Science.gov

Sample records for addressing sodium levels

  1. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  2. Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

  3. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than 2.4 grams per day. That equals about 1 teaspoon of table salt a day. Reading food labels can help you see how much sodium is in prepared foods. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  4. A comprehensive analysis of sodium levels in the Canadian packaged food supply

    PubMed Central

    Arcand, JoAnne; Au, Jennifer T.C.; Schermel, Alyssa; L’Abbe, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-wide sodium reduction strategies aim to reduce the cardiovascular burden of excess dietary sodium. Lowering sodium in packaged foods, which contribute the most sodium to the diet, is an important intervention to lower population intakes. Purpose To determine sodium levels in Canadian packaged foods and evaluate the proportion of foods meeting sodium benchmark targets set by Health Canada. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 7234 packaged foods available in Canada in 2010–11. Sodium values were obtained from the Nutrition Facts table. Results Overall, 51.4% of foods met one of the sodium benchmark levels: 11.5% met Phase 1, 11.1% met Phase 2, and 28.7% met 2016 goal (Phase 3) benchmarks. Food groups with the greatest proportion meeting goal benchmarks were dairy (52.0%) and breakfast cereals (42.2%). Overall 48.6% of foods did not meet any benchmark level and 25% of all products exceeded maximum levels. Meats (61.2%) and canned vegetables/legumes and legumes (29.6%) had the most products exceeding maximum levels. There was large variability in the range of sodium within and between food categories. Food categories highest in sodium (mg/serving) were dry, condensed and ready-to-serve soups (834 ± 256, 754 ± 163, and 636 ± 173, respectively), oriental noodles (783 ± 433), broth (642 ± 239), and frozen appetizers/sides (642 ± 292). Conclusion These data provide a critical baseline assessment for monitoring sodium levels in Canadian foods. While some segments of the market are making progress towards sodium reduction, all sectors need encouragement to continue to reduce the amount of sodium added during food processing. PMID:24842740

  5. 42 CFR 82.19 - How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose levels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... calculating probability of causation estimates at 42 CFR 81. In this way, claimants will receive the benefit... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose... § 82.19 How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose levels? The estimate of each annual dose will...

  6. 42 CFR 82.19 - How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose levels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... calculating probability of causation estimates at 42 CFR 81. In this way, claimants will receive the benefit... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose... § 82.19 How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose levels? The estimate of each annual dose will...

  7. 42 CFR 82.19 - How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose levels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... calculating probability of causation estimates at 42 CFR 81. In this way, claimants will receive the benefit... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose... § 82.19 How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose levels? The estimate of each annual dose will...

  8. 42 CFR 82.19 - How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose levels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... calculating probability of causation estimates at 42 CFR 81. In this way, claimants will receive the benefit... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose... § 82.19 How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose levels? The estimate of each annual dose will...

  9. Assessment of consumers' level of engagement in following recommendations for lowering sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Julio Ernesto; Schram, Grietje Anna; Arcand, Joanne; Henson, Spencer; L'abbe, Mary

    2013-10-25

    Population-wide sodium reduction strategies encourage consumer participation in lowering dietary sodium. This study aims to measure and rank consumers' level of engagement in following 23 recommendations to reduce dietary sodium and to compare variation in level of consumers' engagement by sociodemographic sub-groups. The study included 869 randomly selected participants of an online food panel survey from Ontario during November and December 2010. Rasch modelling was used for the analysis. Consumers were less likely to be engaged in 9 out of the 23 recommendations, in particular those related to avoiding foods higher in sodium and implementing sodium reduction strategies while eating in restaurants. Higher level of consumers' engagement was observed in relation to food preparation practices, including use of low sodium ingredients. In comparison to the relevant reference group, men, older individuals, with lower educational level, single, and those who do not prepare food from scratch showed an overall lower level of engagement in following recommendations to lowering dietary sodium, particularly related to avoiding processed foods. These data provide novel insights and can inform public education campaigns, and highlight the need for interventions and programs targeted at the food supply that can assist consumers in lowering their sodium intake.

  10. Assessment of consumers’ level of engagement in following recommendations for lowering sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Julio Ernesto; Schram, Grietje Anna; Arcand, JoAnne; Henson, Spencer; L'Abbe, Mary

    2014-02-01

    Population-wide sodium reduction strategies encourage consumer participation in lowering dietary sodium. This study aims to measure and rank consumers’ level of engagement in following 23 recommendations to reduce dietary sodium and to compare variation in level of consumers’ engagement by sociodemographic sub-groups. The study included 869 randomly selected participants of an online food panel survey from Ontario during November and December 2010. Rasch modelling was used for the analysis. Consumers were less likely to be engaged in 9 out of the 23 recommendations, in particular those related to avoiding foods higher in sodium and implementing sodium reduction strategies while eating in restaurants. Higher level of consumers’ engagement was observed in relation to food preparation practices, including use of low sodium ingredients. In comparison to the relevant reference group, men, older individuals, with lower educational level, single, and those who do not prepare food from scratch showed an overall lower level of engagement in following recommendations to lowering dietary sodium, particularly related to avoiding processed foods. These data provide novel insights and can inform public education campaigns, and highlight the need for interventions and programs targeted at the food supply that can assist consumers in lowering their sodium intake.

  11. Addressing Two-Level Systems Variably Coupled to an Oscillating Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, Nir; Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Almog, Ido; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-08-01

    We propose a simple method to spectrally resolve an array of identical two-level systems coupled to an inhomogeneous oscillating field. The addressing protocol uses a dressing field with a spatially dependent coupling to the atoms. We validate this scheme experimentally by realizing single-spin addressing of a linear chain of trapped ions that are separated by ˜3μm, dressed by a laser field that is resonant with the micromotion sideband of a narrow optical transition.

  12. A Graduate Level Course on Adolescent Suicide: Addressing Assessment, Intervention, and Postvention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is a growing phenomenon that is not adequately addressed in graduate education. Students and clinicians who experience a patient suicide respond negatively which in turn affects perceived competence. As a result, education in adolescent suicide is warranted. Therefore, this dissertation is a graduate level course on adolescent…

  13. Creating a three level building classification using topographic and address-based data for Manchester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M.; Chen, D.

    2014-11-01

    Buildings, the basic unit of an urban landscape, host most of its socio-economic activities and play an important role in the creation of urban land-use patterns. The spatial arrangement of different building types creates varied urban land-use clusters which can provide an insight to understand the relationships between social, economic, and living spaces. The classification of such urban clusters can help in policy-making and resource management. In many countries including the UK no national-level cadastral database containing information on individual building types exists in public domain. In this paper, we present a framework for inferring functional types of buildings based on the analysis of their form (e.g. geometrical properties, such as area and perimeter, layout) and spatial relationship from large topographic and address-based GIS database. Machine learning algorithms along with exploratory spatial analysis techniques are used to create the classification rules. The classification is extended to two further levels based on the functions (use) of buildings derived from address-based data. The developed methodology was applied to the Manchester metropolitan area using the Ordnance Survey's MasterMap®, a large-scale topographic and address-based data available for the UK.

  14. The effect of different dietary sodium levels on blood mineral concentrations and tibia mineralization in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, J; Lichtorowicz, K; Zduńczyk, Z; Juśkiewicz, J

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary levels of sodium in diets with and without sodium chloride on mineral metabolism, including blood electrolyte levels and tibia mineralization parameters, in young turkeys (to six weeks of age). The influence of diets with a low (L), medium (M) and high (H) sodium content, at 0.34, 1.34 and 2.82 g/kg respectively, was compared. The content of chloride and potassium in turkey diets (1.7 - 5.9 and 11 g/kg, respectively) was above the recommended levels. The sodium-deficient diet L decreased the serum concentrations of sodium, chloride and phosphorus, and it increased the serum levels of calcium and magnesium in turkeys, compared with groups M and H. Relative to group L, different dietary sodium levels in groups M and H contributed to a similar increase in the body weights of birds (1.06 vs. 1.46 and 1.44 kg, p < 0.001) and in the absolute (4.60 vs. 6.83 and 6.62 g, p < 0.001) and relative tibia weight (0.42 vs. 0.46 and 0.46% body weight, p = 0.031). No significant differences were found between groups with respect to the content of ash, calcium and phosphorus in tibia dry matter. Supplemental sodium increased the bone density index (from 50.6 to 68.4 and 66.3 mg/mm in groups L, M and H, respectively, p < 0.001), the maximum bending moment (from 5.27 to 7.40 and 7.33 N/mm, p = 0.002) and the minimum breaking strength of tibia (from 0.136 to 0.191 and 0.189, p = 0.002). In conclusion, our study indicates that the applied dietary treatment with a moderate sodium level (1.34 g/kg) resulted in a rate of bird growth and tibia mineralization similar to those observed with the treatment with much higher Na content (2.82 g/kg).

  15. Renal function, serum sodium level, and outcomes in hospitalized systolic heart failure patients: An analysis of the COAST study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Joo; Chae, In-Ho; Choi, Dong-Ju; Kang, Seok-Min; Yoo, Byung-Su; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Lin, Shing-Jong; Wen, Ming-Shien; Zhang, Jian; Ge, Junbo

    2016-06-01

    Both renal function and serum sodium level are well-known prognostic markers in heart failure (HF) patients. We investigated the prognostic value of the renal impairment (RI) stratified by the serum sodium level in systolic HF patients.The Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Relation with Serum Sodium Level in Asian Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure (the COAST) Study enrolled hospitalized systolic HF patients (ejection fraction<45%) in South Korea, Taiwan, and China. Twelve-month mortality was stratified according to the renal function and serum sodium level.Of 1462 enrolled patients, 716 patients (49%) had RI (GFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m), and they had higher 12-month mortality than those without RI (22.8% vs. 10.9%, P<0.001). Furthermore, 676 patients (46%) had low sodium level defined as Nasodium level (7.4%), but highest in those with RI and low sodium level (26.1%) (P<0.001). Patients with both RI and low sodium level had a 3.8-times increased hazard for 12-month mortality (HR 3.80, 95% CI 2.06-7.05), whereas the low sodium level (HR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.51-5.75) and RI (HR 3.08; 95% CI, 1.63-5.82) had similar hazard, suggesting that they might be equivalent risk factors.In hospitalized Asian HF-patients both RI and low sodium level are independent risk factors. Patients with both RI and low serum sodium level are at the highest risk and may require meticulous medical care.

  16. Risk newsboy: approach for addressing uncertainty in developing action levels and cleanup limits

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Roger; MacDonell, Margaret

    2007-07-01

    Site cleanup decisions involve developing action levels and residual limits for key contaminants, to assure health protection during the cleanup period and into the long term. Uncertainty is inherent in the toxicity information used to define these levels, based on incomplete scientific knowledge regarding dose-response relationships across various hazards and exposures at environmentally relevant levels. This problem can be addressed by applying principles used to manage uncertainty in operations research, as illustrated by the newsboy dilemma. Each day a newsboy must balance the risk of buying more papers than he can sell against the risk of not buying enough. Setting action levels and cleanup limits involves a similar concept of balancing and distributing risks and benefits in the face of uncertainty. The newsboy approach can be applied to develop health-based target concentrations for both radiological and chemical contaminants, with stakeholder input being crucial to assessing 'regret' levels. Associated tools include structured expert judgment elicitation to quantify uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, and mathematical techniques such as probabilistic inversion and iterative proportional fitting. (authors)

  17. A content addressable memory for use in CEBAF's CLAS detector level 2 triggering system

    SciTech Connect

    R.F. Hodson; D.C. Doughty, Jr.; D.C. Allgood; S.A. Campbell; W.C. Wilson; M.H. Bickley

    1996-06-01

    A collaboration of researchers from CEBAF, CNU and NASA is designing a 256-32 specialized Content Addressable Memory (CAM) for the level 2 triggering system in CEBAF's CLAS detector. These integrated circuits will find tracks and the momentum and angle of each track within 2 microseconds of an event. The custom CAM can operate as conventional memory, performing read and write operations, and can additionally perform independent byte compare operations across all words simultaneously. It is this compare feature which makes these CAMs attractive for identifying tracks passing through drift chambers by linking together segment number triplets within the CAM. Simulations have indicated that less than 16 k triplets need to be stored for each sector of the detector. This implies the level 2 triggering can be performed with 64 CAM chips per sector, or 384 total. Each data channel into a sector CAM array is buffered in a FIFO and is designed to handle aggregate data rates up to 750 Mbs for three channels (one channel/superlayer). The architecture of the level 2 trigger and details of the CAM chip design are discussed along with a performance report on our prototype CAMs

  18. Alterations in plasma sodium and potassium levels following chronic oral ingestion of lead, mercury and cadmium in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R; Chansouria, J P

    1991-08-01

    Adult male albino rats were orally administered 0, 25, 50 and 100 ppm of lead nitrate, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride for 60, 120 and 180 days. The plasma sodium levels were decreased in rats exposed to varying doses of lead and mercury up to 180 days, while animals which consumed cadmium chloride showed an increase in sodium levels. In lead and mercury treated animals, plasma potassium levels were increased up to 180 days. The levels were decreased in cadmium exposed rats. These observations suggest that chronic exposure to these heavy metals considerably influences plasma sodium and potassium levels depending on the dose and duration of exposure.

  19. Flour sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extractable protein level as a cookie flour quality indicator.

    PubMed

    Pareyt, Bram; Bruneel, Charlotte; Brijs, Kristof; Goesaert, Hans; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-01-13

    Flour characteristics of laboratory-milled flour fractions of two wheat cultivars were related to their cookie-baking performance. Cultivar (cv.) Albatros wheat milling yielded fractions with lower damaged starch (DS) and arabinoxylan levels and higher sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein (SDSEP) levels than did cv. Meunier wheat milling. During baking, cv. Albatros flour doughs spread faster and set later than their cv. Meunier counterparts and, hence, resulted in larger cookie diameters. DS levels negatively affected spread rate during both cv. Albatros (R2=0.68) and cv. Meunier (R2=0.51) cookie baking. SDSEP levels also influenced cookie quality. The use of flour heat-treated to reduce its SDSEP levels to different degrees led to reduction of the set time (R2=0.90). It was deduced that larger gluten polymer sizes limit dough spread time during baking and that, apart from DS level, the SDSEP level is an indicator for cookie flour quality.

  20. Researchers advance ideas for addressing global CO{sub 2} levels

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    For millions of years, the presence of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere was balanced with the natural storager of carbon in the solid phase. In the short term, naturally occurring CO{sub 2} was converted by photosynthesis into trees, plankton, and other plant matter. In the long term, such biomatter was transformed into coal, oil, and other fossil fuels. However, in recent decades, mankind has begun to short circuit this process by combusting ever-increasing amounts of fossil fuel and by destroying large numbers of trees and forests. Although the debate still rages as to the presence and severity of global warming, man`s actions have led to a measurable increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Taking a cue from mother nature`s carbon storage cycle, scientists have suggested an alternative process that could address a major anthropogenic source of excess CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Although only a conceptual idea at present, the storage of the oxidized carbon from coal combustion in common and abundant minerals might be possible. The process is described in this paper. 1 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle consuming water with elevated sodium sulfate levels: A herd investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hamlen, Heidi; Clark, Edward; Janzen, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), hereafter used to refer to the specific lesion of cerebrocortical necrosis, developed in 11 of 110 mature cattle on pasture in central Saskatchewan. The primary water source contained a markedly elevated level of sodium sulfate (7200 ppm). The significant clinical findings of the herd investigation included depression, ataxia, cortical blindness, dysphagia, and death. Diagnosis of PEM was confirmed by histopathological evidence of cerebrocortical and subcortical necrosis with microvascular fibrinoid necrosis predominantly in the thalamic region of three affected cattle. The histopathology of sulfate-associated PEM observed in this herd appears to be unique and its features are presented and discussed. Mean levels for serum transketolase, copper, red blood cell transketolase activity, and thiamine (vitamin B1) in all exposed young (n = 100) and mature (n = 99) animals did not reveal evidence of deficiencies. Although the blood thiamine status of the seven surviving, affected animals was not evaluated before treatment with exogenous thiamine, 199 members of the herd had blood thiamine levels within the reference range at the time of the outbreak. The outbreak resolved after cattle were moved to a water source containing acceptable levels of sodium sulfate. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17424182

  2. Serum drug level-related sodium valproate-induced hair loss

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnappa, Suresh K.; Belhekar, Mahesh N.

    2013-01-01

    Sodium valproate is a well-established treatment in epilepsy and mood disorders. Its utility is compromised by its adverse effects such as tremor, weight gain, hair loss, and liver dysfunction. Hair loss may occur when drug is used in higher dose. Drug-induced hair loss is diffused and non-scarring, which is reversible upon withdrawal. But there are no case reports showing relation between serum levels of valproate and occurrence of hair loss. So we took interest in reporting this case report. PMID:23716898

  3. Reduced high-energy phosphate levels in rat hearts. II. Effects of sodium cyanate.

    PubMed

    Allison, T B; Pieper, G M; Clayton, F C; Eliot, R S

    1976-06-01

    The effects of increased blood-oxygen affinity, due to carbamylation of hemoglobin in vivo, on aerobic metabolism in the heart were studied in rats. Adult male rats were injected intraperitoneally 3 times weekly for 10 wk with sodium cyanate (60 mg/kg). Significant derangement of blood-oxygen interaction was observed. Oxygen-dissociation curves were left shifted by 13 mmHg (35.1-21.8), and the overall deoxygenation rate (k) was reduced 41% (6.142-3.624; s(-1)); P is less than 0.001 for each parameter. Heart ATP and PCr levels were reduced (ATP: 19.4-16.7; PCr: 15.0-11.0, mum/g dry wt; P is less than 0.001 for each). In addition, glycogen levels fell (161.4-112.9, mum C6/g dry wt; P is less than 0.001). Myocardial lactate levels increased 54% (2.6-4.0, mum/g dry wt; P is less than 0.01) in the cyanate-treated group. These findings strongly suggest a hypoxia-induced activation of glycolysis as a consequence of altered oxidative metabolism in rats treated with sodium cyanate. PMID:937561

  4. Stress-induced increases in brainstem amino acid levels are prevented by chronic sodium hydrosulfide treatment.

    PubMed

    Warenycia, M W; Kombian, S B; Reiffenstein, R J

    1990-01-01

    Neurotransmitter amino acid levels were measured in select brain regions of rats and mice after chronic treatment with sublethal doses of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Brainstem aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, taurine and GABA levels increased in chronically but not acutely saline-treated rats. These increases may have been due to stress from frequent handling, and were prevented by chronic NaHS treatment (7.5 mg/kg ip every 8 hr for 3 consecutive days). In contrast, aspartate, glutamate and glutamine increased in female but not in male ICR mouse brainstems after once daily treatment with 7.0 mg/kg NaHS for 5 consecutive days. These effects of NaHS may indicate chronic low level H2S neurotoxicity. Differences between chronic and acute treatments, female and male responses, and treatment paradigms may complicate interpretations of such toxicity studies.

  5. Addressing Dropout Related Factors at the Local Level: Recommendations for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra Covington

    2008-01-01

    As educators and practitioners continue to seek effective interventions to prevent dropout, they must focus on identifying, monitoring, and addressing risk factors that are influenced by teachers (e.g., academic performance, peer and adult interactions, attendance, and behavior). As a result, teachers' roles in dropout prevention are critical.…

  6. Level IIb Neck Dissection in Oral Cavity Cancers- When Should One Address it..?

    PubMed

    Dabholkar, Jyoti Pralhad; Kapre, Neeti Madan

    2016-09-01

    Nodal metastases is the most important prognostic marker for oral cavity cancers. Nodal dissection at level IIb risks damage to the spinal accessory nerve. We aim to study positivity of level IIb lymph nodes in oral cancers. In this non-randomized prospective observational study, 65 patients of oral cavity cancers were evaluated. Appropriate surgery for primary tumour and neck dissection were undertaken. All patients underwent level II b dissection. Out of 67 neck dissections (27 elective and 40 therapeutic), 7 patients had level IIb positive for metastases (10.44 %) with no isolated or contralateral metastases at level IIb and direct correlation with level IIa nodes. There was no statistical association of level IIb positivity with stage or site of primary. Level IIb dissection can be avoided in N0 necks. For therapeutic neck dissections, Level IIb should be cleared if there are positive nodes at level IIa. PMID:27651689

  7. Long-term oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation does not improve serum albumin levels in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bossola, Maurizio; Giungi, Stefania; Tazza, Luigi; Luciani, Giovanna

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis, a frequent event in hemodialysis patients, has been implicated as a potential cause of protein-energy malnutrition. Unfortunately, correction of metabolic acidosis by means of high bicarbonate concentration in the dialysate does not seem to lead to significant changes in nutritional parameters. The project was a single-arm, open-label, 12-month pilot study at a university-based tertiary care center aimed at evaluating whether correction of metabolic acidosis through long-term oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves serum albumin levels and other nutritional parameters in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Twenty highly acidotic hemodialysis patients patients were invited to consume an oral supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (1 g, thrice daily), for 12 months. Patients were followed at baseline and every month, until month 12. At each follow-up visit, dry body weight, BMI, blood pressure, presence of edema, venous bicarbonate, and serum albumin were measured. Total lymphocyte count, fasting total cholesterol and C-reactive protein were assessed every 2 months. At baseline and at 12 months, the subjective global assessment of nutritional status and the protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance normalized to actual body weight were determined. Plasma bicarbonate level rose from 18.1 +/- 2.7 to 22.1 +/- 4.5 mmol/l after 10 months (p = 0.001). Mean serum albumin levels were 3.8 +/- 0.2 mg/dl at baseline and 3.9 +/- 0.2 at the end of the study. Repeated measure ANOVA showed that there was no significant effect of bicarbonate treatment on serum albumin levels (p = 0.29), dry weight (p = 0.1), serum total cholesterol (p = 0.97), total lymphocyte count (p = 0.69), or C-reactive protein (p = 0.85). Mean subjective global assessment score was 4.53 +/- 0.37 at baseline and 4.58 +/- 0.54 at 12 months (p = 0.1). Mean nPNA (g/kg/day) was 0.86 +/- 0.05 at baseline and 0.85 +/- 0.08 at month 12. The present study demonstrates that long

  8. Memory impairment induced by sodium fluoride is associated with changes in brain monoamine levels.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marcela; Dombrowski, Patrícia A; Losso, Estela M; Chioca, Lea R; Da Cunha, Cláudio; Andreatini, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that sodium fluoride (NaF) can impair performance in some memory tasks, such as open-field habituation and two-way active avoidance. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of NaF intake (100 ppm in drinking water for 30 days) and its short-term (15 days) withdrawal on open-field habituation and brain monoamine level. Adult male rats were allocated to three groups: tap water (NaF 1.54 ppm) for 45 days (control group); 15 days of tap water followed by NaF for 30 days; and NaF for 30 days followed by 15 days of tap water. The results showed that NaF impairs open-field habituation and increases noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the striatum, hippocampus and neocortex. Dopamine (DA) increase was restricted to the striatum. Short-term NaF withdrawal did not reverse these NaF-induced changes, and both NaF treatments led to a mild fluorosis in rat incisors. No treatment effect was seen in body weight or fluid/water consumption. These results indicate that sodium fluoride induces memory impairment that outlasts short-term NaF withdrawal (2 weeks) and may be associated with NA and 5-HT increases in discrete brain regions.

  9. Sodium Chloride Increases Aβ Levels by Suppressing Aβ Clearance in Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Wu; Cheng, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that high-salt diet is associated with cognitive decline in human and mouse. The fact that genetic factors account for less than 50% cases of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) highlights the important contribution of environmental factors, such as high-salt diet, in AD pathogenesis. However, whether and how high-salt diet fits the "amyloid cascade" hypothesis remains unexplored. Here, we show sodium chloride (NaCl) could increase Aβ levels in the medium of HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) or C99 fragment. NaCl treatment dose not affect APP level, gamma secretase level or activity. Instead, NaCl treatment suppresses the capacity of cells to clear Aβ and reduces Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) level. Finally, NaCl treated THP-1 or BV2 cells are inefficient in clearing Aβ when co-cultured with rat primary neurons. Our study suggests that high-salt diet may increase AD risk by directly modulating Aβ levels.

  10. Using Design-Based Latent Growth Curve Modeling with Cluster-Level Predictor to Address Dependency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Willson, Victor L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors compared the effects of using the true Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Model (MLGCM) with single-level regular and design-based Latent Growth Curve Models (LGCM) with or without the higher-level predictor on various criterion variables for multilevel longitudinal data. They found that random effect estimates were biased when the…

  11. Interaction of cellulase with sodium dodecyl sulfate at critical micelle concentration level.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jin; Fan, Jun-Bao; Chen, Nan; Chen, Jie; Liang, Yi

    2006-05-01

    The interactions between Trichoderma reesei cellulase and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), at critical micelle concentration level have been investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism. SDS micelles have dual interactions with cellulase: electrostatic at first and then hydrophobic interactions. When the concentration of SDS is smaller than 45.0mM, SDS micelles cause a partial loss in the hydrolytic activity together with a steep decrease in the alpha-helical content of cellulase. With further increasing the concentration of SDS, however, a re-formation of the alpha-helical structure and a partial recovery of the hydrolytic activity of cellulase induced by SDS micelles are observed. Taken together, these results indicate that SDS micelles exert dual effects on cellulase through binding as both a denaturant and a recovery reagent.

  12. What Learning Environments Best Address 21st-Century Students' Perceived Needs at the Secondary Level of Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemley, J. Brett; Schumacher, Gary; Vesey, Winona

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a recent study was to determine what learning environments best address the needs of 21st-century students at the secondary level. This study concluded that the presence of a positive 21st-century learning environment is related to student satisfaction and student-teacher relationships. While the majority of the literature on…

  13. Erythrocyte membrane gold levels after treatment with auranofin and sodium aurothiomalate.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mohammad S; Saeed, Maryiam; Taqi, Syed G

    2008-01-01

    Triethylphosphine gold-2,3,4,6-tetra-o-acetyl-L-thio-D-glucopyranoside (auranofin and sodium aurothiomalate; Myocrisin are two chemically different gold compounds used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. This study highlights the interaction, in vivo, of these drugs with erythrocyte membrane in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Fifty-eight patients with definite or classical rheumatoid arthritis were included in this study and randomly allocated to three groups as 18 patients in the Myocrisin group, 20 patients in the auranofin group, and 20 patients in the placebo group. The drugs appeared to react, in vivo, in different ways. With Myocrisin, the level of gold in erythrocyte membrane was, initially, very high and decayed exponentially afterwards, whereas auranofin produced a constant high level up to 36 weeks. The erythrocyte membrane gold level in nonsmokers was higher than that in smokers in the auranofin group, and it decreased with an increase in the number of cigarettes smoked (r = 0.836 P < 0.01); no such correlation was observed in the Myocrisin group. In a changeover study, auranofin appeared to change the nature of erythrocyte membrane after reacting with it and rendering it incapable of picking up any gold from Myocrisin. In the case of auranofin, the hemolysate membrane gold level was found to correlate with clinical improvement.

  14. Sodium salicylate reduces the level of GABAB receptors in the rat's inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Butt, S; Ashraf, F; Porter, L A; Zhang, H

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that sodium salicylate (SS) can cause hearing abnormalities through affecting the central auditory system. In order to understand central effects of the drug, we examined how a single intraperitoneal injection of the drug changed the level of subunits of the type-B γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAB receptor) in the rat's inferior colliculus (IC). Immunohistochemical and western blotting experiments were conducted three hours following a drug injection, as previous studies indicated that a tinnitus-like behavior could be reliably induced in rats within this time period. Results revealed that both subunits of the receptor, GABABR1 and GABABR2, reduced their level over the entire area of the IC. Such a reduction was observed in both cell body and neuropil regions. In contrast, no changes were observed in other brain structures such as the cerebellum. Thus, a coincidence existed between a structure-specific reduction in the level of GABAB receptor subunits in the IC and the presence of a tinnitus-like behavior. This coincidence likely suggests that a reduction in the level of GABAB receptor subunits was involved in the generation of a tinnitus-like behavior and/or used by the nervous system to restore normal hearing following application of SS. PMID:26705739

  15. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  16. Oral fluoride levels 1 h after use of a sodium fluoride rinse: effect of sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Gerald L; Schumacher, Gary E; Chow, Laurence C; Tenuta, Livia M A

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the concentration of free fluoride in oral fluids is an important goal in the use of topical fluoride agents. Although sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a common dentifrice ingredient, the influence of this ion on plaque fluid and salivary fluid fluoride has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SLS on these parameters and to examine the effect of this ion on total (or whole) plaque fluoride, an important source of plaque fluid fluoride after a sufficient interval following fluoride administration, and on total salivary fluoride, a parameter often used as a surrogate measure of salivary fluid fluoride. Ten subjects accumulated plaque for 48 h before rinsing with a 12 mmol/l NaF (228 µg/g F) rinse containing or not containing 0.5% (w/w) SLS. SLS had no statistically significant effect on total plaque and total saliva fluoride but significantly increased salivary fluid and plaque fluid fluoride (by 147 and 205%, respectively). These results suggest that the nonfluoride components of topical agents can be manipulated to improve the fluoride release characteristics from oral fluoride reservoirs and that statistically significant change may be observed in plaque fluid and salivary fluid fluoride concentrations that may not be observed in total plaque and total saliva fluoride concentrations.

  17. Activities for Differentiated Instruction Addressing All Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy and Eight Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C., Ed.; Lord, Linda Hurley, Ed.

    This manuscript contains 13 curriculum units designed to enhance differentiated instruction for learners with special needs from grades 1-12, including gifted students. It integrates Benjamin S. Bloom's levels of cognitive understanding with Howard Gardner's eight domains of intelligence to provide a framework for individualized instruction. Each…

  18. Addressing Item-Level Missing Data: A Comparison of Proration and Full Information Maximum Likelihood Estimation.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Gina L; Enders, Craig K; Ruehlman, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Often when participants have missing scores on one or more of the items comprising a scale, researchers compute prorated scale scores by averaging the available items. Methodologists have cautioned that proration may make strict assumptions about the mean and covariance structures of the items comprising the scale (Schafer & Graham, 2002 ; Graham, 2009 ; Enders, 2010 ). We investigated proration empirically and found that it resulted in bias even under a missing completely at random (MCAR) mechanism. To encourage researchers to forgo proration, we describe a full information maximum likelihood (FIML) approach to item-level missing data handling that mitigates the loss in power due to missing scale scores and utilizes the available item-level data without altering the substantive analysis. Specifically, we propose treating the scale score as missing whenever one or more of the items are missing and incorporating items as auxiliary variables. Our simulations suggest that item-level missing data handling drastically increases power relative to scale-level missing data handling. These results have important practical implications, especially when recruiting more participants is prohibitively difficult or expensive. Finally, we illustrate the proposed method with data from an online chronic pain management program. PMID:26610249

  19. How Many Vibrational Levels does the Ground Electronic State of the Sodium Dimer Support?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajigeorgiou, Photos G.

    2013-06-01

    Over a decade ago, Raman molecular beam experiments were employed to detect the asymptotic vibrational levels of the ground electronic state of the sodium dimer, and identified υ = 65 as the highest bound vibrational level. This result is in contrast to the recent prediction that the vibrational index at dissociation is υ{_D} = 66.9(2). An attempt is made to resolve this issue, using a direct potential fitting method that considers highly precise term values and a potential energy model that takes full account of the accurately known long-range dispersion energy coefficients in extrapolating the potential reliably to the dissociation asymptote. The principal end-product of this procedure, the complete potential energy curve, is employed to furnish accurate vibrational energies, rotational constants, and centrifugal distortion constants for all bound vibrational levels. These are then transformed appropriately according to Le Roy-Bernstein long-range theory to yield an independent WKB estimate of the vibrational index at dissociation. A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, M. Elbs, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 211-220 (1999). P. G. Hajigeorgiou, J. Mol. Spectrosc. in press (2013).

  20. Subchronic and reproductive/developmental (screening level) toxicity of complexation products of iron trichloride and sodium tartrate (FemTA).

    PubMed

    Lynch, Barry; Emmen, Harry; van Otterdijk, Francois; Lau, Annette

    2013-09-01

    A complexation/reaction product, termed FemTA, of sodium tartrate [D(-)- and L(+)-tartaric acid and mesotartaric acid], sodium hydroxide, and iron trichloride may have use as an anticaking agent in salt preparations. FemTA is composed of about 4% sodium tartrate, approximately 10% mesotartaric acid, approximately 7% chloride, approximately 4% iron, approximately 7% sodium, approximately 0.3% sodium oxalate, and approximately 65% water. FemTA was tested in a 90-d oral toxicity study, which included a screening level reproductive/developmental toxicity phase, in Harlan Wistar rats. FemTA was administered by oral gavage at 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight/d prior to and during mating, or about 20, 40, or 80 mg of iron/kg body weight/d, such that males received 90/91 d of treatment and females 104 to 109 d. Treatment was associated with inflammatory lesions of the lower GI tract at the mid- and high-dose levels, increased liver and kidney weights, increased serum bile acids and blood urea nitrogen, decreased chloride, and changes to hematological parameters consistent with inflammation. The effects were considered the result of iron overload. There were no effects on reproductive/developmental toxicity parameters. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), based on gastrointestinal tract effects was 500 mg/kg body weight/d. The NOAEL for reproductive/developmental toxicity was 2000 mg/kg body weight/d, the highest dose tested.

  1. USDA monitors levels of added sodium in processed and prepared foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective is to provide a progress report for efforts by the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) to monitor sodium in processed and prepared foods frequently consumed by the U.S. population. Recent concerns by the U.S. public health community about the intake of sodium by Americans have led ARS, USD...

  2. Plasma glucose, lactate, sodium, and potassium levels in children hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Tõnisson, Mailis; Tillmann, Vallo; Kuudeberg, Anne; Väli, Marika

    2010-09-01

    The aim of our research was to study prevalence of changes in plasma levels of lactate, potassium, glucose, and sodium in relation to alcohol concentration in children hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication (AAI). Data from 194 under 18-year-old children hospitalized to the two only children's hospital in Estonia over a 2-year period were analyzed. The pediatrician on call filled in a special form on the clinical symptoms of AAI; a blood sample was drawn for biochemical tests, and a urine sample taken to exclude narcotic intoxication. The most common finding was hyperlactinemia occurring in 66% of the patients (n=128) followed by hypokalemia (<3.5 mmol/L) in 50% (n=97), and glucose above of reference value (>6.1 mmol/L) in 40.2% of the children (n=78). Hypernatremia was present in five children. In conclusion, hyperlactinemia, hypokalemia, and glucose levels above of reference value are common biochemical findings in children hospitalized with acute AAI. PMID:20846615

  3. Demons versus Level-Set motion registration for coronary 18F-sodium fluoride PET

    PubMed Central

    Rubeaux, Mathieu; Joshi, Nikhil; Dweck, Marc R.; Fletcher, Alison; Motwani, Manish; Thomson, Louise E.; Germano, Guido; Dey, Damini; Berman, Daniel S.; Newby, David E.; Slomka, Piotr J.

    2016-01-01

    Ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaques commonly cause acute myocardial infarction. It has been recently shown that active microcalcification in the coronary arteries, one of the features that characterizes vulnerable plaques at risk of rupture, can be imaged using cardiac gated 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) PET. We have shown in previous work that a motion correction technique applied to cardiac-gated 18F-NaF PET images can enhance image quality and improve uptake estimates. In this study, we further investigated the applicability of different algorithms for registration of the coronary artery PET images. In particular, we aimed to compare demons vs. level-set nonlinear registration techniques applied for the correction of cardiac motion in coronary 18F-NaF PET. To this end, fifteen patients underwent 18F-NaF PET and prospective coronary CT angiography (CCTA). PET data were reconstructed in 10 ECG gated bins; subsequently these gated bins were registered using demons and level-set methods guided by the extracted coronary arteries from CCTA, to eliminate the effect of cardiac motion on PET images. Noise levels, target-to-background ratios (TBR) and global motion were compared to assess image quality. Compared to the reference standard of using only diastolic PET image (25% of the counts from PET acquisition), cardiac motion registration using either level-set or demons techniques almost halved image noise due to the use of counts from the full PET acquisition and increased TBR difference between 18F-NaF positive and negative lesions. The demons method produces smoother deformation fields, exhibiting no singularities (which reflects how physically plausible the registration deformation is), as compared to the level-set method, which presents between 4 and 8% of singularities, depending on the coronary artery considered. In conclusion, the demons method produces smoother motion fields as compared to the level-set method, with a motion that is physiologically

  4. Demons versus level-set motion registration for coronary 18F-sodium fluoride PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubeaux, Mathieu; Joshi, Nikhil; Dweck, Marc R.; Fletcher, Alison; Motwani, Manish; Thomson, Louise E.; Germano, Guido; Dey, Damini; Berman, Daniel S.; Newby, David E.; Slomka, Piotr J.

