Science.gov

Sample records for addressing potential hazards

  1. Evaluating and Addressing Potential Hazards of Fuel Tanks Surviving Atmospheric Reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Robert L.; Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to ensure reentering spacecraft do not pose an undue risk to the Earth's population it is important to design satellites and rocket bodies with end of life considerations in mind. In addition to considering the possible consequences of deorbiting a vehicle, consideration must also be given to the possible risks associated with a vehicle failing to become operational or reach its intended orbit. Based on recovered space debris and numerous reentry survivability analyses, fuel tanks are of particular concern in both of these considerations. Most spacecraft utilize some type of fuel tank as part of their propulsion system. These fuel tanks are most often constructed using stainless steel or titanium and are filled with potentially hazardous substances such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. For a vehicle which has reached its scheduled end of mission the contents of the tanks are typically depleted. In this scenario the use of stainless steel and titanium results in the tanks posing a risk to people and property do to the high melting point and large heat of ablation of these materials leading to likely survival of the tank during reentry. If a large portion of the fuel is not depleted prior to reentry, there is the added risk of hazardous substance being released when the tank impact the ground. This paper presents a discussion of proactive methods which have been utilized by NASA satellite projects to address the risks associated with fuel tanks reentering the atmosphere. In particular it will address the design of a demiseable fuel tank as well as the evaluation of off the shelf designs which are selected to burst during reentry.

  2. Evaluating and Addressing Potential Hazards of Fuel Tanks Surviving Atmospheric Reentry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Johnson, N. L.

    2012-01-01

    In order to ensure reentering spacecraft do not pose an undue risk to the Earth's population, it is important to design satellites and rocket bodies with end-of-life considerations in mind. In addition to the possible consequences of deorbiting a vehicle, consideration must be given to the possible risks associated with a vehicle failing to become operational or to reach its intended orbit. Based on recovered space debris and numerous reentry survivability analyses, fuel tanks are of particular concern in both of these considerations. Most spacecraft utilize some type of fuel tank as part of their propulsion systems. These fuel tanks are most often constructed using stainless steel or titanium and are filled with potentially hazardous substances such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. For a vehicle that has reached its scheduled end-of mission, the contents of the tanks are typically depleted. In this scenario, the likely survival of a stainless steel or titanium tank during reentry poses a risk to people and property due to the high melting point and large heat-of-ablation of these materials. If a large portion of the fuel is not depleted prior to reentry, there is the added risk of a hazardous substance being released when the tank impacts the ground. This paper presents a discussion of proactive methods that have been utilized by NASA satellite projects to address the risks associated with fuel tanks reentering the atmosphere. In particular, it will address the design of a demiseable fuel tank, as well as the evaluation of fuel tank designs, which are selected based on whether they burst during reentry.

  3. California's potential volcanic hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, P. )

    1989-01-01

    Although volcanic eruptions have occurred infrequently in California during the last few thousand years, the potential danger to life and property from volcanoes in the state is great enough to be of concern, according to a recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publication. The 17-page bulletin, Potential Hazards from Future Volcanic Eruptions in California, gives a brief history of volcanic activity in California during the past 100,000 years, descriptions of the types of volcanoes in the state, the types of potentially hazardous volcanic events that could occur, and hazard-zonation maps and tables depicting six areas of the state where volcanic eruptions might occur. The six areas and brief descriptions of their past volcanic history and potential for future volcanic hazards are briefly summarized here.

  4. A European framework to address psychosocial hazards.

    PubMed

    Leka, Stavroula; Kortum, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decades, emphasis has been placed on the changing nature of work and new forms of risk that could negatively affect employee health and safety. These are mainly associated with new types of occupational hazards that have been termed psychosocial. Issues such as work-related stress, bullying and harassment are now receiving attention on a global basis and efforts have been made to address them at the workplace level. However, it has been acknowledged that despite developments of policy in this area, there still appear to be a broad science-policy gap and an even broader one between policy and practice. The WHO Network of Collaborating Centers in Occupational Health has, since the late 1990s, been supporting a dedicated program of work on psychosocial factors and work-related stress. Part of the Network's work is currently focusing on the translation of existing knowledge into practice in the area of psychosocial risk management. This program has identified that the optimum way forward lies in the development of a European framework for psychosocial risk management. This framework will serve as the basis for coordination of research activities and preventive action with an emphasis on evidence based interventions and best practice on an international basis. PMID:18408344

  5. Public Remote Observing of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammergren, M.

    2003-05-01

    Since the mid-1990.s, the Adler Planetarium has engaged in a program of public remote observing using the ARC 3.5-meter telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. The impact on regular science programs is minimized by scheduling the public observing during evening twilight on the first Friday of every month, when the Planetarium is open for extended hours. We have recently begun to observe faint, potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroids for which further astrometry is desired. The observations and initial analyses are performed and displayed in real-time in our CyberSpace electronic gallery before a live audience. Audience participation is useful and is actively encouraged. In particular, the asteroids often are first spotted in sequences of images by a member of the audience. Young children have recovered potentially hazardous asteroids. Further data reduction is accomplished with commercially available software. The program is straightforward in concept and execution, and is accessible to audiences of all ages. Since it unambiguously involves real science, it directly addresses the public understanding of research. We believe this program may be copied easily by other institutions that have remote observing assets.

  6. Potential Hazards of Plastics Used in Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siedlecke, Jerome T.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the thermoplastic and thermosetting resins presently being used by the artist, and the potential for exposure to the toxic chemicals and other hazards during the development of his creative work. (Author)

  7. Electric sail missions to potentially hazardous asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarta, Alessandro A.; Mengali, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    Missions towards potentially hazardous asteroids require considerable propellant-mass consumption and complex flybys maneuvers with conventional propulsion systems. A very promising option is offered by an electric sail, an innovative propulsion concept, that uses the solar-wind dynamic pressure for generating a continuous and nearly radial thrust without the need for reaction mass. The aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of such a propulsion system for performing rendezvous missions towards all the currently known potentially hazardous asteroids, a total of 1025 missions. The problem is studied in an optimal framework by minimizing the total flight time. Assuming a canonical value of sail characteristic acceleration, we show that about 67% of the potentially hazardous asteroids may be reached within one year of mission time, with 137 rendezvous in the first six months. A detailed study towards asteroid 99942 Apophis is reported, and a comparison with the corresponding performance achievable with a flat solar sail is discussed.

  8. [Potential radiation hazard in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Guilabert, Nadine; Ricard, Marcel; Chamoulaud, Karen; Mazelier, Carole; Schlumberger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear medicine uses unsealed radioisotopes. The potential radiation hazards depend on the amount of radioactivity administered and the type of radionucleide. Thus, radiation safety instructions will minimize radiation exposure and contamination as low as reasonably achievable. National nuclear safety authority requires rules, regulations and exposure limits for both patients and workers. Good practices and training staff contribute to optimize the radioprotection. PMID:25842441

  9. The potential for entomophagy to address undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Luc; Nadeau, Isaac; Franklin, Frank; Dunkel, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The use of insects as food for humans has the potential to substantially reduce undernutrition worldwide. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 805 million people are undernourished, with a total food energy deficit of 67.6 billion kcal/day (84 kcal/day/person). Calculations in this article suggest that this deficit could theoretically be reduced or eliminated through edible insect rearing, utilizing organic side streams as feed, on 15,586 to 92,976 ha. PMID:25401273

  10. [Potential laser hazards to bystanders during photocoagulation].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, N; Harino, S; Saito, Y; Ogawa, K

    1993-02-01

    The authors measured reflected laser beams delivered by slit-lamp photocoagulator and binocular indirect ophthalmoscope laser delivery systems, to evaluate potential hazards to the eyes of bystanders. 514 nm laser beams were used; reflected laser beams were measured by a light power meter (Advantest: TQ8210). Reflected lasers were found to be hazardous at 1 meter from whitish tile when a 0.75 Watt laser beam was delivered by the binocular ophthalmoscope laser system, as in an operating room. At 1 meter from a wall in a photo-coagulating room for out-patients, the reflected laser beam was found to be well below hazardous levels. Reflections at 40 cm from a non-laser-coated Goldmann 3-mirror contact lens were 2.66 mW/cm2, which exceeds the exposure limits, when 0.3 W laser was delivered by the slit-lamp photocoagulator. This decreased 85-90% when the laser was reflected from a laser-coated lens. From the point of view of safety, it is recommended that laser surgeons replace non-laser-coated lenses with laser-coated ones. PMID:8475831

  11. The Creation of a University-Community Alliance to Address Lead Hazards: Three Keys to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Mary; Caponigro, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to lead can be devastating for children, and federal regulations established in 2001 are forcing local governments to mitigate this risk. This essay discusses the creation of the Lead Alliance, a university-community coalition created to address lead hazards facing children from low-income households in South Bend, Indiana. Among the…

  12. Addressing Control of Hazardous Energy (COHE) Requirements in a Laser Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Michael; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    OSHA regulation 29CFR1910.147 specifies control of hazardous energy requirements for 'the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the machines or equipment, or release of stored energy could cause injury to employees.' Class 3B and Class 4 laser beams must be considered hazardous energy sources because of the potential for serious eye injury; careful consideration is therefore needed to safely de-energize these lasers. This paper discusses and evaluates control of hazardous energy principles in this OSHA regulation, in ANSI Z136.1 ''Safe Use of Lasers,'' and in ANSI Z244.1 ''Control of Hazardous Energy, Lockout/Tagout and Alternative Methods.'' Recommendations are made for updating and improving CoHE (control of hazardous energy) requirements in these standards for their applicability to safe laser operations.

  13. Potentially hazardous waste produced at home

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify the sources of waste generation household consisting of biological material and to investigate the knowledge presented by those responsible for the generation of waste in the home environment on the potential health risk human and environmental. Method It is a quantitative survey performed in Parque Capuava, Santo André (SP). The questionnaire was administered by the community employers and nursing students during the consultation with nursing supervision through interview question/answer. The exclusion criteria were patients who were not in the area served by the Basic Health Unit which covers the area of Pq Capuava. The sample was consisted of 99 persons and the data collection a questionnaire was used. Results We observed that 63.3% of people said to use disposables, with the majority (58.7%) of these use the public collection as the final destination of these materials. It was reported that 73.7% of those surveyed reported having knowledge about the risk of disease transmission. Public awareness of the importance of proper packaging and disposal of potentially hazardous household waste may contribute significantly to the preservation of human and environmental health and this procedure can be performed and supervised by professional nurses. Conclusion We suggest implementation of workshops for community health workers and the general population in order to enhance their knowledge about the storage and disposal of potentially infectious waste generated at home, thereby reducing the potential risk of disease transmission by improper management. PMID:23806043

  14. Grasping the Nature of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, D.; Dotto, E.; Ieva, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Bernardi, F.; Fornasier, S.; De Luise, F.; Perozzi, E.; Rossi, A.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Micheli, M.; Deshapriya, J. D. P.

    2016-01-01

    Through their delivery of water and organics, near-Earth objects (NEOs) played an important role in the emergence of life on our planet. However, they also pose a hazard to the Earth, as asteroid impacts could significantly affect our civilization. Potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) are those that, in principle, could possibly impact the Earth within the next century, producing major damage. About 1600 PHAs are currently known, from an estimated population of 4700 ± 1450. However, a comprehensive characterization of the PHA physical properties is still missing. Here we present spectroscopic observations of 14 PHAs, which we have used to derive their taxonomy, meteorite analogs, and mineralogy. Combining our results with the literature, we investigated how PHAs are distributed as a function of their dynamical and physical properties. In general, the “carbonaceous” PHAs seem to be particularly threatening, because of their high porosity (limiting the effectiveness of the main deflection techniques that could be used in space) and low inclination and minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) with the Earth (favoring more frequent close approaches). V-type PHAs also present low MOID values, which can produce frequent close approaches (as confirmed by the recent discovery of a limited space weathering on their surfaces). We also identified those specific objects that deserve particular attention because of their extreme rotational properties, internal strength, or possible cometary nature. For PHAs and NEOs in general, we identified a possible anti-correlation between the elongation and the rotational period, in the range of Prot ≈ 5-80 hr. This would be compatible with the behavior of gravity-dominated aggregates in rotational equilibrium. For periods ≳80-90 hr, such a trend stops, possibly under the influence of the YORP effect and collisions. However, the statistics is very low, and further observational and theoretical work is required to characterize

  15. Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Jiang, Jie; Li, Donghua

    2008-08-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alternative to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[ a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are discussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  16. SOFTWARE TOOLS THAT ADDRESS HAZARDOUS MATERIAL ISSUES DURING NUCLEAR FACILITY D and D

    SciTech Connect

    M. COURNOYER; R. GRUNDEMANN

    2001-03-01

    The 49-year-old Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility is where analytical chemistry and metallurgical studies on samples of plutonium and nuclear materials are conduct in support of the Department of Energy's nuclear weapons program. The CMR Facility is expected to be decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) over the next ten to twenty years. Over the decades, several hazardous material issues have developed that need to be address. Unstable chemicals must be properly reassigned or disposed of from the workspace during D and D operation. Materials that have critical effects that are primarily chronic in nature, carcinogens, reproductive toxin, and materials that exhibit high chronic toxicity, have unique decontamination requirements, including the decontrolling of areas where these chemicals were used. Certain types of equipment and materials that contain mercury, asbestos, lead, and polychlorinated biphenyls have special provisions that must be addressed. Utilization of commercially available software programs for addressing hazardous material issues during D and D operations such as legacy chemicals and documentation are presented. These user-friendly programs eliminate part of the tediousness associated with the complex requirements of legacy hazardous materials. A key element of this approach is having a program that inventories and tracks all hazardous materials. Without an inventory of chemicals stored in a particular location, many important questions pertinent to D and D operations can be difficult to answer. On the other hand, a well-managed inventory system can address unstable and highly toxic chemicals and hazardous material records concerns before they become an issue. Tapping into the institutional database provides a way to take advantage of the combined expertise of the institution in managing a cost effective D and D program as well as adding a quality assurance element to the program. Using laboratory requirements as a logic flow

  17. Waste explosives and other hazardous materials--hazard potential and remedial measures: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pandey, R K; Asthana, S N; Bhattacharya, B; Tiwari, Ila; Ghole, V S

    2007-07-01

    A large amount of energetic materials including propellants, high explosives, pyrotechnics are subjected to disposal either due to expiry of their useful life or rejection in the manufacturing process. The environmental regulations do not allow the hazardous materials for open burning / detonation in view of the health hazard involved in these operations. The present paper describes the hazard potential of energetic materials and associated hazardous chemicals. It also deals with global technological status for remedial measures of hazardous chemicals along with their merits and demerits. PMID:18476443

  18. 46 CFR 148.11 - Hazardous or potentially dangerous characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous or potentially dangerous characteristics. 148.11 Section 148.11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING General § 148.11 Hazardous or potentially dangerous characteristics. (a)...

  19. Potentially Hazardous Objects (PHO) Mitigation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Walter

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and its partner, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are prepared to develop, implement, and expand procedures to avert collisions of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) with Earth as recommended by NASA in its White Paper "Near- Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives" requested by the US Congress and submitted to it in March 2007. In addition to developing the general mitigation program as outlined in the NASA White Paper, the program will be expanded to include aggressive mitigation procedures for small (e.g., Tunguska-sized) PHOs and other short warning-time PHOs such as some long-period comet nuclei. As a first step the program will concentrate on the most likely and critical cases, namely small objects and long-period comet nuclei with short warning-times, but without losing sight of objects with longer warning-times. Objects smaller than a few hundred meters are of interest because they are about 1000 times more abundant than kilometer-sized objects and are fainter and more difficult to detect, which may lead to short warning times and hence short reaction times. Yet, even these small PHOs can have devastating effects as the 30 June 1908, Tungaska event has shown. In addition, long-period comets, although relatively rare but large (sometimes tens of kilometers in size), cannot be predicted because of their long orbital periods. Comet C/1983 H1 (IRAS-Araki-Alcock), for example, has an orbital period of 963.22 years, was discovered 27 April 1983, and passed Earth only two weeks later, on 11 May 1983, at a distance of 0.0312 AU. Aggressive methods and continuous alertness will be needed to defend against objects with such short warning times. While intact deflection of a PHO remains a key objective, destruction of a PHO and dispersion of the pieces must also be considered. The effectiveness of several alternative methods including nuclear demolition munitions, conventional explosives, and hyper

  20. Asbestos substitutes: A closer look at potential health hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    It appears that, with the possible exception of some relatively minor, specialized uses, the need for asbestos in industrial and consumer products has come to an end. Although there are apparent cost or performance penalties in some applications, adequate substitute materials have been found. It seems likely that these penalties will diminish with time. The existence of asbestos materials in older structures, however, will require continued vigilance. Although no material is completely safe under all conditions of exposure, the health hazards of many asbestos substitutes are relatively minor. Mica and perlite are low hazard materials, unless the perlite has >1% free silica. Vermiculite is presumed to be of low hazard potential, unless it is contaminated with asbestos fibers. Ordinary fibrous glass is one of the most common substitute materials, and it is of low inhalation hazard. Ultrafine glass fibers may be hazardous, but their use is thus far limited to special applications. Mineral wools are considered to be of low hazard by an acknowledged authority, ACGIH; however, some mineral wools have a high fraction of thin fibers, and these may be of higher hazard potential. Thin ceramic fiber material is presumed by many to be as hazardous as the asbestos it replaces, but a recently-completed animal study found no excess cancers. The uses of carbon fiber material are highly specialized, and there is little information on health effects as yet. Organic fibers appear to be of very low hazard potential. 8 refs.

  1. POTENTIAL EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...

  2. Potential health hazards of radiation. Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-19

    During World War II and the Cold War, the federal government developed and operated industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over 100 sites. Some of these sites processed uranium and vanadium, and upon closure, left behind millions of cubic yards of mill tailings on the sites and throughout the nearby communities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the cleanup of these areas to minimize the risks to the public and environment from exposure to the tailings and the radon gas they produce.

  3. [Online-gambling - new hazard potential?].

    PubMed

    Yazdi, Kurosch; Yazdi, Karin

    2014-12-01

    Since the new American psychiatric classification, DSM V, was released, bringing together substance-related disorders and gambling disorder into one chapter, the addictive potential of gambling and sports wagering is beyond all question. Even the neurobiological processes of the brain show similarities in all addictive disorders. Gambling is more and more shifted into the cyberspace owing to the global expansion of the internet. The addictive potential of online-gambling seems to be higher than offline, though, which is also reflected by the patient population of the outpatient clinic for gambling addiction in Linz. This fact poses a challenge for the persons affected, therapists, gambling providers, legislator the society as a whole. PMID:25377378

  4. The potentially hazardous asteroid 2000 SG344

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, I.

    We computed impact solutions for the potentially dangerous asteroid 2000 SG344, based on 31 optical observations from 1999 May 15.20482 UTC to 2010 October 29 03.60723 UTC. Using the freely available OrbFit Software Package, we can follow its orbit forward in time searching for close approaches to the Earth, which can lead to possible impacts up to 2113. The asteroid 2000 SG344 belongs to the class of the so-called possible recovery Near Earth Asteroids and can be recovered in 2028. Its ephemerides for observational window in 2028 are presented.

  5. Supporting adaptation decisions to address climate related impacts and hazards in the Caribbean (the CARIWIG project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aidan

    2015-04-01

    Managers and policy makers from regional and national institutions in the Caribbean require knowledge of the likely impacts and hazards arising from the present and future climate that are specific to their responsibility and geographical range, and relevant to their planning time-horizons. Knowledge, experience and the political support to develop appropriate adaptation strategies are also required. However, the climate information available for the region is of limited use as: observational records are intermittent and typically of short duration; climate model projections of the weather suffer from scale and bias issues; and statistical downscaling to provide locally relevant unbiased climate change information remains sporadic. Tropical cyclone activity is a considerable sporadic hazard in the region and yet related weather information is limited to historic events. Further, there is a lack of guidance for managers and policy makers operating with very limited resources to utilize such information within their remit. The CARIWIG project (June 2012 - May 2015) will be presented, reflecting on stakeholder impact, best practice and lessons learned. This project seeks to address the climate service needs of the Caribbean region through a combination of capacity building and improved provision of climate information services. An initial workshop with regional-scale stakeholders initiated a dialogue to develop a realistic shared vision of the needed information services which could be provided by the project. Capacity building is then achieved on a number of levels: knowledge and expertise sharing between project partners; raising understanding and knowledge of resources that support national and regional institutions' adaptation decisions; developing case studies in key sectors to test and demonstrate the information services; training for stakeholder technical staff in the use of the provided services; the development of a support network within and out

  6. The potentially hazardous asteroid 2009 FD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, Ireneusz

    2015-01-01

    Third of the most interesting potentially dangerous asteroids, after (99942) Apophis and (101955) Bennu, is 2009 FD. We computed impact solutions of the asteroid 2009 FD based on its 296 optical observations from 2009 February 24.36493 UTC to 2014 April 02.15110 UTC, and 1 radar observation from 2014 April 07 20:21:00 UTC. We used the freely available OrbFit Software Package and studied the orbit of 2009 FD forward in the future searching for close approaches with the Earth and for possible impacts up to 2201. Possible impact solutions were computed using the JPL DE405 planetary and lunar ephemerides taking into account the different A2 non-gravitational parameter in the motion of the asteroid 2009 FD. We computed possible impacts in 2185, 2186, 2191, 2192, 2194, 2196 and 2198. They are possible only with the non-gravitational parameter, A2 in the range (-46.0, 0)× 10^{-15} au/d^{2}, with the gap between (-25.0, -11.0)× 10^{-15} au/d^{2}. It denotes that if A2 is greater than +0.0× 10^{-15} au/d^{2}, or smaller than -46.0× 10^{-15} au/d^{2} than impacts with the Earth, are excluded. They are possible with the non-gravitational parameter, A2<=0. It implies that impacts are possible if 2009 FD rotates in retrograde direction.

  7. Pronominal Address in German: Rules, Anarchy and Embarrassment Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretzenbacher, Heinz L.; Clyne, Michael; Schupbach, Doris

    2006-01-01

    Choice of address forms, a socially crucial feature in German communication, is context-dependent on situations (a) where the unmarked form of address is "du" (T), (b) where it is "Sie" (V), and (c) where the two systems (a and b) coexist. The first two situations are, apart from their fuzzy edges, rather clearcut. The third situation, however,…

  8. Teaching Natural Hazards: The Use of Snow Avalanches in Demonstrating and Addressing Geographic Topics and Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Illustrates the importance of studying the snow avalanche as a natural hazard. Describes the various kinds of snow avalanches, the types of triggering mechanisms that produce them, the typical avalanche terrain, and the geomorphic and the vegetative evidence for snow avalanching. Depicts methods of human adjustment to the avalanche hazard.…

  9. Teaching Natural Hazards: The Use of Snow Avalanches in Demonstrating and Addressing Geographic Topics and Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, David L.

    1988-01-01

    Because of increased recreational use of alpine environments in the western United States, this lesson plan integrates the themes of location, place, and human-environment interaction in order to teach avalanche hazard awareness. Presents classroom activities and research topics to enhance student awareness of snow avalanche hazards. Provides…

  10. Database for potential hazards from future volcanic eruptions in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Melissa N.; Ramsey, David W.; Miller, C. Dan

    2011-01-01

    More than 500 volcanic vents have been identified in the State of California. At least 76 of these vents have erupted, some repeatedly, during the past 10,000 yr. Past volcanic activity has ranged in scale and type from small rhyolitic and basaltic eruptions through large catastrophic rhyolitic eruptions. Sooner or later, volcanoes in California will erupt again, and they could have serious impacts on the health and safety of the State's citizens as well as on its economy. This report describes the nature and probable distribution of potentially hazardous volcanic phenomena and their threat to people and property. It includes hazard-zonation maps that show areas relatively likely to be affected by future eruptions in California. This digital release contains information from maps of potential hazards from future volcanic eruptions in the state of California, published as Plate 1 in U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1847. The main component of this digital release is a spatial database prepared using geographic information systems (GIS) applications. This release also contains links to files to view or print the map plate, main report text, and accompanying hazard tables from Bulletin 1847. It should be noted that much has been learned about the ages of eruptive events in the State of California since the publication of Bulletin 1847 in 1989. For the most up to date information on the status of California volcanoes, please refer to the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program website.

  11. A life cycle hazard assessment (LCHA) framework to address fire hazards at the wildland-urban interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Eric; Pierce, Jen; Wuerzer, Thomas; Glenn, Nancy; Dialani, Jijay; Gibble, Katie; Frazier, Tim; Strand, Eva

    2015-04-01

    The stages of planning for and responding to natural hazards, such as wildfires and related events, are often conducted as discrete (and often not connected) efforts. Disaster response often takes precedence, exhausting agency and stakeholder resources, and the planning stages are conducted by different agencies or entities with different and often competing agendas and jurisdictions. The result is that evaluation after a disaster can be minimal or even non-existent as resources are expended and interest moves on to the next event. Natural disasters and hazards, however, have a tendency to cascade and multiply: wildfires impact the vulnerability of hillslopes, for example, which may result in landslides, flooding and debris flows long after the initial event has occurred. Connecting decisions across multiple events and time scales is ignored, yet these connections could lead to better policy making at all stages of disaster risk reduction. Considering this situation, we present an adapted life cycle analysis (LCA) approach to examine fire-related hazards at the Wildland-Urban Interface in the American West. The LCHA focuses on the temporal integration of : 1) the 'pre-fire' set of physical conditions (e.g. fuel loads) and human conditions (e.g. hazard awareness), 2) the 'fire event', focusing on computational analysis of the communication patterns and responsibility for response to the event, and 3) the 'post-event' analysis of the landscape susceptibility to fire-related debris flows. The approach of the LCHA follows other models used by governmental agencies to prepare for disasters through 1) preparation and prevention, 2) response and 3) recovery. As an overlay are the diverse agencies and policies associated with these stages and their respective resource and management decisions over time. LCAs have evolved from a business-centric consideration of the environmental impact of a specific product over the products life. This approach takes several phases to end

  12. A computational study of explosive hazard potential for reuseable launch vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, Leo J.; Freitas, Christopher J.; Langley, Patrick; Palmer, Donald; Saul, W. Venner; Chocron, Sidney; Kipp, Marlin E.

    2004-09-01

    Catastrophic failure of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) during launch poses a significant engineering problem in the context of crew escape. The explosive hazard potential of the RLV changes during the various phases of the launch. The hazard potential in the on-pad environment is characterized by release and formation of a gas phase mixture in an oxidizer rich environment, while the hazard during the in-flight phase is dominated by the boundary layer and wake flow formed around the vehicle and the interaction with the exhaust gas plume. In order to address more effectively crew escape in these explosive environments a computational analysis program was undertaken by Lockheed Martin, funded by NASA JSC, with simulations and analyses completed by Southwest Research Institute and Sandia National Laboratories. This paper presents then the details of the methodology used in this analysis, results of the study, and important conclusions that came out of the study.

  13. Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-05-04

    Engineered nanomaterials enhance exciting new applications that can greatly benefit society in areas of cancer treatments, solar energy, energy storage, and water purification. While nanotechnology shows incredible promise in these and other areas by exploiting nanomaterials unique properties, these same properties can potentially cause adverse health effects to workers who may be exposed during work. Dispersed nanoparticles in air can cause adverse health effects to animals not merely due to their chemical properties but due to their size, structure, shape, surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, dermal toxicity, and parent material toxicity. Nanoparticles have a greater likelihood of lung deposition and blood absorption than larger particles due to their size. Nanomaterials can also pose physical hazards due to their unusually high reactivity, which makes them useful as catalysts, but has the potential to cause fires and explosions. Characterization of the hazards (and potential for exposures) associated with nanomaterial development and incorporation in other products is an essential step in the development of nanotechnologies. Developing controls for these hazards are equally important. Engineered controls should be integrated into nanomaterial manufacturing process design according to 10CFR851, DOE Policy 456.1, and DOE Notice 456.1 as safety-related hardware or administrative controls for worker safety. Nanomaterial hazards in a nuclear facility must also meet control requirements per DOE standards 3009, 1189, and 1186. Integration of safe designs into manufacturing processes for new applications concurrent with the developing technology is essential for worker safety. This paper presents a discussion of nanotechnology, nanomaterial properties/hazards and controls.

  14. Liquefaction hazard potential in north eastern united arab emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Homoud, A.

    2003-04-01

    The United Arab Emirates is adjacent to the Iranian plateau characterized by very high density of active and recent faults. The Iranian plateau is one of the seismically active areas of the world and frequently suffers destructive and catastrophic earthquakes that cause heavy loss of human life and widespread damage. Therefore seismic risk in the North Eastern UAE (Sharjah and Dubai) is due to the neighboring very active Iranian seismotectonic province. As almost all foundation soils in the UAE are cohesionless material, which is clearly identified as recent fill deposits in major industrial and residential areas, and given the rapid on-shore infrastructure developments in the North Eastern UAE, and due to the lack of geo-hazards maps, it is considered vital to develop liquefaction hazard maps for these areas. The earthquake risk was brought to the attention of the public and the government upon the recent March 11, 2002 earthquake of magnitude 5.1 on Richter Scale that struck the northern emirates and caused slight damages. Initial seismic hazard assessment studies showed that Design Horizontal Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) in Sharjah and Dubai with 90% probabilities of non-exceedence in 50 years is around 200 cm/sec^2. This study is concerned with the development of liquefaction hazard maps in North Eastern Emirates UAE Cities of Sharjah and Dubai. Liquefaction hazard potential for various soil deposits in these cities is evaluated for different Peak Ground Acceleation Values. Data from thorough geotechnical studies were evaluated. This include boreholes drilling (with SPT tests) and shear strength for representative sand samples taken from several boreholes and at different depths. Liquefaction hazard potential is evaluated at representative sites in the city of Dubai and Sharjah using the state of the art liquefaction potential evaluation methods (e.g. Seed's cyclic stress ratio approach). Results indicate clearly that the coastal areas have a high potential

  15. Ophthalmic instruments: an assessment of radiation emissions and potential hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, O.L.; Memmen, J.E.; Waxler, M.

    1988-12-01

    This report discusses the following: the optical radiation emitted by a variety of ophthalmic instruments were measured and compared to current safety standards. In addition, a survey of clinical diagnostic examination times was conducted to compare exposure safe times to visible lesion threshold. It was demonstrated that excessive levels of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) radiation could be emitted and should be eliminated. Several of the instruments emitted levels of visible radiation that resulted in very short safe times and could exceed the visible lesion threshold. Four experiments demonstrated instrument operating conditions that would reduce the potential for ocular hazards from ophthalmic instruments.

  16. Potential hazards from future volcanic eruptions in California

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    More than 500 volcanic vents have been identified in the State of California. At least 76 of these vents have erupted, some repeatedly, during the last 10,000 yr. Past volcanic activity has ranged in scale and type from small rhyolitic and basaltic eruptions through large catastrophic rhyolitic eruptions. Volcanoes in California will erupt again, and they could have serious impacts on the health, safety, and economy of the State's citizens as well as that of neighboring states. The nature and probable distribution of potentially hazardous volcanic phenomena and their threat to people and property is described in this bulletin.

  17. Identification of potential hazards associated with new residential construction.

    PubMed

    Methner, M M

    2000-02-01

    There were several advantages and limitations of this observational study. The most important advantage of this study was the opportunity to observe residential construction workers performing their jobs. By observing work practices, valuable information was gathered about specific trades and their potential exposure to various chemical and physical agents. This information will be useful in guiding subsequent exposure assessments. Probably the greatest limitation of this study was the lack of participation by homebuilders. Ideally, observations of construction processes would have been more objective if the study included the participation of more than one homebuilder. Aside from one worker who was observed to wear safety glasses, leather gloves, and a dust mask, virtually no personal protective equipment (PPE) was observed onsite. Often small contractors do not have the financial resources necessary to procure the appropriate PPE and issue these items to the workers. Based on hazard prevalence, professional judgement, and the degree of hazardous product use, potential exposures that warrant quantitative sampling efforts during Phase 2 of this study are: bulldozer/backhoe operators--noise, vibration, diesel exhaust; concrete workers--naphtha, mineral spirits, Portland cement; asphalt workers--petroleum hydrocarbons, asphalt, mineral spirits; plumbers--methylethyl ketone, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, cyclohexanone; drywall finishers--total and respirable dust, hexane, acetone; painters--ethylene glycol, VOCs; masons--dust (during the preparation of mortar); floor preparation technicians--total and respirable dust; and ceramic tile installers--toluene, naphtha, silica (from grout powder). PMID:10675976

  18. Potential hazards from future volcanic eruptions in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C. Dan

    1989-01-01

    More than 500 volcanic vents have been identified in the State of California. At least 76 of these vents have erupted, some repeatedly, during the last 10,000 years. Past volcanic activity has ranged in scale and type from small rhyolitic and basaltic eruptions through large catastrophic rhyolitic eruptions. Sooner or later, volcanoes in California will erupt again, and they could have serious impacts on the health and safety of the State\\'s citizens as well as on its economy. This report describes the nature and probable distribution of potentially hazardous volcanic phenomena and their threat to people and property. It includes hazard-zonation maps that show areas relatively likely to be affected by future eruptions in California. The potentially more hazardous eruptions in the State are those that involve explosive eruption of large volumes of silicic magma. Such eruptions could occur at vents in as many as four areas in California. They could eject pumice high into the atmosphere above the volcano, produce destructive blasts, avalanches, or pyroclastic flows that reach distances of tens of kilometers from a vent, and produce mudflows and floods that reach to distances of hundreds of kilometers. Smaller eruptions produce similar, but less severe and less extensive, phenomena. Hazards are greatest close to a volcanic vent; the slopes on or near a volcano, and valleys leading away from it, are affected most often and most severely by such eruptions. In general, risk from volcanic phenomena decreases with increasing distance from a vent and, for most flowage processes, with increasing height above valley floors or fan surfaces. Tephra (ash) from explosive eruptions can affect wide areas downwind from a vent. In California, prevailing winds cause the 180-degree sector east of the volcano to be affected most often and most severely. Risk to life from ashfall decreases rapidly with increasing distance from a vent, but thin deposits of ash could disrupt communication

  19. Polymer degradation and ultrafine particles - Potential inhalation hazards for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferin, J.; Oberdoerster, G.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that exposure to ultrafine particles results in an increased interstiatilization of the particles which is accompanied by an acute pathological inflammation, rats were exposed to titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles by intratracheal instillation and by inhalation. Both acute intratracheal instillation and subchronic inhalation studies on rats show that ultrafine TiO2 particles access the pulmonary interstitium to a larger extent than fine particles and that they elicit an inflammatory response as indicated by PMN increase in lavaged cells. The release of ultrafine particles into the air of an enclosed environment from a thermodegradation event or from other sources is a potential hazard for astronauts. Knowing the mechanisms of action is a prerequisite for technical or medical countermeasures.

  20. Radon-hazard potential the Beaver basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    Indoor-radon levels in the Beaver basin of southwestern Utah are the highest recorded to date in Utah, ranging from 17.5 to 495 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Because the U.S. Environment Protection Agency considers indoor-radon levels above 4 pCi/L to represent a risk of lung cancer from long-term exposure, the Utah Geological Survey is preparing a radon-hazard-potential map for the area to help prioritize indoor testing and evaluate the need for radon-resistant construction. Radon is a chemically inert radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium-238, which is commonly found in rocks and soils. Soil permeability, depth to ground water, and uranium/thorium content of source materials control the mobility and concentration of radon in the soil. Once formed, radon diffuses into the pore space of the soil and then to the atmosphere or into buildings by pressure-driven flow of air or additional diffusion. The Beaver basin has been a topographic and structural depression since late Miocene time. Paleocene to Miocene volcanic and igneous rocks border the basin. Uraniferous alluvial-fan, piedmont-slope, flood-plain, and lacustrine sediments derived from the surrounding volcanic rocks fill the basin. A soil-gas radon and ground radioactivity survey in the Beaver basin shows that soils have high levels of radon gas. In this survey, uranium concentrations range from 3 to 13 parts per million (ppm) and thorium concentrations range from 10 to 48 ppm. Radon concentrations in the soil gas ranged from 85 to 3,500 pCi/L. The highest concentrations of uranium, thorium, and radon gas and the highest radon-hazard-potential are in the well-drained permeable soils in the lower flood- plain deposits that underlie the city of Beaver.

  1. Oligopyrrole Macrocycles: Receptors and Chemosensors for Potentially Hazardous Materials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Oligopyrroles represent a diverse class of molecular receptors that have been utilized in a growing number of applications. Recently, these systems have attracted interest as receptors and chemosensors for hazardous materials, including harmful anionic species, high-valent actinide cations, and nitroaromatic explosives. These versatile molecular receptors have been used to develop rudimentary colorimetric and fluorimetric assays for hazardous materials. PMID:21465591

  2. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Glacier Hazards Assessment: Application to Predicting the Potential for Glacier Lake Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Bishop, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets are among the largest unstable parts of the solid Earth. Generally, glaciers are devoid of resources (other than water), are dangerous, are unstable and no infrastructure is normally built directly on their surfaces. Areas down valley from large alpine glaciers are also commonly unstable due to landslide potential of moraines, debris flows, snow avalanches, outburst floods from glacier lakes, and other dynamical alpine processes; yet there exists much development and human occupation of some disaster-prone areas. Satellite remote sensing can be extremely effective in providing cost-effective and time- critical information. Space-based imagery can be used to monitor glacier outlines and their lakes, including processes such as iceberg calving and debris accumulation, as well as changing thicknesses and flow speeds. Such images can also be used to make preliminary identifications of specific hazardous spots and allows preliminary assessment of possible modes of future disaster occurrence. Autonomous assessment of glacier conditions and their potential for hazards would present a major advance and permit systematized analysis of more data than humans can assess. This technical leap will require the design and implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms specifically designed to mimic glacier experts’ reasoning. Here, we introduce the theory of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) as an AI tool for predicting and assessing natural hazards in alpine glacier environments. FCM techniques are employed to represent expert knowledge of glaciers physical processes. A cognitive model embedded in a fuzzy logic framework is constructed via the synergistic interaction between glaciologists and AI experts. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed AI methodology as applied to predicting hazards in glacier environments, we designed and implemented a FCM that addresses the challenging problem of autonomously assessing the Glacier Lake Outburst Flow

  3. Evaluation of Equipment Vulnerability and Potential Shock Hazards. [carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taback, I.

    1980-01-01

    The vulnerability of electric equipment to carbon fibers released from aircraft accidents is investigated and the parameters affecting vulnerability are discussed. The shock hazard for a hypothetical set of accidents is computed.

  4. Potentially hazardous comet warning times, characteristics, trends and countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Lyrica L.

    This research seeks to determine orbital trends and characteristics of comets discovered over recorded history; specifically "warning times" associated with comets that come within 1.3 astronomical unit (AU) of the Earth, called Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), and Potentially Hazardous Objects (PHOs) which come within 0.05 AU of Earth's Minimum Orbit Intersection Distance (MOID) . In this work, "warning time" means the time from discovery to perigee/closest approach to Earth, including negative warning times when the comet is discovered after close approach. This study proposes that warning times for comets approaching Earth should be increasing with increased telescope technology and an increased number of surveys focused on NEOs in the past decades. Quantification occurs by investigating all known comets through recorded history, restricting this group to relevant Near-Earth Comets (NECs), and predicting appearance and warning times of future comets using discovered trends. Data for this study was obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) online HORIZONS system. The system has highly accurate ephemerides for asteroids and comets (612829 and 3,196 respectively on April 12, 2013) as well as other Solar System objects as well as orbital parameters and visualization tool for those objects. HORIZONS was used to build a database of all discovered comets up until February 8, 2013. The database includes: date discovered, date and close approach distance, inclination, eccentricity, total and nuclear magnitude, and several other observations used in the orbital fit. The data was then analyzed for characteristics using both MATLAB and Excel for analysis and numerical computations.

  5. A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, Walter; Giguere, P T; Bradley, P; Guzik, J A; Plesko, C; Wohletz, K; Johnson, L N; Boice, D C; Chocron, S; Ghosh, A; Goldstein, R; Mukerherjee, J; Patrick, W; Walker, J D

    2008-01-01

    At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

  6. Assessing the potential hazard of chemical substances for the terrestrial environment. Development of hazard classification criteria and quantitative environmental indicators.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, J V; Fresno, A; Aycard, S; Ramos, C; Vega, M M; Carbonell, G

    2000-03-20

    Hazard assessment constitutes an essential tool in order to evaluate the potential effects of chemical substances on organisms and ecosystems. It includes as a first step, hazard identification, which must detect the potential dangers of the substance (i.e. the kind of effects that the substance may produce), and a second step to quantify each danger and to set the expected dose/response relationships. Hazard assessment plays a key role in the regulation of chemical substances, including pollution control and sustainable development. However, the aquatic environment has largely received more attention than terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents the extrapolation of several basic concepts from the aquatic to the terrestrial compartment, and suggests possibilities for their regulatory use. Two specific proposals are discussed. The first focuses on the scientific basis of the hazard identification-classification criteria included in the EU regulations and their extrapolation to the terrestrial environment. The second focuses on the OECD programme for environmental indicators and the development of a soil pollution pressure indicator to quantify the potential hazards for the soil compartment and its associated terrestrial ecosystem related to the toxic chemicals applied deliberately (i.e. pesticides) or not (i.e. heavy metals in sludge-based fertilisers; industrial spills) to the soil. PMID:10803544

  7. 14 CFR 135.67 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 135.67 Section 135.67... navigation aids. Whenever a pilot encounters a potentially hazardous meteorological condition or...

  8. 14 CFR 135.67 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 135.67 Section 135.67... navigation aids. Whenever a pilot encounters a potentially hazardous meteorological condition or...

  9. 14 CFR 135.67 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 135.67 Section 135.67... navigation aids. Whenever a pilot encounters a potentially hazardous meteorological condition or...

  10. 14 CFR 135.67 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 135.67 Section 135.67... navigation aids. Whenever a pilot encounters a potentially hazardous meteorological condition or...

  11. 14 CFR 135.67 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 135.67 Section 135.67... navigation aids. Whenever a pilot encounters a potentially hazardous meteorological condition or...

  12. POTENTIALLY TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN THE INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS AND ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this program were identification of the potential hazards associated with the production and use of industrial organic chemicals (IOC) and organic dyes and pigments (ODP) and determination of the state of the art of the control and treatment of potentially hazard...

  13. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES... Subpart E of Part 1724—Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects The source for...

  14. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES... Subpart E of Part 1724—Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects The source for...

  15. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES... Subpart E of Part 1724—Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects The source for...

  16. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES... Subpart E of Part 1724—Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects The source for...

  17. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES... Subpart E of Part 1724—Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects The source for...

  18. Modern tornado design of nuclear and other potentially hazardous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D.; Zhao, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Tornado wind loads and other tornado phenomena, including tornado missiles and differential pressure effects, have not usually been considered in the design of conventional industrial, commercial, or residential facilities in the United States; however, tornado resistance has often become a design requirement for certain hazardous facilities, such as large nuclear power plants and nuclear materials and waste storage facilities, as well as large liquefied natural gas storage facilities. This article provides a review of current procedures for the design of hazardous industrial facilities to resist tornado effects. 23 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Characterization of the Potential Hazards Associated with Potential RCRA Treatment Noncompliances

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, David Lewis

    2015-08-20

    The purpose of this document is to provide a hazard evaluation of the noncompliances and whether any new actions are required to mitigate potential risk to the worker or the public. In short, we have reviewed the noncompliances and have concluded that the possibility of exothermic reactions leading to radioactive release is not credible, and in one case, inconceivable, stemming from the fact that the majority fraction of the waste is compatible with organic absorbents and neutralizers. It is not expected that the noncompliances would generate or produce uncontrolled flammable fumes, gases, extreme heat, pressure, fire, explosions, or violent reactions.

  20. Assessing the Seismic Potential Hazard of the Makran Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohling, E.; Szeliga, W. M.; Melbourne, T. I.; Abolghasem, A.; Lodi, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    Long quiescent subduction zones like the Makran, Sunda, and Cascadia, which have long recurrence intervals for large (> Mw 8) earthquakes, often have poorly known seismic histories and are particularly vulnerable and often ill-prepared. The Makran subduction zone has not been studied extensively, but the 1945 Mw 8.1 earthquake and subsequent tsunami, as well as more recent mid magnitude, intermediate depth (50-100 km) seismicity, demonstrates the active seismic nature of the region. Recent increases in regional GPS and seismic monitoring now permit the modeling of strain accumulations and seismic potential of the Makran subduction zone. Subduction zone seismicity indicates that the eastern half of the Makran is presently more active than the western half. It has been hypothesized that the relative quiescence of the western half is due to aseismic behavior. However, based on GPS evidence, the entire subduction zone generally appears to be coupled and has been accumulating stress that could be released in another > 8.0 Mw earthquake. To assess the degree of coupling, we utilize existing GPS data to create a fault coupling model for the Makran using a preliminary 2-D fault geometry derived from ISC hypocenters. Our 2-D modeling is done using the backslip approach and defines the parameters in our coupling model; we forego the generation of a 3-D model due to the low spatial density of available GPS data. We compare the use of both NUVEL-1A plate motions and modern Arabian plate motions derived from GPS station velocities in Oman to drive subduction for our fault coupling model. To avoid non-physical inversion results, we impose second order smoothing to eliminate steep strain gradients. The fit of the modeled inter-seismic deformation vectors are assessed against the observed strain from the GPS data. Initial observations indicate that the entire subduction zone is currently locked and accumulating strain, with no identifiable gaps in the interseismic locking

  1. Tsunami Hazards Along the Chinese Coast from Potential Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Santos, A.; Shi, Y.; Wang, M.; Yuen, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    The recent Indonesian earthquake has awakened great concerns about destructive hazards along the Chinese coast. Scientists have provided a clear record of past tsunamis along East China that clearly indicate the potential for future tsunami damage to China. In this work we will assess from analyzing the probability for tsunami waves to hit the Chinese coast in the next century from large earthquakes coming from the neighboring subducting plate boundaries. This analysis is important because of the sharp increase in coastal population density in China, the intense development of harbors and the exploitation of mineral resources in coastal areas, ranging from Xiamen in the north to Hainan in the south. The probability seismic studies for the South China Sea and adjacent field were based on the relationship of Gutenberg- Richter (G-R) relationship between the number of local earthquake and magnitude. We studied the earthquakes of the global subduction belt. We found the earthquakes of the global subduction belt follow the G-R relationship. The plate boundary model came from P. Bird (2002). According to the historical earthquakes of South China Sea and adjacent field (From NEIC), and the tectonic and focal mechanism (HCMT), the studied field is divided two partitions. The latitude of the first partition is N (12-19 deg.); the second is N(19-23 deg.). There are twelve large earthquakes in the two partitions. Their magnitudes are bigger than 6. The probabilities of earthquakes in the South China Sea are computed by the local G-R relationship. They would determine the seismically-induced tsunami probability. In our study the linear shallow water equation is used for integrating the twelve earthquake induced tsunamis. The numerical scheme for the linear equations is the staggered leap-frog method. The code has been provided by Dr. Fumihiko Imamura, Tokohu University, Japan. We combined the probability of three segments of wave height, 2.0 to 1.0 meter, 1.0 to 0.5 meters

  2. TREATABILITY POTENTIAL FOR EPA LISTED HAZARDOUS WASTES IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study developed comprehensive screening data on the treatability in soil of: (a) specific listed hazardous organic chemicals, and (b) waste sludge from explosives production (K044) and related chemicals. Laboratory experiments were conducted using two soil types, an acidic s...

  3. Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cowlin, S. C.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis explores the technical potential of photovoltaics (PV) or concentrating solar power (CSP) to address energy poverty in Africa through a geographic information system (GIS) screening of solar resource data developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  4. Chaparral vegetation reflectance and its potential utility for assessment of fire hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Warren B.

    1991-01-01

    Current methods for assessment of ignition potential often fail to alert wildland managers to the severity of drought-induced fire hazard at remote locations and over large geographic areas. After the severe fires of 1988 in the western United States, the need was heightened for improved fire hazard assessment techniques. Chaparral vegetation is particularly receptive to recurring drought-related episodes of extreme fire hazard and was thus chosen for study here. Demonstrated herein is that chaparral vegetation has considerably different reflecting properties at different levels of drought stress. As such, remote sensing may have utility for fire hazard assessment in this vegetation type.

  5. Use of health hazard criteria for estimating the hazard potential of chemicals to water in case of a spill.

    PubMed

    Höfer, T; Steinhäuser, K G

    2000-02-01

    Accidental spills resulting in severe pollution can occur during transportation or handling of large volumes of chemicals. To address this problem, chemicals are classified according to the level of hazard to man and the environment in order to then define graduated technical standards. Three regulatory examples (enforced or drafted for transport and industrial installations in Europe) covering aspects of limnic as well as sea water are discussed in regard to health aspects of pollution. Whereas for the safety of seagoing tankships an exposure orientated combination of health and environmental aspects is used, for industrial plants in Germany a scoring system based on the European Union's Risk Phrase system is applied. The health-related parameters primarily used for hazard classification are repeated-dose toxicity and acute oral and dermal toxicity. Acute oral toxicity is most widely used because of the ready availability of data. Carcinogenicity is treated as the most important hazard. The report discusses the importance of dermal exposure, aspiration, and endocrine disruption as parameters as well as the importance of health criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms. PMID:10715219

  6. Occupational exposures to potentially hazardous agents in the petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Runion, H E

    1988-01-01

    This chapter has been created to acquaint the reader with occupational exposures that are more common in, and somewhat unique to, the petroleum industry. Both highly toxic materials capable of causing acute illness or even death following short-term exposure, and chemical and physical agents that pose risk of chronic and irreversible damage to health during prolonged exposure are addressed. PMID:3043733

  7. Occupational exposures to potentially hazardous agents in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Runion, H.E.

    1988-07-01

    This chapter has been created to acquaint the reader with occupational exposures that are more common in, and somewhat unique to, the petroleum industry. Both highly toxic materials capable of causing acute illness or even death following short-term exposure, and chemical and physical agents that pose risk of chronic and irreversible damage to health during prolonged exposure are addressed.

  8. The potential of carbon fiber induced shock hazards in household toasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The average exposure to carbon fibers which produced a short and potential shock hazard in a household toaster was determined. Toasters are normally in the off state. They are used for brief periods during the day and have timed cycles during which power is applied. The possibility of a short occurring from the heating element to the case was investigated to find the exposure levels at which a potential shock hazard could appear. The short produced was tested to determine its importance.

  9. Potential Explosion Hazard of Carbonaceous Nanoparticles: Screening of Allotropes

    PubMed Central

    Turkevich, Leonid A.; Fernback, Joseph; Dastidar, Ashok G.; Osterberg, Paul

    2016-01-01

    There is a concern that engineered carbon nanoparticles, when manufactured on an industrial scale, will pose an explosion hazard. Explosion testing has been performed on 20 codes of carbonaceous powders. These include several different codes of SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes) and CNFs (carbon nanofibers), graphene, diamond, fullerene, as well as several different control carbon blacks and graphites. Explosion screening was performed in a 20 L explosion chamber (ASTM E1226 protocol), at a concentration of 500 g/m3, using a 5 kJ ignition source. Time traces of overpressure were recorded. Samples typically exhibited overpressures of 5–7 bar, and deflagration index KSt = V1/3 (dP/dt)max ~ 10 – 80 bar-m/s, which places these materials in European Dust Explosion Class St-1. There is minimal variation between these different materials. The explosive characteristics of these carbonaceous powders are uncorrelated with primary particle size (BET specific surface area). PMID:27468178

  10. Group Calls for More Focus on Potentially Hazardous Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-12-01

    A group of astronauts, scientists, business leaders, and artists are calling for a dramatic increase in detecting and monitoring asteroids that could potentially strike the Earth catastrophically. They have announced that 30 June 2015 will be a global asteroid awareness day.

  11. Volcanic ash: a potential hazard for aviation in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelley, P. L.; Newhall, C. G.

