.

  1. Customizing Laboratory Information Systems: Closing the Functionality Gap.

    PubMed

    Gershkovich, Peter; Sinard, John H

    2015-09-01

    Highly customizable laboratory information systems help to address great variations in laboratory workflows, typical in Pathology. Often, however, built-in customization tools are not sufficient to add all of the desired functionality and improve systems interoperability. Emerging technologies and advances in medicine often create a void in functionality that we call a functionality gap. These gaps have distinct characteristics—a persuasive need to change the way a pathology group operates, the general availability of technology to address the missing functionality, the absence of this technology from your laboratory information system, and inability of built-in customization tools to address it. We emphasize the pervasive nature of these gaps, the role of pathology informatics in closing them, and suggest methods on how to achieve that. We found that a large number of the papers in the Journal of Pathology Informatics are concerned with these functionality gaps, and an even larger proportion of electronic posters and abstracts presented at the Pathology Informatics Summit conference each year deal directly with these unmet needs in pathology practice. A rapid, continuous, and sustainable approach to closing these gaps is critical for Pathology to provide the highest quality of care, adopt new technologies, and meet regulatory and financial challenges. The key element of successfully addressing functionality gaps is gap ownership—the ability to control the entire pathology information infrastructure with access to complementary systems and components. In addition, software developers with detailed domain expertise, equipped with right tools and methodology can effectively address these needs as they emerge.

  2. SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Neal, R.B.

    1957-12-17

    An improved triggered spark gap switch is described, capable of precisely controllable firing time while switching very large amounts of power. The invention in general comprises three electrodes adjustably spaced and adapted to have a large potential impressed between the outer electrodes. The central electrode includes two separate elements electrically connected togetaer and spaced apart to define a pair of spark gaps between the end electrodes. Means are provided to cause the gas flow in the switch to pass towards the central electrode, through a passage in each separate element, and out an exit disposed between the two separate central electrode elements in order to withdraw ions from the spark gap.

  3. Recent advances to address European Union Health Security from cross border chemical health threats.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Davidson, R; Orford, R; Wyke, S; Griffiths, M; Amlôt, R; Chilcott, R

    2014-11-01

    The European Union (EU) Decision (1082/2013/EU) on serious cross border threats to health was adopted by the European Parliament in November 2013, in recognition of the need to strengthen the capacity of Member States to coordinate the public health response to cross border threats, whether from biological, chemical, environmental events or events which have an unknown origin. Although mechanisms have been in place for years for reporting cross border health threats from communicable diseases, this has not been the case for incidents involving chemicals and/or environmental events. A variety of collaborative EU projects have been funded over the past 10 years through the Health Programme to address gaps in knowledge on health security and to improve resilience and response to major incidents involving chemicals. This paper looks at the EU Health Programme that underpins recent research activities to address gaps in resilience, planning, responding to and recovering from a cross border chemical incident. It also looks at how the outputs from the research programme will contribute to improving public health management of transnational incidents that have the potential to overwhelm national capabilities, putting this into context with the new requirements as the Decision on serious cross border threats to health as well as highlighting areas for future development.

  4. Crowdsourcing knowledge discovery and innovations in medicine.

    PubMed

    Celi, Leo Anthony; Ippolito, Andrea; Montgomery, Robert A; Moses, Christopher; Stone, David J

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians face difficult treatment decisions in contexts that are not well addressed by available evidence as formulated based on research. The digitization of medicine provides an opportunity for clinicians to collaborate with researchers and data scientists on solutions to previously ambiguous and seemingly insolvable questions. But these groups tend to work in isolated environments, and do not communicate or interact effectively. Clinicians are typically buried in the weeds and exigencies of daily practice such that they do not recognize or act on ways to improve knowledge discovery. Researchers may not be able to identify the gaps in clinical knowledge. For data scientists, the main challenge is discerning what is relevant in a domain that is both unfamiliar and complex. Each type of domain expert can contribute skills unavailable to the other groups. "Health hackathons" and "data marathons", in which diverse participants work together, can leverage the current ready availability of digital data to discover new knowledge. Utilizing the complementary skills and expertise of these talented, but functionally divided groups, innovations are formulated at the systems level. As a result, the knowledge discovery process is simultaneously democratized and improved, real problems are solved, cross-disciplinary collaboration is supported, and innovations are enabled. PMID:25239002

  5. Crowdsourcing knowledge discovery and innovations in medicine.

    PubMed

    Celi, Leo Anthony; Ippolito, Andrea; Montgomery, Robert A; Moses, Christopher; Stone, David J

    2014-09-19

    Clinicians face difficult treatment decisions in contexts that are not well addressed by available evidence as formulated based on research. The digitization of medicine provides an opportunity for clinicians to collaborate with researchers and data scientists on solutions to previously ambiguous and seemingly insolvable questions. But these groups tend to work in isolated environments, and do not communicate or interact effectively. Clinicians are typically buried in the weeds and exigencies of daily practice such that they do not recognize or act on ways to improve knowledge discovery. Researchers may not be able to identify the gaps in clinical knowledge. For data scientists, the main challenge is discerning what is relevant in a domain that is both unfamiliar and complex. Each type of domain expert can contribute skills unavailable to the other groups. "Health hackathons" and "data marathons", in which diverse participants work together, can leverage the current ready availability of digital data to discover new knowledge. Utilizing the complementary skills and expertise of these talented, but functionally divided groups, innovations are formulated at the systems level. As a result, the knowledge discovery process is simultaneously democratized and improved, real problems are solved, cross-disciplinary collaboration is supported, and innovations are enabled.