    2016-03-01

    Ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaques commonly cause acute myocardial infarction. It has been recently shown that active microcalcification in the coronary arteries, one of the features that characterizes vulnerable plaques at risk of rupture, can be imaged using cardiac gated 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) PET. We have shown in previous work that a motion correction technique applied to cardiac-gated 18F-NaF PET images can enhance image quality and improve uptake estimates. In this study, we further investigated the applicability of different algorithms for registration of the coronary artery PET images. In particular, we aimed to compare demons vs. level-set nonlinear registration techniques applied for the correction of cardiac motion in coronary 18F-NaF PET. To this end, fifteen patients underwent 18F-NaF PET and prospective coronary CT angiography (CCTA). PET data were reconstructed in 10 ECG gated bins; subsequently these gated bins were registered using demons and level-set methods guided by the extracted coronary arteries from CCTA, to eliminate the effect of cardiac motion on PET images. Noise levels, target-to-background ratios (TBR) and global motion were compared to assess image quality. Compared to the reference standard of using only diastolic PET image (25% of the counts from PET acquisition), cardiac motion registration using either level-set or demons techniques almost halved image noise due to the use of counts from the full PET acquisition and increased TBR difference between 18F-NaF positive and negative lesions. The demons method produces smoother deformation fields, exhibiting no singularities (which reflects how physically plausible the registration deformation is), as compared to the level-set method, which presents between 4 and 8% of singularities, depending on the coronary artery considered. In conclusion, the demons method produces smoother motion fields as compared to the level-set method, with a motion that is physiologically

  5. Transuranium removal from Hanford high level waste simulants using sodium permanganate and calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmarth, W. R.; Rosencrance, S. W.; Nash, C. A.; Fonduer, F. F.; DiPrete, D. P.; DiPrete, C. C.

    2000-07-01

    Plutonium and americium are present in the Hanford high level liquid waste complexant concentrate (CC) due to the presence of complexing agents including di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA), tributylphosphate (TBP), hydroxyethylene diamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, glycolic acid, and sodium gluconate. The transuranic concentrations approach 600 nCi/g and require processing prior to encapsulation into low activity glass. BNFL's (British Nuclear Fuels Limited's) original process was a ferric co-precipitation method based on earlier investigations by Herting and Orth, et al. Furthermore, flocculation and precipitation are widely used for clarification in municipal water treatment. Co-precipitation of Np, Am, and Pu with ferric hydroxide is also used within an analytical method for the sum of those analytes. Tests to evaluate BNFL's original precipitation process indicated the measured decontamination factors (DFs) and filter fluxes were too low. Therefore, an evaluation of alternative precipitation agents to replace ferric ion was undertaken. Agents tested included various transition metals, lanthanide elements, uranium species, calcium, strontium, and permanganate.

  6. STUDIES OF POTENTIAL INHIBITORS OF SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE SCALES IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE EVAPORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, B; Lawrence Oji, L; Terri Fellinger, T; David Hobbs, D; Nilesh Badheka, N

    2008-02-27

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 underground storage tanks used to store High Level Waste (HLW). The tank space in these tanks must be managed to support the continued operation of key facilities. The reduction of the tank volumes in these tanks are accomplished through the use of three atmospheric pressure HLW evaporators. For a decade, evaporation of highly alkaline HLW containing aluminum and silicates has produced sodium aluminosilicate scales causing both operation and criticality hazards in the 2H Evaporator System. Segregation of aluminum-rich wastes from silicate-rich wastes minimizes the amount of scale produced and reduces cleaning expenses, but does not eliminate the scaling nor increases operation flexibility in waste process. Similar issues have affected the aluminum refining industry for many decades. Over the past several years, successful commercial products have been identified to eliminate aluminosilicate fouling in the aluminum industry, but have not been utilized in a nuclear environment. Laboratory quantities of three proprietary aluminosilicate scale inhibitors have been produced and been shown to prevent formation of scales. SRNL has been actively testing these potential inhibitors to examine their radiation stability, radiolytic degradation behaviors, and downstream impacts to determine their viability within the HLW system. One of the tested polymers successfully meets the established criteria for application in the nuclear environment. This paper will describe a summary of the methodology used to prioritize laboratory testing protocols based on potential impacts/risks identified for inhibitor deployment at SRS.

  7. Ingestion of sodium citrate suppresses aldosterone level in blood at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Oöpik, Vahur; Timpmann, Saima; Hackney, Anthony C; Kadak, Kadri; Medijainen, Luule; Karelson, Kalle

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the ingestion of sodium citrate (CIT) alters blood levels of fluid and electrolyte regulatory hormones at rest and during exercise. Using a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design, 13 young, male well-trained runners performed continuous incremental running tests to volitional exhaustion on a treadmill 2 h after ingestion of 0.5 g.kg-1 body mass of CIT or placebo (PLC) in 1000 mL of solution. These trials were separated by 2 weeks. Baseline (before ingestion) aldosterone concentration did not differ between the 2 trials; however, it was 36.5% (p = 0.003) lower in the CIT trial compared with the PLC trial before the running test (i.e., after ingestion). The extent of the running-induced increase in aldosterone was 33% (p = 0.009) smaller in the CIT trial. There were no between-trial differences in the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, or renin activity at any stage of the study. However, a greater relative increase in plasma volume (mean +/- SD, 6.41% +/- 3.78% vs. 4.08% +/- 3.33%; p = 0.042) was observed after administering the CIT compared with the PLC drink. Serum Na+ concentration increased (by 3.1 +/- 1.2 mmol.L-1; p < 0.0001) after ingestion of the CIT but not the PLC drink. A higher Na+ level was observed in the CIT trial than in the PLC trial (142.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 139.3 +/- 1.4 mmol.L-1, p = 0.00001) after completion of the run. In conclusion, pre-exercise ingestion of CIT induces a decrease in serum aldosterone concentration in the resting condition and a blunting of the aldosterone response during incremental running exercise to volitional exhaustion. The observed effect of CIT on the serum aldosterone level may be mediated by an acute increase in plasma volume and serum Na+ concentration alterations.

  8. High potassium intake blunts the effect of elevated sodium intake on blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Lamêgo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Machado, Rebeca Caldeira; Forechi, Ludimila; Molina, Maria del Carmem Bisi; Mill, José Geraldo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary potassium on the sodium effect on blood pressure (BP) in the general population and the adherence of current recommendations for sodium and potassium intake. An overnight (12-hour) urine sample was collected in a population-based study to investigate cardiovascular risk. A sub-sample of 1285 subjects (age range, 25-64 years) free from any medication interfering with BP or potassium excretion was studied. Of the participants, 86.0% consumed over 6 g of salt/day and 87.7% less than the recommended intake of potassium (4.7 g). Potassium excretion and the sodium to potassium ratio were significantly related to systolic and diastolic BP only in subjects consuming more than 6 g/day of salt. Subjects in the highest sodium to potassium ratio quartile (surrogate of unhealthy diet) presented 8 mm Hg and 7 mm Hg higher values of systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, when compared with the first quartile, while individuals in the fourth quartile of urinary potassium excretion (healthier diet) showed 6 mm Hg and 4 mm Hg lower systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, compared with the first quartile. Our data indicate that when people have an increased intake of potassium, high intake of sodium is not associated with higher BP.

  9. The use of content addressable memories in the level 2 trigger for the CLAS detector at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.C. Jr.; Hodson, R.F.; Allgood, D.; Bickley, M.; Campbell, S.; Putnam, T.; Spivak, R.; Lemon, S.; Wilson, W.C.

    1996-02-01

    The LEVEL 2 trigger in the CLAS detector will find tracks and associate a momentum and angle with each track within 2 {micro}s after the event. This is done through a hierarchical track finding design in which track segments are found in each drift chamber axial superlayer. An array of 384 custom content addressable (or associative) memories (CAMs) uses independent subfield matching to link these track segments into roads. The track parameters corresponding to each found road are then looked up in a separate memory. The authors present the overall architecture of the LEVEL 2 trigger, the details of how the CAM chip links tracks segments to find roads, and report on the performance of the prototype CAM chips.

  10. Concept for polychromatic laser guide stars: one-photon excitation of the 4P3/2 level of a sodium atom.

    PubMed

    Pique, Jean-Paul; Moldovan, Ioana Cristina; Fesquet, Vincent

    2006-11-01

    One challenge for polychromatic laser guide stars is to create a sufficiently intense source in the UV. The flux required for the measurement of differential tip-tilt is the main issue that we address. We describe a model that has been validated using on-sky data. We present a method that excites the 4P3/2 sodium level using a one-photon excitation at 330 nm. It is more efficient than the two-photon excitation previously suggested since its power slope flux is 3 x 10(4) photons/s/m2/W instead of 1.3 x 10(3) photons/s/m2/W. This method is very promising both in terms of flux and system simplicity.

  11. PERCHLORATE LEVELS IN SAMPLES OF SODIUM NITRATE FERTILIZER DERIVED FROM CHILEAN CALICHE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paleogeochemical deposits in northern Chile are a rich source of naturally occurring sodium nitrate. These caliche ores are mined and processed to isolate NaNO3 (16-0-0) for use in fertilizers. Coincidentally, these very same deposits are a natural soure of perchlorate anion (C...

  12. Effects of repeated-low level sodium chlorate administration on ruminal and fecal coliforms in sheep.

    PubMed

    Arzola, Claudio; Copado, Ramon; Epps, Sharon V R P; Rodriguez-Almeida, Felipe; Ruiz-Barrera, Oscar; Rodriguez-Muela, Carlos; Corral-Luna, Agustin; Castillo-Castillo, Yamicela; Diaz-Plascencia, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral sodium chlorate administration on reducing total coliform populations in ewes. A 30% sodium chlorate product or a sodium chloride placebo was administered to twelve lactating Dorper X Blackbelly or Pelibuey crossbred ewes averaging 65 kg body weight. The ewes were adapted to diet and management. Ewes were randomly assigned (4/treatment) to one of three treatments which were administered twice daily by oral gavage for five consecutive days: a control (TC) consisting of 3 g sodium chloride/animal/d, a T3 treatment consisting of 1.8 g of sodium chlorate/animal/d, and a T9 treatment consisting of 5.4 g sodium chlorate/animal/d; the latter was intended to approximate a lowest known effective dose. Ruminal samples collected by stomach tube and freshly voided fecal samples were collected daily beginning 3 days before treatment initiation and for 6 days thereafter. Contents were cultured quantitatively to enumerate total coliforms. There were no significant differences in total coliform numbers (log10 cfu/g) in the feces between treatments (P = 0.832). There were differences (P < 0.02) in ruminal coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) between treatments (4.1, 4.3 and 5.0 log10/mL contents in TC, T3 and T9 Treatments, respectively) which tended to increase from the beginning of treatment until the 5th day of treatment (P < 0.05). Overall, we did not obtain the expected results with oral administration of sodium chloride at the applied doses. By comparing the trends in coliform populations in the rumen contents in all treatments, there was an increase over the days. The opposite trend occurred in the feces, due mainly to differences among rumen contents and feces in ewes administered the T9 treatment (P = 0.06). These results suggest that the low chlorate doses used here were suboptimal for the control of coliforms in the gastrointestinal tract of ewes.

  13. [Electron probe microanalysis of potassium, sodium, and chlorine levels in the cardiomyocyte cytoplasm during acute ischemia].

    PubMed

    Pogorelov, A G; Pogorelova, V N; Pogorelova, M A

    2010-01-01

    Electron probe microanalysis was applied to determine cytoplasmic elemental (K, Na, Cl) concentrations in cardiac cells of the rat (Wistar). Potassium, sodium and chlorine contents were measured in papillary muscle myocytes of the rat heart perfused by the Langendorff's procedure. Ischemic depletion was created by perfusion with deeply deoxygenated Tirode's solution in the absence of glucose. It was found that the initial phase of acute ischemia is characterized by the potassium deficiency and the accumulation of sodium and chlorine in cardiac myocytes. It should be noted that changes in the total charge of the main intracellular cations (K+, Na+) do not compensate for the increased chlorine concentration. This result can be accounted for by the appearance of ionic (K+ and Cl-) transport coupled with the removal of lactate anions produced in cardiomyocytes during anaerobic glycolysis. PMID:21033355

  14. [Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide level and urinary fractional sodium excretion (FENa) in patients with chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Czekalski, S

    1990-12-01

    The aim of the study was the search for the correlation between the degree of impairment renal function (measured by creatinine clearance) and plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and urinary fractional sodium excretion (FENa) in patients with chronic renal diseases. Forty seven patients were studied: 10 with diminished renal reserve (group I), 10 with renal insufficiency (group II), 27 with renal failure (group III) and 10 chronically haemodialysed before dialysis (group IV). Control group consisted of 27 healthy persons. All patients and controls were on the diet containing 100-120 mmol sodium daily. Plasma ANP levels were significantly higher in all groups of patients (I--16.5 +/- 5.7; II--40.7 +/- 18.6; III--86.2 +/- 49.9; IV--196.1 +/- 51.3 pmol/l, respectively) than in controls (10.8 +/- 6.0 pmol/l). A significant correlation (r = 0.85; p less than 0.01) between plasma ANP concentration and FENa was found when the patients from all groups were pooled together. The results confirm the important role of ANP in the adaptation of reduced kidney mass to the excretion of sodium load.

  15. The utility and accuracy of four equations in predicting sodium levels in dysnatremic patients

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Ramy Magdy; Yang, Wan-Ting; Lopez, Eduardo A.; Riad, Joseph Nabil; Wilson, James

    2016-01-01

    Background Improper correction of hyponatremia can cause severe complications, including osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS). The Adrogué–Madias equation (AM), the Barsoum–Levine (BL) equation, the Electrolyte Free Water Clearance (EFWC) equation and the Nguyen–Kurtz (NK) equation are four derived equations based on the empirically derived Edelman equation for predicting sodium at a later time (Na2) from a known starting sodium (Na1), fluid/electrolyte composition and input and output volumes. Methods Our retrospective study included 43 data points from 31 mostly hyponatremic patients. We calculated Na2 based on five sets of rules that were progressively more precisely calculated. Sets A–D included all 31 patients and 43 data points and set E was based on 15 patients and 27 data points. Results The root mean square error was calculated and found to be between 4.79 and 6.37 mmol/L (mEq/L) for all sets. Bland–Altman analysis showed high variability and discrepancies between the predicted and actual Na2. Conclusions Like similar studies in hypernatremic patients, the data suggest that hyponatremic modeling equations are not reliably accurate in predicting Na2 from Na1 and available clinical data regarding sodium, potassium and fluid balance over longer time frames (12–30 h). Our study was retrospective and was done in an inpatient setting and thus was subject to limitations and laboratory measurement variability, but showed that all four equations are not able to reliably predict Na2 from Na1 and inputs across a 12–30 h period. PMID:27478591

  16. Enhancement on reactive oxygen species and COX-1 mRNA levels modulate the vascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside in denuded mice aorta.

    PubMed

    Kangussu, Lucas M; Olivon, Vania C; Arifa, Raquel D do N; Araújo, Natália; Reis, Daniela; Assis, Marieta T de A; Soriani, Frederico M; de Souza, Daniele da G; Bendhack, Lusiane M; Bonaventura, Daniella

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the modulation of nitric oxide/reactive oxygen species in sodium nitroprusside relaxation in mice aorta. Sodium nitroprusside induced relaxation in endothelium-intact (e+) and endothelium-denuded (e-) aortas with greater potency in e+ than in e-. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor did not alter the sodium nitroprusside relaxation in both e+ and e- aortas. However, the superoxide anion scavenger abolished the difference in sodium nitroprusside potency between e+ and e-. Sodium nitroprusside reduced dihydroethidium-derived fluorescent products in both groups; however, the difference between intact and denuded mice aorta remains. The glutathione levels and basal antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase were reduced in e- aorta when compared with e+, and these values were not altered by sodium nitroprusside. Confirming these results, the levels of lipid peroxidation in e+ were significantly lower when compared to e-, and these values were not altered by sodium nitroprusside. The sodium nitroprusside potency in the presence of a nonselective COX inhibitor or the EP/DP prostaglandin receptor antagonist in endothelium denuded was similar to that in intact mice aorta. Based on these results, we performed the COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA level studies, and in denuded mice aorta, there was an upregulation in COX-1 mRNA levels. Taken together, our findings show that in the absence of endothelium, there is an enhancement of superoxide levels, leading to GSH consumption and higher levels of lipid peroxidation, showing an intense redox status. Furthermore, in denuded mice aorta, there was an upregulation of COX-1 mRNA expression, leading to vasoconstrictor prostanoids synthesis. The interaction of vasoconstrictor prostanoids with its receptors EP/DP negatively modulates the vascular relaxation induced by SNP in denuded mice aorta. PMID:25619310

  17. Evaluation of community level interventions to address social and structural determinants of health: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Martin; Hayes, Richard; Moore, Derek; Petticrew, Mark; Clow, Angela; Schmidt, Elena; Draper, Alizon; Lock, Karen; Lynch, Rebecca; Renton, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    organisational levels targeted by the intervention, and secondly, a degree of flexibility or tailoring of the intervention, makes this trial potentially very useful in providing evidence of the types of activities that can be used to address chronic health problems in communities suffering from multiple deprivation. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68175121 PMID:19558712

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED SODIUM TITANATE FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs D. T.; Poirier, M. R.; Barnes, M. J.; Stallings, M. E.; Nyman, M. D.

    2005-11-22

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes planned at SRS include caustic side solvent extraction, for {sup 137}Cs removal, and sorption of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST). The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu. This paper describes recent results to produce an improved sodium titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and capacity for {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the baseline MST material.

  19. Recovery Act - Demonstration of Sodium Ion Battery for Grid Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, Ted; Whitacre, Jay; Weber, Eric; Eshoo, Michael; Noland, James; Blackwood, David; Campbell, Williams; Sheen, Eric; Spears, Christopher; Smith, Christopher

    2012-08-31

    Aquion Energy received a $5.179 million cooperative research agreement under the Department of Energy's Smart Grid Demonstration Program Demonstration of Promising Energy Storage Technologies (Program Area 2.5) of FOA DE-FOE-0000036. The main objective of this project was to demonstrate Aquion's low cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature sodium ion energy storage device. The centerpiece of the technology is a novel hybrid energy storage chemistry that has been proven in a laboratory environment. The objective was to translate these groundbreaking results from the small-batch, small-cell test environment to the pilot scale to enable significant numbers of multiple ampere-hour cells to be manufactured and assembled into test batteries. Aquion developed a proof of concept demonstration unit that showed similar performance and major cost improvement over existing technologies. Beyond minimizing cell and system cost, Aquion built a technology that is safe, environmentally benign and durable over many thousands of cycles as used in a variety of grid support roles.

  20. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  1. Team-level approaches to addressing disordered eating: a qualitative study of two female collegiate cross country running teams.

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Goldman, Roberta E; Kubzansky, Laura D; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to consider strategies used by two similarly competitive female collegiate cross country running teams to address teammate eating behaviors perceived to be unhealthy and problematic. Data were obtained through semi-structured individual interviews with team members (n = 35). Teams differed in how they addressed problematic eating behaviors: members of one team described a collaborative, positive, team-focused and direct approach, while the most commonly described strategy for the other team was to do nothing. Possible contextual and compositional reasons for between-team differences and implications for prevention and detection of disordered eating among female athletes are discussed.

  2. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets as an alternative to sodium hypochlorite for the routine treatment of drinking water at the household level.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas; Edmondson, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Household water treatment using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been recognized as a cost-effective means of reducing the heavy burden of diarrhea and other waterborne diseases, especially among populations without access to improved water supplies. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), which is widely used in emergencies, is an alternative source of chlorine that may present certain advantages over NaOCl for household-based interventions in development settings. We summarize the basic chemistry and possible benefits of NaDCC, and review the available literature concerning its safety and regulatory treatment and microbiological effectiveness. We review the evidence concerning NaDCC in field studies, including microbiological performance and health outcomes. Finally, we examine studies and data to compare NaDCC with NaOCl in terms of compliance, acceptability, affordability and sustainability, and suggest areas for further research. PMID:16387550

  3. A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

  4. Glycine betaine accumulation, ionic and water relations of red-beet at contrasting levels of sodium supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Levine, L. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Exposure of plants to sodium (Na) and salinity may increase glycine betaine accumulation in tissues. To study this, red-beet cvs. Scarlet Supreme and Ruby Queen, were grown for 42 days in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique with 0.25 mmol/L K and either 4.75 mmol/L (control) or 54.75 mmol/L (saline) Na (as NaCl). Plants were harvested at weekly intervals and measurements were taken on leaf water relations, leaf photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll levels, glycine betaine levels, and tissue elemental composition. Glycine betaine accumulation increased under salinity and this accumulation correlated with higher tissue levels of Na in both cultivars. Na accounted for 80 to 90% of the total cation uptake under the saline treatment. At final harvest (42 days), K concentrations in laminae ranged from approximately 65-95 micromoles g-1 dry matter (DM), whereas Na in shoot tissue ranged from approximately 3000-4000 micromoles g-1. Leaf sap osmotic potential at full turgor [psi(s100)] increased as lamina Na content increased. Glycine betaine levels of leaf laminae showed a linear relationship with leaf sap [psi(s100)]. Chlorophyll levels, leaf photosynthetic rates, and chlorophyll fluorescence were not affected by Na levels. These results suggest that the metabolic tolerance to high levels of tissue Na in red-beet could be due to its ability to synthesize and regulate glycine betaine production, and to control partitioning of Na and glycine betaine between the vacuole and the cytoplasm.

  5. Highly improved hydration level sensing properties of copper oxide films with sodium and potassium doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Bünyamin; Kaya, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    In this study, un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped nanostructured CuO films were successfully synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Structural properties of the CuO films were affected from doping. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of polycrystalline CuO films with no secondary phases. Furthermore, doping affected the crystal structure of the samples. The optimum conductivity values for both Na and K were obtained at 4 M% doping concentrations. The comparative hydration level sensing properties of the un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped CuO nanoparticles were also investigated. A significant enhancement in hydration level sensing properties was observed for both 4 M% Na and K-doped CuO films for all concentration levels. Detailed discussions were reported in the study regarding atomic radii, crystalline structure, and conductivity.

  6. [Some clinical aspects of sodium homeostasis disorders].

    PubMed

    Sulyok, Endre

    2013-09-22

    In this review three major issues of sodium homeostasis are addressed. Specifically, volume-dependent (salt-sensitive) hypertension, sodium chloride content of maintenance fluid and clinical evaluation of hyponatremia are discussed. Regarding volume-dependent hypertension the endocrine/paracrine systems mediating renal sodium retention, the relationship between salt intake, plasma sodium levels and blood pressure, as well as data on the dissociation of sodium and volume regulation are presented. The concept of perinatal programming of salt-preference is also mentioned. Some theoretical and practical aspects of fluid therapy are summarized with particular reference to using hypotonic sodium chloride solution for maintenance fluid as opposed to the currently proposed isotonic sodium chloride solution. Furthermore, the incidence, the aetiological classification and central nervous system complications of hyponatremia are presented, too. In addition, clinical and pathophysical features of hyponatremic encephalophathy and osmotic demyelinisation are given. The adaptive reactions of the brain to hypotonic stress are also described with particular emphasis on the role of brain-specific water channel proteins (aquaporin-4) and the benzamil-inhibitable sodium channels. In view of the outmost clinical significance of hyponatremia, the principles of efficient and safe therapeutic approaches are outlined. PMID:24036017

  7. [Some clinical aspects of sodium homeostasis disorders].

    PubMed

    Sulyok, Endre

    2013-09-22

    In this review three major issues of sodium homeostasis are addressed. Specifically, volume-dependent (salt-sensitive) hypertension, sodium chloride content of maintenance fluid and clinical evaluation of hyponatremia are discussed. Regarding volume-dependent hypertension the endocrine/paracrine systems mediating renal sodium retention, the relationship between salt intake, plasma sodium levels and blood pressure, as well as data on the dissociation of sodium and volume regulation are presented. The concept of perinatal programming of salt-preference is also mentioned. Some theoretical and practical aspects of fluid therapy are summarized with particular reference to using hypotonic sodium chloride solution for maintenance fluid as opposed to the currently proposed isotonic sodium chloride solution. Furthermore, the incidence, the aetiological classification and central nervous system complications of hyponatremia are presented, too. In addition, clinical and pathophysical features of hyponatremic encephalophathy and osmotic demyelinisation are given. The adaptive reactions of the brain to hypotonic stress are also described with particular emphasis on the role of brain-specific water channel proteins (aquaporin-4) and the benzamil-inhibitable sodium channels. In view of the outmost clinical significance of hyponatremia, the principles of efficient and safe therapeutic approaches are outlined.

  8. Influence of copper exposure on whole-body sodium levels in larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Van Genderen, Eric J; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2008-06-01

    Because metals such as Cu inhibit ionoregulation, the increased energy requirement to counter passive diffusive losses in soft water may translate into increased sensitivity to metal exposure. We developed a method to determine whole-body Na concentrations of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as a physiological indicator of health. This method was used to characterize net rates of Na flux from fish exposed to Cu in the presence of varying levels of hardness and alkalinity. In extremely soft waters (hardness, < or = 10 mg/L as CaCO(3)), larval fish experienced rates of net whole-body Na loss greater than what has been observed in juvenile and adult fish when exposed to Cu at concentrations near the median lethal concentration. Elevating hardness (>10 mg/L as CaCO(3)), however, decreased the apparent kinetics of Na loss caused by Cu exposure, which suggests the process was related to uncompetitive inhibition of Cu by hardness cations. Although the percentage of Na loss associated with mortality in larval fish was similar to that in juvenile and adult fish (30% loss of exchangeable Na pool), larvae reached this level within 12 h of exposure, and it was not representative of the onset of mortality. These results suggested that ionoregulatory measures by themselves are not a conclusive metric for Cu regulation using larval fish. To account for increased sensitivity in low-hardness waters in the development of biotic ligand models, the critical amount of Cu associated with the gill to cause mortality (i.e., the median lethal accumulation value) should be characterized more appropriately as a function of hardness below 20 mg/L as CaCO(3).

  9. [Effects of local treatment with sodium fluoride mouthrinse on peroxidase and hypothiocyanite saliva levels in adolescent]/.

    PubMed

    Azcurra, A I; Calamari, S E; Yankilevich, E R; Battellino, L J; Cattoni, S T; Colantonio, G

    1997-01-01

    The present work describes and analyzes the results of a randomized clinical trial on adolescents (age 18.2 +/- 0.6) carried out in order to evaluate the effects of a twice daily mouthrinse application containing xylitol, sorbitol, sacarine, ciclamate, aspartame, chlorhexidine, hexetidine or NaF for 14 days on amylase, peroxidase, thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, secretory IgA and total proteins in whole saliva. No significative changes were observed in health and bucodental parameters nor in flow salivary rate, protein, secretory Ig A, or thiocyanate levels as a consequence of the mouthrinses application. On the other hand, NaF treatment (0.02%, 0.05% or 0.1%) did cause an increase in salivary peroxidase and hypothiocyanite, being the former increase higher than the second one. Peroxidase increase was proportional to the mouthrinse dose (r = 0.78; p < 0.01), but not to the hypothiocyanite increase (r = 0.407; p = 0.12). Since the adolescents' health condition was the adequate, it is suggested that the peroxidase increase was due to a higher enzyme synthesis and/or secretion by the parotid and/or submaxillar glands. It is concluded that the increases in salivary peroxidase and hypothiocyanite caused by the NaF treatment favour the host, as they potentiate one of the mechanisms that modulate dental plaque composition, preventing in such a way the colonization by cariogenic pathogens.

  10. The correlation of sodium and potassium metabolism with the level of energy consumption in man during adaptation to heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afanasyev, B. G.; Zhestovskiy, V. A.

    1978-01-01

    The sodium and potassium metabolism was studied in a thermal chamber at 35 deg and 80 percent relative humidity in 8 men for a period of 6 days. The control group (3 subjects) were outside of the chamber at a comfortable ambient temperature. The intracellular sodium and potassium metabolism were assessed based on their content in the erythrocytes. The finding was that during adaptation to heat, a considerable amount of sodium was excreted by the body in the sweat and urine (about 1/3 of the sodium content of the human body) as compared with its intake and the amount of potassium retained in the body. Changes in the concentration of sodium and potassium may serve as indexes of the state of adaptation processes during constant exposure to heat.

  11. Alterations in serum osmolality, sodium, and potassium levels after repeated mannitol administration.

    PubMed

    Seo, WhaSook; Oh, HyunSoo

    2010-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate whether significant alterations in serum osmolality, [Na+], and [K+] occur after the repeated dosing of mannitol and whether these imbalances increased accordingly with the progress of mannitol application. This study was conducted by performing a retrospective medical record review of brain injury patients who were admitted to the neurological intensive care units of a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Data on intracranial pressure and serum [Na+], [K+], and osmolality levels were collected from the first to the seventh day of mannitol administration. Our results showed that the highest rate of hyperosmolality occurred on the first day of mannitol administration and that subsequently its rate reduced, although it still maintained high (70-77%). Regarding the serum [Na+], hypernatremia was observed in 10% of the subjects on the first day of mannitol administration and in 10-21% throughout the 7-day mannitol administration period. In this study, hyponatremia was observed in 12.2% of our subjects on the first day of mannitol administration and in 9-24% throughout the 7-day period. In addition, no statistical differences were found between changes in the rates of hypernatremia and hyponatremia throughout the 7-day administration period. The most notable finding was the high rates of hypokalemia observed during mannitol administration. Hypokalemia was observed in 22% of subjects on the first day and continuously increased to 52.3%, and this increase was significant. On the other hand, the rate of hyperkalemia was almost negligible. Our findings appear to provide clear evidence of electrolyte imbalances after repeated mannitol administration. Accordingly, careful monitoring of electrolyte status is essential when repeated doses of mannitol are given. We recommend that the practice of administering repeated dose of mannitol for prophylactic purposes be reevaluated.

  12. Short-term exposure of laying hens to high dietary sodium chloride levels.

    PubMed

    Damron, B L; Kelly, L S

    1987-05-01

    Four replicate pens, each containing five individually caged hens received a corn-soy basal diet to which .4, 1, 2, 4, or 6% NaCl was added during two 21-day experiments. An additional bilevel treatment, approximating a reported commercial feed production problem, consisted of 6% NaCl for 7 days followed by .4% NaCl for the remaining 2 weeks. Egg production was significantly reduced by 4 and 6% NaCl in Experiment 1 and by 2, 4, and 6% NaCl in Experiment 2. The switchback treatment (6-.4% NaCl) did not statistically alter overall egg production in either experiment. Daily water consumption increased significantly when more than 1% NaCl was added, and subsequently with each feed addition. When 6% NaCl was fed for 7 days feed intake was quickly suppressed; this caused a rapid increase in water intake. Water intake returned to normal levels before the end of the second week. Daily feed intake was significantly reduced by a continuous feeding of 4% or more NaCl. A 1-week exposure to the 6% treatment suppressed feed intake quickly but intake recovered within one week. In both experiments, only the continuous 6% NaCl feeding regime of Experiment 1 resulted in a significant loss of body weight or a significant reduction of overall egg weight averages. Mortality was not a factor in either experiment. These data indicate that at least 2% NaCl in feed was required before any significant effects were noted, and that laying hens recovered from a 1-week exposure to 6% NaCl in feed within the following week.

  13. Toward Addressing the Issues of Site Selection in District Effectiveness Research: A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Growth Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: District effectiveness research (DER) is an emerging field concerned with identifying the organizational structures, administration, and leadership practices at the school district level that help districts find success with all of their students across the schools within the system. This work has mirrored much of the early school…

  14. Reading and Writing Connections Using Media: Addressing the Literacy Needs of Students in Intermediate and Middle Level Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk-Ross, Francine; Linder, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Students in intermediate and middle level grades are often caught up in the exciting visual images and auditory stimuli that are a part of all their everyday communication and learning experiences. As a group of students who are growing intellectually and socially in the midst of, and through, predominantly media messages, they require reading and…

  15. Increasing sodium bicarbonate level in high-concentrate diets for heifers. II. Effects on chewing and feeding behaviors.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Ferret, A; Manteca, X; Calsamiglia, S

    2008-05-01

    Four Holstein heifers (264 ± 12 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-day experimental periods to determine the effect of increasing levels of sodium bicarbonate (BICARB) (0%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5%, of concentrate dry matter (DM) basis) on chewing and feed intake behavior when fed high-concentrate diets. Concentrate (13.41% CP, 13.35% NDF) and barley straw were fed once a day at 0830 h ad libitum. Feed bunks placed on scales and video recording were used to measure 24-h feed intake and chewing behavior, respectively. The patterns of feeding behavior (feed intake, meal size and length) and chewing behavior (eating, ruminating and total chewing) were studied by dividing the day into 12 intervals of 2-h each, beginning at feeding (interval 1 through 12). Number of meals per day and eating rate decreased linearly with increasing buffer level, but meal length increased linearly. No treatment effects were observed in sum of daily meal lengths or average meal size. The treatment × interval interaction was significant on meal size, length and feed intake. The size and length of those meals occurring during the 4 h post-feeding increased linearly. However, meal size tended to decrease in the evening between 8 and 12 h, whereas feed intake decreased linearly from 6 to 10 h and from 12 to 14 h post-feeding. Buffer concentration did not affect the percentage of time spent ruminating, eating or drinking per day but the buffer level × interval interaction was significant. Time spent eating expressed as min per kg of DM or organic matter (OM) intake increased linearly with buffer levels. Proportion of time spent eating increased linearly during the intervals between 0 and 4 h post-feeding. Time spent ruminating decreased linearly during the 2 h post-feeding, and also in the evening from 12 to 14 h, and at night from 18 to 22 h post-feeding, but the effect was quadratic between 8 and 10 h when intermediate buffer levels showed the greatest ruminating

  16. Computational insights into the effect of carbon structures at the atomic level for non-aqueous sodium-oxygen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, H. R.; Wu, M. C.; Zhou, X. L.; Yan, X. H.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    Carbon materials have been widely used to form air cathodes for non-aqueous sodium-oxygen (Nasbnd O2) batteries due to their large specific surface area, high conductivity and low cost. However, the effect of carbon structures at the atomic level remains poorly understood. In this work, a first-principles study is conducted to investigate how representative carbon structures, including graphite (0001) surface, point defects and fractured edge, influence the discharge and charge processes of non-aqueous Nasbnd O2 batteries. It is found that the single vacancy (SV) defect has the largest adsorption energy (5.81 eV) to NaO2 molecule among the structures studied, even larger than that of the NaO2 molecule on NaO2 crystal (2.81 eV). Such high adsorption energy is attributed to two factors: the dangling atoms in SV defects decrease the distance from NaO2 molecules, and the attachment through oxygen atoms increases the electrons transfer. The findings suggest that SV defects can act as the nucleation sites for NaO2 in the discharge process, and increasing the number of SV defects can facilitate the uniform formation of small-sized particles. The uniformly distributed discharge products lower the possibility for pore clogging, leading to an increased discharge capacity and improved cyclability for non-aqueous Nasbnd O2 batteries.

  17. FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopic study of sodium-aluminum-iron phosphate glassy materials for high level waste immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Stefanovsky, O. I.; Remizov, M. B.; Belanova, E. A.; Kozlov, P. V.; Glazkova, Ya. S.; Sobolev, A. V.; Presniakov, I. A.; Kalmykov, S. N.; Myasoedov, B. F.

    2015-11-01

    Complex sodium-aluminum-iron phosphate glassy materials with various Al2O3 to Fe2O3 ratio containing high level waste (HLW) surrogate were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and studied in details by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The samples with high Al2O3 content and not containing Fe2O3 were predominantly amorphous but subjected to devitrification under annealing. Addition of B2O3 and partial Fe2O3 substitution for Al2O3 in the materials increases their resistance to devitrification whereas further substitution and NiO incorporation significantly increase the tendency to devitrification. FTIR spectra demonstrate changes in the structure of glassy materials caused by both structural variations in the anionic motif and occurrence of crystalline phases in the materials. According to Mössbauer spectroscopy data, iron in the glassy samples is present as octahedrally coordinated Fe3+ ions while in the partly devitrified samples iron is partitioned among vitreous and crystalline phases entering the vitreous phase mainly as Fe3+O6 units and crystalline phases as major Fe3+ and minor Fe2+ ions in a magnetically ordered state and participating in a "fast" electronic exchange.

  18. Postmortem vitreous chemistry--an evaluation of sodium, potassium and chloride levels in estimation of time since death (during the first 36 h after death).

    PubMed

    Chandrakanth, H V; Kanchan, Tanuj; Balaraj, B M; Virupaksha, H S; Chandrashekar, T N

    2013-05-01

    Estimation of time since death is a paramount medico-legal issue in any postmortem examination. The present study is intended to study the correlation between postmortem interval and vitreous humor chemistry for sodium, potassium, and chlorides. The study is aimed to find male-female differences and differences between right and left eyes in vitreous chemistry. The vitreous humor samples were collected in 114 autopsies conducted in the study center and analyzed biochemically. All the cases where exact time of death was known and where the time since death ranged between 0 and 36 h were included in the study. Data obtained was analyzed statistically using spss version 11.0. The present research did not find a significant correlation between vitreous chemistry and postmortem interval. The differences in vitreous sodium, potassium, chloride levels and the sodium potassium ratio among males and females and between right and left eyes were not found to be statistically significant.

  19. Changes in SeMSC, glucosinolates and sulforaphane levels, and in proteome profile in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica) fertilized with sodium selenate.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Ignacio; Barrientos, Herna; Mahn, Andrea; Moenne, Alejandra

    2013-05-07

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC), total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica). Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 μmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot) and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  20. Creating a lesson that addresses gender differences in physics testing a specific instructional technique in college level physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, James J.