    2012-12-01

    There are more than 400 volcanoes in Southeast Asia. Ash from eruptions of Volcanic Explosivity Index 3 (VEI 3) and larger pose local hazards and eruptions of VEI 4 or greater could disrupt trade, travel, and daily life in large parts of the region. To better manage and understand the risk volcanic ash poses to Southeast Asia, this study quantifies the long-term probability of a large eruption sending ash into the Singapore Flight Information Region (FIR), which is a 1,700 km long, quasi-rectangular zone from the Strait of Malacca to the South China Sea. Southeast Asian volcanoes are classified into 6 groups, using satellite data, by their morphology, and where known, their eruptive history. 'Laguna' type are fields of maars, cinder cones and spatter cones, named for the Laguna Volcanic Field, Philippines (13.204, 123.525). 'Kembar' type are broad, gently sloping shield volcanoes with extensive lava flows (Kembar Volcano, Indonesia: 3.850, 097.664). 'Mayon' type volcanoes are open-vent, frequently active, steep sided stratocones with small summit craters, spatter ramparts, small pyroclastic fans (typically < 3 km but up to 5 km) and lava flows (Mayon Volcano, Philippines: 13.257, 123.685). 'Kelut' type are semi-plugged composite cones with dome complexes, pyroclastic fans, and/or debris avalanche deposits (Kelut Volcano, Indonesia: -7.933, 112.308). 'Pinatubo' type are large plugged stratovolcanoes with extensive (tens of km) pyroclastic fans and large summit craters or calderas up to 5 km in diameter (Pinatubo Volcano, Philippines: 15.133, 120.350). 'Toba' type are calderas with long axes > 5 km and surrounded by ignimbrite sheets (Toba Caldera, Indonesia: 02.583, 098.833). In addition silicic dome complexes that might eventually produce large caldera-forming eruptions are also classified as Toba type. The eruptive histories of most volcanoes in Southeast Asia are poorly constrained. Assuming that volcanoes with similar morphologies have had similar eruption

  12. A potential MRI hazard: forces on dental magnet keepers.

    PubMed

    Gegauff, A G; Laurell, K A; Thavendrarajah, A; Rosenstiel, S F

    1990-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the forces on dental prosthetic magnet keepers, with a view to assessing the potential for patient injury during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Four pre-formed keepers and one castable keeper alloy were tested. Magnetizations and high field susceptibilities were determined for each of the five specimens using data from a vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic field intensity with respect to distance from the main magnet coil was obtained from the manufacturer (1-5 tesla General Electric Signa Imaging System). A plot of force versus distance from the main coil and the maximum force at the magnet portal was determined for each specimen. The maximum forces ranged from 0.12-0.24 N for the pre-formed keepers and 3.67 MNm-3 for the castable alloy. It was concluded that the risk of patient injury by displacement is minimal, if the keepers are properly attached to supporting structures. PMID:2231158

  13. Comments on potential geologic and seismic hazards affecting coastal Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Boore, David M.; Fisher, Michael A.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Geist, Eric L.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lee, Homa J.; Normark, William R.; Wong, Florence L.

    2004-01-01

    This report examines the regional seismic and geologic hazards that could affect proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in coastal Ventura County, California. Faults throughout this area are thought to be capable of producing earthquakes of magnitude 6.5 to 7.5, which could produce surface fault offsets of as much as 15 feet. Many of these faults are sufficiently well understood to be included in the current generation of the National Seismic Hazard Maps; others may become candidates for inclusion in future revisions as research proceeds. Strong shaking is the primary hazard that causes damage from earthquakes and this area is zoned with a high level of shaking hazard. The estimated probability of a magnitude 6.5 or larger earthquake (comparable in size to the 2003 San Simeon quake) occurring in the next 30 years within 30 miles of Platform Grace is 50-60%; for Cabrillo Port, the estimate is a 35% likelihood. Combining these probabilities of earthquake occurrence with relationships that give expected ground motions yields the estimated seismic-shaking hazard. In parts of the project area, the estimated shaking hazard is as high as along the San Andreas Fault. The combination of long-period basin waves and LNG installations with large long-period resonances potentially increases this hazard.

  14. Cefdinir-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Potential Hazards of Inappropriate Antibiotic Use

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joy

    2008-01-01

    Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is well recognized but can cause some diagnostic problems, particularly if not previously reported. The present case involves a 22-year-old male who presented with jaundice and elevated liver enzymes after a course of cefdinir (Omnicef®) for streptococcal pharyngitis. A diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury was suspected but a liver biopsy was required after his jaundice worsened despite cessation of the presumed offending agent. A short course of steroids was initiated and eventually the jaundice resolved. This case highlights the need to suspect medication-induced liver injury in cases of jaundice, even if not previously reported. In addition, it illustrates the potential for adverse outcomes in situations where antibiotics are used inappropriately or where first line antibiotics are not used for routine infections. We report a case of a young male who developed jaundice associated with cefdinir use with pathological confirmation of moderate cholestasis with portal and lobular mixed inflammation and focal bile duct injury consistent with drug-induced liver injury. PMID:18752027

  15. Continuous injection of an inert gas through a drill rig for drilling into potentially hazardous areas

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, S.H.; Pigott, W.R.

    1998-04-01

    A drill rig for drilling in potentially hazardous areas includes a drill having conventional features such as a frame, a gear motor, gear box, and a drive. A hollow rotating shaft projects through the drive and frame. An auger, connected to the shaft is provided with a multiplicity of holes. An inert gas is supplied to the hollow shaft and directed from the rotating shaft to the holes in the auger. The inert gas flows down the hollow shaft, and then down the hollow auger, and out through the holes in the bottom of the auger into the potentially hazardous area.

  16. Continuous injection of an inert gas through a drill rig for drilling into potentially hazardous areas

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, Steve H.; Pigott, William R.

    1997-01-01

    A drill rig for drilling in potentially hazardous areas includes a drill having conventional features such as a frame, a gear motor, gear box, and a drive. A hollow rotating shaft projects through the drive and frame. An auger, connected to the shaft is provided with a multiplicity of holes. An inert gas is supplied to the hollow shaft and directed from the rotating shaft to the holes in the auger. The inert gas flows down the hollow shaft, and then down the hollow auger and out through the holes in the bottom of the auger into the potentially hazardous area.

  17. Continuous injection of an inert gas through a drill rig for drilling into potentially hazardous areas

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, S.H.; Pigott, W.R.

    1997-12-30

    A drill rig for drilling in potentially hazardous areas includes a drill having conventional features such as a frame, a gear motor, gear box, and a drive. A hollow rotating shaft projects through the drive and frame. An auger, connected to the shaft is provided with a multiplicity of holes. An inert gas is supplied to the hollow shaft and directed from the rotating shaft to the holes in the auger. The inert gas flows down the hollow shaft, and then down the hollow auger and out through the holes in the bottom of the auger into the potentially hazardous area. 3 figs.

  18. Potential for a hazardous geospheric response to projected future climate changes.

    PubMed

    McGuire, B

    2010-05-28

    Periods of exceptional climate change in Earth history are associated with a dynamic response from the geosphere, involving enhanced levels of potentially hazardous geological and geomorphological activity. The response is expressed through the adjustment, modulation or triggering of a broad range of surface and crustal phenomena, including volcanic and seismic activity, submarine and subaerial landslides, tsunamis and landslide 'splash' waves, glacial outburst and rock-dam failure floods, debris flows and gas-hydrate destabilization. In relation to anthropogenic climate change, modelling studies and projection of current trends point towards increased risk in relation to a spectrum of geological and geomorphological hazards in a warmer world, while observations suggest that the ongoing rise in global average temperatures may already be eliciting a hazardous response from the geosphere. Here, the potential influences of anthropogenic warming are reviewed in relation to an array of geological and geomorphological hazards across a range of environmental settings. A programme of focused research is advocated in order to: (i) understand better those mechanisms by which contemporary climate change may drive hazardous geological and geomorphological activity; (ii) delineate those parts of the world that are most susceptible; and (iii) provide a more robust appreciation of potential impacts for society and infrastructure. PMID:20403831

  19. The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Son H.; Edmonds, James A.

    2007-10-24

    The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world’s electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

  20. Potential of weight of evidence modelling for gully erosion hazard assessment in Mbire District - Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, F.; Nhapi, I.; Murwira, A.; Gumindoga, W.; Goldin, J.; Mashauri, D. A.

    Gully erosion is an environmental concern particularly in areas where landcover has been modified by human activities. This study assessed the extent to which the potential of gully erosion could be successfully modelled as a function of seven environmental factors (landcover, soil type, distance from river, distance from road, Sediment Transport Index (STI), Stream Power Index (SPI) and Wetness Index (WI) using a GIS-based Weight of Evidence Modelling (WEM) in the Mbire District of Zimbabwe. Results show that out of the studied seven factors affecting gully erosion, five were significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to gully occurrence, namely; landcover, soil type, distance from river, STI and SPI. Two factors; WI and distance from road were not significantly correlated to gully occurrence (p > 0.05). A gully erosion hazard map showed that 78% of the very high hazard class area is within a distance of 250 m from rivers. Model validation indicated that 70% of the validation set of gullies were in the high hazard and very high hazard class. The resulting map of areas susceptible to gully erosion has a prediction accuracy of 67.8%. The predictive capability of the weight of evidence model in this study suggests that landcover, soil type, distance from river, STI and SPI are useful in creating a gully erosion hazard map but may not be sufficient to produce a valid map of gully erosion hazard.

  1. Identification of potentially hazardous human gene products in GMO risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bergmans, Hans; Logie, Colin; Van Maanen, Kees; Hermsen, Harm; Meredyth, Michelle; Van Der Vlugt, Cécile

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), e.g. viral vectors, could threaten the environment if by their release they spread hazardous gene products. Even in contained use, to prevent adverse consequences, viral vectors carrying genes from mammals or humans should be especially scrutinized as to whether gene products that they synthesize could be hazardous in their new context. Examples of such potentially hazardous gene products (PHGPs) are: protein toxins, products of dominant alleles that have a role in hereditary diseases, gene products and sequences involved in genome rearrangements, gene products involved in immunomodulation or with an endocrine function, gene products involved in apoptosis, activated proto-oncogenes. For contained use of a GMO that carries a construct encoding a PHGP, the precautionary principle dictates that safety measures should be applied on a "worst case" basis, until the risks of the specific case have been assessed. The potential hazard of cloned genes can be estimated before empirical data on the actual GMO become available. Preliminary data may be used to focus hazard identification and risk assessment. Both predictive and empirical data may also help to identify what further information is needed to assess the risk of the GMO. A two-step approach, whereby a PHGP is evaluated for its conceptual dangers, then checked by data bank searches, is delineated here. PMID:18384725

  2. 14 CFR 121.561 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 121.561 Section 121.561... meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. (a) Whenever he...

  3. 14 CFR 121.561 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 121.561 Section 121.561... meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. (a) Whenever he...

  4. 14 CFR 121.561 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 121.561 Section 121.561... meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. (a) Whenever he...

  5. 14 CFR 121.561 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 121.561 Section 121.561... meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. (a) Whenever he...

  6. 14 CFR 121.561 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 121.561 Section 121.561... meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. (a) Whenever he...

  7. THE POTENTIAL OF AN EARTHWORM AVOIDANCE TEST FOR EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased se...

  8. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  9. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  10. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  11. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  12. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  13. Interpretation of graphic data on potential geologic hazards on the southeastern United States Atlantic continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popenoe, Peter; Butman, Bradford; Paull, Charles K.; Ball, Mahlon M.; Pfirman, Stephanie L.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents and analyzes seismic-survey data and bottom-instrument data as they pertain to a regional assessment of potential geologic hazards and other constraints to petroleum exploration and development on the southeastern United States Continental Shelf (see fig. 1).  

  14. Comments on potential geologic and seismic hazards affecting Mare Island, Solano County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Wentworth, C.M.; Bakun, W.H.; Boatwright, J.; Brocher, T.E.; Çelebi, M.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Fletcher, J.P.B.; Geist, E.L.; Graymer, R.W.; Kayen, R.E.; Keefer, D.K.; Oppenheimer, D.H.; Savage, W.U.; Schwartz, D.P.; Simpson, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    This report was prepared in response to a written request from the City of Vallejo, California, to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). By letter of October 4, 2002, the City requested that the USGS "provide advice to the City’s LNG Health and Safety Committee on its review of a potential liquid natural gas project" on the southern portion of Mare Island. The City specifically requested that the USGS advise the committee on potential hazards including fault rupture, earthquake ground motion, soil failure during earthquakes, tsunami and seiche, and landslides. The City requested that the USGS: (1) comment on these hazards, (2) describe its degree of confidence in its opinions, and (3) describe the scope of additional studies that will be needed if the City enters into an agreement with project sponsors. Advice was also requested on the selection of the safe shutdown and operating basis earthquakes as specified in the NFPA 59A standard (NFPA, 2001). This review of published reports and other publicly available information indicates that all of the hazards on which the USGS was asked to comment should be considered for the proposed project on the southern portion of Mare Island. Available information differs greatly for each of these potential hazards, and adequate understanding for design will require detailed site-specific investigations.

  15. Preliminary Hazards Assessments for Space Nuclear Electric Propulsion Systems Mechanisms to Quantitatively Ascertain and Address Launch and Operational Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenard, R.

    2002-01-01

    Architectures are analyzed based on several figures of merit, including mass transported to Mars and samples transported from Mars to Earth, potential to reduce Earth contamination, sites on MArs visited, trip time and potential cost trades.A technological variant of a commercial vehicle for near-Earth missions is used as the nuclear electric propulsion system baseline. Several types of Mars landing and ascent vehicles are proposed and assessed.Technology approaches are assessed and analyzed to compare risk to a conventionally fueled Mars Sample Return concept. Also compared are solar electric propelled missions to ascertain cost saving or advantages. Various mission departure dates will be proposed and analyzed.

  16. Potential hazards from floodflows in Wildrose Canyon, Death Valley National Monument, California-Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crippen, John R.

    1981-01-01

    Wildrose Canyon, in the western slopes of the Panamint Mountains , is a well-traveled route in Death Valley National Monument and is a scenic area often visited for its own sake. It is an arid region that is subject to flash flooding. Although such flooding is infrequent, when it occurs in the steep, narrow canyon within which the road lies, the flow of water and accompanying debris may be hazardous to life and to any obstacle in its path. Historical records of amounts of rainfall and floodflow in the area are sparse, but data from the basin and from similar areas in the desert mountains of southern California are sufficient to provide a basis for estimates of the degree of hazard. Potential hazards from floodflows are defined for Wildrose Canyon and its nearby approach routes. (USGS)

  17. A study on the use of planarity for quick identification of potential landslide hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, M. H.; Kim, T. H.

    2015-05-01

    In this study we focused on identifying a geomorphological feature that controls the location of landslides. The representation of the feature is based on a high-resolution digital elevation model derived from the airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and evaluated by the statistical analysis of axial orientation data. The main principle of this analysis is generating eigenvalues from axial orientation data and comparing them. The planarity, a ratio of eigenvalues, would tell the degree of irregularity on the ground surface based on their ratios. Results are compared to the recent landslide case in Korea in order to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology in identifying the potential landslide hazard. The preliminary landslide hazard assessment based on the planarity analysis discriminates features between stable and unstable domain in the study area well, especially in the landslide initiation zones. Results also show it is beneficial to build the landslide hazard inventory mapping, especially where no information on historical records of landslides exists. By combining other physical procedures such as geotechnical monitoring, the landslide hazard assessment using geomorphological features promises a better understanding of landslides and their mechanisms and provides an enhanced methodology to evaluate their hazards and appropriate actions.

  18. Addressing potential local adaptation in species distribution models: implications for conservation under climate change.

    PubMed

    Hällfors, Maria Helena; Liao, Jishan; Dzurisin, Jason; Grundel, Ralph; Hyvärinen, Marko; Towle, Kevin; Wu, Grace C; Hellmann, Jessica J

    2016-06-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have been criticized for involving assumptions that ignore or categorize many ecologically relevant factors such as dispersal ability and biotic interactions. Another potential source of model error is the assumption that species are ecologically uniform in their climatic tolerances across their range. Typically, SDMs treat a species as a single entity, although populations of many species differ due to local adaptation or other genetic differentiation. Not taking local adaptation into account may lead to incorrect range prediction and therefore misplaced conservation efforts. A constraint is that we often do not know the degree to which populations are locally adapted. Lacking experimental evidence, we still can evaluate niche differentiation within a species' range to promote better conservation decisions. We explore possible conservation implications of making type I or type II errors in this context. For each of two species, we construct three separate Max-Ent models, one considering the species as a single population and two of disjunct populations. Principal component analyses and response curves indicate different climate characteristics in the current environments of the populations. Model projections into future climates indicate minimal overlap between areas predicted to be climatically suitable by the whole species vs. population-based models. We present a workflow for addressing uncertainty surrounding local adaptation in SDM application and illustrate the value of conducting population-based models to compare with whole-species models. These comparisons might result in more cautious management actions when alternative range outcomes are considered. PMID:27509755

  19. Addressing potential local adaptation in species distribution models: implications for conservation under climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hällfors, Maria Helena; Liao, Jishan; Dzurisin, Jason D. K.; Grundel, Ralph; Hyvärinen, Marko; Towle, Kevin; Wu, Grace C.; Hellmann, Jessica J.

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have been criticized for involving assumptions that ignore or categorize many ecologically relevant factors such as dispersal ability and biotic interactions. Another potential source of model error is the assumption that species are ecologically uniform in their climatic tolerances across their range. Typically, SDMs to treat a species as a single entity, although populations of many species differ due to local adaptation or other genetic differentiation. Not taking local adaptation into account, may lead to incorrect range prediction and therefore misplaced conservation efforts. A constraint is that we often do not know the degree to which populations are locally adapted, however. Lacking experimental evidence, we still can evaluate niche differentiation within a species' range to promote better conservation decisions. We explore possible conservation implications of making type I or type II errors in this context. For each of two species, we construct three separate MaxEnt models, one considering the species as a single population and two of disjunct populations. PCA analyses and response curves indicate different climate characteristics in the current environments of the populations. Model projections into future climates indicate minimal overlap between areas predicted to be climatically suitable by the whole species versus population-based models. We present a workflow for addressing uncertainty surrounding local adaptation in SDM application and illustrate the value of conducting population-based models to compare with whole-species models. These comparisons might result in more cautious management actions when alternative range outcomes are considered.

  20. 42 CFR 137.160 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address...-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Conflicts of Interest § 137.160 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest? Yes, self-Governance Tribes participating in...

  1. 42 CFR 137.160 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address...-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Conflicts of Interest § 137.160 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest? Yes, self-Governance Tribes participating in...

  2. 42 CFR 137.160 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address...-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Conflicts of Interest § 137.160 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest? Yes, self-Governance Tribes participating in...

  3. 42 CFR 137.160 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address...-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Conflicts of Interest § 137.160 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest? Yes, self-Governance Tribes participating in...

  4. 42 CFR 137.160 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address...-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Conflicts of Interest § 137.160 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest? Yes, self-Governance Tribes participating in...

  5. Potential environmental impacts of light-emitting diodes (LEDs): metallic resources, toxicity, and hazardous waste classification.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are advertised as environmentally friendly because they are energy efficient and mercury-free. This study aimed to determine if LEDs engender other forms of environmental and human health impacts, and to characterize variation across different LEDs based on color and intensity. The objectives are as follows: (i) to use standardized leachability tests to examine whether LEDs are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing United States federal and California state regulations; and (ii) to use material life cycle impact and hazard assessment methods to evaluate resource depletion and toxicity potentials of LEDs based on their metallic constituents. According to federal standards, LEDs are not hazardous except for low-intensity red LEDs, which leached Pb at levels exceeding regulatory limits (186 mg/L; regulatory limit: 5). However, according to California regulations, excessive levels of copper (up to 3892 mg/kg; limit: 2500), Pb (up to 8103 mg/kg; limit: 1000), nickel (up to 4797 mg/kg; limit: 2000), or silver (up to 721 mg/kg; limit: 500) render all except low-intensity yellow LEDs hazardous. The environmental burden associated with resource depletion potentials derives primarily from gold and silver, whereas the burden from toxicity potentials is associated primarily with arsenic, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and silver. Establishing benchmark levels of these substances can help manufacturers implement design for environment through informed materials substitution, can motivate recyclers and waste management teams to recognize resource value and occupational hazards, and can inform policymakers who establish waste management policies for LEDs. PMID:21138290

  6. The reduction of a ""safety catastrophic'' potential hazard: A case history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    A worst case analysis is reported on the safety of time watch movements for triggering explosive packages on the lunar surface in an experiment to investigate physical lunar structural characteristics through induced seismic energy waves. Considered are the combined effects of low pressure, low temperature, lunar gravity, gear train error, and position. Control measures constitute a seal control cavity and design requirements to prevent overbanking in the mainspring torque curve. Thus, the potential hazard is reduced to safety negligible.

  7. The potential of an earthworm avoidance test for evaluation of hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yeardley, R.B. Jr.; Gast, L.C.; Lazorchak, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased sensitivity to hazardous chemicals. Avoidance is an ecologically relevant endpoint that neither acute nor sublethal tests measure. Avoidance can potentially indicate sublethal stress in a short period of time, testing is easily done in a soil matrix, and an avoidance test has the potential for specialized applications for soil testing. Dual-control test data established that, in absence of a toxicant, worms did not congregate, but instead distributed themselves fairly randomly with respect to the two sides of the test chambers, that is, they did not display behavior that might be mistaken for avoidance. In tests with artificial soil spiked with reference toxicants and hazardous site soils, worms avoided soils containing various toxic chemicals. Avoidance behavior proved in most cases be a more sensitive indicator of chemical contamination than acute tests. Determination of avoidance was possible in 1 to 2 d, much less than the current duration of acute and sublethal earthworm tests.

  8. Experimental investigation to evaluate the potential environmental hazards of photovoltaic panels.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, Marco; Salluzzo, Antonio; Rimauro, Juri; Schiavo, Simona; Manzo, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Recently the potential environmental hazard of photovoltaic modules together with their management as waste has attracted the attention of scientists. Particular concern is aroused by the several metals contained in photovoltaic panels whose potential release in the environment were scarcely investigated. Here, for the first time, the potential environmental hazard of panels produced in the last 30 years was investigated through the assessment of up to 18 releasable metals. Besides, the corresponding ecotoxicological effects were also evaluated. Experimental data were compared with the current European and Italian law limits for drinking water, discharge on soil and landfill inert disposal in order to understand the actual pollution load. Results showed that less than 3% of the samples respected all law limits and around 21% was not ecotoxic. By considering the technological evolutions in manufacturing, we have shown that during the years crystalline silicon panels have lower tendency to release hazardous metals with respect to thin film panels. In addition, a prediction of the amounts of lead, chromium, cadmium and nickel releasable from next photovoltaic waste was performed. The prevision up to 2050 showed high amounts of lead (30t) and cadmium (2.9t) releasable from crystalline and thin film panels respectively. PMID:26829098

  9. A feasibility study on the influence of the geomorphological feature in identifying the potential landslide hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, M. H.; Kim, T. H.

    2014-11-01

    In this study we focused on identifying geomorphological features that control the location of landslides. The representation of these features is based on a high resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model) derived from airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and evaluated by statistical analysis of axial orientation data. The main principle of this analysis is generating eigenvalues from axial orientation data and comparing them. The Planarity, a ratio of eigenvalues, would tell the degree of roughness on ground surface based on their ratios. Results are compared to the recent landslide case in Korea in order to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology in identifying the potential landslide hazard. The preliminary landslide assessment based on the Planarity analysis well discriminates features between stable and unstable domain in the study area especially in the landslide initiation zones. Results also show it is beneficial to build the preliminary landslide hazard especially inventory mapping where none of information on historical records of landslides is existed. By combining other physical procedures such as geotechnical monitoring, the landslide hazard assessment using geomorphological features will promise a better understanding of landslides and their mechanisms, and provide an enhanced methodology to evaluate their hazards and appropriate actions.

  10. Fiber contamination of vermiculites: a potential occupational and environmental health hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Moatamed, F.; Lockey, J.E.; Parry, W.T.

    1986-10-01

    Vermiculite ores from Montana, Virginia, and South Africa have been analyzed for the presence of amphibole contamination. Fibrous actinolite was found in unexpanded Montana vermiculite ore at a maximum concentration of 0.2%. The fibers persisted in the expanded ore at a maximum concentration of 0.6%. Actinolite was also found in the Virginia vermiculite ore but at a lower concentration and mostly as cleavage fragments with low length-to-width ratios. South African ore contained rare anthophyllite fibers also with low length-to-width ratios. Vermiculite ores have the potential for amphibole contamination and can represent potential health hazards without proper occupational and environmental control measures.

  11. The Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst: geographic information systems software for modeling hazard evacuation potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Ng, Peter; Wood, Nathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and tsunami; the 2013 Colorado floods; and the 2014 Oso, Washington, mudslide have raised awareness of catastrophic, sudden-onset hazards that arrive within minutes of the events that trigger them, such as local earthquakes or landslides. Due to the limited amount of time between generation and arrival of sudden-onset hazards, evacuations are typically self-initiated, on foot, and across the landscape (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012). Although evacuation to naturally occurring high ground may be feasible in some vulnerable communities, evacuation modeling has demonstrated that other communities may require vertical-evacuation structures within a hazard zone, such as berms or buildings, if at-risk individuals are to survive some types of sudden-onset hazards (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2013). Researchers use both static least-cost-distance (LCD) and dynamic agent-based models to assess the pedestrian evacuation potential of vulnerable communities. Although both types of models help to understand the evacuation landscape, LCD models provide a more general overview that is independent of population distributions, which may be difficult to quantify given the dynamic spatial and temporal nature of populations (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012). Recent LCD efforts related to local tsunami threats have focused on an anisotropic (directionally dependent) path distance modeling approach that incorporates travel directionality, multiple travel speed assumptions, and cost surfaces that reflect variations in slope and land cover (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012, 2013). The Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst software implements this anisotropic path-distance approach for pedestrian evacuation from sudden-onset hazards, with a particular focus at this time on local tsunami threats. The model estimates evacuation potential based on elevation, direction of movement, land cover, and travel speed and creates a map showing travel times to safety (a

  12. Persistence in earthworms and potential hazards to birds of soil applied DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Gish, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    (1) DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor were each applied to separate replicate plots in a hay field at 0.6, 2.2, or 9.0 kg/ha. For 11 yr thereafter, soil and earthworms were analysed for residues. (2) The average ratios of residues in earthworms (dry weight) to residues in soil (dry weight) were: total DDT, 5; dieldrin, 8; and heptachlor epoxide, 10. The average time for the initial residues in soil to be reduced by 50% were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 5.1 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.2 yr. The corresponding times for residues in earthworms were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 2.6 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.0 yr. (3) DDE was most persistent, and in plots treated at 9.0 kg/ha its concentration remained constant at about 0.4 ppm in soil and about 7 ppm in earthworms. (4) When applied at 9.0 kg/ha, DDT accumulated in earthworms to concentrations (32 ppm) which laboratory studies have shown to be hazardous to some sensitive bird species. When heptachlor was applied at 2.2 or 9.0 kg/ha, heptachlor epoxide in earthworms reached concentrations (8 ppm) potentially hazardous to woodcock. Dieldrin remained at potentially hazardous concentrations (8 ppm) for 3 yr in plots treated with 2.2 kg/ha and for 11 yr in plots treated with 9.0 kg/ha.

  13. Potential health risks from exposure to hazardous waste incinerator emissions -- Worst-case scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kosalwat, P.; Whitten, M.

    1995-12-31

    Potential health hazards to persons exposed to maximum permitted levels of air emissions from a hypothetical hazardous waste incinerator were investigated. By using extremely conservative assumptions, a multiple pathway, health risk assessment was performed for the facility. The procedures used to perform the risk analysis were based on US EPA ``Methodology for Assessing Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Combustor Emissions.`` Ambient air concentrations of chemicals in air approved dispersion model (ISCST model). The model is based on maximum (instantaneous) allowable emission rates for permitted constituents, which is likely to overstate exposures and resultant health risks associated with facility emissions. The analysis focused on 22 key chemicals which typically exist in emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. Exposure pathways included inhalation, soil contact, and consumption of locally derived food products (fruits and vegetables, beef, milk, and fish). The receptors were hypothetical residents living in an area of maximum air concentrations and deposition downwind of the facility. The results showed that the theoretical excess cancer risk levels for lifetime exposure to the incinerator emissions for residents was 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} (i.e., 1 in 100,000 exposed individuals), which is approximately one magnitude higher than EPA`s target risk level of 10{sup {minus}6} (i.e., 1 in 1 million exposed individuals) used for environmentally-related chemical exposures. Long-term exposure to noncarcinogenic chemicals potentially present in the emissions was not expected to result in adverse health effects for adults or children living in the immediate vicinity. Total hazard quotients which included oral, dermal, and inhalation exposures, were below unity (i.e., 0.30 and 0.26 for a maximally exposed child and a maximally exposed adult, respectively).

  14. Addressing Loss of Efficiency Due to Misclassification Error in Enriched Clinical Trials for the Evaluation of Targeted Therapies Based on the Cox Proportional Hazards Model

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chen-An; Lee, Kuan-Ting; Liu, Jen-pei

    2016-01-01

    A key feature of precision medicine is that it takes individual variability at the genetic or molecular level into account in determining the best treatment for patients diagnosed with diseases detected by recently developed novel biotechnologies. The enrichment design is an efficient design that enrolls only the patients testing positive for specific molecular targets and randomly assigns them for the targeted treatment or the concurrent control. However there is no diagnostic device with perfect accuracy and precision for detecting molecular targets. In particular, the positive predictive value (PPV) can be quite low for rare diseases with low prevalence. Under the enrichment design, some patients testing positive for specific molecular targets may not have the molecular targets. The efficacy of the targeted therapy may be underestimated in the patients that actually do have the molecular targets. To address the loss of efficiency due to misclassification error, we apply the discrete mixture modeling for time-to-event data proposed by Eng and Hanlon [8] to develop an inferential procedure, based on the Cox proportional hazard model, for treatment effects of the targeted treatment effect for the true-positive patients with the molecular targets. Our proposed procedure incorporates both inaccuracy of diagnostic devices and uncertainty of estimated accuracy measures. We employed the expectation-maximization algorithm in conjunction with the bootstrap technique for estimation of the hazard ratio and its estimated variance. We report the results of simulation studies which empirically investigated the performance of the proposed method. Our proposed method is illustrated by a numerical example. PMID:27120450

  15. Addressing vaccine hesitancy: The potential value of commercial and social marketing principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Glen J; Gellin, Bruce G; MacDonald, Noni E; Butler, Robb

    2015-08-14

    Many countries and communities are dealing with groups and growing numbers of individuals who are delaying or refusing recommended vaccinations for themselves or their children. This has created a need for immunization programs to find approaches and strategies to address vaccine hesitancy. An important source of useful approaches and strategies is found in the frameworks, practices, and principles used by commercial and social marketers, many of which have been used by immunization programs. This review examines how social and commercial marketing principles and practices can be used to help address vaccine hesitancy. It provides an introduction to key marketing and social marketing concepts, identifies some of the major challenges to applying commercial and social marketing approaches to immunization programs, illustrates how immunization advocates and programs can use marketing and social marketing approaches to address vaccine hesitancy, and identifies some of the lessons that commercial and non-immunization sectors have learned that may have relevance for immunization. While the use of commercial and social marketing practices and principles does not guarantee success, the evidence, lessons learned, and applications to date indicate that they have considerable value in fostering vaccine acceptance. PMID:25900132

  16. Volcano hazards and potential risks on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. C.; Winer, G. S.

    2009-05-01

    Volcano hazards and potential risks on St. Paul Island, Alaska, are assessed on the basis of the recent volcanic history of the island. The long-term frequency of volcanic eruptions is estimated using a count of 40 identifiable vents considered to represent separate eruptions. Assuming regular temporal spacing of these events during the period 360,000 to 3230 y.b.p., the estimated mean recurrence time is 0.11 × 10 - 3 eruption/year and the eruptive interval is approximately 8900 years. Volcano hazards on St. Paul are associated exclusively with the eruption of low viscosity alkali basaltic magma. The most important are lava flows, tephra fallout, and base surges. Other hazards include volcanic gases, seismicity and ground deformation associated with dike intrusion beneath rift zones, and explosive lava-water interactions along coastal regions and water-saturated ground. The general characteristics of past volcanism on St. Paul indicate that the most likely styles of future eruptions will be (1) Hawaiian-style eruptions with fire fountains and pahoehoe lava flows issuing from one of two polygenetic shield volcanoes on the island; (2) Strombolian-style, scoria cone-building eruptions with associated tephra fallout and eruption of short pahoehoe lava flows; and (3) explosive Surtseyan-style, phreatomagmatic eruptions initiating at some point along St. Paul's insular shelf. Given the relatively restricted range in volcanic phenomena on St. Paul, the most significant question regarding volcano hazard and risk assessment is whether future eruptions will be confined to the same region on the island as the most recent activity. If future activity follows the recent past, resulting volcano hazards will most likely be located at inland areas sufficiently far from habitation that they will pose little threat to life or property. An important caveat, however, is that St. Paul is constructed almost entirely from the products of volcanic eruptions with vents located all over

  17. Hazard Potential of Volcanic Flank Collapses Raised by New Megatsunami Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalho, R. S.; Winckler, G.; Madeira, J.; Helffrich, G. R.; Hipólito, A.; Quartau, R.; Adena, K.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale gravitational flank collapses of steep volcanic islands are hypothetically capable of triggering megatsunamis with highly catastrophic effects. Yet evidence for the existence and impact of collapsed-triggered megatsunamis and their run-up heights remains scarce and/or is highly contentious. Therefore a considerable debate still exists over the potential magnitude of collapse-triggered tsunamis and their inherent hazard. In particular, doubts still remain whether or not large-scale flank failures typically generate enough volume flux to result in megatsunamis, or alternatively operate by slow-moving or multiple smaller episodic failures with much lower tsunamigenic potential. Here we show that one of the tallest and most active oceanic volcanoes on Earth - Fogo, in the Cape Verde Islands - collapsed catastrophically and triggered a megatsunami with devastating near-field effects ~73,000 years ago. Our deductions are based on the recent discovery and cosmogenic 3He dating of tsunamigenic deposits - comprising fields of stranded megaclasts, chaotic conglomerates, and sand sheets - found on the adjacent Santiago Island, which attest to the impact of this megatsunami and document wave run-up heights exceeding 270 m. The evidence reported here implies that Fogo's flank failure involved at least one sudden and voluminous event that resulted in a megatsunami, in contrast to what has been suggested before. Our work thus provides another line of evidence that large-scale flank failures at steep volcanic islands may indeed happen catastrophically and are capable of triggering tsunamis of enormous height and energy. This new line of evidence therefore reinforces the hazard potential of volcanic island collapses and stands as a warning that such hazard should not be underestimated, particularly in areas where volcanic island edifices are close to other islands or to highly populated continental margins.

  18. Reactions of plutonium and uranium with water: Kinetics and potential hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Haschke, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    The chemistry and kinetics of reactions between water and the metals and hydrides of plutonium and uranium are described in an effort to consolidate information for assessing potential hazards associated with handling and storage. New experimental results and data from literature sources are presented. Kinetic dependencies on pH, salt concentration, temperature and other parameters are reviewed. Corrosion reactions of the metals in near-neutral solutions produce a fine hydridic powder plus hydrogen. The corrosion rate for plutonium in sea water is a thousand-fold faster than for the metal in distilled water and more than a thousand-fold faster than for uranium in sea water. Reaction rates for immersed hydrides of plutonium and uranium are comparable and slower than the corrosion rates for the respective metals. However, uranium trihydride is reported to react violently if a quantity greater than twenty-five grams is rapidly immersed in water. The possibility of a similar autothermic reaction for large quantities of plutonium hydride cannot be excluded. In addition to producing hydrogen, corrosion reactions convert the massive metals into material forms that are readily suspended in water and that are aerosolizable and potentially pyrophoric when dry. Potential hazards associated with criticality, environmental dispersal, spontaneous ignition and explosive gas mixtures are outlined.

  19. Prioritization of pharmaceuticals for potential environmental hazard through leveraging a large-scale mammalian pharmacological dataset.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Jason P; LaLone, Carlie A; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T

    2016-04-01

    The potential for pharmaceuticals in the environment to cause adverse ecological effects is of increasing concern. Given the thousands of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that can enter the aquatic environment through human and/or animal (e.g., livestock) waste, a current challenge in aquatic toxicology is identifying those that pose the greatest risk. Because empirical toxicity information for aquatic species is generally lacking for pharmaceuticals, an important data source for prioritization is that generated during the mammalian drug development process. Applying concepts of species read-across, mammalian pharmacokinetic data were used to systematically prioritize APIs by estimating their potential to cause adverse biological consequences to aquatic organisms, using fish as an example. Mammalian absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data (e.g., peak plasma concentration, apparent volume of distribution, clearance rate, and half-life) were collected and curated, creating the Mammalian Pharmacokinetic Prioritization For Aquatic Species Targeting (MaPPFAST) database representing 1070 APIs. From these data, a probabilistic model and scoring system were developed and evaluated. Individual APIs and therapeutic classes were ranked based on clearly defined read-across assumptions for translating mammalian-derived ADME parameters to estimate potential hazard in fish (i.e., greatest predicted hazard associated with lowest mammalian peak plasma concentrations, total clearance and highest volume of distribution, half-life). It is anticipated that the MaPPFAST database and the associated API prioritization approach will help guide research and/or inform ecological risk assessment. PMID:25772004

  20. Broad-band Photometry of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid 2006 DP14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, M.; Ebelhar, S.

    2014-02-01

    The nearr-Earth Asteroid (NEA) 2006 DP14 was discovered by the LINEAR asteroid discovery program on February 23, 2006 (MPEC 2006-D40). With a likely diameter on the order of ~500 meters and a Minimum Orbit Intersection Distance MOID = 0.016 AU, the object has been designated as a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) by the Minor Planet Center. Delay-doppler radar imaging was obtained by the JPL Planetary Radar Team at Goldstone on February 12, 2014 (http://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/2006DP14/2006DP14_planning.html).

  1. Investigating the composition of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids with the NEO-SURFACE survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ieva, S.; Dotto, E.; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Bernardi, F.; Perozzi, E.; Micheli, M.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Brucato, J. R.; Fornasier, S.; De Luise, F.; Rossi, A.

    2015-10-01

    There is a high degree of diversity among the physical properties of the Potentially Hazardous asteroids (PHAs). For these objects, the physical characterization is essential to define a successful mitigation mission, therefore ground-based surveys like NEO-SURFACE could provide a fundamental contribution. Our analysis suggest a prevalence of silicate S-types in the PHA population, which could be due in principle to the high efficiency of the transport mechanisms in the inner main belt, or to an observational bias due to the fact that S-types are brighter.

  2. Dynamics of data change on potentially hazardous asteroids, observed at one opposition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syusina, O. M.; Chernitsov, A. M.; Tamarov, V. A.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of creation of confidence region of the movement of an asteroid can be solved either in the linear or nonlinear way depending on degree of its nonlinearity. To make a right choice between us-ages of linear or nonlinear approach earlier we proposed to calculate the factor characterizing degree of nonlinearity of the solved problem [1]. Creation of confidence region of the movement of an asteroid means definition of initial region and its subsequent one-parametrical display in time. Wherein the correct approach to creation of initial region is determines the accuracy of the description of the probabilistic movement of an asteroid in general. In case of asteroids observed more than in one opposition, the prob-lem of definition of initial region, typically, is weakly nonlinear, and for its solution it is acceptable to use linear methods. In case of the asteroids observed only in one opposition, preliminary calculation of non-linearity factor plays an important role in a choice between linear or nonlinear methods. In our previous work [2] values of nonlinearity factor for all potentially hazardous asteroids, observed in one opposition, were determined according to the data published by the Minor Planet Center for March, 2014 [3]. The studied asteroids were broken into groups: with a factor of nonlinearity less than 0.01, in the range from 0.01 to 0.1, and more than 0.1. With this work we began to create constantly updating database "Poten-tially Hazardous Asteroids Observed in One Opposition" hosted on the site of department of astronomy and space geodesy of Tomsk state university (http://astro.tsu.ru). The database will contain factors of non-linearity and accuracy of models of the movement, and also an assessment of probability of collisions with Earth of all potentially hazardous asteroids observed in one opposition. The purpose of the given work is to track dynamics of change of the published by MPC data about such asteroids during the period from 2010

  3. Orbit of potentially hazardous asteroids using Gaia and ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, D.; Hestroffer, D.; Thuillot, W.

    2011-12-01

    Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are Near Earth Asteroids characterized by a Minimum Orbital Intersection Distance (MOID) with Earth less to 0,05 A.U and an absolute magnitude H<22. Those objects have sometimes a so significant close approach with Earth that they can be put on a chaotic orbit. This kind of orbit is very sensitive for exemple to the initial conditions, to the planetary theory used (for instance JPL's model versus IMCCE's model) or even to the numerical integrator used (Lie Series, Bulirsch-Stoer or Radau). New observations (optical, radar, flyby or satellite mission) can improve those orbits and reduce the uncertainties on the Keplerian elements.

  4. Coal seam gas water: potential hazards and exposure pathways in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Navi, Maryam; Skelly, Chris; Taulis, Mauricio; Nasiri, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of coal seam gas (CSG) produces large volumes of potentially contaminated water. It has raised concerns about the environmental health impacts of the co-produced CSG water. In this paper, we review CSG water contaminants and their potential health effects in the context of exposure pathways in Queensland's CSG basins. The hazardous substances associated with CSG water in Queensland include fluoride, boron, lead and benzene. The exposure pathways for CSG water are (1) water used for municipal purposes; (2) recreational water activities in rivers; (3) occupational exposures; (4) water extracted from contaminated aquifers; and (5) indirect exposure through the food chain. We recommend mapping of exposure pathways into communities in CSG regions to determine the potentially exposed populations in Queensland. Future efforts to monitor chemicals of concern and consolidate them into a central database will build the necessary capability to undertake a much needed environmental health impact assessment. PMID:24853090

  5. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-01-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds. PMID:12826482

  6. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-06-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds. PMID:12826482

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Taxonomy of potentially hazardous asteroids (Perna+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, D.; Dotto, E.; Ieva, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Bernardi, F.; Fornasier, S.; de Luise, F.; Perozzi, E.; Rossi, A.; Epifani, E. M.; Micheli, M.; Deshapriya, J. D. P.

    2016-07-01

    Observations of 14 Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) were carried out at the 3.6-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG, La Palma, Spain), the ESO 3.6-m New Technology Telescope (NTT, La Silla, Chile), and the NASA 3.0-m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF, Mauna Kea, USA). The observational circumstances, as well as the instrumentation used are given in Table1. According to the population model by Mainzer et al. (2012ApJ...752..110M), ~4700+/-1450 PHAs are expected to exist. To further investigate the PHA population as a whole, and in particular to verify how the different taxonomic types are distributed with respect to other physical and dynamical properties, we combined our results with the available literature. We started retrieving the European Asteroid Research Node (EARN; http://earn.dlr.de/; retrieved on 2015 April 28) database of Near-Earth Object (NEO) physical properties, selecting those 255 Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) with published taxonomic classifications. Of our 14 targets, 7 are classified in the present work for the first time, for a total sample of 262 targets to be considered in our analysis (see Table4). The results for our remaining seven targets are in agreement with the literature. (2 data files).

  8. Hazard potential of volcanic flank collapses raised by new megatsunami evidence.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Ricardo S; Winckler, Gisela; Madeira, José; Helffrich, George R; Hipólito, Ana; Quartau, Rui; Adena, Katherine; Schaefer, Joerg M

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale gravitational flank collapses of steep volcanic islands are hypothetically capable of triggering megatsunamis with highly catastrophic effects. Yet, evidence for the generation and impact of collapse-triggered megatsunamis and their high run-ups remains scarce or is highly controversial. Therefore, doubts remain on whether island flank failures truly generate enough volume flux to trigger giant tsunamis, leading to diverging opinions concerning the real hazard potential of such collapses. We show that one of the most prominent oceanic volcanoes on Earth-Fogo, in the Cape Verde Islands-catastrophically collapsed and triggered a megatsunami with devastating effects ~73,000 years ago. Our deductions are based on the recent discovery and cosmogenic (3)He dating of tsunamigenic deposits found on nearby Santiago Island, which attest to the impact of this giant tsunami and document wave run-up heights exceeding 270 m. The evidence reported here implies that Fogo's flank failure involved at least one fast and voluminous event that led to a giant tsunami, in contrast to what has been suggested before. Our observations therefore further demonstrate that flank collapses may indeed catastrophically happen and are capable of triggering tsunamis of enormous height and energy, adding to their hazard potential. PMID:26601287

  9. Hazard potential of volcanic flank collapses raised by new megatsunami evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Winckler, Gisela; Madeira, José; Helffrich, George R.; Hipólito, Ana; Quartau, Rui; Adena, Katherine; Schaefer, Joerg M.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale gravitational flank collapses of steep volcanic islands are hypothetically capable of triggering megatsunamis with highly catastrophic effects. Yet, evidence for the generation and impact of collapse-triggered megatsunamis and their high run-ups remains scarce or is highly controversial. Therefore, doubts remain on whether island flank failures truly generate enough volume flux to trigger giant tsunamis, leading to diverging opinions concerning the real hazard potential of such collapses. We show that one of the most prominent oceanic volcanoes on Earth—Fogo, in the Cape Verde Islands—catastrophically collapsed and triggered a megatsunami with devastating effects ~73,000 years ago. Our deductions are based on the recent discovery and cosmogenic 3He dating of tsunamigenic deposits found on nearby Santiago Island, which attest to the impact of this giant tsunami and document wave run-up heights exceeding 270 m. The evidence reported here implies that Fogo’s flank failure involved at least one fast and voluminous event that led to a giant tsunami, in contrast to what has been suggested before. Our observations therefore further demonstrate that flank collapses may indeed catastrophically happen and are capable of triggering tsunamis of enormous height and energy, adding to their hazard potential. PMID:26601287

  10. Tsunami Hazards along the Eastern Australian Coast from Potential Earthquakes: Results from Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, H. L.; Ding, R. W.; Yuen, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Australia is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean and, thus, may suffer from tsunamis due to its proximity to the subduction earthquakes around the boundary of Australian Plate. Potential tsunami risks along the eastern coast, where more and more people currently live, are numerically investigated through a scenario-based method to provide an estimation of the tsunami hazard in this region. We have chosen and calculated the tsunami waves generated at the New Hebrides Trench and the Puysegur Trench, and we further investigated the relevant tsunami hazards along the eastern coast and their sensitivities to various sea floor frictions and earthquake parameters (i.e. the strike, the dip and the slip angles and the earthquake magnitude/rupture length). The results indicate that the Puysegur trench possesses a seismic threat causing wave amplitudes over 1.5 m along the coast of Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales, and even reaching over 2.6 m at the regions close to Sydney, Maria Island, and Gabo Island for a certain worse case, while the cities along the coast of Queensland are potentially less vulnerable than those on the southeastern Australian coast.

  11. Evaluation of the Potential of NASA Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis in Global Landslide Hazard Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Landslides are one of the most widespread natural hazards on Earth, responsible for thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in property damage every year. In the U.S. alone landslides occur in every state, causing an estimated $2 billion in damage and 25- 50 deaths each year. Annual average loss of life from landslide hazards in Japan is 170. The situation is much worse in developing countries and remote mountainous regions due to lack of financial resources and inadequate disaster management ability. Recently, a landslide buried an entire village on the Philippines Island of Leyte on Feb 17,2006, with at least 1800 reported deaths and only 3 houses left standing of the original 300. Intense storms with high-intensity , long-duration rainfall have great potential to trigger rapidly moving landslides, resulting in casualties and property damage across the world. In recent years, through the availability of remotely sensed datasets, it has become possible to conduct global-scale landslide hazard assessment. This paper evaluates the potential of the real-time NASA TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) system to advance our understanding of and predictive ability for rainfall-triggered landslides. Early results show that the landslide occurrences are closely associated with the spatial patterns and temporal distribution of rainfall characteristics. Particularly, the number of landslide occurrences and the relative importance of rainfall in triggering landslides rely on the influence of rainfall attributes [e.g. rainfall climatology, antecedent rainfall accumulation, and intensity-duration of rainstorms). TMPA precipitation data are available in both real-time and post-real-time versions, which are useful to assess the location and timing of rainfall-triggered landslide hazards by monitoring landslide-prone areas while receiving heavy rainfall. For the purpose of identifying rainfall-triggered landslides, an empirical global rainfall intensity

  12. Influence of potential sea level rise on societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge hazards, Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, T.G.; Wood, N.; Yarnal, B.; Bauer, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the potential for hurricanes under current climatic conditions continue to threaten coastal communities, there is concern that climate change, specifically potential increases in sea level, could influence the impacts of future hurricanes. To examine the potential effect of sea level rise on community vulnerability to future hurricanes, we assess variations in socioeconomic exposure in Sarasota County, FL, to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to storm-surge hazards enhanced by sea level rise scenarios. Analysis indicates that significant portions of the population, economic activity, and critical facilities are in contemporary and future hurricane storm-surge hazard zones. The addition of sea level rise to contemporary storm-surge hazard zones effectively causes population and asset (infrastructure, natural resources, etc) exposure to be equal to or greater than what is in the hazard zone of the next higher contemporary Saffir-Simpson hurricane category. There is variability among communities for this increased exposure, with greater increases in socioeconomic exposure due to the addition of sea level rise to storm-surge hazard zones as one progresses south along the shoreline. Analysis of the 2050 comprehensive land use plan suggests efforts to manage future growth in residential, economic and infrastructure development in Sarasota County may increase societal exposure to hurricane storm-surge hazards. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Influence of potential sea level rise on societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge hazards, Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent; Bauer, Denise H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the potential for hurricanes under current climatic conditions continue to threaten coastal communities, there is concern that climate change, specifically potential increases in sea level, could influence the impacts of future hurricanes. To examine the potential effect of sea level rise on community vulnerability to future hurricanes, we assess variations in socioeconomic exposure in Sarasota County, FL, to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to storm-surge hazards enhanced by sea level rise scenarios. Analysis indicates that significant portions of the population, economic activity, and critical facilities are in contemporary and future hurricane storm-surge hazard zones. The addition of sea level rise to contemporary storm-surge hazard zones effectively causes population and asset (infrastructure, natural resources, etc) exposure to be equal to or greater than what is in the hazard zone of the next higher contemporary Saffir–Simpson hurricane category. There is variability among communities for this increased exposure, with greater increases in socioeconomic exposure due to the addition of sea level rise to storm-surge hazard zones as one progresses south along the shoreline. Analysis of the 2050 comprehensive land use plan suggests efforts to manage future growth in residential, economic and infrastructure development in Sarasota County may increase societal exposure to hurricane storm-surge hazards.

  14. Identifying and addressing potential conflict of interest: a professional medical organization's code of ethics.

    PubMed

    Heim, Lori

    2010-01-01

    The new Consumer Alliance agreement between the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) and The Coca-Cola Company provides a valuable opportunity to illustrate AAFP's adherence to its ethical foundation, demonstrate the AAFP's commitment to serving physicians and the public, and maintain the trust Americans put in their family physicians and the organization that represents them. Throughout the development of this program, as well as in all business interactions, the AAFP consistently addresses possible conflict of interest openly and directly, sharing with our members and the public exactly what measures we take to ensure that, in fact, no unethical conduct or breach of trust would--or will in the future--occur. In this case, the AAFP saw a public health and education need that was both unmet and undermined by the barrage of marketing messages and confusing information, and acted to fill that need. In so doing, the AAFP hewed to its high ethical standards, its core values, and its mission in the decisions made and the actions that followed. PMID:20644192

  15. REVIEW OF THE POTENTIAL OF NUCLEAR HYDROGEN FOR ADDRESSING ENERGY SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-06-01

    Nuclear energy has the potential to exert a major positive impact on energy security and climate change by coupling it to the transportation sector, primarily through hydrogen production. In the short term, this coupling will provide carbon-free hydrogen for upgrading increasingly lower quality petroleum resources such as oil sands, offsetting carbon emissions associated with steam methane reforming. In the intermediate term, nuclear hydrogen will be needed for large-scale production of infrastructure-compatible synthetic liquid fuels. In the long term, there is great potential for the use of hydrogen as a direct vehicle fuel, most likely in the form of light-duty pluggable hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. This paper presents a review of the potential benefits of large-scale nuclear hydrogen production for energy security (i.e. displacing imported petroleum) and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Lifecycle benefits of nuclear energy in this context are presented, with reference to recent major publications on this topic. The status of US and international nuclear hydrogen research programs are discussed. Industry progress toward consumer-grade hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are also be examined.