  6. Crowdsourcing Knowledge Discovery and Innovations in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians face difficult treatment decisions in contexts that are not well addressed by available evidence as formulated based on research. The digitization of medicine provides an opportunity for clinicians to collaborate with researchers and data scientists on solutions to previously ambiguous and seemingly insolvable questions. But these groups tend to work in isolated environments, and do not communicate or interact effectively. Clinicians are typically buried in the weeds and exigencies of daily practice such that they do not recognize or act on ways to improve knowledge discovery. Researchers may not be able to identify the gaps in clinical knowledge. For data scientists, the main challenge is discerning what is relevant in a domain that is both unfamiliar and complex. Each type of domain expert can contribute skills unavailable to the other groups. “Health hackathons” and “data marathons”, in which diverse participants work together, can leverage the current ready availability of digital data to discover new knowledge. Utilizing the complementary skills and expertise of these talented, but functionally divided groups, innovations are formulated at the systems level. As a result, the knowledge discovery process is simultaneously democratized and improved, real problems are solved, cross-disciplinary collaboration is supported, and innovations are enabled. PMID:25239002

  7. Gaps in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version provides background for the curriculum and identifies gaps in current and desired comprehensive cancer care.

  8. Fiber optic gap gauge

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Billy E.; Groves, Scott E.; Larsen, Greg J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.

    2006-11-14

    A lightweight, small size, high sensitivity gauge for indirectly measuring displacement or absolute gap width by measuring axial strain in an orthogonal direction to the displacement/gap width. The gap gauge includes a preferably titanium base having a central tension bar with springs connecting opposite ends of the tension bar to a pair of end connector bars, and an elongated bow spring connected to the end connector bars with a middle section bowed away from the base to define a gap. The bow spring is capable of producing an axial strain in the base proportional to a displacement of the middle section in a direction orthogonal to the base. And a strain sensor, such as a Fabry-Perot interferometer strain sensor, is connected to measure the axial strain in the base, so that the displacement of the middle section may be indirectly determined from the measurement of the axial strain in the base.

  9. Photonic band gap materials

    SciTech Connect

    Soukoulis, C.M. |

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the theoretical and experimental efforts in obtaining a photonic band gap, a frequency band in three-dimensional dielectric structures in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, is presented.

  10. Explaining the black-white gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Jonathan M; Newman, Daniel A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-11-01

    In understanding the causes of adverse impact, a key parameter is the Black-White difference in cognitive test scores. To advance theory on why Black-White cognitive ability/knowledge test score gaps exist, and on how these gaps develop over time, the current article proposes an inductive explanatory model derived from past empirical findings. According to this theoretical model, Black-White group mean differences in cognitive test scores arise from the following racially disparate conditions: family income, maternal education, maternal verbal ability/knowledge, learning materials in the home, parenting factors (maternal sensitivity, maternal warmth and acceptance, and safe physical environment), child birth order, and child birth weight. Results from a 5-wave longitudinal growth model estimated on children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development from ages 4 through 15 years show significant Black-White cognitive test score gaps throughout early development that did not grow significantly over time (i.e., significant intercept differences, but not slope differences). Importantly, the racially disparate conditions listed above can account for the relation between race and cognitive test scores. We propose a parsimonious 3-Step Model that explains how cognitive test score gaps arise, in which race relates to maternal disadvantage, which in turn relates to parenting factors, which in turn relate to cognitive test scores. This model and results offer to fill a need for theory on the etiology of the Black-White ethnic group gap in cognitive test scores, and attempt to address a missing link in the theory of adverse impact. PMID:25867168

  11. Natural Gas Engine Development Gaps (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, B.T.

    2014-03-01

    A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. Recent gaps in the marketplace are discussed, along with how they have been or may be addressed. The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process.

  12. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  13. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  14. Robotic Tube-Gap Inspector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Maslakowski, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision system measures small gaps between nearly parallel tubes. Robot-held video camera examines closely spaced tubes while computer determines gaps between tubes. Video monitor simultaneously displays data on gaps.

  15. Poverty and Health Disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native Children: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Sarche, Michelle; Spicer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the current state of knowledge regarding inequalities and their effect on American Indian and Alaska Native children, underscoring gaps in our current knowledge and the opportunities for early intervention to begin to address persistent challenges in young American Indian and Alaska Native children’s development. This overview documents demographic, social, health, and health care disparities as they affect American Indian and Alaska Native children, the persistent cultural strengths that must form the basis for any conscientious intervention effort, and the exciting possibilities for early childhood interventions. PMID:18579879