    Research-based instructional methods are applied in an effort to close the persistent gender gap in physics. Creating a short text on a limited topic using some of these methods could benefit female students specifically. A literature review showed research on the gender gap in physics and updated instructional methods for females. Two female physics students were interviewed and observations were conducted at a high performing all-girls school. A physics lab dialogue between two female physics students was recorded and analyzed, which informed the style and voice of the interactive dialogue lesson. An original written lesson intended to engage female physics students was created and tested on three classes of college-level physics students. The survey data, based on multiple choice and essay responses, measured the students' opinions of the lesson and their current textbook. Results showed the interactive lesson was preferred over the current text, and some students requested similar lessons.

  1. Developing a Web-based dietary sodium screening tool for personalized assessment and feedback.

    PubMed

    Arcand, Joanne; Abdulaziz, Kasim; Bennett, Carol; L'abbé, Mary R; Manuel, Douglas G

    2014-03-01

    Dietary sodium reduction is commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, heart and liver failure, and chronic kidney disease. Sodium reduction is also an important public health problem since most of the Canadian population consumes sodium in excess of their daily requirements. Lack of awareness about the amount of sodium consumed and the sources of sodium in diet is common, and undoubtedly a major contributor to excess sodium consumption. There are few known tools available to screen and provide personalized information about sodium in the diet. Therefore, we developed a Web-based sodium intake screening tool called the Salt Calculator ( www.projectbiglife.ca ), which is publicly available for individuals to assess the amount and sources of sodium in their diet. The Calculator contains 23 questions focusing on restaurant foods, packaged foods, and added salt. Questions were developed using sodium consumption data from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 2.2 and up-to-date information on sodium levels in packaged and restaurant food databases from the University of Toronto. The Calculator translates existing knowledge about dietary sodium into a tool that can be accessed by the public as well as integrated into clinical practice to address the high levels of sodium presently in the Canadian diet.

  2. Sodium Bicarbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking sodium bicarbonate, call your doctor. ... your body. If you are on a sodium-restricted diet, check with your doctor before taking sodium bicarbonate.

  3. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  4. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  5. Dorsal root ganglia isolated from Nf1+/- mice exhibit increased levels of mRNA expression of voltage-dependent sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Hodgdon, K E; Hingtgen, C M; Nicol, G D

    2012-03-29

    We reported previously that sensory neurons isolated from mice with a heterozygous mutation of the Nf1 gene (Nf1+/-) exhibited greater excitability and increased sodium current densities compared with wildtype mice. This raises the question as to whether the increased current density resulted from post-translational modifications or increased expression of sodium channels. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression levels of the nine different voltage-gated sodium channel α subunits and the four associated auxiliary β subunits in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) obtained from wildtype and Nf1+/- mice. The Relative Expression Software Tool indicated that Nav1.1, Nav1.3, Nav1.7, and Nav1.8 were significantly elevated in DRG isolated from Nf1+/- mice. Expression of Nav1.2, Nav1.5, Nav1.6, and Nav1.9 were not significantly altered. The gene transcript for Nav1.4 was not detected. There were no significant changes in the relative expression levels of β subunits. The Nav1.9 subtype was the most abundant with Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 being the next most abundant subtypes, whereas Nav1.3 was relatively less abundant. For the β subunits, β1 was by far the most abundant subtype. These results demonstrate that the increased expression levels of Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and perhaps Nav1.1 in the Nf1+/- DRG make the largest contribution to the increased sodium current density and thus give rise to the enhanced excitability. Though the mechanisms by which many people with NF1 experience increased pain have not been elucidated, these abnormal painful states may involve elevated expression of specific sodium channel subtypes in small diameter nociceptive sensory neurons. PMID:22260870

  6. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    PubMed

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia. PMID:26994581

  7. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    PubMed

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia.

  8. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  9. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  10. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  11. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  12. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  13. The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.

    PubMed

    Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244

  14. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Shunglu, V K

    1994-07-01

    Rapid and substantial population growth in India is hampering development. Family welfare programs in the country during the last four years have not met population reduction goals. The decentralization of political and administrative power in relevant programs, however, will help the country attain its goal of replacement fertility. To that end, the 73rd and 74th amendments to the constitution have recently been enacted to help decentralize power to people at the village, intermediate, and district levels. The participation of the people is essential for success. State ministers of health must begin assigning management of the rural health care systems to the Panchayats. Population policy has changed so that family planning is now provided within the broader context of maternal and child health care, emphasizing voluntarism and informed choice among contraceptive methods and popular participation. The speaker laments the decline of male participation in family planning and calls for high priority to be given to developing fertility regulation methods for men as well as identifying factors which prohibit male participation. The country's unbalanced female to male sex ratio and interstate and inter-district variations in social parameters which have a bearing upon population growth rates also merit attention. Investing in human resources is crucial to the success of population programs. Financing has therefore increased for poverty alleviation programs and other social sector programs.

  15. School-Level Practices to Increase Availability of Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains, and Reduce Sodium in School Meals - United States, 2000, 2006, and 2014.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Caitlin; Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Harris, Diane; Mugavero, Kristy

    2015-08-28

    Students consume up to half of their daily calories at school, often through the federal school meal programs (e.g., National School Lunch Program) administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 2012, USDA published new required nutrition standards for school meals.* These standards were the first major revision to the school meal programs in >15 years and reflect current national dietary guidance and Institute of Medicine recommendations to meet students' nutrition needs. The standards require serving more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and gradually reducing sodium content over 10 years. To examine the prevalence of school-level practices related to implementation of the nutrition standards, CDC analyzed data from the 2000, 2006, and 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) on school nutrition services practices related to fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and sodium. Almost all schools offered whole grain foods each day for breakfast and lunch, and most offered two or more vegetables and two or more fruits each day for lunch. The percentage of schools implementing practices to increase availability of fruits and vegetables and decrease sodium content in school meals increased from 2000-2014. However, opportunities exist to increase the percentage of schools nationwide implementing these practices.

  16. School-Level Practices to Increase Availability of Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains, and Reduce Sodium in School Meals - United States, 2000, 2006, and 2014.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Caitlin; Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Harris, Diane; Mugavero, Kristy

    2015-08-28

    Students consume up to half of their daily calories at school, often through the federal school meal programs (e.g., National School Lunch Program) administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 2012, USDA published new required nutrition standards for school meals.* These standards were the first major revision to the school meal programs in >15 years and reflect current national dietary guidance and Institute of Medicine recommendations to meet students' nutrition needs. The standards require serving more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and gradually reducing sodium content over 10 years. To examine the prevalence of school-level practices related to implementation of the nutrition standards, CDC analyzed data from the 2000, 2006, and 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) on school nutrition services practices related to fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and sodium. Almost all schools offered whole grain foods each day for breakfast and lunch, and most offered two or more vegetables and two or more fruits each day for lunch. The percentage of schools implementing practices to increase availability of fruits and vegetables and decrease sodium content in school meals increased from 2000-2014. However, opportunities exist to increase the percentage of schools nationwide implementing these practices. PMID:26313472

  17. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 200 parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not... sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products...

  18. Addressing barriers to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B and C in the face of persisting fiscal constraints in Europe: report from a high level conference.

    PubMed

    Papatheodoridis, G; Thomas, H C; Golna, C; Bernardi, M; Carballo, M; Cornberg, M; Dalekos, G; Degertekin, B; Dourakis, S; Flisiak, R; Goldberg, D; Gore, C; Goulis, I; Hadziyannis, S; Kalamitsis, G; Kanavos, P; Kautz, A; Koskinas, I; Leite, B R; Malliori, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papaevangelou, V; Pirona, A; Prati, D; Raptopoulou-Gigi, M; Reic, T; Robaeys, G; Schatz, E; Souliotis, K; Tountas, Y; Wiktor, S; Wilson, D; Yfantopoulos, J; Hatzakis, A

    2016-02-01

    In the WHO-EURO region, around 28 million people are currently living with chronic viral hepatitis, and 120,000 people die every year because of it. Lack of awareness and understanding combined with the social stigma and discrimination exacerbate barriers related to access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services for those most in need. In addition, the persisting economic crisis has impacted on public health spending, thus posing challenges on the sustainable investment in promotion, primary and secondary prevention, diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis across European countries. The Hepatitis B and C Public Policy Association in cooperation with the Hellenic Center for Disease Prevention and Control together with 10 partner organizations discussed at the Athens High Level Meeting held in June 2014 recent policy developments, persisting and emerging challenges related to the prevention and management of viral hepatitis and the need for a de minimis framework of urgent priorities for action, reflected in a Call to Action (Appendix S1). The discussion confirmed that persisting barriers do not allow the full realisation of the public health potential of diagnosing and preventing hepatitis B and C, treating hepatitis B and curing hepatitis C. Such barriers are related to (a) lack of evidence-based knowledge of hepatitis B and C, (b) limited access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services with poor patient pathways, (c) declining resources and (d) the presence of social stigma and discrimination. The discussion also confirmed the emerging importance of fiscal constraints on the ability of policymakers to adequately address viral hepatitis challenges, particularly through increasing coverage of newer therapies. In Europe, it is critical that public policy bodies urgently agree on a conceptual framework for addressing the existing and emerging barriers to managing viral hepatitis. Such a framework would ensure all health systems share a common

  19. Addressing barriers to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B and C in the face of persisting fiscal constraints in Europe: report from a high level conference.

    PubMed

    Papatheodoridis, G; Thomas, H C; Golna, C; Bernardi, M; Carballo, M; Cornberg, M; Dalekos, G; Degertekin, B; Dourakis, S; Flisiak, R; Goldberg, D; Gore, C; Goulis, I; Hadziyannis, S; Kalamitsis, G; Kanavos, P; Kautz, A; Koskinas, I; Leite, B R; Malliori, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papaevangelou, V; Pirona, A; Prati, D; Raptopoulou-Gigi, M; Reic, T; Robaeys, G; Schatz, E; Souliotis, K; Tountas, Y; Wiktor, S; Wilson, D; Yfantopoulos, J; Hatzakis, A

    2016-02-01

    In the WHO-EURO region, around 28 million people are currently living with chronic viral hepatitis, and 120,000 people die every year because of it. Lack of awareness and understanding combined with the social stigma and discrimination exacerbate barriers related to access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services for those most in need. In addition, the persisting economic crisis has impacted on public health spending, thus posing challenges on the sustainable investment in promotion, primary and secondary prevention, diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis across European countries. The Hepatitis B and C Public Policy Association in cooperation with the Hellenic Center for Disease Prevention and Control together with 10 partner organizations discussed at the Athens High Level Meeting held in June 2014 recent policy developments, persisting and emerging challenges related to the prevention and management of viral hepatitis and the need for a de minimis framework of urgent priorities for action, reflected in a Call to Action (Appendix S1). The discussion confirmed that persisting barriers do not allow the full realisation of the public health potential of diagnosing and preventing hepatitis B and C, treating hepatitis B and curing hepatitis C. Such barriers are related to (a) lack of evidence-based knowledge of hepatitis B and C, (b) limited access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services with poor patient pathways, (c) declining resources and (d) the presence of social stigma and discrimination. The discussion also confirmed the emerging importance of fiscal constraints on the ability of policymakers to adequately address viral hepatitis challenges, particularly through increasing coverage of newer therapies. In Europe, it is critical that public policy bodies urgently agree on a conceptual framework for addressing the existing and emerging barriers to managing viral hepatitis. Such a framework would ensure all health systems share a common

  20. Comparison of sodium zirconium phosphate-structured HLW forms and synroc for high-level nuclear waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Zyryanov, V.N.; Vance, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    The incorporation of (a) Cs/Sr as simulated heat-generating isotopes contained in Purex reprocessing waste, (b) simulated actinides, and (c) simulated Purex waste in sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) has been studied. The samples were prepared by sintering, by hot pressing and by hot isostatic pressing in metal bellows containers. The short-term chemical durability of the phosphate-based material containing Purex waste was within an order of magnitude of that for Synroc-C, as measured by 7-day MCC-1 tests at 90{degrees}C. The dissolution behavior showed evidence of re-precipitation phenomena, even after times as short as 28 days. Potential for improvement of NZP-based ceramics for HLW management is discussed. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Investigation of low levels of plasma valproic acid concentration following simultaneous administration of sodium valproate and rizatriptan benzoate.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Nobuo; Hobara, Norio; Kameya, Hiromasa; Ohshiro, Susumu; Hobara, Narumi; Sakanashi, Matao

    2007-03-01

    Drug interaction between rizatriptan benzoate, an anti-migraine agent, and sodium valproate (VPA-Na), an anticonvulsant, was studied in rats. When rizatriptan benzoate was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na oral administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters, such as plasma valproic acid (VPA) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve up to 3 h (AUC(0-3)), were significantly decreased compared with those in the control group. However, when rizatriptan benzoate was administered intraperitoneally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these parameters were not changed. In addition, when benzoic acid was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these were significantly lower compared with the control values. Therefore, it might be possible that VPA transport by monocarboxylate transporter was competitively inhibited by rizatriptan benzoate and thus absorption of VPA was decreased. PMID:17331341

  2. Abnormal membrane sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J D; Lapey, A; Simopoulos, P; Bravo, E L

    1971-11-01

    We have documented the presence of abnormal sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome by measuring sodium concentration, sodium influx, and fractional sodium outflux in vitro in erythrocytes from normal subjects, two patients with Liddle's syndrome, and one patient with primary hyperaldosteronism. Sodium influx and fractional sodium outflux, but not sodium concentration, were significantly increased in patients with Liddle's syndrome. Sodium outflux in a patient with primary hyperaldosteronism did not differ significantly from normal. These alterations of sodium transport in erythrocytes from patients with Liddle's syndrome were not attributable to circulating levels of aldosterone, renin, angiotensin, or serum potassium. Furthermore, changes in aldosterone secretory rate and levels of circulating renin produced by varying dietary sodium intake, did not alter sodium influx or fractional sodium outflux in either patients with Liddle's syndrome or normal subjects. The response of fractional sodium outflux and sodium influx to ouabain, ethacrynic acid, and to changes in the cation composition of the incubation medium suggests that the increased sodium fluxes in Liddle's syndrome do not result solely from a quantitative increase in those components of sodium transport which occur in normal human erythrocytes. Instead, at least a portion of the increased erythrocyte sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome represents a component of sodium transport which does not occur in normal human erythrocytes.

  3. Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of /sup 75/Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Mutanen, M.L.; Mykkaenen, H.M.

    1984-05-01

    The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (/sup 75/Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of (/sup 75/Se)selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium.

  4. Evaluation of plasma melter technology for verification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes: Demonstration test No. 4 preliminary test report

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Gass, W.R.; Dighe, S.V.; D`Amico, N.; Swensrud, R.L.; Darr, M.F.

    1995-01-10

    This document provides a preliminary report of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. Phase I test conduct included 26 hours (24 hours steady state) of melting of simulated high-sodium low-level radioactive liquid waste. Average processing rate was 4.9 kg/min (peak rate 6.2 kg/min), producing 7330 kg glass product. Free-flowing glass pour point was 1250 C, and power input averaged 1530 kW(e), for a total energy consumption of 19,800 kJ/kg glass. Restart capability was demonstrated following a 40-min outage involving the scrubber liquor heat exchanger, and glass production was continued for another 2 hours. Some volatility losses were apparent, probably in the form of sodium borates. Roughly 275 samples were collected and forwarded for analysis. Sufficient process data were collected for heat/material balances. Recommendations for future work include lower boron contents and improved tuyere design/operation.

  5. Effect of sodium citrate, carboxymethyl cellulose and carrageenan levels on quality characteristics of low-salt and low-fat bologna type sausages.

    PubMed

    Ruusunen, Marita; Vainionpää, Jukka; Puolanne, Eero; Lyly, Marika; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Niemistö, Markku; Ahvenainen, Raija

    2003-08-01

    Quality characteristics of low-salt bologna-type sausage manufactured with sodium citrate (NAC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and carrageenan (CAR) were examined. Three levels of salt, NAC, CMC and CAR, and two levels of fat were used. Batter and sausage pH values were measured and the frying loss of sausages was analysed by frying slices in an electric grill. Firmness, juiciness, saltiness and flavour intensity of the sausages were sensorically evaluated. Altogether 20 separate sausage batches were prepared. In low-salt sausages containing less than 1.4% NaCl, the use of NAC, CAR and CMC decreased frying loss and increased saltiness. NAC and CAR also increased flavour intensity, but CMC did not. Furthermore, NAC, CAR and CMC increased the firmness of the low-salt sausage, while only NAC increased juiciness when the NaCl content was below 1.4%. NAC increases, however, the sodium content of the product. Therefore, it can be concluded that in low-salt sausages no additive alone is suitable. A mixture of NAC and CAR appears to be the best combination.

  6. Evidence of hormesis on human neuronal SK-N-BE cells treated with sodium arsenate: impact at the mitochondrial level.

    PubMed

    Kharroubi, Wafa; Ahmed, Samia Haj; Nury, Thomas; Andreoletti, Pierre; Haouas, Zohra; Zarrouk, Amira; Sakly, Rachid; Hammami, Mohamed; Lizard, Gérard

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of human neuronal SK-N-BE cells to sodium arsenate (AsV 0.1-400 μM; 48 h) induced a biphasic toxic effect evoking hormesis. Indeed, at low concentrations, AsV stimulates cell proliferation visualized by phase contrast microscopy, whereas at high concentrations, an induction of cell death associated with a loss of cell adhesion was observed. These side effects were confirmed with crystal violet test, cell cycle analysis, evaluation of the percentage of Ki67 positive cells, and staining with propidium iodide. The impact of AsV on mitochondrial functions, which was determined by the MTT assay, the measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential with DiOC6(3), and the rate of mitochondrial ATP, also support an hormesis process. In addition, in the presence of high concentrations of AsV, a significant decrease of the protein expression of OXPHOS complexes of the respiratory chain was observed by western blot supporting that AsV-induced cell death is associated with mitochondrial alterations. Therefore, there are some evidences of hormesis on AsV-treated SK-N-BE cells, and at high concentrations, the mitochondria are a target of toxicity induced by AsV.

  7. Evidence of hormesis on human neuronal SK-N-BE cells treated with sodium arsenate: impact at the mitochondrial level.

    PubMed

    Kharroubi, Wafa; Ahmed, Samia Haj; Nury, Thomas; Andreoletti, Pierre; Haouas, Zohra; Zarrouk, Amira; Sakly, Rachid; Hammami, Mohamed; Lizard, Gérard

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of human neuronal SK-N-BE cells to sodium arsenate (AsV 0.1-400 μM; 48 h) induced a biphasic toxic effect evoking hormesis. Indeed, at low concentrations, AsV stimulates cell proliferation visualized by phase contrast microscopy, whereas at high concentrations, an induction of cell death associated with a loss of cell adhesion was observed. These side effects were confirmed with crystal violet test, cell cycle analysis, evaluation of the percentage of Ki67 positive cells, and staining with propidium iodide. The impact of AsV on mitochondrial functions, which was determined by the MTT assay, the measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential with DiOC6(3), and the rate of mitochondrial ATP, also support an hormesis process. In addition, in the presence of high concentrations of AsV, a significant decrease of the protein expression of OXPHOS complexes of the respiratory chain was observed by western blot supporting that AsV-induced cell death is associated with mitochondrial alterations. Therefore, there are some evidences of hormesis on AsV-treated SK-N-BE cells, and at high concentrations, the mitochondria are a target of toxicity induced by AsV. PMID:26782323

  8. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No....

  9. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2) exists...

  10. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  11. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  12. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  13. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  14. Glass composition development for plasma processing of Hanford high sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.

    1995-02-01

    To assess the acceptability of prospective compositions, response criteria based on durability, homogeneity, viscosity and volatility were defined. Response variables were weighted: durability 35%, homogeneity 25%, viscosity 25%, volatility 15%. A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to define the first twelve glass formulations. Glass former additives included Al2O3, B2O3, CaO, Li2O, ZrO2 and SiO2. Lithia was added to facilitate fritting of the additives. The additives were normalized to silica content to ease experimental matrix definition and glass formulation. Preset high and low values of these ratios were determined for the initial twelve melts. Based on rankings of initial compositions, new formulations for testing were developed based on a simplex algorithm. Rating and ranking of subsequent compositions continued until no apparent improvement in glass quality was achieved in newly developed formulations. An optimized composition was determined by averaging the additive component values of the final best performing compositions. The glass former contents to form the optimized glass were: 16.1 wt % Al2O3, 12.3 wt % B2O3, 5.5 wt % CaO, 1.7 wt % Li2O, 3.3 wt % ZrO2, 61.1 wt % SiO2. An optimized composition resulted after only 25 trials despite studying six glass additives. A vitrification campaign was completed using a small-scale Joule heated melter. 80 lbs of glass was produced over 96 hours of continuous operation. Several salt compounds formed and deposited on melter components during the run and likely caused the failure of several pour chamber heaters. In an attempt to minimize sodium volatility, several low or no boron glasses were formulated. One composition containing no boron produced a homogeneous glass worthy of additional testing.

  15. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension.

  16. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter protein levels are down-regulated through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation induced by bile acids.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Kuribayashi, Hideaki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2013-08-15

    The ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT or SLC10A2) has a crucial role in intestinal bile acid absorption. We previously reported that enterobacteria-mediated bile acid conversion was involved in the alteration of ileal ASBT expression levels. In the present study, to investigate the hypothesis that ileal ASBT protein levels are post-translationally regulated by enterobacteria-associated bile acids, alteration of ileal ASBT protein levels was analysed in mice 12 h and 24 h after anti-bacterial drug ampicillin (ABPC) treatment (100 mg/kg, single shot) that altered bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. In ABPC-treated mice, enterobacteria-biotransformed bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) and cholic acid (CA) levels were decreased, whereas taurocholic acid (TCA) and tauro-β-muricholic acid levels were increased in the intestinal lumen. Ileal ASBT protein levels in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), but not ileal Asbt mRNA levels, were significantly increased in the ABPC-treated mice, and the extent of ubiquitination of the ileal ASBT protein was reduced in the ABPC-treated mice. Treatment of ABPC-pretreated mice with CA or TDCA, but not TCA, significantly decreased ileal ASBT protein levels and increased the extent of ubiquitination of ileal ASBT protein. Treatment of mice with the lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine, or the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, increased ileal ASBT protein levels in BBMVs. CA-mediated reduction of ASBT protein levels in the ABPC-pretreated mice was attenuated by co-treatment with chloroquine or MG132. These results suggest that ileal ASBT protein is degraded by a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in response to enterobacteria-associated bile acids. PMID:23872411

  17. Application of an Integrated Assessment Model with state-level resolution for examining strategies for addressing air, climate and energy goals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Climate Assessment Model (GCAM) is a global integrated assessment model used for exploring future scenarios and examining strategies that address air pollution, climate change, and energy goals. GCAM includes technology-rich representations of the energy, transportati...

  18. Improvement by sodium dl-α-tocopheryl-6-O-phosphate treatment of moisture-retaining ability in stratum corneum through increased ceramide levels.

    PubMed

    Kato, Eiko; Takahashi, Noriko

    2012-06-15

    Sodium dl-α-tocopheryl-6-O-phosphate (1), a water-soluble derivative of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopherol, 2), exhibits protective effects against various type of skin damage. As reported herein, we found that topical application of 1 improves hygroscopicity and water holding capacity in the stratum corneum of hairless mice in vivo by increasing the ceramide content. In normal human epidermal keratinocytes, treatment with 1 increases ceramide levels and enhances gene expression of serine palmitoyltransferase, which catalyzes the first step of ceramide synthesis in vitro. In addition, 1 increases gene expressions of differentiation markers (transglutaminase 1, cytokeratin 10, involucrin and loricrin), and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. These results suggest that 1 could be an excellent agent for improving skin moisture-retention by enhancing ceramide synthesis through the induction of differentiation.

  19. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and last for a ... of your body that you cannot control, sweating, muscle cramps, and fast heartbeat.Sodium oxybate may help ...

  20. Teratogenicity of sodium valproate.

    PubMed

    Alsdorf, Rachel; Wyszynski, Diego F

    2005-03-01

    The teratogenicity of the widely popular antiepileptic drug (AED) and mood stabiliser sodium valproate (also known as valproate, VPA) has been evidenced by previous research; however, these findings have often been limited by a small population sample of exposed women and a retrospective study design. Many factors contribute to the teratogenicity of VPA. These include the number of drugs that are co-administered, drug dosage, differences in maternal and/or infant metabolism, the gestational age of the fetus at exposure, and hereditary susceptibility. VPA has been associated with a variety of major and minor malformations, including a 20-fold increase in neural tube defects, cleft lip and palate, cardiovascular abnormalities, genitourinary defects, developmental delay, endocrinological disorders, limb defects, and autism. It has been suggested that polytherapy treatment in epileptic pregnant women increases the risk of teratogenicity in offspring. Furthermore, there is an established relationship between VPA dose and adverse outcome. Large single doses of VPA potentially cause high peak levels in the fetal serum resulting in deleterious effects. Currently there is an increase in the number of national and international pregnancy registries being formed in an effort to better identify the teratogenic effects of AEDs. These efforts hope to enhance our understanding of AEDs and their associated risks by addressing past study limitations.

  1. Puberty is delayed in male mice with dextran sodium sulfate colitis out of proportion to changes in food intake, body weight, and serum levels of leptin.

    PubMed

    Deboer, Mark D; Li, Yongli

    2011-01-01

    In boys, inflammatory bowel disease often results in delayed puberty associated with decreased bone mineral density and decreased linear growth. Our goal was to investigate whether pubertal timing and levels of leptin differed between prepubertal male mice with colitis and food-restricted (FR) mice maintained at a similar weight. We induced colitis in 32-d-old male mice using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), resulting in 10 d of worsening colitis. We followed up these mice for separation of the prepuce from the glans penis as a marker of pubertal progression. Compared with free-feeding control mice, DSS and FR mice had significantly lower weight on d 7-10 of treatment. DSS mice had later puberty than control and FR mice. DSS mice also had smaller testes, lower FSH levels, increased systemic cytokines, and increased colonic inflammation by histology. Leptin levels were similar between DSS and FR mice, whereas both had decreases in leptin compared with controls. We conclude that DSS colitis causes delayed puberty in sexually immature male mice beyond what is seen among FR mice of similar weight, food intake, and leptin levels. These experiments provide support for the hypothesis that pubertal delay in colitis is influenced by factors beyond poor weight gain alone.

  2. Sodium and chloride levels in rainfall, mist. streamwater and groundwater at the Plynlimon catchments, mid-Wales: inferences on hydrological and chemical controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C.; Kirchner, J. W.

    Variations in sodium and chloride in atmospheric inputs (rainfall and mist), stream runoff and groundwater stores are documented for the upper Severn River (Afon Hafren and Afon Hore catchments), Plynlimon, mid-Wales. The results show five salient features.

    1. Sodium and chloride concentrations are highly variable and highly correlated in rainfall and mist. The sodium-chloride relationship in rainfall has a slope close to the sodium/chloride ratio in sea-water, and an intercept that is not significantly different from zero. This indicates that sea-salt is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in rainfall, which would be expected given the maritime nature of the metrology. For mist, there is also a straight line with near-zero intercept, but with a slightly higher gradient than the sea-salt ratio, presumably due to small additional sodium inputs from other sources.
    2. There is an approximate input-output balance for both sodium and chloride, with the exception of one groundwater well, in which high chemical weathering results in an anomalous high Na/Cl ratio. Thus, atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in groundwater and streamflow.
    3. The fluctuations in sodium and chloride concentrations in the streams and groundwaters are strongly damped compared to those in the rain and the mist, reflecting the storage and mixing of waters in the subsurface.
    4. On all timescales, from weeks to years, sodium fluctuations are more strongly damped than chloride fluctuations in streamflow. The additional damping of sodium is consistent with ion exchange buffering of sodium in the catchment soils.
    5. Sodium and chloride concentrations are linearly correlated in the streams and groundwaters, but the slope is almost universally less than the sea-salt ratio and there is a non-zero intercept. The Na/Cl ratio in streamflow and groundwater is higher than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is low and lower

    6. [The effect of nedocromil sodium on levels of IL-4 and IgE in serum of children with bronchial asthma].

      PubMed

      Stelmach, Iwona; Grzelewski, Tomasz; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Majak, Paweł; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Górski, Paweł; Kuna, Piotr

      2002-03-01

      Levels of pro-allergic cytokine IL-4 are increased in asthmatic airways, contributing to allergic inflammation. IL-4 and IL-13 are the most important factors in production of class E immunoglobulin, playing major role in childhood atopic asthma. The mechanism of effect of nedocromil, often prescribed in children, has been discussed. Our previous study on the effect of nedocromil on different inflammatory markers, showed decreased levels of IL-4 and IgE after monotherapy in 15 asthmatic children. The purpose of this study was to define the effect of treatment with nedocromil on serum level of IL-4 and IgE, clinical symptoms and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in children with moderate atopic asthma. It was 8 week, placebo-controlled and randomized, double blind trial of 81 children with moderate atopic asthma allergic to dust mite. Patients were randomly allocated to receive nedocromil sodium two puffs four times daily (0.002 g/puff) (n = 34) or placebo (n = 47). 69 children completed the study. After treatment with nedocromil the levels of IL-4 and IgE in blood serum in study group significantly decreased, and all clinical parameters improved. Mean levels of IL-4 in serum before and after treatment with nedocromil were 0.13 pg/ml +/- 0.01 and 0.12 pg/ml +/- 0.02 respectively (p < 0.01). Mean serum levels of IgE before and after treatment with nedocromil were 556.83 IU/ml +/- 201.3 and 485 IU/ml +/- 200.5 respectively (p < 0.02). This study demonstrate that one possible way by which nedocromil contribute to inhibition of allergic inflammation is by decreasing IL-4 and IgE levels.

    7. The influence of moderate reduction in dietary sodium on human salivary sodium concentration.

      PubMed

      Christensen, C M; Bertino, M; Beauchamp, G K; Navazesh, M; Engelman, K

      1986-01-01

      Twenty-four healthy subjects were placed for 12-13 weeks on diets that reduced average sodium intake from 145 to 74 m-equiv. Na+/day as determined by multiple 24-h urine collections before and during the diet. Whole-mouth resting and stimulated saliva was collected and analysed for flow rate and sodium concentration several times before and during the low-sodium period. Sodium restriction did not influence salivary flow rates but salivary sodium levels fell 25 per cent for resting and 17 per cent for stimulated saliva. Thus moderate reductions in sodium intake are accompanied by significantly lower salivary sodium levels.

    8. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

      PubMed Central

      Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

      2014-01-01

      The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

    9. Chloride, sodium, potassium and faecal bacteria levels in surface runoff and subsurface percolates from grassland plots amended with cattle slurry.

      PubMed

      Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; López-Periago, Eugenio; Díaz-Fierros Viqueira, Francisco

      2002-05-01

      This study investigated the effectiveness of vegetated buffer strips for removing contaminants in runoff from grassed plots (slope 15%) after application of cattle slurry. Plots (8 x 8 m2 or 8 x 3 m2) received slurry or inorganic fertilizer, and then simulated rainfall (1, 7 and 21 days after slurry/fertilizer application); after each event, runoff and percolates were sampled at various distances downslope (2, 4, 6, and 8 m), and analysed for Cl-, Na+, K+ and faecal bacteria contents. Contaminant concentrations were markedly higher in runoff from the slurry-amended plots than in runoff from the fertiliser-amended plots. After the first rainfall event, some contaminant concentrations in runoff from the slurry-amended plots declined with distance downslope (i.e. with buffer strip width), supporting the relative efficacy of the strip for retaining pollutants. After the second and third rainfall events, by contrast, our results suggest remobilisation of contaminants retained during the first event. Faecal bacteria levels (especially streptococcus levels) remained high throughout the study, even in percolates and runoff collected 8 m downslope after the third rainfall event, and indeed even downslope of the adjacent fertilizer-amended plots (indicating lateral movement): this suggests that bacterial contamination may be the most significant risk arising from slurry application.

    10. Sodium arsenite alters cell cycle and MTHFR, MT1/2, and c-Myc protein levels in MCF-7 cells

      SciTech Connect

      Ruiz-Ramos, Ruben; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Albores, Arnulfo; Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Cebrian, Mariano E.

      2009-12-15

      There is limited available information on the effects of arsenic on enzymes participating in the folate cycle. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effects of sodium arsenite on the protein levels of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and its further relationship with the expression MT1/2 and c-myc in MCF-7 cells. Arsenite treatment (0-10 muM) for 4 h decreased MTHFR levels in a concentration-dependent fashion without significant effects on DHFR. The effects on MTHFR were observed at arsenite concentrations not significantly affecting cell viability. We also observed an increase in S-phase recruitment at all concentrations probed. Lower concentrations (< 5 muM) induced cell proliferation, showing a high proportion of BrdU-stained cells, indicating a higher DNA synthesis rate. However, higher concentrations (>= 5 muM) or longer treatment periods induced apoptosis. Arsenite also induced dose-dependent increases in MT1/2 and c-Myc protein levels. The levels of MTHFR were inversely correlated to MT1/2 and c-Myc overexpression and increased S-phase recruitment. Our findings indicate that breast epithelial cells are responsive to arsenite and suggest that exposure may pose a risk for breast cancer. The reductions in MTHFR protein levels contribute to understand the mechanisms underlying the induction of genes influencing growth regulation, such as c-myc and MT1/2. However, further research is needed to ascertain if the effects here reported following short-time and high-dose exposure are relevant for human populations chronically exposed to low arsenic concentrations.

    11. Sodium para-aminosalicylate protected cultured basal ganglia astrocytes from manganese-induced DNA damages and alteration of amino acid neurotransmitter levels.

      PubMed

      Li, Shao-Jun; Luo, Yi-Ni; Li, Yong; Chen, Jing-Wen; Mo, Yu-Huan; Yuan, Zong-Xiang; Ou, Shi-Yan; Ou, Chao-Yan; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Deng, Xiang-Fa

      2016-01-01

      Sodium para-aminosalicylate (PAS-Na) was first applied successfully in clinical treatment of two manganism patients with good prognosis. However, the mechanism of how PAS-Na protects against Mn-induced neurotoxicity is still elusive. The current study was conducted to explore the effects of PAS-Na on Mn-induced basal ganglia astrocyte injury, and the involvement of amino acid neurotransmitter in vitro. Basal ganglia astrocytes were exposed to 500 μM manganese chloride (MnCl2) for 24 hr, following by 50, 150, or 450 μM PAS-Na treatment for another 24 hr. MnCl2 significantly decreased viability of astrocytes and induced DNA damages via increasing the percentage of tail DNA and Olive tail moment of DNA. Moreover, Mn interrupted amino acid neurotransmitters by decreasing Gln levels and increasing Glu, Gly levels. In contrast, PAS-Na treatment reversed the aforementioned Mn-induced toxic effects on basal ganglia astrocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrated that excessive Mn exposure may induce toxic effects on basal ganglia astrocytes, while PAS-Na could protect basal ganglia astrocytes from Mn-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:27665767

    12. Resonance ionization spectroscopy of sodium Rydberg levels using difference frequency generation of high-repetition-rate pulsed Ti:sapphire lasers

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Naubereit, P.; Marín-Sáez, J.; Schneider, F.; Hakimi, A.; Franzmann, M.; Kron, T.; Richter, S.; Wendt, K.

      2016-05-01

      The generation of tunable laser light in the green to orange spectral range has generally been a deficiency of solid-state lasers. Hence, the formalisms of difference frequency generation (DFG) and optical parametric processes are well known, but the DFG of pulsed solid-state lasers was rarely efficient enough for its use in resonance ionization spectroscopy. Difference frequency generation of high-repetition-rate Ti:sapphire lasers was demonstrated for resonance ionization of sodium by efficiently exciting the well-known D1 and D2 lines in the orange spectral range (both ≈589 nm). In order to prove the applicability of the laser system for its use at resonance ionization laser ion sources of radioactive ion beam facilities, the first ionization potential of Na was remeasured by three-step resonance ionization into Rydberg levels and investigating Rydberg convergences. A result of EIP=41449.455 (6) stat(7) syscm-1 was obtained, which is in perfect agreement with the literature value of EIPlit =41449.451(2)cm-1 . A total of 41 level positions for the odd-parity Rydberg series n f 2F5/2,7/2o for principal quantum numbers of 10 ≤n ≤60 were determined experimentally.

    13. Sodium Intake Recommendations: A Subject that Needs to be Reconsidered.

      PubMed

      Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Lopez-Lopez, Jose; Lopez-Lopez, Cristina

      2015-01-01

      Hypertension affects 1 billion people worldwide and is considered the leading cause of death, stroke, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Sodium intake is reported to be a modifiable determinant of hypertension and reductions in its consumption have been widely recommended. Various strategies have been proposed to address the observed epidemic of cardiovascular diseases, particularly in medium and low-income countries. Among these strategies, reducing dietary sodium intake and increasing dietary potassium intake are commonly included in guidelines for the treatment of hypertension and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In the present article, we review the results of recent studies that have raised questions about potential adverse effects associated with low sodium intake on important health outcomes, including cardiovascular diseases and death. It is clear from these studies, that there are contradictory and irreconcilable positions in the interpretation of the evidence, a situation that indicates that there is an urgent need for international randomized controlled trials that consistently demonstrate that the low levels of sodium intake recommended in the guidelines are safe and beneficial for different populations around the world. In the interim, and in accordance with a number of experts, we agree that the current evidence argues against the reduction of dietary sodium as an isolated public health recommendation and that an alternative approach of recommending high quality, potassium rich diets, might achieve greater health benefits, including blood-pressure reduction, than aggressive sodium reduction alone.

