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Sample records for addressing social determinants

  1. Integrated Approaches to Address the Social Determinants of Health for Reducing Health Inequity

    PubMed Central

    Mitlin, Diana; Mulholland, Catherine; Hardoy, Ana; Stern, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    The social and physical environments have long since been recognized as important determinants of health. People in urban settings are exposed to a variety of health hazards that are interconnected with their health effects. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have underlined the multidimensional nature of poverty and the connections between health and social conditions and present an opportunity to move beyond narrow sectoral interventions and to develop comprehensive social responses and participatory processes that address the root causes of health inequity. Considering the complexity and magnitude of health, poverty, and environmental issues in cities, it is clear that improvements in health and health equity demand not only changes in the physical and social environment of cities, but also an integrated approach that takes into account the wider socioeconomic and contextual factors affecting health. Integrated or multilevel approaches should address not only the immediate, but also the underlying and particularly the fundamental causes at societal level of related health issues. The political and legal organization of the policy-making process has been identified as a major determinant of urban and global health, as a result of the role it plays in creating possibilities for participation, empowerment, and its influence on the content of public policies and the distribution of scarce resources. This paper argues that it is essential to adopt a long-term multisectoral approach to address the social determinants of health in urban settings. For comprehensive approaches to address the social determinants of health effectively and at multiple levels, they need explicitly to tackle issues of participation, governance, and the politics of power, decision making, and empowerment. PMID:17393340

  2. The first federal budget under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau: Addressing social determinants of health?

    PubMed

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A challenging budget environment during the Harper years has meant that crucial investments in the social determinants of health (SDHs) have increasingly been neglected. The tabling of what is widely considered a more progressive budget with expansionary fiscal elements under the new Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, raises the question as to what extent this budget invests in policy areas that are crucial for achieving a more equitable distribution in the social determinants of health, as promised in the Liberal party platform. In this commentary, we argue that the first Liberal budget represents a step in the right direction, but that this first step needs to be followed up with a sustained commitment to address the pervasive (and unfair) social inequalities that are the root cause of persistent health inequities in Canada. We conclude that the first Trudeau budget, while moving in the right direction, does not fully embody the sustained policy changes needed to effectively address SDHs, including a more expansive role for the federal government in the redistribution of income and wealth. PMID:27526222

  3. Addressing social determinants of health inequities through settings: a rapid review.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lareen; Baum, Fran; Javanparast, Sara; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Carlon, Leanne

    2015-09-01

    Changing settings to be more supportive of health and healthy choices is an optimum way to improve population health and health equity. This article uses the World Health Organisation's (1998) (WHO Health Promotion Glossary. WHO Collaborating Centre for Health Promotion, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Sydney, NSW) definition of settings approaches to health promotion as those focused on modifying settings' structure and nature. A rapid literature review was undertaken in the period June-August 2014, combining a systematically conducted search of two major databases with targeted searches. The review focused on identifying what works in settings approaches to address the social determinants of health inequities, using Fair Foundations: the VicHealth framework for health equity. This depicts the social determinants of health inequities as three layers of influence, and entry points for action to promote health equity. The evidence review identified work in 12 settings (cities; communities and neighbourhoods; educational; healthcare; online; faith-based; sports; workplaces; prisons; and nightlife, green and temporary settings), and work at the socioeconomic, political and cultural context layer of the Fair Foundations framework (governance, legislation, regulation and policy). It located a relatively small amount of evidence that settings themselves are being changed in ways which address the social determinants of health inequities. Rather, many initiatives focus on individual behaviour change within settings. There is considerable potential for health promotion professionals to focus settings work more upstream and so replace or integrate individual approaches with those addressing daily living conditions and higher level structures, and a significant need for programmes to be evaluated for differential equity impacts and published to provide a more solid evidence base. PMID:26420808

  4. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  5. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  6. Narratives and Images Used by Public Communication Campaigns Addressing Social Determinants of Health and Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Christopher E.; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lundell, Helen C.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have increasingly focused on how social determinants of health (SDH) influence health outcomes and disparities. They have also explored strategies for raising public awareness and mobilizing support for policies to address SDH, with particular attention to narrative and image-based information. These efforts will need to overcome low public awareness and concern about SDH; few organized campaigns; and limited descriptions of existing message content. To begin addressing these challenges, we analyzed characteristics of 58 narratives and 135 visual images disseminated by two national SDH awareness initiatives: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Commission to Build a Healthier America and the PBS-produced documentary film Unnatural Causes. Certain types of SDH, including income/wealth and one’s home and workplace environment, were emphasized more heavily than others. Solutions for addressing SDH often involved combinations of self-driven motivation (such as changes in personal health behaviors) along with externally-driven factors such as government policy related to urban revitilization. Images, especially graphs and charts, drew connections among SDH, health outcomes, and other variables, such as the relationship between mother’s education and infant mortality as well as the link between heart disease and education levels within communities. We discuss implications of these findings for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities in the US through narrative and visual means. PMID:23330220

  7. Narratives and images used by public communication campaigns addressing social determinants of health and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christopher E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lundell, Helen C

    2012-12-01

    Researchers have increasingly focused on how social determinants of health (SDH) influence health outcomes and disparities. They have also explored strategies for raising public awareness and mobilizing support for policies to address SDH, with particular attention to narrative and image-based information. These efforts will need to overcome low public awareness and concern about SDH; few organized campaigns; and limited descriptions of existing message content. To begin addressing these challenges, we analyzed characteristics of 58 narratives and 135 visual images disseminated by two national SDH awareness initiatives: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Commission to Build a Healthier America and the PBS-produced documentary film Unnatural Causes. Certain types of SDH, including income/wealth and one's home and workplace environment, were emphasized more heavily than others. Solutions for addressing SDH often involved combinations of self-driven motivation (such as changes in personal health behaviors) along with externally-driven factors such as government policy related to urban revitilization. Images, especially graphs and charts, drew connections among SDH, health outcomes, and other variables, such as the relationship between mother's education and infant mortality as well as the link between heart disease and education levels within communities. We discuss implications of these findings for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities in the US through narrative and visual means. PMID:23330220

  8. A Framework for Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines the social determinants of health as "the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live, and age, and the wider set of forces and systems shaping the conditions of daily life." These forces and systems include economic policies, development agendas, cultural and social norms, social policies,…

  9. The case for the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health to address gender identity.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Veale, Jaimie F

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the case of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which did not address gender identity in their final report. We argue that gender identity is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health (SDH) that results in health inequities. We identify right to health mechanisms, such as established human rights instruments, as suitable policy tools for addressing gender identity as an SDH to improve health equity. We urge the World Health Organization to add gender identity as an SDH in its conceptual framework for action on the SDHs and to develop and implement specific recommendations for addressing gender identity as an SDH. PMID:25602894

  10. A community health worker intervention to address the social determinants of health through policy change.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Schachter, Ken A; Sabo, Samantha J; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Gomez, Sofia; De Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Carvajal, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    Public policy that seeks to achieve sustainable improvements in the social determinants of health, such as income, education, housing, food security and neighborhood conditions, can create positive and sustainable health effects. This paper describes preliminary results of Acción para la Salud, a public health intervention in which Community health workers (CHWs) from five health agencies engaged their community in the process of making positive systems and environmental changes. Academic-community partners trained Acción CHWs in community advocacy and provided ongoing technical assistance in developing strategic advocacy plans. The CHWs documented community advocacy activities through encounter forms in which they identified problems, formulated solutions, and described systems and policy change efforts. Strategy maps described the steps of the advocacy plans. Findings demonstrate that CHWs worked to initiate discussions about underlying social determinants and environment-related factors that impact health, and identified solutions to improve neighborhood conditions, create community opportunities, and increase access to services. PMID:24363179

  11. Evaluating Strategies For Reducing Health Disparities By Addressing The Social Determinants Of Health.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Rachel L J; Glover, Crystal M; Cené, Crystal W; Glik, Deborah C; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Williams, David R

    2016-08-01

    The opportunities for healthy choices in homes, neighborhoods, schools, and workplaces can have decisive impacts on health. We review scientific evidence from promising interventions focused on the social determinants of health and discuss how such interventions can improve population health and reduce health disparities. We found sufficient evidence of successful outcomes to support disparity-reducing policy interventions targeted at education and early childhood; urban planning and community development; housing; income enhancements and supplements; and employment. Cost-effectiveness evaluations show that these interventions lead to long-term societal savings, but the interventions require more routine attention to cost considerations. We discuss challenges to implementation, including the need for long-term financing to scale up effective interventions for implementation at the local, state, and national levels. PMID:27503966

  12. Addressing Social Determinants of Health in a Clinic Setting: The WellRx Pilot in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Page-Reeves, Janet; Kaufman, Will; Bleecker, Molly; Norris, Jeffrey; McCalmont, Kate; Ianakieva, Veneta; Ianakieva, Dessislava; Kaufman, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Although it is known that the social determinants of health have a larger influence on health outcomes than health care, there currently is no structured way for primary care providers to identify and address nonmedical social needs experienced by patients seen in a clinic setting. We developed and piloted WellRx, an 11-question instrument used to screen 3048 patients for social determinants in 3 family medicine clinics over a 90-day period. Results showed that 46% of patients screened positive for at least 1 area of social need, and 63% of those had multiple needs. Most of these needs were previously unknown to the clinicians. Medical assistants and community health workers then offered to connect patients with appropriate services and resources to address the identified needs. The WellRx pilot demonstrated that it is feasible for a clinic to implement such an assessment system, that the assessment can reveal important information, and that having information about patients' social needs improves provider ease of practice. Demonstrated feasibility and favorable outcomes led to institutionalization of the WellRx process at a university teaching hospital and influenced the state department of health to require managed care organizations to have community health workers available to care for Medicaid patients. PMID:27170801

  13. Moving Upstream: How Interventions that Address the Social Determinants of Health can Improve Health and Reduce Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Costa, Manuela V.; Odunlami, Adebola O.; Mohammed, Selina A.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable scientific and policy interest in reducing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare and health status. Currently, much of the policy focus around reducing health disparities has been geared towards improving access, coverage, quality and the intensity of healthcare. However, health is more a function of lifestyles linked to living and working conditions than of healthcare. Accordingly, effective efforts to improve health and reduce gaps in health need to pay greater attention to addressing the social determinants of health within and outside of the healthcare system. This paper highlights research evidence documenting that tackling the social determinants of health can lead to reductions in health disparities. It focuses both on interventions within the healthcare system that address some of the social determinants of health, as well as, interventions in upstream factors such as housing, neighborhood conditions and increased socioeconomic status that can lead to improvements in health. The studies reviewed highlight the importance of systematic evaluation of social and economic policies that might have health consequences and the need for policy makers, healthcare providers, and leaders across multiple sectors of society to apply currently available knowledge to improve the underlying conditions that impact the health of populations. PMID:18843244

  14. Synthesizing Evidence-Based Strategies and Community-Engaged Research: A Model to Address Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Bohan, Kyle David; Trotter, Robert Talbot

    2013-01-01

    Addressing social determinants of health (SDH) requires multileveled intervention designs. Increasingly, organizations and coalitions face pressure to use evidence-based strategies when seeking to address SDH. Evidence-based strategies, however, must be locally relevant and integrated into existing systems to function efficiently. We propose the incorporation of an effective rapid assessment technique, Rapid Assessment, Response, and Evaluation (RARE), with evidence-based strategies, findings, and recommendations embedded in community-engaged research to increase the likelihood of success in addressing SDH. Our RARE project—a partnership among a community health center, a nonprofit funding agency, and academic faculty researchers—resulted in community- and policy-level interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity in a Southwestern U.S. city. PMID:24179282

  15. Addressing Social Determinants of Health at Well Child Care Visits: A Cluster RCT

    PubMed Central

    Toy, Sarah; Tripodis, Yorghos; Silverstein, Michael; Freeman, Elmer

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a clinic-based screening and referral system (Well Child Care, Evaluation, Community Resources, Advocacy, Referral, Education [WE CARE]) on families’ receipt of community-based resources for unmet basic needs. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial at 8 urban community health centers, recruiting mothers of healthy infants. In the 4 WE CARE clinics, mothers completed a self-report screening instrument that assessed needs for child care, education, employment, food security, household heat, and housing. Providers made referrals for families; staff provided requisite applications and telephoned referred mothers within 1 month. Families at the 4 control community health centers received the usual care. We analyzed the results with generalized mixed-effect models. RESULTS: Three hundred thirty-six mothers were enrolled in the study (168 per arm). The majority of families had household incomes <$20 000 (57%), and 68% had ≥2 unmet basic needs. More WE CARE mothers received ≥1 referral at the index visit (70% vs 8%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 29.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14.7–59.6). At the 12-month visit, more WE CARE mothers had enrolled in a new community resource (39% vs 24%; aOR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2–3.7). WE CARE mothers had greater odds of being employed (aOR = 44.4; 95% CI, 9.8–201.4). WE CARE children had greater odds of being in child care (aOR = 6.3; 95% CI, 1.5–26.0). WE CARE families had greater odds of receiving fuel assistance (aOR = 11.9; 95% CI, 1.7–82.9) and lower odds of being in a homeless shelter (aOR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1–0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Systematically screening and referring for social determinants during well child care can lead to the receipt of more community resources for families. PMID:25560448

  16. Addressing the Social Determinants of Health through the Alameda County, California, Place Matters Policy Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Schaff, Katherine; Flournoy, Rebecca; Carson, Keith; Drenick, Teresa; Fujii, Darlene; Lee, Anna; Luginbuhl, Jessica; Mena, Mona; Shrago, Amy; Siegel, Anita; Stahl, Robert; Watkins-Tartt, Kimi; Willow, Pam; Witt, Sandra; Woloshin, Diane; Yamashita, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    In Alameda County, California, significant health inequities by race/ethnicity, income, and place persist. Many of the county's low-income residents and residents of color live in communities that have faced historical and current disinvestment through public policies. This disinvestment affects community conditions such as access to economic opportunities, well-maintained and affordable housing, high-quality schools, healthy food, safe parks, and clean water and air. These community conditions greatly affect health. At the invitation of the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies' national Place Matters initiative, Alameda County Supervisor Keith Carson's Office and the Alameda County Public Health Department launched Alameda County Place Matters, an initiative that addresses community conditions through local policy change. We describe the initiative's creation, activities, policy successes, and best practices. PMID:24179279

  17. Addressing the social determinants of health through the Alameda County, California, place matters policy initiative.

    PubMed

    Schaff, Katherine; Desautels, Alexandra; Flournoy, Rebecca; Carson, Keith; Drenick, Teresa; Fujii, Darlene; Lee, Anna; Luginbuhl, Jessica; Mena, Mona; Shrago, Amy; Siegel, Anita; Stahl, Robert; Watkins-Tartt, Kimi; Willow, Pam; Witt, Sandra; Woloshin, Diane; Yamashita, Brenda

    2013-11-01

    In Alameda County, California, significant health inequities by race/ethnicity, income, and place persist. Many of the county's low-income residents and residents of color live in communities that have faced historical and current disinvestment through public policies. This disinvestment affects community conditions such as access to economic opportunities, well-maintained and affordable housing, high-quality schools, healthy food, safe parks, and clean water and air. These community conditions greatly affect health. At the invitation of the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies' national Place Matters initiative, Alameda County Supervisor Keith Carson's Office and the Alameda County Public Health Department launched Alameda County Place Matters, an initiative that addresses community conditions through local policy change. We describe the initiative's creation, activities, policy successes, and best practices. PMID:24179279

  18. Addressing the Social Determinants of Health of Children and Youth: A Role for SOPHE Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allensworth, Diane D.

    2011-01-01

    The determinants of youth health disparities include poverty, unequal access to health care, poor environmental conditions, and educational inequities. Poor and minority children have more health problems and less access to health care than their higher socioeconomic status cohorts. Having more health problems leads to more absenteeism in school,…

  19. Defining health by addressing individual, social, and environmental determinants: New opportunities for health care and public health

    PubMed Central

    Bircher, Johannes; Kuruvilla, Shyama

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) mobilized global commitments to promote health, socioeconomic, and sustainable development. Trends indicate that the health MDGs may not be achieved by 2015, in part because of insufficient coordination across related health, socioeconomic, and environmental initiatives. Explicitly acknowledging the need for such collaboration, the Meikirch Model of Health posits that: Health is a state of wellbeing emergent from conducive interactions between individuals' potentials, life's demands, and social and environmental determinants. Health results throughout the life course when individuals' potentials – and social and environmental determinants – suffice to respond satisfactorily to the demands of life. Life's demands can be physiological, psychosocial, or environmental, and vary across contexts, but in every case unsatisfactory responses lead to disease. This conceptualization of the integrative nature of health could contribute to ongoing efforts to strengthen cooperation across actors and sectors to improve individual and population health – leading up to 2015 and beyond. PMID:24943659

  20. Defining health by addressing individual, social, and environmental determinants: new opportunities for health care and public health.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Johannes; Kuruvilla, Shyama

    2014-08-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) mobilized global commitments to promote health, socioeconomic, and sustainable development. Trends indicate that the health MDGs may not be achieved by 2015, in part because of insufficient coordination across related health, socioeconomic, and environmental initiatives. Explicitly acknowledging the need for such collaboration, the Meikirch Model of Health posits that: Health is a state of wellbeing emergent from conducive interactions between individuals' potentials, life's demands, and social and environmental determinants. Health results throughout the life course when individuals' potentials--and social and environmental determinants--suffice to respond satisfactorily to the demands of life. Life's demands can be physiological, psychosocial, or environmental, and vary across contexts, but in every case unsatisfactory responses lead to disease. This conceptualization of the integrative nature of health could contribute to ongoing efforts to strengthen cooperation across actors and sectors to improve individual and population health--leading up to 2015 and beyond. PMID:24943659

  1. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two ‘blocks’, purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women’s collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  2. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen

    2014-09-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two 'blocks', purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women's collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  3. Addressing the social and environmental determinants of urban health equity: evidence for action and a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

    2011-10-01

    Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world's population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges--economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development challenges in the 21st century. In all countries, rich and poor, the move to urban living has been both good and bad for population health, and has contributed to the unequal distribution of health both within countries (the urban-rural divide) and within cities (the rich-poor divide). In this series of papers, we demonstrate that urban planning and design and urban social conditions can be good or bad for human health and health equity depending on how they are set up. We argue that climate change mitigation and adaptation need to go hand-in-hand with efforts to achieve health equity through action in the social determinants. And we highlight how different forms of governance can shape agendas, policies, and programs in ways that are inclusive and health-promoting or perpetuate social exclusion, inequitable distribution of resources, and the inequities in health associated with that. While today we can describe many of the features of a healthy and sustainable city, and the governance and planning processes needed to achieve these ends, there is still much to learn, especially with respect to tailoring these concepts and applying them in the cities of lower- and middle-income countries. By outlining an integrated research agenda, we aim to assist researchers, policy makers, service providers, and funding bodies/donors to better support, coordinate, and undertake research that is organized around a conceptual framework that positions health, equity, and sustainability as central

  4. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies.

    PubMed

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  5. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus.1 Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  6. Close to community health providers post 2015: Realising their role in responsive health systems and addressing gendered social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Universal health coverage is gaining momentum and is likely to form a core part of the post Millennium Development Goal (MDG) agenda and be linked to social determinants of health, including gender; Close to community health providers are arguably key players in meeting the goal of universal health coverage through extending and delivering health services to poor and marginalised groups; Close to community health providers are embedded in communities and may therefore be strategically placed to understand intra household gender and power dynamics and how social determinants shape health and well-being. However, the opportunities to develop critical awareness and to translate this knowledge into health system and multi-sectoral action are poorly understood; Enabling close to community health providers to realise their potential requires health systems support and human resource management at multiple levels.

  7. Seeds of HOPE: a model for addressing social and economic determinants of health in a women's obesity prevention project in two rural communities.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Salli; Campbell, Marci; Doolen, Anne; Rivera, Imana; Negussie, Tezita; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle

    2007-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) and income disparity are strong predictors of health, and health promotion interventions that address them are more likely to be meaningful to participants and to sustain positive effects. Seeds of HOPE is an innovative project that is the result of a long-standing collaboration between the University of North Carolina (UNC) Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Center, and communities in rural North Carolina. Initial formative work, including key informant interviews, community surveys, and focus groups, strengthened our understanding of the link between hope and health and the importance of addressing social and economic issues as part of our health promotion interventions. A Seeds of HOPE strategic plan was developed using a community-based participatory process and led to the idea to start Threads of HOPE, an enterprise that will serve as a business laboratory where women will produce and market a unique product and also learn business skills. Threads of HOPE will be a health-enhancing business and will serve as a training program for a new cadre of women entrepreneurs in two rural communities. PMID:17937563

  8. Using a Health in All Policies Approach to Address Social Determinants of Sexually Transmitted Disease Inequities in the Context of Community Change and Redevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Elizabeth; Branscomb, Jane; Cheung, Karen; Reed, Phillip Jackson; Wong, Naima; Henderson, Michael; Williams, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We used a Health in All Policies (HiAP) framework to determine what data, policy, and community efficacy opportunities exist for improving sexual health and reducing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in an area surrounding an Army base undergoing redevelopment in Atlanta, Georgia. Methods We conducted a literature review, consulted with experts, mapped social determinants in the community, conducted key informant interviews with community leaders to explore policy solutions, used Photovoice with community members to identify neighborhood assets, and shared data with all stakeholder groups to solicit engagement for next steps. Results We identified the following HiAP-relevant determinants of STD inequities in the literature: education, employment, male incarceration, drug and alcohol marketing, and social capital. Quantitative data confirmed challenges in education, employment, and male incarceration in the area. Interviews identified policy opportunities such as educational funding ratios, Community Hire Agreements, code and law enforcement, addiction and mental health resources, lighting for safety, and a nonemergency public safety number. Photovoice participants identified community assets to protect including family-owned businesses, green spaces, gathering places, public transportation resources, historical sites, and architectural elements. Stakeholder feedback provided numerous opportunities for next steps. Conclusions This study contributes to the HiAP literature by providing an innovative mixed-methods design that locates social determinants of STDs within a geographic context, identifies policy solutions from local leaders, highlights community assets through the lens of place attachment, and engages stakeholders in identifying next steps. Findings from this study could inform other redevelopments, community-based studies of STDs, and HiAP efforts. PMID:24179283

  9. Addressing the social determinants of health through health system strengthening and inter-sectoral convergence: the case of the Indian National Rural Health Mission

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Amit Mohan; Chakraborty, Gautam; Yadav, Sajjan Singh; Bhatia, Salima

    2013-01-01

    Background At the turn of the 21st century, India was plagued by significant rural–urban, inter-state and inter-district inequities in health. For example, in 2004, the infant mortality rate (IMR) was 24 points higher in rural areas compared to urban areas. To address these inequities, to strengthen the rural health system (a major determinant of health in itself) and to facilitate action on other determinants of health, India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in April 2005. Methods Under the NRHM, Rs. 666 billion (US$12.1 billion) was invested in rural areas from April 2005 to March 2012. There was also a substantially higher allocation for 18 high-focus states and 264 high-focus districts, identified on the basis of poor health and demographic indicators. Other determinants of health, especially nutrition and decentralized action, were addressed through mechanisms like State/District Health Missions, Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committees, and Village Health and Nutrition Days. Results Consequently, in bigger high-focus states, rural IMR fell by 15.6 points between 2004 and 2011, as compared to 9 points in urban areas. Similarly, the maternal mortality rate in high-focus states declined by 17.9% between 2004–2006 and 2007–2009 compared to 14.6% in other states. Conclusion The article, on the basis of the above approaches employed under NRHM, proposes the NRHM model to ‘reduce health inequities and initiate action on SDH’. PMID:23458089

  10. Addressing Breastfeeding Disparities in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Carol Grace

    2007-01-01

    This article examines social justice issues affecting breastfeeding in the United States. Public health goals for breastfeeding initiation and duration and barriers to breastfeeding among low-income groups are discussed. Suggestions are made about ways social workers may more assertively support breastfeeding in the context of social work practice.

  11. Social Influences on Interest. Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergin, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Where does enduring individual interest come from? One answer is, through social experience that derives from a need for belongingness. Because of this need, students seek social links that influence the development of individual interest. This may occur through experiences with parents, friends, passionate affinity groups, competition, public…

  12. Addressing therapeutic boundaries in social networking.

    PubMed

    Ginory, Almari; Sabatier, Laura Mayol; Eth, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Facebook is the leading social networking website, with over 500 million users. Prior studies have shown an increasing number of housestaff accessing the site. While Facebook can be used to foster camaraderie, it can also create difficulties in the doctor-patient relationship, especially when boundaries are crossed. This study explored the prevalence of such boundary crossings and offers recommendations for training. An anonymous voluntary survey regarding Facebook use was distributed to current psychiatry residents through the American Psychiatric Association (APA) listserv. Of the 182 respondents, 95.7% had current Facebook profiles, and 9.7% had received friend requests from patients. In addition, 18.7% admitted to viewing patient profiles on Facebook. There is a substantial utilization of Facebook among psychiatric residents as compared with prior studies. Specific guidance regarding social media websites and the potential for ethical difficulties should be offered to trainees. PMID:22397540

  13. Addressing Heart Failure Challenges through Illness-Informed Social Work.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Faith Pratt; Camp, Jessica K; Perry, Tam E

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the role of social workers in addressing the needs of people with heart failure. Although previous studies have explored the role of social workers in health care settings, few studies have addressed the challenges of specific chronic diseases such as heart failure. To address this gap in the literature, this study used qualitative interviews with health care social workers (n = 8) to obtain in-depth information about activities and challenges related to heart failure care. Findings suggest that health care social workers perceive heart failure as characterized by an uncertain illness trajectory, frequent hospitalizations, and difficulties accessing formal and informal care. These findings suggest the importance of what we term illness-informed social work, a practice that combines heart failure knowledge with social work competencies to address the complex psychosocial issues in heart failure care. PMID:26285359

  14. Summary of CDC consultation to address social determinants of health for prevention of disparities in HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis. December 9-10, 2008.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Tanya Telfair; Harrison, Kathleen McDavid; Dean, Hazel D

    2010-01-01

    In December 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a meeting of national public health partners to identify priorities for addressing social determinants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB). The consultants were divided into four working groups: (1) public health policy, (2) data systems, (3) agency partnerships and prevention capacity building, and (4) prevention research and evaluation. Groups focused on identifying top priorities; describing activities, methods, and metrics to implement priorities; and identifying partnerships and resources required to implement priorities. The meeting resulted in priorities for public health policy, improving data collection methods, enhancing existing and expanding future partnerships, and improving selection criteria and evaluation of evidence-based interventions. CDC is developing a national communications plan to guide and inspire action for keeping social determinants of HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB in the forefront of public health activities. PMID:20626189

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives Addressing Social Exclusion in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships—collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives—may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation. PMID:19761088

  16. Corporate social responsibility initiatives addressing social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Werner, Wendy J

    2009-08-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships- collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives-may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation. PMID:19761088

  17. Beyond Social Address: Linking Socioeconomic Status to Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom

    The present study attempts to move beyond the social address research design to investigate the process by which socioeconomic status (SES) exerts its influence on parenting practices. Of particular interest were maternal practices related to cognitive outcomes in children. The conceptual model of the study was based on the reliable finding that…

  18. 2011 AERA Presidential Address: Designing Resilient Ecologies--Social Design Experiments and a New Social Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez, Kris D.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about designing for educational possibilities--designs that in their inception, social organization, and implementation squarely address issues of cultural diversity, social inequality, and robust learning. I discuss an approach to design-based research, social design experiments, that privileges a social scientific inquiry…

  19. Addressing social responsibility in medical education: the African way.

    PubMed

    Kwizera, Enoch N; Iputo, Jehu E

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous sub-Saharan societies have, over the millennia, lived and socialised within the unwritten 'rules' of the 'Ubuntu' or similar philosophies that emphasises holistic 'humanness', and which is a form of 'social responsibility'. This article looks into some relevant social responsibility aspects of medical education in the South African context, with particular emphasis on how these aspects have been addressed. Apartheid was, by its very nature, incompatible with social responsibility for the majority of South Africans, but one medical school that was a non-complicit product of apartheid succeeded in fulfilling a socially responsible mission. Thus, this article implicitly identifies what South Africa, Africa and the global Health Professions Education community could learn from these trail-blazing experiences. PMID:21774652

  20. Social Determinants of Health: Housing and Income.

    PubMed

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Dickins, Kevin; Corring, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants of health such as housing and income have a large impact on mental health. Community-based initiatives have worked to address access to housing, prevent homelessness and assist people who are homeless with mental health problems. There have been several large research projects to tease out multiple subgroups such as youth and veterans and other individuals experiencing long-term homelessness. The issue of poverty has been addressed by exploring issues related to employment. The use of social enterprises is a promising practice to address issues around poverty, social inclusion and employment. Similarly, the community has worked to move hospital-based employment programs to the community. PMID:26854545

  1. Addressing Social Aggression in State Anti-Bullying Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temkin, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Social aggression, or victimization using social exclusion, rumors, and body language, has been overlooked in state anti-bullying policies since the policy surge following the 1999 Columbine Massacres. Social aggression has been associated with social anxiety disorder, depression and suicide, and lowered academic achievement and involvement. An…

  2. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients. PMID:26225503

  3. The NCSS Presidential Addresses, 1936-1969: Perspectives on the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Previte, Mark A., Ed.; Sheehan, James J., Ed.

    This collection of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) presidential addresses seeks to provide a valuable window to the history of NCSS and the field of social studies. Following the "Introduction" (James J. Sheehan), addresses appear chronologically: 1936 "Social Sanity through the Social Studies" (R. O. Hughes); 1937 "The Dilemma…

  4. The NCSS Presidential Addresses, 1970-2000: Perspectives on the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Previte, Mark A., Ed.; Sheehan, James J., Ed.

    This collection of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) presidential addresses seeks to provide a valuable window to NCSS and the field of social studies from 1970 to 2000. Following "Introduction to the NCSS Presidential Addresses, 1970-2000 (J. J. Sheehan), Volume 2 contains the following addresses: 1970: "Exploring the Meaning of…

  5. Adolescent Social Issues: Using Media to Address Crucial Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokoloff, Michele

    1987-01-01

    This article describes media resources available to help adolescents deal with a variety of social concerns, including substance abuse, dropouts, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), suicide, and pregnancy. A list of 56 companies that provide resources dealing with social issues is also provided. (LRW)

  6. Creating Art Environments That Address Social Justice Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Gail

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I examine strategies for teaching students to make socially conscious art using a variety of media that emphasizes installation work. I present issues of social justice in the contemporary art world and include concerns of censorship that artists sometimes confront. I offer examples of team taught coordinated studies programs…

  7. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  8. [Conceptual differences and praxiological implications concerning social determination or social determinants].

    PubMed

    Morales-Borrero, Carolina; Borde, Elis; Eslava-Castañeda, Juan C; Concha-Sánchez, Sonia C

    2013-01-01

    The differences between the social determination of health approach adopted by the Latin-American Social Medicine and Collective Health movement and the WHO's social determinants of health approach are not merely conceptual but involve ethical and political considerations. Different notions of causality and risk are implied in the aforementioned approaches and shape how concepts regarding health-illness and health inequity are understood and how they may be confronted. This article attempts to clarify the praxiological implications of such approaches and contextualise the approaches' socio-historical construction, address epistemological, methodological and ontological differences and propose some considerations regarding the praxiological implications. PMID:25124346

  9. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  10. Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

  11. Aspiring School Leaders Addressing Social Justice through Art Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa

    2012-01-01

    There is little in the professional literature about how school leaders or other professionals committed to promoting social justice deal with and manage their emotional responses to the challenges that await them in educational arenas. Even less has been written about how art making can be utilized as a means of developing new understandings and…

  12. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  13. Social Entrepreneurship in Religious Congregations’ Efforts to Address Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Design Multiple case studies. Setting Los Angeles County, California. Participants Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races-ethnicities (African American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Method Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n=57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed using a qualitative, code-based approach. Results Congregations’ health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations’ health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from – and for – faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as “incubators” for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Conclusion Although the small scale of congregations’ health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations’ position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways. PMID:23875986

  14. Addressing Adolescent Needs for Socialization in the Distance Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawidowicz, Paula M.

    2000-01-01

    One important aspect of adolescent education, regardless of the learning environment, is learning acceptable human interaction, socialization styles, and cooperation mechanisms. However, when adolescent students attend cyber schools, they no longer receive those traditional opportunities to gain the human interactions required for such…

  15. Social Determinants: Taking the Social Context of Asthma Seriously

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Sternthal, Michelle; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2012-01-01

    While asthma has emerged as a major contributor to disease and disability in American children, the burden of this disease is unevenly distributed within the population. This paper provides a brief overview of social status variables that predict variation in asthma risks and social exposures such as stress and violence that are emerging as important risk factors. However, the central focus of the paper is on the distal social variables that have given rise to unhealthy residential environments in which the risk factors for asthma and other diseases are clustered. Effective initiatives for the prevention and treatment of childhood asthma need to address these non-medical determinants of the prevalence of asthma. PMID:19221161

  16. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists. PMID:22011425

  17. Social Determinants and Their Unequal Distribution: Clarifying Policy Understandings

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Hilary

    2004-01-01

    Public health policy in older industrialized societies is being reconfigured to improve population health and to address inequalities in the social distribution of health. The concept of social determinants is central to these policies, with tackling the social influences on health seen as a way to reduce health inequalities. But the social factors promoting and undermining the health of individuals and populations should not be confused with the social processes underlying their unequal distribution. This distinction is important because, despite better health and improvement in health determinants, social disparities persist. The article argues that more emphasis on social inequalities is required for a determinants-oriented approach to be able to inform policies to address health inequalities. PMID:15016245

  18. Use of Social Software to Address Literacy and Identity Issues in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The emerging trend of social software technology can address many different second language (L2) learner needs through authentic social interaction and a variety of scaffolding processes. Social software connects education with real-life learning and interests, and engages and motivates students. It can facilitate learning environments that are…

  19. Social determinants and osteoarthritis outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Luong, My-Linh N; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Nyrop, Kirsten A; Callahan, Leigh F

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequently occurring musculoskeletal diseases, posing a significant public health problem due to its impact on pain and disability. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all of the risk observed for OA outcomes. In recent years, our view of disease causation has broadened to include health risks that are created by an individual’s socioeconomic circumstances. Early research into social determinants has focused on social position and explored factors related to the individual such as education, income and occupation. Results from these investigations suggest that low education attainment and nonprofessional occupation are associated with poorer arthritis outcomes. More recently, research has expanded to examine how one’s neighborhood socioeconomic environment may be relevant to OA outcomes. This narrative review proposes a framework to help guide our understanding of how social context may interact with pathophysiological processes and individual-level variables to influence health outcomes in those living with OA. PMID:23243459

  20. Social determinants of food choice.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, R

    1999-11-01

    Food choice is influenced by a large number of factors, including social and cultural factors. One method for trying to understand the impact of these factors is through the study of attitudes. Research is described which utilizes social psychological attitude models of attitude-behaviour relationships, in particular the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This approach has shown good prediction of behaviour, but there are a number of possible extensions to this basic model which might improve its utility. One such extension is the inclusion of measures of moral concern, which have been found to be important both for the choice of genetically-modified foods and also for foods to be eaten by others. It has been found to be difficult to effect dietary change, and there are a number of insights from social psychology which might address this difficulty. One is the phenomenon of optimistic bias, where individuals believe themselves to be at less risk from various hazards than the average person. This effect has been demonstrated for nutritional risks, and this might lead individuals to take less note of health education messages. Another concern is that individuals do not always have clear-cut attitudes, but rather can be ambivalent about food and about healthy eating. It is important, therefore, to have measures for this ambivalence, and an understanding of how it might impact on behaviour. PMID:10817147

  1. Adolescence and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Viner, Russell M; Ozer, Elizabeth M; Denny, Simon; Marmot, Michael; Resnick, Michael; Fatusi, Adesegun; Currie, Candace

    2012-04-28

    The health of adolescents is strongly affected by social factors at personal, family, community, and national levels. Nations present young people with structures of opportunity as they grow up. Since health and health behaviours correspond strongly from adolescence into adult life, the way that these social determinants affect adolescent health are crucial to the health of the whole population and the economic development of nations. During adolescence, developmental effects related to puberty and brain development lead to new sets of behaviours and capacities that enable transitions in family, peer, and educational domains, and in health behaviours. These transitions modify childhood trajectories towards health and wellbeing and are modified by economic and social factors within countries, leading to inequalities. We review existing data on the effects of social determinants on health in adolescence, and present findings from country-level ecological analyses on the health of young people aged 10-24 years. The strongest determinants of adolescent health worldwide are structural factors such as national wealth, income inequality, and access to education. Furthermore, safe and supportive families, safe and supportive schools, together with positive and supportive peers are crucial to helping young people develop to their full potential and attain the best health in the transition to adulthood. Improving adolescent health worldwide requires improving young people's daily life with families and peers and in schools, addressing risk and protective factors in the social environment at a population level, and focusing on factors that are protective across various health outcomes. The most effective interventions are probably structural changes to improve access to education and employment for young people and to reduce the risk of transport-related injury. PMID:22538179

  2. Medical Student Volunteerism Addresses Patients' Social Needs: A Novel Approach to Patient-Centered Care

    PubMed Central

    Onyekere, Chinwe; Ross, Sandra; Namba, Alexa; Ross, Justin C.; Mann, Barry D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthcare providers must be equipped to recognize and address patients' psychosocial needs to improve overall health outcomes. To give future healthcare providers the tools and training necessary to identify and address psychosocial issues, Lankenau Medical Center in partnership with the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine designed the Medical Student Advocate (MSA) program. Methods: The MSA program places volunteer second-year osteopathic medical students in care coordination teams at Lankenau Medical Associates, a primary care practice serving a diverse patient population in the Philadelphia, PA, region. As active members of the team, MSAs are referred high-risk patients who have resource needs such as food, employment, child care, and transportation. MSAs work collaboratively with patients and the multidisciplinary team to address patients' nonmedical needs. Results: From August 2013 to August 2015, 31 osteopathic medical students volunteered for the MSA program and served 369 patients with 720 identified needs. Faculty and participating medical students report that the MSA program provided an enhanced understanding of the holistic nature of patient care and a comprehensive view of patient needs. Conclusion: The MSA program provides students with a unique educational opportunity that encompasses early exposure to patient interaction, social determinants of health, population health, and interdisciplinary collaboration. Students develop skills to help them build patient relationships, understand the psychosocial factors shaping health outcomes, and engage with other healthcare professionals. This work in the preclinical years provides students with the knowledge to help them perform more effectively in the changing healthcare environment. PMID:27046404

  3. How to Address the Volitional Dimension of the Engineer's Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkero, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I argue that volitional aspects, i.e. ethos, attitude, pathos, will, underlying emotion, in engineering action need to be addressed when teaching social responsibility within the engineering curriculum. After presenting reasons for this claim, I look at two different, but not mutually exclusive, approaches to address volitional…

  4. Addressing the Academic and Social Needs of Young Male Students through School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Curtis E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the problem within the U.S. public school system to sustainably meet the academic and social needs of its African American male students. The administrative team of the elementary school in this study desired an evaluation of a school-based male mentoring program that was designed to address these needs. The program, Gentlemen…

  5. Language Socialization and Interculturality: Address Terms in Intergenerational Talk in Chinese Diasporic Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Zhu

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the current debate on "interculturality" (IC) by investigating the process of language socialization whereby different generations of diasporic families negotiate, construct, and renew their sociocultural values and identities through interaction. Focusing on the use of address terms and "talk about social,…

  6. "Hey You": A Study of the Social-Psychological Implications of Form of Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Craig B.; Gelles, Richard J.

    The research reported in this paper is concerned with the social and psychological implications of everyday interaction between graduate students and faculty in the sociology department of a small university. The researchers assumed that form of address is problematic for subordinates in social interaction and is a dilemma whose solution…

  7. Which Social Elements Are Visible in Virtual Groups? Addressing the Categorization of Social Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Mateo, M.; Guitert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning is a social process. That is why it is extremely important to understand how students interact socially in online courses and how it affects the learning process. However, social aspects, understood as those expressions or comments that go beyond strictly academic interaction, i.e. the need to carry out group work, are not clearly…

  8. Networks, Norms, and Trust: The Social Psychology of Social Capital. 2004 Cooley Mead Award Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Karen Schweers

    2005-01-01

    Networks of trust relations often emerge under conditions of uncertainty or risk to facilitate social exchange. Under some conditions, such networks represent a form of social capital that can be mobilized in support of general social cooperation in the society. Under other conditions, however, such networks may have negative effects on the degree…

  9. Interventions Addressing the Social Determinants of Teenage Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Adam; Harden, Angela; Brunton, Ginny; Oakley, Ann; Bonell, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The limited evidence of effectiveness of existing teenage pregnancy strategies which focus on sex education, together with growing evidence that factors such as poor school ethos, disaffection, truancy, poor employment prospects and low expectations are associated with teenage pregnancy, has increased interest in interventions which…

  10. Addressing vaccine hesitancy: The potential value of commercial and social marketing principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Glen J; Gellin, Bruce G; MacDonald, Noni E; Butler, Robb

    2015-08-14

    Many countries and communities are dealing with groups and growing numbers of individuals who are delaying or refusing recommended vaccinations for themselves or their children. This has created a need for immunization programs to find approaches and strategies to address vaccine hesitancy. An important source of useful approaches and strategies is found in the frameworks, practices, and principles used by commercial and social marketers, many of which have been used by immunization programs. This review examines how social and commercial marketing principles and practices can be used to help address vaccine hesitancy. It provides an introduction to key marketing and social marketing concepts, identifies some of the major challenges to applying commercial and social marketing approaches to immunization programs, illustrates how immunization advocates and programs can use marketing and social marketing approaches to address vaccine hesitancy, and identifies some of the lessons that commercial and non-immunization sectors have learned that may have relevance for immunization. While the use of commercial and social marketing practices and principles does not guarantee success, the evidence, lessons learned, and applications to date indicate that they have considerable value in fostering vaccine acceptance. PMID:25900132

  11. Interrogating Single-Sex Classes as a Strategy for Addressing Boys' Educational and Social Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne; Mills, Martin; Lingard, Bob

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the policy of single-sex classes that is currently being adopted in some schools as a strategy for addressing boys educational and social needs. It draws on research in one Australian government, coeducational primary school to examine teachers' and students' experiences of this strategy. Interviews with the principal, male and…

  12. Unions Adding Value: Addressing Market and Social Failures in the Advanced Industrialized Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wever, Kirsten S.