  16. The Sydney West Knowledge Portal: Evaluating the Growth of a Knowledge Portal to Support Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The Sydney West Translational Cancer Research Centre is an organization funded to build capacity for translational research in cancer. Translational research is essential for ensuring the integration of best available evidence into practice and for improving patient outcomes. However, there is a low level of awareness regarding what it is and how to conduct it optimally. One solution to addressing this gap is the design and deployment of web-based knowledge portals to disseminate new knowledge and engage with and connect dispersed networks of researchers. A knowledge portal is an web-based platform for increasing knowledge dissemination and management in a specialized area. Objective To measure the design and growth of an web-based knowledge portal for increasing individual awareness of translational research and to build organizational capacity for the delivery of translational research projects in cancer. Methods An adaptive methodology was used to capture the design and growth of an web-based knowledge portal in cancer. This involved stakeholder consultations to inform initial design of the portal. Once the portal was live, site analytics were reviewed to evaluate member usage of the portal and to measure growth in membership. Results Knowledge portal membership grew consistently for the first 18 months after deployment, before leveling out. Analysis of site metrics revealed members were most likely to visit portal pages with community-generated content, particularly pages with a focus on translational research. This was closely followed by pages that disseminated educational material about translational research. Conclusions Preliminary data from this study suggest that knowledge portals may be beneficial tools for translating new evidence and fostering an environment of communication and collaboration. PMID:27357641

  17. Quantification of gap junction selectivity.

    PubMed

    Ek-Vitorín, Jose F; Burt, Janis M

    2005-12-01

    Gap junctions, which are essential for functional coordination and homeostasis within tissues, permit the direct intercellular exchange of small molecules. The abundance and diversity of this exchange depends on the number and selectivity of the comprising channels and on the transjunctional gradient for and chemical character of the permeant molecules. Limited knowledge of functionally significant permeants and poor detectability of those few that are known have made it difficult to define channel selectivity. Presented herein is a multifaceted approach to the quantification of gap junction selectivity that includes determination of the rate constant for intercellular diffusion of a fluorescent probe (k2-DYE) and junctional conductance (gj) for each junction studied, such that the selective permeability (k2-DYE/gj) for dyes with differing chemical characteristics or junctions with differing connexin (Cx) compositions (or treatment conditions) can be compared. In addition, selective permeability can be correlated using single-channel conductance when this parameter is also measured. Our measurement strategy is capable of detecting 1) rate constants and selective permeabilities that differ across three orders of magnitude and 2) acute changes in that rate constant. Using this strategy, we have shown that 1) the selective permeability of Cx43 junctions to a small cationic dye varied across two orders of magnitude, consistent with the hypothesis that the various channel configurations adopted by Cx43 display different selective permeabilities; and 2) the selective permeability of Cx37 vs. Cx43 junctions was consistently and significantly lower. PMID:16093281

  18. Practice and Educational Gaps in Dermatology: Disorders of the Hair.

    PubMed

    Colavincenzo, Maria L

    2016-07-01

    Clinical practice gaps exist in the care of hair patients. Attitude gaps include a relative lack of dermatologists interested in caring for patients with hair complaints, a potential underestimation of the effect of hair disorders on the quality of patients' lives, and potential failure to recognize the presentation of body dysmorphic disorder among patients with hair complaints. Knowledge gaps regarding the prevalence and presentation of hair loss disorders may lead to a delay in diagnosis and treatment of hair patients. Skill gaps in physical examination, particularly with dermoscopy of the scalp and hair, may affect the care of hair patients. PMID:27363884

  19. Gap Cycling for SWIFT

    PubMed Central

    Corum, Curtis A.; Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Snyder, Carl J.; Garwood, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose SWIFT (SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation) is a non-Cartesian MRI method with unique features and capabilities. In SWIFT, radiofrequency (RF) excitation and reception are performed nearly simultaneously, by rapidly switching between transmit and receive during a frequency-swept RF pulse. Because both the transmitted pulse and data acquisition are simultaneously amplitude-modulated in SWIFT (in contrast to continuous RF excitation and uninterrupted data acquisition in more familiar MRI sequences), crosstalk between different frequency bands occurs in the data. This crosstalk leads to a “bulls-eye” artifact in SWIFT images. We present a method to cancel this inter-band crosstalk by cycling the pulse and receive gap positions relative to the un-gapped pulse shape. We call this strategy “gap cycling.” Methods We carry out theoretical analysis, simulation and experiments to characterize the signal chain, resulting artifacts, and their elimination for SWIFT. Results Theoretical analysis reveals the mechanism for gap-cycling’s effectiveness in canceling inter-band crosstalk in the received data. We show phantom and in-vivo results demonstrating bulls-eye artifact free images. Conclusion Gap cycling is an effective method to remove bulls-eye artifact resulting from inter-band crosstalk in SWIFT data. PMID:24604286

  20. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  1. MULTIPLE SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Schofield, A.E.

    1958-07-22

    A multiple spark gap switch of unique construction is described which will permit controlled, simultaneous discharge of several capacitors into a load. The switch construction includes a disc electrode with a plurality of protuberances of generally convex shape on one surface. A firing electrode is insulatingly supponted In each of the electrode protuberances and extends substantially to the apex thereof. Individual electrodes are disposed on an insulating plate parallel with the disc electrode to form a number of spark gaps with the protuberances. These electrodes are each connected to a separate charged capacitor and when a voltage ls applied simultaneously between the trigger electrodes and the dlsc electrode, each spark gap fires to connect its capacitor to the disc electrode and a subsequent load.

  2. Precision gap particle separator

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Miles, Robin; Jones, II., Leslie M.; Stockton, Cheryl

    2004-06-08

    A system for separating particles entrained in a fluid includes a base with a first channel and a second channel. A precision gap connects the first channel and the second channel. The precision gap is of a size that allows small particles to pass from the first channel into the second channel and prevents large particles from the first channel into the second channel. A cover is positioned over the base unit, the first channel, the precision gap, and the second channel. An port directs the fluid containing the entrained particles into the first channel. An output port directs the large particles out of the first channel. A port connected to the second channel directs the small particles out of the second channel.