    14. Combination of Urinary Sodium/Creatinine Ratio and Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level Predicts Successful Tolvaptan Therapy in Patients With Heart Failure and Volume Overload.

      PubMed

      Sato, Yuichi; Dohi, Kaoru; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Tanimura, Muneyoshi; Takeuchi, Tetsushiro; Sugiura, Emiyo; Sugimoto, Tadafumi; Kumagai, Naoto; Ogura, Toru; Nakamori, Shiro; Fujimoto, Naoki; Yamada, Norikazu; Ito, Masaaki

      2016-01-01

      To evaluate the short-term clinical and hemodynamic effects of tolvaptan therapy and to identify predictors of the therapeutic outcomes, we retrospectively recruited 60 consecutive hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients (70 ± 11 years) with volume overload. The subjects were divided into two groups on the basis of the changes in HF symptom scores and hemodynamic status assessed by right heart catheterization after tolvaptan therapy (median: 7 days). The majority of patients were successfully treated (group 1). However, 22% of patients (group 2) were unsuccessfully treated, in whom 1) the HF symptom score worsened or 2) there was a stationary HF symptom score ≥ 6 points, and mean PCWP > 18 mmHg and mean RAP > 10 mmHg, after tolvaptan therapy. HF symptom scores, hemodynamic parameters, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level improved in group 1, but all of these parameters remained unchanged in group 2. Lower urine sodium/creatinine ratio (UNa/UCr) and higher BNP level at baseline were independently associated with unsuccessful tolvaptan therapy, and UNa/UCr best predicts unsuccessful tolvaptan therapy with a cut-off value of 46.5 mEq/g·Cr (AUC 0.847, 95% CI: 0.718-0.976, sensitivity 77%, specificity 81%, P < 0.01). Double-positive results of UNa/UCr < 46.5 mEq/g·Cr and plasma BNP level > 778 pg/mL predicted unsuccessful tolvaptan therapy with high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 54%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 89%, and accuracy 90%). In summary, short-term tolvaptan therapy ameliorated HF symptoms and provided hemodynamic improvement in the majority of patients, and UNa/UCr and BNP level strongly predicted the therapeutic outcomes. PMID:26973271

    15. Creating a strategy for science-based national policy: Addressing conflicting views on the health risk of low-level ionizing radiation. Final report, Wingspread Conference

      SciTech Connect

      McClellan, Roger O.; Apple, Martin A.

      1998-03-03

      Significant cancer risk for adults exposed to more than 100 millisieverts (10 REM) of ionizing radiation. More research on low-level ionizing radiation is needed in molecular and cellular mechanisms of injury and ongoing exposed populations. Implementation costs should be considered in regulating low-level ionizing radiation. Comparative risk assessment is a powerful tool for risk-based policy formation, and conflicting legal statutes should become harmonized for radiation regulation. More public dialog on low-level radiation is needed. A high level commission should evaluate radiation hazard control practices.

    16. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

      Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

      Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

    17. Sodium fluoroacetate

      Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

      Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

    18. Sodium azide

      Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

      Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

    19. Acifluorfen, sodium

      Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

      Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

    20. Sodium cyanide

      Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

      Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

    21. Sodium bicarbonate induces crystalline wax generation, activates host-resistance, and increases imazalil level in rind wounds of oranges, improving the control of green mold during storage.

      PubMed

      Dore, Antonio; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Venditti, Tullio; D'Hallewin, Guy

      2010-06-23

      Imazalil (IMZ) was quantified in the flavedo and albedo (Citrus fruits outer and inner tissue of the exocarp) of wounded and unwounded Valencia L. Olinda oranges following a 2 min immersion at 25 degrees C in 50, 100, or 250 microg mL(-1) of the fungicide mixture with or without 3% sodium bicarbonate (SBC). The addition of SBC significantly reduced the decay incidence throughout 30 d of storage at 10 degrees C with 95% RH and 6 d of simulated marketing period at 25 degrees C and 75% RH. In unwounded oranges, IMZ uptake was not changed by the coapplication of SBC, and the fungicide was predominantly recovered in the flavedo. To the contrary, in the albedo of wounded fruit, the residue level increased by about 6-fold when the fungicide was applied with SBC. When SBC was coapplied to wounded fruit, the phytoalexin scoparone was induced in the albedo and the accumulation was not affected by IMZ. When fruit was treated with SBC, scanning electron microscopy observations evidenced a production of crystalline wax patches with branched stripes and the magnitude was positively correlated to the salt concentration in the mixture. The generation as fast as 24 h post-treatment, and the different morphology of the new wax suggests a displacement of intracuticular waxes which can affect the fungicide sorption and diffusion coefficient into the rind. PMID:20486661

    22. Citrate, oxalate, sodium, and magnesium levels in fresh juices of three different types of tomatoes: evaluation in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices.

      PubMed

      Yilmaz, Erdal; Batislam, Ertan; Kacmaz, Murat; Erguder, Imge

      2010-06-01

      Fruit and vegetable juices containing citrate may be recommended as an alternative in mild to moderate level hypocitraturic calcium stone formers who cannot tolerate pharmacological treatment. Tomato has been proved a citrate-rich vegetable. Tomato juice usage as citrate sources in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers were evaluated in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices. Ten 100 ml samples were prepared from three different tomato types processed through a blender. These samples were examined in terms of citrate, oxalate, calcium, magnesium, and sodium contents. No difference was detected between the parameters tested in three different tomato juices. Fresh tomato juice may be useful in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers due to its high content of citrate and magnesium, and low content of sodium and oxalate. As the three different types of tomatoes did not differ in terms of citrate, magnesium, sodium, and oxalate content, they may be useful for clinical use if also supported by clinical studies.

    23. Test Your Sodium Smarts

      MedlinePlus

      ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  1. Greater fluctuations in serum sodium levels are associated with increased mortality in children with externalized ventriculostomy drains in a pediatric intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Topjian, Alexis A; Stuart, Amber; Pabalan, Alyssa A.; Clair, Ashleigh; Kilbaugh, Todd J.; Abend, Nicholas S.; Storm, Phillip B.; Berg, Robert A.; Huh, Jimmy W.; Friess, Stuart H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dysnatremia is common in critically ill children due to disruption of hormonal homeostasis. Children with brain injury are at risk for SIADH, cerebral salt wasting and sodium losses due to externalized ventricular drain (EVD) placement. We hypothesized that among pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients managed with an EVD, hyponatremia is common, hyponatremia is associated with seizures and in-hospital mortality, and greater sodium fluctuations are associated with in-hospital mortality. Design Retrospective observational study Setting Tertiary care PICU Patients All pediatric patients treated in the PICU with an EVD from January 2005 to December 2009. Patients were identified by searching the physician order entry database for EVD orders. Hyponatremia was defined as the minimum sodium during patients’ EVD time and was categorized as mild (131-134 meq/L) or moderate-severe (≤130 meq/L). Magnitude of sodium fluctuation was defined as the difference between a patient’s highest and lowest sodium during the time in which an EVD was in use (up to 14 days). Seizure was defined as a clinically evident convulsion during EVD presence. A priori confounders were age, history of epilepsy, and EVD indication. Multivariable regression was performed to test the association between sodium derangements and outcomes. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Three hundred eighty patients were eligible. One hundred nine (29%) had mild hyponatremia, and 30 (8%) moderate-severe hyponatremia. Twenty eight (7%) patients had a seizure while hospitalized. Eighteen patients died (5%) prior to discharge. Survivors had a median daily sodium fluctuation of 1 [0, 5] vs non-survivors 9 [6, 11], (p< 0.001) and a median sodium fluctuation of 5 meq/L [interquartile range 2, 8] vs non-survivors 15 meq/L [9, 24] (p<0.001) during EVD management. After controlling for a priori covariates and potential confounders, hyponatremia was not associated with an increased odds of

  2. Determining the background levels of bismuth in tissues of wild game birds: a first step in addressing the environmental consequences of using bismuth shotshells.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R; Tsuji, L J S; Gough, W A; Karagatzides, J D; Perera, D; Nieboer, E

    2004-11-01

    Bismuth shotshells have been approved as a "nontoxic" alternative to lead in North America. Approval was based on a limited number of studies; even background levels of bismuth in wildfowl were unknown. We report on the concentration of bismuth (and lead) in muscle and liver tissues of wildfowl (Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas crecca, Branta canadensis, Chen caerulescens) harvested with lead shotshell. Average liver-bismuth levels detected in the present study (e.g., teal, 0.05 microg/g dw; mallard, 0.09 microg/g dw) suggest analytical error in other studies examining the effects of bismuth in birds. Significant positive relationships between bismuth- and lead-tissue levels for muscle when all species were combined (and for B. canadensis and C. caerulescens separately) can be explained by noting that bismuth is a contaminant of lead. Thus, more research is recommended to confirm the appropriateness of bismuth as a "nontoxic" shot alternative.

  3. Simultaneous determination of trace levels of ethylmercury and methylmercury in biological samples and vaccines using sodium tetra(n-propyl)borate as derivatizing agent.

    PubMed

    Gibicar, Darija; Logar, Martina; Horvat, Nusa; Marn-Pernat, Andreja; Ponikvar, Rafael; Horvat, Milena

    2007-05-01

    Because of increasing awareness of the potential neurotoxicity of even low levels of organomercury compounds, analytical techniques are required for determination of low concentrations of ethylmercury (EtHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in biological samples. An accurate and sensitive method has been developed for simultaneous determination of methylmercury and ethylmercury in vaccines and biological samples. MeHg and EtHg were isolated by acid leaching (H2SO4-KBr-CuSO4), extraction of MeHg and EtHg bromides into an organic solvent (CH2Cl2), then back-extraction into Milli-Q water. MeHg and EtHg bromides were derivatized with sodium tetrapropylborate (NaBPr4), collected at room temperature on Tenax, separated by isothermal gas chromatography (GC), pyrolysed, and detected by cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV AFS). The repeatability of results from the method was approximately 5-10% for EtHg and 5-15% for MeHg. Detection limits achieved were 0.01 ng g-1 for EtHg and MeHg in blood, saliva, and vaccines and 5 ng g-1 for EtHg and MeHg in hair. The method presented has been shown to be suitable for determination of background levels of these contaminants in biological samples and can be used in studies related to the health effects of mercury and its species in man. This work illustrates the possibility of using hair and blood as potential biomarkers of exposure to thiomersal.

  4. MRP-1 expression levels determine strain-specific susceptibility to sodium arsenic-induced renal injury between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Akihiko; Ishida, Yuko; Wada, Takashi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Mukaida, Naofumi; Kondo, Toshikazu . E-mail: kondot@wakayama-med.ac.jp

    2005-02-15

    To clarify the pathophysiological mechanism underlying acute renal injury caused by acute exposure to arsenic, we subcutaneously injected both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with sodium arsenite (NaAs; 13.5 mg/kg). BALB/c mice exhibited exaggerated elevation of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels, compared with C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, half of BALB/c mice died by 24 h, whereas all C57BL/6 mice survived. Histopathological examination on kidney revealed severe hemorrhages, acute tubular necrosis, neutrophil infiltration, cast formation, and disappearance of PAS-positive brush borders in BALB/c mice, later than 10 h. These pathological changes were remarkably attenuated in C57BL/6 mice, accompanied with lower intrarenal arsenic concentrations, compared with BALB/c mice. Among heavy metal inducible proteins including multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-1, multidrug resistance gene (MDR)-1, metallothionein (MT)-1, and arsenite inducible, cysteine- and histidine-rich RNA-associated protein (AIRAP), intrarenal MDR-1, MT-1, and AIRAP gene expression was enhanced to a similar extent in both strains, whereas NaAs challenge augmented intrarenal MRP-1 mRNA and protein expression levels in C57BL/6 but not BALB/c mice. Moreover, the administration of a specific inhibitor of MRP-1, MK-571, significantly exaggerated acute renal injury in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, MRP-1 is crucially involved in arsenic efflux and eventually prevention of acute renal injury upon acute exposure to NaAs.

  5. From Common Sense Concepts to Scientifically Conditioned Concepts of Chemical Bonding: An Historical and Textbook Approach Designed to Address Learning and Teaching Issues at the Secondary School Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Michael; de Berg, Kevin

    2014-09-01

    This paper selects six key alternative conceptions identified in the literature on student understandings of chemical bonding and illustrates how a historical analysis and a textbook analysis can inform these conceptions and lead to recommendations for improving the teaching and learning of chemical bonding at the secondary school level. The historical analysis and the textbook analysis focus on the concepts of charge, octet, electron pair, ionic, covalent and metallic bonding. Finally, a table of recommendations is made for teacher and student in the light of four fundamental questions and the six alternative conceptions to enhance the quality of the curriculum resources available and the level of student engagement.

  6. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and... level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of...

  7. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and... level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of...

  8. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and... level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of...

  9. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and... level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of...

  10. From Common Sense Concepts to Scientifically Conditioned Concepts of Chemical Bonding: An Historical and Textbook Approach Designed to Address Learning and Teaching Issues at the Secondary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Michael; de Berg, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper selects six key alternative conceptions identified in the literature on student understandings of chemical bonding and illustrates how a historical analysis and a textbook analysis can inform these conceptions and lead to recommendations for improving the teaching and learning of chemical bonding at the secondary school level. The…

  11. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Satureja montana L. essential oil against Clostridium perfringens type A inoculated in mortadella-type sausages formulated with different levels of sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; Alves, Eduardo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2011-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the winter savory (Satureja montana L.) essential oil (EO) against Clostridium perfringens type A (ATCC 3624) inoculated in mortadella-type sausages formulated with different levels of sodium nitrite (NaNO₂: 0 ppm, 100 ppm and 200 ppm) in addition to EO at concentrations of 0.0%, 0.78%, 1.56% and 3.125% stored at 25°C for 30 days. The EO extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (CG-MS) was tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion method for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on C. perfringens. According to compositional analysis of the winter savory EO, 26 chemical compounds were identified, and the major constituents were thymol (28.99%), p-cymene (12.00%), linalool (11.00%) and carvacrol (10.71%). The results obtained showed that EO applied at a concentration of 1.56%, which was defined as the MIC, exhibited antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens in the in vitro assays, and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed structural damage and cell lysis of C. perfringens caused by EO treatment. A synergistic effect between NaNO₂ and EO was observed. In mortadella-type sausages formulated with 100 ppm of NaNO₂ and EO at all concentrations tested, the population of target microorganisms was reduced (p≤0.05) compared to control samples during all storage period. This data suggests the potential combined use of savory EO and minimal amounts of the synthetic additive, NaNO₂ to control C. perfringens in mortadella, which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products. PMID:21131083

  13. Effects of different dl-selenomethionine and sodium selenite levels on growth performance, immune functions and serum thyroid hormones concentrations in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Wang, H; Zhan, X

    2016-06-01

    This trial was conducted in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of different dl-selenomethionine (dl-Se-Met) and sodium selenite (SS) levels on growth performance, immune functions and serum thyroid hormones concentrations in broilers. A total of 840 Ross 308 broilers (7 days old) were allocated by body weight to seven treatments (three replicates of 40 birds each treatment) including (1) basal diet (containing 0.04 mg of selenium (Se)/kg; control) without supplementary Se; (2, 3 and 4) basal diet + 0.05, 0.15 or 0.25 mg/kg Se as SS; (5, 6 and 7) basal diet + 0.05, 0.15 or 0.25 mg/kg Se as dl-Se-Met. The experiment lasted 42 days. The results revealed that dietary Se supplementation improved (p < 0.05) average daily gain, feed efficiency, immune organ index, serum immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and triiodothyronine (T3 ) concentrations and decreased (p < 0.01) thyroxine (T4 )/T3 ratio in serum compared with the control. Broilers receiving the dl-Se-Met-supplemented diets had higher (p < 0.05) feed efficiency, thymus index, the amounts of IgA, IgG, IgM and T3 as well as lower (p < 0.05) serum T4 concentrations and T4 /T3 ratio than those consuming the SS-supplemented diets. Serum IgA and IgM levels of broilers fed 0.15 mg Se/kg were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of broilers fed 0.05 or 0.25 mg Se/kg. In summary, we concluded that dl-Se-Met is more effective than SS in increasing immunity and promoting conversion of T4 to T3 , thus providing an effective way to improve the growth performance of broilers. Besides, based on a consideration of all experiment indices, 0.15 mg Se/kg was suggested to be the optimal level of Se supplementation under the conditions of this study. PMID:26608352

  14. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  15. Variability in measures of reproductive success in laboratory-kept colonies of zebrafish and implications for studies addressing population-level effects of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Paull, Gregory C; Van Look, Katrien J W; Santos, Eduarda M; Filby, Amy L; Gray, D Melati; Nash, John P; Tyler, Charles R

    2008-04-28

    Laboratory tests that quantify reproductive success using model fish species are used to investigate for population-level effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other chemicals discharged into the environment. Even for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), however, one of the most widely used laboratory models, surprisingly little is known about the normal variability in measures of reproductive success and this information is crucial for robust test design. In this study, the dynamics of breeding and inherent variability in egg output/viability and sperm quality were characterized among individuals/colonies and over time in 34 colonies of laboratory-kept zebrafish over a 20-day study period. For this work, a '6 x 6' (six males and six females) colony size was adopted, as this is both environmentally relevant and optimal when considering egg output and animal welfare combined: an initial experiment showed egg output per female increased with decreasing colony size however, there was also a parallel increase in aggressive behavior. Both egg output and viability in '6 x 6' colonies were highly variable among colonies (with co-efficients of variation (CVs) of 30 and 11%, respectively) and over the 20-day study duration (considering egg output and viability of all the colonies combined, the CVs were 20 and 12%, respectively). The patterns of egg production also differed among the '6 x 6' colonies, and they included a cyclical output, a consistent daily output, an infrequent egg output with intermittent days of very high egg output, and an output with no obvious pattern. Sperm quality, measured as percentage motility and curvilinear velocity (VCL), was variable both among individuals within '6 x 6' colonies and across colonies, with percentage motility being the most variable parameter (mean CVs of 82% inter-individual within colonies and 49% inter-colony). Sperm quality did not, however, vary over a 24h period. A minimum number of six replicate '6 x 6' colonies

  16. Residue levels and efficacy of fludioxonil and thiabendazole in controlling postharvest green mold decay in citrus fruit when applied in combination with sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Schirra, Mario

    2013-01-16

    The curative and protective activity of sodium bicarbonate (SBC) at 1% alone or in combination with fludioxonil (FLU), thiabendazole (TBZ), or FLU and TBZ together, between 50 and 600 mg/L, was evaluated on fruit of different citrus species and cultivars. Fruits were either artificially inoculated with a resistant (TBZ-r) or sensitive (TBZ-s) strain of Penicillium digitatum or not inoculated and incubated at 20 °C and 90% relative humidity (RH) for 7 days (incubated fruit) or stored at 1.5 °C for 21 days plus 7 days of simulated marketing conditions at 20 °C and 60% RH. The effectiveness of these treatments was related with treatment-induced changes of epicuticular wax morphology, the mode of distribution of SBC, TBZ, and FLU on the fruit surface, and FLU and TBZ fruit residue levels. SBC alone showed a weak activity against both strains of P. digitatum. Both TBZ and FLU were very effective at all rates used, and their activity markedly increased when combined together or with SBC, even at concentrations of 50-150 mg/L. Fruit treated with SBC either alone or in combination with TBZ and/or FLU increased weight loss, although no treatment damage was detected. Residue levels of TBZ generally increased when TBZ was combined with FLU and/or SBC, whereas those of FLU slightly increased only in treatment where FLU was combined with TBZ and SBC. Initial residues of TBZ and FLU when applied at 600 mg/L were around 2 and 1 mg/kg, respectively, several times below the lowest MRLs set by most important citrus-producing countries. In treatments with SBC or SBC plus TBZ or FLU, SEM observation of the fruit surface showed a smoothing of cuticular wax platelets' surface, whereas ESEM micrographs showed irregular spots of salt deposits of roundish to irregular shape. The apparently uneven distribution of SBC or SBC plus TBZ or FLU or SBC plus TBZ and FLU on fruit might in part reduce the potential beneficial effects of SBC or of fungicide-SBC mixtures. PMID:23256745

  17. Patterned electrical activity modulates sodium channel expression in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Klein, Joshua P; Tendi, Elisabetta A; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Fields, R Douglas; Waxman, Stephen G

    2003-10-15

    Peripheral nerve injury induces changes in the level of gene expression for sodium channels Nav1.3, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 within dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which may contribute to the development of hyperexcitability, ectopic neuronal discharge, and neuropathic pain. The mechanism of this change in sodium channel expression is unclear. Decreased availability of neurotrophic factors following axotomy contributes to these changes in gene transcription, but the question of whether changes in intrinsic neuronal activity levels alone can trigger changes in the expression of these sodium channels has not been addressed. We examined the effect of electrical stimulation on the expression of Nav1.3, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 by using cultured embryonic mouse sensory neurons under conditions in which nerve growth factor (NGF) was not limiting. Expression of Nav1.3 was not significantly changed following stimulation. In contrast, we observed activity-dependent down-regulation of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 mRNA and protein levels after stimulation, as demonstrated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. These results show that a change in neuronal activity can alter the expression of sodium channel genes in a subtype-specific manner, via a mechanism independent of NGF withdrawal. PMID:14515348

  18. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated. PMID:26700884

  19. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated.

  20. Sodium Borohydride/Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells For Space Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, T. I.; Deelo, M. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Sodium Borohydride and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells as they are applied to space applications. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) The Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell; 3) Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell Test Stands; 4) Fuel Cell Comparisons; 5) MEA Performance; 6) Anode Polarization; and 7) Electrode Analysis. The benefits of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and benefits of sodium borohydride as a fuel are also addressed.

  1. Genetics at School Level: Addressing the Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yu-Chien; Reid, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Background: A wide range of studies has offered suggestions why genetics is difficult and some of their key findings are summarised. Underpinning all of this is the way the brain works when handling information. The limitations of working memory capacity offer an interpretation of these difficulties. Purpose: The aim is to confirm that working…

  2. Genetics at school level: addressing the difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yu-Chien; Reid, Norman

    2012-11-01

    Background : A wide range of studies has offered suggestions why genetics is difficult and some of their key findings are summarised. Underpinning all of this is the way the brain works when handling information. The limitations of working memory capacity offer an interpretation of these difficulties Purpose : The aim is to confirm that working memory capacity (and the related concept of field dependency) controls performance in understanding genetics and whether it is possible to improve performance by changing the teaching approach to mininise overload. Programme description : The curriculum in Taiwan in genetics is outlined briefly. A wide range of measurements were made. Using a diagnostic test of understanding of underpinning ideas, the key areas of weakness were detected before the pupils started the course. Sample : Stage 1: 141 students in Taiwan, aged 13, boys and girls, drawn from a cross-section of Taiwanese pupils at this age, following their first course in genetics. Stage 2: 361 students, drawn from a cross-section of Taiwanese pupils at the same age, and divided into two groups (experimental-control) which both encompass the same ability range. Design and methods : Stage 1: test of pre-knowledge using structural communication grids, applied before the course commenced; working memory capacity using the figural intersection test; extent of field dependency using the group embedded figure test; understanding of genetics was measured at end of course; school test data collated. Stage 2: following a completely revised approach, performance in genetics was measured using traditional school tests and a word association test. Student perspectives were measured. Results : The test of pre-knowledge revealed key areas of difficulty. In addition, it was found that working memory capacity and extent of field dependency both correlated extremely highly with all measures of performance. Given that it has been established that working memory capacity controls performance, working memory demand explains why genetics is difficult. It was found that re-structuring the teaching approach to minimise mental overload brought about a very marked improvement in performance. Conclusions : The findings suggest that it is possible to reduce difficulties in understanding genetics by means of teaching re-design to minimise potential working memory overload, with concomitant improvements in learner confidence.

  3. Residue levels, persistence and effectiveness of imazalil against a resistant strain of penicillium digitatum when applied in combination with heat and sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    D'Aquino, S; Angioni, A; Suming, D; Palma, A; Schirra, M

    2013-01-01

    Green and blue molds, respectively caused by Penicillium digitatum Sacc., and P. italicum Wehmer, are the most important postharvest diseases of citrus fruit Postharvest management of these pathogens is mainly based on the application of thiabendazole (TBZ) or imazalil (IMZ) fungicides. However, their intensive and prolonged use has led to the selection of TBZ- IMZ-resistant strains of these pathogens and to a reduction of TBZ and IMZ effectiveness to control postharvest decay. However, while TBZ may become completely ineffective against TBZ-resistant strains of P. digitatum, reduction of IMZ efficacy is only partial, and an effective control of decay can still be achieved by increasing its concentration, heating the treatment-solution and/or combining IMZ with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) or other food additives or natural salts. In this study, 'Desiderio' and 'Nova' mandarins were inoculated with spores of a sensitive strain of P. digitatum to IMZ and TBZ (PDs) or with a strain of P. digitatum with double resistance to both fungicides (PDr) and immersed in IMZ or TBZ emulsions at increasing concentrations up to 1000 mg/L or in IMZ (25, 200 or 400 mg/L), SBC (0.5, 1 or 2%) or IMZ + SBC emulsions either at 20 or 40 degrees C. IMZ was superior to TBZ to control decay of 'Desiderio' mandarins incited by PDs and was also effective to control decay in fruit inoculated with PDr, while TBZ even at the highest rate was completely ineffective. In 'Desiderio' mandarins inoculated with PDs, a complete control of decay was achieved with 25 mg/L IMZ but in fruit inoculated with PDr, 25 mg/L IMZ were ineffective to control decay despite in combination with SBC at 2% a synergistic effect was detected. In contrast, a good control of decay was achieved with 400 mg/L IMZ. In 'Nova' mandarins after 1 week of incubation at 20 degrees C decay incidence in fruit dipped in 400 mg/L at 20 degrees C or 200 mg/L IMZ at 40 degrees C was almost completely inhibited, while the addition of SBC at

  4. Hydrogen Generation Via Sodium Borohydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Richard M.; Wu, Ying

    2003-07-01

    Along with the technological challenges associated with developing fuel cells and hydrogen burning engines, a major issue that must be addressed to ensure the ultimate success of a hydrogen economy is the ability to store and transport hydrogen effectively. Millennium Cell has developed and patented a proprietary system for storing and generating hydrogen gas called Hydrogen on Demand™. The system releases the hydrogen stored in fuel solutions of sodium borohydride as needed through an easily controllable catalytic process. The fuel itself is water-based, rich in hydrogen content, and non-flammable. It can be stored in plastic containers under no pressure. After the hydrogen from the fuel is consumed, the remaining product, sodium metaborate (chemically similar to borax), can be recycled back into fresh fuel. In this paper, an overview of the Hydrogen on Demand™ technology is presented along with data showing the performance characteristics of practical hydrogen generation systems. A brief discussion of sodium borohydride regeneration chemistry is also provided.

  5. Implications of salt and sodium reduction on microbial food safety.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    Excess sodium consumption has been cited as a primary cause of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt (sodium chloride) is considered the main source of sodium in the human diet, and it is estimated that processed foods and restaurant foods contribute 80% of the daily intake of sodium in most of the Western world. However, ample research demonstrates the efficacy of sodium chloride against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in a variety of food systems. Notable examples of the utility and necessity of sodium chloride include the inhibition of growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in processed meats and cheeses. Other sodium salts contributing to the overall sodium consumption are also very important in the prevention of spoilage and/or growth of microorganisms in foods. For example, sodium lactate and sodium diacetate are widely used in conjunction with sodium chloride to prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in ready-to-eat meats. These and other examples underscore the necessity of sodium salts, particularly sodium chloride, for the production of safe, wholesome foods. Key literature on the antimicrobial properties of sodium chloride in foods is reviewed here to address the impact of salt and sodium reduction or replacement on microbiological food safety and quality.

  6. Implications of salt and sodium reduction on microbial food safety.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    Excess sodium consumption has been cited as a primary cause of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt (sodium chloride) is considered the main source of sodium in the human diet, and it is estimated that processed foods and restaurant foods contribute 80% of the daily intake of sodium in most of the Western world. However, ample research demonstrates the efficacy of sodium chloride against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in a variety of food systems. Notable examples of the utility and necessity of sodium chloride include the inhibition of growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in processed meats and cheeses. Other sodium salts contributing to the overall sodium consumption are also very important in the prevention of spoilage and/or growth of microorganisms in foods. For example, sodium lactate and sodium diacetate are widely used in conjunction with sodium chloride to prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in ready-to-eat meats. These and other examples underscore the necessity of sodium salts, particularly sodium chloride, for the production of safe, wholesome foods. Key literature on the antimicrobial properties of sodium chloride in foods is reviewed here to address the impact of salt and sodium reduction or replacement on microbiological food safety and quality. PMID:20301012

  7. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  8. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    SciTech Connect

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

  9. Danaparoid sodium.

    PubMed

    Acostamadiedo, J M; Iyer, U G; Owen, J

    2000-05-01

    Danaparoid sodium (Orgaran, Organon) is a heparinoid glycosamino-glycuronan antithrombotic agent approved for the prophylaxis of post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients undergoing elective hip replacement surgery. Danaparoid is a low molecular weight heparinoid consisting of a mixture of heparan sulphate (84%), dermatan sulphate (12%) and small amounts of chondroitin sulphate (4%), whose antithrombotic activity has been well established. Its pharmacological effect is exerted primarily by inhibiting Factors Xa (FXa) and IIa (FIIa) at a ratio greater than heparin, with a minimal effect on platelet function. Danaparoid exhibits low cross-reactivity with heparin-induced antibodies when compared with heparin or low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), thereby making it an excellent choice for the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). It has excellent bioavailability following s.c. injection. Danaparoid has little effect on routine coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], prothrombin time [PT], and thrombin time [TT]). Patients with elevated serum creatinine should be monitored carefully. For its FDA approved indication (DVT prophylaxis during hip replacement surgery), its cost per day is approximately eight times more than LMWH. Even though monitoring is not routinely necessary according to the manufacturer for its approved indication, monitoring is frequently necessary when it is used in other clinical scenarios. Its higher cost than comparable therapies for DVT prophylaxis and the low availability of the FXa assay in most non-tertiary care hospitals has limited the widespread use of danaparoid. Danaparoid has been found to be effective in the treatment of HIT although this is an off label use, despite being the most frequent reason why danaparoid is used. PMID:11249517

  10. Hippocampal levels and activity of the sodium/potassium transporting ATPase subunit α-3 (AT1A3) are paralleling memory training in the multiple T-maze in the C57BL/6J mouse.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seok; Csaszar, Edina; Jung, Gangsoo; Beuk, Tamara; Höger, Harald; Lubec, Gert

    2012-10-01

    Although the sodium/potassium transporting ATPase subunit alpha-3 (AT1A3) has been linked to memory mechanisms in rodents, regulation of this ATPase in terms of activity and complex levels by memory performance in a land maze has not been shown so far. It was therefore the aim of the study to link memory retrieval in the multiple T-Maze (MTM) to AT1A3 protein levels and activity. C57BL/6J mice were trained in the MTM and euthanized 6h following memory retrieval. Hippocampal membrane proteins were prepared by ultracentrifugation and run on blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Enzyme activity was evaluated using an in-gel method. AT1A3 protein was characterized using mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS). On BN-PAGE a single band was observed at 240 kDa, which corresponds to the dimeric form of the enzyme. Higher levels of AT1A3 complex were seen in trained mice. Also ATPase activity was higher in trained mice, and was observed both at 110 and at 240 kDa. Mass spectrometry unambiguously identified AT1A3 with 98.91% sequence coverage. A series of novel AT1A3 phosphorylation sites were detected. Taken together, it was shown that increased AT1A3 protein levels for the dimer as well as AT1A3 activity represented by the monomer and the dimer were paralleling memory training in the MTM. This may be relevant for understanding the role of the catalytic hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane that generates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions. Herein, we provide evidence for a possible role of AT1A3 in memory mechanisms and support previous findings using different animal models for memory formation.

  11. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, M A H; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Noort, M W; van Raaij, J M A

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers' behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Subjects/methods: Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007–2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Results: Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886 mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627 mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. Conclusions: In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake. PMID:25782426

  12. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  13. Nedocromil sodium (Tilade).

    PubMed

    Bartels, L A; Farrington, E

    1994-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a well-tolerated antiasthmatic agent for initial therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not well controlled with inhaled beta-2 agonists and/or where methylxanthines are indicated. Like cromolyn sodium, nedocromil sodium offers a potential alternative to inhaled corticosteroids as maintenance therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not adequately controlled by bronchodilators. Furthermore, cromolyn sodium and nedocromil sodium may also reduce the usage of corticosteroids and provide some additional symptom control in patients whose asthma is not suitably controlled by optimal doses of inhaled corticosteroids. Both nedocromil sodium and cromolyn sodium are more efficacious than placebo for controlling of asthma, however, few studies have compared the effectiveness of cromolyn versus nedocromil at this time. Further experience and comparison studies of nedocromil sodium with cromolyn sodium in children are required before the role of nedocromil sodium as maintenance treatment in young asthmatic patients can be defined.

  14. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  15. Tremor due to sodium valproate.

    PubMed

    Hyman, N M; Dennis, P D; Sinclair, K G

    1979-08-01

    Four patients developed postural tremor after ingestion of sodium valproate. The tremor was recorded by a variable-capacitance transducer and was of the "benign essential" type. The dosages of sodium valproate varied between 1000 mg and 2000 mg daily and serum levels were between 34.9 microgram per milliliter and 154.3 microgram per milliliter. Tremor was ameliorated in two cases when the dosage was reduced. In only one case was the serum level in the toxic range for our laboratory. The pharmacology of essential tremor is unknown; production of a similar tremor by a drug could serve as a biochemical model. PMID:379690

  16. Circadian Models of Serum Potassium, Sodium, and Calcium Concentrations in Healthy Individuals and Their Application to Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulations at Individual Level

    PubMed Central

    Fijorek, Kamil; Puskulluoglu, Miroslawa

    2013-01-01

    In the article a brief description of the biological basis of the regulation of human biological clocks was presented in order to introduce the role of circadian rhythms in physiology and specifically in the pharmacological translational tools based on the computational physiology models to motivate the need to provide models of circadian fluctuation in plasma cations. The main aim of the study was to develop statistical models of the circadian rhythm of potassium, sodium, and calcium concentrations in plasma. The developed ion models were further tested by assessing their influence on QT duration (cardiac endpoint) as simulated by the biophysically detailed models of human left ventricular cardiomyocyte. The main results are model equations along with an electronic supplement to the article that contains a fully functional implementation of all models. PMID:24078832

  17. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    PubMed

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. PMID:27105154

  18. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  19. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  20. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  1. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  2. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  3. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  4. Efficiency of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the adverse effects of graded levels of aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Horn, N; Applegate, T J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) adsorbent to ameliorate the adverse effects of 0.5 to 2 mg of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)/kg in broiler chicks. The study consisted of 8 dietary treatments, including 4 concentrations of AFB1 (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) with or without HSCAS (0.5%) fed to 8 replicate cages per diet (6 males chicks per cage) from 0 to 21 d of age. Cumulative feed intake, BW gain (P < 0.0001), and G:F (P = 0.004) of birds fed the 2 mg of AFB1/kg of diet were significantly lower in comparison with birds fed 0 to 1 mg of AFB1/kg. Relative liver weight was increased in the 2 mg of AFB1/kg group (P < 0.0001). Dietary HSCAS improved cumulative BW gain (main effect P = 0.06), particularly from 14 to 21 d of age (P = 0.037). Dietary HSCAS also reversed the increase in relative liver weight for birds fed AFB1 (P = 0.019). Dietary AFB1 negatively affected major serum parameters (albumin, total protein, globulin, phosphorus, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, and creatine phosphokinase), whereas supplementation with HSCAS partially alleviated the affected serum biochemistry. In addition, serum complement activity and liver gene expression were negatively affected by 2 mg of AFB1/kg. The HSCAS supplement increased the liver expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05). Results from this study indicate that dietary supplementation with HSCAS can effectively improve BW gain and partially ameliorate aflatoxicosis for broiler chicks fed AFB1-contaminated feeds.

  5. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  6. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  7. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  8. 40 CFR 141.41 - Special monitoring for sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special monitoring for sodium. 141.41... and Prohibition on Lead Use § 141.41 Special monitoring for sodium. (a) Suppliers of water for... distribution system for the determination of sodium concentration levels; samples must be collected...

  9. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  10. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  11. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  12. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812

  13. Determination of Sodium in Salt Substitute by Flame Emission Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodney, David E.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental procedures and typical student data/results are provided for an experiment determining the sodium (parts per million) in salt substitute with an error of a few percent. Problems encountered with the technique are addressed. (Author/JN)

  14. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  15. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  16. Sodium intake and blood pressure in children.

    PubMed

    Hanevold, Coral D

    2013-10-01

    Elevation of blood pressure (BP) and the risk for progression to hypertension (HTN) is of increasing concern in children and adolescents. Indeed, it is increasingly recognized that target organ injury may begin with even low levels of BP elevation. Sodium intake has long been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for HTN. While it seems clear that sodium impacts BP in children, its effects may be enhanced by other factors including obesity and increasing age. Evidence from animal and human studies indicates that sodium may have adverse consequences on the cardiovascular system independent of HTN. Thus, moderation of sodium intake over a lifetime may reduce risk for cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood. An appetite for salt is acquired, and intake beyond our need is almost universal. Considering that eating habits in childhood have been shown to track into adulthood, modest sodium intake should be advocated as part of a healthy lifestyle.