    1997-01-01

    To reverse the decline in membership, unions must meet the challenges of representing under-represented workers and address workplace concerns. They must also restore the balance between their social and economic functions. Innovative strategies being used suggest where the future of unions may lie. (50 references) (Author/JOW)

  13. Masculinity and School Violence: Addressing the Role of Male Gender Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltz, Jo-Anne

    2005-01-01

    The author argues for school-based violence prevention programming that addresses the unique predicament faced by male youth when they are asked to adopt attitudes and behaviours that may contradict traditional socialized notions of masculinity. Studies based on the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) and the Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale…

  14. An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

  15. Social determinants of health: a view on theory and measurement.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Fernando; Mazzeo, John; Ritchie, Dannie

    2013-07-01

    The theory and measurement of the social determinants of health featured in a three-part seminar series on Social Determinants of Health, Law and Policy held at the Taubman Center for Public Policy, Brown University in February 2012. The seminar series represents a broader commitment to engage the public, health providers, researchers, and policy makers in dialogue for the purposes of identifying and addressing social determinants of health at community and state levels. This article summarizes and expands upon the first part of the series by defining social determinants of health and exploring methodological debates over their measurement, with a focus on income inequality, racism and discrimination, housing security, and food security. The authors of this article and the members of the seminar series represent the kind of interdisciplinary and applied work necessary for addressing the five key areas of social determinants of health identified in Healthy People 2020: economic stability, education, social and community context, health and health care, and neighborhood and environment. PMID:23819135

  16. The Untold Story: Examining Ontario's Community Health Centres' Initiatives to Address Upstream Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Patricia A.; Resendes, Sarah J.; Dunn, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unlike traditional primary care centres, part of the Community Health Centre (CHC) mandate is to address upstream health determinants. In Ontario, CHCs refer to these activities as Community Initiatives (CIs); yet, little is known about how CIs operate. The objective of this study was to examine the scope, resource requirements, partnerships, successes and challenges among selected Ontario CIs. Methods: We conducted qualitative interviews with 10 CHC staff members representing 11 CIs across Ontario. CIs were identified through an online inventory, recruited by e-mail and interviewed between March and June 2011. Results: Most CIs aim to increase community participation, while addressing social isolation and poverty. They draw minimal financial resources from their CHC, and employ highly skilled staff to support implementation. Most enlist support from various partners, and use numerous methods for community engagement. Successes include improved community relations, increased opportunities for education and employment and rewarding partnerships, while insufficient funding was a commonly identified challenge. Conclusions: Despite minimal attention from researchers and funders, our findings suggest that CIs play key capacity-building roles in vulnerable communities across Ontario, and warrant further investigation. PMID:25410693

  17. Social determinants of mental health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica; Balfour, Reuben; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A person's mental health and many common mental disorders are shaped by various social, economic, and physical environments operating at different stages of life. Risk factors for many common mental disorders are heavily associated with social inequalities, whereby the greater the inequality the higher the inequality in risk. The poor and disadvantaged suffer disproportionately, but those in the middle of the social gradient are also affected. It is of major importance that action is taken to improve the conditions of everyday life, beginning before birth and progressing into early childhood, older childhood and adolescence, during family building and working ages, and through to older age. Action throughout these life stages would provide opportunities for both improving population mental health, and for reducing risk of those mental disorders that are associated with social inequalities. As mental disorders are fundamentally linked to a number of other physical health conditions, these actions would also reduce inequalities in physical health and improve health overall. Action needs to be universal: across the whole of society and proportionate to need. Policy-making at all levels of governance and across sectors can make a positive difference. PMID:25137105

  18. Developmental and Social Determinants of Religious Social Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this…

  19. Immigration as a social determinant of health.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Heide; Holmes, Seth M; Madrigal, Daniel S; Young, Maria-Elena DeTrinidad; Beyeler, Naomi; Quesada, James

    2015-03-18

    Although immigration and immigrant populations have become increasingly important foci in public health research and practice, a social determinants of health approach has seldom been applied in this area. Global patterns of morbidity and mortality follow inequities rooted in societal, political, and economic conditions produced and reproduced by social structures, policies, and institutions. The lack of dialogue between these two profoundly related phenomena-social determinants of health and immigration-has resulted in missed opportunities for public health research, practice, and policy work. In this article, we discuss primary frameworks used in recent public health literature on the health of immigrant populations, note gaps in this literature, and argue for a broader examination of immigration as both socially determined and a social determinant of health. We discuss priorities for future research and policy to understand more fully and respond appropriately to the health of the populations affected by this global phenomenon. PMID:25494053

  20. Feeling addressed! The role of body orientation and co-speech gesture in social communication.

    PubMed

    Nagels, Arne; Kircher, Tilo; Steines, Miriam; Straube, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    During face-to-face communication, body orientation and coverbal gestures influence how information is conveyed. The neural pathways underpinning the comprehension of such nonverbal social cues in everyday interaction are to some part still unknown. During fMRI data acquisition, 37 participants were presented with video clips showing an actor speaking short sentences. The actor produced speech-associated iconic gestures (IC) or no gestures (NG) while he was visible either from an egocentric (ego) or from an allocentric (allo) position. Participants were asked to indicate via button press whether they felt addressed or not. We found a significant interaction of body orientation and gesture in addressment evaluations, indicating that participants evaluated IC-ego conditions as most addressing. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left fusiform gyrus were stronger activated for egocentric versus allocentric actor position in gesture context. Activation increase in the ACC for IC-ego>IC-allo further correlated positively with increased addressment ratings in the egocentric gesture condition. Gesture-related activation increase in the supplementary motor area, left inferior frontal gyrus and right insula correlated positively with gesture-related increase of addressment evaluations in the egocentric context. Results indicate that gesture use and body-orientation contribute to the feeling of being addressed and together influence neural processing in brain regions involved in motor simulation, empathy and mentalizing. PMID:25640962

  1. The social determinants of health: key to global tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Rasanathan, K; Sivasankara Kurup, A; Jaramillo, E; Lönnroth, K

    2011-06-01

    Improved tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment through the DOTS and Stop TB strategies have saved millions of lives; however, their impact on TB incidence has been disappointing and the scale of the epidemic remains overwhelming. To reduce the incidence of TB, the drivers of the epidemic and social determinants of TB need to be addressed. These include co-morbidities and substance use and, moreover, the social and economic conditions that determine both the course of the TB epidemic and exposure to these risk factors. Doing so builds on the history of TB prevention and treatment during the public health revolution that resulted in a dramatic reduction in incidence in many countries. Addressing the social determinants is also imperative to address pervasive inequities in the incidence, mortality and morbidity of TB between different population groups, including in the performance of health systems in delivering diagnostic and treatment interventions, and in the financial consequences of people seeking care. Action on the social determinants can be categorised in terms of health-sector interventions, intersectoral policies impacting across society, and measurement and research to better understand inequities and links between TB and other factors. TB programmes cannot carry out these actions alone; however, they can make important contributions in the delivery of interventions and in advocating and negotiating for intersectoral efforts. The considerable progress seen in the clinical care of TB needs to be sustained; however, the attainment of TB targets, including elimination by 2050, will require expansion of the lens of TB control efforts beyond 'business as usual' to address the social determinants of the disease. PMID:21740657

  2. [Social determinants and epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Jaksić, Zelimir

    2007-06-01

    Recent approaches to studies of social determinants and social epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases are reviewed. This approach originating in some industrialized countries has so far been neglected in Croatia in spite of previous experiences and existence of sociomedical tradition. The possible explanations are considered. Obvious health problems related to the standard of living, poverty, high unemployment, work insecurity, unjustified inequality of income, and other forms of discrimination in health are not tackled. The social determinants important for health are defined and at least five categories identified, i. e. broad cultural and economic circumstances, structural determinants and social position, intermediate determinants reflected in lifestyles, available social network and social capital, and finally discrimination in health care are recommended to include in epidemiological research and design of health interventions. The following measures are proposed as necessary in the current situation: 1) changes in scope and orientation of epidemiological and clinical research; 2) intensification of information for the public, experts and politicians on the role of social determinants; and 3) amplification of health interventions avoiding patterns of the predominant neoliberal approaches (blaming the victim), as well as administrative egalitarian approaches (teaching people to become victims waiting for elderly brother to provide solutions). PMID:17629109

  3. Recognizing, Determining, and Addressing Entrepreneurial Innovations by Superintendents of Emerging or Established Educational Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfstrom, Kari M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation describes how entrepreneurial superintendents of educational service agencies (ESAs) recognize, determine and address common and distinct innovative characteristics within emerging or established regional educational environments. Because internal and external factors assist in recognizing innovative practices, this study…

  4. Political Activities of Social Workers: Addressing Perceived Barriers to Political Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Cynthia; Poe, Bethanie; Thomas, Veliska

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on political participation of social workers and the variables that promote or impede political advocacy. Early research in the 1980s and 1990s most often reported education, feelings of efficacy, having a macro-type job, and being a member of a national association as factors that determine greater political…

  5. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy: an intervention addressing rhythm dysregulation in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Ellen; Swartz, Holly A.; Boland, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by frequent recurrences, often related to noncompliance with drug treatment, stressful life events, and disruptions in social rhythms. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) was designed to directly address these problem areas. This article discusses the circadian basis of IPSRT and the importance of stable daily routines in the maintenance of the euthymic state, as well as the two large controlled trials which empirically support this intervention. The authors discuss the advantages of IPSRT as an acute intervention, as well as a prophylactic treatment for both bipolar I and II disorder. Using a case example, the authors describe how IPSRT is implemented in a clinical setting, detailing the therapeutic methods and processes involved. PMID:17969869

  6. Understanding and effectively addressing breast cancer in African American women: Unpacking the social context.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E

    2016-07-15

    Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26930024

  7. Social Determinants of Racial Disparities in CKD.

    PubMed

    Norton, Jenna M; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Eggers, Paul W; Narva, Andrew S; Star, Robert A; Kimmel, Paul L; Rodgers, Griffin P

    2016-09-01

    Significant disparities in CKD rates and outcomes exist between black and white Americans. Health disparities are defined as health differences that adversely affect disadvantaged populations, on the basis of one or more health outcomes. CKD is the complex result of genetic and environmental factors, reflecting the balance of nature and nurture. Social determinants of health have an important role as environmental components, especially for black populations, who are disproportionately disadvantaged. Understanding the social determinants of health and appreciating the underlying differences associated with meaningful clinical outcomes may help nephrologists treat all their patients with CKD in an optimal manner. Altering the social determinants of health, although difficult, may embody important policy and research efforts, with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes for patients with kidney diseases, and minimizing the disparities between groups. PMID:27178804

  8. The Social Determinants of Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Sederer, Lloyd I

    2016-02-01

    Ninety percent of the determinants of our health derive from our lifetime social and physical environment-not from the provision of health care. The author describes behaviors, such as poor eating, excessive drinking and abuse of drugs, smoking, and physical inactivity, and social factors, such as adverse childhood experiences, poor education, food insecurity, poor housing quality, unemployment, and discrimination, that contribute to ill health and early demise. Better health and mental health can be achieved by understanding and responding to these determinants of health. PMID:26522677

  9. Preparing Early Childhood Educators to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Development and Challenging Behavior: A Survey of Higher Education Programs in Nine States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents results from a survey of faculty members from 2- and 4-year higher education programs in nine states that prepare teachers to work with preschool children. The purpose of the study was to determine how professors address content related to social-emotional development and challenging behaviors, how well prepared they believe…

  10. Social Determinants of Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; McKinney, Molly A.; Braun, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Too many racial/ethnic minorities do not reach their full potential for a healthy and rewarding life. This paper addresses the social determinants that impact, either directly or indirectly, child and adolescent health disparities. Understanding the role social determinants play in the life course of health status can help guide educational…

  11. Social inclusion: an interplay of the determinants of health - new insights into elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Podnieks, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Social and economic exclusion and inclusion are receiving growing attention and study in North America for their usefulness as a conceptual framework that addresses the many dimensions of poverty and inequality in our society. A discussion of social and economic exclusion/ inclusion flows naturally out of the population health field in which the social determinants of health have become well-established over the last twenty years or more. The determinants of health provide a broad and inclusive outline within which to situate prevention, early detection and effective intervention of the abuse of older persons. A Social Inclusion Lens offers exciting possibilities for addressing the issue of elder abuse and neglect. PMID:16803777

  12. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning: Addressing Challenging Behavior in Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Amy; Hemmeter, Mary Louise

    2009-01-01

    The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) is a federally funded national resource center designed to support early care and education providers address the social-emotional needs of children birth through age 5 years. Recent research has found that an extraordinarily high number of young children are being…

  13. Precarious employment: understanding an emerging social determinant of health.

    PubMed

    Benach, J; Vives, A; Amable, M; Vanroelen, C; Tarafa, G; Muntaner, C

    2014-01-01

    Employment precariousness is a social determinant that affects the health of workers, families, and communities. Its recent popularity has been spearheaded by three main developments: the surge in "flexible employment" and its associated erosion of workers' employment and working conditions since the mid-1970s; the growing interest in social determinants of health, including employment conditions; and the availability of new data and information systems. This article identifies the historical, economic, and political factors that link precarious employment to health and health equity; reviews concepts, models, instruments, and findings on precarious employment and health inequalities; summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of this literature; and highlights substantive and methodological challenges that need to be addressed. We identify two crucial future aims: to provide a compelling research program that expands our understanding of employment precariousness and to develop and evaluate policy programs that effectively put an end to its health-related impacts. PMID:24641559

  14. Developing a public health cadre in 21 st century India: addressing gaps in technical, administrative and social dimensions of public health services.

    PubMed

    Priya, Ritu; Chikersal, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a possible framework for designing a public health cadre in the present context, with lessons from health services development of the last six decades. Three major gaps that the public health cadre is meant to bridge have been identified. These are capacities within the system to address the technical requirements (epidemiological and health systems analysis); administrative/managerial dimensions; and the social determinants of health. Therefore, it argues that the cadre must not only have a techno-managerial structure, but also create a specific sub-cadre for the social determinants of health. PMID:24351382

  15. Highly sensitive covalently functionalized light-addressable potentiometric sensor for determination of biomarker.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jintao; Guan, Mingyuan; Huang, Guoyin; Qiu, Hengming; Chen, Zhengcheng; Li, Guiyin; Huang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    A biomarker is related to the biological status of a living organism and shows great promise for the early prediction of a related disease. Herein we presented a novel structured light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) for the determination of a model biomarker, human immunoglobulin G (hIgG). In this system, the goat anti-human immunoglobulin G antibody was used as recognition element and covalently immobilized on the surface of light-addressable potentiometric sensor chip to capture human immunoglobulin G. Due to the light addressable capability of light-addressable potentiometric sensor, human immunoglobulin G dissolved in the supporting electrolyte solution can be detected by monitoring the potential shifts of the sensor. In order to produce a stable photocurrent, the laser diode controlled by field-programmable gate array was used as the light emitter to drive the light-addressable potentiometric sensor. A linear correlation between the potential shift response and the concentration of human immunoglobulin G was achieved and the corresponding regression equation was ΔV (V)=0.00714ChIgG (μg/mL)-0.0147 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9968 over a range 0-150μg/mL. Moreover, the light-addressable potentiometric sensor system also showed acceptable stability and reproducibility. All the results demonstrated that the system was more applicable to detection of disease biomarkers with simple operation, multiple-sample format and might hold great promise in various environmental, food, and clinical applications. PMID:27040210

  16. Social determinants of methadone in pregnancy: violence, social capital, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Karen

    2013-10-01

    Mothering and methadone can occur together with the right resources and support. Methadone mothers need to be seen in the context of their social risks and environment. Societal attitudes, social capital, and other contextual variables can be changed through policy. The purpose of this article is to describe the contextual risks experienced by drug abusing mothers in order to direct further research and policy changes that protect their children. Research has focused on biological or genetic determinants, but now social risks and environmental factors are shaping current literature about substance abuse in pregnancy. Significant risk factors, taken from the literature, are detailed, such as intimate partner violence and mental health co-morbidities. Racial differences and the effect of place on pregnant substance abusers are also discussed. Policy recommendations address the barriers substance abusing women face in their journey toward a healthy pregnancy. PMID:24066650

  17. Addressing the role of medical students using community mobilization and social media in the Ebola response.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Helena J; Animasahun, Victor J; Tade, Adesoji E; Naveed, Asad

    2016-06-01

    Health professions education in the 21st century should incorporate both community mobilization and social media strategies. First, community mobilization facilitates change by educating community members with evidence-based, high-quality and up-to-date health information and empowering their active participation in target health initiatives. Second, advancements in technology and globalization foster the development of innovative communication technologies used as a key tool in the 'roll out' of community health initiatives during epidemics such as Ebola virus disease. In August 2014, medical students of Sierra Leone and Guinea used these dual health promotional strategies in the Kick Ebola Out campaign to educate community members about transmission of the Ebola virus and preventive measures, as well as to reduce perceptions related to stigma or fear of disease transmission. In this report, we describe how medical students, who are trained in basic and clinical sciences, evidence-based practices, and social determinants of health, can serve as human resources for health and facilitate dynamic communication strategies to educate and empower both medical students and community members for local or national health initiatives. PMID:27216169

  18. Social determinants of diagnostic labels in depression.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Susan; Armstrong, David

    2006-01-01

    The role of diagnostic labels in medicine is usually that of labelling an illness as a means of communication. Control over labelling processes in medicine is ordinarily imposed via medical schools, textbooks, education or by diagnostic manuals. Diagnostic labels often change following new discoveries in underlying pathology such as 'consumption' being relabelled as 'TB' or 'cancer'. Sub-types of broad diagnostic labels also often emerge from such discoveries e.g. 'lung cancer' or 'throat cancer'. In mental health, underlying pathology is the subject of ongoing debate spanning ideas including the brain as a faulty organ, faulty genetics and environmental problems. With controversy over pathology comes controversy over labels and the idea that labels may be used not just for communication, but as devices of social and professional control, arising out of a social process. This study explores the codification of the diagnostic label 'depression' which emerged in the twentieth-century and has proliferated with numerous sub-types over the last 40 years. The aim is to examine its social determinants and context. Medline is used as a data source for professional label usage. A range of depression sub-type labels in professional use was identified. This exercise revealed many official and 'unofficial' terms in professional use. Citation rate plots by year were then generated for these depression sub-type labels. The rise and fall of different labels are examined in relation to social determinants and context, including publication of diagnostic manuals DSM and ICD, power shifts in psychiatry, the discovery of psychiatric drugs and the shift from inpatient to community care. Exploring the changing use of official and unofficial labels over time in this way provides a novel historical perspective on the concept of depression in the late twentieth-century. PMID:16009477

  19. Social workers' roles in addressing the complex end-of-life care needs of elders with advanced chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Betty J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined social workers' roles in caring for low-income elders with advanced chronic disease in an innovative, community-based managed care program, from the perspective of elders, family, team members, and social workers. The results are drawn from a larger longitudinal, multimethod case study. Sources of data include survey reports of needs addressed by social workers for 120 deceased elders, five focus groups with interdisciplinary team members, and in-depth interviews with 14 elders and 10 of their family caregivers. A thematic conceptual matrix was developed to detail 32 distinctive social work roles that address divergent needs of elders, family, and team members. Distinctive perceptions of social workers' roles were identified for the different stakeholder groups (i.e., elders, family caregivers, team members, and social workers). Findings from this study may inform supervisors and educators regarding training needs of those preparing to enter the rapidly growing workforce of gerontological social workers who may be called upon to care for elders at the end of life. Training is particularly warranted to help social workers gain the skills needed to more successfully treat symptom management, depression, anxiety, agitation, grief, funeral planning, and spiritual needs that are common to the end of life. PMID:24295099

  20. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  1. Integrating Education on Addressing Health Disparities into the Graduate Social Work Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jamie Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose an elective social work course as a means of better preparing social workers entering practice in healthcare to meet the challenges of promoting health and reducing health disparities in minority and underserved communities. Course offerings specifically targeting health or medical social work training…

  2. Social determinants in an Australian urban region: a 'complexity' lens.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Matthew; Milos, Danijela; Baum, Frances; Friel, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Area-based strategies have been widely employed in efforts to improve population health and take action on social determinants of health (SDH) and health inequities, including in urban areas where many of the social, economic and environmental factors converge to influence health. Increasingly, these factors are recognized as being part of a complex system, where population health outcomes are shaped by multiple, interacting factors operating at different levels of social organization. This article reports on research to assess the extent to which an alliance of health and human service networks is able to promote action on SDH within an Australian urban region, using a complex systems frame. We found that such an alliance was able to promote some effective action which takes into account complex interactions between social factors affecting health, but also identified significant potential barriers to other forms of desired action identified by alliance members. We found that a complex systems lens was useful in assessing a collaborative intervention to address SDH within an urban region. PMID:25107921

  3. Averting the perfect storm: addressing youth substance use risk from social media use.

    PubMed

    Salimian, Parissa K; Chunara, Rumi; Weitzman, Elissa R

    2014-10-01

    Adolescents are developmentally sensitive to pathways that influence alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. In the absence of guidance, their routine engagement with social media may add a further layer of risk. There are several potential mechanisms for social media use to influence AOD risk, including exposure to peer portrayals of AOD use, socially amplified advertising, misinformation, and predatory marketing against a backdrop of lax regulatory systems and privacy controls. Here the authors summarize the influences of the social media world and suggest how pediatricians in everyday practice can alert youth and their parents to these risks to foster conversation, awareness, and harm reduction. PMID:25290130

  4. Teaching to Transform? Addressing Race and Racism in the Teaching of Clinical Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varghese, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Faculty members are key stakeholders to support social work students' learning about race and racism in practice and to promote the professional standards established by the field. This qualitative study examines how 15 clinical social work faculty members teaching advanced practice in the Northeast conceptualize and incorporate their…

  5. Racial Socialization of Biracial Youth: Maternal Messages and Approaches to Address Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Alethea; Hunter, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    We explored how mothers of biracial youth prepare their children to navigate diverse racial ecologies and experiences of racism and discrimination. A qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify racial socialization messages mothers used and emergent racial socialization approaches. Mothers of biracial youth engaged in the full range of…

  6. Identities and Social Structure: The 2003 Cooley-Mead Award Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper examines existing links between identities and the social structure in the context of identity control theory. I point out that, whether social structure is conceived as positions (roles and group memberships) to which identities are tied, or as the human organization of resource flows and transfers that are controlled by the…

  7. How Is Corporate Social Responsibility Addressed by Biotech Firms? a Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Bustamante, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the biotech high-tech sector as a way to achieve competitive advantages. After presenting the importance of science for high-tech firms, the paper focuses on the social and economic role of CSR. Next, the primary reasons for firms' engagement in CSR activities are presented,…

  8. Addressing Dilemmas of Social Justice Mathematics Instruction through Collaboration of Students, Educators, and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokka, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Social justice mathematics educators explicitly aim to develop students' sociopolitical consciousness in addition to teaching mathematics content (Gutiérrez 2013; Gutstein 2006). Sociopolitical consciousness refers to Paulo Freire's (1970) concept of "conscientização," or learning to perceive social, political, and economic…

  9. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Courtney D.; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change. PMID:27231927

  10. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment.

    PubMed

    Perry, Courtney D; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40-60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change. PMID:27231927

  11. A Social-Ecological Approach to Promote Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Hill M.; Calkins, Carl; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Walker, Laura; Bacon, Ansley; Palmer, Susan B.; Jesien, George S.; Nygren, Margaret A.; Heller, Tamar; Gotto, George S.; Abery, Brian H.; Johnson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a social-ecological approach for promoting and enhancing self-determination among individuals with developmental disabilities. A five-level model is presented, based on the interaction of person and environmental factors, that identifies a series of social mediator variables (i.e., social effectiveness, social capital,…

  12. The Ability of Narrative Communication to Address Health-related Social Norms

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Murphy, Sheila T.; Frank, Lauren; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Social norms are an important predictor of health behavior and have been targeted by a variety of health communication campaigns. However, these campaigns often encounter challenges related to the socially specific context in which norms exist: specifically, the extent to which the target population identifies with the reference group presented in the ad and the extent to which the target population believes the campaign's message. We argue that because of its capacity to effect identification among viewers, narrative communication is particularly appropriate for impacting social norms and, consequently, behavioral intention. This manuscript presents the results of a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of two films – one narrative, one non-narrative – in changing perceived social norms and behavioral intention regarding Pap testing to detect cervical cancer. Results of the study indicate that the narrative film was in fact more effective at producing positive changes in perceived norm and intention. PMID:24179677

  13. US Opinions on Health Determinants and Social Policy as Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Booske, Bridget C.

    2011-01-01

    To examine what factors the public thinks are important determinants of health and whether social policy is viewed as health policy, we conducted a national telephone survey of 2791 US adults from November 2008 through February 2009. Respondents said that health behaviors and access to health care have very strong effects on health; they were less likely to report a very strong role for other social and economic factors. Respondents who recognized a stronger role for social determinants of health and who saw social policy as health policy were more likely to be older, women, non-White, and liberal, and to have less education, lower income, and fair/poor health. Increasing public knowledge about social determinants of health and mobilizing less advantaged groups may be useful in addressing broad determinants of health. PMID:21778491

  14. Capturing the Biases of Socially Anxious People by Addressing Partner Effects and Situational Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Savostyanova, Antonina A.

    2014-01-01

    To expose biases in self-perceptions of people high in social anxiety, information is needed on actual and perceived informant reports following social situations. We measured trait social anxiety (SA) in 90 college students arranged in pairs for “getting acquainted” conversations. Half participated in a small-talk task, where they took turns answering superficial questions; half participated in a closeness-generating task, where questions required gradual increases in self-disclosure. Afterward, students rated themselves and their partner on positive and negative attributes and how they think their partner viewed them. People with high SA judged themselves more negatively and less positively than their partner did (accuracy); when interacting with a partner endorsing low SA, they possessed enhanced negativity biases about how they expected to be viewed (meta-accuracy), and believed their partner's judgments were less positive than their own low self-judgments (perceived dissent). Conversely, people with low SA showed evidence of a self-enhancement bias about the impression they made on low SA strangers. Other moderators of the social cognitions of people with high SA included gender and the social situation (distortions being amplified in men and small-talk conversations). Our findings suggest that the study of SA cannot be understood using decontextualized approaches, instead requiring consideration of the synergy among the person, partner, and situation. PMID:21496507

  15. Health in global context; beyond the social determinants of health?

    PubMed Central

    Krumeich, Anja; Meershoek, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The rise of the social determinants of health (SDH) discourse on the basis of statistical evidence that correlates ill health to SDH and pictures causal pathways in comprehensive theoretical frameworks led to widespread awareness that health and health disparities are the outcome of complex pathways of interconnecting SDH. In this paper we explore whether and how SDH frameworks can be translated to effectively inform particular national health policies. To this end we identified major challenges for this translation followed by reflections on ways to overcome them. Most important challenges affecting adequate translation of these frameworks into concrete policy and intervention are 1) overcoming the inclination to conceptualize SDH as mere barriers to health behavior to be modified by lifestyle interventions by addressing them as structural factors instead; 2) obtaining sufficient in-depth insight in and evidence for the exact nature of the relationship between SDs and health; 3) to adequately translate the general determinants and pathways into explanations for ill health and limited access to health care in local settings; 4) to develop and implement policies and other interventions that are adjusted to those local circumstances. We conclude that to transform generic SDH models into useful policy tools and to prevent them to transform in SDH themselves, in depth understanding of the unique interplay between local, national and global SDH in a local setting, gathered by ethnographic research, is needed to be able to address structural SD in the local setting and decrease health inequity.

  16. Health Journalism Internships: A Social Marketing Strategy to Address Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duy H.; Shimasaki, Suzuho; Stafford, Helen Shi

    2010-01-01

    The USA seeks to eliminate health disparities by stimulating the rapid uptake of health-promoting behaviors within disadvantaged communities. A health journalism internship incorporates social marketing strategies to increase communities' access to cancer information, while helping the interns who are recruited from underrepresented communities gain admission to top graduate schools. Interns are taught basic health journalism skills that enable them to create immediate streams of cancer-related press releases for submission to community newspapers. Interns are charged with the social responsibility of continuing this dissemination process throughout their careers. Intermediate outcomes are measured as mediators of distal behavioral change goals. PMID:20186519

  17. Health journalism internships: a social marketing strategy to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy H; Shimasaki, Suzuho; Stafford, Helen Shi; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2010-09-01

    The USA seeks to eliminate health disparities by stimulating the rapid uptake of health-promoting behaviors within disadvantaged communities. A health journalism internship incorporates social marketing strategies to increase communities' access to cancer information, while helping the interns who are recruited from underrepresented communities gain admission to top graduate schools. Interns are taught basic health journalism skills that enable them to create immediate streams of cancer-related press releases for submission to community newspapers. Interns are charged with the social responsibility of continuing this dissemination process throughout their careers. Intermediate outcomes are measured as mediators of distal behavioral change goals. PMID:20186519

  18. Happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chiung; Chong, Young-Sook; An, Jeong Shin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan. The data were obtained from the 2011 Taiwan Social Change Survey (aged 18 +, n = 2,199). The social determinants of happiness included socioeconomic status and social connection. Happiness was not different across the age groups. Receiving less family support, less formal support, more social trust and more control over life were significant for the younger group. Being married and having more social participation were significant for the middle-aged. Receiving less family support and having a higher economic status were significant for the older group. PMID:25609408

  19. Addressing Wife Abuse in Mexican Immigrant Couples: Challenges for Family Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Tina

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses wife abuse in undocumented Mexican immigrant couples and suggests an ecosystems treatment approach that takes into consideration the structural forces of oppression and discrimination on abusive behaviors in the home and combines individual, family and community level interventions to help immigrant men stop the abuse.…

  20. Addressing Social Injustices, Displacement, and Minority Rights through Cases of Culturally Responsive Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Helga; Chaplin, Shane S.; Dessouky, Shimaa; Aklilu, Liya; Hopson, Rodney K.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of programs that address the lingering effects of human rights abuses during times of conflict is necessary to improve program sustainability and create a knowledge bank about the effectiveness of strategies. Outcomes, however, are hard to measure. Evaluators have to gain understanding of the roots of a conflict, surrounding events,…

  1. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: Exploring Challenges in an Urban District Struggling to Address Inequities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMatthews, David; Mawhinney, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Research Approach: This cross case study describes the challenges that two principals working in one urban school district addressed while attempting to transform their school cultures to embrace an inclusion model. Analysis of interviews and observations in each school revealed the actions, values, and orientations of the individual leaders and…

  2. Addressing Physical Inactivity among Developmentally Disabled Students through Visual Schedules and Social Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimbelman, Merilee; Paschal, Angelia; Hawley, Suzanne R.; Molgaard, Craig A.; St. Romain, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This project tested visual schedules and social stories in a physical education setting in order to increase the physical activity of developmentally disabled students. Method: This cohort study design involved 17 physical education teachers in a training course with an initial survey and 7-month post-survey. The initial survey…

  3. Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Time Commitment When Addressing the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William Benedict, III

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were officially released in America for mathematics and English language arts and soon adopted by 45 of the 50 states. However, within the English langue arts domain there were standards intended for secondary social studies teachers under the title, Common Core State Standards for English Language…

  4. Using Baseball in Social Studies Instruction: Addressing the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgington, William D.; Hyman, William

    2005-01-01

    Many children do not enjoy social studies because they see it as having little, if any, relevance to their lives. That response is attributable primarily to two factors: Dry content and even drier instructional strategies. Teachers know that if material presented to children is not meaningful and relevant to their lives, real learning does not…

  5. History Museums and Social Cohesion: Building Identity, Bridging Communities, and Addressing Difficult Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Tracy Jean

    2011-01-01

    Museums have the capacity to enhance social cohesion, which is the product of a trusting, connected community. History museums and historic sites, in particular, can serve communities by stimulating dialogue on difficult issues, accurately representing all the people of a nation, and creating forums for discussion among groups with disparate…

  6. From Social Movement Learning to Sociomaterial Movement Learning? Addressing the Possibilities and Limits of New Materialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Callum

    2014-01-01

    In recent years academic interest in social movement learning (SML) has flourished. "Studies in the Education of Adults" has arguably emerged as the premier international forum for exploring the links between adult learning and movements for progressive change. In parallel to this subfield, yet largely in isolation from it,…

  7. Building Hope, Giving Affirmation: Learning Communities That Address Social Justice Issues Bring Equity to the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie; Hord, Shirley M.

    2010-01-01

    A school that ensures that all students--regardless of race, creed, color, socioeconomic status, gender, or disabilities--have access to and receive the highest-quality education has achieved a key measure of social justice. Since the most significant factor in whether students learn well is quality teaching, and teaching is enhanced through…

  8. Leadership for Social Justice in Hong Kong Schools: Addressing Mechanisms of Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Walker, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to instigate a focused dialogue of social justice in Hong Kong schools and of the responsibilities this holds for school leaders. Design/methodology/approach: The authors draw on economic, psychological, and sociological research to illustrate how the unequal allocation of resources and school status hierarchies affects…

  9. Professional Co-Development Groups: Addressing the Teacher Training Needs of Social Work Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Valérie; Genest Dufault, Sacha; Châteauvert, Joanie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a professional development initiative organized by two junior university social work teachers. Along with three experienced colleagues, the two teachers experimented with a professional co-development group. The purpose of this group modality, which has much in common with peer supervision, is to reflect on professional…

  10. Addressing Social Class and Classism in Vocational Theory and Practice: Extending the Emancipatory Communitarian Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, William Ming; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2005-01-01

    The emancipatory communitarian approach to vocational development is congruent with previous calls to counseling psychologists to be oriented to social justice in their research and practice. However, even in the current emancipatory communitarian approach, an implicit upward mobility bias favors some vocations. To help understand how to better…

  11. Socially Determined Variation in Ancient Rome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brian D.; Wallace, Rex E.

    1992-01-01

    Social implications of phonological and morphological variation in Classical Latin is examined. Arguments for the social factor are instances of hypercorrection, private and domestic instances of certain datives and Augustus' use of rural "domos" for "domus." It is understood in terms of the model of urbanization. (35 references) (Author/LB)

  12. Leveraging social influence to address overweight and obesity using agent-based models: the role of adolescent social networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Tong, L; Lamberson, P J; Durazo-Arvizu, R A; Luke, A; Shoham, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity (hereafter, simply "overweight") in the US has increased over the past several decades. Individually-targeted prevention and treatment strategies targeting individuals have been disappointing, leading some to propose leveraging social networks to improve interventions. We hypothesized that social network dynamics (social marginalization; homophily on body mass index, BMI) and the strength of peer influence would increase or decrease the proportion of network member (agents) becoming overweight over a simulated year, and that peer influence would operate differently in social networks with greater overweight. We built an agent-based model (ABM) using results from R-SIENA. ABMs allow for the exploration of potential interventions using simulated agents. Initial model specifications were drawn from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focused on a single saturation school with complete network and BMI data over two waves (n = 624). The model was validated against empirical observations at Wave 2. We focused on overall overweight prevalence after a simulated year. Five experiments were conducted: (1) changing attractiveness of high-BMI agents; (2) changing homophily on BMI; (3) changing the strength of peer influence; (4) shifting the overall BMI distribution; and (5) targeting dietary interventions to highly connected individuals. Increasing peer influence showed a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of overweight; making peer influence negative (i.e., doing the opposite of friends) increased overweight. However, the effect of peer influence varied based on the underlying distribution of BMI; when BMI was increased overall, stronger peer influence increased proportion of overweight. Other interventions, including targeted dieting, had little impact. Peer influence may be a viable target in overweight interventions, but the distribution of body size in the population needs to

  13. Socially disempowered women as the key to addressing change in Malawi: how do they do it?

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Linda M; Rankin, Sally; Pinderhughes, Howard; Waters, Catherine M; Schell, Ellen; Fiedler, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Malawi women are in the ironic juxtaposition of being socially disempowered while, at the same time, thought to hold the key to shaping an effective community response to the HIV crisis. Based on this juxtaposition, a descriptive, qualitative study was conducted in Malawi and the United States where 26 participants from nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) discussed the roles of Malawi women. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed. We identified an improvement in women's economic status as the strongest factor in reducing gender inequities. Through providing stipends for rural Malawi women, one NGO created unintended changes in gender roles. PMID:23311905

  14. Breaking barriers: addressing structural obstacles to social service provision for Asian survivors of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mihan

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have attributed the disproportionately high rate of domestic violence in Asian communities to Asian patriarchal "cultural norms" and the psychological and behavioral traits that these norms produce in individuals. This article seeks to expand the scope of domestic violence analysis beyond these individual and cultural frameworks, arguing that Asian domestic violence is also a product of larger scale, social systems of inequality. By examining the funding criteria of the Family Violence Prevention Services Administration (FVPSA) and the Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY) standard used by Robin Hood, my research shows how state and private organizations systematically devalue and underfund minority-targeted programs. PMID:24367062

  15. Addressing the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by voting by persons with dementia.

    PubMed

    Karlawish, Jason H; Bonnie, Richard J; Appelbaum, Paul S; Lyketsos, Constantine; James, Bryan; Knopman, David; Patusky, Christopher; Kane, Rosalie A; Karlan, Pamela S

    2004-09-15

    This article addresses an emerging policy problem in the United States participation in the electoral process by citizens with dementia. At present, health care professionals, family caregivers, and long-term care staff lack adequate guidance to decide whether individuals with dementia should be precluded from or assisted in casting a ballot. Voting by persons with dementia raises a series of important questions about the autonomy of individuals with dementia, the integrity of the electoral process, and the prevention of fraud. Three subsidiary issues warrant special attention: development of a method to assess capacity to vote; identification of appropriate kinds of assistance to enable persons with cognitive impairment to vote; and formulation of uniform and workable policies for voting in long-term care settings. In some instances, extrapolation from existing policies and research permits reasonable recommendations to guide policy and practice. However, in other instances, additional research is necessary. PMID:15367557

  16. The Social Determinants of Tuberculosis: From Evidence to Action

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Delia; Evans, Carlton A.; Adato, Michelle; Petticrew, Mark; Porter, John D. H.

    2011-01-01

    Growing consensus indicates that progress in tuberculosis control in the low- and middle-income world will require not only investment in strengthening tuberculosis control programs, diagnostics, and treatment but also action on the social determinants of tuberculosis. However, practical ideas for action are scarcer than is notional support for this idea. We developed a framework based on the recent World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health and on current understanding of the social determinants of tuberculosis. Interventions from outside the health sector—specifically, in social protection and urban planning—have the potential to strengthen tuberculosis control. PMID:21330583

  17. Social Justice Approach to Road Safety in Kenya: Addressing the Uneven Distribution of Road Traffic Injuries and Deaths across Population Groups

    PubMed Central

    Azetsop, Jacquineau

    2010-01-01

    Road traffic injury and deaths (RTID) are an important public health problem in Kenya, primarily affecting uneducated and disenfranchised people from lower socioeconomic groups. Studies conducted by Kenyan experts from police reports and surveys have shown that pedestrian and driver behaviors are the most important proximal causes of crashes, signifying that the occurrence of crashes results directly from human action. However, behaviors and risk factors do not fully explain the magnitude of RTID neither does it account for socioeconomic gradient in RTID. Instead, a social justice approach to RTID highlights the need for emphasizing distal causal factors. They allow us to understand how social inequities determine risk for RTID. Hence, designing policies that focus on behaviors will simply mask the underlying systemic causes of this growing phenomenon. To eradicate the RTID and address the gradient, a broader policy framework that includes the social dimension of injury, a strong political will to address the underlying causes of RTID and an effective partnership with stakeholders needs to be developed. PMID:20664752

  18. Social determinants of adolescent depression: an examination of racial differences.

    PubMed

    Respress, Brandon N; Morris, Diana L; Gary, Faye A; Lewin, Linda C; Francis, Shelley A

    2013-07-01

    Conventional behavior theories that assert adolescent risk behaviors are determined by peer and parental relationships are being challenged as research begins to consider broader socioenvironmental factors. This study, using data from the Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave II, Public Use Data, and the Social Determinants of Adolescent Risk Behaviors (SDOARB) framework, examines relationships among socioeconomic status (SES), academic performance, perceived peer prejudice, and perceived teacher discrimination as predictors of depressive symptoms among high school adolescents. Overall, the study found that GPA was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms across all three racial groups (Black, White, and Other Minority). Teacher discrimination predicted depressive symptoms among White and Other minority adolescents, but not Black adolescents. These findings suggest the need for interventions within schools for both students and teachers around racial differences in perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Failure to address overt and covert subtleties of discrimination and prejudice within schools and policies which affect these interpersonal dynamics may have a significant impact on the overall mental wellbeing of adolescents. PMID:23875556

  19. Widening the Aim of Health Promotion to Include the Most Disadvantaged: Vulnerable Adolescents and the Social Determinants of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health…

  20. The impact of social determinants on cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Anand, Sonia S

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among high-income countries and is projected to be the leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. Much of the current research efforts have been aimed toward the identification, modification and treatment of individual-level risk factors. Despite significant advancements, gross inequalities continue to persist over space and time. Although increasing at different rates worldwide, the magnitude of increase in the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors has shifted research efforts to study the causes of the risk factors (ie, the ‘causes of the causes’), which include the social determinants of health. The social determinants of health reflect the impact of the social environment on health among people sharing a particular community. Imbalances in the social determinants of health have been attributed to the inequities in health observed between and within countries. The present article reviews the role of the social determinants of health on a global level, describing the epidemiological transition and the persistent trend known as the ‘inverse social gradient’. The impact of social determinants in Canada will also be examined, including data from ethnic and Aboriginal communities. Possible solutions and future directions to reduce the impact of social factors on cardiovascular health are proposed. PMID:20847985

  1. Religious social capital: Its measurement and utility in the study of the social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    Maselko, Joanna; Hughes, Cayce; Cheney, Rose

    2014-01-01

    As a social determinant of health, religiosity remains not well understood, despite the prevalence of religious activity and prominence of religious institutions in most societies. This paper introduces a working measure of Religious Social Capital and presents preliminary associations with neighborhood social capital and urban stressors. Religious social capital is defined as the social resources available to individuals and groups through their social connections with a religious community. Domains covered include group membership, social integration, values/norms, bonding/bridging trust as well as social support. Cross-sectional data come from a convenience sample of 104 community dwelling adults residing in a single urban neighborhood in a large US city, who also provided information on neighborhood social capital, and experiences of urban stressors. Results suggest that religious social capital is a valid construct that can be reliably measured. All indicators of religious social capital were higher among those who frequently attended religious services, with the exception of bridging trust (trust of people from different religious groups). A weak, inverse, association was also observed between religious and neighborhood social capital levels. Levels of religious social capital were correlated with higher levels of reported urban stressors, while neighborhood social capital was correlated with lower urban stressor levels. A significant percent of the sample was unaffiliated with a religious tradition and these individuals were more likely to be male, young and more highly educated. Social capital is a promising construct to help elucidate the influence of religion on population health. PMID:21802182

  2. Determinism versus Creativity: Which Way for Social Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peile, Colin

    1993-01-01

    Contends that dominant cosmology within social work is determinism. Argues for creative cosmology that can synthesize deterministic and random processes. Sees this development made possible by reconceptualization of relative nature of time. Discussion is grounded in relation to small example of social work practice, and implications of creative…

  3. Multiple Determinants, Common Vulnerabilities, and Creative Responses: Addressing the AIDS Pandemic in Diverse Populations Globally

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Kenneth H.; Pape, Jean William; Wilson, Phill; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Saavedra, Jorge; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Koenig, Serena; Farmer, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic has been fueled by global inequities. Ranging from gender inequality and underdevelopment to homophobia impeding health care access for men who have sex with men (MSM), imbalanced resource allocations and social biases have potentiated the epidemic’s spread. However, recognition of culturally specific aspects of each microepidemic has yielded development of community-based organizations, which have resulted in locally effective responses to AIDS. This effective approach to HIV prevention, care and treatment is illustrated through examples of community-based responses in Haiti, the United States, Africa, and other impoverished settings. PMID:22772387

  4. Are community midwives addressing the inequities in access to skilled birth attendance in Punjab, Pakistan? Gender, class and social exclusion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pakistan is one of the six countries estimated to contribute to over half of all maternal deaths worldwide. To address its high maternal mortality rate, in particular the inequities in access to maternal health care services, the government of Pakistan created a new cadre of community-based midwives (CMW). A key expectation is that the CMWs will improve access to skilled antenatal and intra-partum care for the poor and disadvantaged women. A critical gap in our knowledge is whether this cadre of workers, operating in the private health care context, will meet the expectation to provide care to the poorest and most marginalized women. There is an inherent paradox between the notions of fee-for-service and increasing access to health care for the poorest who, by definition, are unable to pay. Methods/Design Data will be collected in three interlinked modules. Module 1 will consist of a population-based survey in the catchment areas of the CMW’s in districts Jhelum and Layyah in Punjab. Proportions of socially excluded women who are served by CMWs and their satisfaction levels with their maternity care provider will be assessed. Module 2 will explore, using an institutional ethnographic approach, the challenges (organizational, social, financial) that CMWs face in providing care to the poor and socially marginalized women. Module 3 will identify the social, financial, geographical and other barriers to uncover the hidden forces and power relations that shape the choices and opportunities of poor and marginalized women in accessing CMW services. An extensive knowledge dissemination plan will facilitate uptake of research findings to inform positive developments in maternal health policy, service design and care delivery in Pakistan. Discussion The findings of this study will enhance understanding of the power dynamics of gender and class that may underlie poor women’s marginalization from health care systems, including community midwifery care. One key

  5. Are there social determinants of health and disease?

    PubMed

    Thisted, Ronald A

    2003-01-01

    The concept of a determinant is tied to the idea of a mechanism for action. Ideas from epidemiology, particularly the epidemiologic triad of agent, host, and environment, can help to make sense of factors that affect the absence of disease or that interfere with a mechanism that alters health. However, assembling convincing evidence for the existence of social determinants of health is a challenge, in part because of the difficulties of bridging the social and biological realms. While social contexts are measured using aggregates of individuals, disease and dysfunction occur at the individual level, leading to difficult problems of ecological inference. Although social factors have been shown to be associated with differences in mortality from specific causes, these factors account for only a small portion of the mortality from any individual cause. This suggests that the pathways through which social factors influence health are affected by their interactions with other factors. PMID:14563075

  6. Korean Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Importance and Implementation of Strategies to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Kay H.; Cheatham, Gregory A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Noh, Jina

    2014-01-01

    In South Korea, there has been a rapid increase in challenging behaviors and other social-emotional difficulties at the early childhood level. Korean early childhood educators' perspectives and strategies to address young children's social-emotional competencies and challenging behaviors were investigated. Overall, results suggest that…

  7. Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field is comprised of essays that delineate the genesis and evolution of the thought and work of pioneers in the field of social issues and education. The authors (many of whom, themselves, are noted professors of education and who have done…

  8. What determines social capital in a social-ecological system? Insights from a network perspective.

    PubMed

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun

    2015-02-01

    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable. PMID:25376745

  9. What Determines Social Capital in a Social-Ecological System? Insights from a Network Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun

    2015-02-01

    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.

  10. Social Determinants of Depression: Social Cohesion, Negative Life Events, and Depression Among People Living with HIV/Aids in Nigeria, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Rasaki O.; Issa, Baba A.; Olanrewaju, Ganiyu T.; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O.; Odeigah, Louis O.; Sule, Abdullateef G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) continue to face persistent and deep rooted social barriers. Incidentally, studies in social determinants of depression are very limited, necessitating this study, which examined social determinants of depression and the impact of these determinants on depression. Methods: This was a hospital based, cross sectional descriptive study of three hundred adult HIV/AIDS patients, attending the HIV clinic of Kwara State Specialist Hospital, Sobi, Ilorin, Nigeria. Depressive symptoms were measured by the PHQ-9 rating scale. Three variables of social determinants of depression: socio-economic status (years of school and self-reported economic status of family), social cohesion, and negative life events were examined. Results: The self-reported economic status of the family varied from good 35(11.7%), average 162(54%), and poor among 103(34.3%) of the respondents. Social cohesion was low in 199(66.3%), fair in 65(21.7%) and high among 36(12%) of the respondents. There was significant association between social cohesion, negative life events, and depression. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: Income was the most significant socio-economic determinant. Majority had very low social cohesion and more negative life events, while those with below average years of schooling were more depressed. These are statistically significant. Social determinants of depression should be given a lot of emphasis, when addressing the issue of depression, if we are to meaningfully tackle this increasing scourge in our society.

  11. [Role of social epidemiology in the evaluation of psychosocial health determinants].