  3. Bridging NCL research gaps.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Frank; van der Putten, Herman

    2015-10-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, collectively called NCLs, are rare and fatal lysosomal storage diseases that mainly affect children. Due to the fact that NCLs are both rare and heterogeneous (mutations in thirteen different genes) significant gaps exist in both preclinical and clinical research. Altogether, these gaps are major hurdles to bring therapies to patients while the need for new therapies is urgent to help them and their families. To define gaps and discuss solutions, a round table discussion involving teams and different stake holders took place during the 14th International Conference on Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease) in Cordóba, Argentina. Topics covered by the teams and their leaders (in parentheses) included basic and translational research gaps with regard to large animal models (I. Tammen, D.N. Palmer), human NCL pathology and access to human tissue (J.D. Cooper, H.H. Goebel), rare NCLs (S. Hofman, I. Noher), links of NCLs to other diseases (F.M. Platt), gaps between clinic and clinical trials (H. Adams, A. Schulz), international collaborative efforts working towards a cure (S.E. Mole, H. Band) perspectives on palliative care from patient organizations (M. Frazier, A. West), and issues NCL researchers face when progressing to independent career in academia (M. Bond). Thoughts presented by the team leaders include previously unpublished opinions and information on the lack of understanding of disease pathomechanisms, gene function, assays for drug discovery and target validation, natural history of disease, and biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and treatment effects. This article is not intended to review the NCL literature. It includes personal opinions of the authors and it provides the reader with a summary of gaps discussed and solutions proposed by the teams. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease). PMID:26056946

  4. Structure and function of gap junction proteins: role of gap junction proteins in embryonic heart development.

    PubMed

    Ahir, Bhavesh K; Pratten, Margaret K

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular (cell-to-cell) communication is a crucial and complex mechanism during embryonic heart development. In the cardiovascular system, the beating of the heart is a dynamic and key regulatory process, which is functionally regulated by the coordinated spread of electrical activity through heart muscle cells. Heart tissues are composed of individual cells, each bearing specialized cell surface membrane structures called gap junctions that permit the intercellular exchange of ions and low molecular weight molecules. Gap junction channels are essential in normal heart function and they assist in the mediated spread of electrical impulses that stimulate synchronized contraction (via an electrical syncytium) of cardiac tissues. This present review describes the current knowledge of gap junction biology. In the first part, we summarise some relevant biochemical and physiological properties of gap junction proteins, including their structure and function. In the second part, we review the current evidence demonstrating the role of gap junction proteins in embryonic development with particular reference to those involved in embryonic heart development. Genetics and transgenic animal studies of gap junction protein function in embryonic heart development are considered and the alteration/disruption of gap junction intercellular communication which may lead to abnormal heart development is also discussed.

  5. Mind the Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litim, Daniel F.

    We discuss an optimisation criterion for the exact renormalisation group based on the inverse effective propagator, which displays a gap. We show that a simple extremisation of the gap stabilises the flow, leading to better convergence of approximate solutions towards the physical theory. This improves the reliability of truncations, most relevant for any high precision computation. These ideas are closely linked to the removal of a spurious scheme dependence and a minimum sensitivity condition. The issue of predictive power and a link to the Polchinski RG are discussed as well. We illustrate our findings by computing critical exponents for the Ising universality class.

  6. Spark gap electrode erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krompholz, H.; Kristiansen, M.

    1984-12-01

    The results of a one-year contract on electrode erosion phenomena are summarized. The arc voltage drop in a spark gap was measured for various electrode, gas, and pressure combinations. A previously developed model of self breakdown voltage distribution was extended. A jet model for electrode erosion was proposed and an experimental arrangement for testing the model was constructed. The effects of inhomogeneities and impurities in the electrodes were investigated. Some of the work described here is scheduled for completion in 1985 under a current grant (AFOSR 84-0032). The areas of investigation described here include: (1) Self breakdown voltage distributions; (2) Electrode erosion; (3) Spark gap voltage recovery.

  7. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  8. Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…

  9. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  10. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development.

  11. Trunnion Collar Removal Machine - Gap Analysis Table

    SciTech Connect

    M. Johnson

    2005-06-27

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing the trunnion collar removal machine against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards can not fully meet these requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Trunnion Collar Removal Machine Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 15]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements for the trunnion collar removal machine are provided in the gap analysis table (Appendix A, Table 1). Because the trunnion collar removal machine is credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the trunnion collar removal machine performs required safety functions and meets performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis tables supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed.

  12. Closing the Achievement Gap in Mathematics for Elementary School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickford, Elizabeth K.

    2013-01-01

    An achievement gap exists in mathematics between elementary school students with and without disabilities. Guided by the conceptual framework of constructivism, this project study addressed issues related to this achievement gap in the area of mathematics, specifically assessing the cause of this gap from the teachers' perspective. The…

  13. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

  14. Graphene: Mind the gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    2007-10-01

    Research now shows that interaction with silicon carbide substrate leads to the opening of a semiconductor gap in epitaxial graphene. This is an important first step towards bandgap engineering in this two-dimensional crystal, and its incorporation in electronic devices.