  16. Distribution of potentially hazardous phases in the subsurface at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    Drilling, trenching, excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility, and other surface and underground-distributing activities have the potential to release minerals into the environment from tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Some of these minerals may be potential respiratory health hazards. Therefore, an understanding of the distribution of the minerals that may potentially be liberated during site-characterization and operation of the potential repository is crucial to ensuring worker and public safety. Analysis of previously reported mineralogy of Yucca Mountain tuffs using data and criteria from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) suggests that the following minerals are of potential concern: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, opal-CT, erionite, mordenite, and palygorskite. The authors have re-evaluated the three-dimensional mineral distribution at Yucca Mountain above the static water level both in bulk-rock samples and in fractures, using quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Erionite, mordenite, and palygorskite occur primarily in fractures; the crystalline-silica minerals, quartz, cristobalite, and tridymite are major bulk-rock phases. Erionite occurs in the altered zone just above the lower Topopah Spring Member vitrophyre, and an occurrence below the vitrophyre but above the Calico Hills has recently been identified. In this latter occurrence, erionite is present in the matrix at levels up to 35 wt%. Mordenite and palygorskite occur throughout the vadose zone nearly to the surface. Opal-CT is limited to zeolitic horizons.

  17. Investigation of the behavior of potentially hazardous trace elements in Kentucky coals and combustion byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.D.; Blanchard, L.J.; Srikantapura, S.; Parekh, B.K.; Lafferty, C.J.

    1996-12-31

    The minor- and trace-element content of coal is of great interest because of the potentially hazardous impact on human health and the environment resulting from their release during coal combustion. Of the one billion tons of coal mined annually in the United States, 85-90% is consumed by coal-fired power plants. Potentially toxic elements present at concentrations as low as a few egg can be released in large quantities from combustion of this magnitude. Of special concern are those trace elements that occur naturally in coal which have been designated as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. The principle objective of this work was to investigate a combination of physical and chemical coal cleaning techniques to remove 90 percent of HAP trace elements at 90 percent combustibles recovery from Kentucky No. 9 coal. Samples of this coal were first subjected to physical separation by flotation in a Denver cell. The float fraction from the Denver cell was then used as feed material for hydrothermal leaching tests in which the efficacy of dilute alkali (NaOH) and acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions at various temperatures and pressures was investigated. The combined column flotation and mild chemical cleaning strategy removed 60-80% of trace elements with greater than 85, recovery of combustibles from very finely ground (-325 mesh) coal. The elemental composition of the samples generated at each stage was determined using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. PIXE is a rapid, instrumental technique that, in principle, is capable of analyzing all elements from sodium through uranium with sensitivities as low as 1 {mu}g/g.

  18. Tsunami hazards along Chinese coast from potential earthquakes in South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingchun; Santos, Angela; Wang, Shuo M.; Shi, Yaolin; Liu, Hailing; Yuen, David A.

    2007-08-01

    The pair of earthquakes off Taiwan on December 26, 2006 and the subsequent disruption of the Internet traffic have called attention to the potential destructive hazards along the Chinese coast from tsunamis. Historical records show past tsunami earthquakes in this region. Using GPS, earthquake focal mechanisms and geological evolution, we have delineated the dangerous zones in the Philippine Sea plate where major earthquakes may occur. The Manila Trench is identified as being most susceptible to future major earthquakes. We have obtained the local Gutenberg-Richter relationship for five sections along the Philippine Sea plate boundary and use this information for determining the probability distribution for tsunami waves of various heights to impinge on various Chinese cities. We devise a new method called the probabilistic forecast of tsunami hazard (PFTH), which determines this probability distribution by direct numerical simulation of the waves excited by hypothetical earthquakes in these zones. We have employed the linear shallow-water equations over the South China Sea. We have also compared them with results from the nonlinear version and found that the linear treatment serves our purpose sufficiently well. In the next century the probability of a wave with a height of over 2.0 m to hit near-coast ocean of Hong Kong and Macau is about 10%. Cities in Taiwan are less vulnerable than those on the mainland coast.

  19. Relationship between the start times of flares and CMEs to the time of potential radiation hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, G.; Zheng, Y.; Kuznetsova, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Solar flares, short-term outbursts of energy of the Sun, and coronal mass ejections (CME), massive bursts of solar matter, are two solar phenomena that are known to increase solar energetic particles in space. Increased solar energetic particles cause immense radiation that poses a serious threat to astronauts in space, radio communication signals, and passengers on high-latitude flights on the Earth. The relationship between the start times of flares and CMEs to the time of potential radiation hazards was investigated to determine how much warning time is available. Additionally, this project compared the difference between these relationships for four energy levels of solar energetic particles: proton flux exceeding 10 MeV, 30 MeV, 50 MeV and 100 MeV. This project gathered data of 22 recent SEP events between 2010 and 2012 and the parameters of associated CMEs and flares. Through the use of IDL (Interactive Data Language) programming, thorough analysis was conducted, including 2-sample t-tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests for 2 or more samples. The average lead time to warn humans of possible radiation hazard from the detection of a flare and a CME occurrence was found to be around 12 to 20 hours. The lead time was the greatest for the lowest energy level, though the differences in energy levels and that between the lead times for CME and flares were found to be statistically insignificant with p-values exceeding the alpha value of 0.20.

  20. The use of total detriment in radiation protection and its potential extension to other hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    Before publication of the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation protection standards were based on dose limits to single organs. These dose limits were only loosely linked to the expected effects in the first two generations from gonadal doses and to the risk of fatal cancer from doses to specific organs. In 1977, the ICRP recommended the use of the ``effective dose equivalent (EDE),`` which is a method of summing the doses (weighted with relative risk coefficients) to all organs and tissues, and recommended an annual limit for EDE. Since the 1977 recommendations were published, a ``total risk`` or total detriment approach has been extended to include nonfatal cancers and genetic effects for all subsequent generations, i.e., the total health detriment from low doses of ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the development of this total health detriment from ionizing radiation exposures, and explores potential methods for using it with other hazards (such as exposures to other physical agents, hazardous chemicals, and fatal and nonfatal accidents) in calculating the total detriment to a worker.

  1. The use of total detriment in radiation protection and its potential extension to other hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    Before publication of the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation protection standards were based on dose limits to single organs. These dose limits were only loosely linked to the expected effects in the first two generations from gonadal doses and to the risk of fatal cancer from doses to specific organs. In 1977, the ICRP recommended the use of the effective dose equivalent (EDE),'' which is a method of summing the doses (weighted with relative risk coefficients) to all organs and tissues, and recommended an annual limit for EDE. Since the 1977 recommendations were published, a total risk'' or total detriment approach has been extended to include nonfatal cancers and genetic effects for all subsequent generations, i.e., the total health detriment from low doses of ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the development of this total health detriment from ionizing radiation exposures, and explores potential methods for using it with other hazards (such as exposures to other physical agents, hazardous chemicals, and fatal and nonfatal accidents) in calculating the total detriment to a worker.

  2. Evaluation of radiation hazard potential of TENORM waste from oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Hilal, M A; Attallah, M F; Mohamed, Gehan Y; Fayez-Hassan, M

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a potential radiation hazard from TENORM sludge wastes generated during exploration and extraction processes of oil and gas was evaluated. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides (238)U, (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined in TENORM sludge waste. It was found that sludge waste from oil and gas industry is one of the major sources of (226)Ra in the environment. Therefore, some preliminary chemical treatment of sludge waste using Triton X-100 was also investigated to reduce the radioactivity content as well as the risk of radiation hazard from TENORM wastes. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra in petroleum sludge materials before and after chemical treatment were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average values of the activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra measured in the original samples were found as 8908 Bq kg(-1) and 933 Bq kg(-1), respectively. After chemical treatment of TENORM samples, the average values of the activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra measured in the samples were found as 7835 Bq kg(-1) and 574 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Activity concentration index, internal index, absorbed gamma dose rate and the corresponding effective dose rate were estimated for untreated and treated samples. PMID:24949581

  3. Kinematics, mechanics, and potential earthquake hazards for faults in Pottawatomie County, Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlmacher, G.C.; Berendsen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Many stable continental regions have subregions with poorly defined earthquake hazards. Analysis of minor structures (folds and faults) in these subregions can improve our understanding of the tectonics and earthquake hazards. Detailed structural mapping in Pottawatomie County has revealed a suite consisting of two uplifted blocks aligned along a northeast trend and surrounded by faults. The first uplift is located southwest of the second. The northwest and southeast sides of these uplifts are bounded by northeast-trending right-lateral faults. To the east, both uplifts are bounded by north-trending reverse faults, and the first uplift is bounded by a north-trending high-angle fault to the west. The structural suite occurs above a basement fault that is part of a series of north-northeast-trending faults that delineate the Humboldt Fault Zone of eastern Kansas, an integral part of the Midcontinent Rift System. The favored kinematic model is a contractional stepover (push-up) between echelon strike-slip faults. Mechanical modeling using the boundary element method supports the interpretation of the uplifts as contractional stepovers and indicates that an approximately east-northeast maximum compressive stress trajectory is responsible for the formation of the structural suite. This stress trajectory suggests potential activity during the Laramide Orogeny, which agrees with the age of kimberlite emplacement in adjacent Riley County. The current stress field in Kansas has a N85??W maximum compressive stress trajectory that could potentially produce earthquakes along the basement faults. Several epicenters of seismic events (

  4. Evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis potential for addressing radiological threats from a distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona, I.; Serrano, J.; Moros, J.; Laserna, J. J.

    2014-06-01

    Although radioactive materials are nowadays valuable tools in nearly all fields of modern science and technology, the dangers stemming from the uncontrolled use of ionizing radiation are more than evident. Since preparedness is a key issue to face the risks of a radiation dispersal event, development of rapid and efficient monitoring technologies to control the contamination caused by radioactive materials is of crucial interest. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) exhibits appealing features for this application. This research focuses on the assessment of LIBS potential for the in-situ fingerprinting and identification of radioactive material surrogates from a safe distance. LIBS selectivity and sensitivity to detect a variety of radioactive surrogates, namely 59Co, 88Sr, 130Ba, 133Cs, 193Ir and 238U, on the surface of common urban materials at a distance of 30 m have been evaluated. The performance of the technique for nuclear forensics has been also studied on different model scenarios. Findings have revealed the difficulties to detect and to identify the analytes depending on the surface being interrogated. However, as demonstrated, LIBS shows potential enough for prompt and accurate gathering of essential evidence at a number of sites after the release, either accidental or intentional, of radioactive material. The capability of standoff analysis confers to LIBS unique advantages in terms of fast and safe inspection of forensic scenarios. The identity of the radioactive surrogates is easily assigned from a distance and the sensitivity to their detection is in the range of a few hundreds of ng per square centimeter.

  5. Addressing geographic variability in the comparative toxicity potential of copper and nickel in soils.

    PubMed

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Rosenbaum, Ralph K; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hauschild, Michael Z

    2013-04-01

    Comparative toxicity potentials (CTP), in life cycle impact assessment also known as characterization factors (CF), of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) were calculated for a global set of 760 soils. An accessibility factor (ACF) that takes into account the role of the reactive, solid-phase metal pool in the soil was introduced into the definition of CTP. Geographic differences in fate, accessibility, bioavailability, and terrestrial toxicity were assessed by combining the USEtox characterization model, empirical regression models, and terrestrial biotic ligand models. The median CTPs for Cu and Ni with 95% geographic variability intervals are 1.4 × 10(3) (1.7 × 10(2) to 2.0 × 10(4)) and 1.7 × 10(3) (2.1 × 10(2) to 1.1 × 10(4)) m(3)/kg · day, respectively. The geographic variability of 3.5 orders of magnitude in the CTP of Cu is mainly associated with the variability in soil organic carbon and pH. They largely influence the fate and bioavailability of Cu in soils. In contrast, the geographic variability of 3 orders of magnitude in the CTP of Ni can mainly be explained by differences in pore water concentration of magnesium (Mg(2+)). Mg(2+) competes with Ni(2+) for binding to biotic ligands, influencing the toxicity. Our findings stress the importance of dealing with geographic variability in the calculation of CTPs for terrestrial ecotoxicity of metals. PMID:23445085

  6. Evaluation of high-level nuclear waste tanks having a potential flammable gas hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.; Barton, W.B.; Hill, R.C.; et al, Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-14

    In 1990 the U.S. Department of Energy declared an unreviewed safety question as a result of the behavior of tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gases that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-101 and the other tanks associated with a potential flammable gas hazard. This paper presents an overview of the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release and covers the results of direct sampling of the tanks to determine the gas composition and the amount of stored gas.

  7. Innovation in earthquake and natural hazards research: Determining soil liquefaction potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. B.; Yin, R. K.

    1984-11-01

    This case study analyzes how an innovation in earthquake and natural hazards research was used for practical and policy purposes, why utilization occurred, and what potential policy implications can be drawn. The innovation was the dynamic analysis method, used to identify those soils that are likely to liquefy during earthquakes. The research was designed and undertaken by H. Bolton Seed at the University of California at Berkeley during the 1960s. The research was a major breakthrough in engineering research: liquefaction had never before been reproduced in a laboratory. The work yielded quantitative information about the conditions under which liquefaction occurs. These data were then used to develop procedures for predicting liquefaction; eventually the need to test soil samples in the laboratory was eliminated.

  8. Zinc oxide nanoparticles in modern sunscreens: an analysis of potential exposure and hazard.

    PubMed

    Osmond, Megan J; McCall, Maxine J

    2010-03-01

    Sunscreens containing metal oxide nanoparticles appear transparent on the skin and provide excellent protection against sunburn caused by UV radiation. While it is likely that nanoparticles remain on the surface of the skin of healthy adult humans, and thus are considered safe for use in sunscreens, there has been no comprehensive assessment of the impact on human health from exposure to the metal oxide nanoparticles destined for use in sunscreens, either in the workplace during the manufacturing process, in long-term use across a range of skin conditions, or upon release into the broader environment, either accidentally or consequent of normal sunscreen use. In this review, we focus on zinc oxide nanoparticles destined for use in modern sunscreens, and discuss the potential for human exposure and the health hazard at each stage of their manufacture and use. We highlight where there is a need for further research. PMID:20795900

  9. Potential large wood-related hazards at bridges: the Czarny Dunajec River (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Hajdukiewicz, Maciej; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Besides high water levels in the drainage network and important channel changes, the transport of large quantities of wood material must be considered an additional factor of flood hazard in forested areas. At critical sections such as bridges, the effect of the transport and deposition of large quantities of wood during floods is mainly a reduction of the cross-sectional area, triggering a quick succession of backwater effects with inundation of the adjacent valley floor, bed aggradation, channel avulsion and local scouring processes that ultimately may cause embankment/bridge collapse and bank erosion. Therefore, the aim of this work is to analyse potential hazards related to wood transport and deposition in the reach of the Czarny Dunajec (Tatra Mountains foreland, Polish Carpathians) where the river flows through the village of Długopole. Buildings in the village are located very close to the river and the bridge has a very narrow cross-section and is thus threatened by wood-related phenomena. The approach is based on the combination of numerical modelling and field observations. A numerical model which simulates the transport of large wood together with flow dynamics is applied and inlet and boundary conditions are designed based on field observations. We established several scenarios for flow conditions and the wood transport. Results provided data to compute bridge clogging probability under the designed scenarios and the potential impacts of the clogging on hydrodynamics, flooded area and effects on the bridge. This information will be very useful for flood risk assessment and management of the river. This work was supported by the Polish-Swiss FLORIST project (Flood risk on the northern foothills of the Tatra Mountains; PSPB no. 153/2010).

  10. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. L.; Ito, Y.; Sawamukai, M.; Su, T.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits. The locations of land subsidence include areas near the coast, and it may increase the flood hazard potential. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard potential by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to prepare hazard maps for protecting the surface environment and for developing an appropriate land-use plan. In this study, flood hazard assessments at three different times, i.e., 1970, 2004, and 2013 are implemented by using a flood hazard model based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis with Geographical Information System techniques. The model incorporates six factors: elevation, depression area, river system, ratio of impermeable area, detention ponds, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 m resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30 000 scale river watershed maps, and precipitation data from observation stations around the study area and Radar data. The hazard assessment maps for each time are obtained by using an algorithm that combines factors with weighted linear combinations. The assignment of the weight/rank values and their analysis are realized by the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. This study is a preliminary work to investigate flood hazards on the Kujukuri Plain. A flood model will be developed to simulate more detailed change of the flood hazard influenced by land subsidence.

  11. Potential of low-temperature anaerobic digestion to address current environmental concerns on swine production.

    PubMed

    Massé, D I; Masse, L; Xia, Y; Gilbert, Y

    2010-04-01

    Environmental issues associated with swine production are becoming a major concern among the general public and are thus an important challenge for the swine industry. There is now a renewed interest in environmental biotechnologies that can minimize the impact of swine production and add value to livestock by-products. An anaerobic biotechnology called psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) has been developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This very stable biotechnology recovers usable energy, stabilizes and deodorizes manure, and increases the availability of plant nutrients. Experimental results indicated that PAD of swine manure slurry at 15 to 25 degrees C in intermittently fed SBR reduces the pollution potential of manure by removing up to 90% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The process performs well under intermittent feeding, once to 3 times a week, and without external mixing. Bioreactor feeding activities can thus be easily integrated into the routine manure removal procedures in the barn, with minimal interference with other farm operations and use of existing manure-handling equipment. Process stability was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in manure. The PAD process was efficient in eliminating populations of zoonotic pathogens and parasites present in raw livestock manure slurries. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in SBR could also be used for swine mortality disposal. The addition of swine carcasses, at loading rates representing up to 8 times the normal mortality rates on commercial farms, did not affect the stability of SBR. No operational problems were related to the formation of foam and scum. The biotechnology was successfully operated at semi-industrial and full commercial scales. Biogas production rate exceeded 0.20 L of methane per gram of total chemical oxygen demand fed to the SBR. The biogas was of excellent quality, with a methane concentration ranging from 70 to 80%. The

  12. Influence of soil texture on nutrients and potentially hazardous elements in Eremanthus erythropappus.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Maurilio Assis; Leite, Mariangela Garcia Praça; Kozovits, Alessandra Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors that control uptake rates and allocation of chemical elements among plant organs is a fundamental prerequisite to improve phytostabilization techniques of hazardous elements in contaminated areas. The present study shows evidence that different substrate textures (coarse and fine laterite) do not significantly change the partitioning of root and shoot dry biomass and with few exceptions, do not significantly affect the final average concentration of elements in Eremanthus erythropappus, but change the root:shoot allocation of both essential nutrients and elements potentially toxic to biota. Growth on coarse laterite resulted in significant higher K (30%), Mg (34%), P (25%), S (32%), Cu (58%), and Na (43%) concentrations in roots and lower Cd concentration (29%). In shoots, coarse laterite led to reduction in K, Fe, Al, and Cr and increase in Na and Sr concentrations. Changes in element allocation could be, in part, a result of differences in the water availability of substrates. Matric potential in coarse laterite was significantly lower in at least 47% of the days analyzed throughout the year. Changes in element phytoextraction or phytostabilization potential could influence the efficiency of rehabilitation projects in areas degraded by mining activities. PMID:26588605

  13. Quantifying potential tsunami hazard in the Puysegur subduction zone, south of New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, G.P.; Furlong, K.P.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of subduction zone seismogenesis and tsunami potential, particularly of large subduction zones, have recently seen a resurgence after the great 2004 earthquake and tsunami offshore of Sumatra, yet these global studies have generally neglected the tsunami potential of small subduction zones such as the Puysegur subduction zone, south of New Zealand. Here, we study one such relatively small subduction zone by analysing the historical seismicity over the entire plate boundary region south of New Zealand, using these data to determine the seismic moment deficit of the subduction zone over the past ~100 yr. Our calculations indicate unreleased moment equivalent to a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake, suggesting this subduction zone has the potential to host a great, tsunamigenic event. We model this tsunami hazard and find that a tsunami caused by a great earthquake on the Puysegur subduction zone would pose threats to the coasts of southern and western South Island, New Zealand, Tasmania and southeastern Australia, nearly 2000 km distant. No claim to original US government works Geophysical Journal International ?? 2010 RAS.

  14. Coastal Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on hurricanes and tsunamis and uses these topics to address other parts of the science curriculum. In addition to a discussion on beach erosion, a poster is provided that depicts these natural hazards that threaten coastlines. (DDR)

  15. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-09-07

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation).

  16. Biocides in hydraulic fracturing: hazard and vulnerability with respect to potential groundwater pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, Fred; Wilson, Miles; Davies, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Biocides are one possible chemical additive to frack fluids and their role is to control bacterial growth. Bacterial growth might lead to biofilm build up; and acid sulfide species and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production: biofilm build up may reduce formation permeability and hinder gas extraction. Kahrilas et al. (2014) published a review of common biocides used in fracking in the USA. The biocides assessed in the review were the sixteen most commonly used in the USA, based on the hydraulic fracturing chemical registry Frac Focus (Frac Focus, 2015). However, the review of Kahrilas et al. (2014) contained no data or observations and so the objective of this study was to consider whether biocides proposed for use in hydrofacturing could be a threat to English groundwater. The study considered all groundwater samples analysed for biocides in English groundwater between 2005 and 2014. The monitoring records were compared to: records of application (both amount and area); and chemical and molecular data for the biocides. The study did not use traditional adsorption and degradation data as these parameters are to prone to variability and are not pure molecular parameters. The study then used the approach of Worrall and Thomsen (2004) to consider the hazard represented by proposed frack biocides and the approach of Worrall and Kolpin (2003) to consider the vulnerability of the areas of potential shale gas exploitation. The study showed that of the 113 biocides tested for in English groundwaters in the decade 2005 - 2014 that 95 were detected above 0.1 g/l . Of these 95, 41 were compounds that were not recorded as being applied during the period of record and the detection of these 41 compounds did not decline over the 10 year period which implies very long residence times and that once compounds do pollute an aquifer then they will be a persistent problem. Furthermore, the solubility of the range of biocides used in frack fluids would imply a potentially higher hazard

  17. Tsunami hazard potential for the equatorial southwestern Pacific atolls of Tokelau from scenario-based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orpin, Alan R.; Rickard, Graham J.; Gerring, Peter K.; Lamarche, Geoffroy

    2016-05-01

    Devastating tsunami over the last decade have significantly heightened awareness of the potential consequences and vulnerability of low-lying Pacific islands and coastal regions. Our appraisal of the potential tsunami hazard for the atolls of the Tokelau Islands is based on a tsunami source-propagation-inundation model using Gerris Flow Solver, adapted from the companion study by Lamarche et al. (2015) for the islands of Wallis and Futuna. We assess whether there is potential for tsunami flooding on any of the village islets from a selection of 14 earthquake-source experiments. These earthquake sources are primarily based on the largest Pacific earthquakes of Mw ≥ 8.1 since 1950 and other large credible sources of tsunami that may impact Tokelau. Earthquake-source location and moment magnitude are related to tsunami-wave amplitudes and tsunami flood depths simulated for each of the three atolls of Tokelau. This approach yields instructive results for a community advisory but is not intended to be fully deterministic. Rather, the underlying aim is to identify credible sources that present the greatest potential to trigger an emergency response. Results from our modelling show that wave fields are channelled by the bathymetry of the Pacific basin in such a way that the swathes of the highest waves sweep immediately northeast of the Tokelau Islands. Our limited simulations suggest that trans-Pacific tsunami from distant earthquake sources to the north of Tokelau pose the most significant inundation threat. In particular, our assumed worst-case scenario for the Kuril Trench generated maximum modelled-wave amplitudes in excess of 1 m, which may last a few hours and include several wave trains. Other sources can impact specific sectors of the atolls, particularly distant earthquakes from Chile and Peru, and regional earthquake sources to the south. Flooding is dependent on the wave orientation and direct alignment to the incoming tsunami. Our "worst-case" tsunami

  18. Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, H; DE VRIES, W R; VANBERGE-HENEGOUW..., G; AKKERMANS, L

    2001-01-01

    G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN, L M A AKKERMANS Gastrointestinal Research Unit
Departments of Surgery and Gastroenterology
University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
 This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20-50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive events. Nevertheless, these acute symptoms are transient and do not hamper the athlete's health in the long term. The only exception is repeated gastrointestinal bleeding during training and competition, which in the long term may occasionally lead to iron deficiency and anaemia. In contrast, repetitive exercise periods at a relatively low intensity may have protective effects on the gastrointestinal tract. There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%. Less convincing evidence exists for cholelithiasis and constipation. Physical activity may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and inflammatory bowel disease although this cannot be substantiated firmly. Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine alterations, increased gastrointestinal motility, and mechanical bouncing during exercise are postulated. Future research on exercise associated digestive processes should give more insight into the relationship between physical activity and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.

 PMID:11171839

  19. Main-Belt Source Regions for Potentially Hazardous Near-Earth Asteroids and Sample Return Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, F. E.; Burt, B. J.; Polishook, D.; Burbine, T. H.; Moskovitz, N.; Bus, S. J.; Tokunaga, A.; Birlan, M.

    2015-11-01

    Spectroscopic and taxonomic information is now available for more than 1000 near-Earth objects (NEOs), thanks in large measure to the NASA IRTF long-term NEO spectral reconnaissance program we call the MIT-Hawaii Near-Earth Object Spectroscopic Survey (MITHNEOS) [1]. This sample comprises about 10% of the total NEO population, including Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs), and finds that all defined main-belt asteroid classes are also present within the near-Earth population. Using this largest available NEO dataset and dynamic source region models (such as [2]) we will present new results on the provenance of PHAs, source regions for each of the asteroid taxonomic classes, and pinpoint sources for major meteorite classes such as H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites. In finding these correlations, we find that source region signatures for B-, C-, and Cg-type NEOs include Jupiter family comets, further adding interest to the sampling of these classes by impending missions [3, 4]. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation Grant 0907766 and NASA Grant NNX10AG27G.[1] Tokunaga, A. et al. (2006) BAAS 38, 59.07. [2] Bottke, W.F. et al. (2002), Icarus 156, 399. [3] Lauretta, D. S. et al. (2015), MAPS 50, 834. [4] Abe, M. et al. (2012) 39th COSPAR, Abstract H0.2-7-12.

  20. Assessment of DSN Communication Coverage for Space Missions to Potentially Hazardous Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Bittner, David; Gati, Frank; Bhasin, Kul

    2012-01-01

    A communication coverage gap exists for Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas. This communication coverage gap is on the southern hemisphere, centered at approximate latitude of -47deg and longitude of -45deg. The area of this communication gap varies depending on the altitude from the Earth s surface. There are no current planetary space missions that fall within the DSN communication gap because planetary bodies in the Solar system lie near the ecliptic plane. However, some asteroids orbits are not confined to the ecliptic plane. In recent years, Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) have passed within 100,000 km of the Earth. NASA s future space exploration goals include a manned mission to asteroids. It is important to ensure reliable and redundant communication coverage/capabilities for manned space missions to dangerous asteroids that make a sequence of close Earth encounters. In this paper, we will describe simulations performed to determine whether near-Earth objects (NEO) that have been classified as PHAs fall within the DSN communication coverage gap. In the study, we reviewed literature for a number of PHAs, generated binary ephemeris for selected PHAs using JPL s HORIZONS tool, and created their trajectories using Satellite Took Kit (STK). The results show that some of the PHAs fall within DSN communication coverage gap. This paper presents the simulation results and our analyses

  1. Potential Health Hazards from Microbial Aerosols in Densely Populated Urban Regions

    PubMed Central

    Cronholm, Lois S.

    1980-01-01

    Aerosolized bacteria were recovered up to 930 m downwind of three sewage treatment plants in Jefferson County, Ky. This distance includes homes in the proximity of several hundred such plants in that county. Bacterial counts were elevated on foliage near activated sludge tanks; although these counts decreased rapidly, at 48 h after exposure they were significantly higher than the counts on unexposed leaves. The 50% lethal dose of aerosolized Klebsiella pneumoniae was comparable to the 50% lethal dose of a virulent clinical isolate, and enteric bacteria were recovered from the respiratory organs of mice after forced inhalation adjacent to an aerated sludge tank. The coliform density in the effluents of the plants tested was inversely related to the airborne bacterial load at those plants. This relationship was attributed to the correlation between effluent quality and extent of aeration of activated sludge. Wind direction and distance influenced the airborne counts, but the extreme variation in counts indicates that it is not possible to predict emission rates accurately in an open ecosystem. Airborne enteric bacteria also were isolated near a decorative fountain used by humans for wading. The discovery of these sources of aerosolized microorganisms from polluted waters in densely populated areas suggests that a potential health hazard may be created by the increased probability of inhaling and ingesting microorganisms of fecal origin. Images PMID:6986851

  2. Household hazardous wastes as a potential source of pollution: a generation study.

    PubMed

    Ojeda-Benítez, Sara; Aguilar-Virgen, Quetzalli; Taboada-González, Paul; Cruz-Sotelo, Samantha E

    2013-12-01

    Certain domestic wastes exhibit characteristics that render them dangerous, such as explosiveness, flammability, spontaneous combustion, reactivity, toxicity and corrosiveness. The lack of information about their generation and composition hinders the creation of special programs for their collection and treatment, making these wastes a potential threat to human health and the environment. We attempted to quantify the levels of hazardous household waste (HHW) generated in Mexicali, Mexico. The analysis considered three socioeconomic strata and eight categories. The sampling was undertaken on a house-by-house basis, and hypothesis testing was based on differences between two proportions for each of the eight categories. In this study, HHW comprised 3.49% of the total generated waste, which exceeded that reported in previous studies in Mexico. The greatest quantity of HHW was generated by the middle stratum; in the upper stratum, most packages were discarded with their contents remaining. Cleaning products represent 45.86% of the HHW generated. Statistical differences were not observed for only two categories among the three social strata. The scarcity of studies on HHW generation limits direct comparisons. Any decrease in waste generation within the middle social stratum will have a large effect on the total amount of waste generated, and decrease their impact on environmental and human health. PMID:24293231

  3. Potentially hazardous elements in coal: Modes of occurrence and summary of concentration data for coal components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Mode-of-occurrence data are summarized for 13 potentially hazardous elements (Be, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Hg, Pb, Th, U) in coal. Recent work has refined mode-of-occurrence data for Ni, Cr, and As, as compared to previous summaries. For Cr, dominant modes of occurrence include the clay mineral illite, an amorphous CrO(OH) phase, and Cr-bearing spinels. Nickel is present in Fe-sulfides (pyrite and marcasite) and is also organically bound. Arsenic-bearing pyrite may be the dominant host of As in bituminous coals. Concentration data for the 13 HAPs, obtained primarily by quantitative microanalysis techniques, are compiled for mineral and organic portions of coal. HAPs element concentrations are greatest in Fe-sulfides, and include maxima of 2,300 ppm (Co), 4,500 ppm (Ni), 4.9wt.% (As), 2,000 ppm (Se), 171 ppm (Hg), and 5,500 ppm (Pb). Trace-element microanalysis is a significant refinement over bulk methods, and shows that there is considerable trace-element variation on a fine scale for a given coal, and from one coal to another. ?? 1998 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) N.V. Published by license under the Gordon and Breach Science Publishers imprint.

  4. Evaluation of potential health hazards caused by laser and rf surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Hansjoerg; Waesche, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    The aim is the assessment of potential health hazards of patients and medical staff which may be caused by inhalation of the vapors and aerosols produced. In vitro investigations have been carried out to study the process of laser- and rf-surgery induced vaporization of various tissue types to identify the large variety of pyrolytic substances, to calibrate the analytical equipment and to determine typical amounts of selected substances during the treatment. The organic compounds include acetate esters, aldehydes, nitriles, aromatics and ketones and have been analyzed by spectroscopic and gas chromatography techniques. Distribution studies of VOCs and aerosols in operating rooms revealed that concentrations of VOCs such as toluene, pyrrole, aldehyde are measured which are well below of any threshold limit values by some orders of magnitude. But in case of aerosols 5 minutes of tissue vaporization leads to concentrations for 30 min. which are similar to limit values for inert dust. But plume aerosols consists of complex mixtures of condensed pyrolysis products which will be investigated further by biomonitoring tests.

  5. The potential role of earthworms in toxicity assessment of terrestrial hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Venables, B.J.

    1994-12-31

    Understanding the toxic potential and mechanisms of action of environmental xenobiotics is fundamental for assessing risk to public and environmental health. Current established protocols with earthworms focus primarily on defining the lethal effects of chemicals associated with soil contamination. Development of sublethal assays, until recently, has been largely ignored. Here the authors develop rationale for use of earthworms as a model organism for comprehensive assessment of risks to higher wildlife from contaminated soils and hazardous waste sites. They present a panel of lethal (LC/LD50`s) and sublethal measurement endpoint biomarkers, developed within the framework of the National Toxicology Program`s tiered immunotoxicity protocol for mice and according to published criteria for good measurement endpoints, that represent sensitive phylogenetically-conserved processes. Specifically the authors discuss immunosuppressive effects of terrestrial heavy metal and organic contamination on the innate, nonspecific and specific immune responses of earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, coelomocytes in terms of total and differential cell counts, lysozyme activity, nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, phagocytic activity and secretary rosette formation. Findings indicate that sensitive phylogenetically conserved immune responses present in invertebrates can be used to assess or predict risk to wildlife from contaminated soils.

  6. Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R.; Pfeifer, D.; Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M.; Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P.; Schaefer, W.R.

    2012-05-01

    Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17β-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ► We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ► 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak

  7. EVALUATION AND TESTING OF A PROTOCOL TO DETERMINE THE AEROBIC DEGRADATION POTENTIAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE CONSTITUENTS IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Agriculture is currently testing a protocol for determine the "Aerobic Degradation Potential of Hazardous Organic Constituents in Soil" to ensure its reliability, accuracy, cost effectivenes...

  8. Risk evolution: how can changes in the built environment influence the potential loss of natural hazards?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwendtner, B.; Papathoma-Köhle, M.; Glade, T.

    2013-09-01

    Alpine areas often suffer significant loss and damage due to a range of natural processes such as landslides, debris flows, snow avalanches or floods. Sealing of the soil surface, settling in endangered areas and enhanced human intervention in the natural settings, as well as socio-economic changes, increase the risk and susceptibility of built environments to natural hazards and the costs of the consequences in a spatio-temporal context. The present study examines the loss estimation of a particular debris flow event for different points in time. The event occurred in August 1987, affected the municipality Martell in South Tyrol, Italy, and resulted in a total cost of € 25 million. The approach presented in this paper focuses on the changes of the land use and settlement expansion in the area since 1954 and attempts to assess the monetary impact of a similar event, which could have happened before (1954, 1985) or following the actual event (1992, 1999, 2006). The method applied is based on the use of a vulnerability curve which was developed for the specific area, based on the documentation of the damage of the 1987 event. Based on this curve, a loss estimation was carried out in order to visualise the risk evolution in a period of 52 yr (1954 to 2006). The results show a significant increase in the extent of the built environment (number, size and value of buildings) which consequently reflect an increase of the potential overall loss through the years. The method can be used in order to assess the potential loss for future scenarios based on different spatial patterns of the built environment.

  9. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  10. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Devices, Potential Navigational Hazards and Mitigation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

    2009-12-01

    On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies. A technical report addressing our findings is available on this Science and Technology Information site under the Product Title, "Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures". This product is a brochure, primarily for project developers, that summarizes important issues in that more comprehensive report, identifies locations where that report can be downloaded, and identifies points of contact for more information.

  11. Portable medical status system. [potential hazards in the use of the telecare system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, O. C.

    1976-01-01

    The hazards inherent in the Portable Medical Status System are identified, and the measures taken to reduce them to an acceptable level are described. Identification of these hazards is a prerequisite to use of the system on humans in the earth environment. One hazard which is insufficiently controlled and which is considered a constraint to use on humans is the level of current possible in the electrodes for the EEG (electroencephalograph) circuitry. It exceeds the maximum specified. A number of procedural and design recommendations for enhancement of safety are made.

  12. Secondary Education Systemic Issues: Addressing Possible Contributors to a Leak in the Science Education Pipeline and Potential Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Hollie

    2005-06-01

    To maintain the legacy of cutting edge scientific innovation in the United States our country must address the many pressing issues facing science education today. One of the most important issues relating to science education is the under-representation of African Americans and Hispanics in the science, technology, and engineering workforce. Foreshadowing such under-representation in the workforce are the disproportionately low rates of African American and Hispanic students attaining college degrees in science and related fields. Evidence suggests disparate systemic factors in secondary science education are contributing to disproportionately low numbers of African American and Hispanic students in the science education pipeline. The present paper embarks on a critical analysis of the issue by elucidating some of the systemic factors within secondary education that contribute to the leak in the science education pipeline. In addition, this review offers a synthesis and explication of some of the policies and programs being implemented to address disparate systemic factors in secondary schools. Finally, recommendations are offered regarding potential mechanisms by which disparities may be alleviated.

  13. Burnout in Counseling Practice: Some Potential Professional and Personal Hazards of Becoming a Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Defines the syndrome of burnout and discusses some of the professional and personal hazards that confront the practicing counselor. Examines intrapersonal and interpersonal difficulties which result from burnout. Provides suggestions for dealing with burnout. (Author/RC)

  14. EU alerting and reporting systems for potential chemical public health threats and hazards.

    PubMed

    Orford, R; Crabbe, H; Hague, C; Schaper, A; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    A number of European and international IT platforms are used to notify competent authorities of new potential chemical exposures. Recently the European Parliament and the Council of European Union adopted new legislation that aims to improve the co-ordinated response to cross border health threats (Decision 1082/2013/EU). The Decision, inter alia, sets provisions on notification, ad hoc monitoring and coordination of public health measures following serious cross border threats to health from biological, chemical and environmental events as well as events that have an unknown origin. The legal instrument applies to all European Union Member States and is comparable to the International Health Regulations in its content, requirements and adoption of a multiple hazards approach. An inter-sectoral and multidisciplinary response to events with potentially dangerous cross border exposure pathways is often required. For example, European Poisons Centres may be aware of cases of toxic exposure to a product and, in parallel, trading standards may be aware of the same product due to a breach of consumer product standards. Whilst both cases would have been recorded for separate purposes in different alerting systems, they relate to the same exposure pathway; therefore a process for linking these records would allow a more robust approach to risk assessment and risk mitigation. The Decision seeks to reconcile this issue for serious threats by linking relevant platforms into one overarching higher level risk management IT platform called the Early Warning Response System (EWRS). This system will serve to link other sectors within the European Commission (EC) to public health (e.g. medicines), as well as other EU agencies and international bodies via co-notification features. Other European alert systems will be linked to EWRS to facilitate information sharing at both the assessment and management levels. This paper provides a timely overview of the main systems run by the EC

  15. Assessment of existing and potential landslide hazards resulting from the April 25, 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Jibson, Randall W.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a detailed account of assessments performed in May and June 2015 and focuses on valley-blocking landslides because they have the potential to pose considerable hazard to many villages in Nepal. First, we provide a seismological background of Nepal and then detail the methods used for both external and in-country data collection and interpretation. Our results consist of an overview of landsliding extent, a characterization of all valley-blocking landslides identified during our work, and a description of video resources that provide high resolution coverage of approximately 1,000 kilometers (km) of river valleys and surrounding terrain affected by the Gorkha earthquake sequence. This is followed by a description of site-specific landslide-hazard assessments conducted while in Nepal and includes detailed descriptions of five noteworthy case studies. Finally, we assess the expectation for additional landslide hazards during the 2015 summer monsoon season.

  16. Potential hazards from floodflows and debris movement in the Furnace Creek area, Death Valley National Monument, California-Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crippen, John R.

    1979-01-01

    Death Valley is known as the driest and hottest region in the United States. Despite the aridity of the valley itself, however , very heavy rainfall sometimes occurs in the nearby mountains. Such violent rainstorms are likely to be of relatively short duration and to occur over rather small areas; nevertheless, they sometimes produce large floodflows that in turn cause severe erosion and flows of debris. The debris-laden flows may be hazardous to life and property. Given sufficient knowledge of the hydrologic and hydraulic environment, the degree of hazard can be estimated. Potential hazards are defined for areas in the vicinity of the Furnace Creek fan and the Park Service residential area. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Potential Hazards of Tsunami Waves along the Chinese coast in the next 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Yuen, D. A.; Sevre, E. O.; Shi, Y.

    2007-12-01

    In the next 100 years the Chinese coast faces potentially non-negligible danger from tsunamogenic earthquakes originating at the neighboring subducting plate boundaries in the Phillipines and the Ryukyu Islands. There are significant differences in the bottom bathymetry between the South China Sea bordering the southern province of Guangdong and the East China Sea and Yellow Sea adjacent to the provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shandong. We have found that the linear shallow-water equations can be used to predict with good enough accuracy the travel time of tsunami waves in the South China Sea, but the nonlinear shallow-water equations must be used for the shallower seas next to the northern Chinese provinces. There are some differences in the travel time predictions between the linear and nonlinear theories for the Yellow Sea region. This difference is enough to make a difference in terms of warning. We will use our newly developed probability method, called the probabilistic forecast of tsunami hazards ( PFTH ) for predicting the danger of tsunami waves with a certain height of around 2 meters to impinge on the cities along the Chinese coast in the next century.We have used the Gutenberg-Richter relationship applied locally to each locale for evaluating the probability of the seismic risk for large earthquakes, greater than magnitude 7. We have only included the frequency of shallow large earthquakes to take place . For the southern cities of Hong Kong and Macau, we found that the probability of a 2 meter wave to hit these ports is around 10 % in the next century. Cities in Taiwan are less vulnerable than the large coastal cities on the Chinese mainland. The probability results for the northern cities of Shanghai and Qingdao are around a few per cent for smaller wave heights like one meter or so. But even these smaller waves can be damaging --

  18. Sensitive bioassay for detection of PPARα potentially hazardous ligands with gold nanoparticle probe.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Wan, Yan-Jian; Wang, Xianliang; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Wen-Jie; Wang, Chun-Xiang; Xu, Shun-qing

    2011-09-15

    There are so many kinds of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) ligands with hazardous effect for human health in the environment, such as certain herbicides, plasticizers and drugs. Among these agonists, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) are mostly investigated due to their persistence and accumulation in environment and their potential toxicity via PPARα. This investigation aims at developing a bioassay method to detect PPARα ligands based on the ligand-receptor interaction on microplate. PPARα, which formed heterodimers with retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα), were activated by PPARα ligands to form ligands-PPARα-RXRα complexes. Then the complexes were transferred into a microplate and captured via monoclonal anti-PPARα antibody. The PPARα responsive elements (PPRE) modified-gold nanoparticle probes were captured by the ligand-PPARα-RXRα complexes immobilized on the microplate, and then could be quantified through measuring the optical density after silver enhancement. The results showed that PFOS was quantified with a linear range from 100 pM to 1 μM and the detection limit was 10 pM. In addition to PFOS, PFOA and MEHP were also quantified within a proper range through the proposed bioassay. This bioassay was compared with that of liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for water spiked samples with a significant correlation (r = 0.9893). This study provides a high-throughput detection method for PPARα ligands in microplate with high sensitivity and wide linear range. It may serve as an assistant of LC-MS for prescreening of PPARα ligands like PFOS. PMID:21726938

  19. Constraining Composition of Potentially-Hazardous Asteroid 2006 WH1 via Near-IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Gaffey, M. J.; Binzel, R. P.; Hardersen, P. S.; Kumar, S.

    2007-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of potentially-hazardous asteroid (PHA) 2006 WH1 were obtained remotely on December 22, 2006 UT, using the SpeX instrument at NASA IRTF on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i. Near-IR spectrum of 2006 WH1 displays a deep band I feature (band depth 25%) and a weaker band II (band depth 10%) suggesting the presence of the mineral pyroxene in the surface assemblage. The estimated band I and II centers are 0.96±0.005 µm and 2.00±0.01 µm respectively, with a BAR of 0.6±0.1. Weak inflection at 1.30-µm could be due to olivine, plagioclase feldspar or high-Fe pyroxene. 2006 WH1 plots above the pyroxene trend line on the band-band plot (Adams, 1974, Cloutis & Gaffey, 1991) indicating the presence of olivine along with pyroxene. Upon applying the band I displacement correction of 0.032 µm for olivine (Gaffey et al., 2002), the object's band I drops on to the pyroxene trend line strengthening the case of the presence of olivine. Using methods developed by Cloutis et al., (1986), the estimated amount of pyroxene in a pyroxene + olivine mixture is 0.30±0.05%. The estimated pyroxene chemistry suggests either a eucrite-like pyroxene or the presence of three pyroxenes (low Fe, Ca orthopyroxene; low Fe augite and Eucrite-like pigeonite). Such chemistry supports the presence of a possible non-chondritic surface assemblage on 2006 WH1, while not excluding the remote plausibility of an LL-chondrite-type assemblage. The authors would like to thank NASA IRTF for providing Target of Opportunity observing time for observing 2006 WH1 flyby. This research was supported by NASA Near-Earth Objects Observations Program grant NNG04GI17G and GSA PGD Eugene M. Shoemaker Impact Cratering Award.

  20. Distribution of potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Shanxi province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, J.Y.; Zheng, C.G.; Ren, D.Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.; Zeng, R.-S.; Wang, Z.P.; Zhao, F.H.; Ge, Y.T.

    2004-01-01

    Shanxi province, located in the center of China, is the biggest coal base of China. There are five coal-forming periods in Shanxi province: Late Carboniferous (Taiyuan Formation), Early Permian (Shanxi Formation), Middle Jurassic (Datong Formation), Tertiary (Taxigou Formation), and Quaternary. Hundred and ten coal samples and a peat sample from Shanxi province were collected and the contents of 20 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) (As, B, Ba, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography spectrometry, and wet chemical analysis. The result shows that the brown coals are enriched in As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, F and Zn compared with the bituminous coals and anthracite, whereas the bituminous coals are enriched in B, Cl, Hg, and the anthracite is enriched in Cl, Hg, U and V. A comparison with world averages and crustal abundances (Clarke values) shows that the Quaternary peat is highly enriched in As and Mo, Tertiary brown coals are highly enriched in Cd, Middle Jurassic coals, Early Permian coals and Late Carboniferous coals are enriched in Hg. According to the coal ranks, the bituminous coals are highly enriched in Hg, whereas Cd, F and Th show low enrichments, and the anthracite is also highly enriched in Hg and low enrichment in Th. The concentrations of Cd, F, Hg and Th in Shanxi coals are more than world arithmetic means of concentrations for the corresponding elements. Comparing with the United States coals, Shanxi coals show higher concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, Se and Th. Most of Shanxi coals contain lower concentrations of PHTEs. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Compositional Investigation of Binary Potentially-Hazardous Asteroid 2008 BT18: A Basaltic Achondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Emery, J. P.; Gaffey, M. J.

    2008-09-01

    The binary nature of potentially-hazardous asteroid (PHA) 2008 BT18 was discovered during radar observations on July 6 and 7, 2008, from the Arecibo observatory. The primary has a diameter of 600 meters with a rotation period 2.57 hours (Pravec, Pers. Comm.) and the secondary has a diameter of >200; meters (CBET 1450). Near-IR spectroscopic observations of 2008 BT18 were obtained remotely using the SpeX instrument on NASA IRTF on July 26 UT, 2008. The data were reduced based on reduction techniques developed by Gaffey et al. (2003). The near-IR spectrum (0.7-2.5 µm) of 2008 BT18 shows deep band I (band depth 62±1%) and an equally deep band II (band depth 48±1%). The estimated band I and II centers are 0.926±0.001 µm and 1.94±0.01 µm respectively, with a band area ratio (BAR) of 2.0±0.1. A weak inflection is also noted at 1.3 µm. Based on the spectral parameters it can be suggested that the PHA's surface assemblage is dominated by high-Fe orthopyroxene with little or no olivine. This suggests that the asteroid's parent body experienced at least partial melting temperatures producing large eutectic melt similar to basaltic achondrites. The spectral parameters of the PHA plot it in the basaltic achondrites region on the Gaffey S-asteroid subtype plot (Gaffey et al., 1993) suggesting a V-type taxonomic classification. This research was supported by NASA NEOO Program Grants NNG04GI17G and NNX07AL29G. VR would like to thank J. Iglesias (UC Berkeley) and H. Stewart (Villanova University) for their support.

  2. Potential geologic hazards and constraints for blocks in proposed Mid-Atlantic OCS oil and gas lease sale 49

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R. W., (Edited By); Ensminger, H. Robert

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of side-scan sonar, subbottom profiler, processed sparker, and fathometer data (approximately 5060 km) from the 136 blocks in the proposed Outer Continental Shelf Lease Sale 49 disclosed features that are potential geologic hazards to oil and gas exploration and development operations. These potential hazards are past mass sediment movement (slumping or sliding) in parts or all of 57 proposed lease sale blocks (27 of which are virtually covered by slumped materials), shallow gas deposits in three proposed lease sale blocks, and recent shallow faulting in one proposed lease sale block. Other features considered merely to be developmental constraints can be accommodated by existing standard design and engineering technology: erosion and scour, sand waves, filled channels, acoustically turbid zones (gassy sediments), lagoonal sediments, potentially unstable slopes (due to gradient), unidentified bottom objects, and a shipwreck.

  3. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elall, Amr M M; Mohamed, Mohamed E M; Awadallah, Maysa A I

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers) were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds) located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes). The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds): Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%), S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%), S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%), Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%), Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%), Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%), K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%), Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%), P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%), P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%), Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%), respectively). Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%), A. niger (20% vs 36.7%), A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%), Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%), P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%), P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%), Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%), Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%), Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%), Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%), Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%), Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%), Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%), Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%), Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4%) and yeast (13.3% vs 20%), respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and

  4. The potentially hazardous asteroid 1996 JG and the North omega-Scorpiid meteoroid stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J.

    2014-07-01

    During the end of May and mid June, meteor and fireball activity from the Scorpiid-Sagitariid complex can be noticed. One of the streams belonging to this complex is the North ω-Scorpiids (NSC), which was previously designated by some authors as the ω-Scorpiids [1]. This is included in the IAU Working list of meteor showers with the code 66 NSC (REF). The activity period of this minor shower goes from May 23 to June 15 with a maximum around June 1st. The Apollo-type orbit of NSC meteoroids let Drummond to propose 1862 Apollo as the parent asteroid of this meteor shower [2]. Nowadays, however, the potentially-hazardous asteroid (PHA) 1996 JG is included among the potential parent bodies of this stream [1]. We report here a magnitude -10 fireball recorded on June 6, 2010, at 23h18m38 ± 1s UTC from two video stations working in the framework of the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN). High-sensitivity CCD video cameras recorded the event and allowed the reconstruction of the atmospheric trajectory, velocity, and radiant determination. From such data the orbital elements of the meteoroid were obtained, finding a clear association with the North ω-Scorpiids meteoroid stream. The emission spectrum produced by this event, which received the code SPMN060610, is also analyzed. From the deduced orbital elements, by using the ORAS software (ORbital Association Software) we confirm that asteroid 1996 JG is the likely parent body of the North ω-Scorpiid stream. Thus, for example, by using the Southworth and Hawkins dissimilarity criterion, we obtain a value of D_{SH} of about 0.09 [3]. In addition, we have performed an orbital integration by using the Mercury 6 software [4]. The gravitational fields of Venus, the Earth-Moon system, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were considered. The orbits of 1996 JG and the SPMN060610 meteoroid were integrated back for 20,000 years. As shown in the figure, the DSH criterion reveals a link between both bodies, with the values of DSH being less than 0

  5. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  6. Potential health and safety hazards associated with the production of cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, and zinc phosphide photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Lee, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    In large-scale manufacture of cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, and zinc phosphide photovoltaic cells, the materials and equipment used may present potential health and safety hazards to workers and the public. These hazards were identified by reviewing data on process materials, availability of control technology, biomedical effects, and health and environmental standards. Quantitative estimates of material inputs and outputs, and control technology costs for selected processes were based on preliminary engineering designs for hypothetical 10-MWp/yr photovoltaic cell production facilities. In the fabrication of these devices, unusually large quantities of some toxic gases may be used; large demands for phosphine and hydrogen selenide are of special concern. Because projected usage of these materials is much larger than the current one, a thorough evaluation of engineering controls will be needed before the technologies are commercialized. These materials could also present occupational health hazards. Some management options to reduce occupational exposures to these materials are presented. Although specific federal and state regulations have not been promulgated for emissions from the photovoltaic industry, prudent engineering practice should be applied to all waste streams - solid, atmospheric, or liquid - containing toxic pollutants to limit discharges of these materials. Control costs for most atmospheric waste streams should not be large (<0.01 cent per watt); for phosphine, however, costs are potentially much larger (4.4 cents per watt). Some processes may also produce large quantities of solid waste defined as toxic or hazardous under US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Disposal costs for these materials are presented.