    PubMed

    Zagozdzon, Paweł; Zaborski, Leszek

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between social factors and health status is well known in medical sciences. However, the importance of methods implemented in the assessment of psychosocial health determinants has been addressed only recently. The combined perspective of epidemiology and sociology showed the need for the new science called social epidemiology. The aim of this work was to review the results of studies on effects of psychosocial factors on increased risk of disease and death. The association between socioeconomic position and health is well established. There is a direct relationship--the better the socioeconomic position the better health. The socioeconomic relative inequalities not only the absolute differences between socioeconomic groups influence health. The relationship between unemployment and increased mortality has been reported in western industrialized countries. Classical longitudinal studies of unemployed cohorts showed that unemployed men had higher mortality. Social epidemiology has also revealed the influence of social relationships on mortality. The theory of social support and social network buffer links social ties to less morbidity, mortality and better functioning. Randomized clinical trials positively tested the role of social support in preventive medicine, especially for secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It is critical to adopt findings of social epidemiology by health care policy. The epidemiological investigations and experimental research have shown how psychosocial interventions and economic policies are central to improving population health. PMID:15002306

  12. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  13. Coalition formation to address structural determinants of methamphetamine use in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Willard, Nancy; Srirojn, Bangorn; Thomson, Nicholas; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sherman, Susan; Galai, Noya; Celentano, David D; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2015-09-01

    Despite two recent government-sponsored 'wars on drugs', methamphetamine use continues to be a pervasive problem in Thailand. Out of concern for reported human rights abuses, there has been a call from the international community to take a different approach from the government's 'zero tolerance'. This paper describes the adaptation of the Connect to Protect® coalition formation process from urban U.S. cities to three districts in northern Thailand's Chiang Mai province, aimed to reduce methamphetamine use by altering the risk environment. Project materials, including manuals and materials (e.g. key actor maps and research staff memos), were reviewed to describe partnering procedures and selection criteria. Potential community partners were identified from various government and community sectors with a focus on including representatives from health, police, district and sub-district government officials. Of the 64 potential partners approached, 59 agreed to join one of three district-level coalitions. Partner makeup included 25% from the health sector, 22% who were sub-district government officials and 10% were representatives from the police sector. Key partners necessary for endorsement of and commitment to the coalition work included district-level governors, police chiefs and hospital directors for each district. Initial coalition strategic planning has resulted in policies and programs to address school retention, youth development initiatives and establishment of a new drug treatment and rehabilitation clinic in addition to other developing interventions. Similarities in building coalitions, such as the need to strategically develop buy-in with key constituencies, as well as differences of whom and how partners were identified are explored. PMID:24493782

  14. Assessing the social and physical determinants of circumpolar population health

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, David L.; Dotterrer, Bruce; Brown, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Systematic reviews of the social and physical determinants of health provide metrics for evaluation of programs to mitigate health disparities. Previous meta-analyses of the population health literature have identified several proximate social and physical determinants of population health in the circumpolar north including addiction, environmental exposures, diet/nutrition and global climate change. Proximate health determinants are most amenable to early detection and modification or mitigation through disease prevention or health promotion interventions. Design There is a need for research to replicate these findings based on the latest science. This presentation describes a study applying Dahlgren and Whitehead's (1991) socio-ecological model of health determinants to identify the proximate social and physical determinants of health in the circumpolar north. Methods The study consisted of a systematic review of recent studies that link determinants of health with the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Alaska. Our search strategy employed a keyword search using the Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database (CHBD) and 4 databases within the Web of Knowledge (WoK) data gateway. Keywords included various terms for the arctic, all relevant nations and territories within the region, as well as leading health outcomes. Results Studies meeting the following inclusion criteria were reviewed: original research within a circumpolar population, published in English during 2011, and involving a rigorous demonstration of a link between a social determinant and selected health outcomes. Conclusions Study conclusions includes a list of determinants identified, their associated outcomes and the study designs implemented to assess that association. PMID:23986893

  15. Using an intersectional approach to study the impact of social determinants of health for African American mothers living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Caiola, Courtney; Docherty, Sharron L; Relf, Michael; Barroso, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Heightened awareness of the social determinants of health by health scientists and clinicians has failed to translate into significant progress in the amelioration of those social determinants contributing to health inequities. The purpose of this article is to broaden the discussion about conceptual approaches nurse scientists can use to address health and health inequities. We will apply an intersectional approach to the study of the social determinants of health for African American mothers living with human immunodeficiency virus and through this explore the utility of an intersectional approach to generate knowledge in nursing. PMID:25365282

  16. Frequency-Domain Approach To Determine Magnetic Address-Sensor Separation Distance Using the Harmonic Ratio Method.

    PubMed

    Young, Colin C; Blackley, Benjamin W; Porter, Marc D; Granger, Michael C

    2016-02-16

    In this work, we describe an approach to determine the distance separating a magnetic address from a scanning magnetoresistive sensor, a critical adjustable parameter for certain bioassay analyses where magnetic nanoparticles are used as labels. Our approach is leveraged from the harmonic ratio method (HRM), a method used in the hard drive industry to control the distance separating a magnetoresistive read head from its data platter with nanometer resolution. At the heart of the HRM is an amplitude comparison of a signal's fundamental frequency to that of its harmonics. When the signal is derived from the magnetic field pattern of a periodic array of magnetic addresses, the harmonic ratio contains the information necessary to determine the separation between the address array and the read head. The elegance of the HRM is that there is no need of additional components to the detection platform to determine a separation distance; the streaming "bit signal" contains all the information needed. In this work, we demonstrate that the tenets governing HRM used in the hard drive industry can be applied to the bioanalytical arena where submicrometer to 100 μm separations are required. PMID:26879366

  17. IPCC and other assessments as vehicles for integrating natural and social science research to address human dimensions of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    IPCC and other assessments address both natural and social science aspects of climate change, but this approach has historically involved relatively little integration across the two sets of disciplines. In a framing that is only slightly oversimplified, past relationships were mostly sequential. From a physical climate perspective, human behavior was a boundary condition setting the trajectory of atmospheric forcing. And from an impacts perspective, changes in the physical climate set the stage upon which humans experienced impacts and made decisions about adaptation and mitigation. Integrated assessment models have been the main locus of research on questions about bi-directional coupling, where the trajectory of the physical climate influences GHG balance related to the need for agricultural land as well as GHG emissions from other activities. In the IPCC AR4 (2007), feedbacks from the natural carbon cycle to climate were a focus, but with little discussion of the potentially important feedbacks from climate-carbon interactions in the human domain. Detailed research and modeling in this area are still in the relatively early stages. For the future, IPCC and other assessments potentially provide a vehicle for new insights about the interaction of natural and social science dimensions of climate change. Several aspects could be interesting. Some of these relate to the decisions that modulate GHG emissions. For example, how does scientific understanding of climate change influence people's interest in mitigation and adaptation? How does it influence their willingness to pay? How are these modulated by regional and global geopolitics? Other potentially interesting aspects relate to interactions between mitigation and adaptation. For example, how does local experience of climate change alter the balance of focus on adaptation and mitigation? Still others relate to the nature of impacts and the role of sustainable development. With an aggress sustainable development

  18. Transcriptional profiling to address molecular determinants of endometrial receptivity--lessons from studies in livestock species.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Susanne E; Groebner, Anna E; Bauersachs, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The development of a fertilized oocyte into a differentiated multi-cellular organism is a major challenge with regard to the orchestration of the expression of the mammalian genome. Highly complex networks of genes are temporally and spatially regulated during cellular differentiation to generate specific cell types. Embryonic development is critically influenced by external impacts in the female reproductive tract. A most critical phase of pregnancy in mammals is the pre- and peri-implantation period, during which the uterine environment plays a crucial role in supporting the development of the conceptus. The analytical description of the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of the embryo-maternal interface is a prerequisite for the understanding of the complex regulatory processes taking place during this time. This review lines out potentials and limitations of different approaches to unravel the determinants of endometrial receptivity in cattle, the pig and the horse. Suitable in vivo and in vitro models, which have been used to elucidate factors participating in the embryo-maternal dialog are discussed. Taken together, transcriptome analyses and specified selective candidate gene driven approaches contribute to the understanding of endometrial function. The endometrium as sensor and driver of fertility may indicate the qualitative and quantitative nature of signaling molecules sent by the early embryo and in turn, accordingly impact on embryonic development. PMID:23178633

  19. Addressing drug effects on cut point determination for an anti-drug antibody assay.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Maria D F S; Gleason, Carol R; Phillips, Kelli R; Berisha, Flora; Stouffer, Bruce; Warrack, Bethanne M; Chen, Guodong

    2012-10-31

    The effect of trough levels of a monoclonal antibody drug (drugB) on screening cut point (CP) determination for an anti-drug antibody (ADA) assay was scrutinized and the conclusions substantiated by data from a phase 3 cancer clinical study. The ADA assay utilized an acid dissociation step and either 0 or 100 μg/ml drugB was added to the samples prior to obtaining the signals used for CP calculations. Serum samples from three different drug-naive populations were tested (healthy individuals, cancer patients enrolled in the drugB clinical trial and cancer patients whose serum samples were available commercially). For the same disease state samples, both the screening CP and confirmation CP were different when calculated during validation or from study sample analysis. It is reasonable to assume that variability was due to the patient heterogeneity, as they could have been at distinct stages of disease progression, and/or taking different medications, amongst other differences. The patients enrolled in the clinical trial were stratified as per protocol and hence represented a more homogeneous population. Drug effects on CP may be population dependent and also assay dependent. PMID:22750627

  20. Screening for Social Determinants of Health Among Children and Families Living in Poverty: A Guide for Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chung, Esther K; Siegel, Benjamin S; Garg, Arvin; Conroy, Kathleen; Gross, Rachel S; Long, Dayna A; Lewis, Gena; Osman, Cynthia J; Jo Messito, Mary; Wade, Roy; Shonna Yin, H; Cox, Joanne; Fierman, Arthur H

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 20% of all children in the United States live in poverty, which exists in rural, urban, and suburban areas. Thus, all child health clinicians need to be familiar with the effects of poverty on health and to understand associated, preventable, and modifiable social factors that impact health. Social determinants of health are identifiable root causes of medical problems. For children living in poverty, social determinants of health for which clinicians may play a role include the following: child maltreatment, child care and education, family financial support, physical environment, family social support, intimate partner violence, maternal depression and family mental illness, household substance abuse, firearm exposure, and parental health literacy. Children, particularly those living in poverty, exposed to adverse childhood experiences are susceptible to toxic stress and a variety of child and adult health problems, including developmental delay, asthma and heart disease. Despite the detrimental effects of social determinants on health, few child health clinicians routinely address the unmet social and psychosocial factors impacting children and their families during routine primary care visits. Clinicians need tools to screen for social determinants of health and to be familiar with available local and national resources to address these issues. These guidelines provide an overview of social determinants of health impacting children living in poverty and provide clinicians with practical screening tools and resources. PMID:27101890

  1. Globalization and social determinants of health: Promoting health equity in global governance (part 3 of 3)

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-01-01

    This article is the third in a three-part review of research on globalization and the social determinants of health (SDH). In the first article of the series, we identified and defended an economically oriented definition of globalization and addressed a number of important conceptual and metholodogical issues. In the second article, we identified and described seven key clusters of pathways relevant to globalization's influence on SDH. This discussion provided the basis for the premise from which we begin this article: interventions to reduce health inequities by way of SDH are inextricably linked with social protection, economic management and development strategy. Reflecting this insight, and against the background of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), we focus on the asymmetrical distribution of gains, losses and power that is characteristic of globalization in its current form and identify a number of areas for innovation on the part of the international community: making more resources available for health systems, as part of the more general task of expanding and improving development assistance; expanding debt relief and taking poverty reduction more seriously; reforming the international trade regime; considering the implications of health as a human right; and protecting the policy space available to national governments to address social determinants of health, notably with respect to the hypermobility of financial capital. We conclude by suggesting that responses to globalization's effects on social determinants of health can be classified with reference to two contrasting visions of the future, reflecting quite distinct values. PMID:17578570

  2. Globalization and social determinants of health: Promoting health equity in global governance (part 3 of 3).

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-01-01

    This article is the third in a three-part review of research on globalization and the social determinants of health (SDH). In the first article of the series, we identified and defended an economically oriented definition of globalization and addressed a number of important conceptual and metholodogical issues. In the second article, we identified and described seven key clusters of pathways relevant to globalization's influence on SDH. This discussion provided the basis for the premise from which we begin this article: interventions to reduce health inequities by way of SDH are inextricably linked with social protection, economic management and development strategy. Reflecting this insight, and against the background of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), we focus on the asymmetrical distribution of gains, losses and power that is characteristic of globalization in its current form and identify a number of areas for innovation on the part of the international community: making more resources available for health systems, as part of the more general task of expanding and improving development assistance; expanding debt relief and taking poverty reduction more seriously; reforming the international trade regime; considering the implications of health as a human right; and protecting the policy space available to national governments to address social determinants of health, notably with respect to the hypermobility of financial capital. We conclude by suggesting that responses to globalization's effects on social determinants of health can be classified with reference to two contrasting visions of the future, reflecting quite distinct values. PMID:17578570

  3. Resurrecting social infrastructure as a determinant of urban tuberculosis control in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The key to universal coverage in tuberculosis (TB) management lies in community participation and empowerment of the population. Social infrastructure development generates social capital and addresses the crucial social determinants of TB, thereby improving program performance. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the concept of social infrastructure development for TB control in developing countries. This study aims to revive this concept and highlight the fact that documentation on ways to operationalize urban TB control is required from a holistic development perspective. Further, it explains how development of social infrastructure impacts health and development outcomes, especially with respect to TB in urban settings. Methods A wide range of published Government records pertaining to social development parameters and TB program surveillance, between 2001 and 2011 in Delhi, were studied. Social infrastructure development parameters like human development index along with other indicators reflecting patient profile and habitation in urban settings were selected as social determinants of TB. These include adult literacy rates, per capita income, net migration rates, percentage growth in slum population, and percentage of urban population living in one-room dwelling units. The impact of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program on TB incidence was assessed as an annual decline in new TB cases notified under the program. Univariate linear regression was employed to examine the interrelationship between social development parameters and TB program outcomes. Results The decade saw a significant growth in most of the social development parameters in the State. TB program performance showed 46% increment in lives saved among all types of TB cases per 100,000 population. The 7% reduction in new TB case notifications from the year 2001 to 2011, translates to a logarithmic decline of 5.4 new TB cases per 100,000 population. Except per capita

  4. Twelve tips for teaching social determinants of health in medicine.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Iveris L; Artze-Vega, Isis; Wells, Alan L; Mora, Jorge Camilo; Gillis, Marin

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Background: There has been a recent movement towards social accountability in medical schools, which includes integrating the social, economic, and cultural determinants of health into the curriculum. Medical schools and their guiding bodies have met this challenge of educating future physicians to provide effective care to diverse populations with varying response and successes. Because these topics have not been systematically taught in most medical school curricula, strategies are needed to teach them alongside clinical sciences. Aim and method: We provide 12 tips on how to teach social determinants of health and cultural competency to undergraduate medical students. These recommendations are based on a review of the literature and our experience in developing and delivering a longitudinal course over the last five years. Conclusion: Medical students must be taught to think critically about the social and cultural issues impacting health, and the intersection with the basic biology and clinical skills. Teaching social determinants of health in medicine requires keeping the material concrete and applicable. Educators must engage students in active learning strategies, reflection, and focus on how to make the material relevant to the clinical care of patients. PMID:25373885

  5. Social Determinants of Educational Outcomes in Indigenous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    For the better part of two decades, the author and his research colleagues have been engaged in a broad program of research aimed at identifying certain of the "social determinants of health and wellbeing" common to Canadian First Nation, Metis, and Inuit youth. The present account samples from these ongoing research efforts by recapping two sets…

  6. "Healthy People": A 2020 Vision for the Social Determinants Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Howard K.; Piotrowski, Julie J.; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    For the past three decades, the "Healthy People" initiative has represented an ambitious yet achievable health promotion and disease prevention agenda for the nation. The recently released fourth version--"Healthy People 2020"--builds on the foundations of prior iterations while newly embracing and elevating a comprehensive "social determinants"…

  7. Social Determinants and the Classification of Disease: Descriptive Epidemiology of Selected Socially Mediated Disease Constellations

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara A.; Rust, George S.; Langston, Michael A.; Husaini, Baqar A.; Gittner, Lisaann S.; Sanderson, Maureen; Hennekens, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Most major diseases have important social determinants. In this context, classification of disease based on etiologic or anatomic criteria may be neither mutually exclusive nor optimal. Methods and Findings Units of analysis comprised large metropolitan central and fringe metropolitan counties with reliable mortality rates – (n = 416). Participants included infants and adults ages 25 to 64 years with selected causes of death (1999 to 2006). Exposures included that residential segregation and race-specific social deprivation variables. Main outcome measures were obtained via principal components analyses with an orthogonal rotation to identify a common factor. To discern whether the common factor was socially mediated, negative binomial multiple regression models were developed for which the dependent variable was the common factor. Results showed that infant deaths, mortality from assault, and malignant neoplasm of the trachea, bronchus and lung formed a common factor for race-gender groups (black/white and men/women). Regression analyses showed statistically significant, positive associations between low socio-economic status for all race-gender groups and this common factor. Conclusions Between 1999 and 2006, deaths classified as “assault” and “lung cancer”, as well as “infant mortality” formed a socially mediated factor detectable in population but not individual data. Despite limitations related to death certificate data, the results contribute important information to the formulation of several hypotheses: (a) disease classifications based on anatomic or etiologic criteria fail to account for social determinants; (b) social forces produce demographically and possibly geographically distinct population-based disease constellations; and (c) the individual components of population-based disease constellations (e.g., lung cancer) are phenotypically comparable from one population to another but genotypically different, in part, because

  8. 'Health equity through action on the social determinants of health': taking up the challenge in nursing.

    PubMed

    Reutter, Linda; Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick

    2010-09-01

    Reducing health inequities is a priority issue in Canada and worldwide. In this paper, we argue that nursing has a clear mandate to ensure access to health and health-care by providing sensitive empowering care to those experiencing inequities and working to change underlying social conditions that result in and perpetuate health inequities. We identify key dimensions of the concept of health (in)equities and identify recommendations to reduce inequities advanced in key global and Canadian documents. Using these documents as context, we advocate a 'critical caring approach' that will assist nurses to understand the social, political, economic and historical context of health inequities and to tackle these inequities through policy advocacy. Numerous societal barriers as well as constraints within the nursing profession must be acknowledged and addressed. We offer recommendations related to nursing practice, education and research to move forward the agenda of reducing health inequities through action on the social determinants of health. PMID:20712665

  9. Addressing the Photometric Calibration Challenge: Explicit Determination of the Instrumental Response and Atmospheric Response Functions, and Tying it All Together.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Photometric calibration is currently the dominant source of systematic uncertainty in exploiting type Ia supernovae to determine the nature of the dark energy. We review our ongoing program to address this calibration challenge by performing measurements of both the instrumental response function and the optical transmission function of the atmosphere. A key aspect of this approach is to complement standard star observations by using NIST-calibrated photodiodes as a metrology foundation for optical flux measurements. We present our first attempt to assess photometric consistency between synthetic photometry and observations, by comparing predictions based on a NIST-diode-based determination of the PanSTARRS-1 instrumental response and empirical atmospheric transmission measurements, with fluxes we obtained from observing spectrophotometric standards.

  10. Social determinants of workers' health in Central America.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Aurora; Partanen, Timo; Felknor, Sarah; Corriols, Marianela

    2011-01-01

    This communication summarizes the available data on work-related determinants of health in Central America. The Central American working population is young and moving from agriculture toward industry and services. Ethnicity, gender, migration, subemployment and precarious work, informality, rural conditions, low-level educational, poverty, ubiquitous worksite health hazards, insufficient occupational health services, low labor inspection density, and weak unions define the constellation of social determinants of workers' health in Central America. Data are, however, scanty both for hazards and work-related illnesses and injuries. Governments and industries have the responsibility of opening decent work opportunities, especially for those facing multiple inequalities in social determinants of health. A first step would be the ratification and implementation of the ILO Convention (187) on occupational safety and health by the seven national governments of the region. PMID:21905391

  11. Efforts to Bridge the Gap between Research and Practice in Social Work: Precedents and Prospects: Keynote Address at the Bridging the Gap Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This keynote address discusses previous and ongoing efforts to reduce the persistent gap between research and practice in social work and offers recommendations for further bridging that gap. Key among those recommendations is the need to conduct descriptive outcome studies of efforts to adapt research-supported interventions in everyday practice…

  12. [The challenge for healthcare systems in the XXI century: how to incorporate the focus of social determinants in healthcare?].

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2015-01-01

    During the 20th century, a series of reflections on the role of biomedicine and social factors in the concept of health and disease processes served as a necessary prelude to the conceptual and empirical development of what later became known as the social determinants of health. In relation to this perspective, the question arises: What is the role of modern health systems from the perspective of the social determinants of health? This article presents an alternative view of the role of health systems from the focus of the social determinants of health, raising its importance and influence on the structural level, while addressing its implications as an intermediary determinant of health inequalities. PMID:26567545

  13. Acceptance of Disability: Determinants of Overcoming Social Frustration

    PubMed Central

    Morozova, Elena Valeryevna; Shmeleva, Svetlana Vasilyevna; Sorokoumova, Elena Aleksandrovna; Nikishina, Vera Borisovna; Abdalina, Larisa Vasilyevna

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the subjective reaction of patients at different stages of disabling disease, in the context of the formation of a specific cognitive-emotional and motivational model of “internal picture of disability”, depending on the severity of social frustration as the most important deconditioning factor. We wanted to identify psychological determinant of the specificity of adaptive activity of the patient to the situation disabling disease, depending on the level of increase social frustration. Nature of adaptation to the disabling disease depending on the level of increase social frustration expressed by: 1) decrease in self-esteem of patient self-efficacy with an increase in subjective experience of disability; 2) the growing tension of personal protective mechanisms; 3) reductions coping competence, which, depending on the rise of frustration, becomes effective instead of the rational-intelligent, more maladaptive emotional. PMID:25948469

  14. Social determinants of Black-White disparities in breast cancer mortality: a review.

    PubMed

    Gerend, Mary A; Pai, Manacy

    2008-11-01

    Despite the recent decline in breast cancer mortality, African American women continue to die from breast cancer at higher rates than do White women. Beyond the fact that breast cancer tends to be a more biologically aggressive disease in African American than in White women, this disparity in breast cancer mortality also reflects social barriers that disproportionately affect African American women. These barriers hinder cancer prevention and control efforts and modify the biological expression of disease. The present review focuses on delineating social, economic, and cultural factors that are potentially responsible for Black-White disparities in breast cancer mortality. This review was guided by the social determinants of health disparities model, a model that identifies barriers associated with poverty, culture, and social injustice as major causes of health disparities. These barriers, in concert with genetic, biological, and environmental factors, can promote differential outcomes for African American and White women along the entire breast cancer continuum, from screening and early detection to treatment and survival. Barriers related to poverty include lack of a primary care physician, inadequate health insurance, and poor access to health care. Barriers related to culture include perceived invulnerability, folk beliefs, and a general mistrust of the health care system. Barriers related to social injustice include racial profiling and discrimination. Many of these barriers are potentially modifiable. Thus, in addition to biomedical advancements, future efforts to reduce disparities in breast cancer mortality should address social barriers that perpetuate disparities among African American and White women in the United States. PMID:18990731

  15. Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn

    2016-04-01

    Widespread awareness of the recent deaths of several black males at the hands of police has revealed an unaddressed public health challenge-determining the root causes of excessive use of force by police applied to black males that may result in "justifiable homicides." The criminalization of black males has a long history in the USA, which has resulted in an increase in policing behaviors by legal authorities and created inequitable life chances for black males. Currently, the discipline of public health has not applied an intersectional approach that investigates the intersection of race and gender to understanding police behaviors that lead to "justifiable homicides" for black males. This article applies the core tenets and processes of Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to develop a framework that can improve research and interventions to address the disparities observed in recent trend analyses of "justifiable homicides." Accordingly, we use PHCRP to offer an alternative framework on the social, legal, and health implications of violence-related incidents. We aim to move the literature in this area forward to help scholars, policymakers, and activists build the capacity of communities to address the excessive use of force by police to reduce mortality rates from "justifiable homicides." PMID:26661386

  16. Sex-specific determinants of fitness in a social mammal.

    PubMed

    Lardy, Sophie; Allainé, Dominique; Bonenfant, Christophe; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-11-01

    Sociality should evolve when the fitness benefits of group living outweigh the costs. Theoretical models predict an optimal group size maximizing individual fitness. However, beyond the number of individuals present in a group, the characteristics of these individuals, like their sex, are likely to affect the fitness payoffs of group living. Using 20 years of individually based data on a social mammal, the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota), we tested for the occurrence of an optimal group size and composition, and for sex-specific effects of group characteristics on fitness. Based on lifetime data of 52 males and 39 females, our findings support the existence of an optimal group size maximizing male fitness and an optimal group composition maximizing fitness of males and females. Additionally, although group characteristics (i.e., size, composition and instability) affecting male and female fitness differed, fitness depended strongly on the number of same-sex subordinates within the social group in the two sexes. By comparing multiple measures of social group characteristics and of fitness in both sexes, we highlighted the sex-specific determinants of fitness in the two sexes and revealed the crucial role of intrasexual competition in shaping social group composition. PMID:27070014

  17. Social determinants of health and community needs: implications for health legacy foundations.

    PubMed

    Niggel, Sabrina Jones; Brandon, William P

    2014-11-01

    Mergers and acquisitions of nonprofit hospitals are on the rise. Proceeds from many of these transactions will endow new health legacy foundations (HLFs). These philanthropic entities have substantial potential for charitable investment in US communities. Research indicates that the greatest improvements in population health can be achieved by addressing underlying social factors. Determining whether communities served by HLFs are characterized by poor social determinants of health would provide new information for developing effective grant-making strategies. Our study compared socioeconomic, demographic, and health care access indicators in HLF versus non-HLF counties. Compared with non-HLF counties, HLF counties had significantly higher proportions of racial minorities and multiple socioeconomic factors that rendered them more vulnerable to health disparities and poor health. However, HLF counties had better access to health care. These findings have direct implications for HLF leadership, planning, and grant making. PMID:25368003

  18. Social determinants of health in Canada: Are healthy living initiatives there yet? A policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Preventative strategies that focus on addressing the social determinants of health to improve healthy eating and physical activity have become an important strategy in British Columbia and Ontario for combating chronic diseases. What has not yet been examined is the extent to which healthy living initiatives implemented under these new policy frameworks successfully engage with and change the social determinants of health. Methods Initiatives active between January 1, 2006 and September 1, 2011 were found using provincial policy documents, web searches, health organization and government websites, and databases of initiatives that attempted to influence to nutrition and physical activity in order to prevent chronic diseases or improve overall health. Initiatives were reviewed, analyzed and grouped using the descriptive codes: lifestyle-based, environment-based or structure-based. Initiatives were also classified according to the mechanism by which they were administered: as direct programs (e.g. directly delivered), blueprints (or frameworks to tailor developed programs), and building blocks (resources to develop programs). Results 60 initiatives were identified in Ontario and 61 were identified in British Columbia. In British Columbia, 11.5% of initiatives were structure-based. In Ontario, of 60 provincial initiatives identified, 15% were structure-based. Ontario had a higher proportion of direct interventions than British Columbia for all intervention types. However, in both provinces, as the intervention became more upstream and attempted to target the social determinants of health more directly, the level of direct support for the intervention lessened. Conclusions The paucity of initiatives in British Columbia and Ontario that address healthy eating and active living through action on the social determinants of health is problematic. In the context of Canada's increasingly neoliberal political and economic policy, the public health sector may face

  19. Social agency versus global determinism in Latin American urban development.

    PubMed

    Batley, R

    1997-11-01

    This paper focuses on liberalization and globalization as contributing factors to the process of urban restructuring in Latin America, and explores five propositions that argue against the determinism of technology and global forces and favor the possibility of influential local action. The five propositions are as follows: 1) the inequalities apparent in Latin American cities are not the inevitable result of globalization; 2) the factors that make a city sustainable economically and environmentally are different for the various sections of its population; 3) the destiny of cities is not determined but subject to the influence of social agents; 4) among the decisive social agents are local politicians and managers; and 5) effective urban policy requires sustained management. PMID:12295233

  20. Tackling the wider social determinants of health and health inequalities: evidence from systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, M; Sowden, A; Wright, K; Whitehead, M; Petticrew, M

    2010-01-01

    Background There is increasing pressure to tackle the wider social determinants of health through the implementation of appropriate interventions. However, turning these demands for better evidence about interventions around the social determinants of health into action requires identifying what we already know and highlighting areas for further development. Methods Systematic review methodology was used to identify systematic reviews (from 2000 to 2007, developed countries only) that described the health effects of any intervention based on the wider social determinants of health: water and sanitation, agriculture and food, access to health and social care services, unemployment and welfare, working conditions, housing and living environment, education, and transport. Results Thirty systematic reviews were identified. Generally, the effects of interventions on health inequalities were unclear. However, there is suggestive systematic review evidence that certain categories of intervention may impact positively on inequalities or on the health of specific disadvantaged groups, particularly interventions in the fields of housing and the work environment. Conclusion Intervention studies that address inequalities in health are a priority area for future public health research. PMID:19692738

  1. Sociology, Music Education, and Social Change: The Prospect of Addressing Their Relations by Attending to Some Central, Expanded Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Studies on sociology and music education are important because they can enlighten how music education relates to social change. By studying how music education changes and is changed by society we enable ourselves to describe how it can contribute to the understanding of social change generally. This may lay the ground for us in contributing to…

  2. Social Skills Instruction for Students with High-Incidence Disabilities: A School-Based Intervention to Address Acquisition Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mathew J.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Wehby, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of a prescriptive, classroom- based social skills intervention program for 7 students with high-incidence disabilities receiving services in a self-contained, special education classroom. Students participated in 12 hours of social skills training, led by a paraprofessional and a student…

  3. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Saket; Keyzer, Michiel A; Arouna, Aminou; Sonneveld, Ben GJS

    2008-01-01

    Background In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB), to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Methods Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. Results First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of other conditions, not suffer

  4. Social determinants of health and oral health: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Viral V.; Rajesh, G.; Rao, Ashwini; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun

    2015-01-01

    Several conventional approaches have been tried in the past to resolve health inequities in India. However, achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is yet to be fully realized as the benefits have been meager. The recent concept of targeting social determinants of general and oral health in order to achieve health for all has shown positive results in the developed as well as the developing nations. Based on the framework recommended by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health, several policies have been introduced and suitably backed up with the intention of providing health care even to people living in remote sections of the society. This paper intends to highlight the rationale for social determinants approach in Indian context, its application and future recommendations for the same. It is considered as a radical approach, and adequate measures have been implemented by health systems to achieve the desired targets without delay. However, in order to achieve UHC, redistribution of the available resources and converting the “normative” needs into “felt” needs of the people is going to be an uphill task to accomplish. PMID:26500407

  5. Chaos as a social determinant of child health: Reciprocal associations?

    PubMed

    Kamp Dush, Claire M; Schmeer, Kammi K; Taylor, Miles

    2013-10-01

    This study informs the social determinants of child health by exploring an understudied aspect of children's social contexts: chaos. Chaos has been conceptualized as crowded, noisy, disorganized, unpredictable settings for child development (Evans, Eckenrode, & Marcynyszyn, 2010). We measure chaos at two levels of children's ecological environment - the microsystem (household) and the mesosystem (work-family-child care nexus) - and at two points in early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3288), a study of predominantly low-income women and their partners in large US cities, we develop structural equation models that assess how maternal-rated child health (also assessed at ages 3 and 5) is associated with latent constructs of chaos, and whether there are important reciprocal effects. Autoregressive cross-lagged path analysis suggest that increasing chaos (at both the household and maternal work levels) is associated with worse child health, controlling for key confounders like household economic status, family structure, and maternal health status. Child health has little effect on chaos, providing further support for the hypothesis that chaos is an important social determinant of child health in this sample of relatively disadvantaged children. This suggests child health may be improved by supporting families in ways that reduce chaos in their home and work/family environments, and that as researchers move beyond SES, race, and family structure to explore other sources of health inequalities, chaos and its proximate determinants may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:23541250

  6. Social determinants of health, inequality and social inclusion among people with disabilities1

    PubMed Central

    Fiorati, Regina Celia; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the socio-familial and community inclusion and social participation of people with disabilities, as well as their inclusion in occupations in daily life. METHOD: qualitative study with data collected through open interviews concerning the participants' life histories and systematic observation. The sample was composed of ten individuals with acquired or congenital disabilities living in the region covered by a Family Health Center. The social conception of disability was the theoretical framework used. Data were analyzed according to an interpretative reconstructive approach based on Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action. RESULTS: the results show that the socio-familial and community inclusion of the study participants is conditioned to the social determinants of health and present high levels of social inequality expressed by difficult access to PHC and rehabilitation services, work and income, education, culture, transportation and social participation. CONCLUSION: there is a need to develop community-centered care programs in cooperation with PHC services aiming to cope with poverty and improve social inclusion. PMID:26039305

  7. Social and Medical Determinants of Cardiometabolic Health: The Big Picture.

    PubMed

    Puckrein, Gary A; Egan, Brent M; Howard, George

    2015-01-01

    Cardiometabolic diseases, including diabetes and heart disease, account for >12 million years of life lost annually among Black adults in the United States. Health disparities are geographically localized, with ~80% of health disparities occurring within ~6000 (16%) of all 38,000 US ZIP codes. Socio-economic status (SES), behavioral and environmental factors (social determinants) account for ~80% of variance in health outcomes and cluster geographically. Neighborhood SES is inversely associated with prevalent diabetes and hypertension, and Blacks are four times more likely than Whites to live in lowest SES neighborhoods. In ZIP code 48235 (Detroit, 97% Black, 16.2% unemployed, income/capita $18,343, 23.6% poverty), 1082 Medicare fee-for service (FFS) beneficiaries received care for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary artery disease (CAD) in 2012. Collectively, these beneficiaries had 1082 inpatient admissions and 839 emergency department visits, mean cost $27,759/beneficiary and mortality 2.7%. Nationally in 2011, 236,222 Black Medicare FFS beneficiaries had 213,715 inpatient admissions, 191,346 emergency department visits, mean cost $25,580/beneficiary and 2.4% mortality. In addition to more prevalent hypertension and T2D, Blacks appear more susceptible to clinical complications of risk factors than Whites, including hypertension as a contributor to stroke. Cardiometabolic health equity in African Americans requires interventions on social determinants to reduce excess risk prevalence of risk factors. Social-medical interventions to promote timely access to, delivery of and adherence with evidence-based medicine are needed to counterbalance greater disease susceptibility. Place-based interventions on social and medical determinants of health could reduce the burden of life lost to cardiometabolic diseases in Blacks. PMID:26673674

  8. Synergy for health equity: integrating health promotion and social determinants of health approaches in and beyond the Americas.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Suzanne F; Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Fawcett, Stephen B; Poland, Blake; Schultz, Jerry A

    2013-12-01

    Health promotion and social determinants of health approaches, when integrated, can better contribute to understanding and addressing health inequities. Yet, they have typically been pursued as two solitudes. This paper presents the key elements, principles, actions, and potential synergies of these complementary frameworks for addressing health equity. The value-added of integrating these two approaches is illustrated by three examples drawn from the authors' experiences in the Americas: at the community level, through a community-based coalition for reducing chronic disease disparities among minorities in an urban center in the United States; at the national level, through healthy-settings interventions in Canada; and at the Regional level, through health cooperation based on social justice values in Latin America. Challenges to integrating health promotion and social determinants of health approaches in the Americas are also discussed. PMID:24569978

  9. A Social Media mHealth Solution to Address the Needs of Dengue Prevention and Management in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Lim, Gentatsu; Panchapakesan, Chitra; Foo, Schubert; Wijayamuni, Ruwan; Wimalaratne, Prasad; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton

    2016-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka has witnessed a series of dengue epidemics over the past five years, with the western province, home to the political capital of Colombo, bearing more than half of the dengue burden. Existing dengue monitoring prevention programs are exhausted as public health inspectors (PHIs) cope with increasing workloads and paper-based modes of surveillance and education, characterizing a reactive system unable to cope with the enormity of the problem. On the other hand, the unprecedented proliferation and affordability of mobile phones since 2009 and a supportive political climate have thus far remained unexploited for the use of mobile-based interventions for dengue management. Objective To conduct a needs assessment of PHIs in Colombo with respect to their dengue-related tasks and develop a new mobile-based system to address these needs while strengthening existing systems. Methods One-on-one in-depth interviews were conducted with 29 PHIs to a) gain a nuanced, in-depth understanding of the current state of surveillance practices, b) understand the logistical, technological and social challenges they confront, and c) identify opportunities for mobile-based interventions. Quantitative analysis included simple descriptive statistics while qualitative analysis comprised textual analysis of 209 pages of transcripts (or nearly 600 minutes of conversations) using grounded theory approaches. Results Current paper-based data collection practices for dengue surveillance involved a circuitous, time consuming process that could take between 7-10 days to officially report and record a single case. PHIs confronted challenges in terms of unreliable, standalone GIS devices, delays in registering mosquito breeding sites and lack of engagement from communities while delivering dengue education. These findings, in concert with a high motivation to use mobile-based systems, informed the development of Mo-Buzz, a mobile-based system that integrates three components

  10. Social Determinants of Infectious Diseases in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Ide, Seydou; Ghosh, Sharmistha

    2014-01-01

    South Asian countries have developed infectious disease control programs such as routine immunization, vaccination, and the provision of essential drugs which are operating nationwide in cooperation with many local and foreign NGOs. Most South Asian countries have a relatively low prevalence of HIV/AIDS until now, but issues like poverty, food insecurity, illiteracy, poor sanitation, and social stigma around AIDS are widespread and are creating formidable challenges to prevention of further spread of this epidemic. Besides that, resurgence of tuberculosis along with the emergence of the drug resistant (MDR-TB and XDRTB) strains and the coepidemic of TB and HIV are posing ever-growing threats to the underdeveloped healthcare infrastructure. The countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition where the disease burden is gradually shifting to noncommunicable diseases, but the infectious diseases still account for almost half of the total disease burden. Despite this huge burden of infectious diseases in South Asia, which is second only to Africa, there is yet any study on the social determinants of infectious diseases in a local context. This paper examines various issues surrounding the social determinants of infectious diseases in South Asian countries with a special reference to HIV and tuberculosis. And, by doing so, it attempts to provide a framework for formulating more efficient prevention and intervention strategies for the future. PMID:27350969

  11. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    PubMed

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact. PMID:27187913

  12. Migration as a social determinant of health for irregular migrants: Israel as case study.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Yonina; Willen, Sarah S; Davidovitch, Nadav; Mor, Zohar

    2015-12-01

    More than 150,000 irregular migrants reside in Israel, yet data regarding their utilization of and perceived barriers to health care services are limited. Drawing on semi-structured interviews conducted with 35 irregular migrant adults between January and September 2012, this article analyzes the role of migration as a social determinant of health for irregular migrants, and especially asylum seekers. We analyze two kinds of barriers faced by migrants when they attempt to access health care services: barriers resulting directly from their migration status, and barriers that are common among low-income communities but exacerbated by this status. Migration-related barriers included a lack of clear or consistent legislation; the threat of deportation; the inability to obtain work permits and resulting poverty and harsh living and working conditions; and discrimination. Barriers exacerbated by migrant status included prohibitive cost; poor and confusing organization of services; language barriers; perceived low quality of care; and social isolation. These findings support recent arguments that migrant status itself constitutes a social determinant of health that can intersect with other determinants to adversely affect health care access and health outcomes. Findings suggest that any meaningful effort to improve migrants' health will depend on the willingness of clinicians, public health officials, and policymakers to address the complex array of upstream political and socio-economic factors that affect migrants' health rather than focusing on narrower questions of access to health care. PMID:26552014

  13. Beyond inequality: Acknowledging the complexity of social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Eckersley, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The impact of inequality on health is gaining more attention as public and political concern grows over increasing inequality. The income inequality hypothesis, which holds that inequality is detrimental to overall population health, is especially pertinent. However the emphasis on inequality can be challenged on both empirical and theoretical grounds. Empirically, the evidence is contradictory and contested; theoretically, it is inconsistent with our understanding of human societies as complex systems. Research and discussion, both scientific and political, need to reflect better this complexity, and give greater recognition to other social determinants of health. PMID:26560411

  14. Addressing the Social and Academic Behavior of a Student with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in an Alternative Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoszowski, N. C.; Jolivette, K.; Frederick, L. D.

    2013-01-01

    Check-In/Check-Out is a secondary tier positive behavior support program in which an adult mentor is paired with a student to address problem behavior and support appropriate behavior. This case study extended the implementation of the Check-In/Check-Out strategy to a residential facility for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The…

  15. The Social Determinants of Infant Mortality and Birth Outcomes in Western Developed Nations: A Cross-Country Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Saada, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA) and Western Europe (WE), by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES)) and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours). To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies) may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE) and income inequality (USA) as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors) with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world. PMID:23739649

  16. Social determinants of prescribed and non-prescribed medicine use

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to describe the use of prescribed and non prescribed medicines in a non-institutionalised population older than 15 years of an urban area during the year 2000, in terms of age and gender, social class, employment status and type of Primary Health Care. Methods Cross-sectional study. Information came from the 2000 Barcelona Health Interview Survey. The indicators used were the prevalence of use of prescribed and non-prescribed medicines in the two weeks prior to the interview. Descriptive analyses, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results More women than men took medicines (75.8% vs. 60% respectively). The prevalence of use of prescribed medicines increased with age while the prevalence of non-prescribed use decreased. These age differences are smaller among those with poor perceived health. In terms of social class, a higher percentage of men with good health in the more advantaged classes took non-prescribed medicines compared with disadvantaged classes (38.7% vs 31.8%). In contrast, among the group with poor health, more people from the more advantaged classes took prescribed medicines, compared with disadvantaged classes (51.4% vs 33.3%). A higher proportion of people who were either retired, unemployed or students, with good health, used prescribed medicines. Conclusion This study shows that beside health needs, there are social determinants affecting medicine consumption in the city of Barcelona. PMID:20441578

  17. Preparing Social Workers To Address HIV/AIDS Prevention and Detection: Implications for Professional Training and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Michael S.; Mitchell, Christopher G.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated social workers' knowledge and practices regarding HIV prevention education, risk assessment, and case finding. HIV/AIDS knowledge and behaviors significantly related to age, geographic location, and practice setting. Most respondents provided little to no HIV-related services in clinical practice. Prior HIV-related training and…

  18. Impact Evaluation of Reactive Assessment Strategies to Address Social Loafing by Promoting Student Cooperation and Encouraging Mutual Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative work is an effective strategy when team members are kept motivated and collaborate towards the achievement of a common goal. However, social loafing may significantly reduce educational gains. In this article, we analyse whether assessment-based reactive strategies that exploit existing emotional relationships between the team members…

  19. Poststroke Depression: Social Workers' Role in Addressing an Underrecognized Psychological Problem for Couples Who Have Experienced Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michael J.; Powers, Laurie E.; Lyons, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychological challenge faced by many individuals and families following stroke. Fortunately, poststroke depression is treatable, and even preventable, if social work and other rehabilitation practitioners understand the most common risk factors and become familiar with measures for assessing for depression among…

  20. Social determinants of health and health inequities in Nakuru (Kenya)

    PubMed Central

    Muchukuri, Esther; Grenier, Francis R

    2009-01-01

    Background Dramatic inequalities dominate global health today. The rapid urban growth sustained by Kenya in the last decades has created many difficulties that also led to worsening inequalities in health care. The continuous decline in its Human Development Index since the 1990s highlights the hardship that continues to worsen in the country, against the general trend of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines the health status of residents in a major urban centre in Kenya and reviews the effects of selected social determinants on local health. Methods Through field surveys, focus group discussions and a literature review, this study canvasses past and current initiatives and recommends priority actions. Results Areas identified which unevenly affect the health of the most vulnerable segments of the population were: water supply, sanitation, solid waste management, food environments, housing, the organization of health care services and transportation. Conclusion The use of a participatory method proved to be a useful approach that could benefit other urban centres in their analysis of social determinants of health. PMID:19439105

  1. State of the (net)work address Developing criteria for applying social networking to the work environment.

    PubMed

    Valdez, André Calero; Schaar, Anne Kathrin; Ziefle, Martina

    2012-01-01

    In an increasingly faster paced innovative world, maintaining the ability to innovate in spite of an aging work force will become every company's strongest leverage for success. Tapping the latent knowledge resources and creativity of overlooked employees and persisting crucial information for business conduct are promising results for social networking sites (SNS) in a working context. Usability and usefulness are exponential factors in creating a successful SNS. In order to make a SNS usable for a heterogeneous user group, analyses of user diversity in regard to social media need to be done. Furthermore differences in communication medium and frequency in regard to age, content, hierarchy position, departmental thresholds and company size need to be analyzed. For analysis purposes both qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied. Strong effects of age and communication content were found in survey with 194 participants. PMID:22317248

  2. Social Determinants of Health and Depression: A Preliminary Investigation from Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuan; Gong, Yan-Hong; Wen, Xiao-Piao; Guan, Chao-Ping; Li, Ming-Chuan; Yin, Ping; Wang, Zhi-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last several years, research related to social determinants of health (SDH) has begun to resonate in the medical, behavioral, social and political sciences arena. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between SDH and depression, and to provide new evidences and clues for depression control and prevention. Methodology/Principal Findings This research was a cross-sectional survey executed door to door from October 2006 to April 2008, with a sample of 3,738 individuals aged 18 and older in rural China. The three variables of SDH were socioeconomic status (years of schooling and self-reported economic status of family), social cohesion and negative life events. Demographic variables and self-perceived physical health were taken as potential confounders. The cross-table analysis showed that variations in levels of depression were associated with variations in SDH, and logistic regression analysis confirmed the association even after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Conclusions Although there were some limitations, the current study provides initial evidence of the importance of SDH in depression. Findings indicate that social inequity and the role of policy action emphasized by SDH should be considered high priorities when addressing the issue of depression. In addition, cell-to-society and pill-to-policy approaches should be encouraged in the future. PMID:22276213

  3. Relative Importance of Social Status and Physiological Need in Determining Leadership in a Social Forager

    PubMed Central

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that ‘leading according to need’ is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure. PMID:23691258

  4. Relative importance of social status and physiological need in determining leadership in a social forager.

    PubMed

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure. PMID:23691258

  5. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  6. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... the determination of his or her disadvantage. (4) When an individual's presumption of social...