  15. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  16. Crossing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockette, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In a nation where education is funded largely by local property taxes, schools in wealthy communities have plenty of funds to spend on programs that get their kids ready for college. Schools in poor communities scrimp and save to get the job done--or hope that funding from the state will help fill in the gap. This article describes how students…

  17. Closing the Performance Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Cheryl G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the principal of a K-2, 400-student suburban elementary school near Flint, Michigan, worked with her staff and superintendent to develop and implement a strategic plan to close the student achievement gap. Reports significant improvement in reading and math scores after 1 year. (PKP)

  18. Gaining on the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    About three-quarters of the 2009 graduates of the highly diverse Arlington, Virginia, Public Schools completed one or more Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate courses during their high school careers. That figure serves as one indicator of a decade-long initiative to eliminate achievement gaps while raising achievement for all…

  19. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  20. Knowledge typology for imprecise probabilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G. D.; Zucker, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    When characterizing the reliability of a complex system there are often gaps in the data available for specific subsystems or other factors influencing total system reliability. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we employ ethnographic methods to elicit expert knowledge when traditional data is scarce. Typically, we elicit expert knowledge in probabilistic terms. This paper will explore how we might approach elicitation if methods other than probability (i.e., Dempster-Shafer, or fuzzy sets) prove more useful for quantifying certain types of expert knowledge. Specifically, we will consider if experts have different types of knowledge that may be better characterized in ways other than standard probability theory.

  1. Deterministic multidimensional nonuniform gap sampling.

    PubMed

    Worley, Bradley; Powers, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Born from empirical observations in nonuniformly sampled multidimensional NMR data relating to gaps between sampled points, the Poisson-gap sampling method has enjoyed widespread use in biomolecular NMR. While the majority of nonuniform sampling schemes are fully randomly drawn from probability densities that vary over a Nyquist grid, the Poisson-gap scheme employs constrained random deviates to minimize the gaps between sampled grid points. We describe a deterministic gap sampling method, based on the average behavior of Poisson-gap sampling, which performs comparably to its random counterpart with the additional benefit of completely deterministic behavior. We also introduce a general algorithm for multidimensional nonuniform sampling based on a gap equation, and apply it to yield a deterministic sampling scheme that combines burst-mode sampling features with those of Poisson-gap schemes. Finally, we derive a relationship between stochastic gap equations and the expectation value of their sampling probability densities.

  2. Deterministic multidimensional nonuniform gap sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley; Powers, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Born from empirical observations in nonuniformly sampled multidimensional NMR data relating to gaps between sampled points, the Poisson-gap sampling method has enjoyed widespread use in biomolecular NMR. While the majority of nonuniform sampling schemes are fully randomly drawn from probability densities that vary over a Nyquist grid, the Poisson-gap scheme employs constrained random deviates to minimize the gaps between sampled grid points. We describe a deterministic gap sampling method, based on the average behavior of Poisson-gap sampling, which performs comparably to its random counterpart with the additional benefit of completely deterministic behavior. We also introduce a general algorithm for multidimensional nonuniform sampling based on a gap equation, and apply it to yield a deterministic sampling scheme that combines burst-mode sampling features with those of Poisson-gap schemes. Finally, we derive a relationship between stochastic gap equations and the expectation value of their sampling probability densities.

  3. Collecting Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Suicide and Other Violent Deaths: A Step Towards Identifying and Addressing LGBT Mortality Disparities.

    PubMed

    Haas, Ann P; Lane, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Sexual orientation and gender identity (SO/GI) are not systematically recorded at time of death, limiting identification of mortality disparities in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. LGBT populations are thought to have elevated risk of suicide based on high rates of reported lifetime suicide attempts. Lack of data on suicide deaths, however, hinders understanding of the prevalence and patterns of suicide among LGBT populations and development of targeted interventions and prevention programs. This report describes recent efforts to address this knowledge gap by systematically collecting SO/GI information in the investigation of suicide and other violent deaths. PMID:26790023

  4. Collecting Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Suicide and Other Violent Deaths: A Step Towards Identifying and Addressing LGBT Mortality Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sexual orientation and gender identity (SO/GI) are not systematically recorded at time of death, limiting identification of mortality disparities in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. LGBT populations are thought to have elevated risk of suicide based on high rates of reported lifetime suicide attempts. Lack of data on suicide deaths, however, hinders understanding of the prevalence and patterns of suicide among LGBT populations and development of targeted interventions and prevention programs. This report describes recent efforts to address this knowledge gap by systematically collecting SO/GI information in the investigation of suicide and other violent deaths. PMID:26790023

  5. Collecting Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Suicide and Other Violent Deaths: A Step Towards Identifying and Addressing LGBT Mortality Disparities.

    PubMed

    Haas, Ann P; Lane, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Sexual orientation and gender identity (SO/GI) are not systematically recorded at time of death, limiting identification of mortality disparities in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. LGBT populations are thought to have elevated risk of suicide based on high rates of reported lifetime suicide attempts. Lack of data on suicide deaths, however, hinders understanding of the prevalence and patterns of suicide among LGBT populations and development of targeted interventions and prevention programs. This report describes recent efforts to address this knowledge gap by systematically collecting SO/GI information in the investigation of suicide and other violent deaths.