  7. Potential flood hazards and hydraulic characteristics of distributary-flow areas in Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hjalmarson, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Flood hazards of distributary-flow areas in Maricopa County, Arizona, can be distinguished on the basis of morphological features. Five distributary-flow areas represent the range of flood-hazard degree in the study area. Descriptive factors, including the presence of desert varnish and the absence of saguaro cactus, are more useful than traditional hydraulic-based methods in defining hazards. The width, depth, and velocity exponents of the hydraulic-geometry relations at the primary diffluences of the sites are similar to theoretical exponents for streams with cohesive bank material and the average exponents of stream channels in other areas in the United States. Because of the unexplained scatter of the values of the exponent of channel width, however, the use of average hydraulic-geometry relations is con- sidered inappropriate for characterizing flood hazards for specific distributary-flow in Maricopa County. No evidence has been found that supports the use of stochastic modeling of flows or flood hazards of many distributary-flow areas. The surface of many distributary-flow areas is stable with many distributary channels eroded in the calcreted surface material. Many distributary- flow areas do not appear to be actively aggrading today, and the paths of flow are not changing.

  8. Permafrost in the Himalayas: specific characteristics, evolution vs. climate change and impacts on potential natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Monique

    2015-04-01

    Mountain environments are very sensitive to climate change, yet assessing the potential impacts of these changes is not easy because of the complexity and diversity of mountain systems. The Himalayan permafrost belt presents three main specificities: (1) it develops in a geodynamically active mountain, which means that the controlling factors are not only temperature but also seismo-tectonic activity; (2) due to the steepness of the southern flank of the Greater Himalaya and potential large scale rock failures, permafrost evidence manifests itself best in the inner valleys and on the northern, arid side of the Himalayas (elevations >4000m); (3) the east-west strike of the mountain range creates large spatial discontinuity in the "cold" belt, mostly related to precipitation nature and availability. Only limited studies have been carried to date, and there is no permanent "field laboratory", nor continuous records but a few local studies. Based on preliminary observations in the Nepal Himalayas (mostly in Mustang and Dolpo districts), and Indian Ladakh, we present the main features indicating the existence of permafrost (either continuous or discontinuous). Rock-glaciers are quite well represented, though their presence may be interpreted as a combined result from both ground ice and large rock collapse. The precise altitudinal zonation of permafrost belt (specifying potential permafrost, probable permafrost, observed permafrost belts) still requires careful investigations in selected areas. Several questions arise when considering the evolution of permafrost in a context of climate change, with its impacts on the development of potential natural hazards that may affect the mountain population. Firstly, permafrost degradation (ground ice melting) is a cause of mountain slope destabilization. When the steep catchments are developed in frost/water sensitive bedrock (shales and marls) and extend to high elevations (as observed in Mustang or Dolpo), it would supply more

  9. Evaluation of a technique to quantify microburst windshear hazard potential to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, G. P.; Proctor, F. H.; Bowles, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    A wind shear hazard index, known as the F-factor, is investigated for application with look-ahead sensors. Based on data from microburst simulations with the NASA windshear model, the downdraft results in a significant contribution to the wind shear hazard, especially at altitudes above 150 meters. Since most look-ahead wind shear sensors can only detect horizontal shear and cannot measure vertical velocity, a relationship is developed for approximating the total F-factor using information based solely on the horizontal wind shear and altitude. This relationship is then tested using data from several microburst cases.

  10. Comments on Potential Geologic and Seismic Hazards Affecting Proposed Liquefied Natural Gas Site in Santa Monica Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Lee, Homa J.; Parsons, Tom E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Boore, David M.; Conrad, James E.; Edwards, Brian D.; Fisher, Michael A.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Geist, Eric L.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Hough, Susan E.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lorenson, T.D.; Luco, Nicolas; McCrory, Patricia A.; McGann, Mary; Nathenson, Manuel; Nolan, Michael; Petersen, Mark D.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Powell, Charles L.; Ryan, Holly F.; Tinsley, John C., III; Wills, Chris J.; Wong, Florence L.; Xu, Jingping

    2008-01-01

    In a letter to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dated March 25, 2008, Representative Jane Harman (California 36th district) requested advice on geologic hazards that should be considered in the review of a proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility off the California coast in Santa Monica Bay. In 2004, the USGS responded to a similar request from Representative Lois Capps, regarding two proposed LNG facilities offshore Ventura County, Calif., with a report summarizing potential geologic and seismic hazards (Ross and others, 2004). The proposed LNG Deepwater Port (DWP) facility includes single point moorings (SPMs) and 35 miles of underwater pipelines. The DWP submersible buoys, manifolds, and risers would be situated on the floor of the southern Santa Monica Basin, in 3,000 feet of water, about 23 miles offshore of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Twin 24-inch diameter pipelines would extend northeastward from the buoys across the basin floor, up the basin slope and across the continental shelf, skirting north around the Santa Monica submarine canyon. Figure 1 provides locations of the project and geologic features. Acronyms are defined in table 1. This facility is being proposed in a region of known geologic hazards that arise from both the potential for strong earthquakes and geologic processes related to sediment transport and accumulation in the offshore environment. The probability of a damaging earthquake (considered here as magnitude 6.5 or greater) in the next 30 years within about 30 miles (50 km) of the proposed pipeline ranges from 16% at the pipeline's offshore end to 48% where it nears land (Petersen, 2008). Earthquakes of this magnitude are capable of producing strong shaking, surface fault offsets, liquefaction phenomena, landslides, underwater turbidity currents and debris flow avalanches, and tsunamis. As part of the DWP license application for the Woodside Natural Gas proposal in Santa Monica Bay (known as the OceanWay Secure Energy Project), Fugro

  11. Constraining Albedo and Composition of Four Potentially-Hazardous Asteroids via Near-IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Gaffey, M.

    2009-09-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of potentially-hazardous asteroids 2005 RC34, (90403) 2003 YE45, (185851) 2000 DP107, and 2008 QS11 were obtained remotely using the SpeX instrument on NASA IRTF on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i. All data were reduced using IRAF and the PC-based SpecPR spectral processing program. Isolation of the Band I and II absorption features and calculation of band area ratios were accomplished using SpecPR. Albedo was estimated using STM based thermal modeling program, Thermflx. 2005 RC34 spectrum shows a weak inflection at 0.90±0.01 µm(<10%) with no thermal emission beyond 2.0 µm. The lack of thermal emission helps constrain the lower limit albedo of the object to be greater than or equal to 15±1%. Spectrum of 2003 YE45 shows a moderate absorption feature with a minimum at 1.0±0.1 µm (depth 20-25%) and a relatively flat spectrum beyond 1.4 µm. No thermal excess can be detected beyond 2.0 µm, which permits us to conservatively constrain the lower limit albedo to be greater than or equal to 5±1%. 2000 DP107 spectrum shows a moderately deep feature at 0.96±0.01 µm with sharp rise in reflectance beyond 2.0 µm due to thermal emission, which gives an estimated albedo of 2±1%. 2008 QS11 spectrum has a weak feature (band depth 8%) at 0.98±0.01 µm with a steep reddish slope and sharp rise in reflectance beyond 2.0 µm due to thermal emission. The measured thermal excess at 2.4 µm is 11%, which results in an estimated albedo of 5.5±1 %. Preliminary compositional analysis suggests that 2000 DP107 is a relatively dark object analogous to carbonaceous chondrites, 2005 RC34 belongs to taxonomic type E similar to aubrites or low-Fe pyroxene. 2003 YE45's surface is dominated by olivine and 2008 QS11 is similar to impact shock blackened chondrites. This research was supported by NASA NEOO Program Grants NNG04GI17G and NNX07AL29G.

  12. Methodology to assess potential glint and glare hazards from concentrating solar power plants : analytical models and experimental validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-04-01

    With growing numbers of concentrating solar power systems being designed and developed, glint and glare from concentrating solar collectors and receivers is receiving increased attention as a potential hazard or distraction for motorists, pilots, and pedestrians. This paper provides analytical methods to evaluate the irradiance originating from specularly and diffusely reflecting sources as a function of distance and characteristics of the source. Sample problems are provided for both specular and diffuse sources, and validation of the models is performed via testing. In addition, a summary of safety metrics is compiled from the literature to evaluate the potential hazards of calculated irradiances from glint and glare. Previous safety metrics have focused on prevention of permanent eye damage (e.g., retinal burn). New metrics used in this paper account for temporary flash blindness, which can occur at irradiance values several orders of magnitude lower than the irradiance values required for irreversible eye damage.

  13. Hazard Assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and Potential of ICTs for Coping: A Case of Eastern Himalaya of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Retreat of glaciers and formation of glacial lakes in Nepal Himalaya have been reported to be related with the temperature rise in the region. Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) are the growing climate induced hazards in the Himalaya. GLOF has increased the vulnerability of community and fragile ecosystem in the mountain valleys. This study has analyzed the potential impacts from GLOF in the highland of eastern Nepal and the potential role of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) to cope with such impacts. I analyzed the trend of climatic pattern (temperature and precipitation) of the Eastern Himalaya Region of Nepal available from the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Government of Nepal, and prepared the latest location map of the glacial lakes using google earth and ArcGIS applications in the highland of the Kanchanjungha Conservation Area of the region. Tiptala glacial lake, located at an elevation of 4950 m, within the conservation area, was selected for the GLOF hazard assessment. I used semi-structured questionnaire survey and key informants' interviews in the community in order to assess the potential hazard of GLOF. With the varying sizes, 46 glacial lakes were located in the region, which covers over 2.57 sq. km in total. Though the larger portion of the downstream area of the Tiptala glacial lake fall in the remote location away from major residential area, few villages, major pasture lands for Yaks, foot trails, and several bridges across the Tamor River below the lake are in risk of GLOF. Poor access due to extreme geographical remoteness and capacity to afford the modern technologies in the community are the major limiting factor to the knowledge and information about the climate change and related impacts. Modern ICTs has high potential to reduce the risk of climate related hazards in the remote area by information dissemination and awareness.

  14. Measurement and monitoring needs, capabilities and potential for addressing reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation under REDD+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, Scott J.; Hansen, Matthew; Houghton, Richard A.; Walker, Wayne; Laporte, Nadine; Busch, Jonah

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the state of measurement and monitoring capabilities for forests in the context of REDD+ needs, with a focus on what is currently possible, where improvements are needed, and what capabilities will be advanced in the near-term with new technologies already under development. We summarize the role of remote sensing (both satellite and aircraft) for observational monitoring of forests, including measuring changes in their current and past extent for setting baselines, their carbon stock density for estimating emissions in areas that are deforested or degraded, and their regrowth dynamics following disturbance. We emphasize the synergistic role of integrating field inventory measurements with remote sensing for best practices in monitoring, reporting and verification. We also address the potential of remote sensing for enforcing safeguards on conservation of natural forests and biodiversity. We argue that capabilities exist now to meet operational needs for REDD+ measurement, reporting, and verification and reference levels. For some other areas of importance for REDD+, such as safeguards for natural forests and biodiversity, monitoring capabilities are approaching operational in the near term. For all REDD+ needs, measurement capabilities will rapidly advance in the next few years as a result of new technology as well as advances in capacity building both within and outside of the tropical forest nations on which REDD+ is primarily focused.

  15. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  16. Parasites of wild animals as a potential source of hazard to humans.

    PubMed

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund; Koziatek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The decline in wild animal habitats and the uncontrolled growth of their population make these animals come closer to human settlements. The aim of the study was to identify parasitic infections in wild animals in the selected area, and to specify the hazards they create for humans. In more than 66% of the analysed faecal samples from wild boar, hares, roe deer, deer and fallow deer various developmental forms of parasites were found. These included parasites dangerous for humans: Toxocara canis, Capillaria hepatica, Capillaria bovis, Trichuris suis, Trichuris ovis, Trichuris globulosus, Eimeria spp., and Trichostongylus spp. It is necessary to monitor parasitic diseases in wild animals as they can lead to the spread of parasites creating a hazard to humans, pets and livestock. PMID:26342506

  17. Potential geologic hazards on the eastern Gulf of Cadiz slope (SW Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baraza, J.; Ercilla, G.; Nelson, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    Geologic hazards resulting from sedimentary, oceanographic and tectonic processes affect more than one third of the offshore Gulf of Cadiz, and are identified by interpreting high-resolution seismic profiles and sonographs. Hazards of sedimentary origin include the occurrence of slope instability processes in the form of single or multiple slumps occupying up to 147 km2 mainly concentrated in the steeper, upper slope area. Besides the presence of steep slopes, the triggering of submarine landslides is probably due to seismic activity and favoured by the presence of biogenic gas within the sediment. Gassy sediments and associated seafloor pockmarks cover more than 240 km2 in the upper slope. Hazards from oceanographic processes result from the complex system of bottom currents created by the interaction of the strong Mediterranean Undercurrent and the rough seafloor physiography. The local intensification of bottom currents is responsible for erosive processes along more than 1900 km2 in the upper slope and in the canyons eroded in the central area of the slope, undermining slopes and causing instability. The strong bottom currents also create a mobile seafloor containing bedforms in an area of the Gulf that extends more than 2500 km2, mostly in the continental slope terraces. Hazards of tectonic origin are important because the Gulf of Cadiz straddles two major tectonic regions, the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone and the Betic range, which results in diapir uplift over an area of more than 1000 km2, and in active seismicity with earthquakes of moderate magnitude. Also, tsunamis produced by strong earthquakes occur in the Gulf of Cadiz, and are related to the tectonic activity along the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone.

  18. Hazard and potential damage evaluation in a web-gis as support for risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio, S.; Sterlacchini, S.; van Westen, C. J.; Akbas, S. O.; Blahut, J.; de Amicis, M.; Sironi, S.

    2009-04-01

    Profiling the potential destructive events that could occur in a study site, inventorying the assets (social and economic features) and estimating the physical effects due to the impacts are the basic issues for defining indicative risk scenarios. Moreover, the necessity of sharing and accessing available information is one of the most important component of risk management. GIS activity, modeling and analysis can improve results and scientific development, but most of end-user and disaster reduction components does not have a high level of this background knowledge. In disaster risk management the capacity of quickly actions for planners, administrators, engineers, end.-users, architects, technicians, etc... is one of the most important matter. For this reason the best way to proceed was the possibility to create user-friendly instruments and devices, based on a geographical platform to share available information and supply requisite activities. In the work it was proposed a CartoWeb solution as a simple and ready-to-use open-source Web-GIS instrument (based on GNU License) as well as a convenient framework for building advanced and customized applications, following the necessity of disaster management experts. It is highly modular, customizable for its object-oriented architecture and based on hierarchical structure (to manage and organize blocks of information of each step required and used in risk assessment). Different switches for every package has been defined and more kind of menu and organization types of data has been structured (susceptibility map and vulnerable element with related data at different scale); for every layer many tools of query, printing, searching and surface analysis are improved, following the necessity to compare maps at different scale and for real-time interpretations. First goal of this activity was the comparison between a traditional GIS system to manage every information and an open source WebGIS platform; an user

  19. Link between the potentially hazardous Asteroid (86039) 1999 NC43 and the Chelyabinsk meteoroid tenuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Vokrouhlický, David; Bottke, William F.; Pravec, Petr; Sanchez, Juan A.; Gary, Bruce L.; Klima, Rachel; Cloutis, Edward A.; Galád, Adrián; Guan, Tan Thiam; Hornoch, Kamil; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Kušnirák, Peter; Le Corre, Lucille; Mann, Paul; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Skiff, Brian; Vraštil, Jan

    2015-05-01

    We explored the statistical and compositional link between Chelyabinsk meteoroid and potentially hazardous Asteroid (86039) 1999 NC43 to investigate their proposed relation proposed by Borovička et al. (Borovička, J., et al. [2013]. Nature 503, 235-237). First, using a slightly more detailed computation we confirm that the orbit of the Chelyabinsk impactor is anomalously close to the Asteroid 1999 NC43. We find ∼(1-3) × 10-4 likelihood of that to happen by chance. Taking the standpoint that the Chelyabinsk impactor indeed separated from 1999 NC43 by a cratering or rotational fission event, we run a forward probability calculation, which is an independent statistical test. However, we find this scenario is unlikely at the ∼(10-3-10-2) level. Secondly, we note that efforts to conclusively prove separation of the Chelyabinsk meteoroid from (86039) 1999 NC43 in the past needs to meet severe criteria: relative velocity ≃1-10 m/s or smaller, and ≃100 km distance (i.e. about the Hill sphere distance from the parent body). We conclude that, unless the separation event was an extremely recent event, these criteria present an insurmountable difficulty due to the combination of strong orbital chaoticity, orbit uncertainty and incompleteness of the dynamical model with respect to thermal accelerations. This situation leaves the link of the two bodies unresolved and calls for additional analyses. With that goal, we revisit the presumed compositional link between (86039) 1999 NC43 and the Chelyabinsk body. Borovička et al. (Borovička, J., et al. [2013]. Nature 503, 235-237) noted that given its Q-type taxonomic classification, 1999 NC43 may pass this test. However, here we find that while the Q-type classification of 1999 NC43 is accurate, assuming that all Q-types are LL chondrites is not. Our experiment shows that not all ordinary chondrites fall under Q-taxonomic type and not all LL chondrites are Q-types. Spectral curve matching between laboratory spectra of

  20. The potential monetary benefits of reclaiming hazardous waste sites in the Campania region: an economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Evaluating the economic benefit of reducing negative health outcomes resulting from waste management is of pivotal importance for designing an effective waste policy that takes into account the health consequences for the populations exposed to environmental hazards. Despite the high level of Italian and international media interest in the problem of hazardous waste in Campania little has been done to reclaim the land and the waterways contaminated by hazardous waste. Objective This study aims to reduce the uncertainty about health damage due to waste exposure by providing for the first time a monetary valuation of health benefits arising from the reclamation of hazardous waste dumps in Campania. Methods First the criteria by which the landfills in the Campania region, in particular in the two provinces of Naples and Caserta, have been classified are described. Then, the annual cases of premature death and fatal cases of cancers attributable to waste exposure are quantified. Finally, the present value of the health benefits from the reclamation of polluted land is estimated for each of the health outcomes (premature mortality, fatal cancer and premature mortality adjusted for the cancer premium). Due to the uncertainty about the time frame of the benefits arising from reclamation, the latency of the effects of toxic waste on human health and the lack of context specific estimates of the Value of Preventing a Fatality (VPF), extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. Results There are estimated to be 848 cases of premature mortality and 403 cases of fatal cancer per year as a consequence of exposure to toxic waste. The present value of the benefit of reducing the number of waste associated deaths after adjusting for a cancer premium is €11.6 billion. This value ranges from €5.4 to €20.0 billion assuming a time frame for benefits of 10 and 50 years respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that there is a strong economic argument for both

  1. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  2. The California Hazards Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  3. Potential hazards from floodflows in Grapevine Canyon, Death Valley National Monument, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Grapevine Canyon is on the western slope of the Grapevine Mountains in the northern part of Death Valley National Monument , California and Nevada. Grapevine Canyon Road covers the entire width of the canyon floor in places and is a frequently traveled route to Scotty 's Castle in the canyon. The region is arid and subject to flash flooding because of infrequent but intense convective storms. When these storms occur, normally in the summer, the resulting floods may create a hazard to visitor safety and property. Historical data on rainfall and floodflow in Grapevine Canyon are sparse. Data from studies made for similar areas in the desert mountains of southern California provide the basis for estimating discharges and the corresponding frequency of floods in the study area. Results of this study indicate that high-velocity flows of water and debris , even at shallow depths, may scour and damage Grapevine Canyon Road. When discharge exceeds 4,900 cu ft/sec, expected at a recurrence interval of between 25 and 50 years, the Scotty 's Castle access road and bridge may be damaged and the parking lot partly inundated. A flood having a 100-year or greater recurrence interval probably would wash out the bridge and present a hazard to the stable and garage buildings but not to the castle buildings, whose foundations are higher than the predicted maximum flood level. (USGS)

  4. Ranking the potential carcinogenic hazards to workers from exposures to chemicals that are tumorigenic in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, L.S.; Backman, G.M.; Hooper, N.K.; Peto, R.

    1987-12-01

    For 41 chemicals there exist both reasonable data on carcinogenic potency in experimental animals and also a defined Permissible Exposure Level (PEL), which is the upper limit of legally permissible chronic occupational exposure for US workers. These 41 agents are ranked by an index that compares the permitted chronic human exposure to the chronic dose rate that induces tumors in 50% of laboratory animals. This index, the Permitted Exposure/Rodent Potency index, or PERP, does not estimate absolute risks directly, but rather suggests the relative hazards that such substances may pose. The PERP values for these 41 substances differ by more than 100,000-fold from each other. The PERP does not take into account the actual level of exposure or the number of exposed workers. Nevertheless, it might be reasonable to give priority attention to the reduction of allowable worker exposures to substances that appear most hazardous by this index and that some workers may be exposed to full-time near the PEL. Ranked by PERP, these chemicals are: ethylene dibromide, ethylene dichloride, 1,3-butadiene, tetrachloroethylene, propylene oxide, chloroform, formaldehyde, methylene chloride, dioxane, and benzene.

  5. Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle makers exposed to stannic chloride solution and other potentially hazardous substances

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, B.S.; Davis, F.; Johnson, B.

    1985-04-01

    Concern about upper respiratory tract irritation and other symptoms among workers at a glass bottle manufacturing plant led to an epidemiologic and an industrial hygiene survey. Questionnaire responses from 35 hot end and 53 cold end workers indicated that the incidence of wheezing, chest pain, dyspnea on exertion, and cough was significantly elevated among hot end workers. Among both smokers and nonsmokers, hot end workers reported higher, but not significantly higher, rates of wheezing and chest pain. Among smokers, hot end workers reported significantly higher rates of dyspnea on exertion and cough than did cold end workers. Data suggest that reported exposure to stannic chloride solution likely caused these symptoms. The industrial hygiene survey, conducted when stannic chloride use had been reduced, cleaning had been done, and ventilation improved, focused on measuring air contaminants that might possibly cause symptoms. Levels of hydrogen chloride, which apparently was formed by the combination of stannic chloride and water in the presence of heat, were elevated. The finding of increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms among hot end workers was consistent with this exposure. Recommendations were made to reduce hazardous exposures at this plant. Individuals responsible for occupational health should be aware that relatively benign substances, such as stannic chloride and water, can combine spontaneously to form hazardous substances.

  6. Ferns and lycopods--a potential treasury of anticancer agents but also a carcinogenic hazard.

    PubMed

    Tomšík, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    Many species of seedless vascular plants-ferns and lycopods-have been used as food and folk medicine since ancient times. Some of them have become the focus of intensive research concerning their anticancer properties. Studies on the anticancer effect of crude extracts are being increasingly replaced by bioactivity-guided fractionation, as well as detailed assessment of the mechanism of action. Numerous compounds-especially flavonoids such as amentoflavone and protoapigenone, and also simpler phenolic compounds, steroids, alkaloids and terpenoids-were isolated and found to be cytotoxic, particularly pro-apoptotic, or to induce cell cycle arrest in cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo experiments, some fern-derived compounds inhibited tumour growth with little toxicity. On the other hand, many ferns-not only the well-known Bracken (Pteridium)-may pose a significant hazard to human health due to the fact that they contain carcinogenic sesquiterpenoids and their analogues. The objective of this review is to summarise the recent state of research on the anticancer properties of ferns and lycopods, with a focus on their characteristic bioactive constituents. The carcinogenic hazard posed by ferns is also mentioned. PMID:24123573

  7. Potential submarine geologic hazards at the entrance of the Pearl River Estuary in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wei, Zhiqiang; He, Huizhong; Wei, Wei; Qian, Libing; Li, Tuanjie

    2016-08-01

    The potential submarine geologic hazards were distinguished and categorized at the entrance of the Pearl River Estuary in the northern South China Sea, based upon the analysis of side scan sonar and sub-bottom profiler surveying data of about 2500 km long, in an area about 2000 km2 around the Wanshan Archipelago. The data obtained in the survey has the highest spatial resolution by far, which could reveal more detailed distributions and characteristics of the geologic hazards than before. In the study region, three paleo-channels that were buried about 10-30 m below the seabed were found; more than 10 shallow gas areas were discovered. The sand waves found in the region were generally small and located near the islands, and twenty pockmarks found on the seabed were mostly concentrated to north of Zhuzhou island. There are also many man-made obstacles in the region, such as wreckages, pipeline, etc. In this paper we provide a detailed distribution map of the submarine geologic hazards in this region for the first time, and discuss their formation and harmfulness, which will provide a scientific basis for marine engineering construction, marine geologic disaster prevention and mitigation.

  8. Hazard evaluation for 244-AR vault facility

    SciTech Connect

    BRAUN, D.J.

    1999-08-25

    This document presents the results of a hazard identification and evaluation performed on the 244-AR Vault Facility to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities. A hazard evaluation for the Hanford Site 244-AR Vault Facility was performed. The process and results of the hazard evaluation are provided in this document. A previous hazard evaluation was performed for the 244-AR Vault Facility in 1996 in support of the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The results of that evaluation are provided in the BIO. Upon review of those results it was determined that hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the 244-AR vaults due to flooding was not addressed in the original hazards evaluation. This supplemental hazard evaluation addresses this oversight of the original hazard evaluation. The results of the hazard evaluation were compared to the current TWRS BIO to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting changes to the AB. It is only intended to provide information about hazardous conditions associated with the condition and configuration of the 244-AR vault facility. The AB Control Decision process could be used to determine the applicability and adequacy of existing AB controls as well as any new controls that may be needed for the identified hazardous conditions associated with 244-AR vault flooding. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  9. Hazard Assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and Potential of ICTs for Coping: A Case of Eastern Himalaya of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, D. R.; Pradhananga, D.

    2014-12-01

    Alarming rate of retreat of glaciers and formation of glacial lakes in higher elevation of Nepal Himalaya has been reported to be related with the pronounced atmospheric temperature rise in the region. Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) are the growing climate induced hazards in the Himalaya increasing the vulnerability of community living in the mountain valley, and the fragile ecosystem. This study tried to come up with the potential impacts from glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in highland of eastern region of Nepal and potential role of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in coping. I analyzed the trend of climatic pattern (temperature and precipitation) of the Eastern Himalaya Region of Nepal available from Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM), Government of Nepal, and also prepared the latest location map of the glacial lakes using google earth and ArcGIS application in the highland of the Kanchanjungha Conservation Area of the region. Tiptala glacial lake, located at an elevation of 4950 masl, within the conservation area, was selected for the GLOF hazard assessment. I used semi-structured questioner survey and key informants interviews in the community living below the lake in the highland of the study area in order to assess the potential hazard of GLOF. Analysis shows the increasing trend of atmospheric temperature in the region. With the varying sizes, 46 glacial lakes were located in the region, which covers over 2.57 sq. km in total. Though the larger portion of the downstream area of the Tiptala glacial lake fall in the remote location away from major residential area, few villages, major pasture lands for Yaks, foot trails, and several bridges across the Tamor River below the lake are in risk of GLOF. Poor access due to extreme geographical remoteness and capacity to afford the modern technologies in the community is seen as the major limiting factor to the knowledge and information about the climate change and related impacts

  10. Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions using ASTER Data in Marine Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Rose

    2010-01-01

    The 28-foot storm surge from Hurricane Katrina pushed inland along bays and rivers for a distance of 12 miles in some areas, contributing to the damage or destruction of about half of the fleet of boats in coastal Mississippi. Most of those boats had sought refuge in back bays and along rivers. Some boats were spared damage because the owners chose their mooring site well. Gulf mariners need a spatial analysis tool that provides guidance on the safest places to anchor their boats during future hurricanes. This product would support NOAA s mission to minimize the effects of coastal hazards through awareness, education, and mitigation strategies and could be incorporated in the Coastal Risk Atlas decision support tool.

  11. Potential hazard of hearing damage to students in undergraduate popular music courses.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Christopher

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in university courses related to popular and commercial music, with a commensurate increase in the number of students studying these courses. Students of popular music subjects are frequently involved in the use of electronically amplified sound for rehearsal and recording, in addition to the "normal" noise exposure commonly associated with young people. The combination of these two elements suggests a higher than average noise exposure hazard for these students. To date, the majority of noise studies on students have focused on exposure from personal music players and on classical, orchestral, and marching band musicians. One hundred students across a range of university popular music courses were surveyed using a 30-point questionnaire regarding their musical habits both within and external to their university courses. This was followed by noise dosimetry of studios/recording spaces and music venues popular with students. Questionnaire responses showed 76% of subjects reported having experienced symptoms associated with hearing loss, while only 18% reported using hearing protection devices. Rehearsals averaged 11.5 hrs/wk, with a mean duration 2 hrs 13 mins and mean level of 98 dB LAEQ. Ninety-four percent of subjects reported attending concerts or nightclubs at least once per week, and measured exposure in two of these venues ranged from 98 to 112 dB LAEQ with a mean of 98.9 dB LAEQ over a 4.5-hr period. Results suggested an extremely high hazard of excessive noise exposure among this group from both their social and study-based music activities. PMID:21170480

  12. Synergies between geomorphic hazard and risk and sediment cascade research fields: exploiting geomorphic processes' susceptibility analyses to derive potential sediment sources in the Oltet, river catchment, southern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurchescu, Marta-Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Identifying sediment sources and sediment availability represents a major problem and one of the first concerns in the field of sediment cascade. This paper addresses the on-site effects associated with sediment transfer, investigating the degree to which studies pertaining to the field of geomorphic hazard and risk research could be exploited in sediment budget estimations. More precisely, the paper investigates whether results obtained in assessing susceptibility to various geomorphic processes (landslides, soil erosion, gully erosion) could be transferred to the study of sediment sources within a basin. The study area is a medium-sized catchment (> 2400 km2) in southern Romania encompassing four different geomorphic units (mountains, hills, piedmont and plain). The region is highly affected by a wide range of geomorphic processes which supply sediments to the drainage network. The presence of a reservoir at the river outlet emphasizes the importance of estimating sediment budgets. The susceptibility analyses are conducted separately for each type of the considered processes in a top-down framework, i.e. at two different scales, using scale-adapted methods and validation techniques in each case, as widely-recognized in the hazard and risk research literature. The analyses start at a regional scale, which has in view the entire catchment, using readily available data on conditioning factors. In a second step, the suceptibility analyses are carried out at a medium scale for selected hotspot-compartments of the catchment. In order to appraise the extent to which susceptibility results are relevant in interpreting sediment sources at catchment scale, scale-induced differences are analysed in the case of each process. Based on the amount of uncertainty revealed by each regional-scale analysis in comparison to the medium-scale ones, decisions are made on whether the first are acceptable to the aim of identifying potential sediment source areas or if they should be

  13. Evaluation of potential surface rupture and review of current seismic hazards program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-09

    This report summarizes the authors review and evaluation of the existing seismic hazards program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The report recommends that the original program be augmented with a probabilistic analysis of seismic hazards involving assignment of weighted probabilities of occurrence to all potential sources. This approach yields a more realistic evaluation of the likelihood of large earthquake occurrence particularly in regions where seismic sources may have recurrent intervals of several thousand years or more. The report reviews the locations and geomorphic expressions of identified fault lines along with the known displacements of these faults and last know occurrence of seismic activity. Faults are mapped and categorized into by their potential for actual movement. Based on geologic site characterization, recommendations are made for increased seismic monitoring; age-dating studies of faults and geomorphic features; increased use of remote sensing and aerial photography for surface mapping of faults; the development of a landslide susceptibility map; and to develop seismic design standards for all existing and proposed facilities at LANL.

  14. Approach to using mechanism-based structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis to assess human health hazard potential of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Lai, David Y

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing use and development of engineered nanoparticles in electronics, consumer products, pesticides, food and pharmaceutical industries, there is a growing concern about potential human health hazards of these materials. A number of studies have demonstrated that nanoparticle toxicity is extremely complex, and that the biological activity of nanoparticles will depend on a variety of physicochemical properties such as particle size, shape, agglomeration state, crystal structure, chemical composition, surface area and surface properties. Nanoparticle toxicity can be attributed to nonspecific interaction with biological structures due to their physical properties (e.g., size and shape) and biopersistence, or to specific interaction with biomolecules through their surface properties (e.g., surface chemistry and reactivity) or release of toxic ions. The toxic effects of most nanomaterials have not been adequately characterized and currently, there are many issues and challenges in toxicity testing and risk assessment of nanoparticles. Based on the possible mechanisms of action and available in vitro and in vivo toxicity database, this paper proposes an approach to using mechanism-based SAR analysis to assess the relative human health hazard/risk potential of various types of nanomaterials. PMID:26111809

  15. Potential geologic hazards and constraints for blocks in proposed North Atlantic OCS Oil and gas lease sale 52

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, G.B.; Cardinell, A.P.; Francois, D.K.; Good, L.K.; Lewis, R.L.; Stiles, N.T.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of high-resolution geophysical data collected over 540 blocks tentatively selected for leasing in proposed OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sale 52 (Georges Bank) revealed a number of potential geologic hazards to oil and gas exploration and development activities: evidence of mass movements and shallow gas deposits on the continental slope. No potential hazards were observed on the continental shelf or rise. Other geology-related problems, termed constraints because they pose a relatively low degree of risk and can be routinely dealt with by the use of existing technology have been observed on the continental shelf. Constraints identified in the proposed sale area are erosion, sand waves, filled channels and deep faults. Piston cores were collected for geotechnical analysis at selected locations on the continental slope in the proposed lease sale area. The core locations were selected to provide information on slope stability and to establish the general geotechnical properties of the sediments. Preliminary results of a testing program suggest that the surficial sediment cover is stable with respect to mass movement.

  16. Live bacterial vaccines – a review and identification of potential hazards

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, Ann; Glenting, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The use of live bacteria to induce an immune response to itself or to a carried vaccine component is an attractive vaccine strategy. Advantages of live bacterial vaccines include their mimicry of a natural infection, intrinsic adjuvant properties and their possibility to be administered orally. Derivatives of pathogenic and non-pathogenic food related bacteria are currently being evaluated as live vaccines. However, pathogenic bacteria demands for attenuation to weaken its virulence. The use of bacteria as vaccine delivery vehicles implies construction of recombinant strains that contain the gene cassette encoding the antigen. With the increased knowledge of mucosal immunity and the availability of genetic tools for heterologous gene expression the concept of live vaccine vehicles gains renewed interest. However, administration of live bacterial vaccines poses some risks. In addition, vaccination using recombinant bacteria results in the release of live recombinant organisms into nature. This places these vaccines in the debate on application of genetically modified organisms. In this review we give an overview of live bacterial vaccines on the market and describe the development of new live vaccines with a focus on attenuated bacteria and food-related lactic acid bacteria. Furthermore, we outline the safety concerns and identify the hazards associated with live bacterial vaccines and try to give some suggestions of what to consider during their development. PMID:16796731

  17. Aftereffects of Subduction-Zone Earthquakes: Potential Tsunami Hazards along the Japan Sea Coast.

    PubMed

    Minoura, Koji; Sugawara, Daisuke; Yamanoi, Tohru; Yamada, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake is a typical subduction-zone earthquake and is the 4th largest earthquake after the beginning of instrumental observation of earthquakes in the 19th century. In fact, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake displaced the northeast Japan island arc horizontally and vertically. The displacement largely changed the tectonic situation of the arc from compressive to tensile. The 9th century in Japan was a period of natural hazards caused by frequent large-scale earthquakes. The aseismic tsunamis that inflicted damage on the Japan Sea coast in the 11th century were related to the occurrence of massive earthquakes that represented the final stage of a period of high seismic activity. Anti-compressive tectonics triggered by the subduction-zone earthquakes induced gravitational instability, which resulted in the generation of tsunamis caused by slope failing at the arc-back-arc boundary. The crustal displacement after the 2011 earthquake infers an increased risk of unexpected local tsunami flooding in the Japan Sea coastal areas. PMID:26399180

  18. Potential hazard of volatile organic compounds contained in household spray products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    To assess the exposure levels of hazardous volatile pollutants released from common household spray products, a total of 10 spray products consisting of six body spray and four air spray products have been investigated. The body spray products included insect repellents (two different products), medicated patch, deodorant, hair spray, and humectant, whereas the air spray products included two different insecticides (mosquito and/or cockroach), antibacterial spray, and air freshener. The main objective of this study was to measure concentrations of 15 model volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using GC/MS coupled with a thermal desorber. In addition, up to 34 ‘compounds lacking authentic standards or surrogates (CLASS)' were also quantified based on the effective carbon number (ECN) theory. According to our analysis, the most common indoor pollutants like benzene, toluene, styrene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl acetate have been detected frequently in the majority of spray products with the concentration range of 5.3-125 mg L-1. If one assumes that the amount of spray products released into air reaches the 0.3 mL level for a given space size of 5 m3, the risk factor is expected to exceed the carcinogenic risk level set for benzene (10-5) by the U.S. EPA.

  19. Leveraging a large scale mammalian pharmacological dataset to prioritize potential environmental hazard of pharmaceuticals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential for pharmaceuticals in the environment to cause adverse ecological effects is of increasing concern. Given the thousands of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) which can enter the aquatic environment through various means, a current challenge in aquatic toxicol...

  20. NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAP) SUBPART H RADIONUCLIDES POTENTIAL TO EMIT CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    EARLEY JN

    2008-07-23

    This document provides an update of the status of stacks on the Hanford Site and the potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions that could occur with no control devices in place. This review shows the calculations that determined whether the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) received by the maximum public receptor as a result of potential emissions from any one of these stacks would exceed 0.1 millirem/year. Such stacks require continuous monitoring of the effluent, or other monitoring, to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative code (WAC) 246-247-035(1)(a)(ii) and WAC 246-247-075(1), -(2), and -(6). This revised update reviews the potential-to-emit (PTE) calculations of 31 stacks for Fluor Hanford, Inc. Of those 31 stacks, 11 have the potential to cause a TEDE greater than 0.1 mrem/year.

  1. Potential hazards associated with combustion of bio-derived versus petroleum-derived diesel fuel

    PubMed Central

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Schröder, Olaf; Schmidt, Lasse; Westphal, Götz A.

    2012-01-01

    Fuels from renewable resources have gained worldwide interest due to limited fossil oil sources and the possible reduction of atmospheric greenhouse gas. One of these fuels is so called biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). To get a first insight into changes of health hazards from diesel engine emissions (DEE) by use of biodiesel scientific studies were reviewed which compared the combustion of FAME with common diesel fuel (DF) for legally regulated and non-regulated emissions as well as for toxic effects. A total number of 62 publications on chemical analyses of DEE and 18 toxicological in vitro studies were identified meeting the criteria. In addition, a very small number of human studies and animal experiments were available. In most studies, combustion of biodiesel reduces legally regulated emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides are regularly increased. Among the non-regulated emissions aldehydes are increased, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are lowered. Most biological in vitro assays show a stronger cytotoxicity of biodiesel exhaust and the animal experiments reveal stronger irritant effects. Both findings are possibly caused by the higher content of nitrogen oxides and aldehydes in biodiesel exhaust. The lower content of PAH is reflected by a weaker mutagenicity compared to DF exhaust. However, recent studies show a very low mutagenicity of DF exhaust as well, probably caused by elimination of sulfur in present DF qualities and the use of new technology diesel engines. Combustion of vegetable oil (VO) in common diesel engines causes a strongly enhanced mutagenicity of the exhaust despite nearly unchanged regulated emissions. The newly developed fuel “hydrotreated vegetable oil” (HVO) seems to be promising. HVO has physical and chemical advantages compared to FAME. Preliminary results show lower regulated and non-regulated emissions and a

  2. A brief overview of the potential environmental hazards of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Bubalo, Marina Cvjetko; Radošević, Kristina; Redovniković, Ivana Radojčić; Halambek, Jasna; Srček, Višnja Gaurina

    2014-01-01

    Over past decades ionic liquids, a promising alternative to traditional organic solvents, have been dramatically expanding in popularity as a new generation of chemicals with potential uses in various areas in industry. In the literature these compounds have often been referred to as environmentally friendly; however, in recent years the perception of their greenness dramatically changed as the scientific community began to proactively assess the risk of their application based on the entire life-cycle. This review gives a brief overview of the current knowledge regarding the potential risks linked to the application of ionic liquids - from preparation to their disposal, with special emphasis on their potential environmental impacts and future directions in designing inherently safer ionic liquids. PMID:24210364

  3. Health hazards and disaster potential of ground gas emissions at Furnas volcano, São Miguel, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Peter J.; Baubron, Jean-Claude; Coutinho, Rui

    1999-09-01

    A health hazard assessment of exposure to soil gases (carbon dioxide and radon) was undertaken in the village of Furnas, located in the caldera of an active volcano. A soil survey to map the area of soil gas flow was undertaken, gas emissions were monitored at fumaroles and in eight houses, and a preliminary radon survey of 23 houses in the main anomaly area was performed. Potential volcanic sources of toxic contamination of air, food, and water were also investigated, and ambient air quality was evaluated. About one-third (41 ha) of the houses were located in areas of elevated carbon dioxide soil degassing. Unventilated, confined spaces in some houses contained levels of carbon dioxide which could cause asphyxiation. Mean indoor radon levels exceeded UK and US action levels in the winter months. A tenfold increase in radon levels in one house over 2 h indicated that large and potentially lethal surges of carbon dioxide could occur without warning. Toxic exposures from the gaseous emissions and from contamination of soil and water were minimal, but sulphur dioxide levels were mildly elevated close to fumaroles. In contrast, evidence of dental fluorosis was manifested in the population of the nearby fishing village of Ribeira Quente where drinking water in the past had contained elevated levels of fluoride. The disaster potential of volcanic carbon dioxide in the area could also be associated with the hydrothermal system storing dissolved carbon dioxide beneath the village. Felt, or unfelt, seismic activity, or magma unrest, especially with a reawakening of explosive volcanic activity (30% probability in the next 100 years) could result in an increase in gas flow or even a gas burst from the hydrothermal system. A survey of all houses in Furnas is advised as structural measures to prevent the ingress of soil gases, including radon, were needed in some of the study houses. Evaluations of the human hazards of volcanic gases should be undertaken in all settlements in

  4. Acute toxicity of Daphnia pulex to six classes of chemical compounds potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stephen B.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Blouin, Marc A.

    1988-01-01

    Of the six classes of chemicals potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota, derivatives of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most acutely toxic (48-h EC 50) to Daphnia pulex. The other classes, listed in order of decreasing toxicity were alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, silicon-containing compounds. O f the 41 compounds representing the six chemical classes, 6 were extremely toxic (> 0.01 - 0.1 mg/L), 11 highly toxic (> 01. - 1.0 mg/L), 20 moderately toxic (> 1.0 - 10.0 mg/L), and 4 slightly toxic (>10 - 100 mg/L). The reference compound, p, p'DDT, was super toxic (< 0.01 mg/L). Based on toxicity and relative abundance (hazard ranking) of the 21 compounds that were detected in tissue of Great Lakes fishes, the classes of compounds that present the greatest threat to Great Lakes aquatic biota are PAH derivatives, alkyl halides, and cyclic aklanes.

  5. Organophosphorus insecticides in honey, pollen and bees (Apis mellifera L.) and their potential hazard to bee colonies in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al Naggar, Yahya; Codling, Garry; Vogt, Anja; Naiem, Elsaied; Mona, Mohamed; Seif, Amal; Giesy, John P

    2015-04-01

    There is no clear single factor to date that explains colony loss in bees, but one factor proposed is the wide-spread application of agrochemicals. Concentrations of 14 organophosphorous insecticides (OPs) in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and hive matrices (honey and pollen) were measured to assess their hazard to honey bees. Samples were collected during spring and summer of 2013, from 5 provinces in the middle delta of Egypt. LC/MS-MS was used to identify and quantify individual OPs by use of a modified Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) method. Pesticides were detected more frequently in samples collected during summer. Pollen contained the greatest concentrations of OPs. Profenofos, chlorpyrifos, malation and diazinon were the most frequently detected OPs. In contrast, ethoprop, phorate, coumaphos and chlorpyrifos-oxon were not detected. A toxic units approach, with lethality as the endpoint was used in an additive model to assess the cumulative potential for adverse effects posed by OPs. Hazard quotients (HQs) in honey and pollen ranged from 0.01-0.05 during spring and from 0.02-0.08 during summer, respectively. HQs based on lethality due to direct exposure of adult worker bees to OPs during spring and summer ranged from 0.04 to 0.1 for best and worst case respectively. It is concluded that direct exposure and/or dietary exposure to OPs in honey and pollen pose little threat due to lethality of bees in Egypt. PMID:25574845

  6. The potential of Sentinel-2 for investigating glaciers and related natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsvold, Solveig H.; Altena, Bas; Kääb, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Sentinel-2 (S2) features a number of characteristics that will improve mapping and monitoring of glaciers and related hazards, meaning the large swath width of 290km, the spatial resolution of 10-20m, and the repeat cycle of at least 10 days (higher towards the poles). In this study we perform a number of general tests on image radiometry and geometry as relevant to the glaciological image analysis. Based on commissioning-phase and ramp-up phase data, we find a geolocation accuracy of one pixel (at 10m) or better and co-registration accuracy between repeat scenes of around 1/3 pixel. Both error magnitudes are well acceptable for most glaciological applications. We also found patterns related to the mosaicking of the 12 detector sub-systems that form the full S2 swath. Also their magnitude will only matter in science-grade high-precision applications. Cross-track offsets in orthoprojected L1C data due to vertical errors in the DEM used have, however, to be observed. In particular at glacier tongues, DEMs will typically be outdated due to glacier shrinkage. For some examples in the Swiss Alps we found lateral offsets in S2 images of 30-40 m over such areas. For latitudes larger than 60 degree North (i.e. north of the SRTM coverage) we found geolocation bias patterns of the same order of magnitude all over the scenes, not only over glaciers. Geolocation biases in S2-derived products would for instance affect glacier outlines, especially when compared to other data such as Landsat, because of different orbit settings and use of other DEMs in the orthorectification process. This can be avoided to a large extent for glacier velocity measurements by relying on repeat data from the relative same orbit. Through a number of case studies, we demonstrate and evaluate the capability of S2 for glaciological applications: Automatic multispectral glacier mapping based on S2 bands 4 (red) and 11 (SWIR) turns out to be very successful, among others due to the improved resolution

  7. 78 FR 42998 - Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials, Safety Administration (PHMSA... participate in a public meeting addressing the transportation of hazardous materials by rail. FRA and...

  8. Screening for potential hazard effects from four nitramines on human eye and skin.

    PubMed

    Fjellsbø, Lise Marie; Van Rompay, An R; Hooyberghs, Jef; Nelissen, Inge; Dusinska, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Amines have potential to be used in CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology, but as they can be released into the environment and be degraded into more toxic compounds, such as nitrosamines and nitramines, there have been concerns about their negative impact on human health. We investigated the potential toxic effects from acute exposure to dimethylnitramine (DMA-NO2), methylnitramine (MA-NO2), ethanolnitramine (MEA-NO2) and 2-methyl-2-(nitroamino)-1-propanol (AMP-NO2). The eye irritation, and skin sensitization, irritation and corrosion potential of these substances have been evaluated in vitro using the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay, VITOSENS® assay, Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) skin irritation test and Corrositex Skin corrosion test, respectively. Exposure to DMA-NO2 induced a mild eye irritation response, while MA-NO2, MEA-NO2 and AMP-NO2 were shown to be very severe eye irritants. MA-NO2 and MEA-NO2 were tested for skin sensitization and found to be non-sensitizers to the skin. In addition, none of the four test substances was irritant or corrosive to the skin. PMID:23416265

  9. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  10. Volcanology and volcanic activity with a primary focus on potential hazard impacts for the Hawaii geothermal project

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B.; Delaney, P.T.; Kauahikaua, J.P.

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography reviews published references about potential volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii that are pertinent to drilling and operating geothermal wells. The first two sections of this annotated bibliography list the most important publications that describe eruptions of Kilauea volcano, with special emphasis on activity in and near the designated geothermal subzones. References about historic eruptions from Mauna Loa`s northeast rift zone, as well as the most recent activity on the southern flank of dormant Mauna Kea, adjacent to the Humu`ula Saddle are described. The last section of this annotated bibliography lists the most important publications that describe and analyze deformations of the surface of Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes.

  11. Addressing the stimulant treatment gap: A call to investigate the therapeutic benefits potential of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Kuganesan, Sharan; Gallassi, Andrea; Malcher-Lopes, Renato; van den Brink, Wim; Wood, Evan

    2015-12-01

    Crack-cocaine use is prevalent in numerous countries, yet concentrated primarily - largely within urban contexts - in the Northern and Southern regions of the Americas. It is associated with a variety of behavioral, physical and mental health and social problems which gravely affect users and their environments. Few evidence-based treatments for crack-cocaine use exist and are available to users in the reality of street drug use. Numerous pharmacological treatments have been investigated but with largely disappointing results. An important therapeutic potential for crack-cocaine use may rest in cannabinoids, which have recently seen a general resurgence for varied possible therapeutic usages for different neurological diseases. Distinct potential therapeutic benefits for crack-cocaine use and common related adverse symptoms may come specifically from cannabidiol (CBD) - one of the numerous cannabinoid components found in cannabis - with its demonstrated anxiolytic, anti-psychotic, anti-convulsant effects and potential benefits for sleep and appetite problems. The possible therapeutic prospects of cannabinoids are corroborated by observational studies from different contexts documenting crack-cocaine users' 'self-medication' efforts towards coping with crack-cocaine-related problems, including withdrawal and craving, impulsivity and paranoia. Cannabinoid therapeutics offer further benefits of being available in multiple formulations, are low in adverse risk potential, and may easily be offered in community-based settings which may add to their feasibility as interventions for - predominantly marginalized - crack-cocaine user populations. Supported by the dearth of current therapeutic options for crack-cocaine use, we are advocating for the implementation of a rigorous research program investigating the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use. Given the high prevalence of this grave substance use problem in the Americas, opportunities for

  12. The potential impact of proposed hazardous air pollutant legislation on the US refining industry. Final report, Task 9

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    The Administration has recently submitted a Clean Air Act Bill to Congress which would significantly modify the regulatory treatment of industrial hazardous air pollutants (air toxics). The adverse economic impacts of this legislation on the petroleum refining industry could be substantial. Depending on how EPA interprets the legislative language, the capital costs of compliance for the proposed bill could range from $1.3 to $15.0 billion. At the upper end of the range, costs of this order of magnitude would be over 2.5 times larger than the combined estimated cost of EPAs gasoline volatility (RVP) regulations and the proposed diesel sulfur content regulations. Potential compliance costs could be as much as $0.40 per barrel processed for large, complex refineries and as much as $0.50 per barrel for some small, simple refineries. For perspective, total refining costs, including a normal return on investment, are $4--5 per barrel. Because foreign refineries supplying the US will not be affected by the US air toxics regulations, US refineries may not be able to raise prices sufficiently to recover their compliance costs. For this reason, the air toxic legislation may put US refineries at an economic disadvantage relative to foreign competitors. Even under the best petroleum product market conditions, costs of $0.40 to $0.50 per barrel processed could reduce US Gulf refiner cash operating margins by as much as 29 percent. Under less favorable market conditions, such as the mid-80`s when refiners were losing money, the hazardous air pollutant regulations could greatly increase US refiner operating losses and potentially lead to closure of some marginal refineries.