  7. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Social Ecology, Environmental Determinants, and Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gazzinelli, Andrea; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Yang, Guo-Jing; Boatin, Boakye A.; Kloos, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration) and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change) in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed. PMID:22545168

  8. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  9. Addressing HIV knowledge, risk reduction, social support, and patient involvement using SMS: results of a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Jennifer D; Lewis, Megan A; Bann, Carla M; Harris, Jennie L; Furberg, Robert D; Coomes, Curtis M; Kuhns, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men continue to be severely and disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. Effective antiretroviral therapy has altered the HIV epidemic from being an acute disease to a chronic, manageable condition for many people living with HIV. The pervasiveness, low cost, and convenience of short message service suggests its potential suitability for supporting the treatment of conditions that must be managed over an extended period. The purpose of this proof-of-concept study was to develop, implement, and test a tailored short message service-based intervention for HIV-positive men who have sex with men. The messages focused on reducing risk-taking behaviors and enhancing HIV knowledge, social support, and patient involvement. Participants reported strong receptivity to the messages and the intervention. The authors detected a statistically significant increase in HIV knowledge and social support from baseline to follow-up. Among participants who received sexual risk reduction messages, the authors also detected a statistically significant reduction in reported risk behaviors from baseline to follow-up. Results confirm the feasibility of a tailored, short message service-based intervention designed to provide ongoing behavioral reinforcement for HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Future research should include a larger sample, a control group, multiple sites, younger participants, and longer term follow-up. PMID:22548606

  10. Using a smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign and other synergistic elements to address social inequalities in India.

    PubMed

    Turk, Tahir; Murukutla, Nandita; Gupta, Shefali; Kaur, Jagdish; Mullin, Sandra; Saradhi, Ranjana; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2012-03-01

    The burden of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in India is substantial, with smokeless tobacco being the predominant form of tobacco use. Use of smokeless tobacco (for example gutkha, paan, khaini, and pan masala) is linked to a host of socioeconomic and cultural factors including gender, regional differences, educational level, and income disparities. Given the scale of the problem, a national social marketing campaign was developed and implemented. The creative approach used testimonials from a surgeon and patients at Tata Memorial Hospital in Mumbai. The communication message approach was designed to reflect the realities of disfiguring, disabling, and fatal cancers caused by smokeless tobacco. Evaluation of the campaign identified significant differences across a range of campaign behavioral predictors by audience segments aware of the campaign versus those who were "campaign unaware". Significant findings were also identified regarding vulnerable groups by gender (female/male) and rural/urban disparities. Findings are discussed in relation to the powerful impact of using graphic, emotive, and testimonial imagery for tobacco control with socially disadvantaged groups. PMID:22350861

  11. Microcredit and the social determinants of health: a conceptual approach.

    PubMed

    Salt, Rebekah

    2011-01-01

    Social determinants of health, such as human behavior, environment, and socioeconomics, contribute to health disparities at the individual and population levels. The association between socioeconomics and health is established, and it is acknowledged that people with a lower socioeconomic status experience poorer health. The impetus of microcredit programs is to provide financial alternatives for low-income populations, the majority of whom are women with limited or no access to traditional lending, to start small businesses, generate income, and progress toward self-sufficiency. The income-health link within the context of microcredit has been internationally acknowledged; however, there is scarce research in this area in the United States. This article presents a review of the conceptual approach used to explore the microcredit and health link from a public health nursing perspective. Establishing conceptual foundations can enhance research focused on targeted interventions aimed at lasting change in social and health status. Exploring the link between microcredit and health can enrich research efforts and may offer innovative strategies and interventions to improve health-promoting capacity in impoverished groups. PMID:21535114

  12. A Minority Report for Social Work? The Predictive Risk Model (PRM) and the Tuituia Assessment Framework in addressing the needs of New Zealand's Vulnerable Children

    PubMed Central

    Oak, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the viability of the Risk Predictor Model (RPM) and its counterpart the actuarial risk assessment (ARA) tool in the form of the Tuituia Assessment Framework to address child vulnerability in New Zealand. In doing so, it suggests that these types of risk-assessment tools fail to address issues of contingency and complexity at the heart of the relationship-based nature of social work practice. Such developments have considerable implications for the capacity to enhance critical reflexive practice skills, whilst the introduction of these risk tools is occurring at a time when the reflexive space is being eroded as a result of the increased regulation of practice and supervision. It is further asserted that the primary aim of such instruments is not so much to detect risk, but rather to foster professional conformity with these managerialist risk-management systems so prevalent in contemporary Western societies. PMID:27559223

  13. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged.... Social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond their control. Evidence of individual social... in the DBE program, unless the individual claiming disadvantaged status can demonstrate that...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged.... Social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond their control. Evidence of individual social... in the DBE program, unless the individual claiming disadvantaged status can demonstrate that...

  15. Re-imagining decision making: addressing a discrete social driver of HIV/AIDS through the lens of complexity science.

    PubMed

    Burman, Christopher J; Moerschell, Linda; Mamabolo, Robert; Aphane, Marota; Delobelle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that decision making is a discrete social driver that can be associated with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Limpopo province in South Africa. The authors argue that complexity science can inform future research and interventions by presenting two decision making frameworks arising out of complexity science that have the potential to enable young people to better negotiate decision-making contexts whilst simultaneously opening spaces of dialogue that can mitigate the impact of HIV-risk in specific, punctuated contexts. The methodological design was prompted by findings from youth-oriented community engagement projects that include Communication Conversations and Sex & Relationships Education. The proposed methods have the potential to exploit the phenomenon of leadership emergence as a product of decision making at critical moments. This has the potential to promote the growth of home-grown leadership skill sets that make sense to young people and to enable them better manage their own health, thus reducing risk and vulnerability to HIV infection and sexual violence. PMID:25920986

  16. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION...

  17. Social and proximate determinants of sexual activity in rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Barden-O'Fallon, Janine; Tsui, Amy; Adewuyi, Alfred

    2003-10-01

    This study analyses the social, physiological and motivational determinants of sexual activity for 644 married women in rural areas of Osun State, Nigeria. The data come from the Fertility Awareness and Pregnancy Avoidance study conducted in 1993-94. Sexual activity is measured by three continuous variables: weekly frequency of (1) total sexual activity, (2) coital-only sex and (3) both coital/non-coital sex. Analyses of variance were performed to test the difference in group means between the predictor variables and measures of sexual activity. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were then performed for the three dependent variables. Two models are used: the first contains only those variables associated with an individual's demographic, social and economic status, and the second adds predictor variables associated with motivational and physiological factors. Results show that while many socioeconomic variables by themselves are significantly associated with sexual activity measures, the addition of physiological and motivational variables weakens their effects and lessens their original statistical significance. Additionally, the socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with frequency of sexual activity are not necessarily the same ones significantly associated with coital-only or combined coital/non-coital sex. While other studies have tended to focus either on socioeconomic or physiological factors, the joint examination of both types of influences seems to indicate that the latter have more proximate effects on the frequency of both coital and non-coital sexual activity of married women in this population. Contraceptive protection is shown to be highly positively associated with all three of the sexual activity measures, empirically confirming the important relationship between contraception and both coital and non-coital forms of sexual activity. PMID:14621254

  18. Training medical students in the social determinants of health: the Health Scholars Program at Puentes de Salud

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Matthew J; Garland, Joseph M; Murphy, Katie M; Shuman, Sarah J; Whitaker, Robert C; Larson, Steven C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Given the large influence of social conditions on health, physicians may be more effective if they are trained to identify and address social factors that impact health. Despite increasing interest in teaching the social determinants of health in undergraduate medical education, few models exist. Participants and methods We present a 9-month pilot course on the social determinants of health for medical and other health professional students, which is based at Puentes de Salud, Philadelphia, PA, USA, a community health center serving a Latino immigrant population. This service-learning course, called the Health Scholars Program (HSP), was developed and implemented by volunteer medical and public health faculty in partnership with the community-based clinic. The HSP curriculum combines didactic instruction with service experiences at Puentes de Salud and opportunities for critical reflection. The HSP curriculum also includes a longitudinal project where students develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention to address a community-defined need. Results In our quantitative evaluation, students reported high levels of agreement with the HSP meeting stated course goals, including developing an understanding of the social determinants of health and working effectively with peers to implement community-based projects. Qualitative assessments revealed students’ perception of learning more about this topic in the HSP than in their formal medical training and of developing a long-term desire to serve vulnerable communities as a result. Conclusion Our experience with the HSP suggests that partnerships between academic medical centers and community-based organizations can create a feasible, effective, and sustainable platform for teaching medical students about the social determinants of health. Similar medical education programs in the future should seek to achieve a larger scale and to evaluate both students’ educational experiences and community

  19. 'Causes of causes': ethnicity and social position as determinants of health inequality in Irish Traveller men.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Margaret; Fox, Fergal

    2014-06-01

    This study sought to engage Traveller men in a discussion about their lives, their health and key determinants of their health, with a view to engaging Traveller men in health promotion initiatives. Irish Travellers are an indigenous ethnic minority, constituting 0.8% of the population. As a marginalized group, they experience significantly poorer health status than their counterparts in the settled community. Traveller men have 3.7 times the mortality of the males in the general population. Travellers are identified as a hard-to-reach group and Traveller men particularly so. Traveller men have rarely participated in the research studies on health and health service utilization, and the results of this study, in which Traveller men participated in three focus groups, are therefore of particular interest. The Traveller men, in discussing health, related it to the absence of specific illnesses and conditions, expressing a negative and a physical concept of health. The results of the study provide evidence for the role of social constructions of masculinity in determining the health and help-seeking behaviour of Traveller men, but also the influence of wider social determinants such as ethnicity and social status. The futility of approaches to health promotion that comprise simplistic health information/education interventions is outlined in this context. The study presents a challenge to both address hegemonic versions of masculinity and discrimination based on ethnic status, and rather than challenge the behaviour of men or of health services that they come into contact with, to changing the conditions of Traveller men's lives. PMID:23193193

  20. Preliminary findings exploring the social determinants of Black males' lay health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mount, David L; Johnson, Darin M; Rego, Maria Isabel; Schofield, Kandyce; Amponsah, Alethea; Graham, Louis F

    2012-01-01

    The unequal discussion of Black males' health is a pressing social problem. This study addressed Black males' lay perspectives regarding their health, illness, and mortality, with attention to the determinants of men's health, prevention, lifestyle, and opportunities for health promotion using an exploratory/qualitative research methodology. Participants were 68 Black males aged 15 to 68 years, with an average age of 44 years (SD = 14.5). The narratives represented a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors, ranging from intrapersonal attitudes, interpersonal experiences to discussions about community and public policy injustices. Five prominent themes emerged: (a) lack of chronic disease awareness, (b) fatalism, (c) fear and anxiety of academic-medical settings, (d) hyperactive masculinity fatigue, and (e) the gay-straight divide. The term Tired Black Male Health syndrome was coined in the forum. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of culturally relevant strategies for improving Black male community health engagement. PMID:22105065

  1. Globalization and social determinants of health: The role of the global marketplace (part 2 of 3)

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-01-01

    Globalization is a key context for the study of social determinants of health (SDH): broadly stated, SDH are the conditions in which people live and work, and that affect their opportunities to lead healthy lives. In the first article in this three part series, we described the origins of the series in work conducted for the Globalization Knowledge Network of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health and in the Commission's specific concern with health equity. We identified and defended a definition of globalization that gives primacy to the drivers and effects of transnational economic integration, and addressed a number of important conceptual and methodological issues in studying globalization's effects on SDH and their distribution, emphasizing the need for transdisciplinary approaches that reflect the complexity of the topic. In this second article, we identify and describe several, often interacting clusters of pathways leading from globalization to changes in SDH that are relevant to health equity. These involve: trade liberalization; the global reorganization of production and labour markets; debt crises and economic restructuring; financial liberalization; urban settings; influences that operate by way of the physical environment; and health systems changed by the global marketplace. PMID:17578569

  2. Social behaviors as determined by different arrangements of social consequences: diffusion of responsibility effects with competition.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Bernard

    2003-06-01

    According to a recently proposed synthesis, social loafing, social facilitation, and deindividuation can be viewed as different ways of arranging social consequences (B. Guerin, 1999). The effects of such arrangements have been measured in past research as productive output (social loafing and social facilitation) or as antinormative behaviors (deindividuation), but all 3 effects are manipulable by changing individual identifiability, evaluation, social identity, task difficulty, and presence in a group. The synthesis also predicted that these same variables would apply to other measures and other arrangements of social consequences. To this end, in the present 2 experiments, the author varied the arrangements for consequence diffusion in a competition situation by varying small and large competing groups and measured productive output and antinormative behaviors simultaneously. The 2 experiments showed social-consequence effects in competition situations with college students, giving further support for the social-consequence synthesis and the idea that the verbal naming of phenomena in social psychology is arbitrary. PMID:12846515

  3. Equity and the social determinants of health in European cities.

    PubMed

    Ritsatakis, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Equity in health has been the underlying value of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Health for All policy for 30 years. This article examines how cities have translated this principle into action. Using information designed to help evaluate phase IV (2003-2008) of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN) plus documentation from city programs and websites, an attempt is made to assess how far the concept of equity in health is understood, the political will to tackle the issue, and types of action taken. Results show that although cities continue to focus considerable support on vulnerable groups, rather than the full social gradient, most are now making the necessary shift towards more upstream policies to tackle determinants of health such as poverty, unemployment, education, housing, and the environment, without neglecting access to care. Although local level data reflecting inequalities in health is improving, there is still a long way to go in some cities. The Healthy Cities Project is becoming an integral part of structures for long-term planning and intersectoral action for health in cities, and Health Impact Assessment is gradually being developed. Participation in the WHO-EHCN appears to allow new members to leap-frog ahead established cities. However, this evaluation also exposes barriers to effective local policies and processes to reduce health inequalities. Armed with locally generated evidence of critical success factors, the WHO-EHCN has embarked on a more rigorous and determined effort to achieve the prerequisites for equity in health. More attention will be given to evaluating the effectiveness of action taken and to dealing not only with the most vulnerable but a greater part of the gradient in socioeconomic health inequalities. PMID:22971932

  4. Climate system properties determining the social cost of carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Alexander; Todd, Benjamin J.; Bowerman, Niel; Frame, David J.; Allen, Myles R.

    2013-06-01

    The choice of an appropriate scientific target to guide global mitigation efforts is complicated by uncertainties in the temperature response to greenhouse gas emissions. Much climate policy discourse has been based on the equilibrium global mean temperature increase following a concentration stabilization scenario. This is determined by the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) which, in many studies, shows persistent, fat-tailed uncertainty. However, for many purposes, the equilibrium response is less relevant than the transient response. Here, we show that one prominent policy variable, the social cost of carbon (SCC), is generally better constrained by the transient climate response (TCR) than by the ECS. Simple analytic expressions show the SCC to be directly proportional to the TCR under idealized assumptions when the rate at which we discount future damage equals 2.8%. Using ensemble simulations of a simple climate model we find that knowing the true value of the TCR can reduce the relative uncertainty in the SCC substantially more, up to a factor of 3, than knowing the ECS under typical discounting assumptions. We conclude that the TCR, which is better constrained by observations, less subject to fat-tailed uncertainty and more directly related to the SCC, is generally preferable to the ECS as a single proxy for the climate response in SCC calculations.

  5. The Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed-based Approach: where social and natural sciences meet to address today's water resource challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddle, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of governmental organizations at the local, state, and federal level collaborate with nongovernmental organizations and individuals to solve watershed scale problems (Imperial and Koontz, 2007). Such a shift in policy approach from hierarchical regulation to bottom-up collaboration is largely a result of regulator’s recognition of the interdependence of natural and socio-economic systems on a watershed scale (Steelman and Carmin, 2002. Agencies throughout the federal government increasingly favored new governing institutions that encourage cooperation between local actors with conflicting interests, divergent geographic bases, and overlapping administrative jurisdictions to resolve continuing disputes over resource management (Bardach 1998). This favoritism of collaborative over command-and-control approaches for managing nonpoint source pollution led to the development of watershed partnerships and the watershed-based approach (Lubell et al., 2002). This study aims to further collaborative governance scholarship and aid decision-makers in identifying the critical elements of collaborative governance resulting in environmental improvements. To date, this relationship has not been empirically determined, in spite of the fact that collaborative governance is used routinely by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in resolving issues related to watershed management and other applications. This gap in the research is largely due to the lack of longitudinal data. In order to determine whether changes have occurred, environmental data must be collected over relatively long time periods (Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Sabatier, et al., 2005). However, collecting these data is often cost prohibitive. Monitoring water quality is expensive and requires technical expertise, and is often the first line item cut in environmental management budgets. This research is interdisciplinary, looking at the physical, chemical, and biological parameters for 44 waterbodies

  6. Social Determinants of Health for Native Hawaiian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alameda, Christian K

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Traditional Hawaiian thought places children in a position of prominence in the family. Yet in Hawai‘i, Native Hawaiian children and adolescents face significant inequity in health outcomes. From prenatal alcohol and tobacco use, late or no prenatal care, macrosomia as well as low birth rates, to exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months, and high rates of infant mortality, Native Hawaiians face inequities in pre and early childhood indicators. During childhood and adolescence, Native Hawaiians experience high rates of obesity, and physical, mental and sexual abuse. This review examines the determinants behind the health inequities encountered by Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, and contextualizes those inequities s in a human rights-based approach to health. Methods A literature review was conducted for relevant research on Native Hawaiian and other indigenous children and adolescents. Existing data sources were also reviewed for relevant Native Hawaiian data. Results There is a significant dearth of data on the determinants of health for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents. Some prenatal data is available from the Prenatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System, while selected youth data is available from the Youth Behavioral Risk Factor system. Available data show significant inequities for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, compared to other groups in Hawai‘i. Based on comparisons with other indigenous and marginalized peoples, the etiology of these disparities may be a lack of health equity, deriving from multigenerational trauma and discrimination as well as poverty and inequities of housing, education, environment, healthcare access, and social capital. Conclusions The significant barriers facing Native Hawaiian children and adolescents achieving their full potential constitute a challenge to the fulfillment of the human right to health. Future research needs to more fully articulate the linkage between the health status of

  7. Social Determinants of Health: Implications for Environmental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Amy; Northridge, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors draw on the disciplines of sociology and environmental and social epidemiology to further understanding of mechanisms through which social factors contribute to disparate environmental exposures and health inequalities. They propose a conceptual framework for environmental health promotion that considers dynamic social…

  8. Social Harmony in Hong Kong: Level, Determinants and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Simon S. M.; Chan, Raymond S. Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at ascertaining how Hong Kong people perceive Hong Kong as a harmonious society. It also identifies the elements that are most conducive to social harmony in Hong Kong, so that the government could take reference when formulating new policies. 1,062 adults residents were asked to rate their perceived level of social harmony and…

  9. SOME SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF VERBAL BEHAVIOR. WORKING PAPER NUMBER 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLOM, JAN-PETTER; GUMPERZ, JOHN J.

    IN RECENT DISCUSSIONS OF THE PROBLEM OF LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY, BERNSTEIN (1961, 1964) EXPLORES THE HYPOTHESIS THAT SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS ACT AS INTERVENING VARIABLES BETWEEN LINGUISTIC STRUCTURES AND THEIR REALIZATION IN SPEECH. HIS FORMULATION SUGGESTS THAT THE ANTHROPOLOGISTS' ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS GOVERNING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS…

  10. Level and Social Environment as Determinants of Perceived Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalesny, Mary D.; And Others

    Both the social and physical aspects of the environment have been examined as causes of work behaviors and attitudes, but recent studies concerning the effect of open plan offices have shown inconsistent results. To assess the relative contributions of organizational level and the social and physical work environment in explaining employee…

  11. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... professional association with students or teachers, denial of educational honors rightfully earned, and social patterns or pressures which discouraged the individual from pursuing a professional or business...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged individuals are those who have been subjected to racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias within American... contributed to social disadvantage, such as race, ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in...

  13. [Role of the UNASUR national institutes of health in generating evidence on the social determinants of health].

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Félix; Tobar, Sebastián; Buss, Paulo

    2015-08-01

    The present article analyzes the role of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) national institutes of health since their creation at the beginning of the 20th century up until the present time. It postulates that the national institutes of health are in a position to play a strategic role in generating knowledge and evidence to facilitate decision-making through monitoring and research on the social determinants of health and health inequities. To explore this hypothesis, the national institutes of health are analyzed in the context of the current global scenario, which is generating increased social inequalities, thus leading in turn to serious inequities in health conditions. The article proposes a new model of health promotion, disease prevention, and health care, where necessary, as well as policies and intersectoral actions that address these social determinants. In this new stage, the UNASUR national institutes of health should play a significant strategic role in identifying and analyzing correlations between patterns of production and consumption, social divisions that exist in the territory, conditions of development, and the health of their populations. These national institutes of health are members of the UNASUR Network of National Institutes of Health (RINS-UNASUR). The literature on their creation, drawn from the Network's websites and the proceedings of its meetings and seminars, is reviewed. Given that the current globalized development model is generating enormous social inequalities, by definition, the proposed hypothesis is that the national institutes of health should assume a much broader role in addressing the consequent inequities in the health of the population, complementing their traditional activities with this new strategic role. Without a major reduction in the existing social inequalities and economic inequities, it will be impossible to make significant improvements in health in a democratic manner. PMID:26581056

  14. [Personal and social norms that determine children's waste reduction behavior].

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Kayo

    2011-08-01

    Research has demonstrated the environmentally conscious behavior of parents and caregivers acts as a social influence that produces environmentally conscious behavior in their children, and also has an effect on their children's cost-benefit evaluations and social norm evaluations. The present study examined the personal norms for producing continuous environmentally conscious behavior, and two social norms that form the personal norms, which are categorized as descriptive and subjective norms. The results of this study suggest that the subjective norm formed the personal norm. Furthermore, the parents' normative social influences affected the personal norm through the subjective norm, and the parents' behavior affected their children's environmentally conscious behavior through the descriptive norm. PMID:21919301

  15. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  16. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  17. The Role of Sport as a Social Status Determinant for Children: Thirty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Melissa A.; Machida, Moe

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sport as a social status determinant among racially diverse children. Participants were 1,233 fourth- to seventh-grade children. Results indicated there were gender, grade, and racial differences for the selection of social status determinants. Boys placed more importance than girls on being…

  18. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  19. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  20. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  1. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26.67 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage....

  2. Addressing HIV/AIDS among Aboriginal People using a Health Status, Health Determinants and Health Care Framework: A Literature Review and Conceptual Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nowgesic, Earl

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To describe the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among Aboriginal populations using a mixed methods approach (i.e. quantitative and qualitative methods); (2) to examine the individual-level and community-level relationships between HIV/AIDS, health determinants, and health care (e.g. diagnosis, access to treatment and health services planning); and (3) to explore innovative solutions to address HIV/AIDS among Aboriginal populations based upon research and infrastructure (e.g. partnerships, data sources and management, health indicators and culture) and policy (i.e. self-determination of Aboriginal Peoples). Methods Literature review and conceptual analysis using a health status, health determinants and health care framework. Results In comparison to non-Aboriginal persons, HIV infection is higher among Aboriginal persons, is more directly attributable to unique risk factors and socio-demographic characteristics, and yields more adverse health outcomes. Culture, poverty and self-determination are determinants of health for Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal people have inadequate primary care and, in particular, specialist care. It is necessary to include traditional Aboriginal approaches and culture when addressing Aboriginal health while understanding competing paradigms between modern medicine and Aboriginal traditions. Conclusion There is a need for self-determination of Aboriginal Peoples in order to improve the health of Aboriginal communities and those living with HIV/AIDS. Research and policy affecting Aboriginal people should be of the highest quality and based upon Aboriginal community relevance and involvement.

  3. Dangerous and endangered youth: social structures and determinants of violence.

    PubMed

    Scheper-Hughes, Nancy

    2004-12-01

    Structural violence is violence that is permissible, even encouraged. It refers to the invisible social machinery of inequality that reproduces social relations of exclusion and marginalization via ideologies, stigmas, and dangerous discourses (such as "youth violence" itself) attendant to race, class, sex, and other invidious distinctions. Structural violence "naturalizes" poverty, sickness, hunger, and premature death, erasing their social and political origins so that they are taken for granted and no one is held accountable except the poor themselves. Structural violence also refers to the ease with which humans are capable of reducing the socially vulnerable (even those from their own class and community) into expendable non-persons, thus allowing the licence--even the duty--to kill them. I exemplify this through two ethnographic critical case studies: the operation of a virulent death squad in Northeast Brazil that mobilized the support of ordinary people in an almost genocidal attack against Afro-Brazilian street kids and young "marginals"; and the uneasy truce with, and incomplete integration of "dangerous and endangered" youth still living in squatter camps and shack communities of urban South Africa. PMID:15817729

  4. Persuasive Argumentation and Social Comparison as Determinants of Attitude Polarization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnstein, Eugene; Vinokur, Amiram

    1977-01-01

    Several studies, developed by the authors, indicate that persuasive-arguments theory by itself is an adequate explanation of polarization. Sanders and Baron (AA 526 863) criticize this research. Here the authors answer their critique. Relevant portions of the standard literature are reviewed to demonstrate that social comparison is neither a…

  5. Determinants of MSK health and disability--social determinants of inequities in MSK health.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Francis; Carruthers, Erin; Li, Linda C

    2014-06-01

    Even in most egalitarian societies, disparities in care exist to the disadvantage of some people with chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders and related disability. These situations translate into inequality in health and health outcomes. The goal of this chapter is to review concepts and determinants associated with health inequity, and the effect of interventions to minimize their impact. Health inequities are avoidable, unnecessary, unfair and unjust. Inequities can occur across the health care continuum, from primary and secondary prevention to diagnosis and treatment. There are many ways to define and identify inequities, according for instance to ethical, philosophical, epidemiological, sociological, economic, or public health points of view. These complementary views can be applied to set a framework of analysis, identify determinants and suggest targets of action against inequity. Most determinants of inequity in MSK disorders are similar to those in the general population and other chronic diseases. People may be exposed to inequity as a result of policies and rules set by the health care system, individuals' demographic characteristics (e.g., education level), or some behavior of health professionals and of patients. Osteoarthritis (OA) represents a typical chronic MSK condition. The PROGRESS-Plus framework is useful for identifying the important role that place of residence, race and ethnicity, occupation, gender, education, socioeconomic status, social capital and networks, age, disability and sexual orientation may have in creating or maintaining inequities in this disease. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a consideration of international data led to the conclusion that not all RA patients who needed biologic therapy had access to it. The disparity in care was due partly to policies of a country and a health care system, or economic conditions. We conclude this chapter by discussing examples of interventions designed for reducing health inequity. PMID

  6. The Social Determinants of Health in Military Forces of Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Ghanei, Mostafa; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Ravangard, Ramin; Karamali, Mazyar

    2015-01-01

    Providing effective health interventions and achieving equity in health need to apply the community-based approaches such as social determinants of health. In the military organizations, these determinants have received less attention from the military health researchers and policymakers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and explain the social determinants affecting the health of military forces in Iran. This was a qualitative study which was conducted in 2014. The required data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed through Conventional Content Analysis. The studied sample consisted of 22 military health experts, policymakers, and senior managers selected using purposeful sampling method with maximum variation sampling. MAXQDA.2007 was used to analyze the collected data. After analyzing the collected data, two main contents, that is, “general social determinants of health” and “military social determinants of health,” with 22 themes and 90 subthemes were identified as the social determinants of military forces' health. Main themes were religious rule, spirituality promotion policies, international military factors, military command, and so forth. Given the role and importance of social factors determining the military forces' health, it can be recommended that the military organizations should pay more attention to these determinants in making policies and creating social, economic, and cultural structures for their forces. PMID:26379716

  7. Evaluation of an innovative program to address the health and social service needs of drug-using women with or at risk for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A S; Blankenship, K M; Selwyn, P A; Khoshnood, K; Lopez, M; Balacos, K; Altice, F L

    1998-12-01

    Drug-using women with or at risk for HIV infection have many competing unmet needs, especially for social services, drug treatment, and medical care. High-risk drug-using women were recruited through street outreach, at needle exchange sites, a prison, and local community based organizations in New Haven, Connecticut for a study of the service needs of out-of-treatment drug users and the ability of an interactive case management intervention (ICM) to address those needs. These women were administered baseline and follow-up interviews to identify their health and social service needs and the degree to which these needs were resolved. The women who chose to enroll in the interactive case management intervention (n = 38) did not differ demographically nor in their HIV risk behaviors from those not receiving case management (n = 73). Provision of ICM was most successful in meeting needs for supportive mental health counseling, basic services, and long term housing. The impact of interactive case management was less evident for the acquisition of medical and dental services, which were accessed comparably by women not receiving the intervention. Overall, the women who enrolled in the ICM intervention showed a significant decrease in the number of unmet service needs as compared to those who did not enroll. Multiple contacts were required by the case manager to establish trust and to resolve the unmet service needs of these high-risk women. Women with or at risk for HIV infection can be effectively engaged in an ICM intervention in order to meet their multiple unmet service needs, although such interventions are time-and-labor intensive. PMID:9824792

  8. Leveraging the Social Determinants of Health: What Works?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lauren A.; Tan, Annabel Xulin; Coyle, Caitlin E.; Ndumele, Chima; Rogan, Erika; Canavan, Maureen; Curry, Leslie A.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    We summarized the recently published, peer-reviewed literature that examined the impact of investments in social services or investments in integrated models of health care and social services on health outcomes and health care spending. Of 39 articles that met criteria for inclusion in the review, 32 (82%) reported some significant positive effects on either health outcomes (N = 20), health care costs (N = 5), or both (N = 7). Of the remaining 7 (18%) studies, 3 had non-significant results, 2 had mixed results, and 2 had negative results in which the interventions were associated with poorer health outcomes. Our analysis of the literature indicates that several interventions in the areas of housing, income support, nutrition support, and care coordination and community outreach have had positive impact in terms of health improvements or health care spending reductions. These interventions may be of interest to health care policymakers and practitioners seeking to leverage social services to improve health or reduce costs. Further testing of models that achieve better outcomes at less cost is needed. PMID:27532336

  9. Conceptual understanding of social capital in a First Nations community: a social determinant of oral health in children.

    PubMed

    Salehyar, Mohammad H; Keenan, Louanne; Patterson, Steven; Amin, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the study was: (a) to better understand the concept of social capital and its potential role in oral health of children in a First Nations community and (b) to identify the strengths and resources in terms of social capital and a health promotion model that the community has at its disposal to address its oral health issues. Methods. In this qualitative case study, participants were purposively selected in a First Nations community: Seven individual interviews and two focus groups involving 18 parents/care givers were selected. Putnam's concept of social capital guided all the interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed using the NVivo software. Results. The community was close-knit and seemed to have strong moral fibre, which encouraged members to help each other. A strong bonding social capital was also found among the members, especially inside the clans (families). A need for improvement in bridging social capital that would help the community to reach external resources was observed. While members of the community were actively involved in religious rituals and cultural ceremonies, more efforts seemed to be required to recruit volunteers for other events or programs. Active engagement of community members in any program requires that members be given a voice as well as some ownership of the process. Mobilizing or building community's social capital can play a role when planning future interventions. Conclusions. A better understanding of social capital may enhance the community's investment and efforts by reinforcing healthy oral behaviours and improving access to external resources. With more dynamic collaboration, it may be possible to create more sustainable community-based oral health promotion programs. PMID:25623814

  10. Conceptual understanding of social capital in a First Nations community: a social determinant of oral health in children

    PubMed Central

    Salehyar, Mohammad H.; Keenan, Louanne; Patterson, Steven; Amin, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the study was: (a) to better understand the concept of social capital and its potential role in oral health of children in a First Nations community and (b) to identify the strengths and resources in terms of social capital and a health promotion model that the community has at its disposal to address its oral health issues. Methods In this qualitative case study, participants were purposively selected in a First Nations community: Seven individual interviews and two focus groups involving 18 parents/care givers were selected. Putnam's concept of social capital guided all the interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed using the NVivo software. Results The community was close-knit and seemed to have strong moral fibre, which encouraged members to help each other. A strong bonding social capital was also found among the members, especially inside the clans (families). A need for improvement in bridging social capital that would help the community to reach external resources was observed. While members of the community were actively involved in religious rituals and cultural ceremonies, more efforts seemed to be required to recruit volunteers for other events or programs. Active engagement of community members in any program requires that members be given a voice as well as some ownership of the process. Mobilizing or building community's social capital can play a role when planning future interventions. Conclusions A better understanding of social capital may enhance the community's investment and efforts by reinforcing healthy oral behaviours and improving access to external resources. With more dynamic collaboration, it may be possible to create more sustainable community-based oral health promotion programs. PMID:25623814

  11. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  12. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  13. Social and Proximate Determinants of the Frequency of Condom Use Among African, Caribbean, and Other Black People in a Canadian City: Results from the BLACCH Study.

    PubMed

    Baidoobonso, Shamara; Bauer, Greta R; Speechley, Kathy Nixon; Lawson, Erica

    2016-02-01

    African, Caribbean, and other Black (ACB) people are a priority group for HIV prevention in Canada, but little is known about condom use in this population. This exploratory community-based research project addresses this gap in knowledge. 125 sexually active ACB people completed a questionnaire covering condom use and social determinants of health. The data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression and mediation analyses. 20.5 % of sexually active ACB adults used condoms consistently. Male gender, wealth, unstable immigration classes, and unsecure employment statuses were independently associated with more frequent condom use. Proximate determinants mediating these relationships included: not having a cohabiting regular partner, not disliking condoms, and having a history of unwanted sex. The proximate determinants mediated 85.7-97.6 % of the effects of the social determinants. These results link social context and proximate factors with condom use. They can be used to design evidence-informed interventions for ACB people. PMID:24488693

  14. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  15. Socioeconomic Disadvantage as a Social Determinant of Teen Childbearing in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Carter, Marion; Snead, M. Christine; Kourtis, Athena P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We reviewed the literature focused on socioeconomic influences on teen childbearing and suggested directions for future research and practice related to this important indicator of teen sexual health. Methods We conducted an electronic search of Medline, ERIC, PsychLit, and Sociological Abstracts databases for articles published from January 1995 to November 2011. Selected articles from peer-reviewed journals included original quantitative analyses addressing socioeconomic influences on first birth among teen women in the U.S. Articles were abstracted for key information, ranked for quality according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines, assessed for bias, and synthesized. Results We selected articles with a range of observational study designs. Risk for bias varied across studies. All 12 studies that considered socioeconomic factors as influences on teen childbearing (vs. moderators or mediators of other effects) reported at least one statistically significant association relating low socioeconomic status, underemployment, low income, low education levels, neighborhood disadvantage, neighborhood physical disorder, or neighborhood-level income inequality to teen birth. Few reports included any associations contradicting this pattern. Conclusions This review suggests that unfavorable socioeconomic conditions experienced at the community and family levels contribute to the high teen birth rate in the U.S. Future research into social determinants of sexual health should include multiple levels of measurement whenever possible. Root causes of teen childbearing should be evaluated in various populations and contexts. Interventions that address socioeconomic influences at multiple levels could positively affect large numbers of teens and help eliminate disparities in teen childbearing. PMID:23450881

  16. Perceptual Incongruity and Social Interaction as Determinants of Infants' Reaction to Novel Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, David J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A study on the effects of birth order on infants' reactions to novel persons was conducted to test the differing predictions of incongruity theory and social interaction theory. Findings indicated that infants' reactions to novel persons are determined by infants' social interaction within the family during the first year rather than by the number…

  17. Social Determinants of Influenza Illness and Outbreaks in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cordoba, Evette; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants-such as education, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, access to health care services and vaccination, neighborhood-level stressors, and workplace or school policies-can impact influenza illness and outbreaks in the United States. To reduce transmission and disparities in influenza infection, policies should focus on removing existing vaccination barriers and supporting equitable social policies. PMID:27621346

  18. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  19. Prioritizing the Determinants of Social-health Inequality in Iran: A Multiple Attribute Decision Making Application

    PubMed Central

    Zaboli, Rouhollah; Tourani, Sogand; Seyedin, Seyed Hesam; Oliaie Manesh, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the main challenges of healthcare systems of developing countries is health inequality. Health inequality means inequality in individuals’ ability and proper functioning, resulting in inequality in social status and living conditions, which thwarts social interventions implemented by the government. Objectives: This study aimed to determine and prioritize the social determinants of health inequality in Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a mixed method study with two phases of qualitative and quantitative research. The study population consisted of experts dealing with social determinants of health. A purposive, stratified and non-random sampling method was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data along with a multiple attribute decision making method for the quantitative phase of the research in which the TOPSIS technique was employed for prioritization. The qualitative findings were entered into NVivo for analysis, as were the quantitative data entered into MATLAB software. Results: The results approved the suitability of the conceptual framework of social determinants of health suggested by the WHO (world health organization) for studying social determinants of health inequality; however, this framework general and theoretical rather than a guideline for practice. Thus, in this study, 15 themes and 31 sub-themes were determined as social determinants of social health inequality in Iran. Based on the findings of the quantitative phase of our research, socioeconomic status, living facilities such as housing, and social integrity had the greatest effect on decreasing health inequality. Conclusions: A major part of the inequality in health distribution is avoidable because they are mostly caused by adjustable factors like economic conditions, educational conditions, employment, living facilities, etc. As in the majority of developing countries the living and health conditions are the same as Iran, the

  20. Social Determinants of Health in Environmental Justice Communities: Examining Cumulative Risk in Terms of Environmental Exposures and Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, John D.; Nolen, Alexandra B.; Kelley, Hilton; Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H.; Sullivan, John

    2014-01-01

    Residents of environmental justice (EJ) communities may bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk, and often face additional burdens from social determinants of health. Accounting for cumulative risk should include measures of risk from both environmental sources and social determinants. This study sought to better understand cumulative health risk from both social and environmental sources in a disadvantaged community in Texas. Key outcomes were determining what data are currently available for this assessment, clarifying data needs, identifying data gaps, and considering how those gaps could be filled. Analyses suggested that the traditionally defined EJ community in Port Arthur may have a lower environmental risk from air toxics than the rest of the City of Port Arthur (although the entire city has a higher risk than the average for the state), but may have a larger burden from social determinants of health. However, the results should be interpreted in light of the availability of data, the definitions of community boundaries, and the areal unit utilized. Continued focus on environmental justice communities and the cumulative risks faced by their residents is critical to protecting these residents and, ultimately, moving towards a more equitable distribution and acceptable level of risk throughout society. PMID:24771993

  1. The polarizing effect of news media messages about the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Lantz, Paula M; Ubel, Peter A

    2009-12-01

    Framing health problems in terms of the social determinants of health aims to shift policy attention to nonmedical strategies to improve population health, yet little is known about how the public responds to these messages. We conducted an experiment to test the effect of a news article describing the social determinants of type 2 diabetes on the public's support for diabetes prevention strategies. We found that exposure to the social determinants message led to a divergence between Republicans' and Democrats' opinions, relative to their opinions after viewing an article with no message about the causes of diabetes. These results signify that increasing public awareness of the social determinants of health may not uniformly increase public support for policy action. PMID:19833981

  2. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    PubMed

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it. PMID:25528930

  3. Social determinants and the health of drug users: socioeconomic status, homelessness, and incarceration.

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article reviews the evidence on the adverse health consequences of low socioeconomic status, homelessness, and incarceration among drug users. OBSERVATIONS: Social and economic factors shape risk behavior and the health of drug users. They affect health indirectly by shaping individual drug-use behavior; they affect health directly by affecting the availability of resources, access to social welfare systems, marginalization, and compliance with medication. Minority groups experience a disproportionately high level of the social factors that adversely affect health, factors that contribute to disparities in health among drug users. CONCLUSION: Public health interventions aimed at improving the health of drug users must address the social factors that accompany and exacerbate the health consequences of illicit drug use. PMID:12435837

  4. Exploring the Influence of Social Determinants, Social Capital, and Health Expertise on Health and the Rural Church.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, Robyn; Leipert, Beverly; Olson, Joanne

    2016-09-01

    In rural communities, religious places can significantly shape health for individuals, families, and communities. Rural churches are prominent community centers in rural communities and are deeply woven into rural culture. Thus, health influences arising from the rural church likely have health implications for the greater community. This article explores health influences emerging from rural churches using social determinants of health, social capital, and health expertise. Although nurses are important health resources for all populations, their value in rural areas may be exceedingly significant. The contribution of nurses to church-based health capital in rural communities may be quite significant and underestimated, although it remains poorly understood. PMID:26385751

  5. Caste-, work-, and descent-based discrimination as a determinant of health in social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R

    2014-01-01

    Social epidemiology explores health in the context of broad social determinants of health, where the boundary lines between health and politics appear increasingly blurred. Social determinants of health such as caste, discrimination, and social exclusion are inherently political in nature, hence it becomes imperative to look at health through a broader perspective of political philosophy, ideology, and caste that imposes enormous obstacles to a person's full attainment of civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights. Caste is descent based and hereditary in nature. It is a characteristic determined by one's birth into a particular caste, irrespective of the faith practiced by the individual. Caste denotes a system of rigid social stratification into ranked groups defined by descent and occupation. Under various caste systems throughout the world, caste divisions also dominate in housing, marriage, and general social interaction divisions that are reinforced through the practice and threat of social ostracism, economic boycotts, and even physical violence-all of which undermine health equality. PMID:24871772

  6. Individual Preferences and Social Interactions Determine the Aggregation of Woodlice

    PubMed Central

    Devigne, Cédric; Broly, Pierre; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Background The aggregation of woodlice in dark and moist places is considered an adaptation to land life and most studies are focused on its functionality or on the behavioural mechanisms related to the individual's response to abiotic factors. Until now, no clear experimental demonstration was available about aggregation resulting from inter-attraction between conspecifics. Methodology/Main Findings We present the dynamics of aggregation, not previously described in detail in literature, as being independent of the experimental conditions: homogeneous and heterogeneous environments with identical or different shelters. Indeed whatever these conditions, the aggregation is very quick. In less than 10 minutes more than 50% of woodlice were aggregated in several small groups in the homogeneous environment or under shelters in the heterogeneous environment. After this fast aggregation, woodlice progressively moved into a single aggregate or under one shelter. Conclusions/Significance Here we show for the first time that aggregation in woodlice implies a strong social component and results from a trade-off between individual preferences and inter-attraction between individuals. Moreover, our results reveal that the response to the heterogeneities affects only the location of the aggregates and not the level of aggregation, and demonstrate the strong inter-attraction between conspecifics which can outweigh individual preferences. This inter-attraction can lead to situations that could seem sub-optimal. PMID:21364761

  7. Explaining the role of the social determinants of health on health inequality in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ataguba, John Ele-Ojo; Day, Candy; McIntyre, Di

    2015-01-01

    Background Action on the social determinants of health (SDH) is relevant for reducing health inequalities. This is particularly the case for South Africa (SA) with its very high level of income inequality and inequalities in health and health outcomes. This paper provides evidence on the key SDH for reducing health inequalities in the country using a framework initially developed by the World Health Organization. Objective This paper assesses health inequalities in SA and explains the factors (i.e. SDH and other individual level factors) that account for large disparities in health. The relative contribution of different SDH to health inequality is also assessed. Design A cross-sectional design is used. Data come from the third wave of the nationally representative National Income Dynamics Study. A subsample of adults (18 years and older) is used. The main variable of interest is dichotomised good versus bad self-assessed health (SAH). Income-related health inequality is assessed using the standard concentration index (CI). A positive CI means that the rich report better health than the poor. A negative value signifies the opposite. The paper also decomposes the CI to assess its contributing factors. Results Good SAH is significantly concentrated among the rich rather than the poor (CI=0.008; p<0.01). Decomposition of this result shows that social protection and employment (contribution=0.012; p<0.01), knowledge and education (0.005; p<0.01), and housing and infrastructure (−0.003; p<0.01) contribute significantly to the disparities in good SAH in SA. After accounting for these other variables, the contribution of income and poverty is negligible. Conclusions Addressing health inequalities inter alia requires an increased government commitment in terms of budgetary allocations to key sectors (i.e. employment, social protection, education, housing, and other appropriate infrastructure). Attention should also be paid to equity in benefits from government

  8. Opening address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen My cordial thanks to you for participating in our workshop and to all those who have sponsored it. When in 1957 I attended the International Congress on Fundamental Constants held in Turin on the occasion of the first centenary of the death of Amedeo Avogadro, I did not expect that about thirty-five years later a small but representative number of distinguished scientists would meet here again, to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal figure of the Avogadro constant. At that time, the uncertainty of the value of this constant was linked to the fourth decimal figure, as reported in the book by DuMond and Cohen. The progress made in the meantime is universally acknowledged to be due to the discovery of x-ray interferometry. We are honoured that one of the two founding fathers, Prof. Ulrich Bonse, is here with us, but we regret that the other, Prof. Michael Hart, is not present. After Bonse and Hart's discovery, the x-ray crystal density method triggered, as in a chain reaction, the investigation of two other quantities related to the Avogadro constant—density and molar mass. Scientists became, so to speak, resonant and since then have directed their efforts, just to mention a few examples, to producing near-perfect silicon spheres and determining their density, to calibrating, with increasing accuracy, mass spectrometers, and to studying the degree of homogeneity of silicon specimens. Obviously, I do not need to explain to you why the Avogadro constant is important. I wish, however, to underline that it is not only because of its position among fundamental constants, as we all know very well its direct links with the fine structure constant, the Boltzmann and Faraday constants, the h/e ratio, but also because when a new value of NA is obtained, the whole structure of the fundamental constants is shaken to a lesser or greater extent. Let me also remind you that the second part of the title of this workshop concerns the silicon

  9. Social Determinants of HIV-Related Stigma in Faith-Based Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Allan D.; Gaddist, Bambi; White, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association between social factors in faith-based settings (including religiosity and proximity to people living with HIV/AIDS) and HIV stigma. Methods. A total of 1747 congregants from primarily African American faith-based organizations of Project FAITH (Fostering AIDS Initiatives That Heal), a South Carolina statewide initiative to address HIV-related stigma, completed a survey. Results. Female gender (P = .001), higher education (P < .001), knowing someone with HIV/AIDS (P = .01), and knowing someone who is gay (P < .001), but not religiosity, were associated with lower levels of stigma and with lower odds of stigmatizing attitudes (P < .05). Conclusions. Opportunities for connection with people living with HIV/AIDS tailored to the social characteristics of faith-based organizations may address HIV stigma in African American communities. PMID:26794158

  10. Social and Behavioral Determinants of Perceived Insufficient Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas J.; Izci-Balserak, Bilgay; Gallagher, Rebecca A.; Murray-Bachmann, Renee; Williams, Natasha J.; Patel, Nirav P.; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with cardiometabolic disease and poor health. However, few studies have assessed its determinants in a nationally representative sample. Data from the 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system were used (N = 323,047 adults). Insufficient sleep was assessed as insufficient rest/sleep over 30 days. This was evaluated relative to sociodemographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, region), socioeconomics (education, income, employment, insurance), health behaviors (diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol), and health/functioning (emotional support, BMI, mental/physical health). Overall, insufficient sleep was associated with being female, White or Black/African-American, unemployed, without health insurance, and not married; decreased age, income, education, physical activity; worse diet and overall health; and increased household size, alcohol, and smoking. These factors should be considered as risk factors for insufficient sleep. PMID:26097464

  11. New English and Spanish Social Health Measures Will Facilitate Evaluating Health Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Elizabeth A.; DeWalt, Darren A.; Bode, Rita K.; Garcia, Sofia F.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Correia, Helena; Cella, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop psychometrically sound, culturally relevant and linguistically equivalent English and Spanish self-report measures of social health guided by a comprehensive conceptual model and applicable across chronic illnesses. Methods The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Social Health Workgroup implemented a mixed methods approach to evaluate earlier results (v1.0); expand and refine domain definitions and items; translate items into Spanish; and obtain qualitative feedback. Computer-based and paper/pencil questionnaire administration was conducted with a variety of U.S. respondent samples during 2009–2012. Analyses included exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), two-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) modeling, evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF), and evaluation of criterion and construct validity. Results Qualitative feedback supported the conceptualization of the Social Health domain framework (Social Function and Social Relationships sub-components). Validation testing participants (n=2,208 English; n=644 Spanish) were diverse in terms of gender, age, education and ethnicity/race. EFA, CFA and IRT identified seven unidimensional factors with good model fit. There was no DIF by language, and good evidence of criterion and construct validity. Conclusions PROMIS English and Spanish language instruments (v2.0), including computer-adaptive tests and fixed-length short forms, are publicly available for assessment of Social Function (Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities, and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities) and Social Relationships (Companionship; Emotional, Informational and Instrumental Support; and Social Isolation). Measures of social health will play a key role in applications that use ecologic (or determinants of health) models that emphasize how patients’ social environments influence their health. PMID:24447188

  12. Self-Determination, Social Abilities and the Quality of Life of People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nota, L.; Ferrari, L.; Soresi, S.; Wehmeyer, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The international literature has documented that self-determination is impacted by environmental factors, including living or work settings; and by intraindividual factors, including intelligence level, age, gender, social skills and adaptive behaviour. In addition, self-determination has been correlated with improved quality of life…

  13. A Social-Ecological Analysis of the Self-Determination Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shogren, Karrie A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a social-ecological lens to examine self-determination research, attempting to organize what is known (and unknown) about contextual factors that have the potential to impact the development and expression of self-determined behavior in people with disabilities across multiple ecological systems. Identifying and categorizing the…

  14. Media created violence: a social determinant of mental health.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shamshad; Khowaja, Shaneela Sadruddin; Ali, Gulnar

    2012-12-01

    In today's high technological world, scientific discoveries contribute remarkable development to human life, but it could also have an adverse impact on mankind. Among all these advancements, media is one of the inventions which aims at capturing a countless group of viewers and transmit information via various mediums. Media violence is considered one of the hampering determinants which harms an individual psychologically. The primary goal of a health professional is to work for the maintenance of mental health. Therefore, it is imperative to create an understanding about the impact of media violence on mental health, particularly in the Pakistani context. Violence has become a major public health problem in Pakistan. The main cause of violence seems to be anger and frustration due to poverty, political conflicts, lack of education, and the overall governance approach in the country. Therefore, there is a prime need to think and work on this neglected area like conducting research and increasing public awareness, and to curb media violence. PMID:23866487

  15. Modeling the determinants of the social impacts of agricultural development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadvand, Mostafa; Karami, Ezatollah; Iman, Mohammad Taghi

    2011-01-15

    In an attempt to help policy-makers improve the social sustainability of development projects, this study identifies the key determinants of farmers' attitudes relating to the social impacts of the floodwater spreading project (FWSP) on the Gareh-Bygone plain in Iran. In order to analyze the links between the various factors that affect the experience of social impact, a theoretical framework was developed. Stratified random sampling was used to survey 138 farm households from the four villages in the region. One male and one female from each house were interviewed face-to-face using a questionnaire, resulting in a total of 276 interviews. Structural factors were found to be the largest contribution to stakeholders' attitudes relating to the social impacts of the project. Results from a cluster analysis suggested that the level of floodwater information, level of participation, water access, ownership change, and environmental worldview were the most important factors explaining attitude towards social impact of the FWSP.