  6. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  7. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  8. Assessment of knowledge transfer in the context of biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Randolph E.

    the ability to identify differing patterns of how different students apply prior knowledge and make new connections between prior knowledge and current problem features in different learning situations. Implications for the use of this methodology include providing insight into not only students' prior knowledge, but also how they connect this prior knowledge to problem features (i.e. dynamic knowledge transfer). It also allows the identification of instances in which external input from other students or the instructor prompted knowledge transfer to take place. The use of this dynamic knowledge transfer lens allows the addressing of gaps in student understanding, and permits further investigations of techniques that increase instances of successful knowledge transfer.

  9. Optical inspection methods and their applications in the manufactured industrial sector: knowledge transfer to Panamanian industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, Abdiel O.; Pladellorens, Josep

    2014-07-01

    A means of facilitating the transfer of Optical inspection methods knowledge and skills from academic institutions and their research partners into Panama optics and optical research groups is described. The process involves the creation of an Integrated Knowledge Group Research (IKGR), a partnership led by Polytechnic University of Panama with the support of the SENACYT and Optics and Optometry Department, Polytechnic University of Catalonia. This paper describes the development of the Project for knowledge transfer "Implementation of a method of optical inspection of low cost for improving the surface quality of rolled material of metallic and nonmetallic industrial use", this project will develop a method for measuring the surface quality using texture analysis speckle pattern formed on the surface to be characterized. The project is designed to address the shortage of key skills in the field of precision engineering for optical applications. The main issues encountered during the development of the knowledge transfer teaching and learning are discussed, and the outcomes from the first four months of knowledge transfer activities are described. In overall summary, the results demonstrate how the Integrated Knowledge Group Research and new approach to knowledge transfer has been effective in addressing the engineering skills gap in precision optics for manufactured industrial sector.

  10. Mind the Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staedter, Tracy

    2007-03-01

    A new finding gets scientists one step closer to understanding what causes the gap in the Van Allen radiation belts. The discovery could help better predict fluxes of energetic particles that have the potential for damaging spacecraft and satellites and harming astronauts. An improved understanding could also give space physicists better insight into the radiation belts of other planets, including Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, all of which have strong magnetic fields.

  11. Air-gap heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Heyn, Ch.; Schmidt, M.; Schwaiger, S.; Stemmann, A.; Mendach, S.; Hansen, W.

    2011-01-17

    We demonstrate the fabrication of thin GaAs layers which quasi hover above the underlying GaAs substrate. The hovering layers have a perfect epitaxial relationship to the substrate crystal lattice and are connected to the substrate surface only by lattice matched nanopillars of low density. These air-gap heterostructures are created by combining in situ molecular beam epitaxy compatible self-assembled droplet-etching and ex situ selective wet-chemical etching.

  12. Minding the Gap

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Millicent Anne

    2015-02-23

    Neutron & X-ray scattering provides nano- to meso-scale details of complex fluid structure; 1D electronic density maps dervied from SAXS yield molecular level insights; Neutron reflectivity provides substructure details of substrate supported complex fluids; Complex fluids composition can be optimized to support a wide variety of both soluble and membrane proteins; The water gap dimensions can be finely tuned through polymer component.

  13. Gender gaps within management.

    PubMed

    Ronk, L L

    1993-05-01

    Traditional roles need not become self-fulfilling prophecies if managers can bridge the gender gap. Feminine, as well as masculine, characteristics can be incorporated into managerial styles to enhance effective leadership. Autonomy, decision-making and assertiveness are as important as nurturing and caring. What are little girls made of? Little girls are made of sugar and spice and everything nice. What are little boys made of? Little boys are made of rats and snails and puppy dog tails.

  14. The Information Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Bill; Appleton, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Addresses the misconception that the ecosystems involving plants and animals in our national parks are thoroughly monitored. Discusses research and other programs designed to inventory species throughout the national parks' and to inform the national parks concerning its ecosystems. (MDH)

  15. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  16. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  17. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Pablo H C G; Miranda, Fábio; Veras, Adonney; de Melo, Diego Magalhães; Soares, Siomar; Pinheiro, Kenny; Guimarães, Luis; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2016-01-01

    The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer.

  18. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Pablo H C G; Miranda, Fábio; Veras, Adonney; de Melo, Diego Magalhães; Soares, Siomar; Pinheiro, Kenny; Guimarães, Luis; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2016-01-01

    The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer. PMID:27171416

  19. Bridging the Stoichiometry Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gizara, Jeanne M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a method to solve problems in stoichiometry which can also be applied to other problems involving relationships between constituents in a chemical reaction. Students with little prior knowledge of chemistry can successfully use the method. (Author/SK)

  20. Ignorance or bias? Evaluating the ideological and informational drivers of communication gaps about climate change.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Erik C; Cooper, Kathryn E; Ellithorpe, Morgan

    2015-04-01

    Does the relationship between media use and learning about climate change depend more on audiences' scientific literacy on their ideological biases? To answer this question, we evaluate both the knowledge gap and belief gap hypotheses as they relate to climate change. Results indicate belief gaps for news and entertainment content and a knowledge gap for edutainment content. Climate change knowledge among conservatives decreased with greater attention to political news, but increased with greater attention to science news. TV entertainment was associated with a significant decrease in knowledge about climate change among liberals to similar levels as conservatives. Edutainment was associated with a widening gap in knowledge based on respondents' scientific literacy. Implications for informal learning about controversial science through the media are discussed. PMID:25161166

  1. Assessing the Gap: The MBA and Information Technology Management Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John B.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most prevalent themes for managers in nearly all industries is the impact of Information Technology on the organization's value chain. Direct and indirect IT costs comprise a significant portion of operating expenses for most businesses and constitute an estimated 50% of all capital expenditures. Understanding whether and to what…

  2. A Review of Knowledge Gaps and Tools for Orbivirus Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although recognized as causing emerging and re-emerging disease outbreaks world-wide since the late 1800’s, there has been growing interest in the U.S. and Europe in recent years in orbiviruses, their insect vectors, and the diseases they cause in domestic livestock and wildlife. This is due, in par...