  13. Gold(I) biscarbene complexes derived from vascular-disrupting combretastatin A-4 address different targets and show antimetastatic potential.

    PubMed

    Muenzner, Julienne K; Biersack, Bernhard; Kalie, Hussein; Andronache, Ion C; Kaps, Leonard; Schuppan, Detlef; Sasse, Florenz; Schobert, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    Gold N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes are an emerging class of anticancer drugs. We present a series of gold(I) biscarbene complexes with NHC ligands derived from the plant metabolite combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) that retain its vascular-disrupting effect, yet address different cellular and protein targets. Unlike CA-4, these complexes did not interfere with tubulin, but with the actin cytoskeleton of endothelial and cancer cells. For the highly metastatic 518A2 melanoma cell line this effect was accompanied by a marked accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and a suppression of active prometastatic matrix metalloproteinase-2. Despite these mechanistic differences the complexes were as strongly antivascular as CA-4 both in vitro in tube formation assays with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and in vivo as to blood vessel disruption in the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs. The antiproliferative effect of the new gold biscarbene complexes in a panel of six human cancer cell lines was impressive, with low sub-micromolar IC50 values (72 h) even against CA-4-refractory HT-29 colon and multidrug-resistant MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. In preliminary studies with a mouse melanoma xenograft model the complexes led to significant decreases in tumor volume while being very well tolerated. PMID:24648184

  14. Hazard assessment of the Tidal Inlet landslide and potential subsequent tsunami, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Geist, E.L.; Motyka, R.J.; Jakob, M.

    2007-01-01

    An unstable rock slump, estimated at 5 to 10????????10 6 m3, lies perched above the northern shore of Tidal Inlet in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. This landslide mass has the potential to rapidly move into Tidal Inlet and generate large, long-period-impulse tsunami waves. Field and photographic examination revealed that the landslide moved between 1892 and 1919 after the retreat of the Little Ice Age glaciers from Tidal Inlet in 1890. Global positioning system measurements over a 2-year period show that the perched mass is presently moving at 3-4 cm annually indicating the landslide remains unstable. Numerical simulations of landslide-generated waves suggest that in the western arm of Glacier Bay, wave amplitudes would be greatest near the mouth of Tidal Inlet and slightly decrease with water depth according to Green's law. As a function of time, wave amplitude would be greatest within approximately 40 min of the landslide entering water, with significant wave activity continuing for potentially several hours. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Earthquake damage potential and critical scour depth of bridges exposed to flood and seismic hazards under lateral seismic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shin-Tai; Wang, Chun-Yao; Huang, Wen-Hsiu

    2015-12-01

    Many bridges located in seismic hazard regions suffer from serious foundation exposure caused by riverbed scour. Loss of surrounding soil significantly reduces the lateral strength of pile foundations. When the scour depth exceeds a critical level, the strength of the foundation is insufficient to withstand the imposed seismic demand, which induces the potential for unacceptable damage to the piles during an earthquake. This paper presents an analytical approach to assess the earthquake damage potential of bridges with foundation exposure and identify the critical scour depth that causes the seismic performance of a bridge to differ from the original design. The approach employs the well-accepted response spectrum analysis method to determine the maximum seismic response of a bridge. The damage potential of a bridge is assessed by comparing the imposed seismic demand with the strengths of the column and the foundation. The versatility of the analytical approach is illustrated with a numerical example and verified by the nonlinear finite element analysis. The analytical approach is also demonstrated to successfully determine the critical scour depth. Results highlight that relatively shallow scour depths can cause foundation damage during an earthquake, even for bridges designed to provide satisfactory seismic performance.

  16. Tsunami hazard potential for the equatorial southwestern Pacific atolls of Tokelau from scenario-based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orpin, A. R.; Rickard, G. J.; Gerring, P. K.; Lamarche, G.

    2015-07-01

    Devastating tsunami over the last decade have significantly heightened awareness of the potential consequences and vulnerability to tsunami for low-lying Pacific islands and coastal regions. Our tsunami risk assessment for the atolls of the Tokelau Islands was based on a tsunami source-propagation-inundation model using Gerris Flow Solver, adapted from the companion study by Lamarche et al. (2015) for the islands of Wallis and Futuna. We assess whether there is potential for tsunami flooding on any of the village islets from a series of fourteen earthquake-source experiments that apply a combination of well-established fault parameters to represent plausible "high-risk scenarios" for each of the tsunamigenic sources. Earthquake source location and moment magnitude were related to tsunami wave heights and tsunami flood depths simulated for each of the three atolls of Tokelau. This approach was adopted to yield indicative and instructive results for a community advisory, rather than being fully deterministic. Results from our modelling show that wave fields are channelled by the bathymetry of the Pacific basin in such a way that the swathes of the highest waves sweep immediately northeast of the Tokelau Islands. From our series of limited simulations a great earthquake from the Kuril Trench poses the most significant inundation threat to Tokelau, with maximum modelled-wave heights in excess of 1 m, which may last a few hours and include several wave trains. Other sources can impact specific sectors of the atolls, particularly from regional sources to the south, and northern and eastern distant sources that generate trans-Pacific tsunami. In many cases impacts are dependent on the wave orientation and direct exposure to the oncoming tsunami. This study shows that dry areas remain around the villages in nearly all our "worst-case" tsunami simulations of the Tokelau Islands. Consistent with the oral history of little or no perceived tsunami threat, simulations from the

  17. Potential of Hazardous Waste Encapsulation in Concrete Compound Combination with Coal Ash and Quarry Fine Additives.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Roy Nir; Anker, Yaakov; Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier; Mastai, Yitzhak; Knop, Yaniv; Cohen, Haim

    2015-12-15

    Coal power plants are producing huge amounts of coal ash that may be applied to a variety of secondary uses. Class F fly ash may act as an excellent scrubber and fixation reagent for highly acidic wastes, which might also contain several toxic trace elements. This paper evaluates the potential of using Class F fly ashes (<20% CaO), in combination with excessive fines from the limestone quarry industry as a fixation reagent. The analysis included leaching experiments (EN12457-2) and several analytical techniques (ICP, SEM, XRD, etc.), which were used in order to investigate the fixation procedure. The fine sludge is used as a partial substitute in concrete that can be used in civil engineering projects, as it an environmentally safe product. PMID:26510011

  18. Leaching techniques to remove metals and potentially hazardous nutrients from trout farm sludge.

    PubMed

    Jung, I S; Lovitt, R W

    2011-11-15

    A fish farm sludge high in P (2-6% w/w as dry matter), Fe (5-7%), C (40-50%) and N (0.8-4%) was subjected to a series of acid leaching treatments using HCl, organic acids, and biologically mediated acid production. Additions of biodegradable organic acid solubilized heavy metals better than HCl, while additions of 1.5% w/v glucose followed by 7 day incubation stabilized the sludge releasing 92% P, 100% Fe. The use of homo-lactic Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures were more effective than hetero-lactic Lactobacillus buchneri, solubilizing 81.9% P, 92.2% Fe, 93.0% Zn and 96.4% Ca in the sludge. The anaerobic sludge-glucose fermentation using L. plantarum produced a leached sludge that has low heavy metal and nutrient content while affording the recovery of nutrients. The potential of these methods for practical application are briefly discussed. PMID:21940031

  19. Production of potentially hazardous respirable silica airborne particulate from the burning of sugarcane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Blond, Jennifer S.; Williamson, Ben J.; Horwell, Claire J.; Monro, Alex K.; Kirk, Caroline A.; Oppenheimer, Clive

    In some areas of the world where agricultural burning is practised, the airborne particles produced have been linked to respiratory disease in humans. Here, we investigate the abundance and form of silica (SiO 2) minerals found within ash and aerosol produced by the experimental burning of sugarcane. Samples of sugarcane leaf were incinerated over a range of temperatures, time scales and airflow conditions, the latter to investigate the effects of wind and updrafts during natural fires. The silica content of the residual ash (from still air simulations) was measured using an improved wet chemical methodology, described here. This indicated that the release of silica from the plant material into the atmosphere increases with increasing temperature of combustion. Airborne particulate, sampled using air-pump-filter apparatus, was characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with automated image and elemental analysis. For airborne particulate formed at 1100 °C (with airflow), 17% of the particles are in the respirable size fraction (<4 μm in diameter) and contain silica. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, a component of this silica is present as the potentially toxic polymorph cristobalite. For the residual ash, samples produced with no additional airflow were found to contain cristobalite, however none could be identified in ash formed with an airflow. It is considered likely that this is due to release of cristobalite to the atmosphere (as sampled on filters). This pilot study shows that potentially toxic particles could be released during sugarcane burning and reinforces the need for further study into the emissions and re-suspension of ash from the burning of biomass.

  20. Sedentary Behavior in the Workplace: A Potential Occupational Hazard for Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Lamar, David L; Chou, Shinn-Huey S; Medverd, Jonathan R; Swanson, Jonathan O

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to quantify the sedentary worklife of the radiologist, a potential health risk. Radiologists of all training levels at our academic institution were surveyed to estimate the levels of at-work and out-of-work sitting. Fitbit One activity monitors were used to measure the at-work activity levels of radiology, pediatric, and internal medicine (IM) residents. Correlation between awareness and utilization of dynamic (sitting or standing, walking, or biking) picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstations among radiology residents was assessed. Among surveyed radiologists (n = 89), 78% estimated sitting for at least 6 hours per workday. Estimated workplace sitting accounted for most of the total sitting for 81% of respondents. As measured by activity monitors, radiology residents (n = 27) took fewer steps per day (2683 vs 4602 vs 4967) and per hour (294 vs 419 vs 444) and experienced more sedentary time per hour (40.3 vs 36.2 vs 34.9min/h) than IM (n = 15) and pediatric (n = 9) residents. Activity experienced during reading room-based work and interventional work was compared by studying 4 additional radiology residents during both types of rotations. Reading-room activity was low, whereas activity on interventional rotations surpassed average levels for the pediatric and IM residents in our study. Radiology residents' (n = 28) awareness and utilization of dynamic PACS workstations varied among reading rooms, but were generally low-75% reported never or rarely using them. Resident utilization correlated with awareness of dynamic workstations available at our institution (R(2) = 0.64; P = 0.013). In conclusion, radiology residents in our study led more sedentary worklives compared with residents from other specialties and took minimal advantage of available tools to mitigate this. Potential health risks of inactivity justify individual and departmental efforts to limit workplace inactivity among radiologists. PMID:26675263

  1. Addressing potential role of magnesium dyshomeostasis to improve treatment efficacy for epilepsy: A reexamination of the literature.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Katie E; Shytle, R Douglas; Frontera, Alfred T; Soble, Jason R; Schoenberg, Mike R

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg(2+) ) is an abundant mineral in the body serving many biochemical functions. Magnesium supplementation has been shown to raise seizure threshold in animal and human studies, but the etiological contribution of magnesium deficiency to the onset and maintenance of epilepsy, as well as the degree to which it impacts antiepileptic drug efficacy, remains poorly understood. This may be due, at least in part, to the inherent limitations of commonly used serum levels as a measure of functional magnesium status, as well as insufficient data regarding relative bioavailabilities of various magnesium salts and chelates for use with humans. To date, 1 randomized clinical trial has been conducted assessing Mg(2+) supplementation in epilepsy, and findings yielded promising results. Yet a notable dearth in the literature remains, and more studies are needed. To better understand the potential role of magnesium deficiency as a causal factor in epilepsy, more convenient and accurate measurement methods should to be developed and employed in randomized, controlled trials of oral magnesium supplementation in epilepsy. Findings from such studies have the potential to facilitate far-reaching clinical and economic improvements in epilepsy treatment standards. PMID:26313363

  2. Addressing the Potential Need for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting After Free Tissue Transfer for Breast Reconstruction: An Algorithmic Approach.

    PubMed

    Maher, Janae L; Mahabir, Raman C; Roehl, Kendall R

    2015-08-01

    The number one cause of death in American women is heart disease. Studies have clearly shown the superiority of internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts for coronary revascularization over other conduits or intracoronary techniques. Our goal was to design an algorithm for recipient vessel selection in patients undergoing free tissue transfer breast reconstruction.A review of the literature was performed to identify potential evidence to contribute to a best-practice guideline. The lack of high-level evidence led us to create a guideline based on a workgroup consensus, expert opinion, cadaveric studies, and case reports.As we operate on older patient populations, the need for IMA use for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) after autologous breast reconstruction may arise more frequently. We discuss the current literature regarding recipient vessel choices and level of recipient vessel harvest in free flap breast reconstruction to help continually evolve the practices of our specialty to the potential future needs of our patients. We also present a best-practice decision algorithm for vessel selection and harvest, as well as a sample case of CABG using the left IMA 35 days after previous autologous breast reconstruction using the left IMA.As the number of patients we operate on who may later require their IMA for CABG increases, so too must our understanding of the implications of our selection of recipient vessels for free autologous breast reconstruction. PMID:26165568

  3. Addressing Potential Cumulative Impacts of Development on Threatened Species: The Case of the Endangered Black-Throated Finch

    PubMed Central

    Vanderduys, Eric Peter; Reside, April E.; Grice, Anthony; Rechetelo, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Where threatened biodiversity is adversely affected by development, policies often state that "no net loss" should be the goal and biodiversity offsetting is one mechanism available to achieve this. However, developments are often approved on an ad hoc basis and cumulative impacts are not sufficiently examined. We demonstrate the potential for serious threat to an endangered subspecies when multiple developments are planned. We modelled the distribution of the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta) using bioclimatic data and Queensland's Regional Ecosystem classification. We overlaid granted, extant extractive and exploratory mining tenures within the known and modelled ranges of black-throated finches to examine the level of incipient threat to this subspecies in central Queensland, Australia. Our models indicate that more than half of the remaining P. cincta cincta habitat is currently under extractive or exploratory tenure. Therefore, insufficient habitat exists to offset all potential development so "no net loss" is not possible. This has implications for future conservation of this and similarly distributed species and for resource development planning, especially the use of legislated offsets for biodiversity protection. PMID:26934622

  4. Addressing Potential Cumulative Impacts of Development on Threatened Species: The Case of the Endangered Black-Throated Finch.

    PubMed

    Vanderduys, Eric Peter; Reside, April E; Grice, Anthony; Rechetelo, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Where threatened biodiversity is adversely affected by development, policies often state that "no net loss" should be the goal and biodiversity offsetting is one mechanism available to achieve this. However, developments are often approved on an ad hoc basis and cumulative impacts are not sufficiently examined. We demonstrate the potential for serious threat to an endangered subspecies when multiple developments are planned. We modelled the distribution of the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta) using bioclimatic data and Queensland's Regional Ecosystem classification. We overlaid granted, extant extractive and exploratory mining tenures within the known and modelled ranges of black-throated finches to examine the level of incipient threat to this subspecies in central Queensland, Australia. Our models indicate that more than half of the remaining P. cincta cincta habitat is currently under extractive or exploratory tenure. Therefore, insufficient habitat exists to offset all potential development so "no net loss" is not possible. This has implications for future conservation of this and similarly distributed species and for resource development planning, especially the use of legislated offsets for biodiversity protection. PMID:26934622

  5. EVA Hazards due to TPS Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2007-01-01

    Tile inspection and repair activities have implicit hazards associated with them. When an Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) crewmember and associated hardware are added into the equation, additional hazards are introduced. Potential hazards to the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Orbiter or the crew member themselves are created. In order to accurately assess the risk of performing a TPS inspection or repair, an accurate evaluation of potential hazards and how adequately these hazards are controlled is essential. The EMU could become damaged due to sharp edges, protrusions, thermal extremes, molten metal or impact with the Orbiter. Tools, tethers and the presence of a crew member in the vicinity of the Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) pose hazards to the Orbiter. Hazards such as additional tile or Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) damage from a loose tool, safety tethers, crewmember or arm impact are introduced. Additionally, there are hazards to the crew which should be addressed. Crew hazards include laser injury, electrical shock, inability to return to the airlock for EMU failures or Orbiter rapid safing scenarios, as well as the potential inadvertent release of a crew member from the arm/boom. The aforementioned hazards are controlled in various ways. Generally, these controls are addressed operationally versus by design, as the majority of the interfaces are to the Orbiter and the Orbiter design did not originally account for tile repair. The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), for instance, was originally designed to deploy experiments, and therefore has insufficient design controls for retention of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS). Although multiple methods to repair the Orbiter TPS exist, the majority of the hazards are applicable no matter which specific repair method is being performed. TPS Inspection performed via EVA also presents some of the same hazards. Therefore, the hazards common to all TPS inspection or repair methods will

  6. Geologic implications and potential hazards of scour depressions on bering shelf, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, M.C.; Nelson, H.; Thor, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Flat-bottomed depression 50-150 m in diameter and 60-80 cm deep occur in the floor of Norton Sound, Bering Sea. These large erosional bedforms and associated current ripples are found in areas where sediment grain size is 0.063-0.044 mm (4-4.5 ??), speeds of bottom currents are greatest (20-30 cm/s mean speeds under nonstorm conditions, 70 cm/s during typical storms), circulation of water is constricted by major topographic shoals (kilometers in scale), and small-scale topographic disruptions, such as ice gouges, occur locally on slopes of shoals. These local obstructions on shoals appear to disrupt currents, causing separation of flow and generating eddies that produce large-scale scour. Offshore artificial structures also may disrupt bottom currents in these same areas and have the potential to generate turbulence and induce extensive scour in the area of disrupted flow. The size and character of natural scour depressions in areas of ice gouging suggest that large-scale regions of scour may develop from enlargement of local scour sites around pilings, platforms, or pipelines. Consequently, loss of substrate support for pipelines and gravity structures is possible during frequent autumn storms. ?? 1979 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  7. Poly(L-lactic acid) membranes: absence of genotoxic hazard and potential for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Nelson; Martins, Thomás Duzzi; Teixeira, Gabriella Machado; Cunha, Nayanne Larissa; Oliveira, Rogério Belle; Nassar, Eduardo José; Dos Santos, Raquel Alves

    2015-01-22

    The use of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) has been considered an important alternative for medical devices once this polyester presents biomechanical, optical and biodegradable properties. Moreover, the use of PLA results in less inflammatory reactions and more recently it has been proposed its application in drug delivery systems. Genotoxicological evaluations are considered part of the battery assays in toxicological analysis. Considering the wide applications of PLA, the present work evaluated the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of PLA in CHO-K1 cells, as well as its physicochemical properties. No cytotoxic effects of PLA were detected by colorimetric tetrazolium assay (XTT) analysis, and the clonogenic survival assay showed that PLA did not disrupt the replicative cell homeostasis, neither exhibited genotoxic effects as evidenced by comet and micronucleus assays. Thermogravimetric properties of PLA were not altered after contact with cells and this film exhibited ability in absorb and release Europium(III) complex. All these data suggest genotoxicological safety of PLA for further applications in drug delivery systems. PMID:25479058

  8. Eruptive history of the Dieng Mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C. Dan; Sushyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location.

  9. Potential health hazards from thermal degradation events - Particulate vs. gas phase effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberdorster, Gunter; Ferin, Juraj; Finkelstein, Jacob; Baggs, Raymond; Stavert, D. M.; Lehnert, Bruce E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of instillation of ultrafine TiO2 particles (10-nm anatase-TiO2 and 12-nm rutile-TiO2 (administered in doses from 60 to 1000 microg/rat and 500 microg/rat, respectively) on the respiratory tract of exposed rats was compared to the effects of larger (250 nm anatase-TiO2 and 220-nm rutile-TiO2 particles (given in doses 500 or 1000 microg/rat and 500 microg/rat, respectively). These effects were also compared to the effects of inhalation of 20-nm and 250-nm anatase-TiO2 particles and inhalation with surrogate gas phase components (HF and HCl). It was found that ultrafine TiO2 particles induced greater inflammatory reaction in the lung, had greater adverse effect on alveolar macrophage-mediated clearance function, and had a greater potential to induce mediators which can adversely affect other lung cells than did larger-sized particles. Inhalation of surrogate gas phase components caused injury only to the upper respiratory tract, in contrast to the ultrafine particles, which affected the deep lung.

  10. Eruptive history of the Dieng mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.D.; Sukhyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location. 6 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Bright fireballs associated with the potentially hazardous asteroid 2007LQ19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, José M.; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; Ortiz, José L.; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Cabrera-Caño, Jesús

    2014-09-01

    We analyse here two very bright fireballs produced by the ablation in the atmosphere of two large meteoroids in 2009 and 2010. These slow-moving and deep-penetrating events were observed over Spain in the framework of our Spanish Fireball Network continuous meteor monitoring campaign. The analysis of the emission spectrum imaged for one of these fireballs has provided the first clues about the chemical nature of the progenitor meteoroids. The orbital parameters of these particles suggest a likely association with the recently identified July ρ-Herculid (JRH) meteoroid stream. In addition, considerations about the likely parent body of this stream are also made on the basis of orbital dissimilarity criteria. This orbital analysis reveals that both meteoroids and PHA 2007LQ19 exhibit a similar evolution during a time period of almost 8000 years, which suggests that either this near Earth object (NEO) is the potential parent of these particles or that this NEO and both meteoroids had a common progenitor in the past.

  12. Using Helicopter Electromagnetic Surveys to Identify Potential Hazards at Mine Waste Impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Hammack, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    In July 2003, helicopter electromagnetic surveys were conducted at 14 coal waste impoundments in southern West Virginia. The purpose of the surveys was to detect conditions that could lead to impoundment failure either by structural failure of the embankment or by the flooding of adjacent or underlying mine works. Specifically, the surveys attempted to: 1) identify saturated zones within the mine waste, 2) delineate filtrate flow paths through the embankment or into adjacent strata and receiving streams, and 3) identify flooded mine workings underlying or adjacent to the waste impoundment. Data from the helicopter surveys were processed to generate conductivity/depth images. Conductivity/depth images were then spatially linked to georeferenced air photos or topographic maps for interpretation. Conductivity/depth images were found to provide a snapshot of the hydrologic conditions that exist within the impoundment. This information can be used to predict potential areas of failure within the embankment because of its ability to image the phreatic zone. Also, the electromagnetic survey can identify areas of unconsolidated slurry in the decant basin and beneath the embankment. Although shallow, flooded mineworks beneath the impoundment were identified by this survey, it cannot be assumed that electromagnetic surveys can detect all underlying mines. A preliminary evaluation of the data implies that helicopter electromagnetic surveys can provide a better understanding of the phreatic zone than the piezometer arrays that are typically used.

  13. Geological Deformations and Potential Hazards Triggered by the 01-12-2010 Haiti Earthquake: Insights from Google Earth Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doblas, M.; Benito, B.; Torres, Y.; Belizaire, D.; Dorfeuille, J.; Aretxabala, A.

    2013-05-01

    In this study we compare the different Google Earth imagery (GEI) available before and after the 01-12-2010 earthquake of Haiti and carry out a detailed analysis of the superficial seismic-related geological deformations in the following sites: 1) the capital Port-Au-Prince and other cities (Carrefour and Gresslier); 2) the mountainous area of the Massif de la Selle which is transected by the "Enriquillo-Plaintain-Garden" (EPG) interplate boundary-fault (that supposedly triggered the seism); 3) some of the most important river channels and their corresponding deltas (Momanche, Grise and Frorse). The initial results of our researches were published in March 2010 in a special web page created by the scientific community to try to mitigate the devastating effects of this catastrophe (http://supersites.earthobservations.org/haiti.php). Six types of superficial geological deformations triggered by the seismic event have been identified with the GEI: liquefaction structures, chaotic rupture zones, coastal and domal uplifts, river-delta turnovers, faults/ruptures and landslides. Potential geological hazards triggered by the Haiti earthquake include landslides, inundations, reactivation of active tectonic elements (e.g., fractures), river-delta turnovers, etc. We analyzed again the GEI after the rain period and, as expected, most of the geological deformations that we initially identified had been erased and/or modified by the water washout or buried by the sediments. In this sense the GEI constitutes an invaluable instrument in the analysis of seismic geological hazards: we still have the possibility to compare all the images before and after the seism that are recorded in its useful "time tool". These are in fact the only witnesses of most of the geological deformations triggered by the Haiti earthquake that remain stored in the virtual archives of the GEI. In fact a field trip to the area today would be useless as most of these structures have disappeared. We will show

  14. State of the art of national landslide databases in Europe and their potential for assessing landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet; Hervás, Javier

    2012-02-01

    A landslide inventory is the most important information source for quantitative zoning of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk. It should give insight into the location, date, type, size, activity and causal factors of landslides as well as resultant damage. In Europe, many countries have created or are creating national and/or regional landslide databases (LDBs). Yet little is known on their contents, completeness, format, structure, language use and accessibility, and hence on their ability to perform national or transnational landslide zoning. Therefore, this study presents a detailed analysis of existing national LDBs in the EU member states, EU official candidate and potential candidate countries, and EFTA countries, and their possible use for landslide zoning. These national LDBs were compared with a subset of 22 regional databases. Twenty-two out of 37 contacted European countries currently have national LDBs, and six other countries have only regional LDBs. In total, the national LDBs contain 633,696 landslides, of which 485,004 are located in Italy, while Austria, the Czech Republic, France, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, and the UK also have > 10,000 landslides in their LDBs. National LDBs are generally created in the official language of each country and 58% of them contain other natural hazards (e.g. floods and sinkholes). About 68% of the LDBs contain less than 50% of all landslides in each country, but a positive observation is that 60% of the LDBs are updated at least once a year or after a major event. Most landslide locations are collected with traditional methods such as field surveys, aerial photo interpretation and analysis of historical records. Currently, integration of landslide information from different national LDBs is hampered because of differences in language and classification systems for landslide type and activity. Other problems are that currently only half of the national LDBs have a direct link between spatial and alphanumeric

  15. Household Hazards to Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... health by becoming aware of the most common health hazards found in many pet-owning households. Hazards in the Kitchen Foods Many foods are perfectly safe for humans, but could be harmful or potentially deadly to ...

  16. Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abasiubong, Festus; Bassey, Emem Abasi; Udobang, John Akpan; Akinbami, Oluyinka Samuel; Udoh, Sunday Bassey; Idung, Alphonsus Udo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing evidence that self-medications among pregnant women are common in many developing countries. Despite the adverse impact on pregnancy, there are few programs available for their control. The objective of this study was to assess the level of self-medication amongst Nigerian pregnant women in order to determine possible harmful effects on fetus. Methods Five hundred and eighteen 518 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 40 years, drawn from three General hospitals in Akwa Ibom State were assessed for self-medication and substance abuse using an instrument, adapted from a modified form of 117-item self-report questionnaire based on the WHO guidelines for students’ substance use survey. Results Of the 518 pregnant women assessed, 375 (72.4%) indulged in one form of self-medication or the other; 143 (27.6%) used only drugs prescribed from the antenatal clinic. A total of 157 (41.9%) pregnant women self-medicate fever/pain relievers; 47 (9.1%) mixture of herbs and other drugs; 15 (4.0%) sedatives; 13 (3.5%) alcohol; while 5 (1.3%) used kolanuts. Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing pregnancy from coming out, for blood; poor sleep, fever and vomiting and infections. There was a significant difference in the rate of using analgesics (X2=9.43, p=0.001); and antibiotic (X2=4.43, p=0.001) among pregnant women who were highly educated compared to those with little or no education. However, the level of education has no impact in the usage of native herbs. Conclusion This study shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment. There is need for adequate education of pregnant women during antenatal clinics on the potential danger of self-medication so as to prevent child and maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23308320

  17. Potential hazards of environmental contaminants to avifauna residing in the Chesapeake Bay estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; McGowan, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    A search of the Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates (CEE-TV) database revealed that 70% of the 839 Chesapeake Bay records deal with avian species. Studies conducted on waterbirds in the past 15 years indicate that organochlorine contaminants have declined in eggs and tissues, although p,p'-DDE, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and coplanar PCB congeners may still exert sublethal and reproductive effects in some locations. There have been numerous reports of avian die-off events related to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. More contemporary contaminants (e.g., alkylphenols, ethoxylates, perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers) are detectable in bird eggs in the most industrialized portions of the Bay, but interpretation of these data is difficult because adverse effect levels are incompletely known for birds. Two moderaterized oil spills resulted in the death of several hundred birds, and about 500 smaller spill events occur annually in the watershed. With the exception of lead, concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in eggs and tissues appear to be below toxic thresholds for waterbirds. Fishing tackle and discarded plastics, that can entangle and kill young and adults, are prevalent in nests in some Bay tributaries. It is apparent that exposure and potential effects of several classes of contaminants (e.g., dioxins, dibenzofurans, rodenticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, lead shot, and some metals) have not been systematically examined in the past 15 years, highlighting the need for toxicological evaluation of birds found dead, and perhaps an avian ecotoxicological monitoring program. Although oil spills, spent lead shot, some pesticides, and industrial pollutants occasionally harm Chesapeake avifauna, contaminants no longer evoke the population level effects that were observed in Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) through the 1970s.

  18. Concentrations and potential health hazards of organochlorine pesticides in (shallow) groundwater of Taihu Lake region, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Gui, Tong; Huang, Yujuan

    2014-02-01

    A total of 27 shallow groundwater samples were collected from the Taihu Lake region (TLR), to determine the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) species, identify their possible sources, and estimate health risk of drinking the shallow groundwater. All OCP species occurred in the shallow groundwater of TLR with high detection frequency except p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichlorothane (p, p'-DDD) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT). DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the dominant OCP contaminants in the shallow groundwater of TLR, and they account for 44.2% total OCPs. The low α-HCH/γ-HCH ratio, high β-HCH/(α+γ)-HCH ratio and β-HCH being the dominant HCH isomers for the majority of samples suggest that the HCHs were mainly from the historical use of lindane after a period of degradation. p, p'-DDE being the dominant DDT metabolite for all the samples indicated that the DDTs were mainly from the historical residues. Compositional analysis also suggested that there were fresh input sources of heptachlors, aldrins and endrins in addition to the historical residues. Correlation analysis indicated the hexachlorobenzene (HCB) impurity in the shallow groundwater of TLR was likely from the historical application of lindane and technical HCH (a mixture of HCH isomers that is produced by photochlorination of benzene). Carcinogenic risk values for α-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrins and dieldrin in the shallow groundwater in majority area of TLR were found to be >10(-6), posing a potentially serious cancer risk to those dependant on shallow groundwater for drinking water. PMID:24239826

  19. Potential hazards of environmental contaminants to avifauna residing in the Chesapeake Bay Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; McGowan, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    A search of the Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates (CEE-TV) database revealed that 70% of the 839 Chesapeake Bay records deal with avian species. Studies conducted on waterbirds in the past 15 years indicate that organochlorine contaminants have declined in eggs and tissues, although p,p?DDE, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and coplanar PCB congeners may still exert sublethal and reproductive effects in some locations. There have been numerous reports of avian die-off events related to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. More contemporary contaminants (e.g., alkylphenols, ethoxylates, pertluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers) are detectable in bird eggs in the most industrialized portions of the Bay, but interpretation of these data is difficult because adverse effect levels are incompletely known for birds. Two moderate-sized oil spills resulted in the death of several hundred birds, and about 500 smaller spill events occur annually in the watershed. With the exception of lead, concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in eggs and tissues appear to be below toxic thresholds for waterbirds. Fishing tackle and discarded plastics, that can entangle and kill young and adults, are prevalent in nests in some Bay tributaries. It is apparent that exposure and potential effects of several classes of contaminants (e.g., dioxins, dibenzofurans, rodenticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, lead shot, and some metals) have not been systematically examined in the past 15 years, highlighting the need for toxicological evaluation of birds found dead, and perhaps an avian ecotoxicological monitoring program. Although oil spills, spent lead shot, some pesticides, and industrial pollutants occasionally harm Chesapeake avifauna, contaminants no longer evoke the population level effects that were observed in Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) through the 1970s.

  20. Internal structure and volcanic hazard potential of Mt Tongariro, New Zealand, from 3D gravity and magnetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Craig A.; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-06-01

    A new 3D geophysical model of the Mt Tongariro Volcanic Massif (TgVM), New Zealand, provides a high resolution view of the volcano's internal structure and hydrothermal system, from which we derive implications for volcanic hazards. Geologically constrained 3D inversions of potential field data provides a greater level of insight into the volcanic structure than is possible from unconstrained models. A complex region of gravity highs and lows (± 6 mGal) is set within a broader, ~ 20 mGal gravity low. A magnetic high (1300 nT) is associated with Mt Ngauruhoe, while a substantial, thick, demagnetised area occurs to the north, coincident with a gravity low and interpreted as representing the hydrothermal system. The hydrothermal system is constrained to the west by major faults, interpreted as an impermeable barrier to fluid migration and extends to basement depth. These faults are considered low probability areas for future eruption sites, as there is little to indicate they have acted as magmatic pathways. Where the hydrothermal system coincides with steep topographic slopes, an increased likelihood of landslides is present and the newly delineated hydrothermal system maps the area most likely to have phreatic eruptions. Such eruptions, while small on a global scale, are important hazards at the TgVM as it is a popular hiking area with hundreds of visitors per day in close proximity to eruption sites. The model shows that the volume of volcanic material erupted over the lifespan of the TgVM is five to six times greater than previous estimates, suggesting a higher rate of magma supply, in line with global rates of andesite production. We suggest that our model of physical property distribution can be used to provide constraints for other models of dynamic geophysical processes occurring at the TgVM.

  1. Postglacial volcanic deposits at Mount Baker, Washington, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyde, Jack H.; Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1978-01-01

    Eruptions and other geologic events at Mount Baker during the last 10,000 years have repeatedly affected adjacent areas, especially the valleys that head on the south and east sides of the volcano. Small volumes of tephra were erupted at least four times during the past 10,000 years. Future eruptions like these could cause as much as 35 centimeters of tephra to be deposited at sites 17 kilometers from the volcano, 15 centimeters of tephra to be deposited 29 kilometers from the volcano, and 5 centimeters, 44 kilometers from the volcano. Lava flows were erupted at least twice during the last 10,000 years and moved down two valleys. Future lava flows will not directly endanger people because lava typically moves so slowly that escape is possible. Hot pyroclastic flows evidently occurred during only one period and were confined to the Boulder Creek valley. Such flows can move at speeds of as much as 150 kilometers per hour and can bury valley floors under tens of meters of hot rock debris for at least 15 kilometers from the volcano. large mudflows, most of which contain hydrothermally altered rock debris, originated at Mount Baker at least eight times during the last 10,000 years. The largest mudflow reached 29 kilometers or more down the valley of the Middle Fork Nooksack River, west of the volcano, about 6,000 years ago. Extensive masses of hydrothermally altered rock that are potentially unstable exist today near the summit of the volcano, especially in the Sherman Crater - Sherman Peak area. Avalanches of this material could be triggered by steam explosions, earthquakes, or eruptions, or may occur because of slow-acting forces of processes that gradually decrease stability. large avalanches could move downslope at high speed and could grade downvalley into mudflows. Floods caused by rapid melting of snow and ice by lava or by hot rock debris could affect valley floors many tens of kilometers from the volcano and could have especially severe effects if they were to

  2. Persistence of microbial communities including Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a hospital environment: a potential health hazard

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The persistence of microbial communities and how they change in indoor environments is of immense interest to public health. Moreover, hospital acquired infections are significant contributors to morbidity and mortality. Evidence suggests that, in hospital environments agent transfer between surfaces causes healthcare associated infections in humans, and that surfaces are an important transmission route and may act as a reservoir for some of the pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms that persist on noncritical equipment and surfaces in a main hospital in Portugal, and are able to grow in selective media for Pseudomonas, and relate them with the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results During 2 years, a total of 290 environmental samples were analyzed, in 3 different wards. The percentage of equipment in each ward that showed low contamination level varied between 22% and 38%, and more than 50% of the equipment sampled was highly contaminated. P. aeruginosa was repeatedly isolated from sinks (10 times), from the taps’ biofilm (16 times), and from the showers and bedside tables (two times). Two ERIC clones were isolated more than once. The contamination level of the different taps analyzed showed correlation with the contamination level of the hand gels support, soaps and sinks. Ten different bacteria genera were frequently isolated in the selective media for Pseudomonas. Organisms usually associated with nosocomial infections as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Enterococcus feacalis, Serratia nematodiphila were also repeatedly isolated on the same equipment. Conclusions The environment may act as a reservoir for at least some of the pathogens implicated in nosocomial infections. The bacterial contamination level was related to the presence of humidity on the surfaces, and tap water (biofilm) was a point of dispersion of bacterial species, including potentially pathogenic organisms. The materials of the equipment

  3. Hazard Analysis for Post-Fire Debris-Flow Potential in Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youberg, A.; Koestner, K. A.; Schiefer, E.; Neary, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Several large, devastating wildfires occurred in Arizona during the past 2 years, after a 4-year period without any large wildfires. In June, 2010, the human-caused Schultz Fire near Flagstaff burned 6,100 ha of mostly steep terrain. Subsequent rains from the 4th wettest monsoon on record produced numerous debris flows, significant erosion, and substantial flooding of the downslope residential areas. In May and June of 2011, 3 very large human-caused wildfires (Wallow, Horseshoe 2, and Monument Fires) burned over 320,000 ha, posing serious threats to communities below burned slopes. The Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams, in need of a rapid method to assess the potential for post-fire debris flows, turned to models developed by the USGS for this purpose [Cannon and others, 2010, GSA Bull, 122(1-2), 127-144]. These models, while providing quick results, have not been evaluated for use in Arizona's varied physiographic provinces. Here we use data from the Schultz Fire to compare basin responses with those predicted by the USGS post-fire debris-flow models. Data from the Schultz Fire includes detailed field documentation of debris-flow occurrence and runout distances, 1:12,000 stereo aerial photographs, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and tipping-bucket rainfall data. These data document debris-flow producing storms, basin response, and the extent of debris-flow runout, and provide estimates of debris-flow volumes. The hydrologic responses from 30 small, steep, upper basins burned by the Schultz Fire were assessed for debris or flood flow occurrences. Nineteen basins produced debris flows during a July 20th storm that had a peak 10-minute intensity of 24 mm. A second storm on August 16th, with a peak 10-minute intensity of 15 mm, produced additional debris flows in several of the same basins. Of the 30 basins assessed, 19 were completely burned; four at high severity and 12 at moderate to high severity. The basin with the smallest burned area

  4. Inland Flood Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen E.

    2000-07-01

    A comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of issues related to inland flood hazards, this important work addresses physical controls on flooding, flood processes and effects, and responses to flooding, from the perspectives of human, aquatic, and riparian communities. The contributors, recognized experts in their fields, draw on examples and case studies of inland flood hazards from around the world. The volume is unique in that it addresses how the nonoccurrence of floods, in association with flow regulation and other human manipulation of river systems, may create hazards for aquatic and riparian communities. This book will be a valuable resource for all professionals concerned with inland flood hazards.

  5. The Union County Hydrogeology Project: Addressing Potential Imbalances by Integrating Science and Communities in Northeastern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigler, K. E.; Podzemny, B.; Peacock, G.; Yuhas, A.; Williams, S.; Yuhas, E.

    2013-12-01

    The area around the town of Clayton, in northeastern New Mexico, was not a declared groundwater basin until September of 2005. In the years leading up to 2005, battles over groundwater use and attempts to stop drilling of additional water wells for irrigation and stock use led to multiple lawsuits in the community. Because there were no regulations in place and the geology of the area had not been studied in a hydrologic framework since the 1960s, there was no basic information for decisions to be made with regards to drilling new wells and use of groundwater, leading to the potential for severe imbalances in groundwater recharge versus usage in the region. In 2006, the Northeast Soil and Water Conservation District (NESWCD), based in Clayton, decided that a large scale hydrogeology project was needed to help develop community guidelines for groundwater development. In 2010, Zeigler Geologic Consulting and the NM Bureau of Geology partnered with the NESWCD to help develop this project. The Union County Hydrogeology Project (UCHP) is unique in that this project was initially undertaken by members of the community who developed a program of biannual static water level measurements in wells across the county. In addition, the project has support from the majority of land owners in Union County and the scientists working on the project have worked closely with local community leaders to integrate this large project into everyday activities. Community integration efforts include presenting data at the Annual Producers Meeting and at the county fair, as well as other regional conferences on water use and development. Previous assumptions were that the primary aquifers being utilized were the Tertiary Ogallala Formation and the Upper Cretaceous Dakota Group. However, evaluation of surface bedrock exposures and well cuttings from petroleum exploration wells drilled in eastern Union County demonstrate that the subsurface geology is more complex than might be expected. This

  6. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-08-19

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities.

  7. Rapid ice-rock avalanches versus gradual glacial processes? Implications for the natural hazard potential in the Karakoram Mountains (Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing concern about extreme mass movements from combined ice-rock avalanches in glaciated environments areas in the light of increasing settlement activities in mountains and their forelands. Recent devastating events, such as those from Huascaran (Peru) in 1970 or Kolka (Caucasus) in 2002, have been an eye-opener in terms of the large run-out-distances and their hazard potential. At the same time there is a variety of topographic settings and distinct triggers of ice and rock failures, which leads in turn to a broad spectrum of multi-phase processes, such as the possible propagation of rock-ice-masses onto glacial surfaces with subsequent debris flows. These events are often not directly observable, and a sound interpretation of the sedimentary record is needed. However, the origin and process dynamics of giant debris accumulations in different mountain regions of the world is discussed increasingly controversially. In the last decade a lot of debris accumulations, which were classified formerly as moraines, were reinterpreted as products of mass movements. In this context, the study presented here, focuses on a case example from the upper Chapursan Valley at the Afghan-Pakistan border (Karakoram Range, Pakistan). The Chapursan Valley floor and the adjacent sediment cones are covered with an outstanding hummocky debris landscape over a length of about 10 km and a width of up to 1 km with individual hummocks reaching about 10 m in height. These landforms overlap with the zone of permanent settlement. According to local legends and reports of early travelers in this region, one of the largest settlement concentrations formerly occurred in the upper Chapursan Valley and was destroyed by a natural disaster. Geomorphological field investigations, sedimentological studies, a comparison of satellite images, an analysis of historical data and interviews with the local inhabitants were carried out to unravel the origin of the hummocky terrain. The results show

  8. Hazard Analysis for Building 34 Vacuum Glove Box Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meginnis, Ian

    2014-01-01

    One of the characteristics of an effective safety program is the recognition and control of hazards before mishaps or failures occur. Conducting potentially hazardous tests necessitates a thorough hazard analysis in order to prevent injury to personnel, and to prevent damage to facilities and equipment. The primary purpose of this hazard analysis is to define and address the potential hazards and controls associated with the Building 34 Vacuum Glove Box Assembly, and to provide the applicable team of personnel with the documented results. It is imperative that each member of the team be familiar with the hazards and controls associated with his/her particular tasks, assignments and activities while interfacing with facility test systems, equipment and hardware. In fulfillment of the stated purposes, the goal of this hazard analysis is to identify all hazards that have the potential to harm personnel, damage the facility or its test systems or equipment, test articles, Government or personal property, or the environment. This analysis may also assess the significance and risk, when applicable, of lost test objectives when substantial monetary value is involved. The hazards, causes, controls, verifications, and risk assessment codes have been documented on the hazard analysis work sheets in Appendix A of this document. The preparation and development of this report is in accordance with JPR 1700.1, "JSC Safety and Health Handbook" and JSC 17773 Rev D "Instructions for Preparation of Hazard Analysis for JSC Ground Operations".

  9. Prediction of the developmental toxicity hazard potential of halogenated drinking water disinfection by-products tested by the in vitro hydra assay

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Johnson, E.M.; Newman, L.M. )

    1990-06-01

    A series of seven randomly selected potential halogenated water disinfection by-products were evaluated in vitro by the hydra assay to determine their developmental toxicity hazard potential. For six of the chemicals tested by this assay (dibromoacetonitrile; trichloroacetonitrile; 2-chlorophenol; 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; trichloroacetic acid; dichloroacetone) it was predicted that they would be generally equally toxic to both adult and embryonic mammals when studied by means of standard developmental toxicity teratology tests. However, the potential water disinfection by-product chloroacetic acid (CA) was determined to be over eight times more toxic to the embryonic developmental portion of the assay than it was to the adults. Because of this potential selectivity, CA is a high-priority item for developmental toxicity tests in pregnant mammals to confirm or refute its apparent unique developmental hazard potential and/or to establish a NOAEL by the route of most likely human exposure.

  10. The potentially hazardous asteroid 2007CA19 as the parent of the η-Virginids meteoroid stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babadzhanov, P. B.; Kokhirova, G. I.; Obrubov, Yu. V.

    2015-07-01

    The orbit of the potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid 2007CA19 is classified as comet-like according to the Tisserand parameter with a value of Tj = 2.8, therefore the object can be empirically considered as an extinct or dormant Jupiter-family comet. If 2007CA19 is really a former comet, it could have formed a meteoroid stream in the past in the period of its cometary activity. Investigation of the asteroid's orbital evolution shows that 2007CA19 is a quadruple-crosser of the Earth's orbit. Consequently, the meteoroid stream that is supposedly associated with the object can produce four meteor showers if, as expected, the perihelia arguments of the meteoroids are very distributed over the orbit. Theoretical radiants of the predicted showers were calculated using elements of the 2007CA19 osculating orbit that correspond to the positions of intersections with the Earth's orbit. A search for the predicted night-time showers has shown that the Northern and Southern η-Virginids can be associated to 2007CA19. Using the MOID IAU database, we identify two other daytime showers that can be associated with this asteroid. Thus, we confirm that 2007CA19 has an associated meteoroid stream that produces four active meteor showers in the Earth's atmosphere. This relationship supports the dynamical classification of the object and also points to the possibility of its cometary origin.

  11. Potentially hazardous Asteroid 2007 LE: Compositional link to the black chondrite Rose City and Asteroid (6) Hebe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieber-Beyer, Sherry K.; Gaffey, Michael J.; Bottke, William F.; Hardersen, Paul S.

    2015-04-01

    The research is an integrated effort beginning with telescopic observations and extending through detailed mineralogical characterizations to provide constraints on the albedo, diameter, composition, and meteorite affinity of near-Earth object-potentially hazardous asteroid (NEO-PHA 2007 LE). Results of the analysis indicate a diameter of 0.56 kilometers (km) and an albedo of 0.08. 2007 LE exhibits a 1-μm absorption feature without a discernible Band II feature. Compositional analysis of 2007 LE reveal Fs17 and Fa19 values, which are consistent with the Fa and Fs values for the H-type ordinary chondrites (Fs14.5-18 and Fa16-20) and of Asteroid (6) Hebe (Fs17 and Fa15). Spectroscopically, 2007 LE does not appear like the average H-chondrite spectra, exhibiting a reddened spectrum and subdued absorption feature. Further investigation of the meteorite classes yielded a black chondrite, Rose City, which is both similar in mineralogy and spectrally to PHA 2007 LE. Dynamical analysis could not directly link the fall of the Rose City meteorite to 2007 LE. As it stands, 2007 LE and Rose City have a compositional link, and both could come from the same parent body/possible family, one known source of the H chondrites is (6) Hebe.

  12. Composition of Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (214869) 2007 PA8: An H Chondrite from the Outer Asteroid Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Juan A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Dykhuis, Melissa; Lindsay, Sean; Le Corre, Lucille

    2015-07-01

    Potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) represent a unique opportunity for physical characterization during their close approaches to Earth. The proximity of these asteroids makes them accessible for sample-return and manned missions, but could also represent a risk for life on Earth in the event of collision. Therefore, a detailed mineralogical analysis is a key component in planning future exploration missions and developing appropriate mitigation strategies. In this study we present near-infrared spectra (˜0.7-2.55 μm) of PHA (214869) 2007 PA8 obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility during its close approach to Earth on 2012 November. The mineralogical analysis of this asteroid revealed a surface composition consistent with H ordinary chondrites. In particular, we found that the olivine and pyroxene chemistries of 2007 PA8 are Fa18(Fo82) and Fs16, respectively. The olivine-pyroxene abundance ratio was estimated to be 47%. This low olivine abundance and the measured band parameters, close to the H4 and H5 chondrites, suggest that the parent body of 2007 PA8 experienced thermal metamorphism before being catastrophically disrupted. Based on the compositional affinity, proximity to the J5:2 resonance, and estimated flux of resonant objects we determined that the Koronis family is the most likely source region for 2007 PA8.

  13. Formation of carcinogens indoors by surface-mediated reactions of nicotine with nitrous acid, leading to potential thirdhand smoke hazards

    PubMed Central

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Gundel, Lara A.; Pankow, James F.; Jacob, Peyton; Singer, Brett C.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that residual nicotine from tobacco smoke sorbed to indoor surfaces reacts with ambient nitrous acid (HONO) to form carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Substantial levels of TSNAs were measured on surfaces inside a smoker’s vehicle. Laboratory experiments using cellulose as a model indoor material yielded a > 10-fold increase of surface-bound TSNAs when sorbed secondhand smoke was exposed to 60 ppbv HONO for 3 hours. In both cases we identified 1-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridinyl)-4-butanal, a TSNA absent in freshly emitted tobacco smoke, as the major product. The potent carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1-butanone and N-nitroso nornicotine were also detected. Time-course measurements revealed fast TSNA formation, with up to 0.4% conversion of nicotine. Given the rapid sorption and persistence of high levels of nicotine on indoor surfaces—including clothing and human skin—this recently identified process represents an unappreciated health hazard through dermal exposure, dust inhalation, and ingestion. These findings raise concerns about exposures to the tobacco smoke residue that has been recently dubbed “thirdhand smoke.” Our work highlights the importance of reactions at indoor interfaces, particularly those involving amines and NOx/HONO cycling, with potential health impacts. PMID:20142504

  14. Changes in population evacuation potential for tsunami hazards in Seward, Alaska, since the 1964 Good Friday earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan J.; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.; Peters, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian evacuation modeling for tsunami hazards typically focuses on current land-cover conditions and population distributions. To examine how post-disaster redevelopment may influence the evacuation potential of at-risk populations to future threats, we modeled pedestrian travel times to safety in Seward, Alaska, based on conditions before the 1964 Good Friday earthquake and tsunami disaster and on modern conditions. Anisotropic, path distance modeling is conducted to estimate travel times to safety during the 1964 event and in modern Seward, and results are merged with various population data, including the location and number of residents, employees, public venues, and dependent care facilities. Results suggest that modeled travel time estimates conform well to the fatality patterns of the 1964 event and that evacuation travel times have increased in modern Seward due to the relocation and expansion of port and harbor facilities after the disaster. The majority of individuals threatened by tsunamis today in Seward are employee, customer, and tourist populations, rather than residents in their homes. Modern evacuation travel times to safety for the majority of the region are less than wave arrival times for future tectonic tsunamis but greater than arrival times for landslide-related tsunamis. Evacuation travel times will likely be higher in the winter time, when the presence of snow may constrain evacuations to roads.