  16. Examining Place As a Social Determinant of Health: Association Between Diabetes and US Geographic Region Among Non-Hispanic Whites and a Diverse Group of Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    González, Gloria; Wilson-Frederick Wilson, Shondelle M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2015-01-01

    Place (geographic location), birthplace, the number of years in the United States, and gender are important social determinants of health essential to our understanding of health disparities. In this study, we examined the association between place and diabetes in white and Hispanic/Latino men and found that place and the number of years in the United States are important social determinants of health. Our findings provide implications for a nuanced perspective by highlighting the importance of examining social determinants of health to identify tailored interventions to address disparities in diabetes for diverse groups of Hispanic/Latino men. PMID:26291192

  17. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice. PMID:26861365

  18. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice. PMID:26861365

  19. A National Content Analysis of PhD Program Objectives, Structures, and Curricula: Do Programs Address the Full Range of Social Work's Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drisko, James; Hunnicutt, Christie; Berenson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Group for the Advancement of Doctoral Education (GADE) promotes excellence in PhD education in Social Work. GADE's 2013 Quality Guidelines for PhD Programs heavily emphasize preparation for research. Little is known, however, about the details of the contemporary social work PhD program structure and curriculum. Several prior surveys have…

  20. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

  1. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

  2. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

  3. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

  4. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

  5. Social Determinants of Quality of Elderly Life in a Rural Setting of India

    PubMed Central

    Dongre, Amol R; Deshmukh, Pradeep R

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to understand the social determinants of quality of elderly life in rural central India and describe their perspectives on various issues related to their quality of life. Materials and Methods: It was a community-based mixed-methods study in which quantitative (survey) method was followed by qualitative (Focus Group Discussion, FGD). The study was done in field practice area of a Rural Health Training Centre. We decided to interview all the elderly (>60 years) in two feasibly selected wards of village Anji by using the “WHO-Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-brief questionnaire.” We used WHOQOL syntax for the calculation of mean values of four domains. Following survey, four FGDs were carried out. Results: The determinants of perceived physical health, amenable for intervention were their currently working status, not being neglected by the family, and involvement in social activities. The determinants for psychological support were health insurance, and their current working status. The determinants for social relations were membership in social group and their present working status. The determinants for perceived environment were membership in social groups and relationship with the family members. In qualitative research, factors such as active life, social activity, spirituality, health care, involvement in decision making, and welfare schemes by the Government were found to contribute to better quality of elderly life. Problems or conflicts in family environment, lack of shelter and financial security, overtapped resources, and gender bias add to negative feelings in old age life. Conclusions: There is a need for intervention at social and family level for elderly friendly environment at home and community level. PMID:23439878

  6. Social determinants of drug use--barriers to translating research into policy.

    PubMed

    Spooner, Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Our understanding of the causes of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and harms has expanded in the past 20 years. In particular, aetiological theories have become substantially more complex, incorporating research on human development and social determinants of health. In this paper, factors that present challenges to the AOD sector translating this research into policy are considered. These include a) the complexity of social determinants, b) community attitudes, and c) governance and funding structures. It is concluded that the challenges are substantial, but not insurmountable. Research on social determinants of AOD use and harms is building an evidence base to inform policy. However, leadership is needed to transform funding priorities from single-issue, short-term projects focusing on individual-level changes to broader, longer-term approaches. PMID:19951237

  7. A review of family and social determinants of children's eating patterns and diet quality.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Heather; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2005-04-01

    With the growing problem of childhood obesity, recent research has begun to focus on family and social influences on children's eating patterns. Research has demonstrated that children's eating patterns are strongly influenced by characteristics of both the physical and social environment. With regard to the physical environment, children are more likely to eat foods that are available and easily accessible, and they tend to eat greater quantities when larger portions are provided. Additionally, characteristics of the social environment, including various socioeconomic and sociocultural factors such as parents' education, time constraints, and ethnicity influence the types of foods children eat. Mealtime structure is also an important factor related to children's eating patterns. Mealtime structure includes social and physical characteristics of mealtimes including whether families eat together, TV-viewing during meals, and the source of foods (e.g., restaurants, schools). Parents also play a direct role in children's eating patterns through their behaviors, attitudes, and feeding styles. Interventions aimed at improving children's nutrition need to address the variety of social and physical factors that influence children's eating patterns. PMID:15798074

  8. Some lessons in tackling social determinants of health in resource-poor settings: health promotion with young people in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patrick; Ritchie, Jan; Tabi, Graham; Abel, Myriam; Lower, Tony

    2007-09-01

    Community based health promotion initiatives are recognised as important strategies to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. However, limited knowledge exists on how such initiatives work in practice. One innovative health promotion program of work, the Pacific Action for Health Project, is working with young people and communities in the Pacific country of Vanuatu to offset the future effects of risk factors for these diseases, through optimising broad lifestyle and living conditions for the positive promotion of health. Recognising the established link between non-communicable diseases and their social determinants, the Pacific Action for Health Project works with young people to address these determinants at the community level including, but not limited to, unemployment. This paper appraises the program based on a constructivist approach to data gathering and analysis, with observations made in the field subsequently interpreted through the health promotion literature on community empowerment. From the data collected, six themes emerged as key attributes through which the program achieved its planned outcomes. Subsequent analysis through the community empowerment literature, specifically 'dynamic continuum' models of community development, provided deeper analysis of the program's strategies and offered insight into how the literature on community empowerment may work in practice in a resource poor context. In addition to the development of locally specific empowerment measures as indicators for future program evaluation, further ethnographic work and participatory-action research approaches are encouraged to assist the future development of the program. PMID:19588611

  9. Learned fear to social out-group members are determined by ethnicity and prior exposure

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Armita; Björnstjerna, Marie; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like other animals, have a tendency to preferentially learn and retain some associations more readily than others. In humans, preferential learning was originally demonstrated for certain evolutionary prepared stimuli, such as snakes and angry faces and later extended to human social out-groups based on race (Olsson et al., 2005). To address the generality of this social learning bias, we examined if this learning bias extended to two separate classes of social out-groups represented by neutral Black and Middle-Eastern faces in 38 White (Swedish) participants. We found that other-ethnicity alone was not sufficient to induce an out-group learning bias; it was observed for Black, but not Middle-Eastern, out-group faces. Moreover, an exploratory analysis showed that growing up in an ethnically diverse environment was inversely related to the learning bias toward Middle-Eastern, but not Black, out-groups faces, suggesting that learned fears toward Middle-Eastern faces might be more permeable to environmental factors. Future research should address how both the quantity and quality of inter-group contact modulate out-group learning. PMID:25762953

  10. Learned fear to social out-group members are determined by ethnicity and prior exposure.

    PubMed

    Golkar, Armita; Björnstjerna, Marie; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like other animals, have a tendency to preferentially learn and retain some associations more readily than others. In humans, preferential learning was originally demonstrated for certain evolutionary prepared stimuli, such as snakes and angry faces and later extended to human social out-groups based on race (Olsson et al., 2005). To address the generality of this social learning bias, we examined if this learning bias extended to two separate classes of social out-groups represented by neutral Black and Middle-Eastern faces in 38 White (Swedish) participants. We found that other-ethnicity alone was not sufficient to induce an out-group learning bias; it was observed for Black, but not Middle-Eastern, out-group faces. Moreover, an exploratory analysis showed that growing up in an ethnically diverse environment was inversely related to the learning bias toward Middle-Eastern, but not Black, out-groups faces, suggesting that learned fears toward Middle-Eastern faces might be more permeable to environmental factors. Future research should address how both the quantity and quality of inter-group contact modulate out-group learning. PMID:25762953

  11. Social determinants of type 2 diabetes and health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Clark, Myra L; Utz, Sharon W

    2014-06-15

    Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. To date, most research and resulting clinical strategies have focused on the individual with short-term health improvements that have not been maintained over time. Researchers more recently have recognized the need to consider the social determinants of diabetes and health along with individual factors. The purpose of this literature review is to examine current understanding of the social determinants affecting diabetes and health. A search of medical and nursing literature was conducted using PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL and MEDLINE databases, selecting articles published between 2000 and 2013. Search terms included: type 2 diabetes, social determinants, and health determinants. Inclusion criteria were: English language, human studies, social determinants of diabetes and health, and research in the United States. Additional search methods included reference chaining of the literature. Twenty research articles met the inclusion criteria for the review and analysis and included quantitative and qualitative methods. All studies selected for this review were descriptive in nature (n = 20). Fifteen studies were quantitative studies and five were qualitative studies. No intervention studies met inclusion criteria. Each study is summarized and critiqued. Study findings indicate that external or upstream factors consistently affect individuals diagnosed with diabetes, influencing self-management. Significant methodological limitations result directly from small sample sizes, convenience or nonprobability sampling, and low statistical power. PMID:24936251

  12. An interdisciplinary perspective on social and physical determinants of seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K.-H.; Chang, Y.-C.; Liu, G.-Y.; Chan, C.-H.; Lin, T.-H.; Yeh, C.-H.

    2015-01-01

    While disaster studies researchers usually view risk as a function of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability, few studies have systematically examined the relationships among the various physical and socioeconomic determinants underlying disasters, and fewer have done so through seismic risk analysis. In the context of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, this study constructs five hypothetical models to test different determinants that affect disaster fatality at the village level, namely seismic hazard intensity, population, building fragility, demographics and socioeconomics. The Poisson Regression Model is used to estimate the impact of natural hazards and social factors on fatality. Results indicate that although all of the determinants have an impact on the specific dimension of seismic fatality, some indicators of social inequality, such as gender ratio, dependency ratio, income and its SD, are the driving determinants deteriorating vulnerability to seismic risk. These findings have strong social implications for policy interventions to mitigate such disasters. This study presents an interdisciplinary investigation into social and physical determinants in seismic risk.

  13. Epidemiology of the 21 st century and cyberspace: rethinking power and the social determination of health.

    PubMed

    Breilh, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The study of epidemiologic processes as a form of socially determined movement requires a renewed understanding of the social order, and thus, an updated understanding of the social relations that move society. Recently, the dominance of big corporations on cyberspace has become visible as a new historical process that conditions the social order and extends the technological subordination of daily life, therefore expanding community massive submission to standard conducts. The new digital technological revolution, about which some frightening prognoses are made for the next decades, could easily imply the advent of an era of radical subsumption of life processes. This will negatively affect not only our general way of living, thinking and planning, but also our deepest daily intimacy. This movement implies radical effects on health which we call cybernetic determination and subsumption. This novel process raises new questions on public health and prevention; but also requires a new reading of reality, a rethinking of human life and health, of its social determination, which implies the need for new new categories and analysis and renewed challenges for critical epidemiology. PMID:26982311

  14. The social determinants of depression in elderly Korean immigrants in Canada: does acculturation matter?

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooksoo; Chen, Ya-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Depression in old age significantly decreases the quality of life and may lead to serious consequences, such as suicide. Existing literature indicates that elderly Korean immigrants may experience higher levels of depression than other racial ethnic group elders. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate factors that influence depression among older Korean immigrants in Toronto. A total of 148 participants, ages 60 years or older (mean age = 74.01, SD = 8.24), completed face-to-face interviews in Korean language. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted by adding variables in three steps: (1) demographic variables; (2) acculturation variables (years of immigration and English proficiency); and (3) social determinants (social integration variables, physical health, and financial satisfaction). Results showed that acculturation factors were not associated with depression. Instead, social determinants variables, including lower physical health status and lower financial status, living alone, and lower level of social activity, predicted higher level of depressive symptoms, along with lower education. The final regression model explained about 37% of variance of depression in the sample. These results suggest that social determinants, not acculturation, are important factors explaining the levels of depression in Korean immigrant elders living in a metropolitan city in Canada. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:22474912

  15. Social and individual determinants of adolescents' acceptance of novel healthy and cool snack products.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-12-01

    Four new, healthy snack products, consisting of fruit, vegetables, bread, dip and topping, were tested with 600 Danish adolescents aged 9-16. Participants could view, handle, and test the products in a school setting. Acceptance was measured by overall buying intention, as well as buying intention contingent on specific substitutes and on the social situation. Price consciousness, health consciousness, snack neophobia, peer influence, social activities and word-of-mouth were measured as potential determinants of acceptance of the novel products. An exploratory analysis in TETRAD suggested that the measured constructs form three layers, with overall buying intention as the terminal causal effect, health consciousness, word of mouth, snack neophobia and peer influence as endogenous determinants, and social activities and the contingent buying intentions as mediators. Estimation of the causal relationships was conducted in LISREL. Findings show a predominance of social factors as determinants of novel snack acceptance, whereas health consciousness had only a weak and indirect effect on buying intentions and the effect of snack neophobia was partly mediated by social factors. PMID:25173064

  16. Chronic Neglect and Services Without Borders: A Guiding Model for Social Service Enhancement to Address the Needs of Parents With Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Sandra; Robinson, Lara; Proctor, Stephon

    2016-01-01

    Child neglect has negative effects throughout the lifespan. Although an argument for a link between intellectual disabilities and neglectful parenting can be made, this paper argues for a more fine grained view of the cognitive problems that underlie child neglect perpetration and provides evidence for a social information processing model of etiology. Based on this model and what is known about the efficacy of behaviorally-based interventions, implications for enhancements to the social service system to adapt to the needs of parents with intellectual disabilities are presented. The areas covered include improvements to screening and assessment of parents; provision of adapted services; and changes in selection processes and training of staff. Future directions for integrating social information processing elements into interventions are discussed with examples from empirically tested prevention programs.

  17. Enhancing John Rawls's Theory of Justice to Cover Health and Social Determinants of Health1

    PubMed Central

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif; Arda, Berna

    2015-01-01

    The vast improvements in medical technology reviled the crucial role of social determinants of health for the etiology, prevalence and prognosis of diseases. This changed the content of the right to health concept from a demand of health services, to a claim of having access to all social determinants of health. Thus, the just allocation of scarce resources of health and social determinants of health became an issue of ethical theories. John Rawls developed a theory of justice. His theory suggests that the principles of justice should be determined by individuals in a hypothetic initial position. In the initial position, individuals agree on principles of justice. Rawls puts forth that the institutions of the society should be structured in compliance with these principles to reach a fair social system. Although Rawls did not justify right to health in his theory, the efforts to enlarge the theory to cover right to health flourished quite fast. In this paper first the basic components of Rawls theory is explained. Then the most outstanding approaches to enlarge his theory to cover right to health is introduced and discussed within the discourse of Rawls theory of justice. PMID:27340331

  18. Enhancing Curriculum through Service Learning in the Social Determinants of Health Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooks, Ronica Nicole; Rael, Christine Tagliaferri

    2013-01-01

    Service learning bridges classroom learning and community volunteerism and is anchored in the curriculum, classroom discussion, and community. We incorporated service learning projects (SLP) into three Social Determinants of Health courses (2008-2010) to promote: experiential learning; undergraduate scholarship; faculty career development through…

  19. Cultural, Human, and Social Capital as Determinants of Corporal Punishment: Toward an Integrated Theoretical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaohe; Tung, Yuk-Ying; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2000-01-01

    This article constructs a model to predict the likelihood of parental use of corporal punishment on children in two-parent families. Reports that corporal punishment is primarily determined by cultural, human, and social capital that are available to, or already acquired by parents. Discusses an integrated, resource-based theory for predicting use…

  20. Psycho-Social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnachi, N. O.; Okpube, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    This work focused on the "Psycho-social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)". The females were found to be underrepresented in STEM fields. The under-representation results from gender stereotype, differences in spatial skills, hierarchical and territorial segregations and…

  1. Determination and Interpretation of the Norm Values of Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale Teacher Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omeroglu, Esra; Buyukozturk, Sener; Aydogan, Yasemin; Cakan, Mehtap; Cakmak, Ebru Kilic; Ozyurek, Arzu; Akduman, Gulumser Gultekin; Gunindi, Yunus; Kutlu, Omer; Coban, Aysel; Yurt, Ozlem; Kogar, Hakan; Karayol, Seda

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine and interpret norms of the Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale (PSSRS) teacher form. The sample included 224 independent preschools and 169 primary schools. The schools are distributed among 48 provinces and 3324 children were included. Data were obtained from the PSSRS teacher form. The validity and reliability…

  2. The Role of Individual- and Macro-Level Social Determinants on Young Adolescents' Psychosomatic Complaints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottova, Veronika; Erhart, Michael; Vollebergh, Wilma; Kokonyei, Gyongyi; Morgan, Antony; Gobina, Inese; Jericek, Helena; Cavallo, Franco; Valimaa, Raili; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Gaspar, Tania; Schnohr, Christina W.; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the social determinants of psychosomatic complaints in young adolescents. Using data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, psychosomatic complaints are studied in 98,773 adolescents (11- and 13-year-olds; 48% 11-year-olds, 52% 13-year-olds; 52% females, 48% males) from 34 European countries.…

  3. Human Capital, Social Classes, and the Earnings Determination Process in Brazilian Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neves, Jorge A.; Haller, Archibald O.; Fernandes, Danielle C.

    This paper examines the process of earnings determination in the agricultural sector of Brazil. Among the main causal factors analyzed are human capital (education and work experience), labor market segmentation, gender, social class position, level of development/modernization, and concentration of land ownership. Data on individuals employed in…

  4. Persons Living with HIV/AIDS: Employment as a Social Determinant of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; Conyers, Liza; Misrok, Mark; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: For persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has increased their longevity and quality of life. As HIV progresses, many PLWHA present declined domains of functioning that impede their ability to work. The authors explore employment as a social determinant of health to identify issues…

  5. Social Determinants in Communication Events in a Small Bilingual Community in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Joseph D.

    The purpose of this report is to present an outline of actual occurrences in communication and their social determinants in the small Spanish-English bilingual community of Los Ojos, New Mexico, with some emphasis on difference in occurrences as related to age. These generalizations are linked to past and current educational practices and social…

  6. Reducing Oral Health Disparities: A Focus on Social and Cultural Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Donald L; Lee, Rosanna Shuk Yin; Nucci, Michele; Grembowski, David; Jolles, Carol Zane; Milgrom, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Oral health is essential to the general health and well-being of individuals and the population. Yet significant oral health disparities persist in the U.S. population because of a web of influences that include complex cultural and social processes that affect both oral health and access to effective dental health care. This paper introduces an organizing framework for addressing oral health disparities. We present and discuss how the multiple influences on oral health and oral health disparities operate using this framework. Interventions targeted at different causal pathways bring new directions and implications for research and policy in reducing oral health disparities. PMID:16934121

  7. Inclusion in Urban Educational Environments: Addressing Issues of Diversity, Equity, and Social Justice. Issues in the Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice of Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Denise E.; McMahon, Brenda J.

    2006-01-01

    This book is motivated by the authors' experiences in working with students and their families in urban communities. They are particularly concerned about the urgent imperative to address the endemic educational and societal challenges that pervade the lives of urban students, particularly those who live in poverty, are of minority and immigrant…

  8. Providing Effective Support to Teachers in Addressing Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Mainstream Classrooms in a Bangalore Pre-Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Mildred; Jament, Johnson

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted on children's social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) in a single pre-primary school in Bangalore, with the objective of developing a behaviour management policy for use by teachers. Limited evidence is available in the Indian literature in the area of SEBD and it remains important to know how…

  9. Framing a Transdisciplinary Research Agenda in Health Education to Address Health Disparities and Social Inequities: A Road Map for SOPHE Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambescia, Stephen F.; Woodhouse, Lynn D.; Auld, M. Elaine; Green, B. Lee; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2006-01-01

    SOPHE leaders continue to challenge us to be true to the call for an "open society." SOPHE has supported the Healthy People 2010 goal of eliminating health disparities through its Strategic Plan. SOPHE held an Inaugural Health Education Research Disparities Summit, Health Disparities and Social Inequities: Framing a Transdisciplinary Research…

  10. A Single Case Design Evaluation of a Software and Tutor Intervention Addressing Emotion Recognition and Social Interaction in Four Boys with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacava, Paul G.; Rankin, Ana; Mahlios, Emily; Cook, Katie; Simpson, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Many students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have delays learning to recognize emotions. Social behavior is also challenging, including initiating interactions, responding to others, developing peer relationships, and so forth. In this single case design study we investigated the relationship between use of computer software ("Mind Reading:…

  11. Chronic Neglect and Services without Borders: A Guiding Model for Social Service Enhancement to Address the Needs of Parents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Sandra T.; Robinson, Lara R.; Proctor, Stephon N.

    2012-01-01

    Child neglect has negative effects throughout the life span. Although an argument for a link between intellectual disabilities and neglectful parenting can be made, this article argues for a more fine-grained view of the cognitive problems that underlie child neglect perpetration and provides evidence for a social information processing model of…

  12. Addressing Social-Emotional Development and Infant Mental Health in Early Childhood Systems. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Paula D.; Stafford, Brian S.; Nagle, Geoffrey A.; Rice, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The science of early development and our understanding of the impact of early experience on later social, emotional, and cognitive development has grown dramatically in the past three decades. Because the data are compelling and far-reaching, there has been increasing interest and concern about the quality of the infant's earliest experiences, and…

  13. The potential for multi-disciplinary primary health care services to take action on the social determinants of health: actions and constraints

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Commission on the Social Determinants of Health and the World Health Organization have called for action to address the social determinants of health. This paper considers the extent to which primary health care services in Australia are able to respond to this call. We report on interview data from an empirical study of primary health care centres in Adelaide and Alice Springs, Australia. Methods Sixty-eight interviews were held with staff and managers at six case study primary health care services, regional health executives, and departmental funders to explore how their work responded to the social determinants of health and the dilemmas in doing so. The six case study sites included an Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation, a sexual health non-government organisation, and four services funded and managed by the South Australian government. Results While respondents varied in the extent to which they exhibited an understanding of social determinants most were reflexive about the constraints on their ability to take action. Services’ responses to social determinants included delivering services in a way that takes account of the limitations individuals face from their life circumstances, and physical spaces in the primary health care services being designed to do more than simply deliver services to individuals. The services also undertake advocacy for policies that create healthier communities but note barriers to them doing this work. Our findings suggest that primary health care workers are required to transverse “dilemmatic space” in their work. Conclusions The absence of systematic supportive policy, frameworks and structure means that it is hard for PHC services to act on the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health’s recommendations. Our study does, however, provide evidence of the potential for PHC services to be more responsive to social determinants given more support and by building alliances with communities and

  14. Social determinants of health in Tunisia: the case-analysis of Ariana

    PubMed Central

    Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Grenier, Francis R

    2009-01-01

    Background Few research projects have analyzed how social determinants of health impact cities in North Africa. The sustained growth in these countries has nevertheless proven to exacerbate health disparities and create many social and economic inequalities. This strategic analysis examines selected social determinants of health in a major urban centre of Tunisia, identifies the most influential stakeholders able to influence equity/inequity, and reviews the accomplishments and need for action to foster health equity. Methods This analysis was performed through a literature review and participatory research methods that included focus groups discussions and interview with key informants. Results Access to health care, changes in lifestyles, housing issues and gender-related inequities are prime, socially-determined elements that affect health in Ariana. Conclusion Recognition of emerging health issues is needed along with improved inter and intrasectoral coordination among stakeholders. The community-participatory approach used in this paper proved to be a useful scoping technique for this setting. A similar methodology could be used by other researchers as a first step toward health equity action at a city level. PMID:19344503

  15. 2 CFR 2339.500 - Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who in the Social Security Administration... 2339.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements SOCIAL SECURITY... Consequences § 2339.500 Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than...

  16. 2 CFR 2339.500 - Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who in the Social Security Administration... 2339.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements SOCIAL SECURITY... Consequences § 2339.500 Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than...

  17. 2 CFR 2339.500 - Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who in the Social Security Administration... 2339.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements SOCIAL SECURITY... Consequences § 2339.500 Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than...

  18. 2 CFR 2339.500 - Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who in the Social Security Administration... 2339.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements SOCIAL SECURITY... Consequences § 2339.500 Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than...

  19. Childhood Intelligence, Locus of Control and Behaviour Disturbance as Determinants of Intergenerational Social Mobility: British Cohort Study 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie; Gale, Catherine R.; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    Determinants of intergenerational social mobility were examined in 8287 men from the British Cohort Study 1970. Confirming previous research, parental social class, childhood intelligence, and educational qualifications were the strongest predictors of occupational social class at the age of 30. Locus of control and childhood behaviour disturbance…

  20. Development and trialling of a tool to support a systems approach to improve social determinants of health in rural and remote Australian communities: the healthy community assessment tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The residents of many Australian rural and remote communities do not have the essential infrastructure and services required to support healthy living conditions and community members choosing healthy lifestyle options. Improving these social determinants of health is seen to offer real opportunities to improve health among such disadvantaged populations. In this paper, we describe the development and trialling of a tool to measure, monitor and evaluate key social determinants of health at community level. Methods The tool was developed and piloted through a multi-phase and iterative process that involved a series of consultations with community members and key stakeholders and trialling the tool in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. Results The indicators were found to be robust, and by testing the tool on a number of different levels, face validity was confirmed. The scoring system was well understood and easily followed by Indigenous and non-Indigenous study participants. A facilitated small group process was found to reduce bias in scoring of indicators. Conclusion The Healthy Community Assessment Tool offers a useful vehicle and process to help those involved in planning, service provision and more generally promoting improvements in community social determinants of health. The tool offers many potential uses and benefits for those seeking to address inequities in the social determinants of health in remote communities. Maximum benefits in using the tool are likely to be gained with cross-sector involvement and when assessments are part of a continuous quality improvement program. PMID:23442804

  1. The relative influence of individual, social and physical environment determinants of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Giles-Corti, Billie; Donovan, Robert J

    2002-06-01

    Environmental determinants of health are receiving growing attention in the literature, although there is little empirical research in this area. The Study on Environmental and Individual Determinants of Physical Activity (known as the SEID project) was a social ecological project that examined the relative influence of individual, social environmental and physical environmental determinants of recreational physical activity. It involved a community survey of 1803 healthy workers and home-makers aged 18-59 years living in a 408 km2 area of metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Physical environmental determinants were mainly conceptualised as spatial access to popular recreational facilities. Overall, 59% of respondents exercised as recommended. Recreational facilities located near home were used by more respondents than facilities located elsewhere. The most frequently used facilities were informal: the streets (45.6%); public open space (28.8%) and the beach (22.7%). The physical environment's directs the influence on exercising as recommended was found to be secondary to individual and social environmental determinants. Nevertheless, accessible facilities determined whether or not they were used and in this way, support and enhance the achievement of recommended levels of physical activity behaviour by providing opportunities. The results suggest that access to a supportive physical environment is necessary, but may be insufficient to increase recommended levels of physical activity in the community. Complementary strategies are required that aim to influence individual and social environmental factors. Given the popularity of walking in the community, it is recommended that greater emphasis be placed on creating streetscapes that enhance walking for recreation and transport. PMID:12113436

  2. Position of Social Determinants of Health in Urban Man-Made Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: A social determinants approach proposes that enhancing living conditions in areas such as income, housing, transportation, employment, education, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. Urban development projects can be costly but have health impacts. The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in developing countries is usually associated with great risks; however, the evidence for physical and non-physical health benefits of urban man-made lake is unclear. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban man-made lakes and social determinants of health. Method: This study was a qualitative study carried out using one focus group discussion and 16 individual interviews. Data were analyzed based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach. Results: Participants’ points of view were analyzed within 261 codes. Data analysis matrix was the conceptual framework of social determinants of health commission and its sub-groups, thus, two structural and mediating determinants categories as well as their sub-sets were created accordingly. In addition, some extra sub-sets including environment, air quality, weather changes, noise pollution, pathogenesis, quality of life, shortage of available resources, region popularity, ethnicity, tourism, social and physical development of children, unintentional injuries, aesthetic, and spirituality were extracted beyond the matrix factors, which were placed in each of above categories based on their thematic content. Conclusion: This paper has illustrated that the quality and type of man-made lake provided within communities can have a significant and sustained impact on community’s health and wellbeing. Therefore, in order to strengthen positive effects and reduce negative effects of any developmental projects within community, their impacts on public health should be taken into consideration

  3. A systems-based conceptual framework for assessing the determinants of a social license to operate in the mining industry.

    PubMed

    Prno, Jason; Slocombe, D Scott

    2014-03-01

    The concept of a "social license to operate" (SLO) was coined in the 1990s and gained popularity as one way in which "social" considerations can be addressed in mineral development decision making. The need for a SLO implies that developers require the widespread approval of local community members for their projects to avoid exposure to potentially costly conflict and business risks. Only a limited amount of scholarship exists on the topic, and there is a need for research that specifically addresses the complex and changeable nature of SLO outcomes. In response to these challenges, this paper advances a novel, systems-based conceptual framework for assessing SLO determinants and outcomes in the mining industry. Two strands of systems theory are specifically highlighted-complex adaptive systems and resilience-and the roles of context, key system variables, emergence, change, uncertainty, feedbacks, cross-scale effects, multiple stable states, thresholds, and resilience are discussed. The framework was developed from the results of a multi-year research project which involved international mining case study investigations, a comprehensive literature review, and interviews conducted with mining stakeholders and observers. The framework can help guide SLO analysis and management efforts, by encouraging users to account for important contextual and complexity-oriented elements present in SLO settings. We apply the framework to a case study in Alaska, USA before discussing its merits and challenges. We also illustrate knowledge gaps associated with applications of complex adaptive systems and resilience theories to the study of SLO dynamics, and discuss opportunities for future research. PMID:24375075

  4. A Systems-Based Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Determinants of a Social License to Operate in the Mining Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prno, Jason; Slocombe, D. Scott

    2014-03-01

    The concept of a "social license to operate" (SLO) was coined in the 1990s and gained popularity as one way in which "social" considerations can be addressed in mineral development decision making. The need for a SLO implies that developers require the widespread approval of local community members for their projects to avoid exposure to potentially costly conflict and business risks. Only a limited amount of scholarship exists on the topic, and there is a need for research that specifically addresses the complex and changeable nature of SLO outcomes. In response to these challenges, this paper advances a novel, systems-based conceptual framework for assessing SLO determinants and outcomes in the mining industry. Two strands of systems theory are specifically highlighted—complex adaptive systems and resilience—and the roles of context, key system variables, emergence, change, uncertainty, feedbacks, cross-scale effects, multiple stable states, thresholds, and resilience are discussed. The framework was developed from the results of a multi-year research project which involved international mining case study investigations, a comprehensive literature review, and interviews conducted with mining stakeholders and observers. The framework can help guide SLO analysis and management efforts, by encouraging users to account for important contextual and complexity-oriented elements present in SLO settings. We apply the framework to a case study in Alaska, USA before discussing its merits and challenges. We also illustrate knowledge gaps associated with applications of complex adaptive systems and resilience theories to the study of SLO dynamics, and discuss opportunities for future research.

  5. Social determinants of health and periodontal disease in Brazilian adults: a cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, increasing importance has been placed on the social determinants of health and disease. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease in Brazilian adults and identify possible relationships with social determinants. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using a sample of 743 adults (aged 35–49 years) living in an urban area of a large city in southeastern Brazil. The condition of the periodontium was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to the diagnostic criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO). The variables related to social determinants were collected using a structured questionnaire. A descriptive analysis of all study variables was performed. Multiple correspondence analysis was subsequently performed to identify relationships between periodontal disease and the social determinants of health. Results The periodontal exams showed that 36.5% of adults had a healthy periodontium, 2.0% had gingival bleeding, 47.1% had calculus and 9.5% had periodontal pockets of 4–5 mm. Periodontal pockets of 6 mm or more were the worst periodontal condition found (affecting only 2.1% of the participants). The correspondence analysis enabled us to form three groups with different profiles. The first group was distinguished by the presence of bleeding (gingivitis) or a healthy periodontium. The members of this group were typically aged 35 to 39 years and had 9–12 years or more than 12 years of education. The second group consisted of subjects with calculus and periodontal pockets of 4–5 mm. The members of this group were typically white men aged 40–44 years with incomes greater than $ 300.00. The third group was distinguished by the presence of periodontal pockets of 6 mm or more. The members of this group were typically adult females, black and mixed individuals who had 8 years or less of schooling, individuals with incomes ≤ $ 300.00 and widowers

  6. Female Gender Is a Social Determinant of Diabetes in the Caribbean: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sobers-Grannum, Natasha; Murphy, Madhuvanti M.; Nielsen, Anders; Guell, Cornelia; Samuels, T. Alafia; Bishop, Lisa; Unwin, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes (DM) is estimated to affect 10–15% of the adult population in the Caribbean. Preventive efforts require population wide measures to address its social determinants. We undertook a systematic review to determine current knowledge about the social distribution of diabetes, its risk factors and major complications in the Caribbean. This paper describes our findings on the distribution by gender. Methods We searched Medline, Embase and five databases through the Virtual Health Library, for Caribbean studies published between 2007 and 2013 that described the distribution by gender for: known risk factors for Type 2 DM, prevalence of DM, and DM control or complications. PRISMA guidance on reporting systematic reviews on health equity was followed. Only quantitative studies (n>50) were included; each was assessed for risk of bias. Meta-analyses were performed, where appropriate, on studies with a low or medium risk of bias, using random effects models. Results We found 50 articles from 27 studies, yielding 118 relationships between gender and the outcomes. Women were more likely to have DM, obesity, be less physically active but less likely to smoke. In meta-analyses of good quality population-based studies odds ratios for women vs. men for DM, obesity and smoking were: 1.65 (95% CI 1.43, 1.91), 3.10 (2.43, 3.94), and 0.24 (0.17, 0.34). Three studies found men more likely to have better glycaemic control but only one achieved statistical significance. Conclusion and Implications Female gender is a determinant of DM prevalence in the Caribbean. In the vast majority of world regions women are at a similar or lower risk of type 2 diabetes than men, even when obesity is higher in women. Caribbean female excess of diabetes may be due to a much greater excess of risk factors in women, especially obesity. These findings have major implications for preventive policies and research. PMID:25996933

  7. How events determine spreading patterns: information transmission via internal and external influences on social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuang; Zhan, Xiu-Xiu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Sun, Gui-Quan; Hui, Pak Ming

    2015-11-01

    Recently, information transmission models motivated by the classical epidemic propagation, have been applied to a wide-range of social systems, generally assume that information mainly transmits among individuals via peer-to-peer interactions on social networks. In this paper, we consider one more approach for users to get information: the out-of-social-network influence. Empirical analyzes of eight typical events’ diffusion on a very large micro-blogging system, Sina Weibo, show that the external influence has significant impact on information spreading along with social activities. In addition, we propose a theoretical model to interpret the spreading process via both internal and external channels, considering three essential properties: (i) memory effect; (ii) role of spreaders; and (iii) non-redundancy of contacts. Experimental and mathematical results indicate that the information indeed spreads much quicker and broader with mutual effects of the internal and external influences. More importantly, the present model reveals that the event characteristic would highly determine the essential spreading patterns once the network structure is established. The results may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the underlying dynamics of information transmission on real social networks.

  8. Moving policies upstream to mitigate the social determinants of early childbearing.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The teen birth rate in the United States is one of the highest in the post-industrialized world. International comparisons suggest that U.S. rates reflect high levels of social disadvantage and misguided policies that frame teen parenting as costly for mothers, children, and taxpayers. Studies that control for background factors that predispose teens to become parents highlight the social inequities that contribute to early childbearing and unfavorable maternal-child outcomes, regardless of maternal age. After reviewing these studies, federal policies that target and scrutinize teenage and single mothers are described and critiqued for the ways they disregard the social determinants of early childbearing and further the marginalization and social exclusion of low-income families. This review calls for public health nurses to challenge the ideological assumptions driving downstream policies and to advocate for comprehensive reforms that reduce the wide and growing inequities in education, income, and health among U.S. citizens. Building the public support and political will to move upstream will remain daunting in light of the pervasive stereotypes of teen parents and the ideological assumptions that early childbearing and poor maternal-child outcomes stem more from individual choices and lifestyles than from social inequities. PMID:22924567

  9. Asian Indian views on diet and health in the United States: importance of understanding cultural and social factors to address disparities.

    PubMed

    Mukherjea, Arnab; Underwood, Kelsey Clark; Stewart, Anita L; Ivey, Susan L; Kanaya, Alka M

    2013-01-01

    This study describes Asian Indian immigrant perspectives surrounding dietary beliefs and practices to identify intervention targets for diabetes and heart disease prevention. Participants were asked about conceptualizations of relationships between culture, food, and health during 4 focus groups (n = 38). Findings reveal influences of beliefs from respondents' native India, preservation of cultural practices within the US social structure, conflicts with subsequent generations, and reinterpretation of health-related knowledge through a lens, hybridizing both "native" and "host" contexts. Galvanization of ethnically valued beliefs incorporating family and community structures is needed for multipronged approaches to reduce disproportionate burdens of disease among this understudied minority community. PMID:23986072

  10. The Social Determinants of Health: It's Time to Consider the Causes of the Causes

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Laura

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades, the public health community's attention has been drawn increasingly to the social determinants of health (SDH)—the factors apart from medical care that can be influenced by social policies and shape health in powerful ways. We use “medical care” rather than “health care” to refer to clinical services, to avoid potential confusion between “health” and “health care.” The World Health Organization's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health has defined SDH as “the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age” and “the fundamental drivers of these conditions.” The term “social determinants” often evokes factors such as health-related features of neighborhoods (e.g., walkability, recreational areas, and accessibility of healthful foods), which can influence health-related behaviors. Evidence has accumulated, however, pointing to socioeconomic factors such as income, wealth, and education as the fundamental causes of a wide range of health outcomes. This article broadly reviews some of the knowledge accumulated to date that highlights the importance of social—and particularly socioeconomic—factors in shaping health, and plausible pathways and biological mechanisms that may explain their effects. We also discuss challenges to advancing this knowledge and how they might be overcome. PMID:24385661

  11. Impact of social determinants on well-being of urban construction workers of Hyderabad

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Sudha; Valsangkar, Sameer; Lakshman Rao, Reshaboyina Lakshmi Narayana; Surya Prabha, Manem Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hyderabad has witnessed one of the largest labor immigration in recent years and these construction workers are highly vulnerable in terms of health. Social determinants of health (SDH) arise from conditions in which they live and these factors interact with each other to produce direct impact on health. Objectives: (1) To evaluate the sociodemographic and job characteristics of the construction workers. (2) To assess the impact of social determinants on well-being. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 135 construction workers working at three sites of HITEC city were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire. Health perception and the impact on well-being was measured using the Healthy Days Module and Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. SDH were measured on a 27-item questionnaire with responses on a Likert scale ranging from 0 to 4. Proportions, percentages, P values, and mean scores were obtained. Results: The mean age of the sample was 35.4 ± 11.94 years. Seventeen (12.6%) of the workers reported a high risk score on the Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant domains of social determinants independently associated with the well being of construction workers and significant among the nine domains of social determinants were addiction score domain with odds of 2.259 and a P value of 0.015 and the distress domain with odds of 1.108 and a P < 0.001. Conclusions: There is a significant impairment of physical and mental health due to various factors including SDH, such as addictive habits and psychological distress, which are amenable to prevention. PMID:27390473

  12. Social determinants and risk factors for tuberculosis in national surveillance systems in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hovhannesyan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Setting: National tuberculosis programmes (NTPs) of the 53 Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Objectives: To identify the social determinants and underlying risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) as routinely monitored by NTPs and to identify those feasible and appropriate to be included in the annual reporting to the joint European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) WHO reporting platform. Design: A semi-structured questionnaire sent to 53 national TB surveillance correspondents. Results: A total of 47 countries submitted questionnaires; most of the countries collect a number of social determinants and risk factors that are not requested for reporting to the Joint ECDC-WHO Reporting Platform. Occupation/employment, homelessness, diabetes mellitus and use of alcohol are collected by the majority of countries, but without standardised definitions. Conclusions: Four social determinants/risk factors are already included in the national TB surveillance systems of the majority of countries and could be incorporated in the annual reporting to the Joint ECDC/WHO Reporting Platform. Standardised epidemiological case definitions need to be adopted. PMID:26399291

  13. Personal and social determinants sustaining smoking practices in rural China: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use in China is disproportionally distributed among rural and urban populations with rural people smoking more. While there is a wealth of evidence on the association between tobacco use among rural people and their lower socio-economic status (SES), how social structural factors contribute to rural smoking is not well understood. Guided by a socio-ecological model, the objective of this study was to explore the personal and social determinants that play a key role in sustaining smoking practices among Chinese rural people. Methods An ethnographic study was conducted in a rural area of Central Jiangsu, China. Participants (n = 29) were recruited from families where there was at least one smoking resident and there were young children. In-depth interviews and unstructured observations were used to collect data, which were then analyzed with an interpretive lens. Results Although individuals had limited knowledge about the risks of smoking and lack of motivation to quit, social factors were in effect the main barriers to quitting smoking. Cigarette exchange and cigarette gifting permeated every aspect of rural family life, from economic activities to leisure pastimes, in family and wider social interactions. Traditional familism and collectivism interplayed with the pro-smoking environment and supported rural people’s smoking practices at the community level. Living in the rural area was also a barrier to quitting smoking because of the lack of information on smoking cessation and the influence of courtyard-based leisure activities that facilitated smoking. Conclusion Development of comprehensive smoking cessation interventions in rural China needs to extend beyond an individual level to take into account the social determinants influencing smoking practices. PMID:24484610

  14. An interdisciplinary perspective on social and physical determinants of seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K.-H. E.; Chang, Y.-C.; Liu, G.-Y.; Chan, C.-H.; Lin, T.-H.; Yeh, C.-H.