  3. The Knowledge-Behavior Gap in Use of Health Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sligo, F. X.; Jameson, Anna M.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of access to and use of health information focuses on a study that reported perceived barriers among New Zealand Pacific Island immigrant women to the use of cervical screening. Considers cultural topic avoidance, modesty, religion, information sources, education, ethnicity, implications for health professionals, and future research…

  4. Methyl isocyanate and carcinogenesis: bridgeable gaps in scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam; Sah, Nand Kishore; Ganesh, Narayanan

    2012-01-01

    Methyl isocyanate may have a role in cancer etiology, although the link is unclear. There is evidence in the literature that it can induce cancer in animals but the carcinogenic potency is weak. Pheochromocytoma of adrenal medulla and acinar cell tumors of pancreas have been observed in methyl isocyanate exposed animals. Conversely, emerging data from population-based epidemiological studies are contradictory since there is no evidence of such cancers in methyl isocyanate exposed humans. Recently, we reported a high prevalence of breast and lung cancers in such a population in Bhopal. In vitro findings appearing in the latest scientific literature suggest that genomic instability is caused by methyl isocyanate analogs in lung, colon, kidney, ovary epithelial cells, and that hepatocytes may undergo oncogenic transformation, have obvious implications. The conflicting information prompted us to present this update over the last three decades on methyl isocyanate-induced cancers after an extensive literature search using PubMed. While the pertinent literature remains limited, with a scarcity of strong laboratory analyses and field-epidemiological investigations, our succinct review of animal and human epidemiological data including in vitro evidences, should hopefully provide more insight to researchers, toxicologists, and public health professionals concerned with validation of the carcinogenicity of methyl isocyanate in humans.

  5. Iron deficiency anemia--bridging the knowledge and practice gap.

    PubMed

    Shander, Aryeh; Goodnough, Lawrence T; Javidroozi, Mazyar; Auerbach, Michael; Carson, Jeffrey; Ershler, William B; Ghiglione, Mary; Glaspy, John; Lew, Indu

    2014-07-01

    Despite its high prevalence, anemia often does not receive proper clinical attention, and detection, evaluation, and management of iron deficiency anemia and iron-restricted erythropoiesis can possibly be an unmet medical need. A multidisciplinary panel of clinicians with expertise in anemia management convened and reviewed recent published data on prevalence, etiology, and health implications of anemia as well as current therapeutic options and available guidelines on management of anemia across various patient populations and made recommendations on the detection, diagnostic approach, and management of anemia. The available evidence confirms that the prevalence of anemia is high across all populations, especially in hospitalized patients. Anemia is associated with worse clinical outcomes including longer length of hospital stay, diminished quality of life, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and it is a modifiable risk factor of allogeneic blood transfusion with its own inherent risks. Iron deficiency is usually present in anemic patients. An algorithm for detection and management of anemia was discussed, which incorporated iron study (with primary emphasis on transferrin saturation), serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate, and vitamin B12 and folic acid measurements. Management strategies included iron therapy (oral or intravenous), erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and referral as needed. PMID:24931617

  6. Personalized medicine. Closing the gap between knowledge and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Duarte-Rey, Carolina; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan C; Bardey, David; Castiblanco, John; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Personalized medicine encompasses a broad and evolving field informed by a patient distinctive information and biomarker profile. Although terminology is evolving and some semantic interpretations exist (e.g., personalized, individualized, precision), in a broad sense personalized medicine can be coined as: "To practice medicine as it once used to be in the past using the current biotechnological tools." A humanized approach to personalized medicine would offer the possibility of exploiting systems biology and its concept of P5 medicine, where predictive factors for developing a disease should be examined within populations in order to establish preventive measures on at-risk individuals, for whom healthcare should be personalized and participatory. Herein, the process of personalized medicine is presented together with the options that can be offered in health care systems with limited resources for diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes.

  7. Nanoparticle toxicity by the gastrointestinal route: evidence and knowledge gaps

    PubMed Central

    Bergin, Ingrid L.; Witzmann, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing interest in nanoparticles for advanced technologies, consumer products, and biomedical applications has led to great excitement about potential benefits but also concern over the potential for adverse human health effects. The gastrointestinal tract represents a likely route of entry for many nanomaterials, both directly through intentional ingestion or indirectly via nanoparticle dissolution from food containers or by secondary ingestion of inhaled particles. Additionally, increased utilisation of nanoparticles may lead to increased environmental contamination and unintentional ingestion via water, food animals, or fish. The gastrointestinal tract is a site of complex, symbiotic interactions between host cells and the resident microbiome. Accordingly, evaluation of nanoparticles must take into consideration not only absorption and extraintestinal organ accumulation but also the potential for altered gut microbes and the effects of this perturbation on the host. The existing literature was evaluated for evidence of toxicity based on these considerations. Focus was placed on three categories of nanomaterials: nanometals and metal oxides, carbon-based nanoparticles, and polymer/dendrimers with emphasis on those particles of greatest relevance to gastrointestinal exposures. PMID:24228068

  8. International Careers: The Gap between Student Interest and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punteney, Katherine N.