  17. Sodium Analysis in Whole Blood of Athletes Using NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2010-08-04

    In this investigation the sodium levels in blood were analyzed in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill (LABEX and UNICAMP) by NAA. These data were compared with the rest condition (before starting the exercise program) as well as with the sodium levels of the healthy group (control group) select from Blood Banks. The results showed alterations in sodium levels of the athletes during the exercise training, mainly increase, suggesting the necessity of its evaluation during physical activities.

  18. Sodium Analysis in Whole Blood of Athletes Using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Nunes, Lázaro A. S.; Macedo, Denise V.

    2010-08-01

    In this investigation the sodium levels in blood were analyzed in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill (LABEX and UNICAMP) by NAA. These data were compared with the rest condition (before starting the exercise program) as well as with the sodium levels of the healthy group (control group) select from Blood Banks. The results showed alterations in sodium levels of the athletes during the exercise training, mainly increase, suggesting the necessity of its evaluation during physical activities.

  19. Sodium remote from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Schneider, N. M.

    1981-12-01

    Measurements of sodium emission lines originating in the middle Jupiter magnetosphere are measured, confirming the wide dispersal of neutral sodium in the Jovian system in at least two distinct manifestations. Candidate neutral transport processes in the context of the observed kinematical signatures are discussed. It is argued that the normal emission feature is produced by sodium atoms on bound elliptical orbits originating in the Io sodium cloud but with apojove in the field of view. Observations of the fast sodium feature indicate that atoms episodically acquire a broad range of line-of-sight velocities above the Jupiter gravitational escape speed and far above the speeds characteristic of surface-sputtered atoms. Three suggested reactions are distinguished according to (1) production rates based on estimated plasmaspheric properties, (2) kinematical signature, and (3) the timing of occurrences of the fast sodium feature.

  20. Chlorine Is an Oxide, Heat Causes Molecules to Melt, and Sodium Reacts Badly in Chlorine: A Survey of the Background Knowledge of One A-Level Chemistry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that surveying what new students understand about the basics of a subject can be illuminating. Presents a case study of A-level chemistry students and suggests that, although the details of what was uncovered are idiosyncratic, the paucity of understanding of fundamental concepts may be common. Presents suggestions for responding to such a…

  1. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  2. Sodium in the food supply: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, John A; Beauchamp, Gary K; Drewnowski, Adam; Johnson, Guy H

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on proceedings from the Symposium on Sodium in the Food Supply: Challenges and Opportunities, sponsored by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute, at Experimental Biology 2010 in Anaheim, California. The symposium aimed to address the issue of dietary sodium and its consequences for public health. Presenters spoke on a variety of key topics, including salt taste reception mechanisms and preferences, methods and measures to assess sodium in the US food supply, and considerations regarding the reduction of sodium in processed foods. Information from these presentations, as well as literature references, are provided in this article. PMID:23282251

  3. SIMPLIFIED SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, R.W.

    1963-03-01

    This patent relates to a nuclear power reactor comprising a reactor vessel, shielding means positioned at the top of said vessel, means sealing said reactor vessel to said shielding means, said vessel containing a quantity of sodium, a core tank, unclad graphite moderator disposed in said tank, means including a plurality of process tubes traversing said tank for isolating said graphite from said sodium, fuel elements positioned in said process tubes, said core tank being supported in spaced relation to the walls and bottom of said reactor vessel and below the level of said sodium, neutron shielding means positioned adjacent said core tank between said core tank and the walls of said vessel, said neutron shielding means defining an annuiar volume adjacent the inside wall of said reactor vessel, inlet plenum means below said core tank for providing a passage between said annular volume and said process tubes, heat exchanger means removably supported from the first-named shielding means and positioned in said annular volume, and means for circulating said sodium over said neutron shielding means down through said heat exchanger, across said inlet plenum and upward through said process tubes, said last-named means including electromagnetic pumps located outside said vessel and supported on said vessel wall between said heat exchanger means and said inlet plenum means. (AEC)

  4. Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, B.A.

    1995-03-15

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock & Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing.

  5. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor Increases Circulating Zinc-Α2-Glycoprotein Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xin; Wang, Xuemei; Li, Haopeng; Li, Ling; Zhang, Guohao; Yang, Mengliu; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Hua; Yang, Gangyi; Gao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    ZAG has recently been characterized as a potent metabolic regulator, but the effect of anti-diabetic agents on ZAG in humans remains unknown. Our aim was to study the effects of SGLT2 inhibitor on circulating ZAG and ADI in nT2DM. 162 subjects with nT2DM were treated by a placebo or DAPA. After 3-months of DAPA therapy, HbA1c, FBG, 2h-PBG, FFA, TG, blood pressure, BMI, WHR, body weight, FAT%, FINS, and HOMA-IR in T2DM patients decreased significantly, whereas HDL-C was significantly increased. Importantly, circulating ZAG and ADI levels in these patients were also significantly increased after DAPA therapy. Basal ZAG levels were associated with changes in BMI, FAT%, TC, HbA1c, HDL-C and ADI at post-treatment, whereas basal ADI levels were associated with changes in FAT%, TC, HbA1c, FFA and HDL-c. In vitro, DAPA treatment showed increased ZAG expression and secretion in HepG2 cells. When combined with a PPAR-γinhibitor GW9662, the effect of DAPA on ZAG was abrogated. These findings suggest that circulating ZAG can be regulated by DAPA, and DAPA promotes the expression and secretion of ZAG in the liver via the activation of PPAR-γ. The changes in ZAG induced by DAPA may play a physiologic role in enhancing insulin sensitivity. PMID:27611858

  6. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor Increases Circulating Zinc-Α2-Glycoprotein Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xin; Wang, Xuemei; Li, Haopeng; Li, Ling; Zhang, Guohao; Yang, Mengliu; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Hua; Yang, Gangyi; Gao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    ZAG has recently been characterized as a potent metabolic regulator, but the effect of anti-diabetic agents on ZAG in humans remains unknown. Our aim was to study the effects of SGLT2 inhibitor on circulating ZAG and ADI in nT2DM. 162 subjects with nT2DM were treated by a placebo or DAPA. After 3-months of DAPA therapy, HbA1c, FBG, 2h-PBG, FFA, TG, blood pressure, BMI, WHR, body weight, FAT%, FINS, and HOMA-IR in T2DM patients decreased significantly, whereas HDL-C was significantly increased. Importantly, circulating ZAG and ADI levels in these patients were also significantly increased after DAPA therapy. Basal ZAG levels were associated with changes in BMI, FAT%, TC, HbA1c, HDL-C and ADI at post-treatment, whereas basal ADI levels were associated with changes in FAT%, TC, HbA1c, FFA and HDL-c. In vitro, DAPA treatment showed increased ZAG expression and secretion in HepG2 cells. When combined with a PPAR-γinhibitor GW9662, the effect of DAPA on ZAG was abrogated. These findings suggest that circulating ZAG can be regulated by DAPA, and DAPA promotes the expression and secretion of ZAG in the liver via the activation of PPAR-γ. The changes in ZAG induced by DAPA may play a physiologic role in enhancing insulin sensitivity. PMID:27611858

  7. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor Increases Circulating Zinc-Α2-Glycoprotein Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xin; Wang, Xuemei; Li, Haopeng; Li, Ling; Zhang, Guohao; Yang, Mengliu; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Hua; Yang, Gangyi; Gao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    ZAG has recently been characterized as a potent metabolic regulator, but the effect of anti-diabetic agents on ZAG in humans remains unknown. Our aim was to study the effects of SGLT2 inhibitor on circulating ZAG and ADI in nT2DM. 162 subjects with nT2DM were treated by a placebo or DAPA. After 3-months of DAPA therapy, HbA1c, FBG, 2h-PBG, FFA, TG, blood pressure, BMI, WHR, body weight, FAT%, FINS, and HOMA-IR in T2DM patients decreased significantly, whereas HDL-C was significantly increased. Importantly, circulating ZAG and ADI levels in these patients were also significantly increased after DAPA therapy. Basal ZAG levels were associated with changes in BMI, FAT%, TC, HbA1c, HDL-C and ADI at post-treatment, whereas basal ADI levels were associated with changes in FAT%, TC, HbA1c, FFA and HDL-c. In vitro, DAPA treatment showed increased ZAG expression and secretion in HepG2 cells. When combined with a PPAR-γinhibitor GW9662, the effect of DAPA on ZAG was abrogated. These findings suggest that circulating ZAG can be regulated by DAPA, and DAPA promotes the expression and secretion of ZAG in the liver via the activation of PPAR-γ. The changes in ZAG induced by DAPA may play a physiologic role in enhancing insulin sensitivity.

  8. [Effect of triamcinolone acetonide, montelukast, nedocromil sodium and formoterol on eosinophil blood counts, ECP serum levels and clinical progression of asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Iwona; Grzelewski, Tomasz; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Majak, Paweł; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Górski, Paweł; Kuna, Piotr

    2002-03-01

    Eosinophil-mediated damage to the respiratory epithelium is a major pathogenetic mechanism in asthma. Glucocorticoids have confirmed antiinflammatory properties and effect of formoterol, montelukast and nedocromil on markers of inflammation has been studied. Eosinophil blood counts and eosinophil cation protein (ECP) serum level are often use as markers of clinical monitoring of the disease activity. To evaluate the effect of treatment on allergic inflammation, we measured eosinophil blood counts and ECP serum level, and clinical parameters before and after 4 weeks treatment with triamcinolon, montelukast, nedocromil, formoterol. It was 8 week, placebo-controlled and randomized, double blind trial of 154 children with moderate atopic asthma. Patients were randomly allocated to receive 400 mg triamcinolon (n = 28), 5 or 10 mg (according to age) montelukast (n = 27), 16 mg nedocromil (n = 26), 24 micrograms formoterol (n = 28) or placebo (n = 45). 140 children completed the study. After treatment with triamcinolon and montelukast eosinophil blood counts significantly decreased, after treatment with triamcinolon, montelukast and nedocromil ECP serum level significantly decreased; all clinical parameters improved after treatment with each drug; treatment with triamcinolon had the strongest effect on most parameters (except of FEV1). Mean eosinophil blood counts before and after treatment with triamcinolon were 277.4 and 187.2 cells/mm3 respectively (p < 0.001); with montelukast were 279.6 and 250.7 cells/mm3 respectively (p = 0.002); with nedocromil were 181.7 and 170.1 cells/mm3 respectively (p < 0.183); with formoterol were 276.4 and 264.1 cells/mm3 respectively (p = 0.2). Mean ECP serum levels before and after treatment with triamcinolon were 94.3 and 63.5 micrograms/l respectively (p < 0.001); with montelukast were 85.1 micrograms/l and 71.2 micrograms/l respectively (p < 0.001); with nedocromil were 92.6 and 80.1 micrograms/l respectively (p < 0.001); with

  9. Low dietary sodium is anxiogenic in rats.

    PubMed

    Leshem, M

    2011-07-01

    It is commonly believed that salt intake is required solely to maintain mineralofluid balance, and that its excessive intake is pathophysiological. Yet, apart from the increased intake of sodium-rich foods caused by perinatal sodium loss, the determinants of human salt intake, its excess and persistence, are unknown. One suggestion is that high salt intake may be adaptive in coping with daily adversity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of low dietary sodium in models of depression and anxiety, on chronic mild stress (CMS), and on acute unpredictable stressors. We find that low dietary sodium exacerbates anxiety in the elevated maze and open field. However, it does not exacerbate modeled depression or anxiety in chronically and acutely stressed rats. We find that CMS-induced anhedonia reduces 1.5% NaCl as well as 5% sucrose intake. The reduction in NaCl intake is specific to depression insofar as it did not occur after repeated acute stressors. The reduction occurred despite sodium restriction. Thus while sodium restriction is anxiogenic, it does not exacerbate preexisting depression or anxiety in clearly demarcated behavioral models. These psychological dimensions of salt intake are only now being addressed experimentally, and the ramifications for its control, and for individuals vulnerable to depression or stress, require clarification.

  10. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286–4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the

  11. Dietary sodium and health: more than just blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, William B; Edwards, David G; Jurkovitz, Claudine T; Weintraub, William S

    2015-03-17

    Sodium is essential for cellular homeostasis and physiological function. Excess dietary sodium has been linked to elevations in blood pressure (BP). Salt sensitivity of BP varies widely, but certain subgroups tend to be more salt sensitive. The mechanisms underlying sodium-induced increases in BP are not completely understood but may involve alterations in renal function, fluid volume, fluid-regulatory hormones, the vasculature, cardiac function, and the autonomic nervous system. Recent pre-clinical and clinical data support that even in the absence of an increase in BP, excess dietary sodium can adversely affect target organs, including the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and brain. In this review, the investigators review these issues and the epidemiological research relating dietary sodium to BP and cardiovascular health outcomes, addressing recent controversies. They also provide information and strategies for reducing dietary sodium.

  12. Test Plan: Phase 1 demonstration of 3-phase electric arc melting furnace technology for vitrifying high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-05-31

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of electric arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384216] is the US Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes feed preparation activities and melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a 3-phase electric arc (carbon electrode) furnace.

  13. Test plan for evaluation of plasma melter technology for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Gass, W.R.; D`Amico, N.

    1994-10-20

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384212] is the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) in Pittsburgh, PA. WSTC authors of the test plan are D. F. McLaughlin, E. J. Lahoda, W. R. Gass, and N. D`Amico. The WSTC Program Manager for this test is D. F. McLaughlin. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass frit with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a plasma arc fired furnace.

  14. Addressing polarisation in science.

    PubMed

    Earp, Brian D

    2015-09-01

    Ploug and Holm argue that polarisation in scientific communities can generate conflicts of interest for individual researchers. Their proposed solution to this problem is that authors should self-report whether they are polarised on conflict of interest disclosure forms. I argue that this is unlikely to work. This is because any author with the self-awareness and integrity to identify herself as polarised would be unlikely to conduct polarised research to begin with. Instead, I suggest that it is the role of (associate-level) editors of journals to detect and report on polarisation. One consequence of this view is that they need to be sufficiently familiar with the field of research they are evaluating to know whether polarisation is at stake.

  15. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  16. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  17. Role of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus in sodium sensing and sodium appetite.

    PubMed

    Xing, Dan; Wu, Yuehong; Li, Guangling; Song, Siyuan; Liu, Yuepeng; Liu, He; Wang, Xing; Fei, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Licai

    2015-08-01

    The brainstem plays an important role in controlling sodium and water homeostasis. It is a major regulatory site for autonomic and motor functions. Moreover, it integrates cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signals with neuronal and hormonal signals. Evidence suggests that the CSF-contacting nucleus (CSF-CN) transmits and integrates CSF signals, but, the definitive role of CSF-CN in sodium homeostasis is poorly understood. In this study, we used c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activity and causing colocalization of Nax channel and 5-HT. This proved that CSF-CN played a role in sensing the increase of CSF sodium level. Then, we determined the role of the CSF-contacting nucleus in increasing the sodium appetite of rats. So, we performed targeted lesion of the CSF-contacting nucleus in the brainstem using the cholera toxin subunit B-saporin (CB-SAP), a cytotoxin coupled to cholera toxin subunit B. The lesion of the CSF-CN showed decreased and degenerative neurons, while sodium appetite have increased and Fos immunocytochemistry detected neuronal activity in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN), but not in the subfornical organ (SFO) and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). These results indicate that the CSF-CN plays an important role in sensing CSF sodium level and satiating sodium appetite by influencing the LPBN but not SFO and OVLT. The Nax channel and 5-HT might be the molecular mechanisms through which contribute to sodium homeostasis.

  18. Dissolution and ionization of sodium superoxide in sodium-oxygen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinsoo; Park, Hyeokjun; Lee, Byungju; Seong, Won Mo; Lim, Hee-Dae; Bae, Youngjoon; Kim, Haegyeom; Kim, Won Keun; Ryu, Kyoung Han; Kang, Kisuk

    2016-02-01

    With the demand for high-energy-storage devices, the rechargeable metal-oxygen battery has attracted attention recently. Sodium-oxygen batteries have been regarded as the most promising candidates because of their lower-charge overpotential compared with that of lithium-oxygen system. However, conflicting observations with different discharge products have inhibited the understanding of precise reactions in the battery. Here we demonstrate that the competition between the electrochemical and chemical reactions in sodium-oxygen batteries leads to the dissolution and ionization of sodium superoxide, liberating superoxide anion and triggering the formation of sodium peroxide dihydrate (Na2O2.2H2O). On the formation of Na2O2.2H2O, the charge overpotential of sodium-oxygen cells significantly increases. This verification addresses the origin of conflicting discharge products and overpotentials observed in sodium-oxygen systems. Our proposed model provides guidelines to help direct the reactions in sodium-oxygen batteries to achieve high efficiency and rechargeability.

  19. What Determines Human Sodium Intake: Policy or Physiology?12345

    PubMed Central

    McCarron, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Past and current U.S. sodium and health policy focused on population-wide reductions in sodium intake. Underlying that policy are a number of assumptions that recent scientific publications challenged. The assumptions include the following: 1) that current intakes are excessive; 2) that the “healthy range” must be below current intakes; 3) that sodium intake can be substantially reduced by public policy; 4) that human intake is dictated by the sodium content of the food supply; and 5) that, unlike all other essential nutrients in which a healthy range is defined by a Gaussian distribution, lower sodium intake is always better. Drawing on the most current published evidence, this review addresses each of these long-standing assumptions. Based on worldwide surveys that assessed sodium intake by 24-h urinary sodium measurements, it is now evident that, across 45 societies and 5 decades, humans consume a reproducible, narrow range of sodium: ∼2600–4800 mg/d. This range is independent of the food supply, verifiable in randomized controlled trials, consistent with the physiologic regulators of sodium intake and is not modifiable by public policy interventions. These findings indicate that human sodium intake is controlled by physiology and cannot be modified by public health policies. PMID:25469402

  20. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  1. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Sodium Bearing Waste - Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Victor Levon

    2002-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management, Section I.1.C, requires that all radioactive waste subject to Department of Energy Order 435.1 be managed as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or low-level radioactive waste. Determining the radiological classification of the sodium-bearing waste currently in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility inventory is important to its proper treatment and disposition. This report presents the technical basis for making the determination that the sodium-bearing waste is waste incidental to spent fuel reprocessing and should be managed as mixed transuranic waste. This report focuses on the radiological characteristics of the sodiumbearing waste. The report does not address characterization of the nonradiological, hazardous constituents of the waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements.

  2. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et

  3. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  4. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  5. A comparison of sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate products.

    PubMed

    Coates, D

    1985-03-01

    A comparison of commercial sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) products was made. Solutions of NaOCl and NaDCC containing the same levels of available chlorine (av.Cl) exhibited very similar bactericidal activities, despite significant differences in pH. A level of 12.5 ppm av. Cl achieved a greater than 5 log 10 reduction of Staphylococcus aureus in 2 min. A level of 5 ppm av.Cl achieved a greater than 5 log 10 reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2 min whilst approximately 100 ppm av.Cl achieved the same reduction in the presence of 1% horse serum, and approximately 200 ppm av.Cl in the presence of 2% horse serum, indicating inactivation levels of around 95 and 97.5% respectively. Tablets of NaDCC were stable but solutions were unstable and decomposed much faster than NaOCl solutions of the same strength. Batch-to-batch variability of different NaOCl and NaDCC products was investigated; whilst NaDCC products always contained the minimum level of av.Cl specified, concentrated NaOCl products sometimes did not due to inherent instability. PMID:2859320

  6. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  7. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  8. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  9. Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

    2008-03-01

    Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tens of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass.

  10. Sub-chronic testosterone treatment increases the levels of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-α, β and γ in the kidney of orchidectomized adult male Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone has been reported to cause blood pressure to increase. However mechanisms that underlie the effect of this hormone on this physiological parameter are currently not well understood. The aims of this study were to investigate effects of testosterone on expression of α, β and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in kidneys, the channel known to be involved in Na+ reabsorption, which subsequently can affect the blood pressure. Methods. Adult male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were orchidectomized fourteen days prior to receiving seven days treatment with testosterone propionate (125 µg/kg/day or 250 µg/kg/day) with or without flutamide (androgen receptor blocker) or finasteride (5α-reductase inhibitor). Following sacrifice, the kidneys were removed and were subjected for α, β and γ-ENaC protein and mRNA expression analyses by Western blotting and Real-time PCR (qPCR) respectively. The distribution of α, β and γ-ENaC proteins in kidneys were observed by immunofluorescence. Results. The α, β and γ-ENaC proteins and mRNA levels in kidneys were enhanced in rats which received testosterone-only treatment. In these rats, α, β and γ-ENaC proteins were distributed in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons. Co-treatment with flutamide or finasteride resulted in the levels of α, β and γ-ENaC proteins and mRNAs in kidneys to decrease. In conclusions, increases in α, β and γ-ENaC protein and mRNA levels in kidneys mainly in the distal tubules and collecting ducts under testosterone influence might lead to enhance Na+ reabsorption which subsequently might cause an increase in blood pressure. PMID:27413634

  11. Sub-chronic testosterone treatment increases the levels of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-α, β and γ in the kidney of orchidectomized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Loh, Su Yi; Giribabu, Nelli; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone has been reported to cause blood pressure to increase. However mechanisms that underlie the effect of this hormone on this physiological parameter are currently not well understood. The aims of this study were to investigate effects of testosterone on expression of α, β and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in kidneys, the channel known to be involved in Na(+) reabsorption, which subsequently can affect the blood pressure. Methods. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were orchidectomized fourteen days prior to receiving seven days treatment with testosterone propionate (125 µg/kg/day or 250 µg/kg/day) with or without flutamide (androgen receptor blocker) or finasteride (5α-reductase inhibitor). Following sacrifice, the kidneys were removed and were subjected for α, β and γ-ENaC protein and mRNA expression analyses by Western blotting and Real-time PCR (qPCR) respectively. The distribution of α, β and γ-ENaC proteins in kidneys were observed by immunofluorescence. Results. The α, β and γ-ENaC proteins and mRNA levels in kidneys were enhanced in rats which received testosterone-only treatment. In these rats, α, β and γ-ENaC proteins were distributed in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons. Co-treatment with flutamide or finasteride resulted in the levels of α, β and γ-ENaC proteins and mRNAs in kidneys to decrease. In conclusions, increases in α, β and γ-ENaC protein and mRNA levels in kidneys mainly in the distal tubules and collecting ducts under testosterone influence might lead to enhance Na(+) reabsorption which subsequently might cause an increase in blood pressure. PMID:27413634

  12. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  13. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat hyperkalemia (increased amounts of potassium in the body). Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is in a class of medications called potassium-removing agents. It works by removing excess potassium ...

  14. Meige syndrome: double-blind crossover study of sodium valproate.

    PubMed Central

    Snoek, J W; van Weerden, T W; Teelken, A W; van den Burg, W; Lakke, J P

    1987-01-01

    A double-blind crossover study of sodium valproate and placebo was conducted in five patients with Meige syndrome. CSF neurotransmitter studies were performed at the end of each treatment period. GABA levels were not influenced by the administration of sodium valproate. An increase in HVA levels was observed in every patient, which may reflect an increase in central dopaminergic activity. This finding may explain the trend towards clinical deterioration which was observed during treatment with sodium valproate. Sodium valproate appears to be ineffective in Meige syndrome. PMID:3121795

  15. Deranged sodium to sudden death

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Colleen E; Chen-Izu, Ye; Bers, Donald M; Belardinelli, Luiz; Boyden, Penelope A; Csernoch, Laszlo; Despa, Sanda; Fermini, Bernard; Hool, Livia C; Izu, Leighton; Kass, Robert S; Lederer, W Jonathan; Louch, William E; Maack, Christoph; Matiazzi, Alicia; Qu, Zhilin; Rajamani, Sridharan; Rippinger, Crystal M; Sejersted, Ole M; O'Rourke, Brian; Weiss, James N; Varró, András; Zaza, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In February 2014, a group of scientists convened as part of the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium to bring together experimental and mathematical modelling perspectives and discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. This paper summarizes the topics of presentation and discussion from the symposium, with a focus on the role of aberrant sodium channels and abnormal sodium homeostasis in cardiac arrhythmias and pharmacotherapy from the subcellular scale to the whole heart. Two following papers focus on Na+ channel structure, function and regulation, and Na+/Ca2+ exchange and Na+/K+ ATPase. The UC Davis Cardiovascular Symposium is a biannual event that aims to bring together leading experts in subfields of cardiovascular biomedicine to focus on topics of importance to the field. The focus on Na+ in the 2014 symposium stemmed from the multitude of recent studies that point to the importance of maintaining Na+ homeostasis in the heart, as disruption of homeostatic processes are increasingly identified in cardiac disease states. Understanding how disruption in cardiac Na+-based processes leads to derangement in multiple cardiac components at the level of the cell and to then connect these perturbations to emergent behaviour in the heart to cause disease is a critical area of research. The ubiquity of disruption of Na+ channels and Na+ homeostasis in cardiac disorders of excitability and mechanics emphasizes the importance of a fundamental understanding of the associated mechanisms and disease processes to ultimately reveal new targets for human therapy. PMID:25772289

  16. [Sodium determination in biological fluids].

    PubMed

    Cristol, J-P; Balint, B; Canaud, B; Daurés, M-F

    2007-09-01

    Electrolyte disorders are frequently observed in nephrology and intensive care unit department and Na determination is routinely performed in biochemistry laboratories. Three methods are currently available. Flame photometry remains the reference method. With this method the serum sample is diluted before the actual measurement is obtained. Results are expressed as molarity (per Liter of plasma). Potentiometric methods have an increasing importance due to the advances in ion sensitive (selective) electrodes (ISE). Whereas the instruments for routine chemical analysis typically use indirect potentiometry (involving te dilution of samples) to measure sodium levels, the equipment for measuring arterial blood gases use direct potentiometry without any dilution. Thus, results obtained with indirect potentiometry are expressed in molarity (per liter of plasma) while results obtained with direct potentiometry are initially given in morality (per kg of plasma water) then converted in molarity. Analytical performances are in all cases satisfactory and therefore all the methods could be used in both normal and pathological ranges. Methods involving sample dilution such as flame photometry or indirect potentiometry, the serum sodium value would be expected to be low in case of decrease plasma water (pseudohyponatremia). By contrast, with direct potentiometry where no sample dilution takes place, no interference would be expected since the activity of sodium in the water phase only is being measured. Thus, the classical pseudohyponatremia observed with hyperlipemia or paraproteinemia are not further observed with direct potentiometry. These differences in methodology should be taken into account to explain discrepancies between results obtained with classical biochemistry analyser and with blood gas apparatus.

  17. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.; Lambert, J.; Hayes, S.; Sackett, J.; Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  18. Phenomenological studies on sodium for CSP applications: A safety review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijo, Kenneth M.; Andraka, Charles E.

    2016-05-01

    Sodium Heat transfer fluids (HTF) such as sodium, can achieve temperatures above 700°C to obtain power cycle performance improvements for reducing large infrastructure costs of high-temperature systems. Current concentrating solar power (CSP) sensible HTF's (e.g. air, salts) have poor thermal conductivity, and thus low heat transfer capabilities, requiring a large receiver. The high thermal conductivity of sodium has demonstrated high heat transfer rates on dish and towers systems, which allow a reduction in receiver area by a factor of two to four, reducing re-radiation and convection losses and cost by a similar factor. Sodium produces saturated vapor at pressures suitable for transport starting at 600°C and reaches one atmosphere at 870°C, providing a wide range of suitable operating conditions that match proposed high temperature, isothermal power cycles. This advantage could increase the efficiency while lowering the cost of CSP tower systems. Although there are a number of desirable thermal performance advantages associated with sensible sodium, its propensity to rapidly oxidize presents safety challenges. This investigation presents a literature review that captures historical operations/handling lessons for advanced sodium receiver designs, and the current state-of-knowledge related to sodium combustion behavior. Technical and operational solutions addressing sodium safety and applications in CSP will be discussed, including unique safety hazards and advantages using latent sodium. Lessons obtained from the nuclear industry with sensible and latent systems will also be discussed in the context of safety challenges and risk mitigation solutions.

  19. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  20. [The effect of triamcinolone acetonide, montelukast, nedocromil sodium, formoterol on levels levels of sICAM-1, sIL-2R in serum and clinical course of asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Iwona; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Majak, Paweł; Grzelewski, Tomasz; Górski, Paweł; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Kuna, Piotr

    2002-02-01

    One of the characteristics of asthma is the variability of inflammation. Thus, it is important to monitor inflammation serially in asthma, e.g. by the use of peripheral blood markers. To evaluate the effect of treatment on allergic inflammation, we measured serum levels of sIL-2R, sICAM-1 and clinical parameters before and after 4 weeks treatment with triamcinolon, montelukast, nedocromil and formoterol. It was 8 week, placebo-controlled and randomized, double blind trial of 158 children with moderate atopic asthma. Patients were randomly allocated to received 400 micrograms triamcinolon (n = 28), 5 or 10 mg (according to age) montelukast (n = 27), 16 mg nedocromil (n = 30), 24 micrograms formoterol (n = 29) or placebo (n = 44). 140 children completed the study. After treatment with triamcinolon, montelukast and nedocromil sIL-2R and sICAM-1 serum level significantly decreased, and all clinical parameters improved; treatment with triamcinolon had the strongest effect on most parameters (except of FEV1). Mean sIL-2R before and after treatment with triamcinolon were 724.1 pg/ml and 486.1 pg/ml respectively (p < 0.001); with nedocromil were 760.2 pg/ml and 596.7 pg/ml respectively (p < 0.001); with montelukast were 617.9 pg/ml and 491.2 pg/ml respectively (p < 0.001); with formoterol were 705.4 pg/ml and 698.9 pg/ml respectively (p = 0.8). Mean sICAM-1 serum levels before and after treatment with triamcinolon were 262.4 ng/ml and 210.4 ng/ml respectively (p < 0.001); with nedocromil were 292.9 ng/ml and 258.4 ng/ml respectively (p < 0.001); with montelukast were 277.7 ng/ml and 242.9 ng/ml respectively (p < 0.001); with formoterol were 262.6 ng/ml and 260.0 ng/ml (p = 0.6). We found significant correlation between: sIL-2R and hyperresponsiveness, sICAM-1 and hyper responsiveness, FEV1 and sICAM-1, FEV1 and sIL-2R, sIL-2R and sICAM-1 after treatment. This study shows that triamcinolon, montelukast and nedocromil contribute to inhibition of allergic inflammation by

  1. Dietary sodium intake, airway responsiveness, and cellular sodium transport.

    PubMed

    Tribe, R M; Barton, J R; Poston, L; Burney, P G

    1994-06-01

    Both epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggest that a high dietary sodium intake may increase airway responsiveness, but no adequate explanation exists of how changes in sodium intake might lead to increased responsiveness. This investigation was carried out to study dietary sodium intake and airway response to methacholine in relation to cellular sodium transport in 52 young men. Airway response to methacholine was associated with urinary sodium excretion when subjects were on normal sodium intake. Airway responsiveness in patients with mild asthma correlated with the furosemide-insensitive influx of sodium into peripheral leukocytes stimulated by autologous serum, but there was no relation between this influx and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. In a separate investigation, serum from subjects with increased airway responsiveness caused an increase in the sodium influx and sodium content of leukocytes from nonatopic subjects. The magnitude of the furosemide-insensitive, serum stimulated influx was related to the degree of airway responsiveness of the serum donor, as was the increase in intracellular sodium content. Neither was related to the 24-h urinary sodium excretion of the donor. Patients with airway hyperresponsiveness have an increased sodium influx into cells stimulated by a serum-borne factor. This is independent of the effect of added dietary sodium on airway responsiveness.

  2. Wound healing evaluation of sodium fucidate-loaded polyvinylalcohol/sodium carboxymethylcellulose-based wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Oh, Dong Hoon; Ku, Sae Kwang; Li, Dong Xun; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2010-07-01

    The cross-linked hydrogel films containing sodium fucidate were previously reported to be prepared polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) using the freeze-thawing method and their physicochemical property was investigated. For the development of novel sodium fucidate-loaded wound dressing, here its in vivo wound healing test and histopathology were performed compared with the conventional ointment product. In wound healing test, the sodium fucidate-loaded composed of 2.5% PVA, 1.125% Na-CMC and 0.2% drug showed faster healing of the wound made in rat dorsum than the hydrogel without drug, indicating the potential healing effect of sodium fucidate. Furthermore, from the histological examination, the healing effect of sodium fucidate-loaded hydrogel was greater than that of the conventional ointment product and hydrogel without drug, since it might gave an adequate level of moisture and build up the exudates on the wound area. Thus, the sodium fucidate-loaded wound dressing composed of 5% PVA, 1.125% Na-CMC and 0.2% drug is a potential wound dressing with excellent wound healing.

  3. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  4. Serum sodium disorders in patients with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Bezerra, Douglas Alexandre França; Amorim, Robson Luis Oliveira; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Tavares, Wagner Malago; De Andrade, Almir Ferreira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2011-01-01

    Sodium disorders are the most common and most poorly understood electrolyte disorders in neurological patients. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of sodium disorders and its association with different traumatic brain injuries. This prospective study was conducted in 80 patients diagnosed with moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries. All patients underwent cerebral computed tomography. Incidence of sodium disorders, presence of injuries in the first computed tomography after traumatic brain injury, and level of consciousness were analyzed. Patients that presented other potential causes of sodium disorders and systemic trauma were excluded from the study. The incidence of sodium disturbances was 45%: 20 patients presented hypernatremia and 16 hyponatremia. Refers to all patients with sodium disturbances 53% were detected in the first sample. We recorded at least one measurement <125 mEq/L in 50% of the patients with hyponatremia. A greater incidence of sodium disorders was found in patients with subdural, intracerebral hematoma and with diffuse axonal injury. The incidence of sodium disorders among the patients with diffuse lesions was greater than in the group of patients with brain contusion (P = 0.022). The incidence of sodium disorders is higher in patients with diffuse traumatic brain injuries. No association was found between focal lesions and proportion of sodium disorders. PMID:21941440

  5. Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor Development for Liquid Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nollet, Billy K.

    Safe operation of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) requires in-depth understanding of the corrosion implications of liquid sodium coolant on reactor materials. Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack, so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial. There is significant room for improvement in current oxygen sensing technology, so extensive research has been conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to address this issue. Experimental facilities and electrochemical oxygen sensors have been developed, tested, and analyzed. This research is discussed in detail in this report. The oxygen sensors tested in this research were developed using a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte whereas many of the past research in this field was conducted with yttria doped thoria (YDT or YST) electrolytes. Thorium, an alpha emitter, is expensive and increasingly difficult to acquire, so motivation to switch to a new material exists. YSZ is commonly used as the electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells, and ample data is available for high temperature ionic conduction of this material. While some work has been done with YSZ in oxygen sensors (the automotive field, for example, uses YSZ O2 sensors), research on YSZ sensors in sodium is limited. A thorough study of YSZ-based electrochemical oxygen sensors must include detailed corrosion testing and analysis of YSZ in liquid sodium, careful oxygen sensor development and testing, and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the acquired sensor data. The research presented in this report describes the design and development of an electrochemical oxygen sensor for use in sodium using a YSZ electrolyte through the previously-mentioned steps. The designed sensors were subjected to a series of hypotheses which advance common understanding of oxygen sensor signal. These results were used in conjunction with past research to form reliable conclusions.

  6. Effects of potassium lactate, sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium acetate on colour, colour stability, and oxidative properties of injection-enhanced beef rib steaks.

    PubMed

    Knock, R C; Seyfert, M; Hunt, M C; Dikeman, M E; Mancini, R A; Unruh, J A; Higgins, J J; Monderen, R A

    2006-10-01

    This study determined the effects of potassium lactate (KL), sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium acetate on colour, colour stability, and oxidative properties of injection-enhanced beef rib steaks. Enhancement solutions (8.5% pump) contained combinations of KL (0% or 1.5%), sodium chloride (0.3% or 0.6%), sodium tripolyphosphate (0% or 0.3%), and sodium acetate (0% or 0.1%). Steaks were packaged in a high-oxygen modified atmosphere (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)). Steaks with KL or KL and sodium acetate were darker but more colour stable (P<0.05) than control steaks. Steaks had less glossy surfaces when they contained acetate (P<0.05) and KL (P<0.11). Increasing sodium chloride content resulted in darker, less colour-stable steaks (P<0.05). Removing phosphate had little impact on colour (P>0.05). Both KL and sodium acetate improved visual appearance of injection-enhanced beef rib steaks, whereas the greater salt level were detrimental.

  7. Detection of Connexins in Liver Cells Using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Immunoblot Analysis.

    PubMed

    Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Since connexin expression is partly regulated at the protein level, immunoblot analysis represents a frequently addressed technique in the connexin research field. The present chapter describes the setup of an immunoblot procedure, including protein extraction and quantification from biological samples, gel electrophoresis, protein transfer, and immunoblotting, which is optimized for analysis of connexins in liver tissue. In essence, proteins are separated on a polyacrylamide gel using sodium dodecyl sulfate followed by transfer of proteins on a nitrocellulose membrane. The latter allows specific detection of connexins with antibodies combined with revelation through enhanced chemiluminescence. PMID:27207285

  8. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T.

    2012-07-09

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four

  9. Sodium storage and injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

  10. Evidence relating sodium intake to blood pressure and CVD.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Sodium is an essential nutrient, mostly ingested as salt (sodium chloride). Average sodium intake ranges from 3 to 6 g per day (7.5-15 g/day of salt) in most countries, with regional variations. Increasing levels of sodium intake have a positive association with higher blood pressure. Randomized controlled trials report a reduction in blood pressure with reducing sodium intake from moderate to low levels, which is the evidence that forms the basis for international guidelines recommending all people consume less than 2.0 g of sodium per day. However, no randomized trials have demonstrated that reducing sodium leads to a reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In their absence, the next option is to examine the association between sodium consumption and CVD in prospective cohort studies. Several recent prospective cohort studies have indicated that while high intake of sodium (>6 g/d) is associated with higher risk of CVD compared to those with moderate intake (3 to 5 g/d), lower intake (<3 g/day) is also associated with a higher risk (despite lower blood pressure levels). However, most of these studies were conducted in populations at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Current epidemiologic evidence supports that an optimal level of sodium intake is in the range of about 3-5 g/day, as this range is associated with lowest risk of CVD in prospective cohort studies. Randomized controlled trials, comparing the effect of low sodium intake to moderate intake on incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, are required to truly define optimal intake range.

  11. The DASH Diet, Sodium Intake and Blood Pressure Trial (DASH-sodium): rationale and design. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group.

    PubMed

    Svetkey, L P; Sacks, F M; Obarzanek, E; Vollmer, W M; Appel, L J; Lin, P H; Karanja, N M; Harsha, D W; Bray, G A; Aickin, M; Proschan, M A; Windhauser, M M; Swain, J F; McCarron, P B; Rhodes, D G; Laws, R L

    1999-08-01

    The DASH Diet, Sodium Intake and Blood Pressure Trial (DASH-Sodium) is a multicenter, randomized trial comparing the effects of 3 levels of sodium intake and 2 dietary patterns on blood pressure among adults with higher than optimal blood pressure or with stage 1 hypertension (120-159/80-95 mm Hg). The 2 dietary patterns are a control diet typical of what many Americans eat, and the DASH diet, which, by comparison, emphasizes fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods, includes whole grains, poultry, fish, and nuts, and is reduced in fats, red meat, sweets, and sugar-containing beverages. The 3 sodium levels are defined as higher (typical of current US consumption), intermediate (reflecting the upper limit of current US recommendations), and lower (reflecting potentially optimal levels). Participants are randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 dietary patterns using a parallel group design and are fed each of the 3 sodium levels using a randomized crossover design. The study provides participants with all of their food during a 2-week run-in feeding period and three 30-day intervention feeding periods. Participants attend the clinic for 1 meal per day, 5 days per week, and take home food for other meals. Weight is monitored and individual energy intake adjusted to maintain baseline weight. The primary outcome is systolic blood pressure measured at the end of each intervention feeding period. Systolic blood pressure is compared across the 3 sodium levels within each diet and across the 2 diets within each sodium level. If effects previously observed in clinical trials are additive, sodium reduction and the DASH diet together may lower blood pressure to an extent not as yet demonstrated for nonpharmacologic treatment. The DASH-Sodium results will have important implications for the prevention and treatment of high blood pressure.

  12. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  13. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  14. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  15. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  16. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability.

  17. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  18. A highly specific q-RT-PCR assay to address the relevance of the JAK2WT and JAK2V617F expression levels and control genes in Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Francesca; Di Capua, Emma Nora; Cenfra, Natalia; Pessina, Gloria; Mecarocci, Sergio; Rago, Angela; Cotroneo, Ettore; Busanello, Anna; Equitani, Francesco; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Nervi, Clara; Cimino, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    In Ph- myeloproliferative neoplasms, the quantification of the JAK2V617F transcripts may provide some advantages over the DNA allele burden determination. We developed a q-RT-PCR to assess the JAK2WT and JAK2V617F mRNA expression in 105 cases (23 donors, 13 secondary polycythemia, 22 polycythemia vera (PV), 38 essential thrombocythemia (ET), and 9 primary myelofibrosis (PMF)). Compared with the standard allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO)-PCR technique, our assay showed a 100 % concordance rate detecting the JAK2V617F mutation in 22/22 PV (100 %), 29/38 (76.3 %) ET, and 5/9 (55.5 %) PMF cases, respectively. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.01 %. Comparing DNA and RNA samples, we found that the JAK2V617F mutational ratios were significantly higher at the RNA level both in PV (p = 0.005) and ET (p = 0.001) samples. In PV patients, JAK2WT expression levels positively correlated with the platelets (PLTs) (p = 0.003) whereas a trend to negative correlation was observed with the Hb levels (p = 0.051). JAK2V617F-positive cases showed the lowest JAK2WT and ABL1 mRNA expression levels. In all the samples, the expression pattern of beta-glucoronidase (GUSB) was more homogeneous than that of ABL1 or β2 microglobulin (B2M). Using GUSB as normalizator gene, a significant increase of the JAK2V617F mRNA levels was seen in two ET patients at time of progression to PV. In conclusion, the proposed q-RT-PCR is a sensitive and accurate method to quantify the JAK2 mutational status that can also show clinical correlations suggesting the impact of the residual amount of the JAK2WT allele on the Ph- MPN disease phenotype. Our observations also preclude the use of ABL1 as a housekeeping gene for these neoplasms.

  19. Clinical overview of nedocromil sodium.

    PubMed

    König, P

    1995-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a novel anti-inflammatory agent that has been demonstrated to significantly improve pulmonary function and decrease bronchial hyperreactivity in asthmatic patients. Currently available only as an inhaled drug, nedocromil sodium has an excellent safety profile, the only adverse effect being a slightly unpleasant taste. Nedocromil sodium has been used as a replacement for sustained-release theophylline therapy; the overall efficacy of nedocromil sodium is at least equivalent to that of theophylline, with less adverse effects occurring in those patients treated with nedocromil sodium rather than with theophylline. Nedocromil sodium also appears to be equal in efficacy to low doses of beclomethasone when employed in patients with mild to moderate asthma. Addition of nedocromil sodium to an ongoing regimen of beclomethasone may also allow for reduction in the dosage of inhaled corticosteroid. The overall safety of therapy with nedocromil sodium suggests that it be considered as initial therapy for those patients having mild to moderate asthma.

  20. Stability of Colistimethate Sodium in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Gray, W.; Fuchs, E. J.; Griffiss, J. M.; Salata, R. A.; Blumer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Colistimethate sodium, increasingly used to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections, spontaneously hydrolyzes to form colistin A (polymyxin E1) and B (polymyxin E2/B) when mixed with water. High levels of these active breakdown products at the time of administration have been associated with nephrotoxicity and even death. In this study, reconstituted colistimethate sodium was shown to be stable (<1.0% colistin A/B formation) for up to 24 h when stored at 21, 0, −20, and −70°C. PMID:23070159

  1. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  2. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Jinap, Selamat; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Karim, Roslina; Norliana, Sarian; Yibadatihan, Simayi; Abdul-Kadir, Razak

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive dietary sodium intake causes several diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease, etc. Hence, reducing sodium intake has been highly recommended. In this study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG), as an umami substance, on saltiness and sodium reduction was investigated. Methods and Results The trained panellists were presented with basic spicy soups (curry chicken and chili chicken) containing different amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0–1.2%) and MSG (0–1.2%). They tasted the optimum concentrations of NaCl and MSG for the two spicy soups and the overall acceptability were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. There was no significant effect of spiciness level on the saltiness and umami taste of both soups. The optimum levels of combined NaCl and MSG for overall acceptance in the chili and curry soups were 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The results showed that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups. Conclusions This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition of appropriate amounts of MSG, while maintaining the acceptability of the spicy soups. It was also proven that it is feasible to reduce sodium intake by replacing NaCl with MSG. PMID:27356909

  3. Modelling sodium inhibition on the anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Hierholtzer, A; Akunna, J C

    2012-01-01

    Sodium is a known process inhibitor in anaerobic systems and impacts on methanogens through an increase of osmotic pressure or complete dehydration of microorganisms. In this study, a combination of experimental and modelling approaches has been employed to determine and simulate sodium inhibition on the anaerobic digestion process. The ADM1, which has been successfully used in modelling anaerobic processes, has been modified to include an extra inhibition function that considers the effect of sodium on acetoclastic methanogens and the impact on biogas production and composition. A non-competitive inhibition function was added to the rate of acetate uptake for the model to take into account sodium toxicity. Experimental studies consisted of both batch and reactor tests to obtain parameters for model calibration and validation. The calibrated model was used to predict the effect of ammonia nitrogen on sodium toxicity. It was found that relatively low sodium levels can bring about significant levels of process inhibition in the presence of high levels of ammonia. On the other hand, where the concentration of ammonia is relatively low, the tolerance threshold for sodium ions increases. Hence, care must be taken in the use of sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment during anaerobic digestion of protein-rich substrates.

  4. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address spacemore » languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.« less

  5. Sodium sulfur batteries for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degruson, James A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1986, Eagle-Picher Industries was selected by the Air Force to develop sodium sulfur cells for satellite applications. Specifically, the development program was geared toward low earth orbit goals requiring high charge and/or discharge rates. A number of improvements have been made on the cell level and a transition to a complete space battery was initiated at Eagle-Picher. The results of six months of testing a 250 watt/hour sodium sulfur space battery look very promising. With over 1000 LEO cycles conducted on this first battery, the next generation battery is being designed. This next design will focus on achieving greater energy densities associated with the sodium sulfur chemistry.

  6. Water hardness and sodium trends in Texas aquifers.

    PubMed

    Hudak, P F

    2001-05-01

    Median hardness and sodium levels in groundwater were calculated for 244 Texas counties from measurements at 7728 water wells. The data were mapped and analyzed with a geographic information system (GIS). County median hardness levels varied widely, from 4-2304 mg L-1. More than 60% of the counties had hardness medians above 180 mg L-1. County medium sodium concentrations ranged from 6-1170 mg L-1, with more than 90% of those values exceeding 20 mg L-1. There was a significant positive correlation between hardness and sodium concentrations in six of Texas' nine major aquifers. A significant negative correlation between hardness and sodium was observed in two aquifers. Several factors control hardness and sodium variations in Texas aquifers including rock/sediment composition, groundwater chemical evolution, and seepage from nearby formations. Probable human controls include agricultural return flow and pumping-induced saltwater intrusion. PMID:11411143

  7. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 3, Transport of sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, C J

    1992-09-01

    This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

  8. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  9. Sodium reduction in New Zealand requires major behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lofthouse, Catherine; Te Morenga, Lisa; McLean, Rachael

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of adherence to a low sodium diet in a sample of healthy New Zealand adults. It also addressed whether following a low sodium diet was accompanied by changes in intakes of other nutrients that influence cardiovascular risk. Eleven healthy adults provided dietary intake data and a 24-hour urine collection at baseline and follow-up. They then received nutritional counselling based on the World Health Organization recommendation for sodium intake (<2000 mg/day) and received ongoing nutritional support while undertaking a low sodium diet for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, participants completed a semi-structured interview that elicited participants' opinions on barriers and facilitators to following a low sodium diet and explored changes in participants' dietary habits and behaviours. Thematic analysis revealed that adherence to a low sodium diet required substantial changes to participants' usual food purchasing and preparation habits. Participants reported that lack of control over the sodium content of meals eaten away from the home, the complex and time-consuming nature of interpreting nutrition information labels, and difficulty identifying suitable snacks were barriers to adherence. Detailed meal planning and cooking from scratch, using flavour replacements, reading food labels to identify low sodium foods, receiving support from other people and receiving tailored nutrition advice were facilitators. Mean sodium intake reduced over the period, accompanied by a decrease in mean intake of total fat. These factors suggest that sodium reduction in New Zealand adults was feasible. However, considerable changes to eating behaviours were required.

  10. Sodium reduction in New Zealand requires major behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lofthouse, Catherine; Te Morenga, Lisa; McLean, Rachael

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of adherence to a low sodium diet in a sample of healthy New Zealand adults. It also addressed whether following a low sodium diet was accompanied by changes in intakes of other nutrients that influence cardiovascular risk. Eleven healthy adults provided dietary intake data and a 24-hour urine collection at baseline and follow-up. They then received nutritional counselling based on the World Health Organization recommendation for sodium intake (<2000 mg/day) and received ongoing nutritional support while undertaking a low sodium diet for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, participants completed a semi-structured interview that elicited participants' opinions on barriers and facilitators to following a low sodium diet and explored changes in participants' dietary habits and behaviours. Thematic analysis revealed that adherence to a low sodium diet required substantial changes to participants' usual food purchasing and preparation habits. Participants reported that lack of control over the sodium content of meals eaten away from the home, the complex and time-consuming nature of interpreting nutrition information labels, and difficulty identifying suitable snacks were barriers to adherence. Detailed meal planning and cooking from scratch, using flavour replacements, reading food labels to identify low sodium foods, receiving support from other people and receiving tailored nutrition advice were facilitators. Mean sodium intake reduced over the period, accompanied by a decrease in mean intake of total fat. These factors suggest that sodium reduction in New Zealand adults was feasible. However, considerable changes to eating behaviours were required. PMID:27395412

  11. Canadian initiatives to prevent hypertension by reducing dietary sodium.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm R C; Willis, Kevin J; L'Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric

    2011-08-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada's dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of

  12. Canadian initiatives to prevent hypertension by reducing dietary sodium.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm R C; Willis, Kevin J; L'Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric

    2011-08-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada's dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of

  13. Improving student learning by addressing misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmann, Carol A.; Huntoon, Jacqueline E.

    2011-12-01

    Students—and often those who teach them—come to class with preconceptions and misconceptions that hinder their learning. For instance, many K-12 students and teachers believe groundwater exists in the ground in actual rivers or lakes, but in fact, groundwater is found in permeable rock layers called aquifers. Such misconceptions need to be addressed before students can learn scientific concepts correctly. While other science disciplines have been addressing preconceptions and misconceptions for many years, the geoscience community has only recently begun to concentrate on the impact these have on students' learning. Valuable research is being done that illuminates how geologic thinking evolves from the "novice" to "expert" level. The expert is defined as an individual with deep understanding of Earth science concepts. As research progresses, geoscientists are realizing that correcting preconceptions and misconceptions can move teachers and students closer to the "expert" level [Libarkin, 2005].

  14. Association of blood pressure with sodium-related knowledge and behaviors in adults with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Westrick, Salisa C; Garza, Kimberly B; Stevenson, T Lynn; Oliver, Wesley D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe sodium-related knowledge and self-reported behaviors in adults with hypertension and assess the association between knowledge and behaviors and blood pressure levels in this population. METHODS Using convenience sampling of patients with hypertension, an oral cross-sectional survey was administered by student pharmacists in 45 community pharmacies in Alabama and Florida in May to July 2012. After survey questions were administered, patients' blood pressures were measured. Data were tested for significance at alpha < 0.05 using bivariate analyses of independent and dependent variables (systolic/diastolic blood pressure [SBP/DBP]) and parallel linear regression of significant independent variables. RESULTS The majority of the 664 patients surveyed were women (59.3%) and white (75.2%). Most resided in urban areas (81.5%). The mean SBP/DBP was 133.3 (SD = 15.7)/81.7 (SD = 9.1) mg Hg. Most participants recognized the relationship between salt intake and high blood pressure (91.1%) and stroke (78.0%). A small percentage of patients reported that they always look for sodium content on food products (15.0%) and always buy low-sodium products (10.6%). Patients with lower knowledge scores (B = -0.01, P < 0.001) and those who were advised to cut down on salt (B = 0.02, P = 0.037) had higher SBP levels when controlled for gender, race, and awareness of their blood pressure goals. In regression analysis, lower knowledge scores were associated with increased DBP levels (B = -0.52, P = 0.014) when controlled for gender and race. CONCLUSION Many patients were not aware of salt in processed food and did not always look for sodium content on nutritional labels. Pharmacists should address dietary salt when interacting with patients with hypertension. PMID:24562633

  15. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  16. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every Other…

  17. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  18. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with...

  5. Magnetic resonance-determined sodium removal from tissue stores in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Dahlmann, Anke; Dörfelt, Kathrin; Eicher, Florian; Linz, Peter; Kopp, Christoph; Mössinger, Irina; Horn, Stephan; Büschges-Seraphin, Beatrix; Wabel, Peter; Hammon, Matthias; Cavallaro, Alexander; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kotanko, Peter; Levin, Nathan W.; Johannes, Bernd; Uder, Michael; Luft, Friedrich C.; Müller, Dominik N.; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported sodium is stored in skin and muscle. The amounts stored in hemodialysis (HD) patients are unknown. We determined whether 23Na magnetic resonance imaging (sodium-MRI) allows assessment of tissue sodium and its removal in 24 HD patients, and 27 age-matched healthy controls. We also studied 20 HD patients before and shortly after HD with a batch dialysis system with direct measurement of sodium in dialysate and ultrafiltrate. Age was associated with higher tissue sodium content in controls. This increase was paralleled by an age-dependent decrease of circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C). Older (over 60 years) HD patients showed increased sodium and water in skin and muscle, and lower VEGF-C levels than age-matched controls. After HD, patients with low VEGF-C levels had significantly higher skin sodium content than patients with high VEGF-C levels (low VEGF-C: 2.3 ng/ml and skin sodium: 24.3 mmol/L; high VEGF-C: 4.1ng/ml and skin sodium: 18.2mmol/L). Thus, sodium-MRI quantitatively detects sodium stored in skin and muscle in humans and allows studying sodium storage reduction in ESRD patients. Age and VEGF-C-related local tissue-specific clearance mechanisms may determine the efficacy of tissue sodium removal with HD. Prospective trials on the relationship between tissue sodium content and hard endpoints could provide new insights into sodium homeostasis, and clarify whether increased sodium storage is a cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:25100048

  6. How sodium arsenite improve amyloid β-induced memory deficit?

    PubMed

    Nassireslami, Ehsan; Nikbin, Parmida; Amini, Elham; Payandemehr, Borna; Shaerzadeh, Fatemeh; Khodagholi, Fariba; Yazdi, Behnoosh Bonakdar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Evidence has shown that arsenic exposure, besides its toxic effects results in impairment of learning and memory, but its molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we examined sodium arsenite (1, 5, 10, 100nM) effects on contextual and tone memory of male rats in Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm alone and in co-administration with β-amyloid. We detected changes in the level of caspase-3, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), cAMP response element-binding (CREB), heme oxygenase-1 and NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) by Western blot. Sodium arsenite in high doses induced significant memory impairment 9 and 16days after infusion. By contrast, low doses of sodium arsenite attenuate memory deficit in Aβ injected rats after 16days. Our data revealed that treatment with high concentration of sodium arsenite increased caspase-3 cleavage and NF-κB level, 9days after injection. Whereas, low doses of sodium arsenite cause Nrf2 and HO-1 activation and increased CREB phosphorylation in the hippocampus. These findings suggest the concentration dependent effects of sodium arsenite on contextual and tone memory. Moreover, it seems that the neuroprotective effects of ultra-low concentrations of sodium arsenite on Aβ-induced memory impairment is mediated via an increase Nrf2, HO-1 and CREB phosphorylation levels and decrease caspase-3 and NF-κB amount. PMID:27129674

  7. Dietary Sodium Effects on Bone Loss and Calcium Metabolism During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Arnaud, Sara B.; Abrams, Steven A.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The acceleration of age-related bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after long-duration missions. Studies in healthy ambulatory individuals have linked high salt (sodium) diets, hypercalciuria, and increased renal stone risk. Dietary salt may modulate bone loss through changes in calcium metabolism and the calcium endocrine system. The research proposed here will determine the role of dietary salt in the loss of bone during simulated space flight. Calcium metabolism will be determined through calcium kinetics studies, endocrine and biochemical measurements; and estimates of the mass, distribution and mechanical properties of bone, in subjects fed low (100 mmol sodium/day) or high (250 mmol sodium/day) levels of dietary salt during 28 days of headdown tilt bedrest. This research addresses the role of dietary salt in the loss of bone and calcium in space flight, and integrates the changes in calcium metabolism with those occurring in other physiologic systems. These data will be critical for both countermeasure development, and in determination of nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight. The potential countermeasures resulting from this research will reduce health risks due to acceleration of age-related osteoporosis and increased risk of renal stone formation..

  8. Sodium channels and pain.

    PubMed

    Habib, Abdella M; Wood, John N; Cox, James J

    2015-01-01

    Human and mouse genetic studies have led to significant advances in our understanding of the role of voltage-gated sodium channels in pain pathways. In this chapter, we focus on Nav1.7, Nav1.8, Nav1.9 and Nav1.3 and describe the insights gained from the detailed analyses of global and conditional transgenic Nav knockout mice in terms of pain behaviour. The spectrum of human disorders caused by mutations in these channels is also outlined, concluding with a summary of recent progress in the development of selective Nav1.7 inhibitors for the treatment of pain. PMID:25846613

  9. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    PubMed Central

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  10. It is Time to Individualize the Dialysate Sodium Prescription.

    PubMed

    Basile, Carlo; Lomonte, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Sodium mass balance in hemodialysis patients is primarily dependent on dietary salt intake and sodium removal during dialysis. One of the most important goals of dialysis therapy is to fully remove the mass of sodium that has accumulated in the interdialytic period. It is currently the practice in dialysis centers all over the world to use a standardized dialysate sodium concentration (Na(+) D) for all patients. The aim of the present article was to summarize the current evidence for an individualized Na(+) D prescription. Three main points are discussed: (i) Na(+) D prescription, which must necessarily take into account the sodium setpoint and the sodium gradient; (ii) clinical experience with an individualized Na(+) D prescription, and (iii) guidelines for individualizing the Na(+) D prescription. To summarize, recent data suggest that tailoring Na(+) D to an individual's sodium setpoint has the potential for short- and long-term benefits for patients. Prospective interventional studies are warranted to further understand its effects, stratified for patients with low or high serum sodium levels.

  11. Progress toward sodium reduction in the United States.

    PubMed

    Levings, Jessica; Cogswell, Mary; Curtis, Christine J; Gunn, Janelle; Neiman, Andrea; Angell, Sonia Y

    2012-10-01

    The average adult in the United States of America consumes well above the recommended daily limit of sodium. Average sodium intake is about 3 463 mg/day, as compared to the 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans recommendation of < 2 300 mg/day. A further reduction to 1 500 mg/day is advised for people 51 years or older; African Americans; and people with high blood pressure, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease. In the United States of America, the problem of excess sodium intake is related to the food supply. Most sodium consumed comes from packaged, processed, and restaurant foods and therefore is in the product at the time of purchase. This paper describes sodium reduction policies and programs in the United States at the federal, state, and local levels; efforts to monitor the health impact of sodium reduction; ways to assess consumer knowledge, attitudes, and behavior; and how these activities depend on and inform global efforts to reduce sodium intake. Reducing excess sodium intake is a public health opportunity that can save lives and health care dollars in the United States and globally. Future efforts, including sharing successes achieved and barriers identified in the United States and globally, may quicken and enhance progress.

  12. Dietary sodium: where science and policy conflict: impact of the 2013 IOM Report on Sodium Intake in Populations.

    PubMed

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-02-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium.

  13. Addressing Passive Smoking in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Sasha G.; Kuijlaars, Jennifer S.; Mesters, Ilse; Muris, Jean W. M.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Dompeling, Edward; Feron, Frans J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS) in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. Aim To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians) regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS) in children. Methods All physicians (n = 720) representing the three health professions in Limburg, the Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. Results The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11%) of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. Conclusions Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, the Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed. PMID:24809443

  14. Antiorthostatic immobilization with varied sodium intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Haditsch, B.; Pilz, K.; Rössler, A.; Laszlo, Z.

    The study investigated, in 10 normotensive male persons, heart rate responses to graded lower body suction (LBNP) with adaptation to various oral sodium clamping during both ambulatory (AMB) conditions for 4 days, and thereafter to additional antiorthostatic (6° head down) positioning. A ,low' (LS: 143+/-10 mM Na +/ d excreted) and a ,high' (HS: 434+/-17 mM Na +/d excreted) sodium treatment - in randomized order and separated =1 mo - followed a ,conditioning' run with moderate sodium (237+/-9 mM Na +/d excreted). Urinary volume and sodium output were monitored, hormone levels (PRA, aldosterone, AVP) determined, and extracellular volume (ECV) estimated by whole body electrical impedance spectroscopy. ECV was not differently reduced (p>0.1) in LS (-5.8+/-2.3%, p=0.018) and HS (-4.0+/-1.0%. p=0.002). Morning AVP was lower (5.5+/-0.1 pg/ml) in HS than in LS (7.2+/-0.3 pg/ml; N=7 days), as well as aldosterone (69+/-7 pg/ml in HS vs. 180+/-24 pg/ml in LS). LBNP dose responses of PRA and aldosterone were higher in LS than HS after 8 days AOB, whereas microvascular fluid filtration was unchanged by any experimental condition. Heart rate responses to LBNP were unchanged by sodium supply, whereas mean arterial and pulse pressure was lower in LS than HS during all LBNP intensities. Thus, HS was able to increase arterial blood and pulse pressure and reduced PRA and aldosterone levels during graded simulated orthostatic challenge, but did neither ameliorate AOB-induced ECV decrease nor alter LBNP-induced filtration and heart rate responses. These results are relevant for planning of future countermeasures in astronauts. Supported by the Austrian Research Fund (P13451-MED)

  15. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Sodium content in retail Cheddar, Mozzarella, and process cheeses varies considerably in the United States.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S; McCoy, D; Graves, W; Gerard, P D; Clark, S

    2011-03-01

    Reducing the sodium content in cheese is expected to contribute to reducing the overall intake of sodium by US consumers. The purpose of this study was to measure the sodium levels in cheeses that are most commonly purchased by US consumers in the retail market, including brand and private label. A secondary purpose of the study was to generate data that can enable the dairy industry to adopt best practices regarding sodium levels in cheeses. The sodium content of a total of 1,665 samples of Cheddar (650 samples), low moisture part skim (LMPS) Mozzarella (746 samples), and process cheese singles (269 samples) from 4 geographical regions were collected over a period of 3 wk, and were analyzed over a 1-mo period. Process cheese contained the highest mean level of sodium (1,242 mg/100g), followed by string cheese (724 mg/100g). Across Cheddar cheese forms and brands, the mean analytical sodium was 615 mg/100g, with 95% between 474 and 731 mg/100g; label sodium ranged from 600 to 800 mg/100g (mean 648 mg). Across all LMPS Mozzarella forms and brands, the mean analytical sodium was 666 mg/100g, with 95% between 452 and 876 mg/100g; label sodium ranged from 526 to 89 3mg/100g (mean 685 mg). Across all process cheese forms and brands, the mean analytical sodium was 1,242 mg/100g, with 95% between 936 and 1,590 mg/100g; label sodium ranged from 1,185 to 1,740 mg/100g (mean 1,313 mg/100g). These findings demonstrate that manufacturers tended to be conservative with their reporting of sodium on labels. Manufacturers need to reduce variability to better target desired sodium levels, which is an opportunity for better process control, and will enable them to label sodium more accurately.

  17. Sodium content of popular commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States☆

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K.C.; Wasswa-Kintu, Shirley; Haytowitz, David B.; Daniel, Marlon; Thomas, Robin; Showell, Bethany; Nickle, Melissa; Roseland, Janet M.; Gunn, Janelle; Cogswell, Mary; Pehrsson, Pamela R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to provide baseline estimates of sodium levels in 125 popular, sodium-contributing, commercially processed and restaurant foods in the U.S., to assess future changes as manufacturers reformulate foods. Methods In 2010–2013, we obtained ~ 5200 sample units from up to 12 locations and analyzed 1654 composites for sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar), as part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-led sodium-monitoring program. We determined sodium content as mg/100 g, mg/serving, and mg/kcal and compared them against U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) sodium limits for “low” and “healthy” claims and to the optimal sodium level of < 1.1 mg/kcal, extrapolating from the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Results Results from this study represent the baseline nutrient values to use in assessing future changes as foods are reformulated for sodium reduction. Sodium levels in over half (69 of 125) of the foods, including all main dishes and most Sentinel Foods from fast-food outlets or restaurants (29 of 33 foods), exceeded the FDA sodium limit for using the claim “healthy”. Only 13 of 125 foods had sodium values below 1.1 mg/kcal. We observed a wide range of sodium content among similar food types and brands. Conclusions Current sodium levels in commercially processed and restaurant foods in the U.S. are high and variable. Targeted benchmarks and increased awareness of high sodium content and variability in foods would support reduction of sodium intakes in the U.S. PMID:26844175

  18. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  19. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  20. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  1. Europa Sodium Cloud: orbital variability and Sodium recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriani, F.; Leblanc, F.; Witasse, O.

    2007-08-01

    Discovery and further observations of Europa's thin atmosphere of sodium have been carried out by M.E. Brown (Brown and Hill 1996, Brown 2001, Brown 2004) and A.E. Potter and co-workers (Leblanc et al, 2005). The resonant scattering emission of sodium around Europa has been successfully modelled and compared to the compilation of such observations by Leblanc at al 2002; Leblanc et al 2005). Such an analysis confirmed that the cloud morphology is dominated by the production of Na from the trailing hemisphere. The influence of Europa's centrifugal latitude as well as the contribution of Io's sodium source at Europa orbit were also estimated. These studies concluded that the observed sodium atmosphere should be largely endogenic to Europa. However, significant variations of the total emission intensity along Europa's orbit around Jupiter were reported that were difficult to explain without adhoc assumptions on the variability of the sodium ejecta rate with respect to Europa position in Jupiter magnetosphere. In the present study, we investigate the redistribution of the ejected sodium atoms on the surface of the moon during its orbit around Jupiter following the suggestion by Leblanc et al (2005). In our model, the redistribution of sodium atoms at Europa's surface occurs from a set of ejection and absorption of the sodium atoms. Ejection processes are sputtering induced by energetic jovian particles, as well as photo-stimulated and thermal desorptions from the surface. Absorption mainly depends on the surface temperature and porosity. We will present comparisons of the newly calculated sodium emission with the observations, as well as density distributions of sodium at Europa's surface. Consequences of those calculations on the sodium cloud morphology will also be discussed.

  2. A micropuncture investigation of electrolyte transport in the parotid glands of sodium-replete and sodium-depleted sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Compton, J S; Nelson, J; Wright, R D; Young, J A

    1980-01-01

    concentrations fell to an average value of 20.0 mmol l-1. In final saliva it was found that the summed sodium and potassium concentrations exceeded the summed chloride, bicarbonate and phosphate (in mequiv l-1) concentrations, on average by 13.9 mequiv l-1, regardless of sodium status or flow rate. 7. The results indicate that secretion by the sheep parotid can be accounted for in terms of the standard two-state model. Phosphate seems to enter the saliva only in the primary fluid and potassium and bicarbonate appear to enter at both primary and secondary sites; sodium and chloride enter at the primary level and can be reabsorbed in the ducts. Salt depletion causes the primary fluid concentrations of sodium and chloride to fall and the content of an unidentified solute to rise markedly while, at the ductal level, it causes normally quiescent sodium and potassium transport processes to become activated. PMID:7252874

  3. Painful peripheral neuropathy and sodium channel mutations.

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Waxman, Stephen G

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy can lead to neuropathic pain in a subset of patients. Painful peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating disorder, reflected by a reduced quality of life. Therapeutic strategies are limited and often disappointing, as in most cases targeted treatment is not available. Elucidating pathogenetic factors for pain might provide a target for optimal treatment. Voltage-gated sodium channels NaV1.7-NaV1.9 are expressed in the small-diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons and their axons. By a targeted gene approach, missense gain-of-function mutations of NaV1.7-NaV1.9 have been demonstrated in painful peripheral neuropathy. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations produce a spectrum of pro-excitatory changes in channel biophysics, with the shared outcome at the cellular level of dorsal root ganglion hyperexcitability. Reduced neurite outgrowth may be another consequence of sodium channel mutations, and possible therapeutic strategies include blockade of sodium channels or block of reverse operation of the sodium-calcium exchanger. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of painful peripheral neuropathy offers new targets that may provide a basis for more effective treatment.

  4. Severe Methemoglobinemia due to Sodium Nitrite Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Case. We report a case of severe methemoglobinemia due to sodium nitrite poisoning. A 28-year-old man was brought to our emergency department because of transient loss of consciousness and cyanosis. He was immediately intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen. A blood test revealed a methemoglobin level of 92.5%. Outcome. We treated the patient with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and methylene blue (2 mg/kg) administered intravenously. Soon after receiving methylene blue, his cyanosis resolved and the methemoglobin level began to decrease. After relocation to the intensive care unit, his consciousness improved and he could recall ingesting approximately 15 g sodium nitrite about 1 hour before he was brought to our hospital. The patient was discharged on day 7 without neurologic impairment. Conclusion. Severe methemoglobinemia may be fatal. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of methemoglobinemia is very important so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. PMID:27563472

  5. Severe Methemoglobinemia due to Sodium Nitrite Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Katabami, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Case. We report a case of severe methemoglobinemia due to sodium nitrite poisoning. A 28-year-old man was brought to our emergency department because of transient loss of consciousness and cyanosis. He was immediately intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen. A blood test revealed a methemoglobin level of 92.5%. Outcome. We treated the patient with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and methylene blue (2 mg/kg) administered intravenously. Soon after receiving methylene blue, his cyanosis resolved and the methemoglobin level began to decrease. After relocation to the intensive care unit, his consciousness improved and he could recall ingesting approximately 15 g sodium nitrite about 1 hour before he was brought to our hospital. The patient was discharged on day 7 without neurologic impairment. Conclusion. Severe methemoglobinemia may be fatal. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of methemoglobinemia is very important so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. PMID:27563472

  6. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  7. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

  8. CRBRP sodium fire protection system design

    SciTech Connect

    Buttrey, K. E.

    1984-09-10

    A passive catch pan fire suppression deck system was designed. A large-scale sodium spray fire test showed that the effects of spray burning were being underestimated. A modified computer code indicated that for a design basis IHTS leak in CRBRP, the design allowables would be exceeded. A modified pipe insulation design was developed and tested. The tests and analysis indicate that the concrete temperatures, structural steel temperatures, building pressures, and aerosol releases are now all reduced to acceptable levels. (DLC)

  9. Comparison of analytical methods to determine sodium content of low-sodium foods.

    PubMed

    Ehling, Stefan; Tefera, Sebhat; Earl, Robert; Cole, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    U.S. nutrition labeling regulations require the declaration of sodium content on food products. Accurate and reproducible determination of Na in foods with low Na content (< 140 mg/serving) is challenging because of laboratory contamination. Within-laboratory performance of inductively coupled plasma/MS (ICP/MS), flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), ion-selective electrode (ISE), and potentiometric titration of chloride ion were evaluated in 17 low-sodium foods. For 13 types of food, statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) exist between the within-day andlor interday means obtained by ICP/MS, FAAS, and ISE. Median within-day and interday precent RSD values were 2.7 and 6.1, 3.5 and 3.2, and 5.6 and 6.2%, respectively, by ICP/MS, FAAS, and ISE. The fewest matrix effects were found with ICP/MS, followed by FAAS, and ISE. FAAS gave higher results in a variety of matrixes when compared to ICP/MS and/or ISE. ISE did not perform well in fatty foods or at very low Na concentrations. Manufacturers' Nutrition Facts Panel sodium declarations exceeded levels found by analysis in > 70% of the foods. Analysis of chloride content does not produce reliable Na estimates in low-sodium foods, even when added sodium chloride is present. Methodological issues and contamination sources are discussed.

  10. Final report on the safety assessment of Sodium Metaphosphate, Sodium Trimetaphosphate, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, R S

    2001-01-01

    These inorganic polyphosphate salts all function as chelating agents in cosmetic formulations. In addition, Sodium Metaphosphate functions as an oral care agent, Sodium Trimetaphosphate as a buffering agent, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate as a corrosion inhibitor. Only Sodium Hexametaphosphate is currently reported to be used. Although the typical concentrations historically have been less than 1%, higher concentrations have been used in products such as bath oils, which are diluted during normal use. Sodium Metaphosphate is the general term for any polyphosphate salt with four or more phosphate units. The four-phosphate unit version is cyclic, others are straight chains. The hexametaphosphate is the specific six-chain length form. The trimetaphosphate structure is cyclic. Rats fed 10% Sodium Trimetaphosphate for a month exhibited transient tubular necrosis; rats given 10% Sodium Metaphosphate had retarded growth and those fed 10% Sodium Hexametaphosphate had pale and swollen kidneys. In chronic studies using animals, growth inhibition, increased kidney weights (with calcium deposition and desquamation), bone decalcification, parathyroid hypertrophy and hyperplasia, inorganic phosphaturia, hepatic focal necrosis, and muscle fiber size alterations. Sodium Hexametaphosphate was a severe skin irritant in rabbits, whereas a 0.2% solution was only mildly irritating. A similar pattern was seen with ocular toxicity. These ingredients were not genotoxic in bacterial systems nor were they carcinogenic in rats. No reproductive or developmental toxicity was seen in studies using rats exposed to Sodium Hexametaphosphate or Sodium Trimetaphosphate. In clinical testing, irritation is seen as a function of concentration; concentrations as high as 1% produced no irritation in contact allergy patients. Because of the corrosive nature of Sodium Hexametaphosphate, it was concluded that these ingredients could be used safely if each formulation was prepared to avoid skin irritation; for

  11. Fast Flux Test Facility replacement of a primary sodium pump

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, S.A.; Thomson, J.D.

    1985-11-15

    The Fast Flux Test Facility is a 400 MW Thermal Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. During startup testing in 1979, the sodium level in one of the primary sodium pumps was inadvertently raised above the normal height. This resulted in distortion of the pump shaft. Pump replacement was carried out using special maintenance equipment. Nuclear radiation and contamination were not significant problems since replacement operations were carried out shortly after startup of the Fast Flux Test Facility.

  12. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  13. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  14. Changing concepts: the presidential address.

    PubMed

    Weed, J C

    1974-09-01

    A discussion of conceptual change in areas related to fertility and medicine is presented in an address by the president of the American Fertility Society. Advances in technological research and medicine, particularly in steroids and reporductive physiology, have been the most readily acceptable changes. Cesarean section and surgical sterilization have also become increasingly accepted. Newer developments such as sperm banks, artificial insemination, and ovum transfer have created profound ethical, moral, and medical issued in human engineering research and evolutionary theory. The legalization of abortion has brought moral, ethical, and legal problems for many members of the medical profession. It is urged that the Society promote education of the people in reproductive function, sexual activity, and parental obligation while being acutely aware of the problems in influencing or altering human reproduction.

  15. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Relationship between urinary sodium and potassium, and arterial blood pressure: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Miller, G D

    1984-01-01

    An epidemiologic study was conducted to ascertain the relationship between urinary sodium and potassium, and arterial blood pressure in normal, nonhospitalized adults. Random samples of 1,939 adult residents, 35 to 54 years of age, of Savannah, Georgia; Hagerstown, Maryland; and Pueblo, Colorado, were interviewed and examined. Arterial blood pressures were taken with a standardized zero-muddler in a standard fashion by a specially trained, experienced nurse. Casual urine specimens were collected and analyzed for their sodium and potassium content. The relationship between urinary sodium potassium and the sodium-to-potassium ratio and arterial blood pressure was calculated. Systolic and diastolic pressure increased with increasing levels of urinary sodium and the sodium-to-potassium ratio, and decreased with increasing levels of urinary potassium. The data suggest that dietary potassium provides some protection against the hypertensive effects of dietary sodium in humans as in animals.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food...

  20. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  2. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  4. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food...

  6. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  7. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  9. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  10. Regulation of aldosterone secretion during altered sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, G; Catt, K J

    1983-07-01

    The interactions of the renin-angiotensin system with other factors in the regulation of aldosterone secretion were analyzed during altered sodium in the rat. During sodium restriction, the rise in aldosterone one secretion was accompanied by trophic changes in the adrenal glomerulosa zone including increased angiotensin II receptors and enzymes of early and late steps in the aldosterone biosynthetic pathway. All these effects of sodium restriction were reproduced by infusion of angiotensin II, and could be prevented by administration of the converting enzyme inhibitor, SQ 14,225. These findings indicate that the adrenal secretory and trophic responses to sodium restriction are mediated by angiotensin II. In hypophysectomized rats, the basal activities of the enzymes of the early aldosterone biosynthetic pathway were reduced, contributing to the blunted aldosterone responsiveness to sodium deficiency. However, sodium restriction for 6 days significantly increased adrenal glomerulosa angiotensin II receptors and enzymes of the early and late aldosterone biosynthetic pathway, indicating that the pituitary gland is not necessary for the adrenal effects of angiotensin II. In contrast to the prominent glomerulotropic actions of angiotensin II in rats on normal or low sodium intake, infusion of angiotensin II during high sodium intake did not increase blood aldosterone, angiotensin II receptors, or 18-hydroxylase activity, indicating that the trophic actions of the octapeptide are determined by the state of sodium balance. In recent studies, other factors including potassium, dopamine and somatostatin have been shown to potentiate or inhibit the actions of angiotensin II on the adrenal gland. The ability of such factors to influence the effects of angiotensin II could serve as a protective mechanism to modulate aldosterone responses to angiotensin II when elevations in the circulating level of the peptide occur in the absence of sodium deficiency.

  11. A Literature Review of the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate for the Treatment of QRS Widening.

    PubMed

    Bruccoleri, Rebecca E; Burns, Michele M

    2016-03-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a well-known antidote for tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) poisoning. It has been used for over half a century to treat toxin-induced sodium channel blockade as evidenced by QRS widening on the electrocardiogram (ECG). The purpose of this review is to describe the literature regarding electrophysiological mechanisms and clinical use of this antidote after poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants and other agents. This article will also address the literature supporting an increased serum sodium concentration, alkalemia, or the combination of both as the responsible mechanism(s) for sodium bicarbonate's antidotal properties. While sodium bicarbonate has been used as a treatment for cardiac sodium channel blockade for multiple other agents including citalopram, cocaine, flecainide, diphenhydramine, propoxyphene, and lamotrigine, it has uncertain efficacy with bupropion, propranolol, and taxine-containing plants.

  12. Immunopharmacologic profile of nedocromil sodium.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, S I

    1995-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium, a pyranoquinolone, was specifically designed as an agent to suppress allergic inflammation. Nedocromil sodium significantly affects not only the early-phase of allergen-induced responses, but also expression of late-phase inflammation, even when administered after the onset of early-phase responses. Nedocromil sodium also limits bronchoconstriction induced by nonallergic factors, including cold air and sulfur dioxide at dosages lower than required with cromolyn sodium. Nedocromil sodium is more potent than cromolyn sodium in preventing mast cell degranulation in selective animal models. In addition, nedocromil sodium limits leukotriene C4 production by calcium ionophore-stimulated eosinophils and also limits the activity of platelet activating factor to induce neutrophil generation of superoxides. Diurnal variation of peak flow rates in asthmatics and requirement for both beta 2-agonists and inhaled beclomethasone have been noted to be reduced in several trials employing nedocromil sodium, suggesting that its in vivo activity parallels its in vitro activity as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  13. A1Ao-ATP synthase of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium couples sodium ions for ATP synthesis under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Duncan G G; Ferguson, Scott A; Dey, Debjit; Schröder, Katja; Aung, Htin Lin; Carbone, Vincenzo; Attwood, Graeme T; Ronimus, Ron S; Meier, Thomas; Janssen, Peter H; Cook, Gregory M

    2011-11-18

    An unresolved question in the bioenergetics of methanogenic archaea is how the generation of proton-motive and sodium-motive forces during methane production is used to synthesize ATP by the membrane-bound A(1)A(o)-ATP synthase, with both proton- and sodium-coupled enzymes being reported in methanogens. To address this question, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the A(1)A(o)-ATP synthase (MbbrA(1)A(o)) of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium M1, a predominant methanogen in the rumen. Growth of M. ruminantium M1 was inhibited by protonophores and sodium ionophores, demonstrating that both ion gradients were essential for growth. To study the role of these ions in ATP synthesis, the ahaHIKECFABD operon encoding the MbbrA(1)A(o) was expressed in Escherichia coli strain DK8 (Δatp) and purified yielding a 9-subunit protein with an SDS-stable c oligomer. Analysis of the c subunit amino acid sequence revealed that it consisted of four transmembrane helices, and each hairpin displayed a complete Na(+)-binding signature made up of identical amino acid residues. The purified MbbrA(1)A(o) was stimulated by sodium ions, and Na(+) provided pH-dependent protection against inhibition by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide but not tributyltin chloride. ATP synthesis in inverted membrane vesicles lacking sodium ions was driven by a membrane potential that was sensitive to cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone but not to monensin. ATP synthesis could not be driven by a chemical gradient of sodium ions unless a membrane potential was imposed. ATP synthesis under these conditions was sensitive to monensin but not cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. These data suggest that the M. ruminantium M1 A(1)A(o)-ATP synthase exhibits all the properties of a sodium-coupled enzyme, but it is also able to use protons to drive ATP synthesis under conditions that favor proton coupling, such as low pH and low levels of sodium ions.

  14. Theoretical (in B3LYP/6-3111++G** level), spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and thermogravimetric studies of gentisic acid and sodium, copper(II) and cadmium(II) gentisates.

    PubMed

    Regulska, E; Kalinowska, M; Wojtulewski, S; Korczak, A; Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk, J; Rzączyńska, Z; Swisłocka, R; Lewandowski, W

    2014-11-11

    The DFT calculations (B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) mixed with LanL2DZ for transition metals basis sets) for different conformers of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid), sodium 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (gentisate) and copper(II) and cadmium(II) gentisates were done. The proposed hydrated structures of transition metal complexes were based on the results of experimental findings. The theoretical geometrical parameters and atomic charge distribution were discussed. Moreover Na, Cu(II) and Cd(II) gentisates were synthesized and the composition of obtained compounds was revealed by means of elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of gentisic acid and gentisates were registered and the effect of metals on the electronic charge distribution of ligand was discussed. PMID:24910979

  15. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.170 Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. The provisions...

  16. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Herrmann, S.D.

    1997-10-14

    A method is described for converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO{sub 2} are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO{sub 2} present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and Tl can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention. 3 figs.

  17. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Herrmann, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A method of converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO.sub.2 are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO.sub.2 present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and T1 can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention.

  18. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  19. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development. PMID:12032502

  20. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  1. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  2. Brain intra- and extracellular sodium concentration in multiple sclerosis: a 7 T MRI study.

    PubMed

    Petracca, Maria; Vancea, Roxana O; Fleysher, Lazar; Jonkman, Laura E; Oesingmann, Niels; Inglese, Matilde

    2016-03-01

    Intra-axonal accumulation of sodium ions is one of the key mechanisms of delayed neuro-axonal degeneration that contributes to disability accrual in multiple sclerosis. In vivo sodium magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated an increase of brain total sodium concentration in patients with multiple sclerosis, especially in patients with greater disability. However, total sodium concentration is a weighted average of intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration whose changes reflect different tissue pathophysiological processes. The in vivo, non-invasive measurement of intracellular sodium concentration is quite challenging and the few applications in patients with neurological diseases are limited to case reports and qualitative assessments. In the present study we provide first evidence of the feasibility of triple quantum filtered (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T, and provide in vivo quantification of global and regional brain intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration in 19 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and 17 heathy controls. Global grey matter and white matter total sodium concentration (respectively P < 0.05 and P < 0.01), and intracellular sodium concentration (both P < 0.001) were higher while grey matter and white matter intracellular sodium volume fraction (indirect measure of extracellular sodium concentration) were lower (respectively P = 0.62 and P < 0.001) in patients compared with healthy controls. At a brain regional level, clusters of increased total sodium concentration and intracellular sodium concentration and decreased intracellular sodium volume fraction were found in several cortical, subcortical and white matter regions when patients were compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05 family-wise error corrected for total sodium concentration, P < 0.05 uncorrected for multiple comparisons for intracellular sodium concentration and intracellular sodium volume fraction). Measures of total sodium

  3. Sodium fire testing: structural evaluation of sodium fire suppression system

    SciTech Connect

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the development and the lessons learned from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Sodium Fire Testing Program (DRS 26.03). The purpose of this program was to evaluate the behavior of the Sodium Fire Suppression System and validate the analytical techniques used in the calculation of the effects of sodium fires in air-filled cells. This report focuses on the fire suppression capability and the structural integrity of the Fire Suppression System. System features are discussed; the test facility is described and the key results are provided. Modifications to the fire suppression system and the plant made as a result of test experience are also discussed.

  4. Programmed emulsions for sodium reduction in emulsion based foods.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Natalie; Hewson, Louise; Fisk, Ian; Wolf, Bettina

    2015-05-01

    In this research a microstructure approach to reduce sodium levels in emulsion based foods is presented. If successful, this strategy will enable reduction of sodium without affecting consumer satisfaction with regard to salty taste. The microstructure approach comprised of entrapment of sodium in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. These were designed to destabilise during oral processing when in contact with the salivary enzyme amylase in combination with the mechanical manipulation of the emulsion between the tongue and palate. Oral destabilisation was achieved through breakdown of the emulsion that was stabilised with a commercially modified octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-starch. Microstructure breakdown and salt release was evaluated utilising in vitro, in vivo and sensory methods. For control emulsions, stabilised with orally inert proteins, no loss of structure and no release of sodium from the internal aqueous phase was found. The OSA-starch microstructure breakdown took the initial form of oil droplet coalescence. It is hypothesised that during this coalescence process sodium from the internalised aqueous phase is partially released and is therefore available for perception. Indeed, programmed emulsions showed an enhancement in saltiness perception; a 23.7% reduction in sodium could be achieved without compromise in salty taste (p < 0.05; 120 consumers). This study shows a promising new approach for sodium reduction in liquid and semi-liquid emulsion based foods. PMID:25865459

  5. Programmed emulsions for sodium reduction in emulsion based foods.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Natalie; Hewson, Louise; Fisk, Ian; Wolf, Bettina

    2015-05-01

    In this research a microstructure approach to reduce sodium levels in emulsion based foods is presented. If successful, this strategy will enable reduction of sodium without affecting consumer satisfaction with regard to salty taste. The microstructure approach comprised of entrapment of sodium in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. These were designed to destabilise during oral processing when in contact with the salivary enzyme amylase in combination with the mechanical manipulation of the emulsion between the tongue and palate. Oral destabilisation was achieved through breakdown of the emulsion that was stabilised with a commercially modified octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-starch. Microstructure breakdown and salt release was evaluated utilising in vitro, in vivo and sensory methods. For control emulsions, stabilised with orally inert proteins, no loss of structure and no release of sodium from the internal aqueous phase was found. The OSA-starch microstructure breakdown took the initial form of oil droplet coalescence. It is hypothesised that during this coalescence process sodium from the internalised aqueous phase is partially released and is therefore available for perception. Indeed, programmed emulsions showed an enhancement in saltiness perception; a 23.7% reduction in sodium could be achieved without compromise in salty taste (p < 0.05; 120 consumers). This study shows a promising new approach for sodium reduction in liquid and semi-liquid emulsion based foods.

  6. CFD Modeling of Sodium-Oxide Deposition in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Compact Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Tatli, Emre; Ferroni, Paolo; Mazzoccoli, Jason

    2015-09-02

    The possible use of compact heat exchangers (HXs) in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) employing a Brayton cycle is promising due to their high power density and resulting small volume in comparison with conventional shell-and-tube HXs. However, the small diameter of their channels makes them more susceptible to plugging due to Na2O deposition during accident conditions. Although cold traps are designed to reduce oxygen impurity levels in the sodium coolant, their failure, in conjunction with accidental air ingress into the sodium boundary, could result in coolant oxygen levels that are above the saturation limit in the cooler parts of the HX channels. This can result in Na2O crystallization and the formation of solid deposits on cooled channel surfaces, limiting or even blocking coolant flow. The development of analysis tools capable of modeling the formation of these deposits in the presence of sodium flow will allow designers of SFRs to properly size the HX channels so that, in the scenario mentioned above, the reactor operator has sufficient time to detect and react to the affected HX. Until now, analytical methodologies to predict the formation of these deposits have been developed, but never implemented in a high-fidelity computational tool suited to modern reactor design techniques. This paper summarizes the challenges and the current status in the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology to predict deposit formation, with particular emphasis on sensitivity studies on some parameters affecting deposition.

  7. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Parmar, N. S. Lynn, K. G.

    2015-01-12

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1–3.5) × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}. Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a Na{sub Zn} level at ∼(220–270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4–5) orders of magnitude at room temperature.

  8. [Sodium chloride 0.9%: nephrotoxic crystalloid?].

    PubMed

    Dombre, Vincent; De Seigneux, Sophie; Schiffer, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Sodium chloride 0.9%, often incorrectly called physiological saline, contains higher concentration of chloride compared to plasma. It is known that the administration of sodium chloride 0.9% can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in a reproducible manner. The elevated chloride concentration in 0.9% NaCl solution can also adversely affect renal perfusion. This effect is thought to be induced by hyperchloremia that causes renal artery vasoconstriction. For these reasons, the use of 0.9% NaCl solution is raising attention and some would advocate the use of a more "physiological" solution, such as balanced solutions that contain a level of chloride closer to that of plasma. Few prospective, randomized, controlled trials are available today and most were done in a perioperative setting. Some studies suggest that the chloride excess in 0.9% NaCl solution could have clinical consequences; however, this remains to be established by quality randomized controlled trials. PMID:26999998

  9. The Industrial Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel E. Bays; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang

    2009-04-01

    This paper investigates the use of enrichment and moderator zoning methods for optimizing the r-z power distribution within sodium cooled fast reactors. These methods allow overall greater fuel utilization in the core resulting in more fuel being irradiated near the maximum allowed thermal power. The peak-to-average power density was held to 1.18. This core design, in conjunction with a multiple-reheat Brayton power conversion system, has merit for producing an industrial level of electrical output (2400MWth, 1000MWe) from a relatively compact core size. The total core radius, including reflectors and shields, was held to 1.78m. Preliminary safety analysis suggests that positive reactivity insertion resulting from a leak between the sodium primary loop and helium power conversion system can be mitigated using simple gas-liquid centripetal separation strategies in the plant’s primary loop.

  10. [Sodium chloride 0.9%: nephrotoxic crystalloid?].

    PubMed

    Dombre, Vincent; De Seigneux, Sophie; Schiffer, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Sodium chloride 0.9%, often incorrectly called physiological saline, contains higher concentration of chloride compared to plasma. It is known that the administration of sodium chloride 0.9% can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in a reproducible manner. The elevated chloride concentration in 0.9% NaCl solution can also adversely affect renal perfusion. This effect is thought to be induced by hyperchloremia that causes renal artery vasoconstriction. For these reasons, the use of 0.9% NaCl solution is raising attention and some would advocate the use of a more "physiological" solution, such as balanced solutions that contain a level of chloride closer to that of plasma. Few prospective, randomized, controlled trials are available today and most were done in a perioperative setting. Some studies suggest that the chloride excess in 0.9% NaCl solution could have clinical consequences; however, this remains to be established by quality randomized controlled trials.

  11. Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

    2008-08-31

    Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of treating the tank wastes by hundreds of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass. An electrochemical salt-splitting process, based on sodium-ion selective ceramic membranes, is being developed to recover and recycle sodium hydroxide from high-salt radioactive tank wastes in DOE’s complex. The ceramic membranes are from a family of materials known as sodium (Na)—super-ionic conductors (NaSICON)—and the diffusion of sodium ions (Na+) is allowed, while blocking other positively charged ions. A cost/benefit evaluation was based on a strategy that involves a separate caustic-recycle facility based on the NaSICON technology, which would be located adjacent to the WTP facility. A Monte Carlo approach was taken, and several thousand scenarios were analyzed to determine likely economic results. The cost/benefit evaluation indicates that 10,000–50,000 metric tons (MT) of sodium could be recycled, and would allow for the reduction of glass production by 60,000–300,000 MT. The cost of the facility construction and operation was scaled to the low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification facility, showing cost would be

  12. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  13. Dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular mortality: controversy resolved?

    PubMed

    Alderman, Michael H; Cohen, Hillel W

    2012-07-01

    Universal reduction in sodium intake has long been recommended, largely because of its proven ability to lower blood pressure for some. However, multiple randomized trials have also demonstrated that similar reductions in sodium increase plasma renin activity and aldosterone secretion, insulin resistance, sympathetic nerve activity, serum cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Thus, the health consequences of reducing sodium cannot be predicted by its impact on any single physiologic characteristic but will reflect the net of conflicting effects. Some 23 observational studies (>360,000 subjects and >26,000 end points) linking sodium intake to cardiovascular outcomes have yielded conflicting results. In subjects with average sodium intakes of less than 4.5 g/day, most have found an inverse association of intake with outcome; in subjects with average intakes greater than 4.5 g/day, most reported direct associations. Finally, in two, a "J-shaped" relation was detected. In addition, three randomized trials have found that heart failure subjects allocated to 1.8 g of sodium have significantly increased morbidity and mortality compared with those at 2.8 g. At the same time, a randomized study in retired Taiwanese men found that allocation to an average intake of 3.8 g improved survival compared with 5.3 g. Taken together, these data provide strong support for a "J-shaped" relation of sodium to cardiovascular outcomes. Sodium intakes above and below the range of 2.5-6.0 g/day are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This robust body of evidence does not support universal reduction of sodium intake.

  14. CDC grand rounds: dietary sodium reduction - time for choice.

    PubMed

    2012-02-10

    Excess dietary sodium is a major contributor to hypertension (high blood pressure) and a critical public health issue in the United States. Nearly one in three U.S. adults, or 68 million persons, has hypertension, and half of those do not have their condition under control. Hypertension is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases, which are a leading cause of death, disability, and health-care costs in the United States. The average sodium intake among persons in the United States aged ≥2 years is 3,266 mg/day (excluding table salt). Current dietary guidelines recommend that reducing consumption of sodium to <2,300 mg/day, and that blacks, persons aged ≥51 years, and persons of any age with hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease (about half of the U.S. population and the majority of adults) further reduce intake to 1,500 mg/day. Regardless of age or sex, sodium intake by most U.S. residents considerably exceeds recommended levels. Reducing sodium intake to 2,300 mg/day potentially could prevent 11 million cases of hypertension and save billions of dollars in health-care expenditures; reducing sodium intake further would yield additional benefits. To achieve those reductions and help consumers make healthful choices, expanded educational efforts and monitoring of the sodium content of the food supply are needed. Increased availability of lower sodium products and reductions in the amount of sodium in foods served or sold in the marketplace also are needed. PMID:22318471

  15. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  16. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines. PMID:21664679

  17. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines.

  18. Legal Regulation of Sodium Consumption to Reduce Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Barraza, Leila F.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, tens of thousands of Americans die each year of heart disease, stroke, or other chronic conditions tied to hypertension from long-term overconsumption of sodium compounds. Major strides to lower dietary sodium have been made over decades, but the goal of reducing Americans’ daily consumption is elusive. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been urged to consider stronger regulatory limits on sodium, especially in processed and prepared foods. Still, FDA categorizes salt (and many other sodium compounds) as “generally recognized as safe,” meaning they can be added to foods when ingested in reasonable amounts. Legal reforms or actions at each level of government offer traditional and new routes to improving chronic disease outcomes. However, using law as a public health tool must be assessed carefully, given potential trade-offs and unproven efficacy. PMID:26890409

  19. Reproducibility of blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions: the GenSalt study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dongfeng; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ji-Chun; Huang, Jianfeng; Bazzano, Lydia A; Lu, Fanghong; Mu, Jianjun; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Mills, Katherine; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Rice, Treva; Hamm, L Lee; He, Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions vary among individuals. We studied the long-term reproducibility of blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake. We repeated the dietary sodium and potassium interventions among 487 Chinese adults 4.5 years after the original dietary intervention. The identical dietary intervention protocol, which included a 7-day low-sodium feeding (51.3 mmol/d), a 7-day high-sodium feeding (307.8 mmol/d), and a 7-day high-sodium feeding with oral potassium supplementation (60.0 mmol/d), was applied in both the initial and repeated studies. Three blood pressure measurements were obtained during each of the 3 days of baseline observation and on days 5, 6, and 7 of each intervention period. The results from the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium showed excellent compliance with the study diet. Blood pressure responses to dietary intervention in the original and repeated studies were highly correlated. For example, the correlation coefficients (95% confidence interval) for systolic blood pressure levels were 0.77 (0.73-0.80) at baseline, 0.79 (0.75-0.82) during low sodium, 0.80 (0.77-0.83) during high sodium, and 0.82 (0.79-0.85) during high sodium and potassium supplementation interventions (all P<0.0001). The correlation coefficients for systolic blood pressure changes were 0.37 (0.29-0.44) from baseline to low sodium, 0.37 (0.29-0.44) from low to high sodium, and 0.28 (0.20-0.36) from high sodium to high sodium plus potassium supplementation (all P<0.0001). These data indicate that blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions have long-term reproducibility and stable characteristics in the general population.

  20. Low Response of Renin–Angiotensin System to Sodium Intake Intervention in Chinese Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weijing; Cai, Qingqing; Yuan, Woliang; Liu, Yu; Bardeesi, Adham Sameer A.; Wang, Jingfeng; Chen, Jie; Huang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The interactions of sodium balance and response of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system are important for maintaining the hemodynamic stability in physiological conditions. However, the influence of short-term sodium intake intervention in the response of renin–angiotensin system (RAS) on hypertensive patients is still unclear. Thus, we conducted a clinical trial to investigate the effects of short-term sodium intake intervention on the response of RAS in hypertensive patients. One hundred twenty-five primary Chinese hypertensive patients were divided into high, moderate, and low sodium groups by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (UNa+). All the patients received a 10-day dietary sodium intake intervention with standardized sodium (173.91mmol/day) and potassium (61.53mmol/day). Blood pressure, urinary sodium, urinary potassium, plasma sodium, potassium, creatinine, the levels of plasma renin activity, plasma angiotensin II concentrations (AT-II), and plasma aldosterone concentrations were detected before and after the intervention. Before the intervention, no differences were found in blood pressure and RAS among 3 groups. After standardized dietary sodium intake intervention, both UNa+ excretion and systolic pressure decreased in high-sodium group, while they increased in moderate and low-sodium groups. Intriguingly, there were no changes in the levels of plasma renin activity, AT-II, and plasma aldosterone concentrations among 3 groups during the intervention. The present study demonstrated that the influenced sodium excretion and blood pressure by short-term sodium intake intervention were independent of RAS quick response in Chinese hypertensive patients. PMID:26871780

  1. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  2. Catalyst for sodium chlorate decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Production of oxygen by rapid decomposition of cobalt oxide and sodium chlorate mixture is discussed. Cobalt oxide serves as catalyst to accelerate reaction. Temperature conditions and chemical processes involved are described.

  3. Dietary sodium intake and its impact factors in adults of Shandong province.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Hong; Xu, Ai Qiang; Lu, Zi Long; Yan, Liu Xia; Guo, Xiao Lei; Wang, Hui Cheng; Ma, Ji Xiang; Zhang, Ji Yu; Dong, Jing; Wang, Lin Hong

    2014-07-01

    Dietary sodium intake and its impact factors in 2 140 adults aged 18-69 years were analyzed. The mean daily sodium intake was 5745.0 (5427.6-6062.5) mg per day, which was higher in males than in females (P<0.01). After having been adjusted for gender, age and urban/city areas, the mean daily sodium intake was significantly higher in participants with a lower education level, drinkers and smokers than in those with a higher education level, nondrinkers and nonsmokers (P<0.01). The dietary sodium intake in adults of Shandong Province is higher than the recommended standards.

  4. Sodium Hydrosulfide Relieves Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Constriction Injured Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-qing; Luo, Hui-qin; Lin, Cai-zhu; Chen, Jin-zhuan; Lin, Xian-zhong

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant neuronal activity in injured peripheral nerves is believed to be an important factor in the development of neuropathic pain (NPP). Channel protein pCREB of that activity has been shown to mitigate the onset of associated molecular events in the nervous system, and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) could inhibit the expression of pCREB. However, whether NaHS could relieve the pain, it needs further experimental research. Furthermore, the clinical potential that NaHS was used to relieve pain was limited so it would be required. To address these issues, the rats of sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) were given intraperitoneal injection of NaHS containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The experimental results showed that NaHS inhibited the reduction of paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL), mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and the level of pCREB in CCI rats in a dose-dependent manner and they were greatly decreased in NaHSM group (P < 0.05). NaHS alleviates chronic neuropathic pain by inhibiting expression of pCREB in the spinal cord of Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:25506383

  5. Sodium hydrosulfide relieves neuropathic pain in chronic constriction injured rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-Qing; Luo, Hui-Qin; Lin, Cai-Zhu; Chen, Jin-Zhuan; Lin, Xian-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant neuronal activity in injured peripheral nerves is believed to be an important factor in the development of neuropathic pain (NPP). Channel protein pCREB of that activity has been shown to mitigate the onset of associated molecular events in the nervous system, and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) could inhibit the expression of pCREB. However, whether NaHS could relieve the pain, it needs further experimental research. Furthermore, the clinical potential that NaHS was used to relieve pain was limited so it would be required. To address these issues, the rats of sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) were given intraperitoneal injection of NaHS containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The experimental results showed that NaHS inhibited the reduction of paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL), mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and the level of pCREB in CCI rats in a dose-dependent manner and they were greatly decreased in NaHSM group (P < 0.05). NaHS alleviates chronic neuropathic pain by inhibiting expression of pCREB in the spinal cord of Sprague-Dawley rats.

  6. Efficacy Profiles of Psychopharmacology: Divalproex Sodium in Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanzode, Leena A.; Saxena, Kirti; Kraemer, Helena; Chang, Kiki; Steiner, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about how deeply medication treatment penetrates different levels of the mind/brain system. Psychopathology consists of relatively simple constructs (e.g., anger, irritability), or complex ones (e.g., responsibility). This study examines the efficacy of a specific compound, divalproex sodium (DVPX), on the various levels of…

  7. Remediation tradeoffs addressed with simulated annealing optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L. L., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    Escalation of groundwater remediation costs has encouraged both advances in optimization techniques to balance remediation objectives and economics and development of innovative technologies to expedite source region clean-ups. We present an optimization application building on a pump-and-treat model, yet assuming a prior removal of different portions of the source area to address the evolving management issue of more aggressive source remediation. Separate economic estimates of in-situ thermal remediation are combined with the economic estimates of the subsequent optimal pump-and-treat remediation to observe tradeoff relationships of cost vs. highest remaining contamination levels (hot spot). The simulated annealing algorithm calls the flow and transport model to evaluate the success of a proposed remediation scenario at a U.S.A. Superfund site contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  8. Stability of Ampicillin Sodium, Nafcillin Sodium, And Oxacillin Sodium in AutoDose Infusion System Bags.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanping; Trissel, Lawrence A

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of ampicillin sodium 1g/100mL, nafcillin sodium 1g/100mL, and oxacillin sodium 1g/100mL, each of which was admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and packaged in an AutoDose Infusion System bag. Triplicate test samples were prepared by reconstituting the penicillin antibiotics and bringing the required amount of each drug to a final volume of 100 mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The test solutions were packaged in AutoDose Bags, which are ethylene vinyl acetate plastic containers designed for use in the AutoDose Infusion System. Samples were stored protected from light and were evaluated at appropriate intervals for up to 7 days at 23 deg C and up to 30 days at 4 deg C. Physical stability was assessed by means of a multistep evaluation procedure that included both turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual inspection. Chemical stability was assesed with stability-indicating high-perofrmance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analytical techniques based on the determination of drug concentrations initially and at appropriate intervals over the study periods. All the penicillin admixtures were initially clear when viewed in normal fluorescent room light. When the admixtures were viewed with a Tyndall beam, a trace haze was observed with the ampicillin sodium and nafcillin sodium mixtures but not with the oxacillin sodium mixture. Measured turbidity and particulate content were low and exhibited little change in the ampicillin sodium and oxacillin sodium samples throughout the study. The nafcillin sodium samples stored at room temperature remained clear, but a microprecipitate developed in the refrigerated samples between 14 and 21 days of storage. All samples were essentially colorless throughout the study. HPLC analysis indicated some decomposition in the samples. Ampicillin sodium, which was the least stable, exhibited a 10% loss after 24 hours at 23 deg C. In the

  9. Effects of intraruminal infusions of sodium acetate and sodium chloride on silage intake by lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Forbes, J M; Mbanya, J N; Anil, M H

    1992-12-01

    Lactating dairy cows prepared with rumen fistulas were fed on grass silage and concentrates and used in two experiments to compare the effects of sodium acetate and sodium chloride infused over 3 h into the rumen on the voluntary intake of silage. Silage intake was depressed in an approximately linear manner by increasing amounts (6-15 mol) of sodium acetate (NaOAc) and 15 mol NaCl had an effect similar to that of 12 mol NaOAc. Sodium in rumen fluid was significantly correlated with intake as was osmolality. 5.5, 7.4 or 9.1 mol of NaOAc significantly depressed silage intake, while 7.4 and 9.1 mol NaCl had significant effects. There were significant negative relationships between intake and the level of NaOAc or NaCl. It is concluded that the major effect of either salt was via the elevation of osmolality of rumen fluid and the relevance to normal control of feeding is discussed.

  10. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-06-01

    Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (<2.0 g/day), this has not been reproduced in long-term trials (>6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to moderate intake. However, current observational evidence suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CVD; the lowest risks observed with 3-5 g/day but higher risk with <3 g/day. Importantly, these observational data also confirm the association between higher intake (>5 g/day) and increased risk of CVD. Although lower intake may reduce BP, this may be offset by marked increases in neurohormones and other adverse effects which may paradoxically be adverse. Large randomised clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are required to provide robust data on the long-term effects of sodium reduction on CVD incidence. Until such trials are completed, current evidence suggests that moderate sodium intake for the general population (3-5 g/day) is likely the optimum range for CVD prevention.

  11. Substance misuse prevention: addressing anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia refers to the inability of experiencing pleasure in positive life events. It has been conceptualized as a stable yet malleable characteristic and is associated with hypoactivity in the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic systems. Very recently, it has been posited as an etiologic factor associated with drug addiction onset, escalation, and relapse. Prevention programming could be developed to counteract the harmful impact of anhedonia, so as to minimize its impact on drug misuse. Remedial efforts are those that either (1) permit the individual to tolerate low levels of pleasure without resorting to drug misuse or other maladaptive behaviors that may unhealthily besot pleasure (for example, through normalization, structuring time, or meditation) or (2) counteract anhedonia by enhancing ones capability to experience pleasure (for example, behavioral activation, positive psychology, pharmacotherapy, or pursuit of positive addictions). School-based activities could be developed that can be completed by individuals, small workgroups, or the whole classroom. The concept of anhedonia is described in this chapter, and possible prevention strategies that might be utilized in schools as well as other contexts are discussed. PMID:24753277

  12. Estimates of Dietary Sodium Consumption in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Colin-Ramirez, Eloisa; Arcand, JoAnne; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2015-12-01

    Estimating dietary sodium intake is a key component of dietary assessment in the clinical setting of HF to effectively implement appropriate dietary interventions for sodium reduction and monitor adherence to the dietary treatment. In a research setting, assessment of sodium intake is crucial to an essential methodology to evaluate outcomes after a dietary or behavioral intervention. Current available sodium intake assessment methods include 24-hour urine collection, spot urine collections, multiple day food records, food recalls, and food frequency questionnaires. However, these methods have inherent limitations that make assessment of sodium intake challenging, and the utility of traditional methods may be questionable for estimating sodium intake in patients with HF. Thus, there are remaining questions about how to best assess dietary sodium intake in this patient population, and there is a need to identify a reliable method to assess and monitor sodium intake in the research and clinical setting of HF. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current methods for sodium intake assessment, addresses the challenges for its accurate evaluation, and highlights the relevance of applying the highest-quality measurement methods in the research setting to minimize the risk of biased data.

  13. Inaccuracy of Self-reported Low Sodium Diet among Chinese: Findings from Baseline Survey for Shandong & Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) Project.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Guo, Xiao Lei; Seo, Dong Chul; Xu, Ai Qiang; Xun, Peng Cheng; Ma, Ji Xiang; Shi, Xiao Ming; Li, Nicole; Yan, Liu Xia; Li, Yuan; Lu, Zi Long; Zhang, Ji Yu; Tang, Jun Li; Ren, Jie; Zhao, Wen Hua; Liang, Xiao Feng

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the agreement between the self-reported sodium intake level and 24-h urine sodium excretion level in Chinese. The 24-h urine collection was conducted among 2112 adults aged 18-69 years randomly selected in Shandong Province, China. The subjects were asked whether their sodium intake was low, moderate, or high. The weighted kappa statistics was calculated to assess the agreement between 24-h urine sodium excretion level and self-reported sodium intake level. One third of the subjects reported low sodium intake level. About 70% of the subjects had mean 24-h sodium excretion>9 g/d, but reported low or moderate sodium intake. The agreement between self-reported sodium intake level and 24-h urine sodium excretion level was low in both normotensive subjects and hypertensive subjects. These findings suggested that many subjects who reported low sodium intake had actual urine sodium excretion>9 g/d. Sodium intake is often underestimated in both hypertensive and normotensive participants in China.

  14. Inaccuracy of Self-reported Low Sodium Diet among Chinese: Findings from Baseline Survey for Shandong & Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) Project.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Guo, Xiao Lei; Seo, Dong Chul; Xu, Ai Qiang; Xun, Peng Cheng; Ma, Ji Xiang; Shi, Xiao Ming; Li, Nicole; Yan, Liu Xia; Li, Yuan; Lu, Zi Long; Zhang, Ji Yu; Tang, Jun Li; Ren, Jie; Zhao, Wen Hua; Liang, Xiao Feng

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the agreement between the self-reported sodium intake level and 24-h urine sodium excretion level in Chinese. The 24-h urine collection was conducted among 2112 adults aged 18-69 years randomly selected in Shandong Province, China. The subjects were asked whether their sodium intake was low, moderate, or high. The weighted kappa statistics was calculated to assess the agreement between 24-h urine sodium excretion level and self-reported sodium intake level. One third of the subjects reported low sodium intake level. About 70% of the subjects had mean 24-h sodium excretion>9 g/d, but reported low or moderate sodium intake. The agreement between self-reported sodium intake level and 24-h urine sodium excretion level was low in both normotensive subjects and hypertensive subjects. These findings suggested that many subjects who reported low sodium intake had actual urine sodium excretion>9 g/d. Sodium intake is often underestimated in both hypertensive and normotensive participants in China. PMID:25716570

  15. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  16. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  17. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  18. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  4. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  5. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  6. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  7. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  8. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium pentachlorophenate may be safely used as a preservative for... temperature. The quantity of sodium pentachlorophenate used shall not exceed 0.5 percent by weight of...

  9. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  10. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  13. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  14. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  15. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  16. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  18. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2,...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  20. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2,...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  2. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2,...

  3. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  4. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  5. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium... manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH control agent as defined in §...

  11. Early adulthood: an overlooked age group in national sodium reduction initiatives in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Jounghee; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Jong-Wook; Byun, Jae-Eon; Kang, Baeg-Won; Choi, Bo Youl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES South Korean's sodium consumption level is more than twice the upper limit level suggested by the WHO. Steep increases in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Korea necessitate more effective sodium reduction programs. This study was conducted in order to compare sodium intake-related eating behaviors and key psychosocial factors according to age group and gender. SUBJECTS/METHODS Using an online survey, a total of 1,564 adults (20-59 years old) considered to be geographically representative of South Korea were recruited and surveyed. The major outcomes were perceived behaviors, knowledge, intentions, and self-efficacy related to sodium intake. RESULTS The results show that perceived behavior and level of self-efficacy related to low sodium consumption differed by age and gender. Female participants showed better behavior and intention towards low sodium intake than male counterparts. Young participants in their 20s showed the lowest intention to change their current sodium intake as well as lowest self-efficacy measures. CONCLUSIONS Future sodium reduction interventions should be developed with tailored messages targeting different age and gender groups. Specifically, interventions can be planned and implemented at the college level or for workers in their early career to increase their intention and self-efficacy as a means of preventing future health complications associated with high sodium intake. PMID:25489413

  12. Native American Program Initiatives at the College and University Level. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session on Addressing the Needs in Indian Country Pertaining to Native American Program Initiatives at the College and University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    A Senate committee hearing received testimony to showcase Native American program initiatives at the college and university level. Program representatives presented information on the characteristics and accomplishments of their programs. The Institute of Tribal Government at Portland State University (Oregon) provides intensive 3-day training…

  13. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent years, thanks to successful functional expression of insect sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and intensive efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of insect resistance to insecticides that target sodium channels. In this review, I discuss recent literature on insect sodium channels with emphases on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides. PMID:17206406

  14. Addressing poor nutrition to promote heart health: Moving upstream

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Kim D

    2010-01-01

    Current dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention suggest dietary patterns that promote achieving healthy weight, emphasize vegetables, legumes, fruit, whole grains, fish and nuts, substituting mono-unsaturated fats for saturated fats and restricting dietary sodium to less than 2300 mg/day. However, trends in nutrient intake and food consumption patterns suggest that the need for improvement in the dietary patterns of Canadians is clear. Influencing eating behaviour requires more than addressing nutrition knowledge and perceptions of healthy eating – it requires tackling the context within which individuals make choices. A comprehensive approach to improving nutrition includes traditional downstream strategies such as counselling to improve knowledge and skills; midstream strategies such as using the media to change social norms; and upstream strategies such as creating supportive environments through public policy including regulatory measures. While the evidence base for more upstream strategies continues to grow, key examples of comprehensive approaches to population change provide a call to action. PMID:20847988

  15. Addressing poor nutrition to promote heart health: moving upstream.

    PubMed

    Raine, Kim D

    2010-01-01

    Current dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention suggest dietary patterns that promote achieving healthy weight, emphasize vegetables, legumes, fruit, whole grains, fish and nuts, substituting mono-unsaturated fats for saturated fats and restricting dietary sodium to less than 2300 mg/day. However, trends in nutrient intake and food consumption patterns suggest that the need for improvement in the dietary patterns of Canadians is clear. Influencing eating behaviour requires more than addressing nutrition knowledge and perceptions of healthy eating - it requires tackling the context within which individuals make choices. A comprehensive approach to improving nutrition includes traditional downstream strategies such as counselling to improve knowledge and skills; midstream strategies such as using the media to change social norms; and upstream strategies such as creating supportive environments through public policy including regulatory measures. While the evidence base for more upstream strategies continues to grow, key examples of comprehensive approaches to population change provide a call to action.

  16. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  17. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  18. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  19. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  20. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  1. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  7. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  8. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  9. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  10. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  11. 77 FR 48429 - Commission Address Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Parts 2700, 2701, 2702, 2704, 2705, 2706 Commission Address Change AGENCY... to inform the public of the address change. DATES: This final rule will take effect on August 27... because the amendments are of a minor and administrative nature dealing with only a change in address....

  12. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  13. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  14. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  15. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  16. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  17. Reactions of sodium species in the promoted SNCR process

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, V.M.; Lissianski, V.V.; Maly, P.M.; Ho, L.; Rusli, D.; Gardiner, W.C. Jr.

    1999-06-01

    Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) is a well-known commercial NO{sub x} control process based on injecting a nitrogen agent into combustion products containing NO at temperatures near 1250 K. A serious limitation of the SNCR processes is that the temperature range over which nitrogen agents are effective is relatively narrow. In this work, the authors show that adding small amounts of sodium salts significantly improves the performance of the SNCR process. Parts per million levels of sodium compounds enhance NO removal and extend the effective SNCR temperature range in comparison with use of a nitrogen agent alone. When added in the same sodium atom amounts, the efficiencies of different sodium compounds are similar. Kinetic modeling suggests that the performance improvement can be explained as a homogeneous chain reaction ensuing after the sodium compounds are converted into NaOH. The overall result of introducing sodium compounds is conversion of H{sub 2}O and inactive HO{sub 2} radicals into reactive OH radicals, with the effective stoichiometry H{sub 2}O + HO{sub 2} {r_arrow} 3 OH, which enhances the SNCR performance of nitrogen agents by increasing the production rate of NH{sub 2} radicals.

  18. Urinary sodium and chloride during renal salt retention.

    PubMed

    Sherman, R A; Eisinger, R P

    1983-09-01

    One hundred ten episodes of renal salt retention (urinary sodium and/or chloride less than 10 mEq/L) were studied retrospectively to determine the significance of discordance of urinary sodium from chloride. In 16 episodes the urinary sodium exceeded chloride by at least 15 mEq/L. This disparity was associated with the necessity for urinary excretion of substantial quantities of poorly reabsorbed anions (penicillin, ketones, or diatrizoate), a rapidly falling serum bicarbonate level (due to resolving metabolic or developing respiratory alkalosis), or substantial renal insufficiency (serum creatinine greater than 3 mg/dL). In 14 of 110 episodes, urinary chloride exceeded urinary sodium by at least 15 mEq/L. These patients were more often oliguric and had a higher mean serum chloride than patients without this dissociation. In patients with oliguria, hyponatremia, or metabolic alkalosis, measurement of urinary sodium or chloride alone will, in a substantial number of cases, fail to detect renal salt retention. When evidence is sought for renal salt retention, both urinary sodium and chloride should be determined. PMID:6613992

  19. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  20. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Lauerhass, Lance; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical information to Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel that is required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and nvironmental Laboratory (INEEL). INEEL considers simulation to have an important role in the integration/optimization of treatment process trains for the High Level Waste (HLW) Program. This project involves a joint Technical Task Plan (TTP ID77WT31, Subtask C) between SRS and INEEL. The work scope of simulation is different at the two sites. This document addresses only the treatment of SBW at INEEL. The simulation model(s) is to be built by SRS for INEEL in FY-2001.

  1. Sodium-sulfur batteries for spacecraft energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dueber, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Power levels for future space missions will be much higher than are presently attainable using nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries. Development of a high energy density rechargeable battery is essential in being able to provide these higher power levels without tremendous weight penalties. Studies conducted by both the Air Force and private industry have identified the sodium-sulfur battery as the best candidate for a next generation battery system. The advantages of the sodium-sulfur battery over the nickel-cadmium battery are discussed.

  2. Sodium regulation in the larvae of Chironomus dorsalis (Meig.) and Camptochironomus tentans (Fabr.): the effect of slat depletion and some observations on temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Wright, D A

    1975-02-01

    Sodium regulation was studied in fourth instar larvae of Chironomus dorsalis and Camptochironomus tentans. Both maintain a body sodium level well above that of the surrounding medium. The haemolymph contains approximately 90% of total body sodium and approximates to a single compartment freely exchanging sodium with the external medium. The anal papillae play a primary role in sodium regulation, the gut being in secondary importance. Sodium regulation in both species is comparatively insensitive to alterations in acclimatization temperature. C. dorsalis and C. tentans are capable of maintaining sodium balance in media containing 10 mumole Na and 25 mumole Na respectively. When exposed to several changes of distilled water, C. tentansis capable of reducing sodium loss by elaboration of a more dilute urine. This is apparently,supplemented by a reduction in the permeability of the body surface. Activation of sodium uptake in both species is comparatively sluggish, with influx reaching a maximum only after the loss of greater than 30% body sodium.

  3. Impairment of renal sodium excretion in tropical residents - phenomenological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, S. K.; Aryee, P. A.; Amuasi, J.; Hesse, I. F. A.; Affram, R. K.

    There is evidence of impaired renal sodium excretion in salt-sensitive African Blacks. A decreased rate of renal sodium chloride (NaCl) excretion, low plasma renin activity and a tendency to elevated blood pressure are the hallmarks of salt sensitivity. Recent evidence indicates that increased proximal and distal tubular fluid reabsorption in some tropical residents may explain the impaired sodium excretion in these people. In this study of a cohort population, we speculated that subjects selected from that population might be salt-sensitive. We therefore measured the sodium balance in 10 normotensive male subjects over 10 consecutive days, after they had ingested a normal or a high amount of sodium, as NaCl (salt) in their diet. We quantified their renal sodium excretion rate by phenomenological analysis of their sodium balance data. We also measured plasma renin activity for 7 consecutive days in a separate group of 6 male and 4 female subjects in order to assess the state of their renin/angiotensin system. We selected all our subjects from a cohort population of 269 subjects randomly selected from a community known to have a high prevalence of primary hypertension. Our data on two separate groups of subjects from the same cohort population revealed delayed renal sodium excretion with t1/2 of about 5 days, compared to published data for normal individuals with t1/2 of less than 24 h. Also, plasma renin activity levels were low. Hence, our subjects are salt-sensitive. Quantification of their renal impairment is important for various reasons: it heightens one's appreciation of the problem of salt retention in African Blacks who are salt-sensitive and it also underlines the importance of the need for further research into the benefits of dietary salt restriction for reducing cardiovascular mortality in African populations, as has been done in some Western countries.

  4. Theory-based Low-Sodium Diet Education for Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Darlene; Marcinek, Regina; Abshire, Demetrius; Lennie, Terry; Biddle, Martha; Bentley, Brooke; Moser, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Theory-based teaching strategies for promoting adherence to a low-sodium diet among patients with heart failure are presented in this manuscript. The strategies, which are based on the theory of planned behavior, address patient attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control as they learn how to follow a low-sodium diet. Home health clinicians can select a variety of the instructional techniques presented to meet individual patient learning needs. PMID:20592543

  5. Effects of dietary calcium on erythrocyte sodium ion transport systems in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Fujito, K; Yokomatsu, M; Ishiguro, N; Numahata, H; Tomino, Y; Koide, H

    1991-01-01

    The alteration of sodium ion transport in red blood cells was observed in SHR and patients with essential hypertension. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of dietary calcium intake on blood pressure and sodium ion transport of red blood cells in SHR. The SHR were fed a diet with three different levels of calcium contents as follows: 0.1% (low), 0.6% (normal) and 4.0% (high) of calcium between 6 and 20 weeks of age. At 20 weeks of age, the levels of erythrocyte sodium efflux, sodium or potassium contents in the red blood cells were measured. On the high Ca diet, SHR showed an attenuation of the increase in blood pressure. On the low Ca diet, SHR showed an enhancement of hypertension. In proportion of increasing of dietary calcium contents, SHR had a lower level of sodium content in the RBC and a higher activity of the sodium pump. However, the passive sodium permeability and sodium-potassium cotransport in SHR were similar among the three different Ca diets. It is concluded that the amounts of dietary Ca might be related to the regulation of blood pressure by changing the sodium pump of the cell membrane in SHR.

  6. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  7. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  8. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  9. Transient Studies of a Sodium Sulfur Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprio, Sarah

    Modern grids will include input from fossil-fueled power generation facilities as well as renewable energy sources, and these are expected to work together actively. One major problem with this integrated power production is that most renewable energy sources are intermittent and variable, and thus introduce a very challenging situation with regard to grid stability and reliability. Also, fossil-fueled power generation facilities have load cycles based on expected usage. A non-reliable power source cannot feasibly be used to supply the grid with proper amounts of energy needed in peak times. A solution to this dilemma is power storage. The sodium-sulfur battery has high potential for electrical storage at the grid level due to its high energy density, low cost of the reactants, and high open-circuit voltage. However, the use of sodium-sulfur batteries at the grid level requires high current density operation that can cause cell deterioration, leading to lower sulfur utilization and lower energy efficiency. In addition, it can result in undesired thermal runaway leading to potentially hazardous situations. A rigorous, dynamic model of a sodium-sulfur battery can be used to study these phenomena, design the battery for optimal transient performance, and develop mitigation strategies. Most literature on sodium-sulfur batteries is concerned the dynamics of the sulfur electrode (a sodium-polysulfide melt). There is limited data in the open literature for dynamics of an entire cell. With this motivation, a first-principles dynamic model of a sodium-sulfur cell (with beta"-alumina electrolyte) has been developed. The state of discharge (SOD) of a sodium-sulfur cell significantly affects the heat generation rate, rates of electrochemical reactions, and internal resistance. To capture these phenomena correctly, a fully coupled thermal-electrochemical model has been developed. The thermal model considers heat generation due to Ohmic loss, Peltier heat, and heat due to the

  10. Stimulation of guanylate cyclase by sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin and nitric oxide in various tissue preparations and comparison to the effects of sodium azide and hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Katsuki, S; Arnold, W; Mittal, C; Murad, F

    1977-02-01

    Sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, sodium azide and hydroxylamine increased guanylate cyclase activity in particulate and/or soluble preparations from various tissues. While sodium nitroprusside increased guanylate cyclase activity in most of the preparations examined, the effects of sodium azide, hydroxylamine and nitroglycerin were tissue specific. Nitroglycerin and hydroxylamine were also less potent. Neither the protein activator factor nor catalase which is required for sodium azide effects altered the stimulatory effect of sodium nitroprusside. In the presence of sodium azide, sodium nitroprusside or hydroxylamine, magnesium ion was as effective as manganese ion as a sole cation cofactor for guanylate cyclase. With soluble guanylate cyclase from rat liver and bovine tracheal smooth muscle the concentrations of sodium nitroprusside that gave half-maximal stimulation with Mn2+ were 0.1 mM and 0.01 mM, respectively. Effective concentrations were slightly less with Mg2+ as a sole cation cofactor. The ability of these agents to increase cyclic GMP levels in intact tissues is probably due to their effects on guanylate cyclase activity. While the precise mechanism of guanylate cyclase activation by these agents is not known, activation may be due to the formation of nitric oxide or another reactive material since nitric oxide also increased guanylate cyclase activity. PMID:14978

  11. Diet and arterial hypertension: is the sodium ion alone important?

    PubMed

    Buemi, Michele; Senatore, Massimino; Corica, Francesco; Aloisi, Carmela; Romeo, Adolfo; Tramontana, Domenico; Frisina, Nicola

    2002-07-01

    Hypertension is a widespread phenomenon whose ultimate cause is still unknown. Many factors contribute to this disease, and partially for this reason, hypertension responds to different treatments in different individuals. It is difficult to generalize about therapies for general populations. In particular, the role of electrolytes in hypertension varies widely across individuals. This review focuses its attention on sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium ions in order to investigate whether these electrolytes play a role in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and its treatment. Some individuals are especially sensitive to sodium, and changing their intake of dietary sodium may lead to variations in the levels of the other electrolytes. These changes in electrolyte levels can complicate treatments for arterial hypertension in some patients.

  12. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter

    2001-08-27

    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be

  13. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanck, Dorothy A.; Fozzard, Harry A.

    Voltage-gated sodium channels subserve regenerative excitation throughout the nervous system, as well as in skeletal and cardiac muscle. This excitation results from a voltage-dependent mechanism that increases regeneratively and selectively the sodium conductance of the channel e-fold for a 4-7 mV depolarization of the membrane with time constants in the range of tens of microseconds. Entry of Na+ into the cell without a companion anion depolarizes the cell. This depolarization, called the action potential, is propagated at rates of 1-20 meters/sec. In nerve it subserves rapid transmission of information and, in muscle cells, coordinates the trigger for contraction. Sodium-dependent action potentials depolarize the membrane to inside positive values of about 30-40 mV (approaching the electrochemical potential for the transmembrane sodium gradient). Repolarization to the resting potential (usually between -60 and -90 mV) occurs because of inactivation (closure) of sodium channels, which is assisted in different tissues by variable amounts of activation of voltage-gated potassium channels. This sequence results in all-or-nothing action potentials in nerve and fast skeletal muscle of 1-2 ms duration, and in heart muscle of 100-300 ms duration. Recovery of regenerative excitation, i.e., recovery of the ability of sodium channels to open, occurs after restoration of the resting potential with time constants of a few to several hundreds of milliseconds, depending on the channel isoform, and this rate controls the minimum interval for repetitive action potentials (refractory period).

  14. Sodium, potassium, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Whelton, Paul K

    2014-08-01

    The scientific underpinning for recommended levels of dietary sodium and potassium intake is of great importance to healthcare providers and policy decision-makers. Recent clinical trials and meta-analyses confirm the capacity of dietary sodium reduction and potassium supplementation to reduce blood pressure with no harmful effects on blood lipid levels in customary clinical settings. Blood pressure is thought to be a good surrogate for cardiovascular disease events and the most important preventable risk factor for mortality and disability-adjusted life years. Cohort analyses and related pooling studies that have been used to explore the relationship between dietary Na and CVD were all based on secondary analyses of datasets that were not designed for this purpose. Most are of insufficient quality to provide dependable information. The limited information available from clinical trial experience and cohort studies of higher quality suggests a reduction in dietary Na decreases CVD morbidity and mortality. Modeling studies suggest that a small reduction in dietary sodium would result in a sizable general population health benefit. Some countries have experienced a progressive decline in average dietary sodium consumption. However, there is no evidence of a corresponding trend in the United States, and almost the entire population is failing to meet dietary sodium and potassium guideline recommendations.

  15. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Yuhki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Nakamura, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called “dead sodium” broke away from the electrode. The mechanisms of electrochemical sodium deposition and dissolution on a copper electrode were similar to those on the sodium electrode. PMID:26925554

  16. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

  17. Low sodium diet corrects the defect in lymphocyte beta-adrenergic responsiveness in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, R D; Lawton, W J; McArdle, W L

    1987-01-01

    To determine the role of dietary sodium intake in the reduction in beta-adrenergic sensitivity in hypertension, lymphocyte beta-receptors from 8 borderline hypertensive and 16 normotensive subjects were studied after 5 d on a high sodium diet (400 meq/d) and also following a low sodium diet (10 meq/d). During the high sodium diet, lymphocyte beta-receptor-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, expressed as the relative increase over basal levels stimulated by the beta-agonist isoproterenol, was significantly (P less than 0.025) decreased in hypertensive (24 +/- 5%, mean +/- SE) compared with normotensive (42 +/- 4%) subjects. Neither beta-receptor density nor the proportion of nonsequestered beta-receptors differed between groups. A low sodium diet significantly increased beta-receptor-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in hypertensives (low sodium, 51 +/- 7%; high sodium, 24 +/- 5%, P less than 0.025) to a level not different than that of normotensives (46 +/- 5%). Thus, reduced lymphocyte beta-receptor responsiveness in hypertensive subjects is not due to beta-receptor sequestration and is corrected on a low sodium diet. Dietary sodium may be an important factor in the beta-receptor defect in early hypertension. Images PMID:3025262

  18. A repeated cross-sectional study of socio-economic inequities in dietary sodium consumption among Canadian adults: implications for national sodium reduction strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In many countries including Canada, excess consumption of dietary sodium is common, and this has adverse implications for population health. Socio-economic inequities in sodium consumption seem likely, but research is limited. Knowledge of socio-economic inequities in sodium consumption is important for informing population-level sodium reduction strategies, to ensure that they are both impactful and equitable. Methods We examined the association between socio-economic indicators (income and education) and sodium, using two outcome variables: 1) sodium consumption in mg/day, and 2) reported use of table salt, in two national surveys: the 1970/72 Nutrition Canada Survey and the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2. This permitted us to explore whether there were any changes in socio-economic patterning in dietary sodium during a time period characterized by modest, information-based national sodium reduction efforts, as well as to provide baseline information against which to examine the impact (equitable or not) of future sodium reduction strategies in Canada. Results There was no evidence of a socio-economic inequity in sodium consumption (mg/day) in 2004. In fact findings pointed to a positive association in women, whereby women of higher education consumed more sodium than women of lower education in 2004. For men, income was positively associated with reported use of table salt in 1970/72, but negatively associated in 2004. Conclusions An emerging inequity in reported use of table salt among men could reflect the modest, information-based sodium reduction efforts that were implemented during the time frame considered. However, for sodium consumption in mg/day, we found no evidence of a contemporary inequity, and in fact observed the opposite effect among women. Our findings could reflect data limitations, or they could signal that sodium differs from some other nutrients in terms of its socio-economic patterning, perhaps reflecting very

  19. Dietary sources and sodium intake in a sample of Australian preschool children

    PubMed Central

    O'Halloran, Siobhan A; Grimes, Carley A; Lacy, Kathleen E; Nowson, Caryl A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess dietary sodium intake and the food sources of sodium in a sample of Australian preschool children. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Mothers were followed up when children were approximately 3.5 years of age after participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial: the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program. Participants 251 Australian children aged 3.5±0.19 (SD) years. Primary and secondary outcome measures The average daily sodium intake was determined using three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The contributions of food groups, core, discretionary and processed foods to daily sodium intake were assessed. Results The average sodium intake was 1508±495 (SD) mg/day, (salt equivalent 3.9±1.3 (SD) g/day) and 87% of children exceeded the Australian Upper Level of Intake (UL) for sodium of 1000 mg/day (salt equivalent 2.6 g/day). Main food sources of sodium were cereal/cereal products (25%), milk products (19%), meat, poultry/game (17%) and cereal-based products (15%). Core foods contributed 65%, and discretionary foods 35% of total daily sodium intake, and within the total diet, minimally processed, processed, processed culinary ingredient and ultraprocessed foods contributed 16%, 35%, 1% and 48% of sodium, respectively. Conclusions Within this sample, most children exceeded the recommended UL for sodium. Core and ultraprocessed foods were key sources of sodium which suggests that reductions in the sodium content of these foods are required to reduce sodium intake in young children. These data also provide further support for public health campaigns that seek to reduce consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26846894

  20. 21 CFR 101.61 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content... claim about the level of sodium or salt in a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of... labeling of foods, provided that: (i) The food contains less than 5 milligrams (mg) of sodium per...

  1. 21 CFR 101.61 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content... claim about the level of sodium or salt in a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of... labeling of foods, provided that: (i) The food contains less than 5 milligrams (mg) of sodium per...

  2. 21 CFR 101.61 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content... claim about the level of sodium or salt in a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of... labeling of foods, provided that: (i) The food contains less than 5 milligrams (mg) of sodium per...

  3. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  4. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution.

  5. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  6. Addressing HIV stigma in protected medical settings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Wu, Zunyou

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the implementation of universal precaution (UP) plays a role in reducing HIV stigma. In this study we investigate the efficacy of a stigma reduction intervention on UP compliance and explore whether UP compliance could potentially influence HIV stigma reduction in medical settings. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted in two provinces of China with 1760 healthcare service providers recruited from 40 county-level hospitals. Longitudinal analyses included data collection at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up assessments. Using a hierarchical modeling approach, we estimated the intervention effect for each provider’s UP compliance and its potential mediating role on HIV stigma with the bootstrapping method. A significant intervention effect on UP compliance was observed at both the 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments. The intervention effect on provider avoidance intent was partially mediated by the provider’s own UP compliance at the two follow-up points. This study provides evidence that UP compliance should be part of HIV stigma reduction programs, especially in resource-restrained countries. Findings suggest that a protected work environment may be necessary but not sufficient to address HIV stigma in medical settings. PMID:26608559

  7. A European framework to address psychosocial hazards.

    PubMed

    Leka, Stavroula; Kortum, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decades, emphasis has been placed on the changing nature of work and new forms of risk that could negatively affect employee health and safety. These are mainly associated with new types of occupational hazards that have been termed psychosocial. Issues such as work-related stress, bullying and harassment are now receiving attention on a global basis and efforts have been made to address them at the workplace level. However, it has been acknowledged that despite developments of policy in this area, there still appear to be a broad science-policy gap and an even broader one between policy and practice. The WHO Network of Collaborating Centers in Occupational Health has, since the late 1990s, been supporting a dedicated program of work on psychosocial factors and work-related stress. Part of the Network's work is currently focusing on the translation of existing knowledge into practice in the area of psychosocial risk management. This program has identified that the optimum way forward lies in the development of a European framework for psychosocial risk management. This framework will serve as the basis for coordination of research activities and preventive action with an emphasis on evidence based interventions and best practice on an international basis. PMID:18408344

  8. Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Transporters in Osteoclast Differentiation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Dolder, Silvia; Siegrist, Mark; Wagner, Carsten A.; Biber, Jürg; Hernando, Nati; Hofstetter, Willy

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone degrading cells. Phosphate is an important constituent of mineralized bone and released in significant quantities during bone resorption. Molecular contributors to phosphate transport during the resorptive activity of osteoclasts have been controversially discussed. This study aimed at deciphering the role of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters during osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Our studies reveal RANKL-induced differential expression of sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein IIa (NaPi-IIa) transcript and protein during osteoclast development, but no expression of the closely related NaPi-IIb and NaPi-IIc SLC34 family isoforms. In vitro studies employing NaPi-IIa-deficient osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts reveal that NaPi-IIa is dispensable for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. These results are supported by the analysis of structural bone parameters by high-resolution microcomputed tomography that yielded no differences between adult NaPi-IIa WT and KO mice. By contrast, both type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters Pit-1 and Pit-2 were abundantly expressed throughout osteoclast differentiation, indicating that they are the relevant sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. We conclude that phosphate transporters of the SLC34 family have no role in osteoclast differentiation and function and propose that Pit-dependent phosphate transport could be pivotal for bone resorption and should be addressed in further studies. PMID:25910236

  9. Determinants of water and sodium intake and output.

    PubMed

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Kenney, W Larry

    2015-09-01

    Physiological regulation of sodium and water intake and output is required for the maintenance of homeostasis. The behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms that govern fluid and salt balance are highly interdependent, with acute and chronic alterations in renal output tightly balanced by appropriate changes in thirst and, to a lesser extent in humans, sodium appetite. In healthy individuals, these tightly coupled mechanisms maintain extracellular fluid volume and body tonicity within a narrow homeostatic range by initiating ingestive behaviors and the release of hormones necessary to conserve water and sodium within the body. In this review, the factors that determine output of sodium and fluid and those that determine "normal" input (i.e., matched to output) are addressed. For output, individual variability accompanied by dysregulation of homeostatic mechanisms may contribute to acute and/or chronic disease. To illustrate that point, the specific condition of salt-sensitive hypertension is discussed. For input, physical characteristics, physiological phenotypes, genetic and developmental influences, and cultural and environmental factors combine to result in a wide range of individual variability that, in humans, is compensated for by alterations in excretion. PMID:26290293

  10. Sodium-based hydrides for thermal energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, D. A.; Humphries, T. D.; Buckley, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    Concentrating solar-thermal power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) represents an attractive alternative to conventional fossil fuels for base-load power generation. Sodium alanate (NaAlH4) is a well-known sodium-based complex metal hydride but, more recently, high-temperature sodium-based complex metal hydrides have been considered for TES. This review considers the current state of the art for NaH, NaMgH3- x F x , Na-based transition metal hydrides, NaBH4 and Na3AlH6 for TES and heat pumping applications. These metal hydrides have a number of advantages over other classes of heat storage materials such as high thermal energy storage capacity, low volume, relatively low cost and a wide range of operating temperatures (100 °C to more than 650 °C). Potential safety issues associated with the use of high-temperature sodium-based hydrides are also addressed.

  11. Sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclast differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Albano, Giuseppe; Moor, Matthias; Dolder, Silvia; Siegrist, Mark; Wagner, Carsten A; Biber, Jürg; Hernando, Nati; Hofstetter, Willy; Bonny, Olivier; Fuster, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone degrading cells. Phosphate is an important constituent of mineralized bone and released in significant quantities during bone resorption. Molecular contributors to phosphate transport during the resorptive activity of osteoclasts have been controversially discussed. This study aimed at deciphering the role of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters during osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Our studies reveal RANKL-induced differential expression of sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein IIa (NaPi-IIa) transcript and protein during osteoclast development, but no expression of the closely related NaPi-IIb and NaPi-IIc SLC34 family isoforms. In vitro studies employing NaPi-IIa-deficient osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts reveal that NaPi-IIa is dispensable for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. These results are supported by the analysis of structural bone parameters by high-resolution microcomputed tomography that yielded no differences between adult NaPi-IIa WT and KO mice. By contrast, both type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters Pit-1 and Pit-2 were abundantly expressed throughout osteoclast differentiation, indicating that they are the relevant sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. We conclude that phosphate transporters of the SLC34 family have no role in osteoclast differentiation and function and propose that Pit-dependent phosphate transport could be pivotal for bone resorption and should be addressed in further studies.

  12. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    SciTech Connect

    LaHann, T.

    1995-11-01

    ISU`s Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents.

  13. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  14. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  15. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... hypothyroidism in dogs. (2) It is administered orally to dogs at levels up to 12.8 micrograms per kilogram...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... hypothyroidism in dogs. (2) It is administered orally to dogs at levels up to 12.8 micrograms per kilogram...

  17. Molybdenum In Cathodes Of Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of molybdenum wire in NaAlCl4 melt indicate molybdenum chloride useful as cathode material in rechargeable sodium/metal chloride electrochemical cells. Batteries used in electric vehicles, for electric-power load leveling, and other applications involving high energy and power densities.

  18. Sodium reduction in starter-free Queso Fresco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Creating lower sodium Queso Fresco (QF) for health conscious consumers is a challenge when this high-moisture, higher pH, starter-free cheese relies on high salt levels to control the microflora and to obtain its signature salty taste. In phase 1, QF made from pasteurized, homogenized bovine milk wi...

  19. Bioinspired Artificial Sodium and Potassium Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Nuria; Fuertes, Alberto; Amorín, Manuel; Granja, Juan R

    2016-01-01

    In Nature, all biological systems present a high level of compartmentalization in order to carry out a wide variety of functions in a very specific way. Hence, they need ways to be connected with the environment for communication, homeostasis equilibrium, nutrition, waste elimination, etc. The biological membranes carry out these functions; they consist of physical insulating barriers constituted mainly by phospholipids. These amphipathic molecules spontaneously aggregate in water to form bilayers in which the polar groups are exposed to the aqueous media while the non-polar chains self-organize by aggregating to each other to stay away from the aqueous media. The insulating properties of membranes are due to the formation of a hydrophobic bilayer covered at both sides by the hydrophilic phosphate groups. Thus, lipophilic molecules can permeate the membrane freely, while the small charged or very hydrophilic molecules require the assistance of other membrane components in order to overcome the energetic cost implied in crossing the non-polar region of the bilayer. Most of the large polar species (such as oligosaccharides, polypeptides or nucleic acids) cross into and out of the cell via endocytosis and exocytosis, respectively. Nature has created a series of systems (carriers and pores) in order to control the balance of small hydrophilic molecules and ions. The most important structures to achieve these goals are the ionophoric proteins that include the channel proteins, such as the sodium and potassium channels, and ionic transporters, including the sodium/potassium pumps or calcium/sodium exchangers among others. Inspired by these, scientists have created non-natural synthetic transporting structures to mimic the natural systems. The progress in the last years has been remarkable regarding the efficient transport of Na(+) and K(+) ions, despite the fact that the selectivity and the ON/OFF state of the non-natural systems remain a present and future challenge

  20. Toxicology and pharmacology of sodium ricinoleate.

    PubMed

    Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G; Griffiths, James C

    2006-10-01

    Ricinoleic acid constitutes approximately 90% of the fatty acid content of castor oil. Castor oil is known for its purgative effects and can be used to induce labor. Both castor oil and ricinoleic acid are approved for use in food. The mechanistic basis for purgative actions likely includes the membrane-disruptive effects of detergent-like molecules, such as sodium ricinoleate (a 'soap'). These effects have been shown to be dose-related and to exhibit a threshold below which no laxative response was evident, in both animals and in humans. Castor oil was not toxic in subchronic feeding studies in rodents at doses ranging up to 10-20% of the diet. Sodium ricinoleate, as a surfactant, demonstrates predictable skin and mucus membrane irritant effects, and may induce a Type IV dermal sensitization response in those previously sensitized to it. However, food-grade castor oil and sodium ricinoleate are prepared in such a manner as to be free of the castor bean constituents that have been proven to be the source of reported Type I immediate hypersensitivity responses. Feeding studies with castor oil in rodents provide a basis for a no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) estimate of 7,500 mg/kg/day and 5,000 mg/kg/day in mice and rats, respectively (). Applying an uncertainty factor of 100 to the lesser of these NOAELs, one can thus estimate an acceptable daily intake (ADI) in man to be 50 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg of castor oil per day in an average 60 kg person. As ricinoleic acid constitutes approximately 90% of castor oil, applying this calculation to the 3,000 mg/day estimated ADI in humans for castor oil (given the rapid hydrolysis of castor oil glyceride in the gastrointestinal tract), the acceptable daily intake of ricinoleic acid may be as high as 2,400 mg/person.

  1. Bioinspired Artificial Sodium and Potassium Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Nuria; Fuertes, Alberto; Amorín, Manuel; Granja, Juan R

    2016-01-01

    In Nature, all biological systems present a high level of compartmentalization in order to carry out a wide variety of functions in a very specific way. Hence, they need ways to be connected with the environment for communication, homeostasis equilibrium, nutrition, waste elimination, etc. The biological membranes carry out these functions; they consist of physical insulating barriers constituted mainly by phospholipids. These amphipathic molecules spontaneously aggregate in water to form bilayers in which the polar groups are exposed to the aqueous media while the non-polar chains self-organize by aggregating to each other to stay away from the aqueous media. The insulating properties of membranes are due to the formation of a hydrophobic bilayer covered at both sides by the hydrophilic phosphate groups. Thus, lipophilic molecules can permeate the membrane freely, while the small charged or very hydrophilic molecules require the assistance of other membrane components in order to overcome the energetic cost implied in crossing the non-polar region of the bilayer. Most of the large polar species (such as oligosaccharides, polypeptides or nucleic acids) cross into and out of the cell via endocytosis and exocytosis, respectively. Nature has created a series of systems (carriers and pores) in order to control the balance of small hydrophilic molecules and ions. The most important structures to achieve these goals are the ionophoric proteins that include the channel proteins, such as the sodium and potassium channels, and ionic transporters, including the sodium/potassium pumps or calcium/sodium exchangers among others. Inspired by these, scientists have created non-natural synthetic transporting structures to mimic the natural systems. The progress in the last years has been remarkable regarding the efficient transport of Na(+) and K(+) ions, despite the fact that the selectivity and the ON/OFF state of the non-natural systems remain a present and future challenge.

  2. R and D program for French sodium fast reactor: On the description and detection of sodium boiling phenomena during sub-assembly blockages

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderhaegen, M.; Paumel, K.; Seiler, J. M.; Tourin, A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Rodriguez, G.

    2011-07-01

    In support of the French ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) reactor program, which aims to demonstrate the industrial applicability of sodium fast reactors with an increased level of safety demonstration and availability compared to the past French sodium fast reactors, emphasis is placed on reactor instrumentation. It is in this framework that CEA studies continuous core monitoring to detect as early as possible the onset of sodium boiling. Such a detection system is of particular interest due to the rapid progress and the consequences of a Total Instantaneous Blockage (TIB) at a subassembly inlet, where sodium boiling intervenes in an early phase. In this paper, the authors describe all the particularities which intervene during the different boiling stages and explore possibilities for their detection. (authors)

  3. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  9. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or... feeding practice, except that it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of vitamin B1....

  10. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation... feeding practice, except that it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of vitamin B1....

  11. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This... practice, except that it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of vitamin B1....

  12. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  13. Addressing Standards and Assessments on the IEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandra J.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Esler, Amy; Whetstone, Patti J.

    2001-01-01

    A study that examined state Individualized Education Program (IEP) forms found that out of the 41 with IEP forms, only 5 specifically addressed educational standards on their forms. Thirty-one states addressed the general curriculum on their IEP forms and 30 states listed three or more options for assessment participation. (Contains nine…

  14. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  15. 16 CFR 1000.4 - Commission address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission address. 1000.4 Section 1000.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.4 Commission address. The principal Offices of the Commission are at 4330 East West...

  16. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All..., Economic Regulatory Administration, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20461, and...

  17. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S.... Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604. Regional Administrator, Region...

  18. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All correspondence, petitions, and any information required by this part shall be submitted to: Administrator, Economic Regulatory Administration, Department...

  19. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  20. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...