  15. Rapid on-site detection of airborne asbestos fibers and potentially hazardous nanomaterials using fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Akio; Alexandrov, Maxym; Nishimura, Tomoki; Ishida, Takenori

    2016-06-01

    A large number of peptides with binding affinity to various inorganic materials have been identified and used as linkers, catalysts, and building blocks in nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology. However, there have been few applications of material-binding peptides in the fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing (FM method) of environmental pollutants. A notable exception is the application of the FM method for the detection of asbestos, a dangerous industrial toxin that is still widely used in many developing countries. This review details the selection and isolation of asbestos-binding proteins and peptides with sufficient specificity to distinguish asbestos from a large variety of safer fibrous materials used as asbestos substitutes. High sensitivity to nanoscale asbestos fibers (30-35 nm in diameter) invisible under conventional phase contrast microscopy can be achieved. The FM method is the basis for developing an automated system for asbestos biosensing that can be used for on-site testing with a portable fluorescence microscope. In the future, the FM method could also become a useful tool for detecting other potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the environment. PMID:27220109

  16. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    of these toxic dumps are vulnerable to seismically induced landsliding, release of reservoir water and breaching of very large (up to several km3) landslide-dammed lakes within the deep mountain valleys typical of the fault zone. The May 2008 earthquake in neighboring Sichuan, in which some 30 landslide-dammed lakes were created, may be useful in refining hazard scenarios developed from the multi-pronged analysis employed in our study. This analysis involves compiling all relevant existing data, such as seismic archives held in paper format, within the project GIS. Spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by these compiled data, together with focal mechanism determinations where possible, are combined with data on the distribution and nature of geological units to provide estimates of peak ground acceleration and the likely incidence of seismically-triggered slope instability. This compilation also identifies data deficiencies to be targeted using a portable seismometer network, geophysical and geodetic surveys, InSAR and other remote sensing data; all combined with geotechnical and palaeoseismological fieldwork. Initial results from this approach confirm the ground-shaking potential of Talas-Fergana rupture events, suggest a long-term slip rate as high as 15 mm a-1, and the occurrence of the last ground-rupturing event some 4-500 years BP. The lack of significant activity since that event suggests the Talas-Fergana structure may comprise a seismic gap within the Tien-Shan, highlighting the importance of hazard scenarios in proposing mitigation measures against potentially catastrophic threats, such as extensive pollution of irrigated lands in the Fergana Valley downstream from Toktogul on which some 10 million people depend.

  17. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  18. A Guidebook to FEMA 154--Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards. A Handbook for Use in the Screening of School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Technology, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This companion guidebook augments the Federal Emergency Management Agency's publication entitled "FEMA 154, Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards: A Handbook." The guidebook, which provides assistance in the use of the Rapid Screening Procedure (RSP), is intended for use by public school districts with relatively large…

  19. Exploring the potential for using results-based financing to address non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden of disease due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and funding for global health is increasingly limited. As a large contributor of development assistance for health, the US government has the potential to influence overall trends in NCDs. Results-based financing (RBF) has been proposed as a strategy to increase aid effectiveness and efficiency through incentives for positive performance and results in health programs, but its potential for addressing NCDs has not been explored. Methods Qualitative methods including literature review and key informant interviews were used to identify promising RBF mechanisms for addressing NCDs in resource-limited settings. Eight key informants identified by area of expertise participated in semi-structured interviews. Results The majority of RBF schemes to date have been applied to maternal and child health. Evidence from existing RBF programs suggests that RBF principles can be applied to health programs for NCDs. Several options were identified for US involvement with RBF for NCDs. Conclusion There is potential for the US to have a significant impact on NCDs in LMICs through a comprehensive RBF strategy for global health. RBF mechanisms should be tested for use in NCD programs through pilot programs incorporating robust impact evaluations. PMID:23368959

  20. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  1. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  2. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated groundwater at Beale Air Force Base in California

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T; Daniels, J I; Hall, L C

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed to accomplish two objectives. The first was to provide to the US Air Force and the regulatory community quantitative procedures that they might want to consider using for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to better characterize potential health risk. Such methods could be used at sites where populations may now or in the future be faced with using groundwater contaminated with low concentrations of the chemical trichloroethylene (TCE). The second was to illustrate and explain the application of these procedures with respect to available data for TCE in ground water beneath an inactive landfill site that is undergoing remediation at Beale Air Force Base in California. The results from this illustration provide more detail than the more traditional conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of risk, also computed for purposes of comparison. Application of the procedures described in this report can lead to more reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for potentially exposed populations at specific sites.

  3. 75 FR 38100 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... research framework that integrates the many different disciplines required to address the complex... provide the potential for SRP research to address complex environmental problems, particularly related to sites impacted by hazardous substances. In addition to addressing complex problems, the SRP wants...

  4. Mineral matter and potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Qianxi Fault Depression Area in southwestern Guizhou, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; Ren, D.; Zhu, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Zeng, R.; Zheng, B.

    2004-01-01

    Mineralogy, coal chemistry and 21 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) of 44 coal samples from the Qianxi Fault Depression Area (QFDA) in southwestern Guizhou province, China have been systematically studied. The major minerals in coals studied are quartz, kaolinite, illite, pyrite, calcite, smectite, marcasite and accessory minerals, including rutile, dolomite, siderite, gypsum, chlorite, melanterite, apatite, collophane and florencite. The SiO2 content shows a broad variation (0.8-30.7%). A high SiO2 content in Late Permian coals reflects their enrichment in quartz. The Al2O3 content varies from 0.8% to 13.4%, Fe2O3 from 0.2% to 14.6%, CaO from Al>K>Ti>Na>Mg>Ca>Fe>S. A comparison with World coal averages shows that the Late Permian coals in QFDA are highly enriched in As, Hg, F and U, and are slightly enriched in Mo, Se, Th, V and Zn. The Late Triassic coals in QFDA are highly enriched in As and Hg, and are slightly enriched in Mo, Th and U. The concentrations of As, Hg, Mo, Se, Tl and Zn in the QFDA coal are higher than other Guizhou coal and Liupanshui coal nearby. The QFDA is an area strongly affected by the low-temperature hydrothermal activity during its geologic history (Yanshanian Age, about 189 Ma). The coals in QFDA are enriched in volatile PHTEs, including As, Hg, Se, Sb, Mo, among others. The regions where the coals are enriched in As, Hg and F have been mapped. The regions of coals enriched in volatile PHTEs overlap with the regions of noble metal ore deposits. These coals are located in the cores of anticline and anticlinorium, which are connected with the profound faults through the normal faults. Coals are enriched in volatile PHTEs as a result of the low-temperature hydrothermal activity associated with tectonic faulting. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Geology and potential hazards of the continental slope between Lindenkohl and South Toms canyons, offshore Mid-Atlantic United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robb, James M.; Hampson, John C., Jr.; Kirby, John R.; Twichell, David C.

    1981-01-01

    Because sediment instability, or slumping, has been identified as a potential hazard to petroleum development of the east-coast Continental Slope, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, began a detailed study of a segment of the Continental Slope between Lindenkohl and South Toms Canyons off New Jersey. This 40-km x 35-km area was chosen for study because it lies within the area of high interest for petroleum development (Lease sales 49 and 59), and because it includes several wells which provide stratigraphic control. This report discusses the results of geologic mapping, using seismic-reflection data acquired in 1978 and 1979. Some initial results from more recently acquired data are included. The Continental Slope in the study area has a complex surface with ridges, canyons, and valleys. Three slump or slide features were observed in the heads and on the walls of canyons and valleys, and two slides were identified on an intercanyon area. The identified slumps or slides are found in Quaternary sediments and total about 1.3 percent of the Continental Slope area mapped. The slope is generally mantled by less than 2 m of Holocene sediments. Pleistocene sediment (primarily silty clay) is about 450 m thick at the top of the slope and thins to nearly zero or is absent on much of the mid and lower slope, where sediments of Miocene to Eocene age are exposed. Ridges on the midslope (water depths of 800-1,500 m) and parts of the lowr slope (1,500-2,150 m) result primarily from Pleistocene and older deposition. The intervening valleys show evidence of erosion along the deepest parts of their courses. Mid-range sidescan-sonar data show evidence that processes of bottom-current erosion and downcanyon transport of material may be active in the present day. However, major features of the sea floor appear to be unchanged since late-Pleistocene time.

  6. Physical characterization of the potentially hazardous high-albedo Asteroid (33342) 1998 WT 24 from thermal-infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan W.; Mueller, Michael; Delbó, Marco; Bus, Schelte J.

    2007-06-01

    The potentially hazardous Asteroid (33342) 1998 WT 24 approached the Earth within 0.0125 AU on 2001 December 16 and was the target of a number of optical, infrared, and radar observing campaigns. Interest in 1998 WT 24 stems from its having an orbit with an unusually low perihelion distance, which causes it to cross the orbits of the Earth, Venus, and Mercury, and its possibly being a member of the E spectral class, which is rare amongst near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). We present the results of extensive thermal-infrared observations of 1998 WT 24 obtained in December 2001 with the 3-m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii and the ESO 3.6-m telescope in Chile. A number of thermal models have been applied to the data, including thermophysical models that give best-fit values of 0.35±0.04 km for the effective diameter, 0.56±0.2 for the geometric albedo, p, and 100-300 J m -2 s -0.5 K -1 for the thermal inertia. Our values for the diameter and albedo are consistent with results derived from radar and polarimetric observations. The albedo is one of the highest values obtained for any asteroid and, since no other taxonomic type is associated with albedos above 0.5, supports the suggested rare E-type classification for 1998 WT 24. The thermal inertia is an order of magnitude higher than values derived for large main-belt asteroids but consistent with the relatively high values found for other near-Earth asteroids. A crude pole solution inferred from a combination of our observations and published radar results is β=-52°, λ=355° (J2000), but we caution that this is uncertain by several tens of degrees.

  7. An assessment of potential environmental impacts of cement kiln dust produced in kilns co-fired with hazardous waste fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goad, P.T.; Millner, G.C.; Nye, A.C.

    1998-12-31

    The Keystone Cement Company (Keystone), located in Bath, Pennsylvania, produces cement in two kilns that are co-fired with hazardous waste-derived fuels. Beginning in the late 1970`s Keystone began storing cement kiln dust (CKD) in an aboveground storage pile located on company property adjacent to the cement kilns. Storm water runoff from the CKD pile is channeled into a storm water settling pond which in turn discharges into Monocacy Creek, a stream running along the eastern property boundary. Monocacy Creek sustains a thriving trout fishery and is routinely fished during the open recreational fishing season in pennsylvania. The CKD pile has a surface area of approximately 12 acres, with an average height of approximately 35 feet. The southern edge of the pile is contiguous with an adjacent company-owned field in which field corn is grown for cattle feed. Some of the corn on the edges of the field is actually grown in direct contact with CKD that comprises the edge of the storage pile. The CKD pile is located approximately 150 yards to the west of Monocacy Creek. In 1995--1996 water, sediment and fish (trout) samples were obtained from Monocacy Creek sampling stations upstream and downstream of the point of discharge of storm water runoff from the CKD pile. In addition, corn samples were obtained from the field contiguous with the CKD pile and from a control field located distant to the site. The sediment, water, fish, and corn samples were analyzed for various chemicals previously identified as chemicals of potential concern in CKD. These data indicate that chemical constituents of CKD are not contaminating surface water or sediment in the stream, and that bioaccumulation of organic chemicals and/or metals has not occurred in field corn grown in direct contact with undiluted CKD, or in fish living in the waters that receive CKD pile runoff.

  8. Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (85989) 1999 JD6: Radar, Infrared, and Lightcurve Observations and a Preliminary Shape Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Sean E.; Howell, Ellen S.; Brozović, Marina; Taylor, Patrick A.; Campbell, Donald B.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Naidu, Shantanu P.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Jao, Joseph S.; Lee, Clement G.; Richardson, James E.; Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Ghigo, Frank; Kobelski, Adam; Busch, Michael W.; Pravec, Petr; Warner, Brian D.; Reddy, Vishnu; Hicks, Michael D.; Crowell, Jenna L.; Fernandez, Yanga R.; Vervack, Ronald J.; Nolan, Michael C.; Magri, Christopher; Sharkey, Benjamin; Bozek, Brandon

    2015-11-01

    We report observations of potentially hazardous asteroid (85989) 1999 JD6, which passed 0.048 AU from Earth (19 lunar distances) during its close approach on July 25, 2015. During eleven days between July 15 and August 4, 2015, we observed 1999 JD6 with the Goldstone Solar System Radar and with Arecibo Observatory's planetary radar, including bistatic reception of some Goldstone echoes at Green Bank. We obtained delay-Doppler radar images at a wide range of latitudes, with range resolutions varying from 7.5 to 150 meters per pixel, depending on the observing conditions. We acquired near-infrared spectra from the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) on two nights in July 2015, at wavelengths from 0.75 to 5.0 microns, showing JD6's thermal emission. We also obtained optical lightcurves from Ondrejov Observatory (in 1999), Table Mountain Observatory (in 2000), and Palmer Divide Station (in 2015). Previous observers had suggested that 1999 JD6 was most likely an elongated object, based on its large lightcurve amplitude of 1.2 magnitudes (Szabo et al. 2001; Polishook and Brosch 2008; Warner 2014). The radar images reveal an elongated peanut-shaped object, with two lobes separated by a sharp concavity. JD6's maximum diameter is about two kilometers, and its larger lobe is approximately 50% longer than its smaller lobe. The larger lobe has a concavity on its end. We will present more details on the shape and rotation state of 1999 JD6, as well as its surface properties from optical and infrared data and thermal modeling.

  9. Adequate and anticipatory research on the potential hazards of emerging technologies: a case of myopia and inertia?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Gee, David

    2014-01-01

    History confirms that while technological innovations can bring many benefits, they can also cause much human suffering, environmental degradation and economic costs. But are we repeating history with new and emerging chemical and technological products? In preparation for volume 2 of ‘Late Lessons from Early Warnings’ (European Environment Agency, 2013), two analyses were carried out to help answer this question. A bibliometric analysis of research articles in 78 environmental, health and safety (EHS) journals revealed that most focused on well-known rather than on newly emerging chemicals. We suggest that this ‘scientific inertia’ is due to the scientific requirement for high levels of proof via well replicated studies; the need to publish quickly; the use of existing intellectual and technological resources; and the conservative approach of many reviewers and research funders. The second analysis found that since 1996 the funding of EHS research represented just 0.6% of the overall funding of research and technological development (RTD). Compared with RTD funding, EHS research funding for information and communication technologies, nanotechnology and biotechnology was 0.09%, 2.3% and 4% of total research, respectively. The low EHS research ratio seems to be an unintended consequence of disparate funding decisions; technological optimism; a priori assertions of safety; collective hubris; and myopia. In light of the history of past technological risks, where EHS research was too little and too late, we suggest that it would be prudent to devote some 5–15% of RTD on EHS research to anticipate and minimise potential hazards while maximising the commercial longevity of emerging technologies. PMID:24913017

  10. Assessing potential human health hazards and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the United States: tetracyclines as a case study.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A

    2010-03-01

    Many scientists, activists, regulators, and politicians have expressed urgent concern that using antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant strains of bacteria that harm human health and bring nearer a "postantibiotic era" of multidrug resistant "super-bugs." Proposed political solutions, such as the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), would ban entire classes of subtherapeutic antibiotics (STAs) now used for disease prevention and growth promotion in food animals. The proposed bans are not driven by formal quantitative risk assessment (QRA), but by a perceived need for immediate action to prevent potential catastrophe. Similar fears led to STA phase-outs in Europe a decade ago. However, QRA and empirical data indicate that continued use of STAs in the United States has not harmed human health, and bans in Europe have not helped human health. The fears motivating PAMTA contrast with QRA estimates of vanishingly small risks. As a case study, examining specific tetracycline uses and resistance patterns suggests that there is no significant human health hazard from continued use of tetracycline in food animals. Simple hypothetical calculations suggest an unobservably small risk (between 0 and 1.75E-11 excess lifetime risk of a tetracycline-resistant infection), based on the long history of tetracycline use in the United States without resistance-related treatment failures. QRAs for other STA uses in food animals also find that human health risks are vanishingly small. Whether such QRA calculations will guide risk management policy for animal antibiotics in the United States remains to be seen. PMID:20136749

  11. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    PubMed Central

    Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ≥5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg−1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

  12. A computed tomography phantom study of foam earplugs: Uncommon but potentially hazardous foreign body ingestion in children.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Bei; Wang, Shie-Shan; Liao, Chien-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign body is common among children. However, ingestion of foam earplugs (FEPs) has not been reported previously. A 7-month-old female infant presented with small bowel obstruction, which was finally proved to be a case of FEP ingestion.Computed tomography (CT) phantom study was performed to examine the imaging features of FEPs. We studied the following dry and fully wet FEPs, FEPs squeezed in pure water to varying degrees, and FEPs with different degrees of compression in the dry and wet states from day 0 to 6 and all scanned with a CT scanner.The density of a dry FEP is -843.5 ± 4.5 Hounsfield units (HU) and it increases to 0.76 ± 9.3 HU when fully wet. The densities of FEPs ranged from -844.2 to 1.0 HU with different water/air ratios, and some showed a heterogeneous geographic pattern. The densities of FEPs increase due to compression and gradual water absorption.FEPs can be potentially hazardous objects to children. Owing to the special foam structure of the FEP, it can mimic a fatty lesion if the density ranges from -100 to -50 HU; moreover, it can hide in the water if fully wet. However, it should not be mistaken as air, as the density of a dry FEP is -843.5 HU, and the contour can be observed if the window level is set appropriately. Because of its soft texture, the surgeon should be careful not to miss an FEP during the operation. Moreover, radiologists should be familiar with the CT features of FEPs so that they can be identified before surgery. PMID:27583901

  13. DomeHaz, a Global Hazards Database: Understanding Cyclic Dome-forming Eruptions, Contributions to Hazard Assessments, and Potential for Future Use and Integration with Existing Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogburn, S. E.; Calder, E.; Loughlin, S.

    2013-12-01

    cyclicity of dome growth and pauses, the difficulty in defining eruptions at cyclically active lava domes, the identification of patterns in eruptive frequency between volcanoes of differing composition, the relationship between extrusion rates and large explosions, and the timing of large explosions in relation to dome growth. Where possible, we link these global observations to conceptual and physical models of volcanic processes. We also investigate the production of decision trees from the database for hazard analysis. Continuation of this work will include the completion of a relational database, which will be continuously maintained and updated as part of the Global Volcano Model (GVM) project. We envision DomeHaz being linked to other databases such as the mass-flows database FlowDat, and the Smithsonian GVP catalog of eruptions. A key component in creating a robust cyberinfrastructure is high-quality and complete data sets provided by the community and compiled into databases, which ideally exist as part of an informational network. This paper serves as a call for participation from individuals, research groups, and monitoring bodies for generating a global database on the hazards associated with lava dome eruptions.

  14. The Physical Characterization of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid 2004 BL86: A Fragment of a Differentiated Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Gary, Bruce L.; Sanchez, Juan A.; Takir, Driss; Thomas, Cristina A.; Hardersen, Paul S.; Ogmen, Yenal; Benni, Paul; Kaye, Thomas G.; Gregorio, Joao; Garlitz, Joe; Polishook, David; Le Corre, Lucille; Nathues, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The physical characterization of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) is important for impact hazard assessment and evaluating mitigation options. Close flybys of PHAs provide an opportunity to study their surface photometric and spectral properties that enable the identification of their source regions in the main asteroid belt. We observed PHA (357439) 2004 BL86 during a close flyby of the Earth at a distance of 1.2 million km (0.0080 AU) on 2015 January 26, with an array of ground-based telescopes to constrain its photometric and spectral properties. Lightcurve observations showed that the asteroid was a binary and subsequent radar observations confirmed the binary nature and gave a primary diameter of 300 m and a secondary diameter of 50-100 m. Our photometric observations were used to derive the phase curve of 2004 BL86 in the V-band. Two different photometric functions were fitted to this phase curve, the IAU H-G model and the Shevchenko model. From the fit of the H-G function we obtained an absolute magnitude of H = 19.51 ± 0.02 and a slope parameter of G = 0.34 ± 0.02. The Shevchenko function yielded an absolute magnitude of H = 19.03 ± 0.07 and a phase coefficient b = 0.0225 ± 0.0006. The phase coefficient was used to calculate the geometric albedo (Ag) using the relationship found by Belskaya & Schevchenko, obtaining a value of Ag = 40% ± 8% in the V-band. With the geometric albedo and the absolute magnitudes derived from the H-G and the Shevchenko functions we calculated the diameter (D) of 2004 BL86, obtaining D = 263 ± 26 and D = 328 ± 35 m, respectively. 2004 BL86 spectral band parameters and pyroxene chemistry are consistent with non-cumulate eucrite meteorites. A majority of these meteorites are derived from Vesta and are analogous with surface lava flows on a differentiated parent body. A non-diagnostic spectral curve match using the Modeling for Asteroids tool yielded a best-match with non-cumulate eucrite Bereba. Three other near

  15. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  16. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  17. A model of integrated health care in a poverty-impacted community in New York City: Importance of early detection and addressing potential barriers to intervention implementation.

    PubMed

    Acri, Mary C; Bornheimer, Lindsay A; O'Brien, Kyle; Sezer, Sara; Little, Virna; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M

    2016-04-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are chronic, impairing, and costly behavioral health conditions that are four times more prevalent among children of color living in impoverished communities as compared to the general population. This disparity is largely due to the increased exposure to stressors related to low socioeconomic status including community violence, unstable housing, under supported schools, substance abuse, and limited support systems. However, despite high rates and greater need, there is a considerably lower rate of mental health service utilization among these youth. Accordingly, the current study aims to describe a unique model of integrated health care for ethnically diverse youth living in a New York City borough. With an emphasis on addressing possible barriers to implementation, integrated models for children have the potential to prevent ongoing mental health problems through early detection and intervention. PMID:27070372

  18. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  19. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  20. Inheritance of earthquake hazard from suturing: the Himalayas as an analogue for the structural architecture and seismic potential of the Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, C.; Cowgill, E.; Forte, A. M.; Mumladze, T.; Sokhadze, G.; Elashvili, M.; Niemi, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The nascent collision between the Arabian and Eurasian continents has created the second-largest active collisional orogen on Earth and provides a rare opportunity to investigate how structures formed during initial suturing influence and even control the subsequent first-order structural architecture of the evolving orogen. Between the Caspian and Black Seas, the Greater Caucasus Mountains form both the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the main locus of orogen-perpendicular shortening, despite being located some 700 km north of the Bitlis suture. A better understanding of active structures in the range is critical for understanding the mechanics and evolution of this collisional orogen. Developing such a structural model of the Greater Caucasus is also essential for assessing earthquake hazards. Here we begin to address these problems by using geologic maps, digital topographic data, and structural measurements to create preliminary geologic cross sections across the southern flank of the central and western Greater Caucasus. These sections span both a low-elevation foreland fold-thrust belt in the south and the main topographic front of the range ~15-40 km to the north. In addition, we investigate active deformation using topographic surveys of river terraces in the foreland south of the western Greater Caucasus range front near the city of Zugdidi. Based on these observations, we suggest that the neotectonic architecture of the range is broadly analogous to that of the Himalayas, where active deformation is not focused along a range-front-defining fault but instead is localized tens of kilometers to the south, along the south edge of a low-elevation, low-relief foreland fold-thrust belt. We infer that active faults within the fold-thrust belt sole into a shallow (~5-10 km deep), north-dipping basal decollement that roots into a crustal-scale ramp which lies beneath the main topography of the Greater Caucasus. Based on prior work on the

  1. The properties of the nano-minerals and hazardous elements: Potential environmental impacts of Brazilian coal waste fire.

    PubMed

    Civeira, Matheus S; Pinheiro, Rafael N; Gredilla, Ainara; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez Ortiz; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ramos, Claudete G; Taffarel, Silvio R; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-02-15

    Brazilian coal area (South Brazil) impacted the environment by means of a large number of coal waste piles emplaced over the old mine sites and the adjacent areas of the Criciúma, Urussanga, and Siderópolis cities. The area studied here was abandoned and after almost 30 years (smokeless visual) some companies use the actual minerals derived from burning coal cleaning rejects (BCCRs) complied in the mentioned area for industry tiles or refractory bricks. Mineralogical and geochemical similarities between the BCCRs and non-anthropogenic geological environments are outlined here. Although no visible flames were observed, this study revealed that auto-combustion existed in the studied area for many years. The presence of amorphous phases, mullite, hematite and other Fe-minerals formed by high temperature was found. There is also pyrite, Fe-sulphates (eg. jarosite) and unburnt coal present, which are useful for comparison purposes. Bad disposal of coal-dump wastes represents significant environmental concerns due to their potential influence on atmosphere, river sediments, soils and as well as on the surface and groundwater in the surroundings of these areas. The present study using advanced analytical techniques were performed to provide an improved understanding of the complex processes related with sulphide-rich coal waste oxidation, spontaneous combustion and mineral formation. It is reporting huge numbers of rare minerals with alunite, montmorillonite, szomolnokite, halotrichite, coquimbite and copiapite at the BCCRs. The data showed the presence of abundant amorphous Si-Al-Fe-Ti as (oxy-)hydroxides and Fe-hydro/oxides with goethite and hematite with various degrees of crystallinity, containing hazardous elements, such as Cu, Cr, Hf, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Th, U, Zr, and others. By Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the mineralogical composition was related with the range of elemental concentration of each sample. Most of the nano-minerals and ultra-fine particles

  2. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  3. APPLICATION OF A PLAN TEST SYSTEM IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL GENETIC HAZARDS AT CHEMICAL WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have utilized the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay for evaluating genetic hazards at a chemical waste site contaminated with agricultural insecticides scheduled for clean-up under the Superfund program. he chemical analysis of soil samples from the site indicates pre...

  4. Tephra transport, sedimentation and hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volentik, Alain C. M.

    Tephra deposits are one of the possible outcomes of explosive volcanic eruptions and are the result of vertical settling of volcanic particles that have been expelled from the volcanic vent into the atmosphere, following magma fragmentation within the volcanic conduit. Tephra fallout represents the main volcanic hazard to populated areas and critical facilities. Therefore, it is crucial to better understand processes that lead to tephra transport, sedimentation and hazards. In this study, and based on detailed mapping and sampling of the tephra deposit of the 2450BP Plinian eruption of Pululagua volcano (Ecuador), I investigate tephra deposits through a variety of approaches, including empirical and analytical modeling of tephra thickness and grain size data to infer important eruption source parameters (e.g. column height, total mass ejected, total grain size distribution of the deposit). I also use a statistical approach (smoothed bootstrap with replacement method) to assess the uncertainty in the eruptive parameters. The 2450BP Pululagua volcanic plume dynamics were also explored through detailed grain size analysis and 1D modeling of tephra accumulation. Finally, I investigate the influence of particle shape on tephra accumulation on the ground through a quantitative and comprehensive study of the shape of volcanic ash. As the global need for energy is expected to grow in the future, many future natural hazard studies will likely involve the assessment of volcanic hazards at critical facilities, including nuclear power plants. I address the potential hazards from tephra fallout, pyroclastic flows and lahars for the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (Philippines) posed by three nearby volcanoes capable of impacting the site during an explosive eruption. I stress the need for good constraints (stratigraphic analysis and events dating) on past eruptive events to better quantify the probability of future events at potentially active volcanoes, the need for probabilistic

  5. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  6. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  7. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated ground water at Beale Air Force Base in California

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J I; Bogen, K T; Hall, L C

    1999-10-05

    Conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of exposure and risk commonly are used in quantitative assessments of potential human-health consequences from contaminants in environmental media. However, these calculations generally are based on multiple upper-bound point estimates of input parameters, particularly for exposure attributes, and can therefore produce results for decision makers that actually overstate the need for costly remediation. Alternatively, a more informative and quantitative characterization of health risk can be obtained by quantifying uncertainty and variability in exposure. This process is illustrated in this report for a hypothetical population at a specific site at Beale Air Force Base in California, where there is trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated ground water and a potential for future residential use. When uncertainty and variability in exposure were addressed jointly for this case, the 95th-percentile upper-bound value of individual excess lifetime cancer risk was a factor approaching 10 lower than the most conservative deterministic estimate. Additionally, the probability of more than zero additional cases of cancer can be estimated, and in this case it is less than 0.5 for a hypothetical future residential population of up to 26,900 individuals present for any 7.6-y interval of a 70-y time period. Clearly, the results from application of this probabilistic approach can provide reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for a contaminated site.

  8. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-06

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards.

  9. The potential for LiDAR technology to map fire fuel hazard over large areas of Australian forest.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Gordon, Christopher E

    2016-10-01

    Fuel load is a primary determinant of fire spread in Australian forests. In east Australian forests, litter and canopy fuel loads and hence fire hazard are thought to be highest at and beyond steady-state fuel loads 15-20 years post-fire. Current methods used to predict fuel loads often rely on course-scale vegetation maps and simple time-since-fire relationships which mask fine-scale processes influencing fuel loads. Here we use Light Detecting and Remote Sensing technology (LiDAR) and field surveys to quantify post-fire mid-story and crown canopy fuel accumulation and fire hazard in Dry Sclerophyll Forests of the Sydney Basin (Australia) at fine spatial-scales (20 × 20 m cell resolution). Fuel cover was quantified in three strata important for crown fire propagation (0.5-4 m, 4-15 m, >15 m) over a 144 km(2) area subject to varying fire fuel ages. Our results show that 1) LiDAR provided a precise measurement of fuel cover in each strata and a less precise but still useful predictor of surface fuels, 2) cover varied greatly within a mapped vegetation class of the same fuel age, particularly for elevated fuel, 3) time-since-fire was a poor predictor of fuel cover and crown fire hazard because fuel loads important for crown fire propagation were variable over a range of fire fuel ages between 2 and 38 years post-fire, and 4) fuel loads and fire hazard can be high in the years immediately following fire. Our results show the benefits of spatially and temporally specific in situ fuel sampling methods such as LiDAR, and are widely applicable for fire management actions which aim to decrease human and environmental losses due to wildfire. PMID:27558828

  10. Controlling the potential hazards of government-sponsored technology. [such as weather modification and the supersonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollan, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The ability was examined of governmental agencies to adequately assess technological programs or projects to which they are committed. The hazards of government-sponsored activities are discussed; these include weather modification, supersonic transport noise, and the value conflicts involved in the fluoridation controversy. These three case studies indicate that the Federal vested interests in the continuation of its technological programs limit its ability to provide adequate technology assessment.

  11. Using the New Two-Phase-Titan to Evaluate Potential Lahar Hazard at Villa la Angostura, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.; Viramonte, J. G.; Folch, A.; Villarosa, G.; Delgado, H.

    2013-05-01

    The 2011 eruption of Puyehue Volcano, located in the Cordon del Caulle volcanic complex, Chile, produced an ash plume that mainly affected downwind areas in Argentina. This plume forced air transport in the region to be closed for several weeks. Tephra fall deposits from this eruption affected many locations and pumice deposits on lakes killed most of the fish. As the ash emission occurred during the southern hemisphere winter (June), ash horizons were inter layered with layers of snow. This situation posed a potential threat for human settlements located downslope of the mountains. This was the case at Villa la Angostura, Neuquen province, Argentina, which sits on a series of fluvial deposits that originate in three major basins: Piedritas, Colorado, and Florencia. The Institute of Geological Survey of Argentina (SEGEMAR) estimated that the total accumulated deposit in each basin contains a ratio of approximately 30% ash and 70% snow. The CyTED-Ceniza Iberoamerican network worked together with Argentinean, Colombian and USA institutions in this hazard assessment. We used the program Two-Phase-Titan to model two scenarios in each of the basins. This computer code was developed at SUNY University at Buffalo supported by NSF Grant EAR 711497. Two-Phase-Titan is a new depth-averaged model for two phase flows that uses balance equations for multiphase mixtures. We evaluate the stresses using a Coulomb law for the solid phase and the typical hydraulic shallow water approach for the fluid phase. The linkage for compositions in the range between the pure end-member phases is accommodated by the inclusion of a phenomenological-based drag coefficient. The model is capable of simulating the whole range of particle volumetric fractions, from pure fluid flows to pure solid avalanches. The initial conditions, volume and solid concentration, required by Two-Phase-Titan were imposed using the SEGEMAR estimation of total deposited volume, assuming that the maximum volume that can

  12. Studies on potential emission of hazardous gases due to uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres and their possible impacts on the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Pawan R.; Shrestha, Pratima; Tamrakar, Chirika S.; Bhattarai, Pradeep K.

    Uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres causing environmental pollution has become a popular practice in Nepal despite official ban considering the environment and public health hazards. In this study, an experimental model was set up in a laboratory scale in an attempt to understand the potential emission of hazardous gases such as CO, SO 2 and NO 2 due to such activities in Kathmandu Valley and their possible impacts on the environment. For this purpose, four types of tyre were collected representing two from passenger car and two from motorbike category. The emission level of CO in the tyre smoke was measured with a CO gas detector tube while SO 2 and NO 2 were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Among the three types of the gases analyzed, SO 2 was emitted in significantly high levels by all the representative tyre samples. The emission levels of CO, SO 2 and NO 2 ranged from 21to 49, 102to 820 and 3to 9 μg g -1, respectively. Results revealed that the emission levels also varied with the tyre types and qualities. The potential emission of the hazardous gases per representative scrap tyre mass was also estimated. Results indicate that the gaseous pollutants due to the tyre fires could make a significant contribution for deterioration of the environmental condition of the Valley or elsewhere.

  13. Addressing Lead-Based Paint Hazards During Renovation, Remodeling, and Rehabilitation in Federally Owned and Assisted Housing. Student Manual for Use in HUD-Sponsored Lead-Safe Work Practices Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

    This student manual comprises the United States Environmental Protection Agency's model renovation training course designed for renovation, remodeling, and painting contractors. It provides information regarding the containment, minimization, and cleanup of lead hazards during activities that disturb lead painted surfaces. Introductory material…

  14. Addressing Lead-Based Paint Hazards During Renovation, Remodeling, and Rehabilitation in Federally Owned and Assisted Housing. Instructor Manual for Use in HUD-Sponsored Lead-Safe Work Practices Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

    This document is the instructor's manual for a U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) training course that reflects the requirements of HUD's Lead Safe Housing Rule and is designed to provide training contractors with information regarding containment, minimization, and cleanup of lead hazards during activities that disturb…

  15. Potential postwildfire debris-flow hazards: a prewildfire evaluation for the Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Haas, Jessica R.; Miller, Lara W.; Scott, Joe H.; Thompson, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire can drastically increase the probability of debris flows, a potentially hazardous and destructive form of mass wasting, in landscapes that have otherwise been stable throughout recent history. Although there is no way to know the exact location, extent, and severity of wildfire, or the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration before it happens, probabilities of fire and debris-flow occurrence for different locations can be estimated with geospatial analysis and modeling efforts. The purpose of this report is to provide information on which watersheds might constitute the most serious, potential, debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall in the Sandia and Manzano Mountains. Potential probabilities and estimated volumes of postwildfire debris flows in the unburned Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas were estimated using empirical debris-flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in combination with fire behavior and burn probability models developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. The locations of the greatest debris-flow hazards correlate with the areas of steepest slopes and simulated crown-fire behavior. The four subbasins with the highest computed debris-flow probabilities (greater than 98 percent) were all in the Manzano Mountains, two flowing east and two flowing west. Volumes in sixteen subbasins were greater than 50,000 square meters and most of these were in the central Manzanos and the western facing slopes of the Sandias. Five subbasins on the west-facing slopes of the Sandia Mountains, four of which have downstream reaches that lead into the outskirts of the City of Albuquerque, are among subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings. The bulk of the remaining subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings are located along the highest and steepest slopes of the Manzano Mountains. One

  16. Assessing Landslide Characteristics and Developing a Landslide Potential Hazard Map in Rwanda and Uganda Using NASA Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, L.; Conner, P.; le Roux, J.; Finley, T.

    2015-12-01

    The International Emergency Disasters Database indicates that a total of 482 people have been killed and another 27,530 have been affected by landslides in Rwanda and Uganda, although the actual numbers are thought to be much higher. Data for individual countries are poorly tracked, but hotspots for devastating landslides occur throughout Rwanda and Uganda due to the local topography and soil type, intense rainfall events, and deforestation. In spite of this, there has been little research in this region that utilizes satellite imagery to estimate areas susceptible to landslides. This project utilized Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data and Google Earth to identify landslides that occurred within the study area. These landslides were then added to SERVIR's Global Landslide Catalog (GLC). Next, Landsat 8 OLI, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Version 2 (SRTM V2) data were used to create a Landslide Susceptibility Map. This was combined with population data from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) to create a Landslide Hazard map. A preliminary assessment of the relative performance of GPM and TRMM in identifying landslide conditions was also performed. The additions to the GLC, the Landslide Susceptibility Map, the Landslide Hazard Map, and the preliminary assessment of satellite rainfall performance will be used by SERVIR and the Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) for disaster risk management, land use planning, and determining landslide conditions and moisture thresholds.

  17. HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATA BANK (HSDB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a factual, non-bibliographic data bank focusing upon the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with data from such related areas as emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, human exposure, detection method...

  18. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  19. Ground deformation in the Rio-Antirio area, Corinth Gulf, Greece, based on PS images interferometry and potential related geo-hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diakogianni, G.; Foumelis, M.; Papadopoulos, G. A.; Parcharidis, I.

    2009-04-01

    Ground deformation is the surface expression of various physical processes such as landslides, ground subsidence and earthquakes. Construction and operation of engineering structures in urban or in rural areas can be affected seriously by ground conditions leading to casualties and economic losses. We focus at the example of the new bridge Rio-Antirrio, an important infrastructure which is the longest cable stayed bridge all over the world. Being of a length of 2,250 m it is located in the strait at the northwest edge of Peloponnese, connecting the Gulf of Corinth and the Gulf of Patras, in central Greece. This important bridge facilitates the transportation between Greece and the Western Europe through the Patra's harbor. The area of the strait is characterized by a variety of natural hazards like the absence of stiff seabed, strong seismic activity, tectonic movements, which make the area highly susceptible to ground deformation and the bridge an element at risk. The aim of this paper is to study the observed ground deformation in the area of Rio-Antirrio and interpret the potential causes of the deformation. We combine results of the PS interferometry (IPTA method) covering the period from 1992 to the present using ERS1 & 2 scenes and ENVISAT with seismicity data, active tectonics, slope failure, coastal sediment compaction, hydrology and seabed stability. Hazard assessment, prevention and mitigation are discussed under the light of the results in a scheme which includes the exposure item (bridge), hazard (multi-source induced ground stability) and risk (possible impact).

  20. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Ottmar, Roger, D.; Blake, John, I.; Crolly, William, T.

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

  1. Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

  2. Heavy metal and trace element concentrations in wheat grains: assessment of potential non-carcinogenic health hazard through their consumption.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M A; Jasan, Raquel; Plá, Rita; Pignata, María Luisa

    2011-10-15

    Heavy metal and trace element concentrations were examined in wheat grains and straw to elucidate associations between air pollution sources and soil variables. The mean wheat grain concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn surpassed the tolerance limits stated in the international legislation for wheat grain and foodstuffs. When topsoil Ba, Co, Cr and Zn concentrations were higher than the legislation thresholds for agricultural and residential soils, wheat grain concentrations were also increased. In addition, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn revealed an immobilization effect of a cement plant and the atmospheric deposition input, with Cd in wheat grains being associated with a cement plant and industrial waste incinerator. The health risks arising from wheat grain consumption indicated that the inhabitants of Argentina are experiencing significant non-carcinogenic risks (Hazard Index = 3.311), especially when consuming wheat grains affected by metallurgical or chemical factories, as well as by air transportation from big cities. PMID:21835546

  3. Potential Health Hazard Assessment in Terms of Some Heavy Metals Determined in Demersal Fishes Caught in Eastern Aegean Sea.

    PubMed

    Yabanli, Murat; Alparslan, Yunus

    2015-10-01

    A heavy metal risk assessment based on estimated daily intake (EDI) and target hazard quotient was made for children and adults. Five fish species captured from the eastern Aegean Sea were analyzed for Cr, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy in muscle tissue of red mullet (Mullus barbatus), surmullet (Mullus surmuletus), sand steenbras (Lithognathus mormyrus), common two-banded seabream (Diplodus vulgaris) and common pandora (Pagellus erythinus). The ranges for mean metal concentration (mg/kg wet wt) in the five species were 0.27-0.39 Cr, 0.12-0.22 Cu, 0.09-0.10 Hg and 0.10-0.12 Pb. All means were identical for Cd at 0.03 mg/kg wet wt. The EDI values for each metal were ascertained not to exceed the tolerable daily intake amount. Fish did not contain sufficiently high levels of these metals to pose a carcinogenic risk. PMID:26109309

  4. Screening for transfusion transmissible infections using rapid diagnostic tests in Africa: a potential hazard to blood safety?

    PubMed

    Prugger, C; Laperche, S; Murphy, E L; Bloch, E M; Kaidarova, Z; Tafflet, M; Lefrère, J-J; Jouven, X

    2016-02-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are routinely used in African blood centres. We analysed data from two cross-sectional studies representing 95 blood centres in 29 African countries. Standardized panels of sera containing varying concentrations of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies (Ab), hepatitis B virus antigen (HBsAg) and antihepatitis C virus (HCV) Ab were screened using routine operational testing procedures at the centres. Sensitivity of detection using RDTs was high for HIV Ab-positive samples, but low for intermediately HBsAg (51·5%) and HCV Ab (40·6%)-positive samples. These findings suggest that current RDT use in Africa could pose a hazard to blood safety. PMID:26646317

  5. The PERC{trademark} process: Existing and potential applications for induction coupled plasma technology in hazardous and radioactive waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Blutke, A.S.; Vavruska, J.S.; Serino, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    Plasma Technology, Inc. (PTI), a Santa Fe, New Mexico corporation has developed the Plasma Energy Recycle and Conversion (PERC){trademark} treatment process as a safe and environmentally clean alternative to conventional thermal destruction technologies. The PERC{trademark} treatment process uses as its heat source an advanced Induction Coupled Plasma (ICP) torch connected to a reaction chamber system with an additional emission control system. For example, organic-based gas, liquid, slurry, and/or solid waste streams can be converted into usable or even salable products while residual emissions are reduced to an absolute minimum. In applications for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste streams, the PERC system could be used for destruction of the hazardous organic constituents and/or significant waste volume reduction while capturing the radioactive fraction in a non-leachable form. Like Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC) arc plasma systems, ICP torches offer sufficient energy to decompose, melt and/or vitrify any waste stream. The decision for an arc plasma or an IC plasma system has to be made on a case by case evaluation and is highly dependent on the specific waste stream`s form and composition. Induction coupled plasma technology offers one simple, but significant difference compared to DC or AC arc plasma systems: the ICP torch is electrodeless. To date, enormous research effort has been spent to improve the lifetime of electrodes and the effectiveness of related cooling systems. Arc plasma systems are established in research laboratories worldwide and are approaching a broad use in commercial applications. ICP technology has been improved relatively recently, but nowadays offers complete new and beneficial approaches in the field of waste conversion and treatment.

  6. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Myers, Melvin L

    2010-10-01

    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections . PMID:20954037

  7. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the sperm. For a woman, a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. ...

  8. Social & Economic Issues in Siting a Hazardous Waste Facility: Ideas for Communities and Local Assessment Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Mike

    This handbook was prepared for communities selected as potential sites for hazardous waste facilities, identifying issues which need to be addressed and suggesting specific and positive steps that communities can take to shape proposals to meet their concerns. Following an introduction, specific areas addressed include: community controls,…

  9. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  10. Chemical hazards analysis of resilient flooring for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Lent, Tom; Silas, Julie; Vallette, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses resilient flooring, evaluating the potential health effects of vinyl flooring and the leading alternatives-synthetic rubber, polyolefin, and linoleum-currently used in the healthcare marketplace. The study inventories chemicals incorporated as components of each of the four material types or involved in their life cycle as feedstocks, intermediary chemicals, or emissions. It then characterizes those chemicals using a chemical hazard-based framework that addresses persistence and bioaccumulation, human toxicity, and human exposures. PMID:21165873

  11. Modified hazard ranking system for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes. User manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, K.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Stenner, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    This document describes both the original Hazard Ranking System and the modified Hazard Ranking System as they are to be used in evaluating the relative potential for uncontrolled hazardous substance facilities to cause human health or safety problems or ecological or environmental damage. Detailed instructions for using the mHRS/HRS computer code are provided, along with instructions for performing the calculations by hand. Uniform application of the ranking system will permit the DOE to identify those releases of hazardous substances that pose the greatest hazard to humans or the environment. However, the mHRS/HRS by itself cannot establish priorities for the allocation of funds for remedial action. The mHRS/HRS is a means for applying uniform technical judgment regarding the potential hazards presented by a facility relative to other facilities. It does not address the feasibility, desirability, or degree of cleanup required. Neither does it deal with the readiness or ability of a state to carry out such remedial action, as may be indicated, or to meet other conditions prescribed in CERCLA. 13 refs., 13 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  13. CHEMICAL HAZARD EVALUATION FOR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A METHOD FOR RANKING AND SCORING CHEMICALS BY POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Between 60,000 and 100,000 of the over than 8,000,000 chemicals listed by the Chemical Abstracts Services Registry are commercially produced and are potential environmental pollutants. Risk-based evaluation for these chemicals is often required to evaluate the potential impacts...

  14. Potential hazards and artifacts of ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic surgical and dental materials and devices in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    New, P F; Rosen, B R; Brady, T J; Buonanno, F S; Kistler, J P; Burt, C T; Hinshaw, W S; Newhouse, J H; Pohost, G M; Taveras, J M

    1983-04-01

    The risks to patients with metal surgical implants who are undergoing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and the artifacts caused by such implants were studied. Twenty-one aneurysm and other hemostatic clips and a variety of other materials (e.g., dental amalgam, 14 karat gold) were used. Longitudinal forces and torques were found to be exerted upon 16 of the 21 clips. With five aneurysm clips, forces and torques sufficient to produce risk of hemorrhage from dislocation of the clip from the vessel or aneurysm, or cerebral injury by clip displacement without dislodgement were identified. The induced ferromagnetism was shown to be related to the composition of the alloys from which the clips were manufactured. Clips with 10-14% nickel are evidently without sufficient induced ferromagnetism to cause hazard. The extent of NMR imaging artifacts was greater for materials with measurable ferromagnetic properties, but metals without measurable ferromagnetism in our tests also resulted in significant artifacts. Dental amalgam and 14 karat gold produced no imaging artifacts, but stainless steels in dentures and orthodontic braces produced extensive artifacts in the facial region. PMID:6828719

  15. Potential flood and debris hazards at Katherine Landing and Telephone Cove, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moosburner, Otto

    1988-01-01

    Katherine Landing is a recreation site on the east shore of Lake Mohave, an impoundment on the Colorado River southeast of Las Vegas, Nevada. With proper inspection and maintenance, the present (1979) channel and diking system at Katherine Landing is judged adequate to confine and restrain floods up to and including the 100-yr flood. In contrast, the 500-yr flood probably would not be confined by some parts of the diking system. The Telephone Cove area, traversed by North and South Telephone Cove Washes, is hazardous for all floods, especially for the 100-yr and more severe floods. Determinations of peak discharge are based on streamflow regression analyses, and channel capacities are based on field surveys of channel-flow capacities. The extreme flood - a flood meteorologically and hydrologically possible but so rare as to preclude a frequency estimate - could cause great damage and possible loss of life at both the Katherine Landing and the Telephone Cove sites. The present dikes would be topped or breached by extreme flooding. (USGS)

  16. Potential hazards and artifacts of ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic surgical and dental materials and devices in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    New, P.F.J.; Rosen, B.R.; Brady, T.J.; Buonanno, F.S.; Kistler, J.P.; Burt, C.T.; Hinshaw, W.S.; Newhouse, J.H.; Pohost, G.M.; Taveras, J.M.

    1983-04-01

    The risks to patients with metal surgical implants who are undergoing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and the artifacts caused by such implants were studied. Twenty-one aneurysm and other hemostatic clips and a variety of other materials (e.g., dental amalgam, 14 karat gold) were used. Longitudinal forces and torques were found to be exerted upon 16 of the 21 clips. With five aneurysm clips, forces and torques sufficient to produce risk of hemorrhage from dislocation of the clip from the vessel or aneurysm, or cerebral injury by clip displacement without dislodgement were identified. The induced ferromagnetism was shown to be related to the composition of the alloys from which the clips were manufactured. Clips with 10-14% nickel are evidently without sufficient induced ferromagnetism to cause hazard. The extent of NMR imaging artifacts was greater for materials with measurable ferromagnetic properties, but metals without measurable ferromagnetism in our tests also resulted in significant artifacts. Dental amalgam and 14 karat gold produced no imaging artifacts, but stainless steels in dentures and orthodontic braces produced extensive artifacts in the facial region.

  17. Geology, geochronology, and potential volcanic hazards in the Lava Ridge-Hells Half Acre area, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of volcanic hazards for the proposed Safety Test Reactor Facility (STF) at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANLW) site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho, involves an analysis of the geology of the Lava Ridge-Hells Half Acre area and of K-At age determinations on lava flows in cored drill holes. The ANLW site at INEL lies in a shallow topographic depression bounded on the east and south by volcanic rift zones that are the locus of past shield-type basalt volcanism and by rhyolite domes erupted along the ring fracture of an inferred rhyolite caldera. The K-At age data indicate that the ANLW site has been flooded by basalt lava flows at irregular intervals from perhaps a few thousand years to as much as 300,000-400,000 years, with an average recurrence interval between flows of approximately 80,000-100,000 years. At least five major lava flows have covered the ANLW site within the past 500,000 years.

  18. The toxicologic hazard of superfund hazardous-waste sites.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B L; DeRosa, C

    1997-01-01

    Uncontrolled hazardous-waste sites are a major environmental and public health concern in the United States and elsewhere. The remediation of and public health responses to these sites is mandated by the federal Superfund statute. Approximately 40,000 uncontrolled waste sites have been reported to U.S. federal agencies. About 1,300 of these sites constitute the current National Priorities List (NPL) of sites for remediation. Findings from a national database on NPL sites show approximately 40% present completed exposure pathways, although this figure rose to 80% in 1996. Data from 1992 through 1996 indicate that 46% of sites are a hazard to public health. Thirty substances are found at 6% or more of sites with completed pathways. Eighteen of the substances are known human carcinogens or reasonably anticipated to be carcinogenic. Many of the 30 substances also possess systemic toxicity. The high percentage of sites with completed exposure pathways and the toxicity potential of substances in these pathways show that uncontrolled hazardous-waste sites are a major environmental threat to human health. Findings from the United States' experience in responding to uncontrolled waste sites are relevant to other countries as they address similar environmental and public health concerns. PMID:9553998

  19. Atmospheric dispersion, environmental effects and potential health hazard associated with the low-altitude gas plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmelle, P.; Stix, J.; Baxter, P.; Garcia-Alvarez, J.; Barquero, J.

    2002-09-01

    Masaya volcano (560 m a.s.l.), Nicaragua, resumed its degassing activity in mid-1993 with the continuous emission of SO2 at rates increasing from 600 metric tons (t) day-1 (7.0 kg s-1) in 1995 to 1800 t day-1 (21.0 kg s-1) in 1999. The low-altitude gas plume is typically blown westward by the prevailing wind across the Masaya caldera and Las Sierras highlands, which are at a higher elevation than the gas vent. In this study, the areal distribution of atmospheric SO2 concentrations was monitored within 44 km of the vent with a network of passive samplers. Measured SO2 air concentrations ranged from <2 to 90 ppbv in 1998 and from <2 to 230 ppbv in 1999. The data suggest that the volcanic emissions influenced air quality across a 1,250-km2 area downwind. Local topography exerts a strong control on plume dispersal, and hilltops are particularly prone to fumigation and thus, to high ambient SO2 levels. In a zone 22 km2 in size located within 15 km of the source, the response of vegetation to sustained exposure to high atmospheric dose of volcanic SO2 and HF resulted in a strong reduction in the number of plant communities. A transition zone of somewhat indefinite boundary surrounds the devastated zones and exhibits vegetation damage in the form of leaf injury. In addition to the environmental impacts of the volcanic emissions, both short- and long-term public health hazards may exist in areas most exposed to the plume. The harmful effects of the volcanic emissions on cultivated vegetation could be diminished by using windbreaks made of gas-tolerant trees and shrubs such as Eugenia jambos, Brosimum utile and Clusia rosea. The current gas crisis at Masaya volcano provides an unique opportunity for investigating the atmospheric, environmental and medical impacts of volcanic gases and aerosols.