    2015-10-01

    While disaster studies researchers usually view risk as a function of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability, few studies have systematically examined the relationships among the various physical and socioeconomic determinants underlying disasters, and fewer have done so through seismic risk analysis. In the context of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, this study constructs three statistical models to test different determinants that affect disaster fatality at the village level, including seismic hazard, exposure of population and fragile buildings, and demographic and socioeconomic vulnerability. The Poisson regression model is used to estimate the impact of these factors on fatalities. Research results indicate that although all of the determinants have an impact on seismic fatality, some indicators of vulnerability, such as gender ratio, percentages of young and aged population, income and its standard deviation, are the important determinants deteriorating seismic risk. These findings have strong social implications for policy interventions to mitigate such disasters.

  15. Identifying Social Determinants of Health and Legal Needs for Children With Special Health Care Needs.

    PubMed

    DeJong, Neal A; Wood, Charles T; Morreale, Madlyn C; Ellis, Cameron; Davis, Darragh; Fernandez, Jorge; Steiner, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) require comprehensive care with high levels of community and government assistance. Medical-legal partnerships may be particularly suited to address needs for this population. To explore this, we conducted in-depth telephone interviews of families of CSHCN cared for in the primary care practice of our tertiary care children's hospital. The majority of the sample (N = 46) had been late on housing payments and 17% of homeowners had been threatened with foreclosure. Families frequently reported denial of public benefits. Approximately 10% had executed advance planning documents such as guardianship plans for the children or wills for the parents. A minority of families had sought help from community agencies or lawyers. Less than one third had ever discussed any of the issues with health care providers, but two thirds were likely or very likely to in the future. CSHCN may especially benefit from the social support of a medical-legal partnership. PMID:26130392

  16. An Interprofessional Approach to Exploring the Social Determinants of Health with Dental Hygiene Students.

    PubMed

    Lapidos, Adrienne; Gwozdek, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The University of Michigan (U-M) Dental Hygiene Program collaborated with the U-M School of Social Work in developing a course entitled "Skills for Patient- and Family-Centered Care with Diverse Populations." Drawing upon disciplines including dentistry, social work, psychology, and sociology, this course transformed mandatory outreach rotations in safety-net dental settings from a freestanding senior-year experience to an integrated part of the dental hygiene curriculum. The course provided a space in which to discuss the interpersonal aspects of patient care, particularly those related to the social determinants of health. Among the students, a broad range of emotions, frustrations, and hopes were evident, suggesting that there is a need for forums through which students can connect their affective experiences to their practice of patient-centered care. While the course was designed for bachelor's level dental hygiene students, the content and process presented in this paper may be of interest to faculty housed within any allied health professional program, because core themes such as social justice, service-learning, and self-reflection transcend all health professions. PMID:27585625

  17. Reaching for Health Equity and Social Justice in Baltimore: The Evolution of an Academic-Community Partnership and Conceptual Framework to Address Hypertension Disparities.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Lisa A; Purnell, Tanjala S; Ibe, Chidinma A; Halbert, Jennifer P; Bone, Lee R; Carson, Kathryn A; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Vachon, Ann; Robb, Inez; Martin-Daniels, Michelle; Dietz, Katherine B; Golden, Sherita Hill; Crews, Deidra C; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Marsteller, Jill A; Boulware, L Ebony; Miller, Edgar R Iii; Levine, David M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular health disparities persist despite decades of recognition and the availability of evidence-based clinical and public health interventions. Racial and ethnic minorities and adults in urban and low-income communities are high-risk groups for uncontrolled hypertension (HTN), a major contributor to cardiovascular health disparities, in part due to inequitable social structures and economic systems that negatively impact daily environments and risk behaviors. This commentary presents the Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities as a case study for highlighting the evolution of an academic-community partnership to overcome HTN disparities. Key elements of the iterative development process of a Community Advisory Board (CAB) are summarized, and major CAB activities and engagement with the Baltimore community are highlighted. Using a conceptual framework adapted from O'Mara-Eves and colleagues, the authors discuss how different population groups and needs, motivations, types and intensity of community participation, contextual factors, and actions have shaped the Center's approach to stakeholder engagement in research and community outreach efforts to achieve health equity. PMID:27440977

  18. Association of substance-use behaviours and their social-cognitive determinants in secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Victoir, An; Eertmans, Audrey; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van den Broucke, Stephan

    2007-02-01

    In two samples of Flemish secondary school students, co-occurrence of different types of substance use was observed: smoking was associated with marijuana use in Sample 1 (n = 597) and alcohol consumption in Sample 2 (n = 403). It was investigated whether social-cognitive determinants of these behaviours were also associated. Low to medium correlations were observed. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a model with general social-cognitive factors (across different substances) did not have adequate fit. Substance use was mainly associated with variables referring to the specific substance under consideration, with the exception of self-efficacy in buying and smoking cigarettes; this factor was linked not only to smoking but also to alcohol and marijuana use. Adolescents who regularly used two substances generally held positions on social-cognitive scales that were more unfavourable than those who only used one substance. In order to change determinants of use, substance-specific cognitions and skills may be important targets. PMID:16807377

  19. Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women's Health in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Corburn, Jason; Hildebrand, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate urban sanitation disproportionately impacts the social determinants of women's health in informal settlements or slums. The impacts on women's health include infectious and chronic illnesses, violence, food contamination and malnutrition, economic and educational attainment, and indignity. We used household survey data to report on self-rated health and sociodemographic, housing, and infrastructure conditions in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We combined quantitative survey and mapping data with qualitative focus group information to better understand the relationships between environmental sanitation and the social determinants of women and girls' health in the Mathare slum. We find that an average of eighty-five households in Mathare share one toilet, only 15% of households have access to a private toilet, and the average distance to a public toilet is over 52 meters. Eighty-three percent of households without a private toilet report poor health. Mathare women report violence (68%), respiratory illness/cough (46%), diabetes (33%), and diarrhea (30%) as the most frequent physical burdens. Inadequate, unsafe, and unhygienic sanitation results in multiple and overlapping health, economic, and social impacts that disproportionately impact women and girls living in urban informal settlements. PMID:26060499

  20. Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women's Health in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Corburn, Jason; Hildebrand, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate urban sanitation disproportionately impacts the social determinants of women's health in informal settlements or slums. The impacts on women's health include infectious and chronic illnesses, violence, food contamination and malnutrition, economic and educational attainment, and indignity. We used household survey data to report on self-rated health and sociodemographic, housing, and infrastructure conditions in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We combined quantitative survey and mapping data with qualitative focus group information to better understand the relationships between environmental sanitation and the social determinants of women and girls' health in the Mathare slum. We find that an average of eighty-five households in Mathare share one toilet, only 15% of households have access to a private toilet, and the average distance to a public toilet is over 52 meters. Eighty-three percent of households without a private toilet report poor health. Mathare women report violence (68%), respiratory illness/cough (46%), diabetes (33%), and diarrhea (30%) as the most frequent physical burdens. Inadequate, unsafe, and unhygienic sanitation results in multiple and overlapping health, economic, and social impacts that disproportionately impact women and girls living in urban informal settlements. PMID:26060499

  1. Cooperative context is a determinant of the social influence on outcome evaluation: An electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kenta; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether or not a cooperative context is a determinant of the social influence on the evaluation of two action outcomes: a monetary outcome and a conflict of opinion with other group members. In the present study, three-person groups were randomly assigned to be either a cooperative or individual group and asked to perform a gambling task. The monetary outcomes in the cooperative group were interrelated among group members, whereas those in the individual group did not influence each other. The present results showed that monetary outcomes elicited feedback-related negativity (FRN) and a conflict of opinion with other group members elicited FRN-like negativity, which reflect an evaluation of the motivational significance of action outcomes. The FRN elicited by monetary outcomes was reduced when participants shared decisions with other group members only in the cooperative group, indicating that the cooperative context reduced the motivational significance of monetary outcomes through the diffusion of responsibility. The FRN-like negativity elicited by a conflict of opinion showed a different pattern between the cooperative and individual groups, indicating that the cooperative context can influence the evaluation of a conflict of opinion, possibly via the modulation of group cohesiveness or conflict processing. The present results suggest that a cooperative context, rather than the social setting, is a determinant of the social influence on outcome evaluation. PMID:26724252

  2. Social induction of maturation and sex determination in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Munday, Philip L.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2004-01-01

    Labile maturation and sex determination should be advantageous where the probability of finding a mating partner is unpredictable. Here we tested the hypothesis that the presence of a potential mating partner induces maturation and sex determination in a coral-dwelling fish, Gobiodon erythrospilus. In natural populations at Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef), single individuals were less likely to be mature than paired individuals and they matured at a larger size, indicating plasticity in the timing of maturation. By manipulating group structure we demonstrated that both the timing of maturation and the sex of maturing individuals are socially controlled. Single juveniles did not mature, but maturation was rapidly induced by the presence of an adult partner. In addition, sex determination was found to be labile, with juveniles maturing into the opposite sex of the partner encountered. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration of social induction of maturation in conjunction with labile sex determination at maturation in vertebrates. This flexibility enables individuals to maximize their reproductive success in an environment where the timing of mate acquisition and the sex of their future partner are unpredictable. PMID:15475329

  3. Ranking the Effects of Urban Development Projects on Social Determinants of Health: Health Impact Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Nouri, Jafar; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Health impact assessment (HIA) offer a very logical and interesting approach for those aiming to integrate health issues into planning processes. With a lot of works and plans waiting to be done (e.g., developing and updating plans, counseling planning commissions, cooperation with other organizations), planners find it difficult to prioritize health among a variety of possible issues and solutions they confront. Method: In the present article, first, the list of social determinants of health associated with Chitgar man-made lake was extracted out using a qualitative method and with content analysis approach, and then they were prioritized using analytic hierarchy process. Results: 28 social determinants of health including “intermediary” and “structural” determinants were extracted out. Regarding positive effects of lake on these determinants, “recreational services” and “traffic” received the highest and the lowest weights with 0.895 and 0.638 respectively among structural determinants and with consideration to “construction” option. Furthermore, among intermediary determinants for “construction” option, sub-criteria of both “physical activity” and “air quality” received the final highest weight (0.889) and “pathogenesis” indicated the lowest weight with 0.617. Moreover, lake demonstrated the highest negative effects on “housing” among “structural” determinants which it takes the highest weight (0.476) in “non-construction” option. Additionally, lake had the highest negative effects on “noise pollution” among “intermediary determinants” and it takes the highest weight (0.467) in “non-construction” option. Conclusion: It has been shown that urban development projects such as green spaces, man-made lakes … have a huge range of effects on community’s health, and having not considered these effects by urban planners and mangers is going to confront urban health with many

  4. Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubjuhn, S.; Pratt, N.

    2009-11-01

    This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

  5. "Community vital signs": incorporating geocoded social determinants into electronic records to promote patient and population health.

    PubMed

    Bazemore, Andrew W; Cottrell, Erika K; Gold, Rachel; Hughes, Lauren S; Phillips, Robert L; Angier, Heather; Burdick, Timothy E; Carrozza, Mark A; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2016-03-01

    Social determinants of health significantly impact morbidity and mortality; however, physicians lack ready access to this information in patient care and population management. Just as traditional vital signs give providers a biometric assessment of any patient, "community vital signs" (Community VS) can provide an aggregated overview of the social and environmental factors impacting patient health. Knowing Community VS could inform clinical recommendations for individual patients, facilitate referrals to community services, and expand understanding of factors impacting treatment adherence and health outcomes. This information could also help care teams target disease prevention initiatives and other health improvement efforts for clinic panels and populations. Given the proliferation of big data, geospatial technologies, and democratization of data, the time has come to integrate Community VS into the electronic health record (EHR). Here, the authors describe (i) historical precedent for this concept, (ii) opportunities to expand upon these historical foundations, and (iii) a novel approach to EHR integration. PMID:26174867

  6. Defining and measuring gender: A social determinant of health whose time has come

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Susan P

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to a nascent scholarly discussion of sex and gender as determinants of health. Health is a composite of biological makeup and socioeconomic circumstances. Differences in health and illness patterns of men and women are attributable both to sex, or biology, and to gender, that is, social factors such as powerlessness, access to resources, and constrained roles. Using examples such as the greater life expectancy of women in most of the world, despite their relative social disadvantage, and the disproportionate risk of myocardial infarction amongst men, but death from MI amongst women, the independent and combined associations of sex and gender on health are explored. A model for incorporating gender into epidemiologic analyses is proposed. PMID:16014164

  7. Poverty concentration and determinants in China's urban low-income neighbourhoods and social groups.

    PubMed

    He, Shenjing; Wu, Fulong; Webster, Chris; Liu, Yuting

    2010-01-01

    Based on a large-scale household survey conducted in 2007, this article reports on poverty concentration and determinants in China's low-income neighbourhoods and social groups. Three types of neighbourhood are recognized: dilapidated inner-city neighbourhoods, declining workers' villages and urban villages. Respondents are grouped into four categories: working, laid-off/unemployed and retired urban residents, together with rural migrants. We first measure poverty concentration across different types of neighbourhood and different groups. The highest concentrations are found in dilapidated inner-city neighbourhoods and among the laid-off/unemployed. Mismatches are found between actual hardships, sense of deprivation and distribution of social welfare provision. Second, we examine poverty determinants. Variations in institutional protection and market remuneration are becoming equally important in predicting poverty generation, but are differently associated with it in the different neighbourhoods and groups. As China's urban economy is increasingly shaped by markets, the mechanism of market remuneration is becoming a more important determinant of poverty patterns, especially for people who are excluded from state institutions, notably laid-off workers and rural migrants. PMID:20726146

  8. Recent Updates in the Social and Environmental Determinants of Sleep Health

    PubMed Central

    Emanuele, Erin; James, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In this brief review article, we provide an overview of recent (since 2010) scientific contributions to our understanding of the social and environmental determinants of sleep health. In particular, we focus on three areas where we saw the most contributions to the determinants of sleep health among children, adolescents, and adults. First, studies of neighborhood context and sleep health find that sleep quality and quantity are lower in disadvantaged neighborhoods. These negative associations are often stronger for women than for men. Second, family factors matter for sleep health. Children from families with more parental resources sleep better than do children from families without such resources. Adults with children sleep less than those without, and work-family conflict is an impediment to good sleep. Third, media use is problematic for sleep health. Around the world, higher levels of screen media use are associated with lower quality and quantity of sleep. Future research on the social and environmental determinants of sleep health will grow out of these three areas of current research. In addition, we anticipate new research in the international realm and in the area of interventions designed to improve the population’s sleep health. PMID:27540510

  9. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life – the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33–2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the

  10. Diet quality, social determinants and weight status in 12-year-old Puerto Rican children

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Santos, Elvia; Orraca, Luis; Elias, Augusto; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Diet quality may be influenced by social determinants and weight status. This has not been studied in Puerto Rico (PR); therefore, this cross-sectional study examined if diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), differs by social determinants (gender, school type and region) and weight status in children in PR. As part of an “island-wide” study to evaluate oral health in 1,550 12-year-old children, dietary intake was assessed in a representative subset (n=796) using a 24-hr diet recall. Diet quality was evaluated from the diet recall results using the HEI-2005. Overall mean HEI-2005 score was 40.9, out of a total maximum score of 100. Girls had significantly higher scores for whole fruit, total vegetables, whole grains, and sodium but lower scores for total grains and milk compared to boys (p<0.05). Children from public schools had higher scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, but lower scores for whole grains and milk compared to those from private schools (p<0.05). Children from the Central Mountains had higher scores for the dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes and whole fruit compared to the other regions (p<0.05). Overweight children had significantly higher scores for total vegetables and milk but lower scores for total fruit and sodium as compared to non-overweight children (p<0.01). In conclusion, some components of diet quality were associated with the social determinants studied and with weight status in this sample. Overall diet quality needs improvement in PR children so that it is better aligned with dietary recommendations. PMID:24656710

  11. "Never mind the logic, give me the numbers": former Australian health ministers' perspectives on the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Baum, Frances E; Laris, Paul; Fisher, Matthew; Newman, Lareen; Macdougall, Colin

    2013-06-01

    The articulation of strong evidence and moral arguments about the importance of social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity has not led to commensurate action to address them. Policy windows open when, simultaneously, an issue is recognised as a problem, policy formulation and refinement happens and the political will for action is present. We report on qualitative interviews with 20 former Australian Federal, State or Territory health ministers conducted between September 2011 and January 2012 concerning their views about how and why the windows of policy opportunity on the SDH did or did not open during their tenure. Almost all ex-health ministers were aware of the existence of health inequalities and SDH but their complexity meant that this awareness rarely crystalised into a clear problem other than as a focus on high needs groups, especially Aboriginal people. Formulation of policies about SDH was assisted by cross-portfolio structures, policy entrepreneurs, and evidence from reviews and reports. It was hindered by the complexity of SDH policy, the dominance of medical power and paradigms and the weakness of the policy community advocating for SDH. The political stream was enabling when the general ideological climate was supportive of redistributive policies, the health care sector was not perceived to be in crisis, there was support for action from the head of government and cabinet colleagues, and no opposition from powerful lobby groups. There have been instances of Australian health policy which addressed the SDH over the past twenty five years but they are rare and the windows of opportunity that made them possible did not stay open for long. PMID:23631789

  12. Teaching critical health literacy in the US as a means to action on the social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    Mogford, Elizabeth; Gould, Linn; DeVoght, Andra

    2011-01-01

    In spite of improvements in global health over the 20th century, health inequities are increasing. Mounting evidence suggests that reducing health inequities requires taking action on the social determinants of health (SDOH), which include income, education, employment, political empowerment and other factors. This paper introduces an alternative health education curriculum, developed by the US-based non-profit organization Just Health Action, which teaches critical health literacy as a step towards empowering people to achieve health equity. Critical health literacy is defined as an individual's understanding of the SDOH combined with the skills to take action at both the individual and the community level. Prior to describing our curricular framework, we connect the recommendations of the World Health Organization Commission on the SDOH with the objectives of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion by arguing that achieving them is reliant on critical health literacy. Then we describe our four-part curricular framework for teaching critical health literacy. Part 1, Knowledge, focuses on teaching the SDOH and the paradigm of health as a human right. Part 2, Compass, refers to activities that help students find their own direction as a social change agent. Part 3, Skills, refers to teaching specific advocacy tools and strategies. Part 4, Action, refers to the development and implementation of an action intended to increase health equity by addressing the SDOH. We describe activities that we use to motivate, engage and empower students to take action on the SDOH and provide examples of advocacy skills students have learned and actions they have implemented. PMID:20729240

  13. Social Determinants and Access to Induced Abortion in Burkina Faso: From Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Ramatou

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and concerns mainly young women. The legal restriction and social stigma make abortions most often clandestine and risky for women who decide to terminate a pregnancy. However, the exposure to the risk of unsafe induced abortion is not the same for all the women who faced unwanted pregnancy and decide to have an abortion. Drawn from a qualitative study on the issue of abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso's capital, the contrasting cases of two young women who had abortion allow us to show how the women's personal resources (such as the school level, financial resources, the compliance to social norms, the social network, etc.) may determine the degree of vulnerability of women, the delay to have an abortion, the type of care they are likely to benefit from, and the cost they have to face. This study concludes that the poorest always pay more (cost and consequences), take longer to have an abortion, and have more exposure to the risk of unsafe abortion. PMID:24790605

  14. Psychiatric, Psychological, and Social Determinants of Health in the Nurses’ Health Study Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Singh, Ankura; Okereke, Olivia I.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS) on factors that influence mental and physical health. Methods. Narrative review of all published articles using data from the NHS, the NHS II, and the Growing Up Today Study focusing on mental health conditions (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety) and psychosocial resources and stressors (e.g., job strain, interpersonal violence, social relationships, sexual orientation) between 1990 and 2016. Results. Studies have considered a broad array of determinants (e.g., genes, biomarkers, air pollution) and consequent behavioral and disease-related outcomes (e.g., body weight, smoking, cardiometabolic diseases, cancer, autism). Findings suggest anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, childhood violence, caregiver burden, and job insecurity may increase the risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes, whereas findings with cancer are mixed. This work directly affects public health actions, as demonstrated by recent inclusion of a gender expression measure in state surveys. Conclusions. The NHS cohorts have produced novel and influential research on the interplay of psychological and social factors with health. Psychological and social variables are important contributors to the maintenance or decline of physical and mental health. PMID:27459447

  15. Social and Environmental Determinants of Child Physical Activity in a Rural Mexican-Origin Community.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Sara E; Gomez-Camacho, Rosa; Martinez, Lisa; Sadeghi, Banafsheh; German, J Bruce; de la Torre, Adela

    2016-04-01

    California's rural agricultural communities face an increased burden of obesity and metabolic disease. The present objective is to define the social and environmental influences to child obesity and physical activity within Mexican-origin communities in California's Central Valley. A range of data (anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic, cultural and environmental) were collected on more than 650 children enrolled in Niños Sanos, Familia Sana. Physical activity data were gathered from a subsample of children 4-7 years of age (n = 148) via accelerometer. Cross sectional analyses explored the relationship between BMI and physical activity and the influence of numerous social and environmental variables. In this sample 45 % of children were determined to be overweight or obese. Boys had a higher daily average moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than girls (p = 0.008). Chi square analyses showed weight status was associated with activity level in girls (p = 0.03) but not boys. Multivariate regression revealed several social and environmental indicators influenced BMI and physical activity (p = 0.004). In this population of school-age children of Mexican-origin, girls may benefit more from targeted efforts to increase MVPA. Family and community support systems may also boost child participation in physical activities. PMID:26516017

  16. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  17. Making mental health an integral part of sustainable development: the contribution of a social determinants framework.

    PubMed

    De Silva, M J

    2015-04-01

    There have been repeated calls to include mental health in the sustainable development goals (SDGs), arguing that progress in development will not be made without improvements in mental health. Although these calls are starting to gain political traction, currently only a tiny fraction of international development work includes mental health. A social determinants framework may be useful in incorporating mental health into sustainable development because it promotes a multi-sectorial and multi-disciplinary approach which is the corner stone of good development practice. Two approaches are suggested to make mental health a part of sustainable development: (1) integrate mental health into existing development programmes to promote social and economic environments that prevent mental health problems developing; (2) ensure that mental health programmes are better at promoting sustainable development by preventing the negative social and economic consequences of mental illness. Real-world examples of these approaches are provided. To achieve this, the mental health impact of wider development programmes, and the social and economic consequences of mental health interventions, must be evaluated. Development agencies should ensure that they have equity for mental health in all their policies, and investment must be increased for those mental health prevention, promotion and treatment programmes which have the greatest impact on sustainable development. The SDGs bring the promise of a more holistic approach to development. It is now the task of global mental health to demonstrate not just that mental health is an integral part of sustainable development, but that affordable and effective solutions exist which can improve mental health and development more broadly. PMID:25722030

  18. [Social determinants of health: community features and nurse work in family health care].

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Cynthia Fontella; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Cardoso, Leticia Silveira; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Soares, Jorgana Fernanda de Souza

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the Social Determinants of Health Care which emerge in nurses' statements as they characterize the community, analyzing its relation to the work carried out by them. It is an exploratory and descriptive study containing a qualitative analysis in the theoretical categories of the determinants. We used a semi-structured interview, recorded with the permission of the 65 nurses of the Family Health Care, members of the 3rd Regional Health Care Coordination of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It has been shown the inter- and intra-relation in the health determinant factors, obtaining 104 citations for the anatomo-physiological features of the corresponding individuals/community to the proximal correspondents and in association, mainly, to the work carried out by the nurses. For intermediate determinants there were 27 citations and, for distals, 166, with predominant reference to the territorial localization of communities in rural areas and peripheries. The nurses have stated a narrow relation between the proximal features and the work carried out by them, as well as the connection with other determinants in the relation with the process of getting sick. PMID:20839542

  19. Tackling complexities in understanding the social determinants of health: the contribution of ethnographic research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people’s social and cultural lives. Approach I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. Results I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. Conclusion When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Implication Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health. PMID:22168509

  20. Exploring the influence of social determinants on HIV risk behaviors and the potential application of structural interventions to prevent HIV in women

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Arlene E.; Collins, Charles B.

    2016-01-01

    When seeking to prevent HIV/AIDS in women, attending to aspects of their lived experience provides opportunities to address the presence of social determinants in prevention strategies. According to the CDC, in 2010, the rate of new HIV infections among Black women was 20 times that of White women, while among Hispanic/Latino women it was 4 times the rate of White women. Additionally, 86% of HIV infections in women were attributed to heterosexual contact and 14% to injection drug use. The WHO indicates that worldwide, 49% of individuals infected by HIV are women, with a predominant source of infection tied to heterosexual transmission. This paper presents social determinants as influential factors in terms of women’s sexual behavior decision-making, along with suggested structural interventions to address the social determinants of their HIV risks. Secondary analysis was conducted on data from an earlier study (Abdul-Quader and Collins, 2011) which used concept-mapping to examine the feasibility, evaluability, and sustainability of structural interventions for HIV prevention. The current analysis focused on structural interventions applicable to women and their HIV prevention needs. Three themes emerged: economic interventions, responses to violence against women, and integrated health service delivery strategies. The themes provide a foundation for next steps regarding research, policy planning, and intervention implementation that is inclusive of women’s lived experience. The paper concludes with suggestions such as attention to innovative projects and a paradigm shift regarding policy planning as key next steps towards HIV prevention that reflects the contextual complexity of women’s lived experiences. PMID:27134801

  1. Individual and social determinants of obesity in strategic health messages: Interaction with political ideology.

    PubMed

    Young, Rachel; Hinnant, Amanda; Leshner, Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Antiobesity health communication campaigns often target individual behavior, but these ads might inflate the role of individual responsibility at the expense of other health determinants. In a 2 × 2 full-factorial, randomized, online experiment, 162 American adults viewed antiobesity advertisements that varied in emphasizing social or individual causation for obesity through text and images. Locus for attribution of responsibility for obesity causes and solutions was measured, as was how these responses were moderated by political ideology. Participants who viewed text emphasizing individual responsibility were less likely to agree that genetic factors caused obesity. Conservative participants who viewed images of overweight individuals were less likely than liberal participants to agree that social factors were responsible for causing obesity. In addition, among conservative participants who viewed images of fast food versus images of overweight individuals, agreement that the food industry bore some responsibility mediated support for policy solutions to obesity. These findings, among others, demonstrate that awareness of multilevel determinants of health outcomes can be a precursor of support for policy solutions to obesity among those not politically inclined to support antiobesity policy. In addition, stigmatizing images of overweight individuals in antiobesity campaigns might overemphasize the role of individual behavior in obesity at the expense of other factors. PMID:26698295

  2. Association of Maternal Working Condition with Low Birth Weight: The Social Determinants of Health Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Z; Karimlou, M; Sajjadi, H; Dejman, M; Vameghi, M; Dolatian, M; Mahmoodi, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: The socioeconomic conditions have made more job opportunities available to women. This has created interest to conduct studies on the effect of working lifestyle on pregnancy outcomes. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim to assess the relationship between mothers' working status as a social determinant and the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) of the newborn. Subjects and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 500 women with normal weight infants (control group) and 250 women with LBW infants (case group) in selected hospitals in Tehran. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire, designed to assess the effect of mothers' prenatal lifestyle, as a social determinant, on LBW of the newborn. A section of the questionnaire involved assessment of mother's working condition in terms of the work environment, activities, and job satisfaction. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and logistic regression tests. Results: LBW among employed mothers was 5 times more likely than unemployed ones (odds ratio = 5.35, P < 0.001). Unfavorable work conditions such as humid environment, contact with detergents, and being in one standing or sitting position for long hours were significantly associated with LBW (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study showed that unfavorable work conditions were associated with LBW; therefore, they need special attention. PMID:27057375

  3. Drivers of tuberculosis epidemics: the role of risk factors and social determinants.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, Knut; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Williams, Brian G; Dye, Christopher; Raviglione, Mario

    2009-06-01

    The main thrust of the World Health Organization's global tuberculosis (TB) control strategy is to ensure effective and equitable delivery of quality assured diagnosis and treatment of TB. Options for including preventive efforts have not yet been fully considered. This paper presents a narrative review of the historical and recent progress in TB control and the role of TB risk factors and social determinants. The review was conducted with a view to assess the prospects of effectively controlling TB under the current strategy, and the potential to increase epidemiological impact through additional preventive interventions. The review suggests that, while the current strategy is effective in curing patients and saving lives, the epidemiological impact has so far been less than predicted. In order to reach long-term epidemiological targets for global TB control, additional interventions to reduce peoples' vulnerability for TB may therefore be required. Risk factors that seem to be of importance at the population level include poor living and working conditions associated with high risk of TB transmission, and factors that impair the host's defence against TB infection and disease, such as HIV infection, malnutrition, smoking, diabetes, alcohol abuse, and indoor air pollution. Preventive interventions may target these factors directly or via their underlying social determinants. The identification of risk groups also helps to target strategies for early detection of people in need of TB treatment. More research is needed on the suitability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these intervention options. PMID:19394122

  4. Globalization and social determinants of health: Introduction and methodological background (part 1 of 3)

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-01-01

    Globalization is a key context for the study of social determinants of health (SDH). Broadly stated, SDH are the conditions in which people live and work, and that affect their opportunities to lead healthy lives. In this first article of a three-part series, we describe the origins of the series in work conducted for the Globalization Knowledge Network of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health and in the Commission's specific concern with health equity. We explain our rationale for defining globalization with reference to the emergence of a global marketplace, and the economic and political choices that have facilitated that emergence. We identify a number of conceptual milestones in studying the relation between globalization and SDH over the period 1987–2005, and then show that because globalization comprises multiple, interacting policy dynamics, reliance on evidence from multiple disciplines (transdisciplinarity) and research methodologies is required. So, too, is explicit recognition of the uncertainties associated with linking globalization – the quintessential "upstream" variable – with changes in SDH and in health outcomes. PMID:17578568

  5. Addressing the Social, Academic, and Behavioral Needs of Students with Challenging Behavior in Inclusive and Alternative Settings. Highlights from the Forum on Comprehensive Programming for a Diverse Population of Children and Youth with Challenging Behavior: Addressing Social, Academic, and Behavioral Needs within Inclusive and Alternative Settings (Las Vegas, Nevada, February 9-10, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Gable, Robert A., Ed.

    This document presents the texts of 11 major presentations and conference highlights from a February 2001 conference on the social, academic, and behavioral needs of students with challenging behavior in inclusive and alternative settings as required under the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The presentations…

  6. Social determinants of child mortality in Niger: Results from the 2012 National Verbal and Social Autopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Koffi, Alain K; Maina, Abdou; Yaroh, Asma Gali; Habi, Oumarou; Bensaïd, Khaled; Kalter, Henry D

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the determinants of preventable deaths of children under the age of five is important for accelerated annual declines – even as countries achieve the UN’s Millennium Development Goals and the target date of 2015 has been reached. While research has documented the extent and nature of the overall rapid decline in child mortality in Niger, there is less clear evidence to provide insight into the contributors to such deaths. This issue is the central focus of this paper. Methods We analyzed a nationally representative cross–sectional sample of 620 child deaths from the 2012 Niger Verbal Autopsy/Social Autopsy (VASA) Survey. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the data on preventive and curative care, guided by the coverage of proven indicators along the continuum of well child care and illness recognition and care–seeking for child illnesses encompassed by the BASICS/CDC Pathway to Survival model. Results Six hundred twenty deaths of children (1–59 months of age) were confirmed from the VASA survey. The majority of these children lived in households with precarious socio–economic conditions. Among the 414 children whose fatal illnesses began at age 0–23 months, just 24.4% were appropriately fed. About 24% of children aged 12–59 months were fully immunized. Of 601 children tracked through the Pathway to Survival, 62.4% could reach the first health care provider after about 67 minutes travel time. Of the 306 children who left the first health care provider alive, 161 (52.6%) were not referred for further care nor received any home care recommendations, and just 19% were referred to a second provider. About 113 of the caregivers reported cost (35%), distance (35%) and lack of transport (30%) as constraints to care–seeking at a health facility. Conclusion Despite Niger’s recent major achievements in reducing child mortality, the following determinants are crucial to continue building on the gains the country has made

  7. Social and cultural determinants of oral cholera vaccine uptake in Zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Schaetti, Christian; Ali, Said M; Hutubessy, Raymond; Khatib, Ahmed M; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2012-09-01

    Effectiveness of mass cholera vaccination campaigns requires not only technical and financial capacity but also consideration of social and cultural factors affecting vaccine acceptance. This study examined the influence of local community views of cholera on oral cholera vaccine (OCV) uptake in a mass vaccination campaign in 2009 in peri-urban and rural areas of Zanzibar. It used data from interviews conducted before the campaign and followed previous research assessing determinants of anticipated OCV acceptance. OCV uptake was lower than the reported anticipated acceptance. Less than half of the 356 adult respondents (49.7%) drank the required two doses of OCV. Variables referring to socio-cultural features of diarrheal illness that respondents identified with a cholera case vignette explained uptake better than analysis only of socio-demographic characteristics. Somatic features of illness not specific for cholera were negative determinants. Recognition of unconsciousness as a serious sign of dehydration and concern that cholera outbreaks would overwhelm the local healthcare system in the rural area were positive determinants of acceptance. Female gender, rural residence and older age were also positive determinants of OCV uptake. For further vaccine action with OCVs, cholera as a cause of severe dehydration should be distinguished from other causes of diarrhea. Planning should acknowledge rural concern about the relationship of limited capacity of the healthcare system to cope with cholera outbreaks and the priority of a cholera vaccine. Findings recommend particular efforts to increase cholera immunization coverage among young adults, in peri-urban areas and for men. PMID:22894965

  8. Social determinants of health and health equity policy research: exploring the use, misuse, and nonuse of policy analysis theory.

    PubMed

    Embrett, Mark G; Randall, G E

    2014-05-01

    Despite a dramatic growth in SDH/HE (social determinants of health/health equity) public policy research and demonstrated government interest in promoting equity in health policies, health inequities are actually growing among some populations and there is little evidence that "healthy public policies" are being adopted and implemented. Moreover, these issues are typically failing to even reach governments' policy agendas, which is a critical step towards serious debate and the identification of policy options. This systematic review pursues three main objectives. First, is to identify barriers to SDH/HE issues reaching the government policy agenda. Second, to evaluate the characteristics of peer-reviewed research articles that utilize common policy analysis theories. And third, to determine the extent to which the SDH/HE literature utilizes common policy analysis theories. Our systematic review, conducted in June 2012, identified 6200 SDH/HE related articles in the peer-reviewed literature; however, only seven articles explicitly used a commonly recognized policy analysis theory to inform their analysis. Our analysis revealed that the SDH/HE policy literature appears to be focused on advocacy rather than analysis and that the use of policy analysis theory is extremely limited. Our results also suggest that when such theories are incorporated into an analysis they are often not comprehensively employed. We propose explanations for this non-use and misuse of policy analysis theory, and conclude that researchers may have greater influence in helping to get SDH/HE issues onto government policy agendas if they gain a greater understanding of the policy process and the value of incorporating policy analysis theories into their research. Using a policy analysis lens to help identify why healthy public policies are typically not being adopted is an important step towards moving beyond advocacy to understanding and addressing some of the political barriers to reforms. PMID

  9. Quantification of Shared Air: A Social and Environmental Determinant of Airborne Disease Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Robin; Morrow, Carl; Ginsberg, Samuel; Piccoli, Elizabeth; Kalil, Darryl; Sassi, Angelina; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Andrews, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is endemic in Cape Town, South Africa where a majority of the population become tuberculosis infected before adulthood. While social contact patterns impacting tuberculosis and other respiratory disease spread have been studied, the environmental determinants driving airborne transmission have not been quantified. Methods Indoor carbon dioxide levels above outdoor levels reflect the balance of exhaled breath by room occupants and ventilation. We developed a portable monitor to continuously sample carbon dioxide levels, which were combined with social contact diary records to estimate daily rebreathed litres. A pilot study established the practicality of monitor use up to 48-hours. We then estimated the daily volumes of air rebreathed by adolescents living in a crowded township. Results One hundred eight daily records were obtained from 63 adolescents aged between 12- and 20-years. Forty-five lived in wooden shacks and 18 in brick-built homes with a median household of 4 members (range 2–9). Mean daily volume of rebreathed air was 120.6 (standard error: 8.0) litres/day, with location contributions from household (48%), school (44%), visited households (4%), transport (0.5%) and other locations (3.4%). Independent predictors of daily rebreathed volumes included household type (p = 0.002), number of household occupants (p = 0.021), number of sleeping space occupants (p = 0.022) and winter season (p<0.001). Conclusions We demonstrated the practical measurement of carbon dioxide levels to which individuals are exposed in a sequence of non-steady state indoor environments. A novel metric of rebreathed air volume reflects social and environmental factors associated with airborne infection and can identify locations with high transmission potential. PMID:25181526

  10. Understanding the social determinants of health among Indigenous Canadians: priorities for health promotion policies and actions

    PubMed Central

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Nader, Forouz; Yi, Kyoung J.; Sharma, Sangita

    2015-01-01

    Background Indigenous Canadians have a life expectancy 12 years lower than the national average and experience higher rates of preventable chronic diseases compared with non-Indigenous Canadians. Transgenerational trauma from past assimilation policies have affected the health of Indigenous populations. Objective The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively examine the social determinants of health (SDH), in order to identify priorities for health promotion policies and actions. Design We undertook a series of systematic reviews focusing on four major SDH (i.e. income, education, employment, and housing) among Indigenous peoples in Alberta, following the protocol Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis-Equity. Results We found that the four SDH disproportionately affect the health of Indigenous peoples. Our systematic review highlighted 1) limited information regarding relationships and interactions among income, personal and social circumstances, and health outcomes; 2) limited knowledge of factors contributing to current housing status and its impacts on health outcomes; and 3) the limited number of studies involving the barriers to, and opportunities for, education. Conclusions These findings may help to inform efforts to promote health equity and improve health outcomes of Indigenous Canadians. However, there is still a great need for in-depth subgroup studies to understand SDH (e.g. age, Indigenous ethnicity, dwelling area, etc.) and intersectoral collaborations (e.g. community and various government departments) to reduce health disparities faced by Indigenous Canadians. PMID:26187697

  11. Social relations and filial maturity in middle-aged adults: contextual conditions and psychological determinants.

    PubMed

    Perrig-Chiello, P; Sturzenegger, M

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the contextual and psychological preconditions of parent help and helpfulness in a sample of 260 middle-aged persons belonging to two age groups, 40-45 years and 50-55 years. In a first step we want to focus on the description of the contextual situation of the persons of this "hinge generation": What are their available social networks; what are their commitments towards children and parents in terms of perceived obligation and investment; how is their perceived balance of giving and receiving; how do they anticipate and experience dependency of their parents? In a second step we will highlight the readiness of middle-aged women and men to help their parents as well as the effectively reported help. Here we are interested in the psychological determinants of such attitude and behaviour. Structural equation models are performed to estimate the predictory power of personality variables, control beliefs and reported stress (family and job) on filial helpfulness and help. Results suggest that differential aspects such as gender and age group explain a large amount of variance of the variables intergenerational commitment and satisfaction with social networks and have--along with personality variables--a strong impact on filial help and helpfulness of middle-aged adults. PMID:11310223

  12. Social and Structural Determinants of Cervical Health among Women Engaged in HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Wigfall, Lisa T; Brandt, Heather M; Julious, Carmen Hampton; Glover, Saundra H; Hébert, James R

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer prevention/control efforts among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLH) are socially and structurally challenging. Healthcare access and perceived HIV stigma and discrimination are factors that may challenge risk reduction efforts. This study examined socio-structural determinants of cervical cancer screening among women engaged in HIV care. One hundred forty-five WLH seeking health/social services from AIDS Service Organizations in the southeastern US completed a questionnaire assessing factors related to cervical cancer prevention/control. Ninety percent were African American, mean age 46.15 ± 10.65 years. Eighty-one percent had a Pap test <1 year ago. Low healthcare access was positively associated with having a Pap test <1 year ago, (Odds ratio [OR] 3.80; 95 % Confidence interval [CI] 1.34-10.78). About 36 % reported ≥2 Pap tests during the first year after HIV diagnosis. Lower educational attainment was positively associated with having ≥2 Pap tests, OR 3.22; CI 1.08-9.62. Thirty-five percent reported more frequent Pap tests after diagnosis. Lower income was moderately associated with more frequent Pap tests post-diagnosis, OR 2.47; CI .98-6.23. Findings highlight the successes of HIV initiatives targeting socio-economically disadvantaged women and provide evidence that health policy aimed at providing and expanding healthcare access for vulnerable WLH has beneficial health implications. PMID:26955821

  13. Rearing-group size determines social competence and brain structure in a cooperatively breeding cichlid.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Stefan; Bessert-Nettelbeck, Mathilde; Kotrschal, Alexander; Taborsky, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Social animals can greatly benefit from well-developed social skills. Because the frequency and diversity of social interactions often increase with the size of social groups, the benefits of advanced social skills can be expected to increase with group size. Variation in social skills often arises during ontogeny, depending on early social experience. Whether variation of social-group sizes affects development of social skills and related changes in brain structures remains unexplored. We investigated whether, in a cooperatively breeding cichlid, early group size (1) shapes social behavior and social skills and (2) induces lasting plastic changes in gross brain structures and (3) whether the development of social skills is confined to a sensitive ontogenetic period. Rearing-group size and the time juveniles spent in these groups interactively influenced the development of social skills and the relative sizes of four main brain regions. We did not detect a sensitive developmental period for the shaping of social behavior within the 2-month experience phase. Instead, our results suggest continuous plastic behavioral changes over time. We discuss how developmental effects on social behavior and brain architecture may adaptively tune phenotypes to their current or future environments. PMID:26098344

  14. A County-Level Examination of the Relationship Between HIV and Social Determinants of Health: 40 States, 2006-2008

    PubMed Central

    Z, Gant; M, Lomotey; H.I, Hall; X, Hu; X, Guo; R, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social determinants of health (SDH) are the social and physical factors that can influence unhealthy or risky behavior. Social determinants of health can affect the chances of acquiring an infectious disease – such as HIV – through behavioral influences and limited preventative and healthcare access. We analyzed the relationship between social determinants of health and HIV diagnosis rates to better understand the disparity in rates between different populations in the United States. Methods: Using National HIV Surveillance data and American Community Survey data at the county level, we examined the relationships between social determinants of health variables (e.g., proportion of whites, income inequality) and HIV diagnosis rates (averaged for 2006-2008) among adults and adolescents from 40 states with mature name-based HIV surveillance. Results: Analysis of data from 1,560 counties showed a significant, positive correlation between HIV diagnosis rates and income inequality (Pearson correlation coefficient ρ = 0.40) and proportion unmarried – ages >15 (ρ = 0.52). There was a significant, negative correlation between proportion of whites and rates (ρ = -0.67). Correlations were low between racespecific social determinants of health indicators and rates. Conclusions/Implications: Overall, HIV diagnosis rates increased as income inequality and the proportion unmarried increased, and rates decreased as proportion of whites increased. The data reflect the higher HIV prevalence among non-whites. Although statistical correlations were moderate, identifying and understanding these social determinants of health variables can help target prevention efforts to aid in reducing HIV diagnosis rates. Future analyses need to determine whether the higher proportion of singles reflects higher populations of gay and bisexual men. PMID:22408698

  15. The Antsy Social Network: Determinants of Nest Structure and Arrangement in Asian Weaver Ants

    PubMed Central

    Devarajan, Kadambari

    2016-01-01

    Asian weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) are arboreal ants that are known to form mutualistic complexes with their host trees. They are eusocial ants that build elaborate nests in the canopy in tropical areas. A colony comprises of multiple nests, usually on multiple trees, and the boundaries of the colony may be difficult to identify. However, they provide the ideal model for studying group living in invertebrates since there are a definite number of nests for a given substrate, the tree. Here, we briefly examine the structure of the nests and the processes involved in the construction and maintenance of these nests. We have described the spatial arrangement of weaver ant nests on trees in two distinct tropical clusters, a few hundred kilometres apart in India. Measurements were made for 13 trees with a total of 71 nests in the two field sites. We have considered a host of biotic and abiotic factors that may be crucial in determining the location of the nesting site by Asian weaver ants. Our results indicate that tree characteristics and architecture followed by leaf features help determine nest location in Asian weaver ants. While environmental factors may not be as influential to nest arrangement, they seem to be important determinants of nest structure. The parameters that may be considered in establishing the nests could be crucial in picking the evolutionary drivers for colonial living in social organisms. PMID:27271037

  16. The Social Determinants of Health (SDH) in Iran: A Systematic Review Article

    PubMed Central

    BAHADORI, Mohammadkarim; SANAEINASAB, Hormoz; GHANEI, Mostafa; MEHRABI TAVANA, Ali; RAVANGARD, Ramin; KARAMALI, Mazyar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many studies have been conducted in Iran in order to investigate the status of social determinants of health (SDH) and their associations with health indicators. This study aimed to review the Iranian studies conducted on SDH. Methods: A systematic review of all Iranian Persian and English languages articles published between 2005 and 2014 on the SDH was conducted using the search of SID, Iran Medex, Iran Doc, Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The eligibility criteria were studies describing SDH status, designed based on the WHO conceptual framework of SDH, published in Persian or English languages, and full text articles. The structured narrative approach was used to synthesize the data. Results: The entire review process led to the selection of 21 papers. Most of studies had been conducted on the intermediary (38%) and structural (33%) components and determinants in Iran, 4 studies (19%) on the study of all components affecting the health and health inequality and, finally, the minimum number of studies (10%) on the context components and determinants. The focus of 43% of selected studies was on the WHO conceptual framework of SDH and had evaluated this model as an appropriate conceptual framework. Conclusion: In order to fill the gap in the scientific evidence of SDH and make appropriate policies and plans in Iran, it is needed to conduct studies on all SDH according to the WHO conceptual framework. PMID:26258086

  17. The Antsy Social Network: Determinants of Nest Structure and Arrangement in Asian Weaver Ants.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Kadambari

    2016-01-01

    Asian weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) are arboreal ants that are known to form mutualistic complexes with their host trees. They are eusocial ants that build elaborate nests in the canopy in tropical areas. A colony comprises of multiple nests, usually on multiple trees, and the boundaries of the colony may be difficult to identify. However, they provide the ideal model for studying group living in invertebrates since there are a definite number of nests for a given substrate, the tree. Here, we briefly examine the structure of the nests and the processes involved in the construction and maintenance of these nests. We have described the spatial arrangement of weaver ant nests on trees in two distinct tropical clusters, a few hundred kilometres apart in India. Measurements were made for 13 trees with a total of 71 nests in the two field sites. We have considered a host of biotic and abiotic factors that may be crucial in determining the location of the nesting site by Asian weaver ants. Our results indicate that tree characteristics and architecture followed by leaf features help determine nest location in Asian weaver ants. While environmental factors may not be as influential to nest arrangement, they seem to be important determinants of nest structure. The parameters that may be considered in establishing the nests could be crucial in picking the evolutionary drivers for colonial living in social organisms. PMID:27271037

  18. Counting the Homeless: A Previously Incalculable Tuberculosis Risk and Its Social Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Teeter, Larry D.; Musser, James M.; Graviss, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) surveillance among the homeless is not supported by the political will necessary for TB elimination. We merged the first stakeholder-accepted enumeration of homeless persons with existing surveillance data to assess TB risk among the homeless in Houston, Texas. The average incidence per 100 000 was 411 among homeless and 9.5 among housed persons. The homeless were more likely than the housed to be US-born, clustered, and in a larger-sized cluster. Multivariate analysis revealed that TB rates among the homeless were driven not by comorbidities but by social determinants. Homeless patients were hospitalized more days than the housed and required more follow-up time. Reporting of TB rates for populations with known health disparities could help reframe TB prevention and better target limited funds. PMID:23488504

  19. Social Determinants of Health and Beyond: Information to Help Family Physicians Improve Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Marjorie A; Neale, Anne Victoria; Seehusen, Dean A

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants of health (SDOHs) are a theme in this issue. In addition, we include a series of clinical articles to inform family medicine. One helps to demystify the process of obtaining hearing care. Another provides a case report of how a vanishing twin can confuse a newly available test. We also share articles on the early symptoms and signs of femoral insufficiency fractures and a simple test to help diagnose basal cell carcinomas. Family physicians provide their views on point-of-care tests. Positive outcomes are reported for behavioral health integration into family medicine offices and for diabetes education among patients cared for within patient-centered medical homes. A questionnaire can help family physicians identify and facilitate conversations with their patients about adverse childhood experiences. PMID:27170784

  20. Historical Perspective: The social determinants of disease – some roots of the movement

    PubMed Central

    Syme, S Leonard

    2005-01-01

    This is an account of the early days of research on social determinants as I experienced them. I describe my time as one of four Fellows in a new training program in Medical Sociology at Yale University and how I came to be the first Sociologist employed in the U.S. Public Health Service. I then became the first Executive Secretary of a new Study Section at NIH dealing with a small number of research grant proposals in the field of Epidemiology. My account deals with some of my experiences in this developing field, culminating with my appointment as the first Sociologist to become a Professor of Epidemiology in a School of Public Health. PMID:15840175

  1. The reallocation challenge: Containing Canadian medical care spending to invest in the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Kershaw, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We argue that Canadian provincial governments should contain medical care spending in order to invest more in the social determinants of health (SDH). Others have said this, many times. Doing it has not proven easy. We therefore emphasize the potential contribution of the priority-setting and resource allocation literature. This literature identifies formal tools and approaches that have built cultures of support for resource shifts, while providing pragmatic means for advancing efficiency and equity. Although reallocation towards SDH from other areas of the health care system is financially viable and supported by existing research, it will require new emphasis on the design of population health interventions that make reallocation politically expedient. PMID:27348100

  2. We Need Action on Social Determinants of Health – but Do We Want It, too?

    PubMed Central

    de Leeuw, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Recently a number of calls have been made to mobilise the arsenal of political science insights to investigate – and point to improvements in – the social determinants of health (SDH), and health equity. Recently, in this journal, such a rallying appeal was made for the field of public administration. This commentary argues that, although scholarly potential should justifiably be redirected to resolve these critical issues for humanity, a key ingredient in taking action may have been neglected. This factor is ‘community.’ Community health has been a standard element of the public health and health promotion, even political, repertoire for decades now. But this commentary claims that communities are insufficiently charged, equipped or appreciated to play the role that scholarship attributes (or occasionally avoids to identify) to them. Community is too important to not fully engage and understand. Rhetorical tools and inquiries can support their quintessential role. PMID:27285516

  3. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered. PMID:25155236

  4. Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity

    PubMed Central

    Pedrana, Leo; Pamponet, Marina; Walker, Ruth; Costa, Federico; Rasella, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Background The strategic importance of monitoring social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity and inequity has been a central focus in global discussions around the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on SDH and the Millennium Development Goals. This study is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) equity-oriented analysis of linkages between health and other sectors (EQuAL) project, which aims to define a framework for monitoring SDH and health equity. Objectives This review provides a global summary and analysis of the domains and indicators that have been used in recent studies covering the SDH. These studies are considered here within the context of indicators proposed by the WHO EQuAL project. The objectives are as follows: to describe the range of international and national studies and the types of indicators most frequently used; report how they are used in causal explanation of the SDH; and identify key priorities and challenges reported in current research for national monitoring of the SDH. Design We conducted a scoping review of published SDH studies in the PubMed® database to obtain evidence of socio-economic indicators. We evaluated, selected, and extracted data from national scale studies published from 2004 to 2014. The research included papers published in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results The final sample consisted of 96 articles. SDH monitoring is well reported in the scientific literature independent of the economic level of the country and magnitude of deprivation in population groups. The research methods were mostly quantitative and many papers used multilevel and multivariable statistical analyses and indexes to measure health inequalities and SDH. In addition to the usual economic indicators, a high number of socio-economic indicators were used. The indicators covered a broad range of social dimensions, which were given consideration within and across different social groups. Many indicators included in the

  5. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  6. Measurement of Health Disparities, Health Inequities, and Social Determinants of Health to Support the Advancement of Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Talih, Makram; Huang, David; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Bouye, Karen; Beckles, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of health disparities and advancement of health equity in the United States require high-quality data indicative of where the nation stands vis-à-vis health equity, as well as proper analytic tools to facilitate accurate interpretation of these data. This article opens with an overview of health equity and social determinants of health. It then proposes a set of recommended practices in measurement of health disparities, health inequities, and social determinants of health at the national level to support the advancement of health equity, highlighting that (1) differences in health and its determinants that are associated with social position are important to assess; (2) social and structural determinants of health should be assessed and multiple levels of measurement should be considered; (3) the rationale for methodological choices made and measures chosen should be made explicit; (4) groups to be compared should be simultaneously classified by multiple social statuses; and (5) stakeholders and their communication needs can often be considered in the selection of analytic methods. Although much is understood about the role of social determinants of health in shaping the health of populations, researchers should continue to advance understanding of the pathways through which they operate on particular health outcomes. There is still much to learn and implement about how to measure health disparities, health inequities, and social determinants of health at the national level, and the challenges of health equity persist. We anticipate that the present discussion will contribute to the laying of a foundation for standard practice in the monitoring of national progress toward achievement of health equity. PMID:26599027

  7. Determinants of Subjective Social Status and Health Among Latin American Women Immigrants in Spain: A Qualitative Approach.

    PubMed

    Sanchón-Macias, Ma Visitación; Bover-Bover, Andreu; Prieto-Salceda, Dolores; Paz-Zulueta, María; Torres, Blanca; Gastaldo, Denise

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative study was carried out to better understand factors that determine the subjective social status of Latin Americans in Spain. The study was conducted following a theoretical framework and forms part of broader study on subjective social status and health. Ten immigrant participants engaged in semi-structured interviews, from which data were collected. The study results show that socioeconomic aspects of the crisis and of policies adopted have shaped immigrant living conditions in Spain. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis were related to non-recognition of educational credentials, precarious working conditions, unemployment and loneliness. These results illustrate the outcomes of current policies on health and suggest a need for health professionals to orient practices toward social determinants, thus utilizing evaluations of subjective social status to reduce inequalities in health. PMID:25808761

  8. How to address the sample preparation of hydrophilic compounds: Determination of entecavir in plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate with novel extraction sorbents.

    PubMed

    Vlčková, Hana; Janák, Jaroslav; Gottvald, Tomáš; Trejtnar, František; Solich, Petr; Nováková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Two fast, simple, selective and economical sample preparation methods for the determination of entecavir in biological materials available at low amounts are reported. The choice of optimal extraction techniques was performed with regard to analyte hydrophilicity, sample volumes, selectivity, method recovery and rapidity. The compatibility of the eluate with the hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) mobile phase was crucial to allow the elimination of the evaporation and reconstitution steps and to obtain acceptable peak shapes. Different types of sorbents were employed for the extraction of two biological materials (plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate). The mixed-mode polymeric sorbent MCX was chosen as a suitable one for the solid phase extraction (SPE) of plasma samples. The analytes were eluted with 1ml of the mixture of 5 % ammonium hydroxide in ACN:water (95:5). Protein precipitation (PP) with 1ml of ACN was used to remove proteins from 500μl of plasma sample prior to SPE extraction. The microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) was employed for the cleaning up of plasma ultrafiltrate samples due to very small volumes available for the analysis. MEPS implemented a novel sorbent based on porous graphitic carbon, semi-automatic analytical syringe and a small volume of sample (50μl). The elution step was performed using 100μl of the mixture of 5mM ammonium acetate pH 4.0:ACN (25:75). The MEPS eluate was fully compatible with HILIC mobile phase subsequently used for the analysis of entecavir, unlike SPE eluate, which had to be evaporated and reconstituted in mobile phase. Both analytical methods were validated and demonstrated good linearity in a range 1-100ng/ml (r(2)>0.9992) for plasma samples and in a range 0.5-100ng/ml (0.9991) for the plasma ultrafiltrate samples. Intra-day accuracy expressed as recovery was within the range from 80-98% for the plasma samples and 97-106% for the plasma ultrafiltrate samples. Inter-day accuracy ranged within 81

  9. Assessing the relevance of indicators in tracking social determinants and progress toward equitable population health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rasella, Davide; Machado, Daiane Borges; Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeirrer; Paim, Jairnilson; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Lima, Diana; Magno, Laio; Pedrana, Leo; Medina, Maria Guadalupe; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of the social determinants of health (SDH) and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare have been widely recognized but not previously studied in the context of universal healthcare coverage (UHC) in Brazil and other developing countries. Objective To evaluate a set of proposed indicators of SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare – proposed by the SDH unit of the World Health Organization – with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in moving toward equitable population health and UHC in Brazil. Design This study had a mixed methodology, combining a quantitative analysis of secondary data from governmental sources with a qualitative study comprising two focus group discussions and six key informant interviews. The set of indicators tested covered a broad range of dimensions classified by three different domains: environment quality; accountability and inclusion; and livelihood and skills. Indicators were stratified according to income quintiles, urbanization, race, and geographical region. Results Overall, the indicators were adequate for tracking progress in terms of the SDH, equity, gender, and human rights in Brazil. Stratifications showed inequalities. The qualitative analysis revealed that many of the indicators were well known and already used by policymakers and health sector managers, whereas others were considered less useful in the Brazilian context. Conclusions Monitoring and evaluation practices have been developed in Brazil, and the set of indicators assessed in this study could further improve these practices, especially from a health equity perspective. Socioeconomic inequalities have been reduced in Brazil in the last decade, but there is still much work to be done in relation to addressing the SDH. PMID:26853898

  10. Social-cognitive determinants of condom use in a cohort of young gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Franssens, Dirk; Hospers, Harm J; Kok, Gerjo

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to identify relevant determinants of young gay and bisexual men's (YGBM) condom use when having anal sex with casual partners. Respondents (185 YGBM in the midst of their coming-out; mean age 18.9 years) completed an online questionnaire on social-cognitive determinants of condoms use derived from the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991) at Wave 1. At six months follow-up (Wave 2) sexual behavior with casual partners was assessed. A total of 63 YGBM reported sex with a casual partner in the six months between Waves 1 and 2, of whom 49% (N=31) had anal sex. Of the YGBM who had anal sex, 42% (N=13) had unprotected anal sex. Condom use with casual partners was best predicted by the intention to always use condoms. Furthermore, attitude, descriptive and personal norms, and perceived control significantly predicted intention to always use condoms. Interventions, targeting YGBM, aiming to promote condom use with casual partners should focus on increasing attitudes and strengthening skills to negotiate and use condoms. PMID:20024726

  11. 20 CFR 220.38 - When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.38 Section 220.38 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.38 When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social...

  12. 20 CFR 220.38 - When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.38 Section 220.38 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.38 When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social...

  13. 20 CFR 220.38 - When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.38 Section 220.38 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.38 When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social...

  14. 20 CFR 220.38 - When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.38 Section 220.38 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.38 When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social...

  15. 20 CFR 220.38 - When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.38 Section 220.38 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.38 When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social...

  16. Social relationships and physiological determinants of longevity across the human life span.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang Claire; Boen, Courtney; Gerken, Karen; Li, Ting; Schorpp, Kristen; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2016-01-19

    Two decades of research indicate causal associations between social relationships and mortality, but important questions remain as to how social relationships affect health, when effects emerge, and how long they last. Drawing on data from four nationally representative longitudinal samples of the US population, we implemented an innovative life course design to assess the prospective association of both structural and functional dimensions of social relationships (social integration, social support, and social strain) with objectively measured biomarkers of physical health (C-reactive protein, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index) within each life stage, including adolescence and young, middle, and late adulthood, and compare such associations across life stages. We found that a higher degree of social integration was associated with lower risk of physiological dysregulation in a dose-response manner in both early and later life. Conversely, lack of social connections was associated with vastly elevated risk in specific life stages. For example, social isolation increased the risk of inflammation by the same magnitude as physical inactivity in adolescence, and the effect of social isolation on hypertension exceeded that of clinical risk factors such as diabetes in old age. Analyses of multiple dimensions of social relationships within multiple samples across the life course produced consistent and robust associations with health. Physiological impacts of structural and functional dimensions of social relationships emerge uniquely in adolescence and midlife and persist into old age. PMID:26729882

  17. Social relationships and physiological determinants of longevity across the human life span

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang Claire; Boen, Courtney; Gerken, Karen; Li, Ting; Schorpp, Kristen; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2016-01-01

    Two decades of research indicate causal associations between social relationships and mortality, but important questions remain as to how social relationships affect health, when effects emerge, and how long they last. Drawing on data from four nationally representative longitudinal samples of the US population, we implemented an innovative life course design to assess the prospective association of both structural and functional dimensions of social relationships (social integration, social support, and social strain) with objectively measured biomarkers of physical health (C-reactive protein, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index) within each life stage, including adolescence and young, middle, and late adulthood, and compare such associations across life stages. We found that a higher degree of social integration was associated with lower risk of physiological dysregulation in a dose–response manner in both early and later life. Conversely, lack of social connections was associated with vastly elevated risk in specific life stages. For example, social isolation increased the risk of inflammation by the same magnitude as physical inactivity in adolescence, and the effect of social isolation on hypertension exceeded that of clinical risk factors such as diabetes in old age. Analyses of multiple dimensions of social relationships within multiple samples across the life course produced consistent and robust associations with health. Physiological impacts of structural and functional dimensions of social relationships emerge uniquely in adolescence and midlife and persist into old age. PMID:26729882

  18. Perceived Social Support from Friends as Determinant of Loneliness in a Sample of Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkan, Melek; Epli-Koc, Hatice

    2011-01-01

    The peer group is the important social network in children's lives and has a high predictive value of an individual's later social and emotional adjustment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the perceived social support from friends as predictor of the loneliness for primary school students. Two tools were used for data gathering.…

  19. The Quality of Social Networks: Its Determinants and Impacts on Helping and Volunteering in Macao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Kwok Kit; Hung, Eva P. W.; Yuen, Sze Man

    2011-01-01

    Pro-social behaviors serve essential societal functions. This study examines the factors affecting the quality of social networks, in terms of network size and perceived respect. It further explores the role of social networks in enhancing helping intention and helping behaviors. Eight hundred and eighty people were randomly interviewed by phone.…

  20. Acknowledging Individual Responsibility while Emphasizing Social Determinants in Narratives to Promote Obesity-Reducing Public Policy: A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity’s social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story’s main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity. PMID:25706743

  1. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  2. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  3. Humanizing Oral Health Care through Continuing Education on Social Determinants of Health: Evaluative Case Study of a Canadian Private Dental Clinic.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Martine; Levine, Alissa; Bedos, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Primary care practitioners are frequently unprepared to take into account the effects of social determinants on underprivileged patients' health and health management. To address this issue among dental professionals, an original onsite continuing education (CE) course on poverty was co-developed by researchers, dental professionals, and community organizations. Integrating patient narratives and a short film, course material aims to elicit critical reflection and provide coaching for practice improvements. A qualitative case study conducted with a large Montreal Canada dental team reveals CE course participants' newfound understandings and increased sensitivity to the causes of poverty and the nature of life on welfare. Participants also describe revised interpretations of certain patient behaviors, subtle changes in communication with patients and improved equity in appointment-giving policy. Unintended outcomes include reinforced judgment and a tendency to moralize certain patient categories. Implications for health professional educators, researchers, and dental regulatory authorities are discussed. PMID:27524746

  4. Social chromosome variants differentially affect queen determination and the survival of workers in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Séverine D; Wurm, Yanick; Keller, Laurent

    2014-10-01

    Intraspecific variation in social organization is common, yet the underlying causes are rarely known. An exception is the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in which the existence of two distinct forms of social colony organization is under the control of the two variants of a pair of social chromosomes, SB and Sb. Colonies containing exclusively SB/SB workers accept only one single queen and she must be SB/SB. By contrast, when colonies contain more than 10% of SB/Sb workers, they accept several queens but only SB/Sb queens. The variants of the social chromosome are associated with several additional important phenotypic differences, including the size, fecundity and dispersal strategies of queens, aggressiveness of workers, and sperm count in males. However, little is known about whether social chromosome variants affect fitness in other life stages. Here, we perform experiments to determine whether differential selection occurs during development and in adult workers. We find evidence that the Sb variant of the social chromosome increases the likelihood of female brood to develop into queens and that adult SB/Sb workers, the workers that cull SB/SB queens, are overrepresented in comparison to SB/SB workers. This demonstrates that supergenes such as the social chromosome can have complex effects on phenotypes at various stages of development. PMID:25211290

  5. Toxic trace elements in maternal and cord blood and social determinants in a Bolivian mining city

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Flavia L.; Gardon, Jacques; Ruiz-Castell, María; Paco V., Pamela; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Casiot, Corinne; Freydier, Rémi; Duprey, Jean-Louis; Chen, Chih-Mei; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Keil, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed lead, arsenic, and antimony in maternal and cord blood, and associations between maternal concentrations and social determinants in the Bolivian mining city of Oruro using the baseline assessment of the ToxBol/Mine-Niño birth cohort. We recruited 467 pregnant women, collecting venous blood and sociodemographic information as well as placental cord blood at birth. Metallic/semimetallic trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lead medians in maternal and cord blood were significantly correlated (Spearman coefficient = 0.59; p < 0.001; 19.35 and 13.50 μg/L, respectively). Arsenic concentrations were above detection limit (3.30 μg/L) in 17.9 % of maternal and 34.6 % of cord blood samples. They were not associated (Fischer’s p = 0.72). Antimony medians in maternal and cord blood were weakly correlated (Spearman coefficient = 0.15; p < 0.03; 9.00 and 8.62 μg/L, respectively). Higher concentrations of toxic elements in maternal blood were associated with maternal smoking, low educational level, and partner involved in mining. PMID:26179629

  6. Toxic trace elements in maternal and cord blood and social determinants in a Bolivian mining city.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Flavia L; Gardon, Jacques; Ruiz-Castell, María; Paco V, Pamela; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Casiot, Corinne; Freydier, Rémi; Duprey, Jean-Louis; Chen, Chih-Mei; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Keil, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed lead, arsenic, and antimony in maternal and cord blood, and associations between maternal concentrations and social determinants in the Bolivian mining city of Oruro using the baseline assessment of the ToxBol/Mine-Niño birth cohort. We recruited 467 pregnant women, collecting venous blood and sociodemographic information as well as placental cord blood at birth. Metallic/semimetallic trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lead medians in maternal and cord blood were significantly correlated (Spearman coefficient = 0.59; p < 0.001; 19.35 and 13.50 μg/L, respectively). Arsenic concentrations were above detection limit (3.30 μg/L) in 17.9% of maternal and 34.6% of cord blood samples. They were not associated (Fischer's p = 0.72). Antimony medians in maternal and cord blood were weakly correlated (Spearman coefficient = 0.15; p < 0.03; 9.00 and 8.62 μg/L, respectively). Higher concentrations of toxic elements in maternal blood were associated with maternal smoking, low educational level, and partner involved in mining. PMID:26179629

  7. Adaptive Policies for Reducing Inequalities in the Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Gemma; Crammond, Brad; Malbon, Eleanor; Carey, Nic

    2015-01-01

    Inequalities in the social determinants of health (SDH), which drive avoidable health disparities between different individuals or groups, is a major concern for a number of international organisations, including the World Health Organization (WHO). Despite this, the pathways to changing inequalities in the SDH remain elusive. The methodologies and concepts within system science are now viewed as important domains of knowledge, ideas and skills for tackling issues of inequality, which are increasingly understood as emergent properties of complex systems. In this paper, we introduce and expand the concept of adaptive policies to reduce inequalities in the distribution of the SDH. The concept of adaptive policy for health equity was developed through reviewing the literature on learning and adaptive policies. Using a series of illustrative examples from education and poverty alleviation, which have their basis in real world policies, we demonstrate how an adaptive policy approach is more suited to the management of the emergent properties of inequalities in the SDH than traditional policy approaches. This is because they are better placed to handle future uncertainties. Our intention is that these examples are illustrative, rather than prescriptive, and serve to create a conversation regarding appropriate adaptive policies for progressing policy action on the SDH. PMID:26673337

  8. Social and Behavioral Determinants for Early Childhood Caries among Preschool Children in India.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mitali; Namdev, Ritu; Bodh, Meenakshi; Dutta, Samir; Singhal, Parul; Kumar, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a public health problem with biological, social and behavioural determinants and the notion that the principal etiology is inappropriate feeding modalities is no longer tenable. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the relationship between ECC and socio-demographic factors, dietary habits, oral hygiene habits and parental characteristics. Materials and methods. The study involved a dental examination of 1400 children aged 0-71 months, recording caries using Gruebbel's deft index and a structured questionnaire to interview parents or caretakers. The tabulated data was statistically analyzed using t-test and ANOVA at 5% level of significance. Results. The variables significantly associated with ECC were age (P<0.001), geographical location (P<0.05), duration of breast/bottle feeding (P<0.001), use of sweetened pacifiers (P<0.001), frequency of snacking (P<0.05), frequency of tooth brushing (P<0.001), the person responsible for child's oral health care (P<0.05) and education level of parents (P<0.05). However, other variables like child's gender, number of siblings, types of snack the child preferred and age at which tooth brushing was instituted did not have statistically significant relationship with ECC (P>0.05). Conclusion. ECC is preventable and manageable with proper information and skills. It is important for healthcare professionals, family physicians and parents to be cognizant of the involved risk factors as their preventive efforts represent the first line of defense. PMID:26236439

  9. Adaptive Policies for Reducing Inequalities in the Social Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Carey, Gemma; Crammond, Brad; Malbon, Eleanor; Carey, Nic

    2015-01-01

    Inequalities in the social determinants of health (SDH), which drive avoidable health disparities between different individuals or groups, is a major concern for a number of international organisations, including the World Health Organization (WHO). Despite this, the pathways to changing inequalities in the SDH remain elusive. The methodologies and concepts within system science are now viewed as important domains of knowledge, ideas and skills for tackling issues of inequality, which are increasingly understood as emergent properties of complex systems. In this paper, we introduce and expand the concept of adaptive policies to reduce inequalities in the distribution of the SDH. The concept of adaptive policy for health equity was developed through reviewing the literature on learning and adaptive policies. Using a series of illustrative examples from education and poverty alleviation, which have their basis in real world policies, we demonstrate how an adaptive policy approach is more suited to the management of the emergent properties of inequalities in the SDH than traditional policy approaches. This is because they are better placed to handle future uncertainties. Our intention is that these examples are illustrative, rather than prescriptive, and serve to create a conversation regarding appropriate adaptive policies for progressing policy action on the SDH. PMID:26673337

  10. Ground-nesting by the chimpanzees of the Nimba Mountains, Guinea: environmentally or socially determined?

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; Humle, Tatyana; Sterck, Elisabeth H M; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-04-01

    The chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Nimba Mountains, Guinea, West Africa, commonly make both elaborate ("night") and simple ("day") nests on the ground. In this study we investigated which factors might influence ground-nesting in this population, and tested two ecological hypotheses: 1) climatic conditions, such as high wind speeds at high altitudes, may deter chimpanzees from nesting in trees; and 2) a lack of appropriate arboreal nesting opportunities may drive the chimpanzees to nest on the ground. In addition to testing these two hypotheses, we explored whether ground-nesting is a sex-linked behavior. Data were collected monthly between August 2003 and May 2004 along transects and ad libitum. To identify the sex of ground-nesting individuals, we used DNA extracted from hair samples. The results showed that the occurrence and distribution of ground nests were not affected by climatic conditions or a lack of appropriate nest trees. Support was found for the notion that ground-nesting is a sex-linked behavior, as males were responsible for building all of the elaborate ground nests and most of the simple ground nests sampled. Elaborate ground nests occurred mostly in nest groups associated with tree nests, whereas simple ground nests usually occurred without tree nests in their vicinity. These results suggest that ground-nesting may be socially, rather than ecologically, determined. PMID:17146789

  11. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  12. Social determinants of tobacco consumption among Nepalese men: findings from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the 20th century, 100 million people across the globe lost their lives due to consumption of tobacco. Every year 15,000 deaths in Nepal are attributable to tobacco smoking and using other products of tobacco. This study aimed to establish the proportion and the social determinants of tobacco use among Nepalese men based on the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), 2011. Methods This study used the NDHS 2011 data. The prevalence of cigarette smoking, other forms of tobacco 16 smoking and use of tobacco in any form is reported as a percentage (%). The significance of association of the statistically significant variables established using Chi-square test was further tested by using multiple logistic regression. Results Of the 4121 participants, the prevalence of consuming any form of tobacco was 51.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) (49.6%- 54.3%)]; chewing/sniffing tobacco was 34.8% (95% CI: 32.4%- 37.3%) and tobacco smoking was 33.6% (95% CI 31.3%-36.0%). Men with no education [Odds Ratio (OR) 3.477; 95% CI (2.380-5.080)], from an older age group (36–49) [OR 2.399; 95% CI (1.858-3.096)] who were from a manual occupation [OR 1.538; 95% CI (1.188-1.985)], who were married[OR 1.938; 95% CI ( 1.552-2.420)], and who were from the Terai region [OR 1.351; 95% CI (1.083-1.684)] were more likely to consume tobacco. Men who watched television at least once a week [OR 0.642; 95% CI (0.504-0.819)] were less likely to consume tobacco. Conclusions The current study showed that over half of Nepalese men consume tobacco. There is an urgent need to fully implement Nepal’s Tobacco Control and Regulation Act which will ban smoking in public places; enforced plain packaging and display of health warnings over 75% of the packaging, and has banned selling of tobacco products to those under 18 years of age. There is a need to increase the social unacceptability of tobacco in Nepal by raising awareness through different electronic and cultural media. Anti

  13. Show Me Again What I Can Do: Documentation and Self-Determination for Students with Social Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Stephanie Cox

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of documentation by teachers and their children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) to develop skills of self-determination. Visual feedback, such as photos and video, help teachers plan and children evaluate their performance in social situations, such as finding a friend to play with at recess. This…

  14. Public policy and the social determinants of health: the challenge of the production and use of scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini Filho, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This article serves as an introduction to the others published in this thematic issue of the Cadernos de Saúde Pública. The author makes a brief historical review of the concepts, approaches and methodologies used to study the relationships between social determinants and health outcomes. By analyzing the current global movement around social determinants of health he emphasizes that the distinctive feature of this movement is the explicit commitment to action through intersectoral public policies that are based on evidence and implemented with the support and participation of broad segments of society. As this special issue of the Cadernos de Saúde Pública is dedicated to presenting the results of research related to social determinants of health, the author focuses on an analysis of the difficulties in the production and use of scientific evidence that supports the definition, implementation and evaluation of policies to combat health inequities through action on social determinants of health. To conclude, he presents some recommendations for overcoming these difficulties. PMID:21789407

  15. Preparing Ex-Offenders for Work: Applying the Self-Determination Theory to Social Cognitive Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2013-01-01

    Ex-offenders, persons with criminal and limited job histories, are being released into communities every year. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) focuses on several cognitive-person variables and on the interaction effect with the environment. Conceptually, the author views the integration of SCCT and the self-determination theory as a…

  16. A Latent Class Growth Analysis of School Bullying and Its Social Context: The Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Chan, Chi-Keung; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of social context to school bullying was examined from the self-determination theory perspective in this longitudinal study of 536 adolescents from 3 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Latent class growth analysis of the student-reported data at 5 time points from grade 7 to grade 9 identified 4 groups of students: bullies (9.8%),…

  17. Exploring the Social-Ecological Determinants of Physical Fighting in U.S. Schools: What about Youth in Immigrant Families?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Merrin, Gabriel J.; Peguero, Anthony A.; Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio; Lee, Na Youn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing presence of immigrant families in the US, little is known about physical fighting in school among youth from those families. Objective: The present study examines the social-ecological determinants of school physical fighting among youth in immigrant families. Implications for practice are also discussed. Method:…

  18. The Perceptions, Social Determinants, and Negative Health Outcomes Associated with Depressive Symptoms among U.S. Chinese Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Simon, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Recent demographic growth of the U.S. Chinese aging population calls for comprehensive understanding of their unique health needs. The objective of this study is to examine the perceptions, social determinants of depressive symptoms as well as their impact on health and well-being in a community-dwelling U.S. Chinese aging…

  19. Determinants of Social Networking Software Acceptance: A Multi-Theoretical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; AbduRahman, Nik Suryani Nik; Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku

    2013-01-01

    Understanding reasons why students use social media has become a major preoccupation of researchers in recent time due to the rate of its adoption among the present generation of students. Some of the few study on social media phenomenon employed a single theory as a framework in order to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of it…

  20. Smoking Status Moderates the Contribution of Social-Cognitive and Environmental Determinants to Adolescents' Smoking Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoir, An; Eertmans, A.; Van den Broucke, S.; Van den Bergh, O.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, it was tested whether attitudes, self-efficacy, social influences and the perception of the school and home environments had different associations with intentions for adolescent non-smokers, occasional smokers and daily smokers. A regression model allowing for separate slopes of social-cognitive and environment variables accounted…

  1. Social Beliefs as Determinants of Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help among Ethnically Diverse University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Ben C. H.; Kwantes, Catherine T.; Towson, Shelagh; Nanson, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the role of pancultural social beliefs, as measured by the Social Axioms Survey (SAS), in predicting attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help in an ethnically diverse sample of Canadian university students (N = 400). The result of a hierarchical regression showed that the collective contribution of the…

  2. Field Dependence and Social Responsiveness as Determinants of Spontaneously Produced Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Leo; Bendich, Stephen

    This study measured responsiveness to the immediate environment on the basis of the social (vs. neutral) content of a person's free associations, in an effort to relate this responsiveness to field-dependence. The results lend support to the view that field-dependence is associated with social responsiveness in word association. Two aspects of…

  3. Communicative social capital and collective efficacy as determinants of access to health-enhancing resources in residential communities.

    PubMed

    Matsaganis, Matthew D; Wilkin, Holley A

    2015-04-01

    This article contributes to the burgeoning literature on the social determinants of health disparities. The authors investigate how communication resources and collective efficacy, independently and in combination, shape residents' access to health enhancing resources (including healthcare services, sources of healthier food options, and public recreation spaces) in their communities. Using random digit dial telephone survey data from 833 residents of South Los Angeles communities the authors show that communicative social capital-that is, an information and problem-solving resource that accrues to residents as they become more integrated into their local communication network of neighbors, community organizations, and local media-plays a significant role in access to health resources. This relationship is complicated by individuals' health insurance and health status, as communicative social capital magnifies the sense of absence of resources for those who are in worse health and lack insurance. Communicative social capital builds collective efficacy, which is positively related to access to health-enhancing resources, but it also mediates the negative relationship between communicative social capital and access to health resources. Residents with richer stores of communicative social capital and collective efficacy report better access to health resources. The authors conclude with a discussion of implications of these findings and suggestions for future research. PMID:25529115

  4. Terms of Address in Libyan Arabic Compared to Other Arabic Varieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abugharsa, ?Azza B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion about the terms of address used mainly in Libyan Arabic, and how they are similar and/or different from the terms used in other Arabic societies. In addition, the current paper describes how the use of such terms is determined by various social factors and perceptions, and how it is emphasized that these titles…

  5. Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis in countries with high tuberculosis burdens: individual risks and social determinants

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Jeon, Christie Y; Cohen, Ted; Murray, Megan B

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence supports the role of type 2 diabetes as an individual-level risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), though evidence from developing countries with the highest TB burdens is lacking. In developing countries, TB is most common among the poor, in whom diabetes may be less common. We assessed the relationship between individual-level risk, social determinants and population health in these settings. Methods We performed individual-level analyses using the World Health Survey (n = 124 607; 46 countries). We estimated the relationship between TB and diabetes, adjusting for gender, age, body mass index, education, housing quality, crowding and health insurance. We also performed a longitudinal country-level analysis using data on per-capita gross domestic product and TB prevalence and incidence and diabetes prevalence for 1990–95 and 2003–04 (163 countries) to estimate the relationship between increasing diabetes prevalence and TB, identifying countries at risk for disease interactions. Results In lower income countries, individuals with diabetes are more likely than non-diabetics to have TB [univariable odds ratio (OR): 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84–3.10; multivariable OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.37–2.39]. Increases in TB prevalence and incidence over time were more likely to occur when diabetes prevalence also increased (OR: 4.7; 95% CI: 1.0–22.5; OR: 8.6; 95% CI: 1.9–40.4). Large populations, prevalent TB and projected increases in diabetes make countries like India, Peru and the Russia Federation areas of particular concern. Conclusions Given the association between diabetes and TB and projected increases in diabetes worldwide, multi-disease health policies should be considered. PMID:21252210

  6. Social Determinants of Health Information Seeking among Chinese Adults in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Man Ping; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Lam, Tai Hing; Wang, Xin; Chan, Sophia S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Health communication inequalities were observed in Western population but less is known about them among the Chinese. We investigated health information seeking behaviours and its social determinants among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Methods Probability-based sample surveys over telephone were conducted in 2009, 2010/11 and 2012 to monitor family health and information use. Frequency of health information seeking from television, radio, newspapers/magazines and Internet were recorded and dichotomised as ≥1 time/month and <1 time/month (reference). Logistic regression was used to yield adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of health information seeking for different demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (education, employment and income), chronic disease and behaviours (smoking, drinking and physical activity). Results Among 4553 subjects in all surveys, most (85.1%) had sought health information monthly from newspapers/magazines (66.2%), television (61.4%), radio (35.6%) or Internet (33.2%). Overall, being male, lower education attainment, lower household income, ever-smoking and physical inactivity were associated with less frequent health information seeking (all P <0.05). Compared with younger people, older people were less likely to search health information from Internet but more like to obtain it from radio (both P for trend <0.001). Having chronic diseases was associated with frequent health information seeking from television (aOR  =  1.25, 95% CI: 1.07–1.47) and Internet (aOR  =  1.46, 95% CI: 1.24–1.73). Conclusions This study has provided the first evidence on health information inequalities from a non-Western population with advanced mass media and Internet penetration. Socioeconomic inequalities and behavioural clustering of health information seeking suggested more resources are needed for improving health communication in disadvantage groups. PMID:24009729

  7. Social and Behavioral Determinants for Early Childhood Caries among Preschool Children in India

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mitali; Namdev, Ritu; Bodh, Meenakshi; Dutta, Samir; Singhal, Parul; Kumar, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a public health problem with biological, social and behavioural determinants and the notion that the principal etiology is inappropriate feeding modalities is no longer tenable. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the relationship between ECC and socio-demographic factors, dietary habits, oral hygiene habits and parental characteristics. Materials and methods. The study involved a dental examination of 1400 children aged 0-71 months, recording caries using Gruebbel’s deft index and a structured questionnaire to interview parents or caretakers. The tabulated data was statistically analyzed using t-test and ANOVA at 5% level of significance. Results. The variables significantly associated with ECC were age (P<0.001), geographical location (P<0.05), duration of breast/bottle feeding (P<0.001), use of sweetened pacifiers (P<0.001), frequency of snacking (P<0.05), frequency of tooth brushing (P<0.001), the person responsible for child’s oral health care (P<0.05) and education level of parents (P<0.05). However, other variables like child’s gender, number of siblings, types of snack the child preferred and age at which tooth brushing was instituted did not have statistically significant relationship with ECC (P>0.05). Conclusion. ECC is preventable and manageable with proper information and skills. It is important for healthcare professionals, family physicians and parents to be cognizant of the involved risk factors as their preventive efforts represent the first line of defense. PMID:26236439

  8. Beyond ‘Run, Knit and Relax’: Can Health Promotion in Canada Advance the Social Determinants of Health Agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Schrecker, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Can health promotion in Canada effectively respond to the challenge of reducing health inequities presented by the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health? Against a background of failure to take seriously issues of social structure, I focus in particular on treatments of stress and its effects on health, and on the destructive congruence of Canadian health promotion initiatives with the neoliberal “individualization” of responsibility for (ill) health. I suggest that the necessary reinvention of the health promotion enterprise is possible, but implausible. PMID:24289939

  9. Social determinants of child abuse: evidence of factors associated with maternal abuse from the Egypt demographic and health survey

    PubMed Central

    Antai, Diddy; Braithwaite, Patrick; Clerk., George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Child abuse or maltreatment is a significant global public health problem of unknown global prevalence. About 40 million children aged 0 - 14 years require health and social care globally. The prevalence, determinants, and trends of national or global rates of child abuse and maltreatment are largely unknown. Methods: Data for this retrospective cross-sectional study were derived from the 2005 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (2005 EDHS), and included 19474 women aged 15-49 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses by stepwise regression, backward method were used to determine the independent contribution of the possible social determinants of child abuse, with the direction and magnitude of associations expressed as odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confident interval levels (95% CI). Results: Identified determinants of child abuse included exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), justifying wife beating, exposure to generational IPV, and such factors as younger age of the women, male sex, partners’ lower education, poverty, residence in urban areas, younger children, and residence in households with 3 - 5 children. Conclusions: Experience of IPV, mothers’ justification of wife beating, and generational IPV were associated with elevated odds of child abuse. Findings indicate possible high levels of unmet child protection needs, and stress the need for professionals working with children to employ culturally-sensitive methods in investigating social determinants of child abuse. PMID:26401957

  10. La Situación Económica: Social Determinants of Contraceptive Use in Rural Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Marissa G.; Garrett, Jenna J.; Barrington, Clare L.

    2015-01-01

    Contraceptive use is an important determinant of unintended pregnancy, but little is known about the social and structural factors that determine women’s contraceptive use in rural Honduras. In this study, we aim to characterize the individual and social determinants of contraceptive use among women in rural Honduras. In 2011 and 2012, we conducted 14 interviews and two focus groups with women 18 years and older. In our analysis, we created a family planning narrative for each participant and coded transcripts around key emergent themes related to these determinants. We found that social determinants – including poverty, gender dynamics, and availability of family planning methods – had a strong influence on contraceptive use among women in our sample. Study participants stated that they were faced with a difficult economic situation compounded by rising prices of basic goods and diminishing job opportunities. Paradoxically, at the same time that the economic situation led women to seek contraception, it also contributed to the structural barriers that limited their ability to obtain their method of choice and maintain continuous contraceptive use. Our findings suggest the need for multi-level efforts to create an enabling and sustainable environment for family planning among women in rural Honduras. PMID:24593192

  11. Social learning of fear and safety is determined by the demonstrator's racial group.

    PubMed

    Golkar, Armita; Castro, Vasco; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Social learning offers an efficient route through which humans and other animals learn about potential dangers in the environment. Such learning inherently relies on the transmission of social information and should imply selectivity in what to learn from whom. Here, we conducted two observational learning experiments to assess how humans learn about danger and safety from members ('demonstrators') of an other social group than their own. We show that both fear and safety learning from a racial in-group demonstrator was more potent than learning from a racial out-group demonstrator. PMID:25631229

  12. Social learning of fear and safety is determined by the demonstrator's racial group

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Armita; Castro, Vasco; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Social learning offers an efficient route through which humans and other animals learn about potential dangers in the environment. Such learning inherently relies on the transmission of social information and should imply selectivity in what to learn from whom. Here, we conducted two observational learning experiments to assess how humans learn about danger and safety from members (‘demonstrators') of an other social group than their own. We show that both fear and safety learning from a racial in-group demonstrator was more potent than learning from a racial out-group demonstrator. PMID:25631229

  13. Perceptions of the social determinants of health by two groups more and less affiliated with public health in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite strong academic recognition of the SDOH both in Canada and internationally, acknowledgement and uptake of the SDOH in health policy and public consciousness have remained weak. This paper aims to discern reasons for limited action on the SDOH by examining the perceptions of the SDOH held by two groups more and less affiliated with public health in Canada. We conducted formal consultation with group members on their interpretation of the SDOH and their thoughts on the nature and basis of differences between those more and less aligned with the SDOH as a basis for action. Thematic analysis was used to evaluate the views of the two groups. Findings Group 1 (community/public health workers) felt overwhelmed when confronted with questions regarding action on the SDOH within the context of their professional lives. They suggested an expanded list of health determinants that included factors such as voluntarism and happiness, transcending traditional notions of “root causes.” Furthermore, they did not articulate value-based reasons why others would oppose the SDOH; rather, in line with their professional roles, they adopted a value-neutral and pragmatic approach to working to improve health. Group 2 (child and youth advocacy organization members) seemed rooted in the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion framework, with their recommendations aligned with strategies such as building healthy public policy and reorienting health services. Neither group made reference to issues of social justice or inequity when they made suggestions for improving health. Conclusions We found that two groups with different affiliations to formal public health could discuss the SDOH without acknowledging the inequitable distribution of power and resources that lies at its root. We also found that those working in public health had difficulty moving beyond individual actions that they or their clients could take to improve health. For a group more focused on advocacy

  14. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  15. Address of the President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Frederic W.

    1976-01-01

    The president of the Association of American Colleges addresses at the 62nd annual meeting the theme of the conference: "Looking to the Future--Liberal Education in a Radically Changing Society." Contributions to be made by AAC are examined. (LBH)

  16. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  17. Space sciences - Keynote address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    The present status and projected future developments of the NASA Space Science and Applications Program are addressed. Emphasis is given to biochemistry experiments that are planned for the Space Station. Projects for the late 1990s which will study the sun, the earth's magnetosphere, and the geosphere are briefly discussed.

  18. Social autopsy study identifies determinants of neonatal mortality in Doume, Nguelemendouka and Abong–Mbang health districts, Eastern Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Koffi, Alain K.; Libite, Paul–Roger; Moluh, Seidou; Wounang, Romain; Kalter, Henry D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reducing preventable medical causes of neonatal death for faster progress toward the MGD4 will require Cameroon to adequately address the social factors contributing to these deaths. The objective of this paper is to explore the social, behavioral and health systems determinants of newborn death in Doume, Nguelemendouka and Abong–Mbang health districts, in Eastern Region of Cameroon, from 2007–2010. Methods Data come from the 2012 Verbal/Social Autopsy (VASA) study, which aimed to determine the biological causes and social, behavioral and health systems determinants of under–five deaths in Doume, Nguelemendouka and Abong–Mbang health districts in Eastern Region of Cameroon. The analysis of the data was guided by the review of the coverage of key interventions along the continuum of normal maternal and newborn care and by the description of breakdowns in the care provided for severe neonatal illnesses within the Pathway to Survival conceptual framework. Results One hundred sixty–four newborn deaths were confirmed from the VASA survey. The majority of the deceased newborns were living in households with poor socio–economic conditions. Most (60–80%) neonates were born to mothers who had one or more pregnancy or labor and delivery complications. Only 23% of the deceased newborns benefited from hygienic cord care after birth. Half received appropriate thermal care and only 6% were breastfed within one hour after birth. Sixty percent of the deaths occurred during the first day of life. Fifty–five percent of the babies were born at home. More than half of the deaths (57%) occurred at home. Of the 64 neonates born at a health facility, about 63% died in the health facility without leaving. Careseeking was delayed for several neonates who became sick after the first week of life and whose illnesses were less serious at the onset until they became more severely ill. Cost, including for transport, health care and other expenses, emerged as main

  19. Canadian adolescent perceptions and knowledge about the social determinants of health: an observational study of Kingston, Ontario youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Upstream social determinants of health (SDH) have become widely acknowledged as lying at the root of poor health outcomes in Canada and globally. The Commission on the Social Determinants of Health maintains that educating the public about the SDH is a key step towards population health equity. Little is known about adolescent perceptions of the determinants of health. Curriculum in Ontario is lacking in SDH content, placing a much greater emphasis on individual, lifestyle behaviors, such as diet, physical activity, and safe sex practices. Identifying a gap in SDH knowledge within the adolescent population is required to advocate for health curriculum revision to include SDH material. Methods Student sociodemographic information was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Concept mapping exercises were used to determine students’ knowledge of the determinants of health and the SDH. Knowledge was approximated by the relative number of SDH concepts present in student maps. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics and SDH knowledge. Results Concept maps indicated that students attributed their health primarily to physical determinants versus social determinants; 44% of maps contained no SDH content. Statistical analyses indicated that students’ SDH knowledge varied by their relative socioeconomic status (SES). Conclusions Findings suggest that 1) there is an SDH knowledge gap in the adolescent population, and 2) an inequity in adolescent SDH knowledge exists across socio-economic factors. Current Ontario health curriculum requires revision to include SDH material, which will require greater communication and collaboration from both educational institutions and health agencies in Canada. PMID:23981811

  20. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-04-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83·3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions. PMID:23683369

  1. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-01-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83.3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions. PMID:23683369

  2. Interactions between Social Structure, Demography, and Transmission Determine Disease Persistence in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Sadie J.; Jones, James H.; Dobson, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic declines in African great ape populations due to disease outbreaks have been reported in recent years, yet we rarely hear of similar disease impacts for the more solitary Asian great apes, or for smaller primates. We used an age-structured model of different primate social systems to illustrate that interactions between social structure and demography create ‘dynamic constraints’ on the pathogens that can establish and persist in primate host species with different social systems. We showed that this varies by disease transmission mode. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) require high rates of transmissibility to persist within a primate population. In particular, for a unimale social system, STIs require extremely high rates of transmissibility for persistence, and remain at extremely low prevalence in small primates, but this is less constrained in longer-lived, larger-bodied primates. In contrast, aerosol transmitted infections (ATIs) spread and persist at high prevalence in medium and large primates with moderate transmissibility;, establishment and persistence in small-bodied primates require higher relative rates of transmissibility. Intragroup contact structure – the social network - creates different constraints for different transmission modes, and our model underscores the importance of intragroup contacts on infection prior to intergroup movement in a structured population. When alpha males dominate sexual encounters, the resulting disease transmission dynamics differ from when social interactions are dominated by mother-infant grooming events, for example. This has important repercussions for pathogen spread across populations. Our framework reveals essential social and demographic characteristics of primates that predispose them to different disease risks that will be important for disease management and conservation planning for protected primate populations. PMID:24204688

  3. A trans-disciplinary approach to the evaluation of social determinants of health in a hispanic population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Individual and community health are adversely impacted by disparities in health outcomes among disadvantaged and vulnerable populations. Understanding the underlying causes for variations in health outcomes is an essential step towards developing effective interventions to ameliorate inequalities and subsequently improve overall community health. Working at the neighborhood scale, this study examines multiple social determinates that can cause health disparities including low neighborhood wealth, weak social networks, inadequate public infrastructure, the presence of hazardous materials in or near a neighborhood, and the lack of access to primary care services. The goal of this research is to develop innovative and replicable strategies to improve community health in disadvantaged communities such as newly arrived Hispanic immigrants. Methods/design This project is taking place within a primary care practice-based research network (PBRN) using key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Associations between social determinants and rates of hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) use, and ED use for primary care treatable or preventable conditions are being examined. Geospatial models are in development using both hospital and community level data to identify local areas where interventions to improve disparities would have the greatest impact. The developed associations between social determinants and health outcomes as well as the geospatial models will be validated using community surveys and qualitative methods. A rapidly growing and underserved Hispanic immigrant population will be the target of an intervention informed by the research process to impact utilization of primary care services and designed, deployed, and evaluated using the geospatial tools and qualitative research findings. The purpose of this intervention will be to reduce health disparities by improving access to, and utilization of, primary care and

  4. Social Class and Mental Health: Testing Exploitation as a Relational Determinant of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Prins, Seth J.; Bones-Rocha, Katia; Espelt, Albert; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    This study tests whether social class exploitation operates as a relational mechanism that generates mental health inequalities in the nursing home industry. We ask, does social class exploitation (i.e., the acquisition of economic benefits from the labor of those who are dominated) have a systematic and predictable impact on depression among nursing assistants? Using cross-sectional data from 868 nursing assistants employed in 50 nursing homes in three U.S. states, we measure social class exploitation as “ownership type” (private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and public) and “managerial domination” (labor relations violations, perceptions of labor-management conflict). Depression is assessed using the original and revised versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and CESD-R). Using two-level logistic regressions, we find that private for-profit ownership and higher managerial domination are predictive of depression among nursing assistants even after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. Our findings confirm the theoretical and empirical value of applying a social class approach to understanding how mental health inequalities are generated through exploitative mechanisms. Ownership type and managerial domination appear to affect depression through social relations that generate mental health inequalities through the process of acquiring profits, controlling production, supervising and monitoring labor, and enforcing disciplinary sanctions. PMID:25813501

  5. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  6. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  7. Developing Computer Literate Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorella, Peter H.

    Six dimensions of computer literacy for social studies educators to address are discussed. In preparing social studies teachers for the 21st century, educators need to determine which aspects of computer literacy are essential to incorporate into teacher education. First, teachers must have knowledge of the basic sources of information, such as…

  8. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  9. Social Determinants of Cardiovascular Health among Black and White Women Residing in Stroke Belt and Buckle Regions of the South

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sharon K.; Gebreab, Samson; Quarells, Rakale; Gibbons, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the associations of social determinants on cardiovascular health among White and Black residing in Stroke Belt (urban) and Stroke Buckle (rural) regions of the South. Design A cross-sectional observational analysis based on a random digit-dial telephone survey of a representative sample of White and Black adults residing in urban and rural Georgia conducted from 2004–2005. Separate logistic regression analyses examined the effects of social determinants on cardiovascular health within and between White and Black women and within and between urban and rural residential location. The main outcome measure was poor cardiovascular health defined as ≥2 self-reported clinical cardiovascular disease risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, overweight or obese). Social determinants were defined as socioeconomic status (SES), general daily stress, racial discrimination, and stress due to exposure to racial discrimination. Significance was established as a two-tailed P,.05. Results A total of 674 White and Black women aged 18–90 years were included in the sample. Results showed Black women with lower SES had worse cardiovascular health than White women in both rural and urban areas (rural odds ratio [OR] 2.68; confidence interval [CI] 1.44, 4.90; P=.001; urban OR=2.92; CI=1.62, 5.23; P=.0003). White women reporting high or very high exposure to general daily stress where more likely to have worse cardiovascular health than White women reporting very little to no daily stress (OR =2.85; CI=1.49, P5.44; P5.001). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the importance of social determinants associated with cardiovascular health. Tailored cardiovascular risk reduction intervention is needed among lower SES Black women in Stroke Belt and Buckle regions of the South, as well as stress-reduction intervention among White women in the South. (Ethn Dis. 2014;24[2]:133–143) PMID:24804357

  10. Self-Determined Motivation and Social Achievement Goals in Children's Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini

    2011-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study we investigated to what extent autonomous and controlled motivation and social achievement goals are associated with students' emotional experiences at school. We found in a sample of 426 elementary school students, aged from 10 to 12 years, autonomous motivation (i.e. students' engagement in class activities because…

  11. Economic, Social, and Cultural Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Are There Differences between Asia and Europe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagodzinski, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the economic, social, and cultural variables on life satisfaction in Asia and Europe. The second section sets a unifying theoretical framework for all three domains by defining life satisfaction as a function of aspirations and expectations which in turn are affected by micro- and macro-level variables. On…

  12. Cognitive, Social, and Contextual Determinants of Strategy Production: Comments on Bray et al. (1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Ralph P.

    1994-01-01

    This response to Norman Bray (EC 609 160) analyzes the methodology and findings of the original study and concludes that studies of strategy production must look at not only the mentally retarded child's cognitive capacities in problem solving but also the social and contextual conditions that affect the child's representation and use of…

  13. Early Childhood Experiences and Health. Exploring the Social Determinants of Health. Issue Brief #2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braveman, Paula; Sadegh-Nobari, Tabashir; Egerter, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The earliest years of one's life are crucial in many ways, including how they set one on paths leading toward--or away from--good health. Family income, education, and neighborhood resources and other social and economic factors affect health at every stage of life, but the effects on young children are particularly dramatic. While all parents…

  14. The Social Buffering of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis in Humans: Developmental and Experiential Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Hostinar, Camelia E.

    2015-01-01

    Social buffering, a subset of social support, is the process through which the availability of a conspecific reduces the activity of stress-mediating neurobiological systems. While its role in coping and resilience is significant, we know little about its developmental history in humans. This brief review presents an integrative developmental account of the social buffering of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) stress reactivity in humans, from infancy to adulthood. During infancy, parents are powerful stress-regulators for children, but child temperament also plays a role and interacts with parenting quality to predict the magnitude of stress responses to fear or pain stimuli. Recent work indicates that parental support remains a potent stress buffer into late childhood, but that it loses its effectiveness as a buffer of the HPA axis by adolescence. Puberty may be the switch that alters the potency of parental buffering. In Beginning in middle childhood, friends may serve as stress buffers, particularly when other peers are the source of stress. By adulthood romantic partners assume this protective role, though studies often reveal sex differences that are currently not well understood. Translational research across species will be critical for developing a mechanistic understanding of social buffering and the processes involved in developmental changes noted in this review. PMID:26230646

  15. Social Influence and Psychological Determinants of Smoking among Inner-City Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Diaz, Tracy

    1999-01-01

    Study focuses on a sample of economically disadvantaged adolescents attending New York City schools (N=1,875). Longitudinal predictors of smoking from four domains were tested, with findings supporting both social learning theory and problem behavior theory. Discusses the key components for effective smoking prevention approaches. (Author/GCP)

  16. The Interaction of Metadiscourse and Anxiety in Determining Children's Learning of Social Studies Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crismore, Avon; Hill, Kennedy T.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effect of metadiscourse characteristics (attitudinal, voice, and informational) and level of test anxiety on students' learning from social studies textbooks. Finds high anxious students perform best with first person voice and no attitudinal metadiscourse while low anxious students showed the opposite effect. (RS)

  17. Both information and social cohesion determine collective decisions in animal groups.

    PubMed

    Miller, Noam; Garnier, Simon; Hartnett, Andrew T; Couzin, Iain D

    2013-03-26

    During consensus decision making, individuals in groups balance personal information (based on their own past experiences) with social information (based on the behavior of other individuals), allowing the group to reach a single collective choice. Previous studies of consensus decision making processes have focused on the informational aspects of behavioral choice, assuming that individuals make choices based solely on their likelihood of being beneficial (e.g., rewarded). However, decisions by both humans and nonhuman animals systematically violate such expectations. Furthermore, the typical experimental paradigm of assessing binary decisions, those between two mutually exclusive options, confounds two aspects common to most group decisions: minimizing uncertainty (through the use of personal and social information) and maintaining group cohesion (for example, to reduce predation risk). Here we experimentally disassociate cohesion-based decisions from information-based decisions using a three-choice paradigm and demonstrate that both factors are crucial to understanding the collective decision making of schooling fish. In addition, we demonstrate how multiple informational dimensions (here color and stripe orientation) are integrated within groups to achieve consensus, even though no individual is explicitly aware of, or has a unique preference for, the consensus option. Balancing of personal information and social cues by individuals in key frontal positions in the group is shown to be essential for such group-level capabilities. Our results demonstrate the importance of integrating informational with other social considerations when explaining the collective capabilities of group-living animals. PMID:23440218

  18. Both information and social cohesion determine collective decisions in animal groups

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Noam; Garnier, Simon; Hartnett, Andrew T.; Couzin, Iain D.

    2013-01-01

    During consensus decision making, individuals in groups balance personal information (based on their own past experiences) with social information (based on the behavior of other individuals), allowing the group to reach a single collective choice. Previous studies of consensus decision making processes have focused on the informational aspects of behavioral choice, assuming that individuals make choices based solely on their likelihood of being beneficial (e.g., rewarded). However, decisions by both humans and nonhuman animals systematically violate such expectations. Furthermore, the typical experimental paradigm of assessing binary decisions, those between two mutually exclusive options, confounds two aspects common to most group decisions: minimizing uncertainty (through the use of personal and social information) and maintaining group cohesion (for example, to reduce predation risk). Here we experimentally disassociate cohesion-based decisions from information-based decisions using a three-choice paradigm and demonstrate that both factors are crucial to understanding the collective decision making of schooling fish. In addition, we demonstrate how multiple informational dimensions (here color and stripe orientation) are integrated within groups to achieve consensus, even though no individual is explicitly aware of, or has a unique preference for, the consensus option. Balancing of personal information and social cues by individuals in key frontal positions in the group is shown to be essential for such group-level capabilities. Our results demonstrate the importance of integrating informational with other social considerations when explaining the collective capabilities of group-living animals. PMID:23440218

  19. Analyzing Determinations: Understanding and Evaluating the Production of Social Outcomes in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the need to relate an understanding of the experience of schooling to the cultural and economic conditions of society. The work of Paul Willis is used to exemplify the processes by which a dominant class establishes ideological hegemony and legitimates and maintains an existing social order. (Author/MLF)

  20. Contextual Determinants of Perceptions of Children's Communicator Style and Social Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Marina; Thompson, Teresa

    A study examined whether the context in which interaction occurs would lead to any differences in adult perceptions of the relationship between children's communicator style and social attractiveness. Because previous research has indicated that teachers find children to be attractive when they communicate with friendly, relaxed, and attentive…

  1. Latitude and Longitude. AIR Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    This speech addresses the problem of higher education's response to the forces of change and argues for a reinventing of higher education rather than repeatedly amending core teaching and research activities to fit new social and economic situations. Three higher education organizational dynamics (recruitment, budgeting, and handling outside…

  2. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  3. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  4. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  5. Cars, corporations, and commodities: Consequences for the social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, James; Aldred, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Social epidemiologists have drawn attention to health inequalities as avoidable and inequitable, encouraging thinking beyond proximal risk factors to the causes of the causes. However, key debates remain unresolved including the contribution of material and psychosocial pathways to health inequalities. Tools to operationalise social factors have not developed in tandem with conceptual frameworks, and research has often remained focused on the disadvantaged rather than on forces shaping population health across the distribution. Using the example of transport, we argue that closer attention to social processes (capital accumulation and motorisation) and social forms (commodity, corporation, and car) offers a way forward. Corporations tied to the car, primarily oil and vehicle manufacturers, are central to the world economy. Key drivers in establishing this hegemony are the threat of violence from motor vehicles and the creation of distance through the restructuring of place. Transport matters for epidemiology because the growth of mass car ownership is environmentally unsustainable and affects population health through a myriad of pathways. Starting from social forms and processes, rather than their embodiment as individual health outcomes and inequalities, makes visible connections between road traffic injuries, obesity, climate change, underdevelopment of oil producing countries, and the huge opportunity cost of the car economy. Methodological implications include a movement-based understanding of how place affects health and a process-orientated integration of material and psychosocial explanations that, while materially based, contests assumptions of automatic benefits from economic growth. Finally, we identify car and oil corporations as anti-health forces and suggest collaboration with them creates conflicts of interest. PMID:18291031

  6. Urban liveability: emerging lessons from Australia for exploring the potential for indicators to measure the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Badland, Hannah; Whitzman, Carolyn; Lowe, Melanie; Davern, Melanie; Aye, Lu; Butterworth, Iain; Hes, Dominique; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-06-01

    It has long been recognised that urban form impacts on health outcomes and their determinants. There is growing interest in creating indicators of liveability to measure progress towards achieving a wide range of policy outcomes, including enhanced health and wellbeing, and reduced inequalities. This review aimed to: 1) bring together the concepts of urban 'liveability' and social determinants of health; 2) synthesise the various liveability indicators developed to date; and 3) assess their quality using a health and wellbeing lens. Between 2011 and 2013, the research team reviewed 114 international academic and policy documents, as well as reports related to urban liveability. Overall, 233 indicators were found. Of these, 61 indicators were regarded as promising, 57 indicators needed further development, and 115 indicators were not useful for our purposes. Eleven domains of liveability were identified that likely contribute to health and wellbeing through the social determinants of health. These were: crime and safety; education; employment and income; health and social services; housing; leisure and culture; local food and other goods; natural environment; public open space; transport; and social cohesion and local democracy. Many of the indicators came from Australian sources; however most remain relevant from a 'global north' perspective. Although many indicators were identified, there was inconsistency in how these domains were measured. Few have been validated to assess their association with health and wellbeing outcomes, and little information was provided for how they should be applied to guide urban policy and practice. There is a substantial opportunity to further develop these measures to create a series of robust and evidence-based liveability indices, which could be linked with existing health and wellbeing data to better inform urban planning policies within Australia and beyond. PMID:24762261

  7. Social Security and Undergraduates with Disabilities: An Analysis of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey. Addressing Trends in Development in Secondary Education and Transition. Information Brief. Vol. 3, Issue 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Hugh; Conway, Megan A.; Change, Kelly B.T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this brief is to describe the characteristics of undergraduate students receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Social Security Administration (SSI) benefits as they relate to issues of participation in postsecondary education and employment. This brief describes results from the National Postsecondary Student Aid…

  8. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme – a qualitative assessment of four countries

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E.; Huda, Tanvir M.; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). Design In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay

  9. Social Capital as a Determinant of Pregnant Mother’s Place of Delivery: Experience from Kongwa District in Central Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maternal ill health contributes highly to the global burden of diseases in countries South of Sahara including Tanzania. Ensuring that all deliveries take place in health facilities and hence attended by skilled health personnel is one of the strategies advocated by global and national policies, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the number of women delivered by skilled health personnel has remained low in sub Saharan Africa despite of a number of interventions. We sought to determine the role of social capital in facilitating health facility delivery. Methods We randomly selected 744 households with children aged less than five years from two randomly selected wards in a rural area in Tanzania. Mothers were enquired about place of delivery of the last child. Social capital was assessed using a modified questionnaire with both structural and cognitive aspects of social capital, administered in face-to-face interviews. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to develop asocial capital index measure. Uni-variate and multivariable regression models were run using STATA 12. Results Majority (85.9%) of the mothers reported to have delivered in a health facility during their last birth. Compared to the lowest social capital quintile, delivering in a health facility increased significantly with increase in social capital level: low (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.9; Confidence Interval (CI): 1.4–6.1, p = 0.004); moderate (AOR = 5.5, CI: 2.3–13.3, p-value<0.001); high (AOR = 4.7; CI: 1.9–11.6, p-value<0.001) and highest (AOR = 5.6, CI: 2.4–13.4, p-value<0.001) and χ2-test for the trend was significant (χ2 = 17.21, p<0.001). Conclusion Overall, social capital seems to play an important role in enhancing health facility delivery that may lead to improved maternal and child health. Concerted efforts should focus on promoting and supporting effective social capital and in particular cognitive social capital. PMID:26426538

  10. Emerging Infections Program Efforts to Address Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Vugia, Duc J.; Bennett, Nancy M.; Moore, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The Emerging Infections Program (EIP), a collaboration between (currently) 10 state health departments, their academic center partners, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was established in 1995. The EIP performs active, population-based surveillance for important infectious diseases, addresses new problems as they arise, emphasizes projects that lead to prevention, and develops and evaluates public health practices. The EIP has increasingly addressed the health equity challenges posed by Healthy People 2020. These challenges include objectives to increase the proportion of Healthy People–specified conditions for which national data are available by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status as a step toward first recognizing and subsequently eliminating health inequities. EIP has made substantial progress in moving from an initial focus on monitoring social determinants exclusively through collecting and analyzing data by race/ethnicity to identifying and piloting ways to conduct population-based surveillance by using area-based socioeconomic status measures. PMID:26291875

  11. Social structure of the mara (Dolichotis patagonum) as a determinant of gastro-intestinal parasitism.

    PubMed

    Porteous, I S; Pankhurst, S J

    1998-03-01

    A one-year study of gastro-intestinal parasitism in a free-ranging population of maras at Whipsnade Wild Animal Park, UK, revealed a strong relationship between membership of social units and both intensity and prevalence of infection. The mara, a hystricomorph rodent from southern Argentina, has a social organization including both monogamy and communal denning of the young, an apparently unique combination among mammals. From October 1992 to September 1993, strongyloid parasite loads were estimated from faecal egg counts. A minimum adequate model was fitted to the data using the Genstat statistical package. This showed that family membership had a highly significant effect on the intensity of egg shedding in faeces, and a significant effect on the prevalence of infection. After controlling for both extrinsic environmental and intrinsic demographic factors, homogeneity of infection was greater within than between families and adult pairs. PMID:9550220

  12. The physical and social determinants of mortality in the 3.11 tsunami.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Daniel P; Sawada, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The human consequences of the 3.11 tsunami were not distributed equally across the municipalities of the Tohoku region of northeastern Japan. Instead, the mortality rate from the massive waves varied tremendously from zero to ten percent of the local residential population. What accounts for this variation remains a critical question for researchers and policy makers alike. This paper uses a new, sui generis data set including all villages, towns, and cities on the Pacific Ocean side of the Tohoku region to untangle the factors connected to mortality during the disaster. With data on demographic, geophysical, infrastructure, social capital, and political conditions for 133 municipalities, we find that tsunami height, stocks of social capital, and level of political support for the long-ruling LDP strongly influenced mortality rates. Given the high probability of future large scale catastrophes, these findings have important policy implications for disaster mitigation policies in Japan and abroad. PMID:25461863

  13. [Clinical characteristics and social determinants in a sample of non-homebound elderly].

    PubMed

    Morsch, Patricia; Pereira, Gustavo Nunes; Navarro, Joel Hirtz do Nascimento; Trevisan, Margarete Diprat; Lopes, Diene Gomes Colvara; Bós, Ângelo José Gonçalves

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess social and clinical factors associated with the fact that older adults (≥ 60 years) go out of their homes. The study interviewed 5,898 older adults identified through home visits, randomly selected in 59 cities in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between the outcome and independent variables. Factors associated with going out were being men, younger and married, presence of arthrosis, ease in performing specific activities, and good self-rated health. Heart disease was a negative factor for going out. Given the importance of social activity for quality of life and the World Health Organization policy for active aging, it is extremely important to consider clinical conditions that allow the older adults to remain active in the community. Studies like this can help to adjust public policies for the elderly, especially acting on modifiable clinical and functional conditions. PMID:26083177

  14. 'Theory of incomprehensibility'--the social and biological determinants of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Kapusta, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Karl Jaspers' theory on the incomprehensibility of psychotic disorders has become the reference point for many critical studies in the field of contemporary psychopathology. According to Jaspers, it is impossible to understand any of the serious mental disorders often referred to as 'psychosis' because of their unreasonableness, a truth that is revealed when one attempts to empathize with the mental states of patients afflicted with a particular mental disorder. These elements are psychologically inaccessible and closed to any form of empathy. The theory of incomprehensibility is the starting point for many contemporary discussions on the nature of mental illness. It refers to the pathogenic causes of mental disorder and, at the same time, leads to the marginalization of 'pathoplastic'--personal, family related and environmental factors responsible for mental distress. The presented article criticizes the theory of incomprehensibility in light of the contemporary discussion within the (new) philosophy of psychiatry about the role and function of psychiatry and psychopathology. Many authors criticize the theory of incomprehensibility, particularly its implications for understanding and explaining mental disorders. The views presented in the article--post-psychiatry, the psychiatry of common sense, the socio-cultural approach and engaged epistemology/embodied cognition--aim to reveal the broader dimensions of human pathological experience. Particularly appreciated by the author, engaged epistemology and embodied cognition aim to connect social and experiential points of view with the more scientific neuropsychiatric research, and refer to the hidden levels of our experience while always placing such elements in the social context, as well as describing human pathological symptoms against this social background. The basic aim of the presented paper is to stress the need for a review of dogmatic assumptions on the nature of mental illness, and to discuss the

  15. Translating multilevel theory into multilevel research: Challenges and opportunities for understanding the social determinants of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Erin C.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Yudron, Monica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Subramanian, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The observation that features of the social environment, including family, school, and neighborhood characteristics, are associated with individual-level outcomes has spurred the development of dozens of multilevel or ecological theoretical frameworks in epidemiology, public health, psychology, and sociology, among other disciplines. Despite the widespread use of such theories in etiological, intervention, and policy studies, challenges remain in bridging multilevel theory and empirical research. This paper set out to synthesize these challenges and provide specific examples of methodological and analytical strategies researchers are using to gain a more nuanced understanding of the social determinants of psychiatric disorders, with a focus on children’s mental health. To accomplish this goal, we begin by describing multilevel theories, defining their core elements, and discussing what these theories suggest is needed in empirical work. In the second part, we outline the main challenges researchers face in translating multilevel theory into research. These challenges are presented for each stage of the research process. In the third section, we describe two methods being used as alternatives to traditional multilevel modeling techniques to better bridge multilevel theory and multilevel research. These are: (1) multilevel factor analysis and multilevel structural equation modeling; and (2) dynamic systems approaches. Through its review of multilevel theory, assessment of existing strategies, and examination of emerging methodologies, this paper offers a framework to evaluate and guide empirical studies on the social determinants of child psychiatric disorders as well as health across the lifecourse. PMID:24469555

  16. Thanksgiving Address of the North American Indian Ohenton Kariwatehkwen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Watenriio (Michael), Comp.; And Others

    Translated by the North American Indian Travelling College, this traditional Thanksgiving Address is delivered before and after all meetings and ceremonies of the Iroquois people. Through this address, the Creator is introduced into a ceremony, social dance, or council, and, at the end of the meeting, the address brings the minds of the people…

  17. How do people form behavioral intentions when others have the power to determine social consequences?

    PubMed

    Trafimow, David; Clayton, Krisstal D; Sheeran, Paschal; Darwish, Abdel-Fattah E; Brown, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Much literature has suggested that people who are discriminated against or are in collectivist cultures are particularly susceptible to the social consequences of society. In the present study, the authors conducted 3 experiments to test how this factor influences attitudinal versus normative control over behaviors. First, they measured males' and females' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral intentions with respect to a large number of behaviors. Although between-participants analyses were mostly uninformative, within-participants analyses uncovered strong evidence that behaviors are more under attitudinal control for females than for males. Similar analyses in a crosscultural experiment involving participants from the United States, the United Kingdom, China, and Mexico support the hypothesis that behaviors are more under attitudinal control for collectivists than for individualists. Finally, experimental data collected in the United States and Saudi Arabia further support this conclusion. Taken together, the findings suggest that although social consequences are both "social" and "consequences", the latter is more important than the former. PMID:20718228

  18. Not all hours are equal: could time be a social determinant of health?

    PubMed

    Strazdins, Lyndall; Welsh, Jennifer; Korda, Rosemary; Broom, Dorothy; Paolucci, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Time can be thought of as a resource that people need for good health. Healthy behaviour, accessing health services, working, resting and caring all require time. Like other resources, time is socially shaped, but its relevance to health and health inequality is yet to be established. Drawing from sociology and political economy, we set out the theoretical basis for two measures of time relevant to contemporary, market-based societies. We measure amount of time spent on care and work (paid and unpaid) and the intensity of time, which refers to rushing, effort and speed. Using data from wave 9 (N = 9177) of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia Survey we found that time poverty (> 80 h per week on care and work) and often or always rushing are barriers to physical activity and rushing is associated with poorer self-rated and mental health. Exploring their social patterning, we find that time-poor people have higher incomes and more time control. In contrast, rushing is linked to being a woman, lone parenthood, disability, lack of control and work-family conflicts. We supply a methodology to support quantitative investigations of time, and our findings underline time's dimensionality, social distribution and potential to influence health. PMID:26174027

  19. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  20. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  1. The Effect of Mandatory Furloughs on Self-Determination, Financial Strain, and Decision to Leave the California State University System in Social Work Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, Melinda; Packard, Thomas; Finnegan, Daniel; Jones, Loring

    2013-01-01

    In uncertain economic times, universities have taken steps to address financial problems by including the use of business models. In 2009, the California State University (CSU) system implemented furloughs of a 10% pay reduction and 18 days removed from the academic calendar. Faculty in 16 CSU schools of social work participated in a Web-based…

  2. How to Reduce the Latent Social Risk of Disease: The Determinants of Vaccination against Rabies in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ku-Yuan, Lee; Li-Chi, Lan; Jiun-Hao, Wang; Chen-Ling, Fang; Kun-Sun, Shiao

    2014-01-01

    To control the latent social risk of disease, the government usually spreads accurate information and attempts to improve the public’s attitude toward adopting prevention. However, these methods with the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) model do not always work. Therefore, we used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to understand dog owners’ behavior and distinguished the knowledge effect as objective knowledge (OK) and subjective knowledge (SK). A total of 310 dog owners completed a questionnaire based on our model. We employed structural equation modeling to verify the structural relationships and found three main results. First, our model was fit, and each path was significant. People with better attitudes, stronger subjective norms, and more perceptive behavioral control have stronger behavioral intention. Second, perceived behavioral control, not attitude, was the best predictive index in this model. Finally, on perceived behavioral control, subjective knowledge showed more influence than objective knowledge. We successfully extended TPB to explain the behavioral intention of dog owners and presented more workable recommendations. To reduce the latent social risk of disease, the government should not only address dog owners’ attitudes, but also their subjective norms and perceptive behavioral control. Indeed, perceptive behavioral control and SK showed the most influence in this model. It is implied that the self-efficacy of dog owners is the most important factor in such a behavior. Therefore, the government should focus on enhancing dog owners’ self-efficacy first while devoted to prevention activities. PMID:24901413

  3. How to reduce the latent social risk of disease: the determinants of vaccination against rabies in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ku-Yuan, Lee; Li-Chi, Lan; Jiun-Hao, Wang; Chen-Ling, Fang; Kun-Sun, Shiao

    2014-06-01

    To control the latent social risk of disease, the government usually spreads accurate information and attempts to improve the public's attitude toward adopting prevention. However, these methods with the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) model do not always work. Therefore, we used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to understand dog owners' behavior and distinguished the knowledge effect as objective knowledge (OK) and subjective knowledge (SK). A total of 310 dog owners completed a questionnaire based on our model. We employed structural equation modeling to verify the structural relationships and found three main results. First, our model was fit, and each path was significant. People with better attitudes, stronger subjective norms, and more perceptive behavioral control have stronger behavioral intention. Second, perceived behavioral control, not attitude, was the best predictive index in this model. Finally, on perceived behavioral control, subjective knowledge showed more influence than objective knowledge. We successfully extended TPB to explain the behavioral intention of dog owners and presented more workable recommendations. To reduce the latent social risk of disease, the government should not only address dog owners' attitudes, but also their subjective norms and perceptive behavioral control. Indeed, perceptive behavioral control and SK showed the most influence in this model. It is implied that the self-efficacy of dog owners is the most important factor in such a behavior. Therefore, the government should focus on enhancing dog owners' self-efficacy first while devoted to prevention activities. PMID:24901413

  4. Analysis of the Systematic Relationships among Social Determinants of Health (SDH) and Identification of Their Prioritization in Iran Using DEMATEL Technique

    PubMed Central

    BAHADORI, Mohammadkarim; RAVANGARD, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Social determinants, similar to equity, have been considered by policymakers in many countries. However, there is not a correct and complete understanding of them. This study aimed to analyze the systematic relationships among social determinants of health (SDH) and identify their prioritization in Iran. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study was conducted in 2012. The target population consisted of 30 experts on SDH. Required data was collected using a questionnaire, as well as, nominal group technique (NGT). Then collected data were analyzed using MATLAB 7.9.0 and SPSS 18.0. Results Determinants of early life (EL), social gradient (SG), unemployment (U), stress (S) and addiction (A) were certainly affecting determinants on the system, which were placed in the cause group and ranked as the first to fifth priorities, respectively. While social exclusion (SE), food (F), social support (SS), work (W) and transport (T) were partially affected determinants and were placed in the effect group and ranked as the sixth to tenth priorities, respectively. Early life and transport were identified as the most affecting and affected determinants with the coordinates (2.16 and 0.75) and (1.68 and -0.47) on the SDH diagram, respectively. Conclusion Improving the social and economic status, considering the early life, increasing the quality of education, and reducing unemployment and stress have effects on the other social determinants of health and provide opportunities for increasing equity. PMID:26060648

  5. The Resurgence of Biological Determinism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Elizabeth A.; Kilty, Keith M.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses two areas where science has been and still is used to justify policies and attitudes that are discriminatory and oppressive: homosexuality and alcoholism. This article analyzes the debate over whether these correlations are biologically or socially determined. Of particular concern is the potential impact of biological determinism on the…

  6. Evolutionary Game Theory and Social Learning Can Determine How Vaccine Scares Unfold

    PubMed Central

    Bauch, Chris T.; Bhattacharyya, Samit

    2012-01-01

    Immunization programs have often been impeded by vaccine scares, as evidenced by the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) autism vaccine scare in Britain. A “free rider” effect may be partly responsible: vaccine-generated herd immunity can reduce disease incidence to such low levels that real or imagined vaccine risks appear large in comparison, causing individuals to cease vaccinating. This implies a feedback loop between disease prevalence and strategic individual vaccinating behavior. Here, we analyze a model based on evolutionary game theory that captures this feedback in the context of vaccine scares, and that also includes social learning. Vaccine risk perception evolves over time according to an exogenously imposed curve. We test the model against vaccine coverage data and disease incidence data from two vaccine scares in England & Wales: the whole cell pertussis vaccine scare and the MMR vaccine scare. The model fits vaccine coverage data from both vaccine scares relatively well. Moreover, the model can explain the vaccine coverage data more parsimoniously than most competing models without social learning and/or feedback (hence, adding social learning and feedback to a vaccine scare model improves model fit with little or no parsimony penalty). Under some circumstances, the model can predict future vaccine coverage and disease incidence—up to 10 years in advance in the case of pertussis—including specific qualitative features of the dynamics, such as future incidence peaks and undulations in vaccine coverage due to the population's response to changing disease incidence. Vaccine scares could become more common as eradication goals are approached for more vaccine-preventable diseases. Such models could help us predict how vaccine scares might unfold and assist mitigation efforts. PMID:22496631

  7. Evolutionary game theory and social learning can determine how vaccine scares unfold.

    PubMed

    Bauch, Chris T; Bhattacharyya, Samit

    2012-01-01

    Immunization programs have often been impeded by vaccine scares, as evidenced by the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) autism vaccine scare in Britain. A "free rider" effect may be partly responsible: vaccine-generated herd immunity can reduce disease incidence to such low levels that real or imagined vaccine risks appear large in comparison, causing individuals to cease vaccinating. This implies a feedback loop between disease prevalence and strategic individual vaccinating behavior. Here, we analyze a model based on evolutionary game theory that captures this feedback in the context of vaccine scares, and that also includes social learning. Vaccine risk perception evolves over time according to an exogenously imposed curve. We test the model against vaccine coverage data and disease incidence data from two vaccine scares in England & Wales: the whole cell pertussis vaccine scare and the MMR vaccine scare. The model fits vaccine coverage data from both vaccine scares relatively well. Moreover, the model can explain the vaccine coverage data more parsimoniously than most competing models without social learning and/or feedback (hence, adding social learning and feedback to a vaccine scare model improves model fit with little or no parsimony penalty). Under some circumstances, the model can predict future vaccine coverage and disease incidence--up to 10 years in advance in the case of pertussis--including specific qualitative features of the dynamics, such as future incidence peaks and undulations in vaccine coverage due to the population's response to changing disease incidence. Vaccine scares could become more common as eradication goals are approached for more vaccine-preventable diseases. Such models could help us predict how vaccine scares might unfold and assist mitigation efforts. PMID:22496631

  8. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  9. Social and legal determinants for the marketing of GM products in Poland.

    PubMed

    Twardowski, Tomasz; Małyska, Aleksandra

    2012-02-15

    The development of biotechnology is influenced by many factors unique for a specific region. In Poland the lack of legislative solutions (to facilitate the promotion of the inventions) and the public resistance against certain sectors of biotechnology are significant factors limiting any further development. Although, science and technology are the front runners in any innovation, the significance of social and legal aspects is difficult to overestimate. In our opinion those factors are interconnected and crucial for marketing of innovative products, therefore, we indicate and explain the most important issues restraining the implementation of innovative biotechnology in the context of national specificity in Poland. PMID:22210291

  10. Influences of Social Determinants of Health on African Americans Living With HIV in the Rural Southeast: A Qualitative Meta-synthesis.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Laurie S; Williams, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Social determinants of health influence health outcomes and contribute to health disparities in diverse populations. A meta-synthesis was conducted to provide emic perspectives of the experiences of African Americans living with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. Analysis of qualitative literature revealed patterns among social determinants of health as upstream factors contributing to health care barriers, poor health outcomes, decreased quality of life, and health disparities. The purpose of our meta-synthesis was the illumination and synthesis of themes describing characteristics of social determinants of health in selected qualitative articles. The nine themes that emerged included living in poverty, enduring unemployment, missing work, lacking transportation, sustaining stress, feeling socially excluded, needing social support, battling substance use, and lacking adequate health care. PMID:26066690

  11. [Social determinants of health associated to the human immunodeficiency virus of indigenous women in north Oaxaca, México].

    PubMed

    Juan-Martínez, Berenice; Castillo-Arcos, Lubia Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The vulnerability to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may increase based on specific social determinants of health, which can also affect the lack of adherence to a safe sexual behavior and access to antiretroviral treatment in indigenous women. Consequently, it is necessary to review, through a documentary study, what are those determinants in the case of a group of indigenous women from the North of Oaxaca and how these aspects affect those women, as well as the important role of nursing for the best approach. Social determinants are classified into 3 levels: macro (socioeconomic status, income, migration and education), meso (culture, gender and access to health services) and micro (lifestyles and adoption of safe sex). Indigenous women with limited resources become easy targets of HIV by engaging in risky sexual behaviors inadvertently. The nurse is a key professional who can influence behaviors of women through effective interventions that help foster self-confidence and empowerment, using the resources that the person possesses. PMID:26711185

  12. Social-cognitive determinants of hoist usage among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Rickett, Bridgette; Orbell, Sheina; Sheeran, Paschal

    2006-04-01

    Injuries caused by unsafe manual handling of patients are a major source of ill health in health care workers. The present study evaluated the ability of 4 classes of variable to predict use of a hoist when moving a heavily dependent patient. Variables examined were occupational role characteristics, such as hours of work and type of shift worked; biographics, including age and height; aspects of occupational context, such as number of hoists available and number of patients; and motivational variables specified by the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985) and protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1983). Regression analyses showed that background and social-cognitive variables were able to account for 59% of variance in intention to use a hoist and 41% of variance in use of the hoist assessed 6 weeks later. Height, hoist availability, coworker injunctive norm, perceived behavioral control, response cost, response benefits, and social and physical costs of not using the hoist each explained independent variance in motivation to use a hoist at work. PMID:16649851

  13. Social ecological determinants of youth violence among ethnically diverse Asian and Pacific Islander students.

    PubMed

    Goebert, Deborah; Chang, Janice Y; Chung-Do, Jane; Else, 'Iwalani R N; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Helm, Susana; Kinkade, Katie; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relative fit of risk/protective and social ecological models of youth violence among predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander students. Data from a 2007 survey of two multi-ethnic high schools in Hawai'i were used. The survey assessed interpersonal youth violence, suicidality and risk and protective factors. Two models of youth violence (risk/protective and social ecological) were tested using structural equation modeling. We found good fits for the risk/protective model (χ(2) = 369.42, df = 77, P < .0001; CFI = .580; RMSEA = .066) and the ecological model (χ(2) = 1763.65, df = 292, P < .0001; CFI = .636; RMSEA = .076). The risk/protective model showed the importance of coping skills. However, the ecological model allowed examination of the interconnectivity among factors. Peer exposure to violence had no direct influence on individuals and peer influence was fully mediated by school climate. Furthermore, family factors directly contributed to peer exposure, community, and individual risk/protection. These findings have significant implications for intervention and prevention efforts and for the promotion of positive, competent, and healthy youth development. While few family and school-based programs have been developed and evaluated for adolescents, they have the greatest potential for success. PMID:21132358

  14. Social and relational identification as determinants of care workers’ motivation and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Bjerregaard, Kirstien; Haslam, S. Alexander; Morton, Thomas; Ryan, Michelle K.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research in the field of health and social care indicates that the quality of the relationship between the person giving care and the person receiving it contributes significantly to the motivation and well-being of both. This paper examines how care workers’ motivation is shaped by their social and relational identification at work. Survey findings at two time points (T1, N = 643; T2, N = 1274) show that care workers’ motivation increases to the extent that incentives, the working context (of residential vs. domiciliary care), and the professionalization process (of acquiring vs. not acquiring a qualification) serve to build and maintain meaningful identities within the organization. In this context care workers attach greatest importance to their relational identity with clients and the more they perceive this as congruent with their organizational identity the more motivated they are. Implications are discussed with regard to the need to develop and sustain a professional and compassionate workforce that is able to meet the needs of an aging society. PMID:26528196

  15. Social Determinants of Health and Primary Care: Intentionality Is Key to the Data We Collect and the Interventions We Pursue.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren S

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants of health (SDOHs)-the conditions where we live, learn, work, and play-often influence the lives of patients much more than health care services. Family physicians in particular witness the impact of these factors on a daily basis in clinical practice, and they have begun to screen for SDOHs and intervene when appropriate to mitigate their effects. This issue of the Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine focuses on SDOH data collection and analysis that informs patient care, population health, and policy interventions. Collectively, this series of articles establishes the foundation for a robust SDOH research agenda for primary care. PMID:27170785

  16. Examining the social determinants of children's developmental health: protocol for building a pan-Canadian population-based monitoring system for early childhood development

    PubMed Central

    Guhn, Martin; Janus, Magdalena; Enns, Jennifer; Brownell, Marni; Forer, Barry; Duku, Eric; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Raos, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood is a key period to establish policies and practices that optimise children's health and development, but Canada lacks nationally representative data on social indicators of children's well-being. To address this gap, the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher-administered questionnaire completed for kindergarten-age children, has been implemented across most Canadian provinces over the past 10 years. The purpose of this protocol is to describe the Canadian Neighbourhoods and Early Child Development (CanNECD) Study, the aims of which are to create a pan-Canadian EDI database to monitor trends over time in children's developmental health and to advance research examining the social determinants of health. Methods and analysis Canada-wide EDI records from 2004 to 2014 (representing over 700 000 children) will be linked to Canada Census and Income Taxfiler data. Variables of socioeconomic status derived from these databases will be used to predict neighbourhood-level EDI vulnerability rates by conducting a series of regression analyses and latent variable models at provincial/territorial and national levels. Where data are available, we will measure the neighbourhood-level change in developmental vulnerability rates over time and model the socioeconomic factors associated with those trends. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for this study was granted by the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia. Study findings will be disseminated to key partners, including provincial and federal ministries, schools and school districts, collaborative community groups and the early childhood development research community. The database created as part of this longitudinal population-level monitoring system will allow researchers to associate practices, programmes and policies at school and community levels with trends in developmental health outcomes. The CanNECD Study will guide future early childhood

  17. A Study to Develop a Scale for Determining the Social Acceptance Levels of Special-Needs Students, Participating in Inclusion Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Erdinc; Sahbaz, Umit

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale of social acceptance for determining the social acceptance levels of special-needs students, participating in inclusion practices. The target population of the research is 8th grade students of all primary schools in the provincial center of Burdur in the 2008 to 2009 academic year and the target study…

  18. The Role of Perceived Peer Prejudice and Teacher Discrimination on Adolescent Substance Use: A Social Determinants Approach

    PubMed Central

    Respress, Brandon N.; Small, Eusebius; Francis, Shelley A.; Cordova, David

    2013-01-01

    Although Black adolescents have reported a lower prevalence of substance use relative to non-Hispanic Whites, Black youth are disproportionately affected by adverse social outcomes. Social scientists have highlighted that using a framework that includes perceived peer prejudice and teacher discrimination as social determinants of adolescent risk behaviors is essential to fully understanding substance use behaviors in adolescents. However, this area of research remains underdeveloped. This study examined whether and to what extent perceived peer prejudice and teacher discrimination affect binge drinking and marijuana use by Black (n = 514) and non-Hispanic White (n = 2,818) adolescents using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave 2, Public Use dataset. Findings suggest that peer prejudice increased the risk of substance use in non-Hispanic White youth only, whereas experiences of teacher discrimination increased the risk of substance use in both Black and non-Hispanic White youth. The study’s limitations are noted, and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24215222

  19. Education as a Social Determinant of Health: Issues Facing Indigenous and Visible Minority Students in Postsecondary Education in Western Canada

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Janki; Ip, Eugene; Khalema, Ernest; Couture, Jennifer; Tan, Shawn; Zulla, Rosslynn T.; Lam, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    The level of educational attainment is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health. While higher educational attainment can play a significant role in shaping employment opportunities, it can also increase the capacity for better decision making regarding one’s health, and provide scope for increasing social and personal resources that are vital for physical and mental health. In today’s highly globalized knowledge based society postsecondary education (PSE) is fast becoming a minimum requirement for securing employment that can afford young adults the economic, social and personal resources needed for better health. Canada ranks high among OECD countries in terms of advanced education, with 66% of Canadians having completed some form of postsecondary education. Yet youth from low income indigenous and visible minority (LIIVM) backgrounds continue to be poorly represented at PSE levels. The current study aimed to understand the reasons for this poor representation by examining the experiences of LIIVM students enrolled in a postsecondary program. Findings show that the challenges they faced during the course of their study had an adverse impact on their health and that improving representation of these students in PSE will require changes at many levels. PMID:23989527

  20. Fostering Social Determinants of Health Transdisciplinary Research: The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Amy J.; White Hat, Emily R.; Angal, Jyoti; Grey Owl, Victoria; Puumala, Susan E.; Baete Kenyon, DenYelle

    2015-01-01

    The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health (CRCAIH) was established in September 2012 as a unifying structure to bring together tribal communities and health researchers across South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota to address American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) health disparities. CRCAIH is based on the core values of transdisciplinary research, sustainability and tribal sovereignty. All CRCAIH resources and activities revolve around the central aim of assisting tribes with establishing and advancing their own research infrastructures and agendas, as well as increasing AI/AN health research. CRCAIH is comprised of three divisions (administrative; community engagement and innovation; research projects), three technical cores (culture, science and bioethics; regulatory knowledge; and methodology), six tribal partners and supports numerous multi-year and one-year pilot research projects. Under the ultimate goal of improving health for AI/AN, this paper describes the overarching vision and structure of CRCAIH, highlighting lessons learned in the first three years. PMID:26703683