    2012-01-01

    Amidst a policy context that is ardently promoting participation in world politics, trade, and cultural exchange, institutions of higher education are increasingly committing their campuses to preparing students for professional and civic lives in a globalized world. Yet among the many approaches taken by institutions to internationalize their…

  9. Personalized medicine. Closing the gap between knowledge and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Duarte-Rey, Carolina; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan C; Bardey, David; Castiblanco, John; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Personalized medicine encompasses a broad and evolving field informed by a patient distinctive information and biomarker profile. Although terminology is evolving and some semantic interpretations exist (e.g., personalized, individualized, precision), in a broad sense personalized medicine can be coined as: "To practice medicine as it once used to be in the past using the current biotechnological tools." A humanized approach to personalized medicine would offer the possibility of exploiting systems biology and its concept of P5 medicine, where predictive factors for developing a disease should be examined within populations in order to establish preventive measures on at-risk individuals, for whom healthcare should be personalized and participatory. Herein, the process of personalized medicine is presented together with the options that can be offered in health care systems with limited resources for diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes. PMID:27302209

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury: Persistent Misconceptions and Knowledge Gaps among Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettel, Deborah; Glang, Ann E.; Todis, Bonnie; Davies, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Each year approximately 700,000 U.S. children aged 0-19 years sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) placing them at risk for academic, cognitive, and behavioural challenges. Although TBI has been a special education disability category for 25 years, prevalence studies show that of the 145,000 students each year who sustain long-term injury from…

  11. Ebola vaccine R&D: Filling the knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Medaglini, Donata; Harandi, Ali M; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2015-12-01

    With an emphasis on systems analyses, the VSV-EBOVAC project harnesses state-of-the-art technologies that illuminate mechanisms behind the observed immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine and ensures that such information is shared among stakeholders.

  12. How Does Climate Impact Floods? Closing the Knowledge Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasche, Øyvind; Støren, Eivind W. N.

    2014-07-01

    Destructive floods impose severe consequences on societies, leaving havoc and death in their wake. Annually, an average of 9000 people are killed, and 115 million require immediate assistance or are displaced by floods worldwide. Because of population increase in flood-prone areas alone, the number of people exposed to floods in North America is expected to almost double in 2030 compared to 1970 [National Research Council, 2013]. It is no wonder that floods are considered serious threats by government agencies and municipal planners, but the impact of climate change on these numbers is still somewhat uncertain.

  13. Ebola vaccine R&D: Filling the knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Medaglini, Donata; Harandi, Ali M; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2015-12-01

    With an emphasis on systems analyses, the VSV-EBOVAC project harnesses state-of-the-art technologies that illuminate mechanisms behind the observed immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine and ensures that such information is shared among stakeholders. PMID:26659569

  14. Trypanosomes of Australian Mammals: Knowledge Gaps Regarding Transmission and Biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Craig K; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Trypanosomes infect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, and are transmitted by haematophagous invertebrate vectors. Eight native trypanosome species have been described from Australian indigenous mammals, along with other unnamed isolates and genotypes. Associated difficulties relating to the confirmation of cyclical and mechanical vector candidates has hindered vector identification in Australia, with no successful experimental transmission documented for any of these native trypanosomes to indigenous mammals. We discuss pending biosecurity issues, with significant importance placed on the close phylogenetic and phenotypic relationship shared between Trypanosoma cruzi and some Australian trypanosomes. With such a dearth of information, we highlight the importance of keeping an open mind, which considers all possibilities during future investigations of vectors and their associated biosecurity issues in Australia.

  15. Knowledge Translation in Audiology

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P.; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced. PMID:22194314

  16. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors’ affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Results Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews

  17. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP LAND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution

    of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land

    stewardship to identify gaps in biodiversity protection. GAP uses remote satellite imag...

  18. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  19. Bridging Gaps Between Refractory Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, J. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Excessively large gaps between tiles on Space Shuttle eliminated without time-consuming and costly procedure of removing and replacing tiles. Ceramic tile silver is bonded in gap. Bonded silver prevents airframe under gap from getting too hot during reentry and presents aerodynamically smooth exterior surface.

  20. Workshop on Bridging Satellite Climate Data Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Cooksey, Catherine; Datla, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Detecting the small signals of climate change for the most essential climate variables requires that satellite sensors make highly accurate and consistent measurements. Data gaps in the time series (such as gaps resulting from launch delay or failure) and inconsistencies in radiometric scales between satellites undermine the credibility of fundamental climate data records, and can lead to erroneous analysis in climate change detection. To address these issues, leading experts in Earth observations from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration (NOAA), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and academia assembled at the National Institute of Standards and Technology on December 10, 2009 for a workshop to prioritize strategies for bridging and mitigating data gaps in the climate record. This paper summarizes the priorities for ensuring data continuity of variables relevant to climate change in the areas of atmosphere, land, and ocean measurements and the recommendations made at the workshop for overcoming planned and unplanned gaps in the climate record. PMID:26989581