  20. Geological history and potential hazards of the late-Pleistocene to Recent Plat Pays volcanic complex, Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jan; Stasiuk, Mark; Shepherd, John

    2002-12-01

    During 1998-2000, the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles experienced a major volcanic earthquake swarm spatially associated with volcanic centres in the south of the island. This swarm provided the motivation for a major re-assessment of geologic history and volcanic hazards in this region. This has led to a re-interpretation of the south-western-most corner of the island as a large volcanic complex, termed the Plat Pays volcanic complex, which has exhibited a wide range of past eruptive activity and which, in the Quaternary, experienced a major caldera collapse triggered by a voluminous pyroclastic eruption. Stratigraphy and new 14C age determinations reveal a complicated history of development. The earliest activity is represented by the formation of the Plat Pays stratovolcano and associated parasitic domes. A major explosive eruption 39,000 years B.P. produced the Grand Bay ignimbrite and triggered a major caldera collapse of the summit and south-western flank of the Plat Pays stratovolcano. Following the major eruption, re-injection of Plat Pays magma resulted in the extrusion of approximately 12 lava domes both within and outside the resulting depression. Caldera collapse was followed by at least one catastrophic flank collapse, but it is unclear whether or not this was triggered by caldera formation. The only on-shore evidence of flank collapse is the breach of the caldera rim and truncation of post-caldera deposits emplaced on or near the caldera rim; we find no evidence of on-shore large-magnitude rock avalanche deposits within the stratigraphic framework of the Plat Pays volcanic complex. Frequent seismic swarms of volcanic earthquakes and vigorous geothermal activity indicate that south Dominica is still underlain by an active magma reservoir system. Our new geological observations, combined with an interpretation of recent seismic swarm activity, suggest that an eruption (probably dome-forming) from the Plat Pays volcanic complex is probable

  1. Hazardous Wastes from Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, John

    The management of waste materials has become more complex with the increase in human population and the development of new substances. This illustrated booklet traces the history of waste management and provides guidelines for individuals and communities in disposing of certain hazardous wastes safely. It addresses such topics as: (1) how people…

  2. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  3. Estimation of clearance potential index and hazard factors of Candu fuel bundle and its validation based on the measurements of radioisotopes inventories from Pickering reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pavelescu, Alexandru Octavian; Tinti, Renato; Voukelatou, Konstantina; Cepraga, Dan Gabriel

    2007-07-01

    This paper is related to the clearance potential levels, ingestion and inhalation hazard factors of the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes. This study required a complex activity that consisted of more steps such as: the acquisition, setting up, validation and application of procedures, codes and libraries. The paper reflects the validation stage of this study. Its objective was to compare the measured inventories of selected actinide and fission products radionuclides in an element from the Pickering Candu reactor with the inventories predicted using a recent version of the SCALE 5/ORIGEN-ARP code coupled with the time dependent cross sections library for the Candu 28 reactor (produced by the sequence SCALE4.4a/SAS2H and SCALE4.4a/ORIGEN-S). In this way, the procedures, the codes and the libraries for the characterization of radioactive material in terns of radioactive inventories, clearance, and biological hazard factors could be qualified and validated, in support of the safety management of the radioactive wastes. (authors)

  4. Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Edward

    2005-02-01

    This updated new edition presents a comprehensive, inter-disciplinary analysis of the complete range of natural hazards. Edward Bryant describes and explains how hazards occur, examines prediction methods, considers recent and historical hazard events and explores the social impact of such disasters. Supported by over 180 maps, diagrams and photographs, this standard text is an invaluable guide for students and professionals in the field. First Edition Hb (1991): 0-521-37295-X First Edition Pb (1991): 0-521-37889-3

  5. Radiation Dose and Hazard Assessment of Potential Contamination Events During Use of 223Ra Dichloride in Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Stabin, Michael G; Siegel, Jeffry A

    2015-09-01

    An analysis is presented of the possible dosimetric consequences of various potential contamination events involving 223Ra dichloride (Xofigo), the FDA-approved therapeutic agent used in the treatment of bone metastases in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Three exposure scenarios are considered: inhalation dose to an individual due to the hypothetical inhalation of 219Rn and its progeny assumed to be released into the air from a liquid spill on the floor, external dose from direct photon exposure of an individual assigned to clean up a spill, and skin dose to an individual should the liquid material come into contact with their skin. Doses from the first two scenarios were very small; 2.8 × 10(-3) mSv and 8.1 × 10(-4) mSv, respectively. Using extremely conservative assumptions, the skin dose was estimated to be 72 mSv; in a realistic scenario, this dose would likely be an order of magnitude or more lower. These doses are very small compared to regulatory limits, and good health physics practices likely to be employed in such incidents would lower them still further. The authors conclude that the medical use of Xofigo does not pose any significant radiation safety issue with respect to potential contamination events, even if multiple incidents might occur during the course of a year, since all worst-case potential contamination events considered in this study will not result in significant radiation exposures to workers. PMID:26222216

  6. Landslides: Geomorphology and Sea Cliff Hazard Potential, Santa Barbara - Isla Vista, California J.F. Klath and E.A. Keller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klath, J. F.; Keller, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal areas are often characterized by high population densities in an ever changing, dynamic environment. The world's coasts are often dominated by steeply sloping sea cliffs, the morphology of which reflects rock type, wave erosion, and surface erosion, as well as human activities such changing vegetation, urban runoff, and construction of coastal defenses. The Santa Barbara and Goleta area, with over 17 km of sea cliffs and beaches, extends from Santa Barbara Point west to the hamlet of Isla Vista. A deeper understanding of the local geology and the physical processes generating slope failure and, thus, landward cliff retreat is important for general public safety, as well as future development and planning. Our research objective includes assessment of landslide hazard potential through investigation of previous landslides and how these events relate to various physical variables and characteristics within the surrounding bedrock. How does landslide frequency, volume, and type relate to varying local bedrock and structure? Two geologic formations dominate the sea cliffs of the Santa Barbara area: Monterey shale (upper, middle, and lower) and Monterey Sisquoc shale. Geology varies from hard cemented shale and diatomaceous, low specific gravity shale to compaction shale. Variations in landslide characteristics are linked closely to the geology of a specific site that affects how easily rock units are weathered and eroded by wave erosion, naturally occurring oil and water seeps, burnt shale events, and landslide type and frequency on steeply dipped bedding planes/daylighting beds. Naturally occurring features linked to human processes often weaken bedrock and, thus, increase the likelihood of landslides. We categorize landslide frequency, type, and triggers; location of beach access, drainage pipes, and water; and oil and tar seeps in order to develop suggestions to minimize landslide potential. Lastly, using previously published erosion cliff retreat rates and

  7. Toxicological evaluation for the hazard assessment of tire crumb for use in public playgrounds.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, Detlef A; Belton, Kathy L; Guidotti, Tee L

    2003-07-01

    Disposal of used tires has been a major problem in solid waste management. New uses will have to be found to consume recycled tire products. One such proposed use is as ground cover in playgrounds. However, concern has been expressed regarding exposure of children to hazardous chemicals and the environmental impact of such chemicals. We designed a comprehensive hazard assessment to evaluate and address potential human health and environmental concerns associated with the use of tire crumb in playgrounds. Human health concerns were addressed using conventional hazard analyses, mutagenicity assays, and aquatic toxicity tests of extracted tire crumb. Hazard to children appears to be minimal. Toxicity to all aquatic organisms (bacteria, invertebrates, fish, and green algae) was observed; however, this activity disappeared with aging of the tire crumb for three months in place in the playground. We conclude that the use of tire crumb in playgrounds results in minimal hazard to children and the receiving environment. PMID:12880077

  8. Concentrations and potential health hazards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in shallow groundwater of a metal smelting area in Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfa; Zhu, Hao; Luo, Yongming; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    A total of 20 shallow groundwater samples were collected from a metal smelting area in southeastern China to determine the concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), calculate their toxic equivalents (TEQs) to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and estimate the carcinogenic risk of drinking the shallow groundwater. The total concentrations of the 16PAHs (∑PAHs) in the shallow groundwater ranged from 9.62 to 1663.93ngL(-1), with a mean value of 312.63ngL(-1), and the total concentrations of the 7 potentially carcinogenic PAHs (∑PAHC7) ranged from 3.11 to 33.60ngL(-1), with a mean value of 9.61ngL(-1). Naphthalene and BaP, were the dominant PAH species and potentially carcinogenic PAH species in the shallow groundwater of the study area, and they account for 89.97% of ∑PAHs and 82.62% of ∑PAHC7, respectively. High molecular weight-PAHs (HM-PAHs) accounted for a relatively high proportion in the majority of shallow groundwater samples with lower concentrations of ΣPAHs, indicated that HM-PAHs were mainly from historical residues. The TEQs to BaP of the 16PAHs in the 20 shallow groundwater samples varied greatly from 2.55 to 32.73ngL(-1), with a mean value of 8.61ngL(-1), and BaP was the dominant contributor. The total carcinogenic risk levels caused by the 16PAHs in the shallow groundwater in majority of the area were found to be higher than the limit set by the US EPA, posing a potentially serious health risk to those who depend on shallow groundwater for drinking water. PMID:27396317

  9. RAT AND HUMAN VISUAL-EVOKED POTENTIALS RECORDED UNDER COMPARABLE CONDITIONS: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS TO ADDRESS THE ISSUE OF PREDICTING HUMAN NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A search was undertaken for contributions of sustained and transient visual elements to the rat visual-evoked potential (VEP) using procedures similar to those used in humans (Hudnell et al., in preparation). voked potentials were recorded following either pattern-reversal or pat...

  10. Exploring Potential Sources of Differential Vulnerability and Susceptibility in Risk From Environmental Hazards to Expand the Scope of Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bellinger, David; Glass, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors, other exposures, individual disease states and allostatic load, psychosocial stress, and socioeconomic position all have the potential to modify the response to environmental exposures. Moreover, many of these modifiers covary with the exposure, leading to much higher risks in some subgroups. These are not theoretical concerns; rather, all these patterns have already been demonstrated in studies of the effects of lead and air pollution. However, recent regulatory impact assessments for these exposures have generally not incorporated these findings. Therefore, differential risk and vulnerability is a critically important but neglected area within risk assessment, and should be incorporated in the future. PMID:22021315

  11. Hazardous materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... people how to work with hazardous materials and waste. There are many different kinds of hazardous materials, including: Chemicals, like some that are used for cleaning Drugs, like chemotherapy to treat cancer Radioactive material that is used for x-rays or ...

  12. An assessment of the public health hazard potential of wastewater reuse for crop production. A case of Bulawayo city, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutengu, Sherman; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Makoni, Fungai. S.

    Wastewater reuse is one possible way in which food production can be improved especially in developing countries where food is often scarce. However, the potential public health risks associated with wastewater use is of major concern. Health concerns are centered on pathogens and other health related pollutants that normally occur in the effluent. This research was conducted in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe during the period December 2005-May 2006. Bulawayo is a semi-arid area, with an average rainfall of 460 mm/annum and experiences frequent droughts. The study aimed at assessing the potential health impacts of effluent reuse for irrigating crops. Some 110 farmers are using wastewater for irrigation of vegetable crops on plots of about 500 m 2 each. Samples were collected from the effluent, the fields and vegetables and analyzed for selected quality parameters of health significance. Results were compared to national and international guidelines for effluent use in irrigation. Farmers’ knowledge on potential risks and practices were investigated through interviews. The results show that 70% of the respondents were aware of related health risks of using wastewater for irrigation. Respondents reported no major disease outbreaks. Mean values of pH were 8.1 and 7.3 for effluent and field soil and were within the FAO range of 6.5-8.5 for irrigation. Average temperature was 22.6 °C, while electrical conductivity ranged from 784 to 957 μS/cm and was less than the guideline value of 2000 μS/cm. Total coliforms in the effluent were found to be 7291 cfu/100 ml, while faecal coliforms were 5836 cfu/100 ml compared to the WHO limit of 1000 cfu/100 ml for irrigation. For effluent, cadmium were 0.04 mg/l and exceeded the long-term threshold limit of 0.01 mg/l, while lead was within the limit of 20 mg/l, with an average of 7.2 mg/l. No cadmium and lead were detected in the vegetables. It can be concluded that there is some health risks related to use of the effluent in the field

  13. Hazard Detection Analysis for a Forward-Looking Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Leanne; Gimmestad, Gary; Herkert, Ralph; Smith, William L.; Kireev, Stanislav; Schaffner, Philip R.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Cornman, Larry B.; Sharman, Robert; Weekley, Andrew; Perram, Glen; Gross, Kevin; Smith, Greg; Feltz, Wayne; Taylor, Joe; Olson, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The Forward-Looking Interferometer (FLI) is a new instrument concept for obtaining the measurements required to alert flight crews to potential weather hazards to safe flight. To meet the needs of the commercial fleet, such a sensor should address multiple hazards to warrant the costs of development, certification, installation, training, and maintenance. The FLI concept is based on high-resolution Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) technologies that have been developed for satellite remote sensing. These technologies have also been applied to the detection of aerosols and gases for other purposes. The FLI concept is being evaluated for its potential to address multiple hazards including clear air turbulence (CAT), volcanic ash, wake vortices, low slant range visibility, dry wind shear, and icing during all phases of flight (takeoff, cruise, and landing). The research accomplished in this second phase of the FLI project was in three major areas: further sensitivity studies to better understand the potential capabilities and requirements for an airborne FLI instrument, field measurements that were conducted in an effort to provide empirical demonstrations of radiometric hazard detection, and theoretical work to support the development of algorithms to determine the severity of detected hazards

  14. Nano titanium dioxide photocatalytic protein tyrosine nitration: A potential hazard of TiO{sub 2} on skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Naihao; Zhu Zhening; Zhao Xuqi; Tao Ran; Yang Xiangliang Gao Zhonghong

    2008-06-13

    Protein tyrosine nitration is a prevalent post-translational modification which occurs as a result of oxidative and nitrative stress, it may be directly involved in the onset and/or progression of diseases. Considering the existence of nano titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in environment and sunscreen products along with the high content of nitrite in sweat, the UV-exposed skin may be a significant target for the photosensitized damage. In this paper, tyrosine nitration of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was initiated in the UV-irradiated reaction mixture containing 0.2-3.0 mg/ml of three commercially nano TiO{sub 2} products and 0.25-1.0 mM NO{sub 2}{sup -}. It was found that anatase TiO{sub 2} and Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} showed prominent photocatalytic activity on promoting the formation of protein tyrosine nitration, and the optimum condition for the reaction was around physiological pH. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic effect of rutile on protein tyrosine nitration was subtle. The potential physiological significance of nano TiO{sub 2}-photocatalytic protein nitration was also demonstrated in mouse skin homogenate. Although the relationship between photocatalytic protein tyrosine nitration and chronic cutaneous diseases needs further study, the toxicity of nano TiO{sub 2} to the skin disease should be paid more attention in the production and utilization process.

  15. The potential hazards of Aspergillus sp. in foods and feeds, and the role of biological treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Ali, Sheikh Imranudin; Ahmad, Akil; Mohd-Setapar, Siti-Hamidah; Zakaria, Zainul Akmal; Abdul-Talib, Norfahana; Khamis, Aidee Kamal; Hoque, Md Enamul

    2014-10-01

    The contamination of food and feed by Aspergillus has become a global issue with a significant worldwide economic impact. The growth of Aspergillus is unfavourable to the development of food and feed industries, where the problems happen mostly due to the presence of mycotoxins, which is a toxic metabolite secreted by most Aspergillus groups. Moreover, fungi can produce spores that cause diseases, such as allergies and asthma, especially to human beings. High temperature, high moisture, retarded crops, and poor food storage conditions encourage the growth of mold, as well as the development of mycotoxins. A variety of chemical, biological, and physical strategies have been developed to control the production of mycotoxins. A biological approach, using a mixed culture comprised of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus rhamnosus resulted in the inhibition of the growth of fungi when inoculated into fermented food. The results reveal that the mixed culture has a higher potential (37.08%) to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus (producer of Aflatoxin) compared to either single culture, L. rhamnosus NRRL B-442 and S. cerevisiae, which inhibit the growth by 63.07% and 64.24%, respectively. PMID:25269603

  16. Identification and Classification of Mass Transport Complexes in Offshore Trinidad/Venezuela and Their Potential Anthropogenic Impact as Tsunamigenic Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscardelli, L.; Wood, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    Several late Pleistocene-age seafloor destabilization events have been identified in the continental margin of eastern offshore Trinidad, of sufficient scale to produce tsunamigenic forces. This area, situated along the obliquely-converging-boundary of the Caribbean/South American plates and proximal to the Orinoco Delta, is characterized by catastrophic shelf-margin processes, intrusive-extrusive mobile shales, and active tectonism. A mega-merged, 10,000km2, 3D seismic survey reveals several mass transport complexes that range in area from 11.3km2 to 2017km2. Historical records indicate that this region has experienced submarine landslide- generated tsunamigenic events, including tsunamis that affected Venezuela during the 1700's-1900's. This work concentrates on defining those ancient deep marine mass transport complexes whose occurrence could potentially triggered tsunamis. Three types of failures are identified; 1) source-attached failures that are fed by shelf edge deltas whose sediment input is controlled by sea-level fluctuations and sedimentation rates, 2) source-detached systems, which occur when upper slope sediments catastrophically fail due to gas hydrate disruptions and/or earthquakes, and 3) locally sourced failures, formed when local instabilities in the sea floor trigger relatively smaller collapses. Such classification of the relationship between slope mass failures and the sourcing regions enables a better understanding of the nature of initiation, length of development history and petrography of such mass transport deposits. Source-detached systems, generated due to sudden sediment remobilizations, are more likely to disrupt the overlying water column causing a rise in tsunamigenic risk. Unlike 2D seismic, 3D seismic enables scientists to calculate more accurate deposit volumes, improve deposit imaging and thus increase the accuracy of physical and computer simulations of mass failure processes.

  17. Waste loading in shrimp and fish processing effluents: potential source of hazards to the coastal and nearshore environments.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Khan, Saleha; Tanaka, Masaru

    2004-07-01

    On average, only 30-40% of the global fishery production is consumed fresh and the rest 60-70% is processed for human consumption and other purposes. Although the proportion of the total fishery production that are processed remained relatively stable over the last decade, the total bulk of processed fishery commodity increased due to the steady increase in the total fishery production. Processing of large bulk of fish, shrimp and other aquatic organisms produces a corresponding large bulk of by-products and wastes. Although recent trend shows that much of these wastes are made into various value added products, considerable quantities are discharged as the processing effluents with large volume of waters used in processing. Reports suggest that fish and shrimp processing effluents are very high in biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), fat-oil-grease (FOG), pathogenic and other microflora, organic matters and nutrients, etc. Fish and shrimp processing effluents are, therefore, highly likely to produce adverse effects on the receiving coastal and marine environments. Although substantial reduction of the waste loads is possible by applying available simple techniques, this is not in practice in most part of the world due to lack of proper managerial and regulatory approach. The present paper reviews the characteristics of fish and shrimp processing effluents as a potential source of coastal and marine pollution and, using the existing data, analyzes the global production and discharge of waste loads from the processing plants and discusses available options for waste treatment and management. PMID:15234879

  18. Frozen debris lobes, permafrost slope instability, and a potential infrastructure hazard in the south-central Brooks Range of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daanen, R. P.; Darrow, M.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Here we report on investigations carried out at unusual debris mass-movement features (frozen debris lobes) on permafrost slopes in the south central portion of the Brooks Range of northern Alaska. The features under investigation are located in mountainous terrain near the southern border of continuous permafrost. The frozen debris lobes consist mainly of boulders, cobles, platy gravel sand and silt frozen debris derived from weathering mountain tops. The general dimensions of these lobes are either lobate or tongue shaped with widths up to 500 m and lengths up to 1200 m. In accumulation zones where slopes converge, the debris slowly moves as solifluction lobes, mud flows and potentially sliding toward the valley. These features were previously referred to as stable rock glaciers in the past, as evidenced by a dense cover of vegetation, and exhibiting no known downslope movement. Our investigations however, have shown that these features are indeed moving downslope as a result of creep, slumping, viscous flow, blockfall and leaching of fines in the summer; and in cold seasons by creep and sliding of frozen sediment slabs. Movement indicators observed in the field include toppling trees, slumps and scarps, detachment slides, striation marks on frozen sediment slabs, recently buried trees and other vegetation, mudflows, and large cracks in the lobe surface. Ground-based measurements on one frozen debris-lobe over three years (2008-2010) revealed average movement rates of approximately 1 cm day-1, which is substantially larger than rates measured in historic aerial photography from the 1950s to 1980s. Current observations , through lidar, ifsar, insar and ground based measurements using boreholes, geophysics and repeat photography of these features show an increase in movement activity that could be the result of rising summer temperatures in the region. Warming of ice rich permafrost slopes and frozen debris lobes in the Brooks Range pose a direct threat to the

  19. Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: State of art, gender differences and methodological tools

    SciTech Connect

    Fossi, M.C. . E-mail: fossi@unisi.it; Casini, S.; Marsili, L.

    2007-05-15

    Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females.

  20. Detection of potential genetic hazards in complex environmental mixtures using plant cytogenetics and microbial mutagenesis assays. [Arsenic-contaminated groundwater and power plant fly ash extract

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, M J; Lowe, K; Rao, T K; Larimer, F W; Epler, J L

    1980-01-01

    Solid wastes have been characterized to determine their potential hazards to humans and the environment. An arsenic-contaminated ground water sample increased the frequency of histidine revertants in Salmonella typhimurium (TA-98) at 0.025 to 5.000 ..mu..l per plate with Aroclor-induced S-9 liver microsomes. When 2.5 to 75 ..mu..l of the XAD-2 concentrate (12.5-fold, v:v) were used, the mutant frequency was increased in strains TA-98, TA-100, and TA-1537; metabolic activation was not required. Only the XAD-2 concentrate was mutagenic in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid strain XL-7-10B; metabolic activation was not required. The mutagenic principal, which is not known, appears to be at the limit of resolution; hence, the XAD-2 concentration is necessary to demonstrate mutagenic activity. The arsenic-contaminated ground water (0.0625 and 0.125 dilutions) and the power plant fly ash extract (undiluted) increased the frequency of bridges and fragements at anaphase in root tip cells of Hordeum. The fly ash sample was negative in the microbial assays. Results emphasize (1) the need for a battery of assays with different organisms and (2) the potential of a simple assay using plant root tip cells to detect mutagenic activity in complex environmental mixtures.

  1. NGNP SITE 2 HAZARDS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Moe

    2011-10-01

    to be addressed in design and licensing processes; assure the HTGR technology can be deployed at variety of sites for a range of applications; evaluate potential sites for potential hazards and describe some of the actions necessary to mitigate impacts of hazards; and, provide key insights that can inform the plant design process. The report presents a summary of the process methodology and the results of an assessment of hazards typical of a class of candidate sites for the potential deployment of HTGR reactor technology. The assessment considered health and safety, and other important siting characteristics to determine the potential impact of identified hazards and potential challenges presented by the location for this technology. A four reactor module nuclear plant (2000 to 2400 MW thermal), that co-generates steam, electricity for general use in the plant, and hot gas for use in a nearby chemical processing facility, to provide the requisite performance and reliability was assumed for the assessment.

  2. Hazardous materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... should be in a room with good airflow Work Safely If you find a spill, treat it like ... Hazard communication; Material Safety Data Sheet; MSDS References Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Healthcare. Available at: www.osha. ...

  3. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, ... drain, flush them, or put them in the garbage. See if you can donate or recycle. Many ...

  4. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and ... a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the ...

  5. A statistical approach for optimizing parameters for electrodeposition of indium (III) sulfide (In2S3) films, potential low-hazard buffer layers for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mughal, Maqsood Ali

    Clean and environmentally friendly technologies are centralizing industry focus towards obtaining long term solutions to many large-scale problems such as energy demand, pollution, and environmental safety. Thin film solar cell (TFSC) technology has emerged as an impressive photovoltaic (PV) technology to create clean energy from fast production lines with capabilities to reduce material usage and energy required to manufacture large area panels, hence, lowering the costs. Today, cost ($/kWh) and toxicity are the primary challenges for all PV technologies. In that respect, electrodeposited indium sulfide (In2S3) films are proposed as an alternate to hazardous cadmium sulfide (CdS) films, commonly used as buffer layers in solar cells. This dissertation focuses upon the optimization of electrodeposition parameters to synthesize In2S3 films of PV quality. The work describe herein has the potential to reduce the hazardous impact of cadmium (Cd) upon the environment, while reducing the manufacturing cost of TFSCs through efficient utilization of materials. Optimization was performed through use of a statistical approach to study the effect of varying electrodeposition parameters upon the properties of the films. A robust design method referred-to as the "Taguchi Method" helped in engineering the properties of the films, and improved the PV characteristics including optical bandgap, absorption coefficient, stoichiometry, morphology, crystalline structure, thickness, etc. Current density (also a function of deposition voltage) had the most significant impact upon the stoichiometry and morphology of In2S3 films, whereas, deposition temperature and composition of the solution had the least significant impact. The dissertation discusses the film growth mechanism and provides understanding of the regions of low quality (for example, cracks) in films. In2S3 films were systematically and quantitatively investigated by varying electrodeposition parameters including bath

  6. Hazard screening application guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information.

  7. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    Conventional coal-burning power plants are major contributors of excess CO2 to the atmospheric inventory. Because such plants are stationary, they are particularly amenable to CO2 capture and disposal by deep injection into confined geologic formations. However, the energy penalty for CO2 separation and compression is steep, and could lead to a 30-40 percent reduction in useable power output. Integrated gas combined cycle (IGCC) plants are thermodynamically more efficient, i.e.,produce less CO2 for a given power output, and are more suitable for CO2 capture. Therefore, if CO2 capture and deep subsurface disposal were to be considered seriously, the preferred approach would be to build replacement IGCC plants with integrated CO2 capture, rather than retrofit existing conventional plants. Coal contains minor quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are of concern, as their release into the atmosphere leads to the formation of urban ozone and acid rain, the destruction of stratospheric ozone, and global warming. Coal also contains many trace elements that are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. During CO2 separation and capture, these constituents could inadvertently contaminate the separated CO2 and be co-injected. The concentrations and speciation of the co-injected contaminants would differ markedly, depending on whether CO2 is captured during the operation of a conventional or an IGCC plant, and the specific nature of the plant design and CO2 separation technology. However, regardless of plant design or separation procedures, most of the hazardous constituents effectively partition into the solid waste residue. This would lead to an approximately two order of magnitude reduction in contaminant concentration compared with that present in the coal. Potential exceptions are Hg in conventional plants, and Hg and possibly Cd, Mo and Pb in IGCC plants. CO2 capture and injection disposal could afford an opportunity to deliberately capture

  8. Indices of potential lead hazard.

    PubMed Central

    Posner, H S

    1977-01-01

    This review is concerned with the concentrations of lead in human whole blood, erythrocytes, plasma, serum, soft tissues, bone, and urine. The extent to which redistribution of some of the bound lead occurs is outlines. The effects of lead on enzyme activities and on the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in the blood and urine are described. A brief section deals with the range of signs and symptoms that can occur and differences seen between symptomatic children and adults. PMID:332498

  9. Analysis of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.; Burkhard, C. D.; Dotson, J. L.; Prabhu, D. K.; Mathias, D. L.; Aftosmis, M. J.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Morrison, D. D.; Sears, D. W. G.; Berger, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration initiated a new project focused on Planetary Defense on October 1, 2014. The new project is funded by NASAs Near Earth Object Program (Lindley Johnson, Program Executive). This presentation describes the objectives, functions and plans of four tasks encompassed in the new project and their inter-relations. Additionally, this project provides for outreach to facilitate partnerships with other organizations to help meet the objectives of the planetary defense community. The four tasks are (1) Characterization of Near Earth Asteroids, (2) Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup (3) Surface Impact Modeling and (4) Physics-Based Impact Risk Assessment.

  10. A logistics and potential hazard study of propellant systems for a Saturn 5 derived heavy lift (three-stage core) launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, E. Dow

    1992-09-01

    The Bush Administration has directed NASA to prepare for a return to the Moon and on to Mars - the Space Exploration Initiative. To meet this directive, powerful rocket boosters will be required in order to lift payloads that may reach the half-million pound range into low earth orbit. In this report an analysis is presented on logistics and potential hazards of the propellant systems envisioned for future Saturn 5 derived heavy lift launch vehicles. In discussing propellant logistics, particular attention has been given to possible problems associated with procurement, transportation, and storage of RP-1, HL2, and LOX, the heavy lift launch vehicle propellants. Current LOX producing facilities will need to be expanded and propellant storage and some support facilities will require relocation if current Launch Pads 39A and/or 39B are to be used for future heavy noise-abatement measures. Included in the report is a discussion of suggested additional studies, primarily economic and environmental, which should be undertaken in support of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative.

  11. A logistics and potential hazard study of propellant systems for a Saturn 5 derived heavy lift (three-stage core) launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, E. Dow

    1992-01-01

    The Bush Administration has directed NASA to prepare for a return to the Moon and on to Mars - the Space Exploration Initiative. To meet this directive, powerful rocket boosters will be required in order to lift payloads that may reach the half-million pound range into low earth orbit. In this report an analysis is presented on logistics and potential hazards of the propellant systems envisioned for future Saturn 5 derived heavy lift launch vehicles. In discussing propellant logistics, particular attention has been given to possible problems associated with procurement, transportation, and storage of RP-1, HL2, and LOX, the heavy lift launch vehicle propellants. Current LOX producing facilities will need to be expanded and propellant storage and some support facilities will require relocation if current Launch Pads 39A and/or 39B are to be used for future heavy noise-abatement measures. Included in the report is a discussion of suggested additional studies, primarily economic and environmental, which should be undertaken in support of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative.

  12. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  13. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  14. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency.

  15. Composite-fiber hazards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, J.F.

    1990-12-01

    This report reviews potential health hazards from carbon/graphite and boron composite materials used in aircraft. Carbon and boron fibers are used as reinforcement in an epoxy matrix to form composite material aircraft parts. There is increasing concern over the potential health effects of these fibers released during sanding and grinding of composite parts in structural repair shops, and during clean up operations following aircraft accidents involving fire and/or breakage of composite parts. With the demise of the term 'CORKER,' hazards from carbon composite materials were deemphasized. However, the CORKER annotation only addressed the electrical shorting hazards from airborne fibers following a fire and did not examine in detail potential health effects. Maintenance workers fear that carbon fibers are carcinogens. A review of the current literature on carbon fiber indicates it is relatively inert. Industrial hygiene evaluations should include sampling for total dust and comparing the levels to the ACGIH TLV for nuisance dust. Occupational health efforts should focus on problems with contact dermatitis from the resins systems and toxic effects of resin hardeners.

  16. Understanding the transformation, speciation, and hazard potential of copper particles in a model septic tank system using zebrafish to monitor the effluent.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sijie; Taylor, Alicia A; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Kinsinger, Nichola M; Ueng, William; Walker, Sharon L; Nel, André E

    2015-02-24

    Although copper-containing nanoparticles are used in commercial products such as fungicides and bactericides, we presently do not understand the environmental impact on other organisms that may be inadvertently exposed. In this study, we used the zebrafish embryo as a screening tool to study the potential impact of two nano Cu-based materials, CuPRO and Kocide, in comparison to nanosized and micron-sized Cu and CuO particles in their pristine form (0-10 ppm) as well as following their transformation in an experimental wastewater treatment system. This was accomplished by construction of a modeled domestic septic tank system from which effluents could be retrieved at different stages following particle introduction (10 ppm). The Cu speciation in the effluent was identified as nondissolvable inorganic Cu(H2PO2)2 and nondiffusible organic Cu by X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT), and Visual MINTEQ software. While the nanoscale materials, including the commercial particles, were clearly more potent (showing 50% hatching interference above 0.5 ppm) than the micron-scale particulates with no effect on hatching up to 10 ppm, the Cu released from the particles in the septic tank underwent transformation into nonbioavailable species that failed to interfere with the function of the zebrafish embryo hatching enzyme. Moreover, we demonstrate that the addition of humic acid, as an organic carbon component, could lead to a dose-dependent decrease in Cu toxicity in our high content zebrafish embryo screening assay. Thus, the use of zebrafish embryo screening, in combination with the effluents obtained from a modeled exposure environment, enables a bioassay approach to follow the change in the speciation and hazard potential of Cu particles instead of difficult-to-perform direct particle tracking. PMID:25625504

  17. Size and site dependent biological hazard potential of particulate matters collected from different heights at the vicinity of a building construction.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaqiong; Fang, Crystal Hay Yu; Shi, Wenxiong; Gurusamy, Subramaniam; Li, Shuzhou; Krishnan, Manoj N; George, Saji

    2015-11-01

    Although building constructions are a recurring part of urbanization, the health risk of particulate matters (PM) originating from such activities have seldom been subjected to detailed studies. We sought to characterize the relative risk of air borne PM collected from different heights (ground and top floor) of a building adjacent to a building under early phase of construction. We determined the physico-chemical properties such as size and shape, elemental composition and surface charge of the PM. The oxidative stress dependent cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory responses were assessed in BEAS-2B and RAW 264.7 cell lines using high-content-screening platforms. In comparison to top floor, the total mass of PM collected from ground floor was two-three folds higher and the mass fraction was dominated by PM20-35. Elemental analysis showed abundance of Si, Al, K, Ca and Fe in bigger PM while for PM0.25-0.5 it was mostly constituted by C and crystals rich in S and K. PM caused NFκB activation, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity wherein PM0.25-0.5 was the most potent among the tested PM. Estimated exposure level and lung burden together with the data on hazard potential were used for developing a MATLAB based risk-assessment model which suggested that the potential for health risk is relatively higher at the ground floor. Our studies demonstrated differences in, relative abundance of PM, their physicochemical and biological properties collected from different heights adjacent to a construction site and showed that relative health risk is higher at the ground floor. PMID:26253280

  18. Understanding the Transformation, Speciation, and Hazard Potential of Copper Particles in a Model Septic Tank System using Zebrafish to Monitor the Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sijie; Taylor, Alicia A.; Zhaoxia, Ji; Chang, Chong Hyun; Kinsinger, Nichola M.; Ueng, William; Walker, Sharon L.; Nel, André E.

    2015-01-01

    Although copper-containing nanoparticles are used in commercial products such as fungicides and bactericides, we presently do not understand the environmental impact on other organisms that may be inadvertently exposed. In this study, we used the zebrafish embryo as a screening tool to study the potential impact of two nano Cu-based materials, CuPRO and Kocide, in comparison to nano-sized and micron-sized Cu and CuO particles in their pristine form (0 – 10 ppm) as well as following their transformation in an experimental wastewater treatment system. This was accomplished by construction of a modeled domestic septic tank system from which effluents could be retrieved at different stages following particle introduction (10 ppm). The Cu speciation in the effluent was identified as non-dissolvable inorganic Cu(H2PO2)2 and non-diffusible organic Cu by X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT), and Visual MINTEQ software. While the nanoscale materials, including the commercial particles, were clearly more potent (showing 50% hatching interference above 0.5 ppm) than the micron-scale particulates with no effect on hatching up to 10 ppm, the Cu released from the particles in the septic tank underwent transformation into non-bioavailable species that failed to interfere with the function of the zebrafish embryo hatching enzyme. Moreover, we demonstrate that the addition of humic acid, as an organic carbon component, could lead to a dose-dependent decrease in Cu toxicity in our high content zebrafish embryo screening assay. Thus, the use of zebrafish embryo screening, in combination with the effluents obtained from a modeled exposure environment, enables a bioassay approach to follow the change in the speciation, and hazard potential of Cu particles instead of difficult-to-perform direct particle tracking. PMID:25625504

  19. Hazard Analysis for Pneumatic Flipper Suitport/Z-1 Manned Evaluation, Chamber B, Building 32. Revision: Basic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    One of the characteristics of an effective safety program is the recognition and control of hazards before mishaps or failures occur. Conducting potentially hazardous tests necessitates a thorough hazard analysis in order to protect our personnel from injury and our equipment from damage. The purpose of this hazard analysis is to define and address the potential hazards and controls associated with the Z1 Suit Port Test in Chamber B located in building 32, and to provide the applicable team of personnel with the documented results. It is imperative that each member of the team be familiar with the hazards and controls associated with his/her particular tasks, assignments, and activities while interfacing with facility test systems, equipment, and hardware. The goal of this hazard analysis is to identify all hazards that have the potential to harm personnel and/or damage facility equipment, flight hardware, property, or harm the environment. This analysis may also assess the significance and risk, when applicable, of lost test objectives when substantial monetary value is involved. The hazards, causes, controls, verifications, and risk assessment codes have been documented on the hazard analysis work sheets in appendix A of this document. The preparation and development of this report is in accordance with JPR 1700.1, JSC Safety and Health Handbook.

  20. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  1. Fire hazard analysis for Project W-320 Tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, J.C.

    1995-09-12

    This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for Project W-320, `Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval` addresses fire hazards or fire related concerns in accordance with DOE 5480.7A (DOE 1998), resulting from or related to the processes and equipment to be installed or modified under Project W-320 to ensure that there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public; the potential for the occurrence of a fire is minimized, process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils; and property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  3. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  4. ANALYSIS OF GEOTHERMAL WASTES FOR HAZARDOUS COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations governing the disposal of hazardous wastes led to an assessment for geothermal solid wastes for potentially hazardous properties. Samples were collected from three active geothermal sites in the western United States: The Geysers, Imperial Valley, and northwestern Nev...

  5. A health hazard assessment in school arts and crafts.

    PubMed

    Lu, P C

    1992-01-01

    Unlike the cautious attitude being exercised toward generic chemicals, an off-guard behavior is often observed toward the same chemicals once they are recognized as a "common daily item." Students and instructors of arts and crafts classes alike are often unaware of the potential risks from exposure to some of the arts and crafts materials they use due to either the false security of "common daily item" or the lack of specific knowledge of the hazardous ingredients in those products. This unawareness of potential health hazards could lead to improper handling of these materials and result in unnecessary health risk during their use. A three-year study of college arts and crafts class students indicates a high incidence of allergic reactions among attending students for exposure of less than 70 hours within a period of 7 weeks. A self-evaluation method is developed to identify and minimize these health hazards associated with arts and crafts classes. This checklist of 15 pertinent parameters covers identifiable hazardous areas and situations in arts and crafts classrooms. Record keeping and promotion of student awareness are also addressed, so that instructors and students in an arts and crafts class can more readily recognize actual or potential hazards and act to prevent them. PMID:1740762

  6. Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) and nanoparticle exposures: what do DEP human clinical studies tell us about potential human health hazards of nanoparticles?

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Long, Christopher M; Lapin, Charles A; Hamade, Ali K; Valberg, Peter A

    2010-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly tested in cellular and laboratory-animal experiments for hazard potential, but there is a lack of health effects data for humans exposed to ENPs. However, human data for another source of nanoparticle (NP) exposure are available, notably for the NPs contained in diesel exhaust particulate (DEP). Studies of human volunteers exposed to diesel exhaust (DE) in research settings report DEP-NP number concentrations (i.e., >10(6) particles/cm(3)) that exceed number concentrations reported for worst-case exposure conditions for workers manufacturing and handling ENPs. Recent human DE exposure studies, using sensitive physiological instrumentation and well-characterized exposure concentrations and durations, suggest that elevated DE exposures from pre-2007 engines may trigger short-term changes in, for example, lung and systemic inflammation, thrombogenesis, vascular function, and brain activity. Considerable uncertainty remains both as to which DE constituents underlie the observed responses (i.e., DEP NPs, DEP mass, DE gases), and as to the implications of the observed short-term changes for the development of disease. Even so, these DE human clinical data do not give evidence of a unique toxicity for NPs as compared to other small particles. Of course, physicochemical properties of toxicological relevance may differ between DEP NPs and other NPs, yet overall, the DE human clinical data do not support the idea that elevated levels of NPs per se (at least in the DEP context) must be acutely toxic by virtue of their nano-sized nature alone. PMID:20462394

  7. Assessing the Potential Impact of the 2015-2016 El Niño on the California Rim Fire Burn Scar Through Debris Flow Hazard Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcom, S.; Grigsby, S.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires are a perennial issue for California, and the current record-breaking drought is exacerbating the potential problems for the state. Fires leave behind burn scars characterized by diminished vegetative cover and abundant bare soil, and these areas are especially susceptible to storm events that pose an elevated risk of debris flows and sediment-rich sheet wash. This study focused on the 2013 Rim Fire that devastated significant portions of Stanislaus National Forest and Yosemite National Park, and utilized readily available NASA JPL SRTM elevation data and AVIRIS spectral imaging data to construct a debris flow hazard map that assesses mass wasting risk for the Rim Fire burn scar. This study consisted entirely of remotely sensed data, which was processed in software programs such as ENVI, GRASS GIS, ArcMap, and Google Earth. Parameters that were taken into consideration when constructing this map include hill slope (greater than 30 percent rise), burn severity (assessed by calculating NDVI), and erodibility of the soil (by comparing spectral reflectance of AVIRIS images with the reference spectra of illite). By calculating percent of total burn area, 6% was classified as low risk, 55% as medium risk, and 39% as high risk. In addition, this study assessed the importance of the 2015-2016 El Niño, which is projected to be one of the strongest on record, by studying historic rainfall records and storm events of past El Niño's. Hydrological and infrastructural problems that could be caused by short-term convective or long-term synoptic storms and subsequent debris flows were explored as well.

  8. Constraining Albedo And Composition Of Potentially-Hazardous Asteroids 2004 XP14 And (100085) 1992 UY4 Via Near-IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Gaffey, M. J.; Hardersen, P. S.; Abell, P. A.; Kumar, S.

    2006-09-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of potentially-hazardous asteroids (PHAs) 2004 XP14 were obtained on July 5, 2006 and 1992 UY4 on July 31, 2005, using the SpeX instrument at NASA IRTF on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i. Near-IR spectrum of 2004 XP14 has a neutral slope and shows no detectable absorption features. Given its heliocentric distance (1.02 A.U.), a sharp rise in reflectance beyond 2.0-µm due to thermal emission would be expected if the PHA was a low albedo object. No such excess was detected in the spectrum of 2004 XP14 which establishes a lower limit on the albedo. Using Standard Thermal Model and methods developed by Abell (2003), we estimate the lower limit on the albedo to be 20%. A high albedo (>20%) featureless spectrum suggests that 2004 XP14 belongs to the M- or E-type taxonomic class. 1992 UY4 spectrum also shows no detectable absorption features but exhibits a sharp rise in reflectance beyond 2.0-µm due to thermal emission at its heliocentric distance (1.08 A.U.) at the time of observation. Using the same methods, we estimate the albedo from thermal emission to be 6.0±1; %. Based on albedo, the estimated diameter (Flower & Chillemi, 1992) is 1.8±0.2 km, given the limitations in the STM model. We suggest that 1992 UY4 is a dark object with significant low-albedo absorbing species like carbon in its surface assemblage, given its featureless spectrum and 6.0±1; % albedo. The authors would like to thank NASA IRTF for providing Target of Opportunity observing time for observing 2004 XP14 flyby. This research was supported by NASA Near-Earth Objects Observations Program grant NNG04GI17G.

  9. Potential human health risks from toxic metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides via canned fish consumption: estimation of target hazard quotients.

    PubMed

    El Morsy, Fadia A M; El-Sadaawy, Manal M; Ahdy, Hoda H H; Abdel-Fattah, Laila M; El-Sikaily, Amany M; Khaled, Azza; Tayel, Fathi M T

    2013-01-01

    Canned fish (tuna and sardine) of different geographical regions were collected randomly from supermarkets and were analyzed for heavy metal contents (Hg, Cd and Pb) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides. Canned fish samples (two brands of sardines, six brands of tuna) that were purchased from Egyptian cities between 2009 and 2010, represent four countries (Morocco, Republic of Yemen, Indonesia and Thailand). Health risks on humans via dietary intake of seafood were assessed by the target hazard quotients (THQs), potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects. The contents of trace metals in canned tuna and canned sardines were found as: 0.149-0.218 μg/g for Cd; 0.312-0.937 μg/g for Pb and 0.053-0.022 μg/g for Hg. Canned sardines fluctuated between 0.55 and 1.82, 1.08 and 1.64, 11.91 and 26.24 ng/g for total HCHs, Total cyclodienes and DDTs respectively while the corresponding concentrations in canned tuna were 0.24-1.85, 0.24-1‥85 and 6.56-49.73 ng/g, respectively. Total PCBs fluctuated between 21.75 and 55.10 for canned sardines and 8.56-208.11 ng/g for canned tuna. On the other hand the total PAHs fluctuated between 0.006-9.775 and 1.556-2.686 ng/g for tuna and sardines. From the human health point of view, there is no adverse health effect for both PAHs and heavy metals content on consumers. PMID:23802155

  10. Analysis of the potential radiation hazard of the 23 July 2012 SEP event observed by STEREO A using the EMMREM model and LRO/CRaTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, C. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Rosenvinge, T. T.; Case, A. W.; Spence, H. E.; Wilson, J. K.; Gorby, M.; Quinn, M.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    We present a study of the potential radiation hazard of the powerful, superfast interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) observed by STEREO A on 23 July 2012. Using energetic proton flux data from the High Energy Telescope and Low Energy Telescope instruments aboard STEREO A together with the Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Environment Module, we compute dose rates and accumulated doses during the event for both skin/eye and blood forming organs using four physically relevant levels of shielding. For spacesuit equivalent shielding, we compute a peak skin/eye dose rate of 1970 cGy-Eq/d, a value far greater than those of the 2003 Halloween storms or the January and March solar energetic particle events of 2012. However, due to the relative brevity of the event, the resulting accumulated dose was just 383 cGy-Eq, which is more aligned with the total doses of the 2003 Halloween and 2012 January/March events. Additionally, we use dose rates at STEREO B and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (LRO/CRaTER) during the event to show how the radiation impact is affected by the position of the ICME relative to the observer. Specifically, we find that the energetic particle event associated with the local shock and ICME passage at STEREO A caused greatly enhanced dose rates when compared to STEREO B and LRO/CRaTER, which were longitudinally distant from the ICME. The STEREO A/B dose rates used here will soon be made available to the community as a tool for studying the energetic particle radiation of solar events from different longitudes as a part of NASA's Heliophysics Virtual Observatories and on the Predictions of radiation from REleASE, EMMREM, and Data Incorporating CRaTER, COSTEP, and other SEP measurements (PREDICCS) and CRaTER websites.

  11. A combined field and numerical approach to understanding dilute pyroclastic density current dynamics and hazard potential: Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Gravley, Darren M.; Clarke, Amanda B.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Bloomberg, Simon H.; Agustin-Flores, Javier; Németh, Károly

    2014-04-01

    The most dangerous and deadly hazards associated with phreatomagmatic eruptions in the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF; Auckland, New Zealand) are those related to volcanic base surges - dilute, ground-hugging, particle laden currents with dynamic pressures capable of severe to complete structural damage. We use the well-exposed base surge deposits of the Maungataketake tuff ring (Manukau coast, Auckland), to reconstruct flow dynamics and destructive potential of base surges produced during the eruption. The initial base surge(s) snapped trees up to 0.5 m in diameter near their base as far as 0.7-0.9 km from the vent. Beyond this distance the trees were encapsulated and buried by the surge in growth position. Using the tree diameter and yield strength of the wood we calculate that dynamic pressures (Pdyn) in excess of 12-35 kPa are necessary to cause the observed damage. Next we develop a quantitative model for flow of and sedimentation from a radially-spreading, dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) to determine the damage potential of the base surges produced during the early phases of the eruption and explore the implications of this potential on future eruptions in the region. We find that initial conditions with velocities on the order of 65 m s- 1, bulk density of 38 kg m- 3 and initial, near-vent current thicknesses of 60 m reproduce the field-based Pdyn estimates and runout distances. A sensitivity analysis revealed that lower initial bulk densities result in shorter run-out distances, more rapid deceleration of the current and lower dynamic pressures. Initial velocity does not have a strong influence on run-out distance, although higher initial velocity and slope slightly decrease runout distance due to higher rates of atmospheric entrainment. Using this model we determine that for base surges with runout distances of up to 4 km, complete destruction can be expected within 0.5 km from the vent, moderate destruction can be expected up to 2 km, but much

  12. Hazard Communication Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab.

  13. Geothermal hazards - Mercury emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1975-01-01

    Enthusiasm for intensified geothermal exploration may induce many participants to overlook a long-term potential toxicity hazard possibly associated with the tapping of magmatic steam. The association of high atmospheric Hg levels with geothermal activity has been established both in Hawaii and Iceland, and it has been shown that mercury can be introduced into the atmosphere from fumaroles, hot springs, and magmatic sources. These arguments, extended to thallium, selenium, and other hazardous elements, underscore the need for environmental monitoring in conjunction with the delivery of magmatic steam to the surface.

  14. TESTING OF TOXICOLOGY AND EMISSIONS SAMPLING METHODOLOGY FOR OCEAN INCINERATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report addresses the development and testing of a system to expose marine organisms to hazardous waste emissions in order to assess the potential toxicity of incinerator plumes at sea as they contact the marine environment through air-sea exchange and initial mixing. A sampli...

  15. Elimination of the hazards from hazardous wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Gloyna, E F; Taylor, R D

    1978-01-01

    The "hazard" associated with a waste essentially controls the overall engineering approach to finding suitable alternatives for solving potential disposal problems. It should be recognized that all factors affecting environmental equilibrium must be considered, including product sales, process design, financing, pre- and end-of-pipe treatment, residuals management, and ultimate bioaccumulation of residuals. To meet this challenge, a systems approach to waste treatment and residuals disposal provides a logical approach, but this management concept requires a thorough understanding of the important physical and chemical aspects of the problem, as well as many social implications of the resulting decisions. Thus waste management within a plant necessarily involves process control, pretreatment and end-of-pipe treatment. Further, it follows that residuals management from a disposal point-of-view must ultimately embrace what is called the "multi-barrier concept." In essence, hazard elimination occurs in varying degrees during each phase of a properly engineered system. PMID:738249

  16. Correlates of household seismic hazard adjustment adoption.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M K; Whitney, D J

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the relationships of self-reported adoption of 12 seismic hazard adjustments (pre-impact actions to reduce danger to persons and property) with respondents' demographic characteristics, perceived risk, perceived hazard knowledge, perceived protection responsibility, and perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments. Consistent with theoretical predictions, perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments differentiated among the adjustments and had stronger correlations with adoption than any of the other predictors. These results identify the adjustments and attributes that emergency managers should address to have the greatest impact on improving household adjustment to earthquake hazard. PMID:10795335

  17. A critical analysis of hazard resilience measures within sustainability assessment frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Elizabeth C.; Sattler, Meredith; Friedland, Carol J.

    2014-11-15

    Today, numerous sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) exist to guide designers in achieving sustainable performance in the design of structures and communities. SAFs are beneficial in educating users and are useful tools for incorporating sustainability strategies into planning, design, and construction; however, there is currently a substantial gap in the ability of existing SAFs to incorporate hazard resistance and hazard mitigation in the broader context of sustainable design. This paper analyzes the incorporation of hazard resistant design and hazard mitigation strategies within SAFs via a multi-level analysis of eleven SAFs. The SAFs analyzed range in scale of application (i.e. building, site, community). Three levels of analysis are presented: (1) macro-level analysis comparing the number of measures strictly addressing resilience versus sustainability, (2) meso-level analysis of the coverage of types of hazards within SAFs (e.g. flood, fire), and (3) micro-level analysis of SAF measures connected to flood-related hazard resilience. The results demonstrate that hazard resistance and hazard mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs and that weaknesses in resilience coverage exist that have the potential to lead to the design of structures and communities that are still highly vulnerable to the impacts of extreme events. - Highlights: • Sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) were analyzed for resilience coverage • Hazard resistance and mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs • Approximately 75% of SAFs analyzed address three or fewer hazards • Lack of economic measures within SAFs could impact resilience and sustainability • Resilience measures for flood hazards are not consistently included in SAFs.

  18. Frequency Analysis of Aircraft hazards for License Application

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-10-24

    The preclosure safety analysis for the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain must consider the hazard that aircraft may pose to surface structures. Relevant surface structures are located beneath the restricted airspace of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the eastern slope of Yucca Mountain, near the North Portal of the Exploratory Studies Facility Tunnel (Figure 1). The North Portal is located several miles from the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), which is used extensively by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for training and test flights (Figure 1). The NTS airspace, which is controlled by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for NTS activities, is not part of the NTTR. Agreements with the DOE allow USAF aircraft specific use of the airspace above the NTS (Reference 2.1.1 [DIRS 103472], Section 3.1.1 and Appendix A, Section 2.1; and Reference 2.1.2 [DIRS 157987], Sections 1.26 through 1.29). Commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft fly within several miles to the southwest of the repository site in the Beatty Corridor, which is a broad air corridor that runs approximately parallel to U.S. Highway 95 and the Nevada-California border (Figure 2). These aircraft and other aircraft operations are identified and described in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Sections 6 and 8). The purpose of this analysis is to estimate crash frequencies for aircraft hazards identified for detailed analysis in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Section 8). Reference 2.1.3, Section 8, also identifies a potential hazard associated with electronic jamming, which will be addressed in this analysis. This analysis will address only the repository and not the transportation routes to the site. The analysis is intended to provide the basis for: (1) Categorizing event sequences related to aircraft hazards; (2) Identifying design or operational requirements related to aircraft hazards.

  19. Moral hazard.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2009-01-01

    Civil societies set aside a common pool of resources to help those with whom chance has dealt harshly. Frequently we allow access to these common resources when bad luck is assisted by foolishness and lack of foresight. Sometimes we may even help ourselves to a few of those common assets since others are doing so and they are public goods, the cost of which is shared and has already been paid. Moral hazard is the questionable ethical practice of increasing opportunity for individual gain while shifting risk for loss to the group. Bailout is an example. What makes moral hazard so widespread and difficult to manage is that it is easier for individuals to see their advantage than it is for groups to see theirs. Runaway American healthcare costs can be explained in these terms. Cheating, overtreatment, commercialism, and other moral problems in dentistry can be traced to the interaction between opportunistic individual behavior and permissive group responses common in moral hazard. PMID:19928367

  20. Update on safe handling of hazardous drugs: the advice of experts.

    PubMed

    Power, L A; Anderson, R W; Cortopassi, R; Gera, J R; Lewis, R M

    1990-05-01

    Questions related to the handling of hazardous drug products were discussed by a panel of pharmacy practitioners. The panel addressed the following issues: pharmacists' responsibilities for instructing patients, nurses, and physicians on safe handling of hazardous drug products; safe transport of hazardous drug products outside the hospital; disposal of hazardous drug products, items contaminated by these products, and body wastes of patients receiving these drugs; appropriate operation, venting, cleaning, decontamination, and recertification of biological safety cabinets (BSCs); the protective clothing and technique that should be used by workers in BSCs; monitoring the health of workers who handle hazardous drug products; pharmacy's potential liability for nonconformance to published guidelines; whether and how pharmacies that prepare few doses of hazardous drug products should comply with stringent guidelines geared to institutions that handle many doses of these products; and precautions for handling hazardous drug products for oral administration, caustic products, and vesicants. Safe limits for time and amount of exposure to hazardous drugs are unknown, but ASHP's revised Technical Assistance Bulletin on Handling Cytotoxic and Hazardous Drugs and current guidelines from the federal Occupational Health and Safety Administration provide guidance on precautions that should be observed. PMID:2186622

  1. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  2. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  3. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  4. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  5. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  6. Potential hazard due to induced radioactivity secondary to radiotherapy: the report of task group 136 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thomadsen, Bruce; Nath, Ravinder; Bateman, Fred B; Farr, Jonathan; Glisson, Cal; Islam, Mohammad K; LaFrance, Terry; Moore, Mary E; George Xu, X; Yudelev, Mark

    2014-11-01

    External-beam radiation therapy mostly uses high-energy photons (x-rays) produced by medical accelerators, but many facilities now use proton beams, and a few use fast-neutron beams. High-energy photons offer several advantages over lower-energy photons in terms of better dose distributions for deep-seated tumors, lower skin dose, less sensitivity to tissue heterogeneities, etc. However, for beams operating at or above 10 MV, some of the materials in the accelerator room and the radiotherapy patient become radioactive due primarily to photonuclear reactions and neutron capture, exposing therapy staff and patients to unwanted radiation dose. Some recent advances in radiotherapy technology require treatments using a higher number of monitor units and monitor-unit rates for the same delivered dose, and compared to the conventional treatment techniques and fractionation schemes, the activation dose to personnel can be substantially higher. Radiotherapy treatments with proton and neutron beams all result in activated materials in the treatment room. In this report, the authors review critically the published literature on radiation exposures from induced radioactivity in radiotherapy. They conclude that the additional exposure to the patient due to induced radioactivity is negligible compared to the overall radiation exposure as a part of the treatment. The additional exposure to the staff due to induced activity from photon beams is small at an estimated level of about 1 to 2 mSv y. This is well below the allowed occupational exposure limits. Therefore, the potential hazard to staff from induced radioactivity in the use of high-energy x-rays is considered to be low, and no specific actions are considered necessary or mandatory. However, in the spirit of the "As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)" program, some reasonable steps are recommended that can be taken to reduce this small exposure to an even lower level. The dose reduction strategies suggested should be

  7. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  8. Hazardous waste: 1998 Regulatory and judicial developments

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, M.E.; Wright, W.G. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Every year, owners and operators of facilities generating, transporting, treating, storing, or disposing of hazardous waste, or persons held liable for past hazardous waste management practice through EPA`s Superfund program, are affected by changes in the application and interpretation of hazardous waste regulation. This paper will summarize the significant 1997 hazardous waste regulatory developments, including changes and additions to land disposal restrictions and treatment standards, hazardous waste determination procedures, used oil management practices. This paper will also summarize key judicial decisions addressing expanded definitions of solid and hazardous waste, activities constituting disposal, and circumstances constituting imminent and substantial endangerment. Finally, this paper will summarize new EPA Superfund guidance documents and judicial decisions addressing issues of liability and defenses to liability under Superfund.

  9. Transportation of hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This report discusses the following: data and information systems for hazardous-materials; containers for hazardous-materials transportation; hazardous-materials transportation regulation; and training for hazardous-materials transportation enforcement and emergency response.

  10. Methods for probabilistic assessments of geologic hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Although risk analysis today is considered to include three separate aspects: (1) identifying sources of risk, (2) estimating probabilities quantitatively, and (3) evaluating consequences of risk, here, only estimation of probabilities for natural geologic events, processes, and phenomena is addressed. Ideally, evaluation of potential future hazards includes an objective determination of probabilities that has been derived from past occurrences of identical events or components contributing to complex processes or phenomena. In practice, however, data which would permit objective estimation of those probabilities of interest may not be adequate, or may not even exist. Another problem that arises normally, regardless of the extent of data, is that risk assessments involve estimating extreme values. Rarely are extreme values accurately predictable even when an empirical frequency distribution is established well by data. In the absence of objective methods for estimating probabilities of natural events or processes, subjective probabilities for the hazard must be established through Bayesian methods, expert opinion, or Delphi methods. Uncertainty of every probability determination must be stated for each component of an event, process, or phenomenon. These uncertainties also must be propagated through the quantitative analysis so that a realistic estimate of total uncertainty can be associated with each final probability estimate for a geologic hazard.

  11. Implementation of the hazardous debris rule

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, J.E.

    1993-01-05

    Hazardous debris includes objects contaminated with hazardous waste. Examples of debris include tree stumps, timbers, boulders, tanks, piping, crushed drums, personal protective clothing, etc. Most of the hazardous debris encountered comes from Superfund sites and other facility remediation, although generators and treaters of hazardous waste also generate hazardous debris. Major problems associated with disposal of debris includes: Inappropriateness of many waste treatments to debris; Difficulties in obtaining representative samples; Costs associated with applying waste specific treatments to debris; Subtitle C landfill space was being used for many low hazard debris types. These factors brought about the need for debris treatment technologies and regulations that addressed these issues. The goal of such regulation was to provide treatment to destroy or remove the contamination if possible and, if this is achieved, to dispose of the cleaned debris as a nonhazardous waste. EPA has accomplished this goal through promulgation of the Hazardous Debris Rule, August 18, 1992.

  12. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  13. Health effects of hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Dearwent, Steve M; Mumtaz, M Moiz; Godfrey, Gail; Sinks, Thomas; Falk, Henry

    2006-09-01

    Since 1995, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has evaluated environmental contaminants and human health risks at nearly 3000 sites. Hazardous substances at these sites include newly emerging problems as well as historically identified threats. ATSDR classifies sites according to the degree of hazard they represent to the public. Less than 1% of the sites investigated are considered urgent public health hazards where chemical or physical hazards are at levels that could cause an immediate threat to life or health. Approximately 20% of sites have a potential for long-term human exposures above acceptable risk levels. At almost 40% of sites, hazardous substances do not represent a public health hazard. Completed exposure pathways for contaminants in air, water, and soil have been reported at approximately 30% of evaluated sites. The most common contaminants of concern at these sites include heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls. This article reviews ATSDR's ongoing work by examining the historic hazard of lead, the contemporary hazard of asbestos, and the emerging issue of perchlorate contamination. PMID:17119223

  14. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  15. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  16. Tank farms hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-30

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ``Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001`` as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process.

  17. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  18. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  19. Address of the President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Frederic W.

    1976-01-01

    The president of the Association of American Colleges addresses at the 62nd annual meeting the theme of the conference: "Looking to the Future--Liberal Education in a Radically Changing Society." Contributions to be made by AAC are examined. (LBH)

  20. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  1. Space sciences - Keynote address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    The present status and projected future developments of the NASA Space Science and Applications Program are addressed. Emphasis is given to biochemistry experiments that are planned for the Space Station. Projects for the late 1990s which will study the sun, the earth's magnetosphere, and the geosphere are briefly discussed.

  2. Application of Tradescantia micronucleus assay for in-situ evaluation of potential genetic hazards from exposure to chemicals at a wood-preserving site

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.; Gill, B.S.; Casto, B.C.; Rice, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In situ evaluation of biological hazards from wood preserving chemicals at a hazardous waste site using the Tradescantia micronucleus assay (Trad-MCN) is reported in the study. The chemical analysis of soil samples from the site showed high contamination with arsenic (1,292 mg/kg), chromium (1,444 mg/kg) and copper (924 mg/kg) on the surface of the drip area where wood was allowed to dry after the treatment. Exposure of Tradescantia plants grown within or adjacent to the drip area showed significantly (P=0.05) higher frequencies of micronuclei when compared to plants grown in nearby control plots. After remediation, the levels of arsenic, chromium, and copper were substantially reduced and concomitantly no genotoxic activity was observed in plants grown on-site or in plants exposed in the laboratory to a slurry of soil samples from the site. The results from the pilot study show that simple plant assays such as Trad-MCN can be used as a sentinel for environmental contamination and to assess the efficacy of clean-up efforts.

  3. Health Hazard Evaluations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Programs Contact NIOSH HHE Media Health Hazard Evaluations (HHEs) Language: English en Español Recommend on Facebook ... or employers can ask the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Program to help learn whether health hazards ...

  4. Action on Hazardous Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPA Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    U.S. EPA is gearing up to investigate about 300 hazardous waste dump sites per year that could pose an imminent health hazard. Prosecutions are expected to result from the priority effort at investigating illegal hazardous waste disposal. (RE)

  5. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G.; Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H.

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  6. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 5. Human health risk assessment (HHRA): Evaluation of potential risks from multipathway exposure to emissions. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) portion of the WTI Risk Assessment involves the integration of information about the facility with site-specific data for the surrounding region and population to characterize the potential human health risks due to emissions from the facility. The estimation of human health risks is comprised of the following general steps: (1) identification of substances of potential concern; (2) estimation of the nature and magnitude of chemical releases from the WTI facility; (3) prediction of the atmospheric transport of the emitted contaminants; (4) determination of the types of adverse effects associated with exposure to the substances of potential concern (referred to as hazard identification), and the relationship between the level of exposure and the severity of any health effect (referred to as dose-response assessment); (5) estimation of the magnitude of exposure (referred to as exposure assessment); and (6) characterization of the health risks associated with exposure (referred to as risk characterization).

  7. 10 CFR 851.21 - Hazard identification and assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... existing and potential workplace hazards and assess the risk of associated workers injury and illness... radiological hazards. (b) Contractors must submit to the Head of DOE Field Element a list of closure facility hazards and the established controls within 90 days after identifying such hazards. The Head of DOE...

  8. 10 CFR 851.21 - Hazard identification and assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... existing and potential workplace hazards and assess the risk of associated workers injury and illness... radiological hazards. (b) Contractors must submit to the Head of DOE Field Element a list of closure facility hazards and the established controls within 90 days after identifying such hazards. The Head of DOE...

  9. 10 CFR 851.21 - Hazard identification and assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... existing and potential workplace hazards and assess the risk of associated workers injury and illness... radiological hazards. (b) Contractors must submit to the Head of DOE Field Element a list of closure facility hazards and the established controls within 90 days after identifying such hazards. The Head of DOE...

  10. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-08-22

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  11. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SPILL MONITORING: SAFETY HANDBOOK AND CHEMICAL HAZARD GUIDE. PART B - CHEMICAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two-part document is intended to serve as a guide to the hazards associated with a broad range of chemical compounds which may be encountered in hazardous materials spills. The document addresses 655 chemicals identified on the basis of known toxicity or spill history and de...

  12. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  13. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  14. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using Random Forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers was 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR Toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the Scorecard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin sensitization dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin sensitization. • Developed models have higher prediction accuracy than OECD QSAR Toolbox. • Putative

  15. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  16. Comprehensive baseline hazard assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.B.; Amundson, T.M.

    1994-10-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed and implemented a cost effective/value-added program/process that assists in fulfilling key elements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) voluntary Protection Program (VPP) requirements. WHC is the prime contractor for the US Department of Energy (US DOE) at the Hanford site, located in Richland, Washington. The site consists of over 560 square miles, contains over 1100 facilities and has an employment of approximately 18,000. WHC is currently in the application review phase for the US DOE equivalent of OSHA-VPP ``merit`` program status. The program involves setting up a team consisting of industrial safety and health (industrial hygienists) professionals, members of the maintenance and operations work force, and facility management. This team performs a workplace hazard characterization/analysis and then applies a risk assessment approach to prioritize observed and potential hazards in need of abatement. The process involves using checklists that serve as a guide for evaluation/inspection criteria. Forms are used to document meetings, field observations, instrument calibration and performance testing. Survey maps are generated to document quality records of measurement results. A risk assessment code matrix with a keyword index was developed to facilitate consistency. The end product is useful in communicating hazards to facility management, health and safety professionals, audit/appraisal groups, and most importantly, facility workers.

  17. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-09-23

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities.

  18. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  19. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    SciTech Connect

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  20. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

  1. Fast Risk Assessment Software For Natural Hazard Phenomena Using Georeference Population And Infrastructure Data Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, J. M.; Pastor Paz, J. E.; Erazo, C.; Marrero, M.; Aguilar, J.; Yepes, H. A.; Estrella, C. M.; Mothes, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) requires an integrated multi-hazard assessment approach towards natural hazard mitigation. In the case of volcanic risk, long term hazard maps are generally developed on a basis of the most probable scenarios (likelihood of occurrence) or worst cases. However, in the short-term, expected scenarios may vary substantially depending on the monitoring data or new knowledge. In this context, the time required to obtain and process data is critical for optimum decision making. Availability of up-to-date volcanic scenarios is as crucial as it is to have this data accompanied by efficient estimations of their impact among populations and infrastructure. To address this impact estimation during volcanic crises, or other natural hazards, a web interface has been developed to execute an ANSI C application. This application allows one to compute - in a matter of seconds - the demographic and infrastructure impact that any natural hazard may cause employing an overlay-layer approach. The web interface is tailored to users involved in the volcanic crises management of Cotopaxi volcano (Ecuador). The population data base and the cartographic basis used are of public domain, published by the National Office of Statistics of Ecuador (INEC, by its Spanish acronym). To run the application and obtain results the user is expected to upload a raster file containing information related to the volcanic hazard or any other natural hazard, and determine categories to group population or infrastructure potentially affected. The results are displayed in a user-friendly report.

  2. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  3. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  4. ALTERNATE APPROACH TO HAZARD CATEGORIZATION FOR SALTSTONE FACILITY AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, B.

    2009-04-28

    The Saltstone Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) was originally segmented into two segments: the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Based on the inventory of radionuclides available for release the SPF and SDF were categorized as Nonreactor Hazard Category (HC)-3. The hazard categorization recognized the SDF will contain contributions of radionuclides which would exceed the HC-2 Threshold Quantity (TQ) in the form of grout. However it was determined not to impact the facility hazard categorization based on the grout being in a solid, monolithic form which was not easily dispersible. But, the impact of a quantity of unset grout expected to be present at the vault following operation of the process was not addressed. A Potential Inadequacy in Safety Analysis (PISA) was later issued based on the hazard categorization determination for the facility not addressing unset grout. This initiated a re-evaluation of the accident scenarios within the hazards analysis. During this re-evaluation, the segmentation of the facility was challenged based on the potential interaction between facility segments; specifically, the leachate return line and the grout transfer line, which were considered separate segments, are located in close proximity at one point. such that for certain events (NPH as well as External Vehicle Impact) both could be damaged simultaneously and spill contents on the ground that could commingle. This would violate the guideline for segmentation. Therefore, the Hazard Categorization (HC) was reevaluated based on the facility being a single segment and including the additional unset grout as part of total inventory. This total inventory far exceeded the limit for HC-2 TQ and made the facility's initial categorization as HC-2. However, alternative analysis methodology based on credible release fractions allowed in DOE-STD-1027-92 (Ref.1) showed that the Saltstone facility could still be categorized as Hazard Category

  5. Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

    2015-06-01

    For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there is currently an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk-reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does not, however, make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard and flood fatality hazard.

  6. Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

    2015-01-01

    For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there currently is an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does, however, not make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard respectively flood fatality hazard.

  7. An assessment of the potential of earth observation data to detect and monitor storm cells associated with natural hazards - an application to an extreme weather event in southeastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrakou, T.; Cartalis, C.

    2015-04-01

    Storm cells that evolve in Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) can be recognised with the use of satellite images. In this study, Meteosat images are used for the early detection and monitoring of the evolution of storm cells associated with MCSs. The developed methodology is based on the estimation of the "Airmass" and "Convective storm" composites, at fifteen minutes intervals. The methodology was applied on a selected four-day case study in February 2013, when a depression was developed over Africa and moved across the Mediterranean resulting in deep convection along its trajectory and in an extreme weather event (heavy rainfall associated with severe flooding) at the wider urban agglomeration of Athens. The produced composites detect potential vorticity (PV) anomaly related to cyclogenesis and increase the potential to detect and monitor storm cells associated with natural hazards.

  8. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families. PMID:21248929

  9. Concentrations and hazard assessment of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and mercury in fish species from the Upper Thames: river pollution and its potential effects on top predators.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, N; Gazzard, D; Scholey, G; Macdonald, D W

    2003-01-01

    Aquatic environmental contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals in the Upper Thames catchment area, UK were assessed on the basis of fish muscle analysis in wet weight, and their effects on top predators were assessed. The contamination levels of lead, cadmium, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites were found to be low (undetectable) in the area. Average mercury contamination level varied between 55 and 342 microg/kg, dieldrin between less than 0.09 and 36.8, lindane between < 0.08 and 4.94, and PCBs between < 0.77 and 3.32. Eels (Anguilla anguilla) had always much higher concentration of OCPs compared to the other fishes from the same monitoring sites. The environmental contamination level of PCBs may be partly associated with industrial and human activities, however, it was difficult to find such associations for mercury level. The hazard indices (HI) of both dieldrin and PCBs were below 1 for mink (Mustela vison). However, the HI of mercury of the all fish species from all monitoring sites are above 1 for mink. These contamination levels may be less harmful to polecats (Mustela putorius), but more so to otters (Lutra lutra) as their diets are dominated by aquatic prey. PMID:12656245

  10. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS, T.B.

    2000-03-16

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Hazard Analysis to support the final CSB Safety Analysis Report and documents the results. This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis process identified hazardous conditions and material-at-risk, determined causes for potential accidents, identified preventive and mitigative features, and qualitatively estimated the frequencies and consequences of specific occurrences. The hazard analysis was performed by a team of cognizant CSB operations and design personnel, safety analysts familiar with the CSB, and technical experts in specialty areas. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process. Attachment A provides two lists of hazard analysis team members and describes the background and experience of each. The first list is a complete list of the hazard analysis team members that have been involved over the two-year long process. The second list is a subset of the first list and consists of those hazard analysis team members that reviewed and agreed to the final hazard analysis documentation. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process involving formal facilitated group sessions and independent hazard and accident analysis work. The hazard analysis process led to the selection of candidate accidents for further quantitative analysis. New information relative to the hazards, discovered during the accident analysis, was incorporated into the hazard analysis data in order to compile a complete profile of facility hazards. Through this process, the results of the hazard and accident analyses led directly to the identification of safety structures, systems, and components, technical safety requirements, and other

  11. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  12. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk from Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water at Beale Air Force Base in California:Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2001-05-24

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability within a systematic probabilistic framework to integrate the joint effects on risk of distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such a framework was used to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub G}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA{sub c} based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and 10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and 10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely to occur due to any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The systematic probabilistic framework illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

  13. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk From Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water Beale Air Force Base in California: Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K.T.

    1999-09-29

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability after applying a unified probabilistic approach to the distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such an approach was applied to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub g}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA, based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and <10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and >10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely occur due any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The unified approach illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

  14. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  15. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  16. Fibre optic sensors for mine hazard detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, C.; Wei, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Huo, D.; Shang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ning, Y.

    2009-07-01

    We report the development of a comprehensive safety monitoring solution for coal mines. A number of fibre optic sensors have been developed and deployed for safety monitoring of mine roof integrity and hazardous gases. The FOS-based mine hazard detection system offers unique advantages of intrinsic safety, multi-location and multi-parameter monitoring. They can be potentially used to build expert systems for mine hazard early detection and prevention.

  17. Hazard proximities of childhood cancers in Great Britain from 1953-80.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G; Gilman, E A

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Firstly, to examine relationships between the birth and death addresses of children dying from leukaemia and cancer in Great Britain, and the sites of potential environmental hazards; and secondly to measure relative case densities close to, and at increasing distances from, different hazard types. DESIGN: Home address postcodes (PCs) and their map coordinates were identified at birth and at death in children who died from leukaemia or cancer. Potentially hazardous industrial addresses and PCs were listed from business and other directories, and map coordinates obtained from the Central Postcode Directory or else located directly on Ordnance Survey (OS) maps. Railway lines and motorways were digitised from OS maps. Numbers of deaths (and births) at successive radial distances from these hazards were counted and compared with expected numbers. The latter were based on a count of all PCs at similar distances. Relative case density ratios at successive distances from the hazards were obtained from observed and expected numbers, aggregated over similar sites. This was repeated for different hazard types and results were tested for evidence of systematic centrifugal case density gradients. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: All 22,458 children dying from leukaemia or cancer aged 0-15 years, in England, Wales, and Scotland, between 1953 and 1980. MAIN RESULTS: Relative excesses of leukaemias and of solid cancers were found near the following: (1) oil refineries, major oil storage installations, railside oil distribution terminals and factories making bitumen products; (2) motor car factories, coach builders, and car body repairers; (3) major users of petroleum products including manufacturers of solvents, paint sprayers, fibreglass fabricators, paint and varnish makers, plastics and detergent manufacturers, and galvanisers; (4) users of kilns and furnaces including steelworks, power stations, galvanisers, cement makers, brickworks, crematoria and aluminium, zinc

  18. A regional assessment of potential environmental hazards to and limitations on petroleum development of the Southeastern United States Atlantic continental shelf, slope, and rise, offshore North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popenoe, Peter; Coward, E.L.; Cashman, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    have taken place in two large areas of the Continental Slope. Seismic-reflection profiles of the southern area, centered on the lower slope at 1at. 33?N., long. 76?W., show a 80-m-hlgh scarp in which bedding has been truncated. Rotational slump faults are present in this area on the middle and upper slope. Sidescan images show that large blocks have slid downslope from the scarp face, furrowing the bottom. High-resolution (3.5-kHz) records show that the rotational slump faults upslope are active. The association of these slumps and the scarps with salt diapirs suggests subsidence accompanying salt tectonism as the cause. Seismic-reflection records over the northern area, at about fat. 36?20'N., long. 74?40'W., show two steep scarps, each about 225 m high on the upper and middle-slope. These slump scars and an absence of Pleistocene sediments indicate that large blocks of the slope have been removed by slumping. The slope north of fat. 35?N. is highly dissected by canyons. Mid-range sidescan-sonar records suggest that the canyons are the product of mass wasting and have probably formed largely by slumping. Sediments in a wide zone on the upper rise are highly disturbed and faulted owing to salt tectonism. Twenty-six salt diapirs are mapped, as is a zone of disturbed bottom related to salt tectonism. An area of frozen bottom (clathrate) under which shallow free gas is trapped underlies the outer Blake Plateau, the slope, and the upper rise. Although the hazards of drilling into or through clathrates have not been tested, the release of gas from beneath this frozen layer may prove to be a primary hazard to exploration.

  19. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds.

    PubMed

    Alves, Vinicius M; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using Random Forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers was 71-88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR Toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the Scorecard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. PMID:25560674

  20. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using random forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers were 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the ScoreCard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. PMID:25560674

  1. Hazard Interactions and Interaction Networks (Cascades) within Multi-Hazard Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Joel; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2016-04-01

    Here we combine research and commentary to reinforce the importance of integrating hazard interactions and interaction networks (cascades) into multi-hazard methodologies. We present a synthesis of the differences between 'multi-layer single hazard' approaches and 'multi-hazard' approaches that integrate such interactions. This synthesis suggests that ignoring interactions could distort management priorities, increase vulnerability to other spatially relevant hazards or underestimate disaster risk. We proceed to present an enhanced multi-hazard framework, through the following steps: (i) describe and define three groups (natural hazards, anthropogenic processes and technological hazards/disasters) as relevant components of a multi-hazard environment; (ii) outline three types of interaction relationship (triggering, increased probability, and catalysis/impedance); and (iii) assess the importance of networks of interactions (cascades) through case-study examples (based on literature, field observations and semi-structured interviews). We further propose visualisation frameworks to represent these networks of interactions. Our approach reinforces the importance of integrating interactions between natural hazards, anthropogenic processes and technological hazards/disasters into enhanced multi-hazard methodologies. Multi-hazard approaches support the holistic assessment of hazard potential, and consequently disaster risk. We conclude by describing three ways by which understanding networks of interactions contributes to the theoretical and practical understanding of hazards, disaster risk reduction and Earth system management. Understanding interactions and interaction networks helps us to better (i) model the observed reality of disaster events, (ii) constrain potential changes in physical and social vulnerability between successive hazards, and (iii) prioritise resource allocation for mitigation and disaster risk reduction.

  2. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, L.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the natural hazards literature indicate that many natural processes, including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow and earthquakes, show evidence of nonstationary behavior such as trends in magnitudes through time. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on partial duration series (PDS) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance is constant through time. Given evidence of trends and the consequent expected growth in devastating impacts from natural hazards across the world, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (x) with its failure time series (t), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose PDS magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Poisson-GP model. We derive a 2-parameter Generalized Pareto hazard model and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series x, with corresponding failure time series t, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards.

  3. Applications of a Forward-Looking Interferometer for the On-board Detection of Aviation Weather Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Leanne; Gimmestad, Gary; Smith, William; Kireev, Stanislav; Cornman, Larry B.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Tsoucalas, George

    2008-01-01

    The Forward-Looking Interferometer (FLI) is a new instrument concept for obtaining measurements of potential weather hazards to alert flight crews. The FLI concept is based on high-resolution Infrared (IR) Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) technologies that have been developed for satellite remote sensing, and which have also been applied to the detection of aerosols and gases for other purposes. It is being evaluated for multiple hazards including clear air turbulence (CAT), volcanic ash, wake vortices, low slant range visibility, dry wind shear, and icing, during all phases of flight. Previous sensitivity and characterization studies addressed the phenomenology that supports detection and mitigation by the FLI. Techniques for determining the range, and hence warning time, were demonstrated for several of the hazards, and a table of research instrument parameters was developed for investigating all of the hazards discussed above. This work supports the feasibility of detecting multiple hazards with an FLI multi-hazard airborne sensor, and for producing enhanced IR images in reduced visibility conditions; however, further research must be performed to develop a means to estimate the intensities of the hazards posed to an aircraft and to develop robust algorithms to relate sensor measurables to hazard levels. In addition, validation tests need to be performed with a prototype system.

  4. The Hazard Notification System (HANS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedigar, S. F.; Venezky, D. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) has developed a Hazard Notification System (HANS) for distributing volcanic activity information collected by scientists to airlines, emergency services, and the general public. In the past year, data from HANS have been used by airlines to make decisions about diverting or canceling flights during the eruption of Mount Redoubt. HANS was developed to provide a single system that each of the five U.S. volcano observatories could use for communicating and storing volcanic information about the 160+ potentially active U.S. volcanoes. The data that cover ten tables and nearly 100 fields are now stored in similar formats, and the information can be released in styles requested by our agency partners, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Currently, HANS has about 4500 reports stored; on average, two - three reports are added daily. HANS (at its most basic form) consists of a user interface for entering data into one of many release types (Daily Status Reports, Weekly Updates, Volcano Activity Notifications, etc.); a database holding previous releases as well as observatory information such as email address lists and volcano boilerplates; and a transmission system for formatting releases and sending them out by email or other web related system. The user interface to HANS is completely web based, providing access to our observatory scientists from any online PC. The underlying database stores the observatory information and drives the observatory and program websites' dynamic updates and archived information releases. HANS also runs scripts for generating several different feeds including the program home page Volcano Status Map. Each observatory has the capability of running an instance of HANS. There are currently three instances of HANS and each instance is synchronized to all other instances using a master-slave environment. Information can be entered on any node; slave nodes transmit data to the master node

  5. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  6. Satellite image collection modeling for large area hazard emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shufan; Hodgson, Michael E.

    2016-08-01

    Timely collection of critical hazard information is the key to intelligent and effective hazard emergency response decisions. Satellite remote sensing imagery provides an effective way to collect critical information. Natural hazards, however, often have large impact areas - larger than a single satellite scene. Additionally, the hazard impact area may be discontinuous, particularly in flooding or tornado hazard events. In this paper, a spatial optimization model is proposed to solve the large area satellite image acquisition planning problem in the context of hazard emergency response. In the model, a large hazard impact area is represented as multiple polygons and image collection priorities for different portion of impact area are addressed. The optimization problem is solved with an exact algorithm. Application results demonstrate that the proposed method can address the satellite image acquisition planning problem. A spatial decision support system supporting the optimization model was developed. Several examples of image acquisition problems are used to demonstrate the complexity of the problem and derive optimized solutions.

  7. 77 FR 17573 - Hazard Communication

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... 1983 and covered the manufacturing sector of industry (48 FR 53280, Nov. 25, 1983). (Please note: The... where employees are potentially exposed to hazardous chemicals (52 FR 31852, Aug. 24, 1987). Although... actions, the rule has been fully enforced in all industries regulated by OSHA since March 17, 1989 (54...

  8. Hazardous and Mixed Waste Transportation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hohnstreiter, G. F.; Glass, R. E.; McAllaster, M. E.; Nigrey, P. J.; Trennel, A. J.; Yoshimura, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas.

  9. PROTECTING HEALTH AND SAFETY AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cleanup operations at inactive hazardous waste sites are now underway throughout the country. Thousands of workers are involved in the national effort. Because of the potential hazards inherent in such operations, an interagency committee, consisting of the National Institute for...

  10. Considering evidence: The approach taken by the Hazardous Substances Advisory Committee in the UK.

    PubMed

    Collins, Chris D; Baddeley, Michelle; Clare, Gill; Murphy, Richard; Owens, Susan; Rocks, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The Hazardous Substances Advisory Committee (HSAC) provides expert advice to UK officials, Ministers and other relevant bodies on the protection of the environment, and human health via the environment, from potentially hazardous substances and articles. Hazardous substances are often the subject of controversy, on which individuals, and different groups in society, hold divergent views. This paper details the approach taken by HSAC when considering the evidence to provide advice on hazardous substances. Firstly HSAC reviews the range of evidence and determines its quality considering: transparency of aims, the methodology and results, completeness, independent review and accessibility. HSAC does not follow one explicit methodology as the wide range of hazardous substances we consider means they need to be addressed on a case by case basis. Most notably HSAC considers the evidence in the wider context, being aware of factors that influence individuals in their decision making when receiving a HSAC opinion e.g. trust in the source of the evidence, defensibility, conformity to a 'world view' and framing. HSACs also reflect on its own perspectives with the aim of addressing bias by the diversity of its membership. The Committee's intention, in adopting this rounded approach, is to reach opinions that are robust, relevant and defensible. PMID:27106133

  11. Constraints on Long-Term Seismic Hazard From Vulnerable Stalagmites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribovszki, Katalin; Bokelmann, Götz; Mónus, Péter; Kovács, Károly; Konecny, Pavel; Lednicka, Marketa; Bednárik, Martin; Brimich, Ladislav

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes hit urban centers in Europe infrequently, but occasionally with disastrous effects. This raises the important issue for society, how to react to the natural hazard: potential damages are huge, but infrastructure costs for addressing these hazards are huge as well. Furthermore, seismic hazard is only one of the many hazards facing society. Societal means need to be distributed in a reasonable manner - to assure that all of these hazards (natural as well as societal) are addressed appropriately. Obtaining an unbiased view of seismic hazard (and risk) is very important therefore. In principle, the best way to test PSHA models is to compare with observations that are entirely independent of the procedure used to produce the PSHA models. Arguably, the most valuable information in this context should be information on long-term hazard, namely maximum intensities (or magnitudes) occuring over time intervals that are at least as long as a seismic cycle - if that exists. Such information would be very valuable, even if it concerned only a single site, namely that of a particularly sensitive infrastructure. Such a request may seem hopeless - but it is not. Long-term information can in principle be gained from intact stalagmites in natural caves. These have survived all earthquakes that have occurred, over thousands of years - depending on the age of the stalagmite. Their "survival" requires that the horizontal ground acceleration has never exceeded a certain critical value within that period. We are focusing here on case studies in Austria, which has moderate seismicity, but a well-documented history of major earthquake-induced damage, e.g., Villach in 1348 and 1690, Vienna in 1590, Leoben in 1794, and Innsbruck in 1551, 1572, and 1589. Seismic intensities have reached levels up to 10. It is clearly important to know which "worst-case" damages to expect. We have identified sets of particularly sensitive stalagmites in the general vicinity of two major cities in

  12. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SPILLS AND RESPONSES FOR MUNICIPALITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an assessment of the effect of spills of certain hazardous materials on the operation of biological wastewater treatment plants. The results of the report may be used by treatment plant operators to assess what the effects of potential hazardous material spill...

  13. Radiation Hazard Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA technology has made commercially available a new, inexpensive, conveniently-carried device for protection, of people exposed to potentially dangerous levels of microwave radiation. Microwaves are radio emissions of extremely high frequency. They can be hazardous but the degree of hazard is not yet well understood. Generally, it is believed that low intensity radiation of short duration is not harmful but that exposure to high levels can induce deep internal burns, affecting the circulatory and nervous systems, and particularly the eyes. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an allowable safe threshold of exposure. However, people working near high intensity sources of microwave energy-for example, radar antennas and television transmitters-may be unknowingly exposed to radiation levels beyond the safe limit. This poses not only a personal safety problem but also a problem for employers in terms of productivity loss, workman's compensation claims and possible liability litigation. Earlier-developed monitoring devices which warn personnel of dangerous radiation levels have their shortcomings. They can be cumbersome and awkward to use while working. They also require continual visual monitoring to determine if a person is in a dangerous area of radiation, and they are relatively expensive, another deterrent to their widespread adoption. In response to the need for a cheaper and more effective warning system, Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed, under NASA auspices, a new, battery-powered Microwave Radiation Hazard Detector. To bring the product to the commercial market, California Institute Research Foundation, the patent holder, granted an exclusive license to Cicoil Corporation, Chatsworth, California, an electronic components manufacturer.

  14. Optical radiation hazards analysis of ultraviolet headlamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliney, David H.; Fast, Peder; Ricksand, Anders

    1995-08-01

    The potential hazards to the eye and skin associated with the use of UV-emitting automotive headlamps are considered. Wide-scale use of high-beam, near-UV headlamps to permit viewing of fluorescence in clothes and fluorescent road markers at great distances can increase automotive safety; however, the potential hazards from exposure of persons to UV radiation must be evaluated. From the study we conclude that such headlamps can be safely designed to preclude human exposure to potentially hazardous levels of UV radiation.

  15. Increasing Resiliency to Natural Hazards--A Strategic Plan for the Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Lucy; Bernknopf, Richard; Cannon, Susan; Cox, Dale A.; Gaydos, Len; Keeley, Jon; Kohler, Monica; Lee, Homa; Ponti, Daniel; Ross, Stephanie; Schwarzbach, Steven; Shulters, Michael; Ward, A. Wesley; Wein, Anne

    2007-01-01

    planning sessions was to determine the external organizations' needs for mitigation efforts before potential natural hazard events, and response efforts during and after the event. On the basis of input from workshop participants, four priority areas were identified for future research to address. They are (1) helping decision makers design planning scenarios, (2) improving upon the mapping of multiple hazards in urban areas, (3) providing real-time information from monitoring networks, and (4) integrating information in a risk and decision-making analysis. Towards this end, short-term and out-year goals have been outlined with the priorities in mind. First-year goals are (1) to engage the user community to establish the structures and processes for communications and interactions, (2) to develop a program to create scenarios of anticipated disasters, beginning in the first year with a scenario of a southern San Andreas earthquake that triggers secondary hazards, (3) to compile existing datasets of geospatial data, and (4) to target research efforts to support more complete and robust products in future years. Both the first-year and out-year goals have been formulated around a working-group structure that builds on existing research strengths within the USGS. The project is intended to demonstrate how developments in methodology and products can lead to improvement in our management of natural hazards in an urban environment for application across the Nation.

  16. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

  17. How can ab initio simulations address risks in nanotech?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Amanda S.

    2009-06-01

    Discussions of the potential risks and hazards associated with nanomaterials and nanoparticles tend to focus on the need for further experiments. However, theoretical and computational nanoscientists could also contribute by making their calculations more relevant to research into this area.

  18. Hazard & Operability Study for Removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel from the 324 Building

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KEUREN, J.C.

    2002-05-07

    A hazard and operability (HAZOP) study was conducted to examine the hazards associated with the removal of the spent nuclear fuel from the 324 Building. Fifty-nine potentially hazardous conditions were identified.

  19. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  20. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  2. Handling Hazardous Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, James; Piverotto, John

    1990-01-01

    Describes a 16-hour course in hazard communication for vocational instructors, which teaches the proper use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials in the laboratory as well as techniques for teaching safety. (SK)

  3. Worker responses to workplace hazards.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J C

    1987-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives in occupational safety and health have emphasized strategies that provide workers with information about workplace exposures. It is not clear, however, what effect this new information has had or will have on worker self-help initiatives. This paper analyzes individual and collective worker responses to information on job hazards using five sources of data on workers and industries in the United States. Levels of expressed dissatisfaction, discharges for cause, and strike frequencies are found to be significantly higher in hazardous jobs than in safe jobs. Individual quit strategies are not consistently found to be associated with higher hazard levels. These findings have potentially important implications for the design of future information-oriented health and safety policies. PMID:3429802

  4. New Developments in Natural Hazard Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stötter, J.; Meißl, G.; Weck-Hannemann, H.; Veulliet, E.

    2003-04-01

    Natural hazard processes such as avalanches, debris flows, rockfalls, slides, slow mass movements and floods inherently threaten areas used for settlements, economic activities or transport in mountain regions like the Alps. In the recent past an increasing demand for new settlement, traffic and other land use areas has arisen, resulting in intensified utilization of land known to be threatened by natural hazard processes. In the same time a decrease of individual responsibility can be observed, leading to a growing call for protection by public authorities. As public financial resources become more limited in these days and the outsourcing of areas of traditional government responsibility increases, there is an urgent need for new, more effective and efficient strategies in natural hazard management, involving all relevant actors. To meet these new demands in dealing with natural hazards, the "alpS - Centre of Natural Hazard Management" was founded in October 2002 in Innsbruck/Austria, supported by the Austrian Government. Central goal of the alpS - Centre is to elaborate the basis for future sustainable safety of the alpine lebensraum. The following objectives will be addressed by an interdisciplinary team: - Systematic compilation and evaluation of the present situation. - Developing a more efficient and effective way of natural hazard management. - Implementation of a paradigm change. - Development of strategies for natural hazard management under changed frame conditions in the future (global change). Strong emphasis is laid on research on the socio-economic aspects of Natural Hazard Management, which have been more or less neglected up to now.

  5. Integrating Real-time Earthquakes into Natural Hazard Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, K. P.; Benz, H. M.; Whitlock, J. S.; Bittenbinder, A. N.; Bogaert, B. B.

    2001-12-01

    Natural hazard courses are playing an increasingly important role in college and university earth science curricula. Students' intrinsic curiosity about the subject and the potential to make the course relevant to the interests of both science and non-science students make natural hazards courses popular additions to a department's offerings. However, one vital aspect of "real-life" natural hazard management that has not translated well into the classroom is the real-time nature of both events and response. The lack of a way to entrain students into the event/response mode has made implementing such real-time activities into classroom activities problematic. Although a variety of web sites provide near real-time postings of natural hazards, students essentially learn of the event after the fact. This is particularly true for earthquakes and other events with few precursors. As a result, the "time factor" and personal responsibility associated with natural hazard response is lost to the students. We have integrated the real-time aspects of earthquake response into two natural hazard courses at Penn State (a 'general education' course for non-science majors, and an upper-level course for science majors) by implementing a modification of the USGS Earthworm system. The Earthworm Database Management System (E-DBMS) catalogs current global seismic activity. It provides earthquake professionals with real-time email/cell phone alerts of global seismic activity and access to the data for review/revision purposes. We have modified this system so that real-time response can be used to address specific scientific, policy, and social questions in our classes. As a prototype of using the E-DBMS in courses, we have established an Earthworm server at Penn State. This server receives national and global seismic network data and, in turn, transmits the tailored alerts to "on-duty" students (e-mail, pager/cell phone notification). These students are responsible to react to the alarm

  6. Landslide Hazards - A National Threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    Landslides occur and can cause damage in all 50 States. Severe storms, earthquakes, volcanic activity, coastal wave attack, and wildfires can cause widespread slope instability. Landslide danger may be high even as emergency personnel are providing rescue and recovery services. To address landslide hazards, several questions must be considered: Where and when will landslides occur? How big will the landslides be? How fast and how far will they move? What areas will the landslides affect or damage? How frequently do landslides occur in a given area? Answers to these questions are needed to make accurate landslide hazard maps and forecasts of landslide occurrence, and to provide information on how to avoid or mitigate landslide impacts. The U.S. Geological Survey develops methods to answer these questions to help protect U.S. communities from the dangers of landslides.

  7. Virtual reality and telepresence control of robots used in hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, L.E.; Pittman, P.C.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to explore the application of teleoperation and telepresence control to robots in hazardous environments at Los Alamos. The primary use of this technology would be in a glove-box type operation potentially allowing operators to work on hazardous materials while being completely removed from the danger of exposure in situations that are difficult to completely automate due to the highly unstructured environments or off-normal conditions. This project focused on determining the most appropriate tools and methods that could be applied in the near future resulting in a reasonably inexpensive working teleoperation or telepresence control system for industrial robots used in the handling of hazardous materials. Several topics had to be addressed to perform this task including input devices, control systems, robot manipulators, and simulation techniques or packages. Much of the work is still in the developmental stage and hardware will follow -- providing a usable tool for glove box robot control.

  8. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  9. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, L. K.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Generalized Pareto (GP) model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series X, with corresponding failure time series T, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with rich opportunities for future extensions.

  10. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-11

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field ofmore » hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. As a result, our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.« less

  11. Hazardous Waste Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generate approximately 1.6 million tons of hazardous household waste every year. When most people think of hazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances…

  12. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS IN THE OFFSHORE ENVIRONMENT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Robert A.; Basham, Peter W.

    1985-01-01

    This report discusses earthquake effects and potential hazards in the marine environment, describes and illustrates methods for the evaluation of earthquake hazards, and briefly reviews strategies for mitigating hazards. The report is broadly directed toward engineers, scientists, and others engaged in developing offshore resources. The continental shelves have become a major frontier in the search for new petroleum resources. Much of the current exploration is in areas of moderate to high earthquake activity. If the resources in these areas are to be developed economically and safely, potential earthquake hazards must be identified and mitigated both in planning and regulating activities and in designing, constructing, and operating facilities. Geologic earthquake effects that can be hazardous to marine facilities and operations include surface faulting, tectonic uplift and subsidence, seismic shaking, sea-floor failures, turbidity currents, and tsunamis.

  13. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS: DRY-DEPOSITION PHENOMENA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dry-deposition rates were evaluated for two hazardous organic air pollutants, nitrobenzene and perchloroethylene, to determine their potential for removal from the atmosphere to three building material surfaces, cement, tar paper, and vinyl asbestos tile. Dry-deposition experimen...

  14. Potential hazards of air pollutant emissions from unconventional oil and natural gas operations on the respiratory health of children and infants.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ellen; Hays, Jake; Dyrszka, Larysa; Rodriguez, Brian; Cox, Caroline; Huffling, Katie; Bushkin-Bedient, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    Research on air pollutant emissions associated with unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development has grown significantly in recent years. Empirical investigations have focused on the identification and measurement of oil and gas air pollutants [e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), methane] and the influence of UOG on local and regional ambient air quality (e.g. tropospheric ozone). While more studies to better characterize spatial and temporal trends in exposure among children and newborns near UOG sites are needed, existing research suggests that exposure to air pollutants emitted during lifecycle operations can potentially lead to adverse respiratory outcomes in this population. Children are known to be at a greater risk from exposure to air pollutants, which can impair lung function and neurodevelopment, or exacerbate existing conditions, such as asthma, because the respiratory system is particularly vulnerable during development in-utero, the postnatal period, and early childhood. In this article, we review the literature relevant to respiratory risks of UOG on infants and children. Existing epidemiology studies document the impact of air pollutant exposure on children in other contexts and suggest impacts near UOG. Research is sparse on long-term health risks associated with frequent acute exposures - especially in children - hence our interpretation of these findings may be conservative. Many data gaps remain, but existing data support precautionary measures to protect the health of infants and children. PMID:27171386

  15. Landscape Hazards in Yukon Communities: Geological Mapping for Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, K.; Kinnear, L.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change is considered to be a significant challenge for northern communities where the effects of increased temperature and climate variability are beginning to affect infrastructure and livelihoods (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, 2004). Planning for and adapting to ongoing and future changes in climate will require the identification and characterization of social, economic, cultural, political and biophysical vulnerabilities. This pilot project addresses physical landscape vulnerabilities in two communities in the Yukon Territory through community-scale landscape hazard mapping and focused investigations of community permafrost conditions. Landscape hazards are identified by combining pre-existing data from public utilities and private-sector consultants with new geophysical techniques (ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity), shallow drilling, surficial geological mapping, and permafrost characterization. Existing landscape vulnerabilities are evaluated based on their potential for hazard (low, medium or high) under current climate conditions, as well as under future climate scenarios. Detailed hazard maps and landscape characterizations for both communities will contribute to overall adaptation plans and allow for informed development, planning and mitigation of potentially threatening hazards in and around the communities.

  16. Automated Hazard Analysis

    2003-06-26

    The Automated Hazard Analysis (AHA) application is a software tool used to conduct job hazard screening and analysis of tasks to be performed in Savannah River Site facilities. The AHA application provides a systematic approach to the assessment of safety and environmental hazards associated with specific tasks, and the identification of controls regulations, and other requirements needed to perform those tasks safely. AHA is to be integrated into existing Savannah River site work control andmore » job hazard analysis processes. Utilization of AHA will improve the consistency and completeness of hazard screening and analysis, and increase the effectiveness of the work planning process.« less

  17. The Integrated Hazard Analysis Integrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Massie, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Hazard analysis addresses hazards that arise in the design, development, manufacturing, construction, facilities, transportation, operations and disposal activities associated with hardware, software, maintenance, operations and environments. An integrated hazard is an event or condition that is caused by or controlled by multiple systems, elements, or subsystems. Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is especially daunting and ambitious for large, complex systems such as NASA s Constellation program which incorporates program, systems and element components that impact others (International Space Station, public, International Partners, etc.). An appropriate IHA should identify all hazards, causes, controls and verifications used to mitigate the risk of catastrophic loss of crew, vehicle and/or mission. Unfortunately, in the current age of increased technology dependence, there is the tendency to sometimes overlook the necessary and sufficient qualifications of the integrator, that is, the person/team that identifies the parts, analyzes the architectural structure, aligns the analysis with the program plan and then communicates/coordinates with large and small components, each contributing necessary hardware, software and/or information to prevent catastrophic loss. As viewed from both Challenger and Columbia accidents, lack of appropriate communication, management errors and lack of resources dedicated to safety were cited as major contributors to these fatalities. From the accident reports, it would appear that the organizational impact of managers, integrators and safety personnel contributes more significantly to mission success and mission failure than purely technological components. If this is so, then organizations who sincerely desire mission success must put as much effort in selecting managers and integrators as they do when designing the hardware, writing the software code and analyzing competitive proposals. This paper will discuss the necessary and

  18. REASSESSMENT OF TSUNAMI HAZARD IN THE CITY OF IQUIQUE, CHILE, AFTER THE PISAGUA EARTHQUAKE OF APRIL 2014 In the present contribution, we will reassess the tsunami hazard for the North of Chile taking into account the occurrence of the recent events, focusing on the potential tsunami impact that a worse case scenario could produce in the city of Iquique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cienfuegos, R.; Suarez, L.; Aránguiz, R.; Gonzalez, G.; González-Carrasco, J. F.; Catalan, P. A.; Dominguez, J. C.; Tomita, T.

    2014-12-01

    On April 1st2014 a 8.1 Mw Earthquake occurred at 23:46:50 UTC (20:46:50 local time) with its epicenter located off the coast of Pisagua, 68 km north of the city of Iquique (An et al., 2014). The potential risk of earthquake and tsunami in this area was widely recognized by the scientific community (Chlieh et al., 2004). Nevertheless, the energy released by this earthquake and the associated slip distribution was much less than expected. In the present contribution, we will reassess the tsunami hazard for the North of Chile taking into account the occurrence of the recent events, focusing on the potential impact that a worse case scenario could produce in the city of Iquique. For that purpose, an updated tsunami source will be derived using updated information on the seismic and co-seismic tectonic displacements that is available from historical, geological information, and the dense GPS and seismometer networks available in the North of Chile. The updated tsunami source will be used to generate initial conditions for a tsunami and analyze the following aspects: i) large scale hydrodynamics, ii) arrival times, maximum flow depths, and inundation area, iii) potential impact on the port of Iquique, and more specifically on the container's drift that the tsunami could produce. This analysis is essential to reassess tsunami hazard in Iquique, evaluate evacuation plans and mitigation options regarding the port operation. Tsunami propagation and inundation will be conducted using the STOC model (Tomita and Honda, 2010), and a high resolution Lidar topographic database. ReferencesAn, C. et al. (2014). Tsunami source and its validation of the 2014 Iquique, Chile Earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL060567. Chlieh, et al. (2004). Crustal deformation and fault slip during the seismic cycle in the north Chile subduction zone, from GPS and INSAR observations, Geophys J. Int., 158(2), 695-711, 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02326.x. Tomita, T., & Honda, K. (2010

  19. Reproductive hazards in the microelectronics industry

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, L.; Swan, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    There has been increased awareness of the potential for occupational and environmental exposures to hazardous substances to adversely affect reproductive outcome in men and women. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the clinician with some of the normal physiologic changes of pregnancy and how those may interact with working conditions in the electronics industry. It also reviews some of the data regarding potential reproductive hazards of substances and physical agents used in this industry. 11 references.

  20. Secondary impact hazard assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated