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  1. The Role of Theatre and Embodied Knowledge in Addressing Race in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the role of theatrical performance as a means of addressing the embodied and spatio-temporal manifestations of race and racism within South African higher education. As part of Jansen's proposal for a post-conflict pedagogy in South Africa, the article argues for the development and inclusion of embodied knowledges as an…

  2. The Role of Theatre and Embodied Knowledge in Addressing Race in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the role of theatrical performance as a means of addressing the embodied and spatio-temporal manifestations of race and racism within South African higher education. As part of Jansen's proposal for a post-conflict pedagogy in South Africa, the article argues for the development and inclusion of embodied knowledges as an…

  3. On the Choice Address Forms: Intimate Address Forms as In-Group Identity Markers of Black South Africans in "Invictus" Movie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prihantoro

    2012-01-01

    "Invictus" is a movie which is adapted from a true story of how the South African President, Nelson Mandela, tried to unite South Africa by supporting the national rugby team, Springbok, which used to be the symbol of Apartheid. His relation with other characters in this movie is reflected from the address forms and the choice is…

  4. On the Choice Address Forms: Intimate Address Forms as In-Group Identity Markers of Black South Africans in "Invictus" Movie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prihantoro

    2012-01-01

    "Invictus" is a movie which is adapted from a true story of how the South African President, Nelson Mandela, tried to unite South Africa by supporting the national rugby team, Springbok, which used to be the symbol of Apartheid. His relation with other characters in this movie is reflected from the address forms and the choice is…

  5. Cross-Cultural Communication: A Program Addressing the Effect of Migration on South African Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, Christo; Bredenkamp, Esther

    2002-01-01

    Presents general background information on migration in South Africa and its effect on education. Described a cross-cultural communication program that addresses creatively the outcomes of migration, including its theoretical model, an application, program operation for learners and educators, and challenges. Reviews lessons learned by migrant…

  6. Teaching lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health in a South African health sciences faculty: addressing the gap.

    PubMed

    Müller, Alexandra

    2013-12-27

    People who identity as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) have specific health needs. Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health, as homophobia and heteronormativity persist as prejudices in society. LGBT patients often experience discrimination and prejudice in health care settings. While recent South African policies recognise the need for providing LGBT specific health care, no curricula for teaching about LGBT health related issues exist in South African health sciences faculties. This study aimed to determine the extent to which LGBT health related content is taught in the University of Cape Town's medical curriculum. A curriculum mapping exercise was conducted through an online survey of all academic staff at the UCT health sciences faculty, determining LGBT health related content, pedagogical methodology and assessment. 127 academics, across 31 divisions and research units in the Faculty of Health Sciences, responded to the survey, of which 93 completed the questionnaire. Ten taught some content related to LGBT health in the MBChB curriculum. No LGBT health related content was taught in the allied health sciences curricula. The MBChB curriculum provided no opportunity for students to challenge their own attitudes towards LGBT patients, and key LGBT health topics such as safer sex, mental health, substance abuse and adolescent health were not addressed. At present, UCTs health sciences curricula do not adequately address LGBT specific health issues. Where LGBT health related content is taught in the MBChB curriculum, it is largely discretionary, unsystematic and not incorporated into the overarching structure. Coordinated initiatives to integrate LGBT health related content into all health sciences curricula should be supported, and follow an approach that challenges students to develop professional attitudes and behaviour concerning care for patients from LGBT backgrounds, as well as providing them with specific LGBT

  7. Addressing the Local in Localization: A Case Study of Open Textbook Adoption by Three South African Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimes, Cynthia; Weiss, Shenandoah; Keep, Renae

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the adoption and use of open textbooks by three high school teachers in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The textbooks, collaboratively authored and distributed through the South African initiative, Siyavula, are available online and are openly licensed, allowing teachers to freely use, modify,…

  8. Teaching lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health in a South African health sciences faculty: addressing the gap

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People who identity as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) have specific health needs. Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health, as homophobia and heteronormativity persist as prejudices in society. LGBT patients often experience discrimination and prejudice in health care settings. While recent South African policies recognise the need for providing LGBT specific health care, no curricula for teaching about LGBT health related issues exist in South African health sciences faculties. This study aimed to determine the extent to which LGBT health related content is taught in the University of Cape Town’s medical curriculum. Methods A curriculum mapping exercise was conducted through an online survey of all academic staff at the UCT health sciences faculty, determining LGBT health related content, pedagogical methodology and assessment. Results 127 academics, across 31 divisions and research units in the Faculty of Health Sciences, responded to the survey, of which 93 completed the questionnaire. Ten taught some content related to LGBT health in the MBChB curriculum. No LGBT health related content was taught in the allied health sciences curricula. The MBChB curriculum provided no opportunity for students to challenge their own attitudes towards LGBT patients, and key LGBT health topics such as safer sex, mental health, substance abuse and adolescent health were not addressed. Conclusion At present, UCTs health sciences curricula do not adequately address LGBT specific health issues. Where LGBT health related content is taught in the MBChB curriculum, it is largely discretionary, unsystematic and not incorporated into the overarching structure. Coordinated initiatives to integrate LGBT health related content into all health sciences curricula should be supported, and follow an approach that challenges students to develop professional attitudes and behaviour concerning care for patients from LGBT backgrounds, as

  9. Leveraging changing gender norms to address concurrency: focus group findings from South African university students.

    PubMed

    Psaki, Stephanie R; Ayivi-Guedehoussou, Nono; Halperin, Daniel T

    2013-08-01

    Background This study aims to complement recent research on sexual concurrency in South Africa by providing a deeper understanding of women's roles and motivations for engaging in and accepting their partners' concurrency. Our goal is to inform the implementation of more effective interventions that embrace the powerful role that women can play in healthy sexual decision-making in consensual relationships. We conducted 12 focus groups with male and female students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Drawing on a subset of those focus groups, we examined the gender norms underpinning the apparently widespread acceptance of concurrent sexual partnerships. Our analysis focusses on women's attitudes and behaviours towards concurrency - from both men's and women's perspectives - with a goal of identifying opportunities to engage women as agents of change in sexual partnership patterns in their communities. Our findings indicate that: (1) concurrent sexual partnerships were the norm among male students and increasingly common among female students; (2) material gain and changes in women's perceptions of their roles and power in relationships were the primary female motives for concurrency; (3) peer pressure, a perceived innate need and a fear of being alone were the primary male motives for concurrency; (4) women often know that their partners are cheating and stay with them because they believe they are the most important partner, for financial reasons, or because they worry they will not find another partner. HIV prevention interventions in populations where concurrency is common would benefit from emphasising women's role and power in taking greater control of their own sexual decision-making in consensual and nonviolent relationships.

  10. Development of a National Campaign Addressing South African Men's Fears About HIV Counseling and Testing and Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Neil; Myers, Laura; Makhubele, Mzamani Benjamin; Matekane, Tselisehang; Delate, Richard; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Goldblatt, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: South African men are less likely to get tested for HIV than women and are more likely to commence antiretroviral treatment (ART) at later stages of disease, default on treatment, and to die from AIDS compared with women. The purpose of this study was to conduct formative research into the ideational and behavioral factors that enable or create obstacles to mens' uptake of HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and ART. The study consulted men with a goal of developing a communication campaign aimed at improving the uptake of HIV testing and ART initiation among men. Methods: Eleven focus groups and 9 in-depth interviews were conducted with 97 male participants in 6 priority districts in 4 South African provinces in rural, peri-urban, and urban localities. Results: Fears of compromised masculine pride and reputation, potential community rejection, and fear of loss of emotional control (“the stress of knowing”) dominated men's rationales for avoiding HIV testing and treatment initiation. Conclusions: A communication campaign was developed based on the findings. Creative treatments aimed at redefining a ‘strong’ man as someone who faces his fears and knows his HIV status. The resultant campaign concept was: “positive or negative—you are still the same person.” PMID:27930614

  11. Maternal and early life nutrition and physical activity: setting the research and intervention agenda for addressing the double burden of malnutrition in South African children

    PubMed Central

    Prioreschi, A.; Wrottesley, S.; Draper, C. E.; Tomaz, S. A.; Cook, C. J.; Watson, E. D.; Van Poppel, M. N. M.; Said-Mohamed, R.; Norris, S. A.; Lambert, E. V.; Micklesfield, L. K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early life is important for later health outcomes, yet there are few studies which adequately address all of the potential early life insults that may affect later life health and growth trajectories. This is particularly evident in low- to middle-income countries such as South Africa, where women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to high levels of physical inactivity, malnutrition, and obesity. Pregnancy may therefore be an opportune time to change behaviours and improve maternal and offspring health outcomes, and decrease the inter-generational transfer of risk. We show clear evidence that physical activity and nutrition are important target areas for intervention during pregnancy and in the early years of life, yet that current literature in Africa, and specifically South Africa, is limited. We have outlined the available literature concerning the impact of maternal and early life nutrition and physical activity on the health status of South African children, and have provided some recommendations for future research and policy. PMID:28524803

  12. Assessing Second Phase High School Learners' Attitudes towards Technology in Addressing the Technological Skills Shortage in the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, H.; Gumbo, M. T.; Tholo, J. A. T.; Sedupane, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues the case that the decline in the numbers of school leavers entering science, technology, engineering and mathematics study courses worldwide and in South Africa in particular, is linked to negative attitudes towards Technology. The issue is regarded as critical since a negative trend in new entrants into the technology sector…

  13. Dietitians in South Africa require more competencies in public health nutrition and management to address the nutritional needs of South Africans.

    PubMed

    Parker, Whadiah; Steyn, Nelia P; Mchiza, Zandile; Nthangeni, Gladys; Mbhenyane, Xikombiso; Dannhauser, Andre; Moeng, Lynn; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether dietitians in South Africa are competent to meet the requirements of working in a health care setting during a compulsory one-year community service (CS) program immediately after receiving their degree. A national survey was conducted using questionnaires to illicit information from dietitians on their training and competencies. In 2009, data were collected from both community service dietitians (CSDs) participating in community service programs in primary, secondary and tertiary health care centers in all provinces of South Africa, as well as from their provincial managers (nutrition coordinators). Sixteen (100% response) nutrition coordinators and 134 (80% response) dietitians participated in the quantitative survey. The majority of the CSDs reported that, overall, their academic training had prepared them for most aspects of nutrition service delivery. However, some recommended that academic programs include more training on community-based nutrition programs and in delivering optimal services to under-resourced communities as they believed that their competencies in these two areas were weakest. Furthermore, many CSDs were required to establish dietetics departments where none had previously existed; consequently, their capacity in management and administration needed improvement. In conclusion, academic training institutions should align their programs to the transformation of the health sector in South Africa by ensuring that dietitians are empowered to provide optimal public health nutrition services in under-resourced communities.

  14. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  15. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  16. An overview of South African psychology.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa.

  17. South African Defense Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    AM-3C BOSBOK 25 C-4M KUDU 20 CESSNA CE-185 Citizen Force 96 MB 326 M/K IMPALA I/II 15 L-100 HERCULES in civil service Commandos 13 Air commando... KUDU Atlas General purpose light transport; dEivative of Italian Aermacdci AM-3C Helicopters N.A. APMSCOR announces in Septexrber 1983 that South

  18. The South African Astro-informatics Alliance (SA3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barway, S.

    South African astronomy is entering a new era of astronomical research with SALT and MeerKAT/SKA. These new facilities expected to produce huge amount of data and combined with multi wavelength databases that already exists, South African astronomers need to be equipped with latest technologies to deal with new challenges posed by SALT/MeerKAT/SKA. South African Astro-informatics Alliance (SA3) is a collaborative initiative lead by SAAO, SA-SKA and HartRAO to utilize the most recent advancements in IT technology to address many Terabytes of data volume generated by SALT/MeerKAT/SKA along with existing multi-wavelength data archives. In this talk, I present SA3 activities which include the development of a new generation of data archives and tools to address the many Terabytes of data that will be generated by the new South African observing facilities.

  19. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores…

  20. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores…

  1. Supporting Change: Working with South African Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Anne D.; Volmink, John

    1986-01-01

    University and pre-university education in South Africa is briefly described, along with areas where U.S. universities can assist South African organizations working to promote equal access to quality education. Three basic areas are explored: financial aid for South African students; manpower support to help in tutorials and academic research;…

  2. Astronomy for teachers: A South African Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Witt, Aletha; West, Marion; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Gouws, Eldrie

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has nominated Astronomy as a “flagship science” and aims to be an international Astronomy hub through projects such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the South African Large Telescope (SALT). These projects open up career opportunities in maths, science and engineering and therefore offers a very real door for learners to enter into careers in science and technology through Astronomy. However, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) and Annual National Assessment (ANA) have highlighted that South Africa’s Science and Mathematics education is in a critical condition and that South African learners score amongst the worst in the world in both these subjects. In South Africa Astronomy is generally regarded as the worst taught and most avoided Natural Science knowledge strand, and most teachers that specialised in Natural Sciences, never covered Astronomy in their training.In order to address these issues a collaborative project between the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) was initiated, which aims to assist teachers to gain more knowledge and skills so that they can teach Astronomy with confidence. By collaborating we aim to ensure that the level of astronomy development will be raised in both South Africa and the rest of Africa.With the focus on Teaching and Learning, the research was conducted within a quantitative paradigm and 600 structured questionnaires were administered to Natural Science teachers in Public primary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. This paper reports the findings of this research and makes recommendations on how to assist teachers to teach Astronomy with confidence.

  3. South African TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruendlingh, Marten L.; Shannon, L. V.; Lutjeharms, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The area surrounding the southern tip of Africa contains a juxtaposition of a variety of interesting and climatically relevant features. On the Indian Ocean side, the Agulhas Current with its tributaries form a conduit through which much of the southern Indian Ocean surface flow is focused. South of the continent, this flow is fragmented and partially injected into the Atlantic Ocean and across the Subtropical Convergence into the Southern Ocean. To the west of the subcontinent, the circulation of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre in the Cape Basin interacts with the vigorous Benguela upwelling regime. The creation, transformation, and transport of water masses and the intra-annual and climatic importance of all these processes have been specifically recognized by the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The South African TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimeter Experiment addresses many of these issues through four mutually complementary and interrelated subprojects.

  4. South African Education Program: An Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Florence C.

    Consequences of participation in the South African Education Program, which enabled 290 South Africans to study in the United States between 1979 and 1985, were evaluated. Attention was directed to outcomes of participation and the educational experience and intellectual and social growth experienced by the students and alumni, who were Black…

  5. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  6. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  7. Applications in bridging the gap: a community-campus partnership to address sexual health disparities among African-American youth in the south.

    PubMed

    Akintobi, Tabia Henry; Trotter, Jennie C; Evans, Donoria; Johnson, Tarita; Laster, Nastassia; Jacobs, Debran; King, Tandeca

    2011-06-01

    Risky sexual behavior among African-American youth increases risks for sexually transmitted diseases and unintended pregnancy. This article describes a community-academic partnership to assess The 2 HYPE Abstinence Club, a program combining abstinence education with stress management and creative arts promotion for African-American youth ages 12-18. Bi-directional learning and communication systems were established to facilitate culturally relevant evaluation approaches, quality assurance in data collection, and action-based protocols for on-going improvement. Assessment tools included self-administered surveys and focus groups to gauge intervention effectiveness and perceptions regarding abstinence, sexual peer norms and intervention characteristics. Statistically significant increases in the understanding of abstinence benefits and sexual activity risks were observed and youth identified goal-setting and refusal skills as most important program components. Youth-instructor relationships and the integration of hip-hop were reasons cited for sustained participation. This assessment partnership represents a rapport with minority youth and a participatory evaluation approach adding programmatic and evidence-based value to intervention efforts.

  8. Lost opportunities to reduce periconception HIV transmission: safer conception counseling by South African providers addresses perinatal but not sexual HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Lynn T; Milford, Cecilia; Kaida, Angela; Ehrlich, Matthew J; Ng, Courtney; Greener, Ross; Mosery, F N; Harrison, Abigail; Psaros, Christina; Safren, Steven A; Bajunirwe, Francis; Wilson, Ira B; Bangsberg, David R; Smit, Jennifer A

    2014-12-01

    Safer conception strategies create opportunities for HIV-serodiscordant couples to realize fertility goals and minimize periconception HIV transmission. Patient-provider communication about fertility goals is the first step in safer conception counseling. We explored provider practices of assessing fertility intentions among HIV-infected men and women, attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) having children, and knowledge and provision of safer conception advice. We conducted in-depth interviews (9 counselors, 15 nurses, 5 doctors) and focus group discussions (6 counselors, 7 professional nurses) in eThekwini District, South Africa. Data were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis with NVivo10 software. Among 42 participants, median age was 41 (range, 28-60) years, 93% (39) were women, and median years worked in the clinic was 7 (range, 1-27). Some providers assessed women's, not men's, plans for having children at antiretroviral therapy initiation, to avoid fetal exposure to efavirenz. When conducted, reproductive counseling included CD4 cell count and HIV viral load assessment, advising mutual HIV status disclosure, and referral to another provider. Barriers to safer conception counseling included provider assumptions of HIV seroconcordance, low knowledge of safer conception strategies, personal feelings toward PLWH having children, and challenges to tailoring safer sex messages. Providers need information about HIV serodiscordance and safer conception strategies to move beyond discussing only perinatal transmission and maternal health for PLWH who choose to conceive. Safer conception counseling may be more feasible if the message is distilled to delaying conception attempts until the infected partner is on antiretroviral therapy. Designated and motivated nurse providers may be required to provide comprehensive safer conception counseling.

  9. Lost Opportunities to Reduce Periconception HIV Transmission: Safer Conception Counseling By South African Providers Addresses Perinatal but not Sexual HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Milford, Cecilia; Kaida, Angela; Ehrlich, Matthew J.; Ng, Courtney; Greener, Ross; Mosery, F. N.; Harrison, Abigail; Psaros, Christina; Safren, Steven A.; Bajunirwe, Francis; Wilson, Ira B.; Bangsberg, David R.; Smit, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Safer conception strategies create opportunities for HIV-serodiscordant couples to realize fertility goals and minimize periconception HIV transmission. Patient–provider communication about fertility goals is the first step in safer conception counseling. Methods: We explored provider practices of assessing fertility intentions among HIV-infected men and women, attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) having children, and knowledge and provision of safer conception advice. We conducted in-depth interviews (9 counselors, 15 nurses, 5 doctors) and focus group discussions (6 counselors, 7 professional nurses) in eThekwini District, South Africa. Data were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis with NVivo10 software. Results: Among 42 participants, median age was 41 (range, 28–60) years, 93% (39) were women, and median years worked in the clinic was 7 (range, 1–27). Some providers assessed women's, not men's, plans for having children at antiretroviral therapy initiation, to avoid fetal exposure to efavirenz. When conducted, reproductive counseling included CD4 cell count and HIV viral load assessment, advising mutual HIV status disclosure, and referral to another provider. Barriers to safer conception counseling included provider assumptions of HIV seroconcordance, low knowledge of safer conception strategies, personal feelings toward PLWH having children, and challenges to tailoring safer sex messages. Conclusions: Providers need information about HIV serodiscordance and safer conception strategies to move beyond discussing only perinatal transmission and maternal health for PLWH who choose to conceive. Safer conception counseling may be more feasible if the message is distilled to delaying conception attempts until the infected partner is on antiretroviral therapy. Designated and motivated nurse providers may be required to provide comprehensive safer conception counseling. PMID:25436820

  10. South African Students' Views of the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmer, M.; Lemmer, T. N.; Smit, J. J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates perceptions of the universe of (n=232) first-year physics students from two South African universities. Compared results with Aristotelian and Newtonian views as well as with those of children as revealed in a literature survey. Results also showed that a statistically significant larger number of African than European students have…

  11. Paraphilia and sex offending - A South African criminal law perspective.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Pieter; Stevens, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the link between sexual deviance and criminality has been described and documented, asserted by psychiatry, and manifested in law. Laws that have regulated sexual behaviour have referred to terms such as 'sexual deviation', 'sexual perversion' or even archaic moral terms such as 'unnatural acts and unspeakable crimes against nature'. A possible link between sexual perversion, psychopathy, and criminality, specifically manifesting in sexual homicide, has been the subject of remarkable research in forensic psychiatry. This contribution examines the phenomenon of paraphilia with specific reference to its definition, diagnostic classification and characteristics, as well as a few selections of incidences of paraphilia in South African criminal case law. A brief assessment is made of how South African criminal courts have dealt with paraphilia. In this regard, an analysis is made of the criminal liability of the paraphiliac. The South African response to sexual deviation as addressed in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 will also be addressed with reference to its efficacy in addressing paraphilia within South African criminal law. The interface between criminal law and medical ethics within the context of this theme will also be canvassed. In conclusion, recommendations for possible reform are canvassed.

  12. Enslaved Africans and doctors in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Martia Graham

    2003-03-01

    This interpretation of the relationship between enslavement and American medicine in 19th century South Carolina reveals the intimacy that existed between Africans enslaved in that state and the doctors who practiced and taught there. Enslaved Africans were resourceful and reliable medical figures in the slave community. Their knowledge of medical botany permeated the slave quarters and plantation hospitals and was appropriated into southern medical knowledge. The trajectories of the careers of three South Carolina physicians are tied to their practice around and on the enslaved. The beginnings of gynecological surgery are linked to 1840s experimentation on enslaved African women performed by one of them.

  13. Enslaved Africans and doctors in South Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Martia Graham

    2003-01-01

    This interpretation of the relationship between enslavement and American medicine in 19th century South Carolina reveals the intimacy that existed between Africans enslaved in that state and the doctors who practiced and taught there. Enslaved Africans were resourceful and reliable medical figures in the slave community. Their knowledge of medical botany permeated the slave quarters and plantation hospitals and was appropriated into southern medical knowledge. The trajectories of the careers of three South Carolina physicians are tied to their practice around and on the enslaved. The beginnings of gynecological surgery are linked to 1840s experimentation on enslaved African women performed by one of them. PMID:12749683

  14. Opening and Transforming South African Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vambe, Maurice Taonezvi

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the challenge of opening and transforming South African education. "Openness" and "transformation" of any education programme in any society are ethicopolitical processes. In the case of South Africa, the transition from an autocratic education system serving the interests of a minority to a more modern…

  15. E-Voting: A South African Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanepoel, E.; Thomson, K.; van Niekerk, J. F.

    The South African democracy, despite being worthy of admiration, is in its infancy. As such its electoral processes still needs to be nurtured and protected. Since 1994 there has been four national elections. All of these have been declared "free and fair" by the Independent Electoral Commission. However, there has been some problems and growing pains. This paper firstly discusses the current electoral system in South Africa. It then examines E-voting systems and discusses the feasibility of such a voting system for use in the South African context.

  16. South African budget targets AIDS campaigns.

    PubMed

    Baleta, A

    1999-03-06

    This brief article identifies new levels of government funding for health and more specifically AIDS programs in South Africa. Health allocations were increased from R23 billion in 1998 to R24 billion during 1999. Health funding will increase in 2 years to R28 in 2001. AIDS programs will receive R110 million (US$17.7 million) in 1999, of which R58 million will be directed to the government's AIDS Awareness Action Plan. South Africa has one of the fastest growing epidemics in the world. The government is responding to its needs and the pressure from activists for its failure to sufficiently address the spread of HIV/AIDS. AIDS activists have criticized the government decision not to fund pilot projects that would give HIV-positive pregnant women free access to zidovudine. General elections are scheduled for April 1999 and the ruling African National Congress could be attacked for failing to support AIDS awareness. The Western Cape province's AIDS program director was pleased with the level of support, since international donors had previously funded AIDS programs. The Democratic Party was pleased with the government's funding of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) with HIV/AIDS programs. A party spokesperson thought that the government's inefficiencies in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS indicated that it is now up to NGOs to show their strengths in combating HIV/AIDS.

  17. RESEARCH REPORT: South African students' views of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmer, M.; Lemmer, T. N.; Smit, J. J. A.

    2003-05-01

    In an empirical study the perceptions of the universe of 232 first-year Physics students from two South African universities were determined and interpreted in terms of their worldviews. The results were compared to Aristotelian and Newtonian views as well as with those of children as revealed in a literature survey. The worldviews of three non-scientific groups, namely the ancient Greeks, small children and traditional Africans are organistic in nature. The results of the empirical study showed that a statistically significant larger number of African than European students have organistic models of the universe. Since an organistic worldview differs completely from the formalized mechanistic worldview on which the classical mechanics taught at school is based, consequences for Physics education and African students are evident. This study hopes to contribute to the knowledge about the origin and features of pre-scientific conceptions and views so that they can be addressed more effectively in the science classroom.

  18. Clinical Presentation of Prostate Cancer in Black South Africans

    PubMed Central

    Tindall, Elizabeth A; Monare, L Richard; Petersen, Desiree C; van Zyl, Smit; Hardie, Rae-Anne; Segone, Alpheus M; Venter, Philip A; Bornman, MS Riana; Hayes, Vanessa M

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared with White Americans, Black American men are at a significant increased risk of presenting with prostate cancer (PCa) and associated mortality, suggesting a link to African-ancestry. However, PCa status within Africa is largely unknown. We address the clinical presentation of PCa within Black South African men. Methods Over 1,000 participants with or without PCa have enrolled in the Southern African Prostate Cancer Study (SAPCS). Using genome-wide profiling we establish a unique within Africa population substructure. Adjusting for age, clinical variables were assessed, compared against Black Americans and between rural and urban localities while addressing potential socio-demographic confounders. Results We report a significant difference in the distribution of prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels skewed towards higher PSA levels in the PCa cases (83.0% present with a PSA ≥ 20 µg/L; median PSA = 98.8 µg/L) relative to men with no detectable PCa (18.5% present with a PSA ≥ 20 µg/L; median PSA = 9.1 µg/L). Compared with Black Americans, Black South Africans presented with significantly more aggressive disease defined by Gleason score >7 (17% and 36%, respectively) and PSA ≥ 20 µg/L (17.2% and 83.2%, respectively). We report exasperated disease aggression defined by Gleason score >7 (P = 0.0042) and poorly differentiated tumor grade (P < 0.0001) within rural versus urban localities. Conclusion Black South African men present with higher PSA levels and histopathological tumor grade compared with Black Americans, which is further escalated in men from rural localities. Our data suggests that lack of PSA testing may be contributing to an aggressive PCa disease phenotype within South African men. PMID:24723425

  19. Clinical presentation of prostate cancer in black South Africans.

    PubMed

    Tindall, Elizabeth A; Monare, L Richard; Petersen, Desiree C; van Zyl, Smit; Hardie, Rae-Anne; Segone, Alpheus M; Venter, Philip A; Bornman, M S Riana; Hayes, Vanessa M

    2014-06-01

    Compared with White Americans, Black American men are at a significant increased risk of presenting with prostate cancer (PCa) and associated mortality, suggesting a link to African-ancestry. However, PCa status within Africa is largely unknown. We address the clinical presentation of PCa within Black South African men. Over 1,000 participants with or without PCa have enrolled in the Southern African Prostate Cancer Study (SAPCS). Using genome-wide profiling we establish a unique within Africa population substructure. Adjusting for age, clinical variables were assessed, compared against Black Americans and between rural and urban localities while addressing potential socio-demographic confounders. We report a significant difference in the distribution of prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels skewed towards higher PSA levels in the PCa cases (83.0% present with a PSA ≥ 20 µg/L; median PSA = 98.8 µg/L) relative to men with no detectable PCa (18.5% present with a PSA ≥ 20 µg/L; median PSA = 9.1 µg/L). Compared with Black Americans, Black South Africans presented with significantly more aggressive disease defined by Gleason score >7 (17% and 36%, respectively) and PSA ≥ 20 µg/L (17.2% and 83.2%, respectively). We report exasperated disease aggression defined by Gleason score >7 (P = 0.0042) and poorly differentiated tumor grade (P < 0.0001) within rural versus urban localities. Black South African men present with higher PSA levels and histopathological tumor grade compared with Black Americans, which is further escalated in men from rural localities. Our data suggests that lack of PSA testing may be contributing to an aggressive PCa disease phenotype within South African men. © 2014 The Authors. Prostate published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Diversity and origin of South African chickens.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Chimonyo, M; Groeneveld, E; Weigend, S; Dzama, K

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the genetic diversity and structure of South African conserved and field chicken populations and to investigate the maternal lineages of these chicken populations. Four South African conserved chicken populations (n = 89), namely, Venda (VD_C), Ovambo, Naked Neck, and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Animal Production Institute of the Agricultural Research Council, and 2 field populations, the Venda and Ovambo (OV_F), from which the Ovambo and the Venda conservation flocks were assumed to have been sampled, were genotyped for 460 bp of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence. Haplotypes of these chickens were aligned to 7 Japanese and 9 Chinese and Eurasian chicken mtDNA D-loop sequences taken from GenBank and reflecting populations from presumed centers of domestication. Sequence analysis revealed 48 polymorphic sites that defined 13 haplotypes in the South African chicken populations. All 6 South African conserved and field chicken populations observed were found to be polymorphic, with the number of haplotypes ranging from 3 for VD_C to 8 for OV_F. The lowest haplotype diversity, 0.54 ± 0.08, was observed in VD_C chickens, whereas the highest value, 0.88 ± 0.05, was observed in OV_F chickens. Genetic diversity between the 4 South African conserved and 2 field chicken populations constituted 12.34% of the total genetic variation, whereas within-population diversity constituted 87.66% of the total variation. The median network analysis of the mtDNA D-loop haplotypes observed in the South African conserved and field populations and the reference set resulted in 5 main clades. All 6 South African chickens were equally represented in the major clade, E, which is presumed to be of Indian subcontinent maternal origin and may have its roots in Southeast Asia. The results showed multiple maternal lineages of South African chickens. Conservation flocks and field chicken populations shared the major haplotypes A, D and E

  1. Against the Wind: Five South Africans Follow Their Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lesley

    This book for beginning readers tells the story of five South Africans who, though not very famous, all did things that no black South African had ever done before. They include: Simon Mkhize who, year after year, ran the Comrades Marathon unofficially, ignoring its racial bans; Magema M. Fuze, who was the first black South African to publish a…

  2. Against the Wind: Five South Africans Follow Their Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lesley

    This book for beginning readers tells the story of five South Africans who, though not very famous, all did things that no black South African had ever done before. They include: Simon Mkhize who, year after year, ran the Comrades Marathon unofficially, ignoring its racial bans; Magema M. Fuze, who was the first black South African to publish a…

  3. Stifled voices: barriers to help-seeking behavior for South African childhood sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison

    2010-05-01

    In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses barriers to help-seeking behaviors. Risk factors as well as relevant sociocultural, economic, structural, and psychological perceptions regarding childhood sexual assault among South African girls are also discussed. Finally, clinical implications, culturally relevant psychotherapeutic techniques, and suggestions for future research are provided in an effort to reduce the negative mental health consequences for the victims.

  4. Caring School Leadership: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Vyver, Cornelius P.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Meyer, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals' rating of their care-giving and teachers'…

  5. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  6. Caring School Leadership: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Vyver, Cornelius P.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Meyer, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals' rating of their care-giving and teachers'…

  7. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  8. Wheelchair users, access and exclusion in South African higher education.

    PubMed

    Chiwandire, Desire; Vincent, Louise

    2017-01-01

    South Africa's Constitution guarantees everyone, including persons with disabilities, the right to education. A variety of laws are in place obliging higher education institutions to provide appropriate physical access to education sites for all. In practice, however, many buildings remain inaccessible to people with physical disabilities. To describe what measures South African universities are taking to make their built environments more accessible to students with diverse types of disabilities, and to assess the adequacy of such measures. We conducted semi-structured in-depth face-to-face interviews with disability unit staff members (DUSMs) based at 10 different public universities in South Africa. Challenges with promoting higher education accessibility for wheelchair users include the preservation and heritage justification for failing to modify older buildings, ad hoc approaches to creating accessible environments and failure to address access to toilets, libraries and transport facilities for wheelchair users. South African universities are still not places where all students are equally able to integrate socially. DUSMs know what ought to be done to make campuses more accessible and welcoming to students with disabilities and should be empowered to play a leading role in sensitising non-disabled members of universities, to create greater awareness of, and appreciation for, the multiple ways in which wheelchair user students continue to be excluded from full participation in university life. South African universities need to adopt a systemic approach to inclusion, which fosters an understanding of inclusion as a fundamental right rather than as a luxury.

  9. The South African Navy and African Maritime Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    diplomats, designated personnel and other South African citizens in Ivory Coast .”69 A special operations force was also put ashore in Guinea. One...birthday.6 Despite this promising start, things quickly went badly for the fledgling SANS. The global effects of the Great Depression led to severe...Tome and Principe, the Republic of Mauritius, and the Republic of Seychelles—have maritime forces that identify themselves as coast guards rather

  10. SADCC: challenging the "South African connection.".

    PubMed

    Liebenow, J G

    1982-01-01

    The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) which unites 9 states with a combined population of 60 million, has as its objective the task of promoting economic development and realizing economic independence. In many respects the strain of neocolonialism that Southern Africa faces at this time is even more virulent than that facing West, Central, and East Africa. In the latter regions the surrender of political authority by colonial administrators frequently left the commercial, agricultural, and industrial interests of the European powers in continued control of the economies of the former colonies. The fate of economic development plans was determined by situations and decisions made in places distant from the African continent. In the case of Southern Africa, the withdrawal or expulsion of European colonialists has found whites in neighboring South Africa most eager to step into the economic breech. For most of the Southern African states this variant strain of the neocolonial virus creates a dual problem: the independent states acting separately have been no match for South Africa; and the acquiescence of independent African states in forging economic links with South Africa has impeded the liberation efforts of Africans in Namibia and the Republic of South Africa. Discussion focus turns to the challenges that confront SADCC; transport as the most significant factor accounting for the dependency of SADCC states upon South Africa; the role of minerals in dependency; other aspects of dependency; South Africa's proposed Constellation of States; the origins and objectives of SADCC; and dollars and donors. SADCC planning for economic liberation has been conducted against the background of a counterproposal advanced by South Africa's government, which put the Republic at the center of an expanded network of economic linkages within the entire southern African region. While being formally rejected, the Constellation of States scheme does have

  11. Rethinking "relevance": South African psychology in context.

    PubMed

    Long, Wahbie

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the phenomenon known as the "relevance debate" in South African psychology. It begins with a historical overview of the contours of the discipline in that country before describing the controversy's international dimensions, namely, the revolutionary politics of 1960s higher education and the subsequent emergence of cognate versions of the debate in American, European, and "Third World" psychology. The article then details how South Africa's "relevance" project enjoyed a special affinity with an assortment of ethnic-cultural, national, and continental myths and metaphors, all of which served the interests of the political formations of the day. It discusses how, in present-day South Africa, the intelligentsia has become an important catalyst for the so-called African Renaissance, which seeks to provide "relevant" solutions for the regeneration of African society. However, the global hegemony of what began in the 1970s as a "second academic revolution," aided by the lifting of the academic boycott of South Africa, has blunted the once critical edge of "relevance" discourse. A new mode of knowledge production now holds sway, the outcome of a dramatic reformulation of the capitalist manifesto in which the values of the "May 68" generation have been hijacked by a managerialist rationality. In light of the capitalization of the knowledge-production enterprise, it is concluded that the idiom of "relevance" has outlived its usefulness.

  12. Reflections on South African Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the state of higher education in South Africa looks at the economic context, the structure of the higher education system, including the role of apartheid and languages (English and Afrikaans), the government's role in governance and funding, and the actual and potential roles of professional associations in education. (MSE)

  13. Requests in a South African Variety of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasanga, Luanga A.

    2006-01-01

    The main assumption in this article is that the pragmatics of the variety of South African English commonly referred to as black South African English (BSAE) have been shaped, over time, by educated bilinguals, through a transfer of features from African languages. Transfer of syntactic forms, now firmly established in the variety, is evidenced…

  14. Barriers to Conducting a Community Mobilization Intervention among Youth in a Rural South African Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…

  15. Barriers to Conducting a Community Mobilization Intervention among Youth in a Rural South African Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…

  16. A Critical Evaluation of Training within the South African National Public Works Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccord, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the ability of the training and work experience offered under public works programmes to promote employment in South Africa. Public works are a key component of South African labour market policy and are ascribed considerable potential in terms of addressing the core challenge of unemployment. However, despite this policy…

  17. Towards a Meaningful Curriculum Implementation in South African Schools: Senior Phase Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taole, Matshidiso Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Different sectors of society register complaints about schooling in South Africa. Given that curriculum reform has such a poor record of implementation in the country, there is clearly a need for research that identifies factors that hinder or facilitate curriculum implementation in South African schools and identifies strategies to address the…

  18. Towards a Meaningful Curriculum Implementation in South African Schools: Senior Phase Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taole, Matshidiso Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Different sectors of society register complaints about schooling in South Africa. Given that curriculum reform has such a poor record of implementation in the country, there is clearly a need for research that identifies factors that hinder or facilitate curriculum implementation in South African schools and identifies strategies to address the…

  19. A Critical Evaluation of Training within the South African National Public Works Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccord, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the ability of the training and work experience offered under public works programmes to promote employment in South Africa. Public works are a key component of South African labour market policy and are ascribed considerable potential in terms of addressing the core challenge of unemployment. However, despite this policy…

  20. An Ambivalent Community: International African Students in Residence at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Everard

    2016-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of the experiences and perceptions of South African and especially international, African students living in university residences in South Africa. The concept, community, is used to interpret interview data. This community was characterised by ambivalent social relations: There was discrimination by South Africans…

  1. Wheelchair users, access and exclusion in South African higher education

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background South Africa’s Constitution guarantees everyone, including persons with disabilities, the right to education. A variety of laws are in place obliging higher education institutions to provide appropriate physical access to education sites for all. In practice, however, many buildings remain inaccessible to people with physical disabilities. Objectives To describe what measures South African universities are taking to make their built environments more accessible to students with diverse types of disabilities, and to assess the adequacy of such measures. Method We conducted semi-structured in-depth face-to-face interviews with disability unit staff members (DUSMs) based at 10 different public universities in South Africa. Results Challenges with promoting higher education accessibility for wheelchair users include the preservation and heritage justification for failing to modify older buildings, ad hoc approaches to creating accessible environments and failure to address access to toilets, libraries and transport facilities for wheelchair users. Conclusion South African universities are still not places where all students are equally able to integrate socially. DUSMs know what ought to be done to make campuses more accessible and welcoming to students with disabilities and should be empowered to play a leading role in sensitising non-disabled members of universities, to create greater awareness of, and appreciation for, the multiple ways in which wheelchair user students continue to be excluded from full participation in university life. South African universities need to adopt a systemic approach to inclusion, which fosters an understanding of inclusion as a fundamental right rather than as a luxury.

  2. Resource geopolitics: US dependence on South African chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Butts, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    The growth of technology, especially military technology, has heightened demand for certain critical mineral resources. Strategically important to the industrialized nations, these resources are increasingly available only through overseas trade. The concentration of many of these resources in politically unstable areas of the world has rendered the industrialized nations vulnerable to supply dislocation. Nowhere is this more evident than in the dependence of the United States (US) upon African minerals. This study examines these dependencies, especially with respect to South Africa's chromium and ferrochromium, in order to address the geopolitically important variables concerning resource access and the determination of US policy toward the mineral-rich region of Southern Africa.

  3. Crowd psychology in South African murder trials.

    PubMed

    Colman, A M

    1991-10-01

    South African courts have recently accepted social psychological phenomena as extenuating factors in murder trials. In one important case, eight railway workers were convicted of murdering four strike breakers during an industrial dispute. The court accepted conformity, obedience, group polarization, deindividuation, bystander apathy, and other well-established psychological phenomena as extenuating factors for four of the eight defendants, but sentenced the others to death. In a second trial, death sentences of five defendants for the "necklace" killing of a young woman were reduced to 20 months imprisonment in the light of similar social psychological evidence. Practical and ethical issues arising from expert psychological testimony are discussed.

  4. Assimilating South African medical students trained in Cuba into the South African medical education system: reflections from an identity perspective.

    PubMed

    Donda, B M; Hift, R J; Singaram, V S

    2016-10-24

    In terms of the Nelson Mandela Fidel Castro Medical Collaboration programme, an agreement between the governments of South Africa and Cuba, cohorts of South African students receive their initial five years medical training at a Cuban university before returning to South Africa for a six to twelve months orientation before integration into the local final year class. It is common for these students to experience academic difficulty on their return. Frequently this is viewed merely as a matter of a knowledge deficit. We argue that the problem arises from a fundamental divergence in the outcomes of the Cuban and South African medical curricula, each of which is designed with a particular healthcare system in mind. Using the discrepancy theory of identity proposed by Higgins in 1987, we discuss the challenges experienced by the returning Nelson Mandela Fidel Castro Medical Collaboration students in terms of a potential crisis of identity and suggest interventions which may prove valuable in promoting academic success and successful integration. Though providing additional training to address the gap in skills and knowledge in returning students is an important part of their successful reintegration, this could be insufficient on its own and must be complemented by a range of measures designed to ameliorate the discrepancies in identity which arise from the transition from one educational model to another.

  5. South African food allergy consensus document 2014.

    PubMed

    Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary.

  6. Distributed Leadership in South African Schools: Possibilities and Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clarence G.

    2011-01-01

    Before 1994 South African teachers in general, but more specifically women teachers, were effectively excluded from fulfilling meaningful roles as leaders at school level. Since 1994 the Department of Education has promulgated a number of policies in an attempt to actualize distributed leadership in South African schools. Fundamental to…

  7. Exploring Teachers' Reading Competences: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Carol

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the reading competence of teachers who are enrolled in a distance education programme in a South African university. Many South African teachers upgrade their teaching diplomas by enrolling for a part-time, distance degree at a university. However, many are not prepared for academic study and its focus…

  8. South African Universities Viewed through a Community College Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kristin Bailey; Van Alebeek, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Since the end of apartheid, South African leaders have been working to transform all aspects of the racialized society into a nonracialized, nonsexist democratic state, including postsecondary education. This chapter examines the changing South African collegiate context focusing on access, persistence, affordability, accreditation, transfer, and…

  9. Children's Spirituality in Social Context: A South African Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Cornelia

    2006-01-01

    This discussion presents a critical and thorough review of spirituality in Religion Education in the South African context. In the democratic South African education system issues such as personal well-being, spirituality and multi-religion education are confronting teachers and learners who have to cope with a new approach to religion in…

  10. Internationalization of Higher Education: A South African Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rensburg, Ihron; Motala, Shireen; David, Solomon Arulraj

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of South African universities continues to be shaped by both apartheid and more recent post-apartheid policies. Yet the South African university system is mainly an elite, low participation and high attrition system, offering a medium quality education. Moreover, there is uneven attention to the opportunities that…

  11. Internationalization of Higher Education: A South African Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rensburg, Ihron; Motala, Shireen; David, Solomon Arulraj

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of South African universities continues to be shaped by both apartheid and more recent post-apartheid policies. Yet the South African university system is mainly an elite, low participation and high attrition system, offering a medium quality education. Moreover, there is uneven attention to the opportunities that…

  12. Compatibility between Internationalizing and Africanizing Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, Maria Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Internationalisation of the higher education sector across the world has become the norm and this is also true for South African universities. Another dimension has with increasing intension moved into the foreground, namely the need to Africanise South African higher education. The imperatives of these two dimensions are often portrayed as…

  13. Estimating age in black South African children.

    PubMed

    Uys, A; Fabris-Rotelli, I; Bernitz, H

    2014-03-01

    Forensic dentists are frequently required to determine the age at death of unidentified skeletons, or to age live individuals who have no record/documentation of their chronological age. In order to be of the greatest value, the method used should have the lowest possible standard deviation and be validated for the individual's specific population group. The method most frequently used in Forensic Dentistry for the estimation of age in children, was described by Demirjian et al. The maturity standards determined were based on samples of French Canadian origin and it has been recommended by several authors that correction factors be incorporated when applying this method to different population groups. The current research was carried out on a sample of 838 black South African children. A new model for age estimation in the said population was developed, to accurately determine the chronological age from dental development. A sample of 604 black South African children was used to test the validity of the method described by Demirjian.

  14. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  15. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  16. Combination vaccines in the South African setting.

    PubMed

    Visser, Adele; Hoosen, Anwar

    2012-09-07

    The number of vaccines available and included as part of the national immunization schedules, has increased significantly over the past few decades. This impacts on patient/parent compliance and creates a challenge for health care providers for implementation of schedules necessitating training and infrastructure improvements. Use of combination rather than component vaccines offers advantages for compliance by single dose administration of various antigens, reducing stock costing as well as reducing cost of additional health care visits. Combination vaccines are often significantly more expensive than individual constituent vaccines. Concerns regarding an increased incidence of adverse events with use of combination vaccines have not been confirmed and rates may seem high as the adverse events seem to mimic the sum total of adverse event rates for each individual antigen used but may in fact be lower. Manufacturers typically advise against interchanging use of vaccine products. Despite this, health authorities advocate use of an alternative vaccine where the original vaccine in not available, to ensure continuity of vaccination. A notable exception is the acellular pertussis vaccine. Partly, because no serological correlates of immunity exist, but also a general lack of convincing follow up studies has prompted the recommendation for manufacturer fidelity for at least the first 3 vaccine doses. According to the South African Medicines Formulary, a variety of vaccines are available in South Africa. Although a large number are available in the private sector, the only true combination vaccine included in the current state EPI, modified in 2009, is the DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine (Diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular Pertussis, inactivated Poliomyelitis virus and Haemophilus influenzae type b). There are many reasons justifying the use of combination vaccines rather that the individual constituent formulations. Implementation of use in the South African setting at this point is

  17. South African court rejects country's new constitution.

    PubMed

    1996-09-20

    Fundamental principles designed to ensure that South Africa's new constitution upholds a wide range of individual rights and freedoms and establishes a responsive government with a balanced separation of powers, including recognition of the role of traditional tribal leadership, were adopted into the current interim constitution shortly before the 1994 free elections which brought Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress to power. In a judgement issued on September 6, 1996, South Africa's Constitutional Court rejected the country's new draft constitution, arguing that it failed to meet the standards of nine of the 34 principles established at the Kempton Park negotiations. The Constitutional Assembly is comprised of a joint meeting of the National Assembly and Senate. One of the court's major objections to the constitution concerned the proposed structure of rule, which was seen to give inadequate power to South Africa's nine provinces as compared with the national government. However, the bill of rights was almost entirely upheld. The bill would create a favorable environment for legalized abortion and guarantee a universal right of access to health care, including reproductive health services

  18. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  19. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  20. Developing generalism in the South African context.

    PubMed

    Howe, Amanda C; Mash, Robert J; Hugo, Jannie F M

    2013-10-11

    The largest impact on the South African burden of disease will be made in community-based and primary healthcare (PHC) settings and not in referral hospitals. Medical generalism is an approach to the delivery of healthcare that routinely applies a broad and holistic perspective to the patient's problems and is a feature of PHC. A multi-professional team of generalists, who share similar values and principles, is needed to make this a reality. Ward-based outreach teams include community health workers and nurses with essential support from doctors. Expert generalists - family physicians - are required to support PHC as well as provide care at the district hospital. All require sufficient training, at scale, with greater collaboration and integration between training programmes. District clinical specialist teams are both an opportunity and a threat. The value of medical generalism needs to be explained, advocated and communicated more actively. 

  1. Disability and masculinity in South African autosomatography

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the representation of disability by disabled black South African men as portrayed in two texts from the autosomatography genre, which encompasses first-person narratives of illness and disability. Drawing on extracts from Musa E. Zulu’s The language of me and William Zulu’s Spring will come, the article argues that physical disability affects heteronormative concepts of masculinity by altering the body, which is the primary referent for the construction and performance of hegemonic masculinity. In ableist contexts, the male disabled body may be accorded labels of asexuality. This article therefore reveals how male characters with disabilities reconstruct the male self by both reintegrating themselves within the dominant grid of masculinity and reformulating some of the tenets of hegemonic masculinity. PMID:28729995

  2. Mortality of white South African gold miners.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, P J; Sluis-Cremer, G K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--This two part study aimed to determine whether there was an excess mortality generally or for some diseases among middle aged white South African gold miners on the Witwatersrand and whether the underground dust exposure of these miners contributed to the development of lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or ischaemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS--A cohort of 4925 white miners in South Africa, born between 1 January 1916 and 31 December 1930 who were alive and working in the vicinity of Johannesburg on 1 January 1970, then aged between 39 and 54, was followed up for 20 years by which time 2032 had died. Most were gold miners (about 87% had worked 85% or more of their shifts in gold mines). Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated as percentages of the number of deaths observed in the cohort for a condition as stated on the death certificate divided by the number expected on the basis of concurrent mortality in the reference population (the total age specific white male population of South Africa). A case-control analysis was performed for three diseases (lung cancer, COPD, and IHD), the results of which are presented for those miners in the cohort who had spent at least 85% of their service on gold mines and had worked at least 15% of their shifts underground. RESULTS--The SMR for all causes of death was 129.6%, raised because of excess mortality due to the following causes: lung cancer (SMR = 139.8%), IHD (124.1%), COPD (189%) and cirrhosis of the liver (155.3%). Smoking was confirmed to be the main risk factor for lung cancer and COPD although cumulative dust exposure was found to increase the risk of COPD in conjunction with smoking. No significant risk of lung cancer resulted from exposure to dust. High blood pressure and smoking were found to increase the risk of IHD, but no association between IHD and the quetelet index (weight/height2) was found. CONCLUSIONS--The most significant and unexpected finding was the

  3. South African-ness Among Adolescents: The Emergence of a Collective Identity within the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Shane A; Roeser, Robert W.; Richter, Linda M; Lewin, Nina; Ginsburg, Carren; Fleetwood, Stella A; Taole, Elizabeth; van der Wolf, Kees

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the emergence of a South African identity among Black, Colored (mixed ancestral origin), White (predominantly English speaking), and Indian adolescents participating in a birth cohort study called “Birth to Twenty” in Johannesburg, South Africa. We examined young people's certainty of their self-categorization as South African, the centrality of their personal, racial and linguistic, and South African identities in their self-definition, and their perceptions of South African life and society today. These results reflect a historical opportunity for full citizenship and national enfranchisement that the end of Apartheid heralded for Black and Colored individuals. Black and Colored youth tend to be more certain about their South African-ness, have a more collective identity, and have a more positive perception around South Africa. In contrast, White and Indian youth are less certain about their South African-ness, have a more individualistic identity, and have a less positive perception about South Africa today. PMID:19461896

  4. The Efficacy of "Catch-Up Programmes" in South African High Schools: A Legal Jinx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyoni, Jabulani

    2013-01-01

    The South African State is mandated by Sections 28(2) and 29(1) of the South African Constitution to make provision for the education of a South African child in fulfilment of the child's constitutional rights. Teacher Unions (TUs) and provincial Departments of Basic Education (DBEs) have often promised South African high school student body, in…

  5. Financing vaccinations - the South African experience.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Mark S; Meheus, Filip; Kollipara, Aparna; Hecht, Robert; Cameron, Neil A; Pillay, Yogan; Hanna, Luisa

    2012-09-07

    South Africa provides a useful country case study for financing vaccinations. It has been an early adopter of new vaccinations and has financed these almost exclusively from domestic resources, largely through general taxation. National vaccination policy is determined by the Department of Health, based on advice from a national advisory group on immunisation. Standard health economic criteria of effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, affordability and burden of disease are used to assess whether new vaccinations should be introduced. Global guidelines and the advice of local and international experts are also helpful in making the determination to introduce new vaccines. In terms of recent decisions to introduce new vaccines against pneumococcal disease and rotavirus diarrhoea in children, the evidence has proved unequivocal. Universal rollout has been implemented even though this has led to a fivefold increase in national spending on vaccines. The total cost to government remains below 1-1.5% of public expenditures for health, which is viewed by the South African authorities as affordable and necessary given the number of lives saved and morbidity averted. To manage the rapid increase in domestic spending, efforts have been made to scale up coverage over several years, give greater attention to negotiating price reductions and, in some cases, obtain initial donations or frontloaded deliveries to facilitate earlier universal rollout. There has been strong support from a wide range of stakeholders for the early introduction of new generation vaccines.

  6. [Lingualized occlusion in the South African context].

    PubMed

    Oberholzer, T G; Geerts, G A V M

    2002-01-01

    The search for the ideal artificial tooth arrangement that maximizes denture stability, comfort, aesthetics, and function has occupied the dental literature for many years and still continues to do so. Of the many occlusal schemes that have been presented to the dental profession, that of lingualized occlusion has emerged as one of the more popular. The popularity of lingualized occlusion stems from the simplicity and flexibility of the concept and from its wide application to clinical practice (Parr & Ivanhoe, 1996). The registration of a repeatable correct centric jaw relation is not always possible. We don't know whether the patient will use centric relation during normal function. It is therefore useful to provide the patient with some freedom of movement around centric. lingualized occlusion provides freedom in centric. For many dentists the arrangement of artificial denture teeth into balanced occlusion is difficult and time consuming. As a result this task is most often performed by the dental technician. In the South African countryside dental laboratories are often far away. If dentists perform the arrangement of the denture teeth, time and costs can be saved. The mounting of denture teeth in lingualized occlusion is simple and fast. This will motivate dentists to arrange denture teeth themselves, with obvious benefits for both the patient and the dentist. The School of Oral Health Sciences of the University of Stellenbosch teaches this concept to its undergraduate students in order to improve the prosthetic service to the large edentulous population of South Africa.

  7. Attitudes of Department of Education District Officials towards Inclusive Education in South African Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Rashid; Govender, Sumeshni; Nzima, Dumisani

    2015-01-01

    Since the inception of inclusive education (IE) much energy has focused on educators and learners. This study addresses a gap in literature by analysing an important component of the transformation process in the South African educational landscape--Department of Education (DoE) district-based officials. This descriptive research project conducted…

  8. Implications of the South African Constitution on Quality Assurance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, K. John

    2006-01-01

    The article addresses the concept of quality assurance (QA) and its relation to quality in higher education which itself is a component of total quality management. It then examines the regulatory policies for higher education followed by the meaning of the concept of democracy in the South African Constitution and its impact and implications on…

  9. Tensions in the Quality Assurance Processes in Post-Apartheid South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biputh, Barath; McKenna, Sioux

    2010-01-01

    This paper tracks the development of the Integrated Quality Management System in South African schools after the dismantling of apartheid in 1994. We argue that the quality processes that are now in place emerged in response to the autocratic school inspection systems that preceded them but did not sufficiently address the impact of educators'…

  10. Enhancing Learning in South African Schools: Strategies beyond Outcomes-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Alexa; Mason, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of post-Apartheid South African schools as ineffective learning environments, and the question whether there are strategies for enhancing learning that are more effective and that might be more easily and successfully implemented than an outcomes-based education. Because of historical and situational constraints,…

  11. Journey to J'Burg: My Travels in South African Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Carol

    1996-01-01

    Discusses five South African writers for young adults and highlights representative works dealing with family relationships, AIDS, natural disaster, interracial relationships and marriage, racial prejudice, and incest. Although most of the books are not currently available in the United States, a bibliography and a list of addresses for the South…

  12. Tensions in the Quality Assurance Processes in Post-Apartheid South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biputh, Barath; McKenna, Sioux

    2010-01-01

    This paper tracks the development of the Integrated Quality Management System in South African schools after the dismantling of apartheid in 1994. We argue that the quality processes that are now in place emerged in response to the autocratic school inspection systems that preceded them but did not sufficiently address the impact of educators'…

  13. Attitudes of Department of Education District Officials towards Inclusive Education in South African Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Rashid; Govender, Sumeshni; Nzima, Dumisani

    2015-01-01

    Since the inception of inclusive education (IE) much energy has focused on educators and learners. This study addresses a gap in literature by analysing an important component of the transformation process in the South African educational landscape--Department of Education (DoE) district-based officials. This descriptive research project conducted…

  14. Implications of the South African Constitution on Quality Assurance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, K. John

    2006-01-01

    The article addresses the concept of quality assurance (QA) and its relation to quality in higher education which itself is a component of total quality management. It then examines the regulatory policies for higher education followed by the meaning of the concept of democracy in the South African Constitution and its impact and implications on…

  15. On the "Africanization" of English Studies in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Gareth

    2006-01-01

    The article is an exploration of current trends within, and the desired destiny of, the humanities discipline of English Studies in the context of calls for the "Africanization" of South African universities. The essay advocates the embrace of a non-universalist, emancipationist humanism. (Contains 8 notes.)

  16. On the "Africanization" of English Studies in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Gareth

    2006-01-01

    The article is an exploration of current trends within, and the desired destiny of, the humanities discipline of English Studies in the context of calls for the "Africanization" of South African universities. The essay advocates the embrace of a non-universalist, emancipationist humanism. (Contains 8 notes.)

  17. Gender issues among South African anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Gardner, S V; James, M F M; Evans, N R

    2002-09-01

    To study gender issues among South African anaesthetists. A postal survey of all registered anaesthetists in South Africa in December 1999. There were 385 respondents out of a potential 960, giving a response rate of 40%; 77 respondents (20%) were female and 308 (80%) were male. The largest group of males was over 50 years old whereas most females were under 50 years. Most respondents chose anaesthesia because of academic appeal or career opportunities. More females reported experiencing sexual harassment and felt discriminated against in terms of job selection during the training period and with regard to referral practices. Most respondents felt that their colleagues did not treat them differently on account of gender but more females felt that both patients and female nurses treated them less favourably than their male colleagues. More males felt supported in their career by their life partners. More females felt that having children adversely affected academic and promotional aspects of their careers. Despite this, females were more likely to have experienced positive benefits from combining parenting with a career and were also more likely to have worked part time, mainly because of domestic commitments. Most respondents were satisfied with their careers, and would choose both medicine and anaesthesia again. Our study suggests that female anaesthetists are generally satisfied with their career choice. However, they are exposed to significant gender-related stresses in the workplace, which are exacerbated by time conflicts for those with children. Allowing part-time employment options and creating a less discriminating environment would enable female doctors to achieve their potential.

  18. Pregnancy termination among South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Varga, Christine A

    2002-12-01

    Although African adolescents' risk of undergoing abortion and of related health complications is well-documented, little is known about the procedure's prominence in their lives and the pathways that lead to their reliance upon it. This study investigates abortion dynamics among male and female Zulu adolescents in KwaZulu/Natal, South Africa. It explores the role of abortion in young people's sexual and reproductive experience, its acceptability, the reasons and likelihood of young people's choosing abortion, and the commonly used methods of pregnancy termination. The study, a rural-urban comparison using focus-group discussions, narrative workshops, and role playing, involved surveys and in-depth interviews. Factors contributing to the commonplace nature of backstreet procedures among adolescents include: social stigma, inadequate knowledge of the legal status of abortion, and a complex group decisionmaking process. Young people invoke "relative moralities" concerning adolescent abortion, recognizing and condoning it on a context-specific basis. Age, gender, and geographic differences are examined. The methodological triangulation used offers the opportunity for alternative theoretical and methodological approaches to research on abortion-related issues.

  19. Mental Toughness in South African Youth.

    PubMed

    Cowden, Richard G; Clough, Peter J; Oppong Asante, Kwaku

    2017-04-01

    Young people are particularly vulnerable to health risk behaviors and interpersonal violence, stimulating scholars' attention towards identifying factors that may reduce the likelihood that these actions will occur. Associated with positive outcomes in a variety of domains, mental toughness in young people might protect them from engaging in potentially deleterious interpersonal or health-risk behaviors, while potentially promoting positive psychological behaviors. Within this framework, the present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness, attitudes towards physical and psychological risk-taking, and trait forgiveness in a sample of 123 (males = 54, females = 69) South African youth ( M age = 23.97 years, SD = 4.46). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated higher levels of mental toughness were associated with being more forgiving, ([Formula: see text] = .036), perceiving physical risk-taking more positively ([Formula: see text] = .062), but having more negative attitudes towards psychological risk-taking ([Formula: see text] = .036). These findings give credence to mental toughness as a psychological characteristic involved in youth risk-taking perceptions and interpersonal functioning. Future research might explore the integration of mental toughness into the development of future youth risk behavior interventions.

  20. Unsustainable fuelwood extraction from South African savannas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, K. J.; Colgan, M. S.; Erasmus, B. F. N.; Asner, G. P.; Twine, W. C.; Mathieu, R.; van Aardt, J. A. N.; Fisher, J. T.; Smit, I. P. J.

    2013-03-01

    Wood and charcoal supply the majority of sub-Saharan Africa’s rural energy needs. The long-term supply of fuelwood is in jeopardy given high consumption rates. Using airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), we mapped and investigated savanna aboveground biomass across contrasting land uses, ranging from densely populated communal areas to highly protected areas in the Lowveld savannas of South Africa. We combined the LiDAR observations with socio-economic data, biomass production rates and fuelwood consumption rates in a supply-demand model to predict future fuelwood availability. LiDAR-based biomass maps revealed disturbance gradients around settlements up to 1.5 km, corresponding to the maximum distance walked to collect fuelwood. At current levels of fuelwood consumption (67% of households use fuelwood exclusively, with a 2% annual reduction), we calculate that biomass in the study area will be exhausted within thirteen years. We also show that it will require a 15% annual reduction in consumption for eight years to a level of 20% of households using fuelwood before the reduction in biomass appears to stabilize to sustainable levels. The severity of dwindling fuelwood reserves in African savannas underscores the importance of providing affordable energy for rural economic development.

  1. Ad/dressing the nation: drag and authenticity in post-apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Spruill, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines a style of drag in South Africa that features "traditional African" clothing. In a region in which homosexuality is denigrated as a colonial, European import and "unAfrican," the meaning of "traditional drag" is deeply inflected by the question of cultural authenticity. This dragging practice fits within a distinctly post-colonial production of tradition and its self-conscious display--in the form of attire--of a decidedly "gay" one. Traditional drag also responds to ongoing politics within and between lesbian and gay communities about racial "representivity" and "transformation." The paper focuses on displays of traditional drag at Johannesburg's Gay and Lesbian Pride Parade but also explores the complex politics of publicity and address suggested by varying contexts in which traditional dress and drag are mobilized.

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of Six South African Rabies Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Phahladira, Baby; Marston, Denise A.; Wise, Emma L.; Ellis, Richard J.; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    South African rabies viruses (RABVs) from dogs and jackals (canid viruses) are highly related and most likely originated from a single progenitor. RABV is the cause of most global human rabies cases. The complete genome sequences of 3 RABVs from South Africa and Zimbabwe are reported here. PMID:26430028

  3. Pre-Service Teachers' Reflections of South African Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, S. K.; Singh, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of outcomes-based education in South Africa placed many challenges on the transformation of science classrooms. The 2009 National Education Evaluation and Development Unit (NEEDU) Report concluded that South African rural and township schools are largely dysfunctional. This article examined some of the reasons for the…

  4. Immigrant Students' Shifting Identifications in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2012-01-01

    The easing of legal and unauthorized entry to South Africa has made the country a new destination for Black immigrants. As this population continues to grow, its children have begun to experience South African schools in an array of uniquely challenging ways. For these immigrant youth, forging a sense of identity may be their single greatest…

  5. Reading English in Multilingual South African Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Yvonne

    2004-01-01

    Post-apartheid South Africa has officially sanctioned multilingualism in a constitution that recognises 11 official languages. However, the status of all of the languages is not perceived as being equal. The majority of South Africans want their children to be educated in English, although this is not their mother tongue, and schools are under…

  6. An Evaluation of the South African Model of MBA Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmur, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The South African Council on Higher Education (CHE) withdrew its accreditation of 15 Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees in May 2004. MBAs for which accreditation was withdrawn include those offered in South Africa by Bond University (Australia) and De Montfort University (UK). CHEs decisions have significant implications for students,…

  7. Immigrant Students' Shifting Identifications in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2012-01-01

    The easing of legal and unauthorized entry to South Africa has made the country a new destination for Black immigrants. As this population continues to grow, its children have begun to experience South African schools in an array of uniquely challenging ways. For these immigrant youth, forging a sense of identity may be their single greatest…

  8. Publishing South African scholarship in the global academic community

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    South Africa's academic publishing history has been profoundly influenced by its colonial heritage. This is reflected in the publication of Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society (later, the Royal Society of South Africa) from 1878. Although the Society and journal sought to promote original research about South Africa, it was modelled after the Royal Society in London and formed part of an imperial scientific community. As the local higher education institutions grew more independent and research-focused, local scholarly publishing developed as well, with university presses playing an increasingly important role. The University of South Africa (Unisa) Press started publishing departmental journals in the 1950s, with a focus on journals that ‘speak to the student’, and it is today the only South African university press with an active journals publishing programme. As external funding declined and the country became intellectually isolated in the high apartheid period, the Press managed to attract journals that could no longer be subsidized by learned societies and other universities. More recently, new co-publishing arrangements have brought South African journals back into an international intellectual community. Although some argue that this constitutes a re-colonization of South African knowledge production, it is also an innovative strategy for positioning local research in a global context. PMID:26495579

  9. Priority Health Behaviors among South African Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Kandice; Johnson, Ping Hu; Petrillo, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the priority health behaviors of South African youth by administering a questionnaire to 635 undergraduate students enrolled in a large metropolitan university in South Africa. Results indicate that 65.5% of the participants tried cigarettes at least once during their lifetime, over 15.2% had their first cigarette and 31.2% had…

  10. South African Learners' Conceptual Understanding about Image Formation by Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Merlin; Molepo, Jacob Maisha; Chirwa, Max

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore South African Grade 11 learners' conceptual understanding of "image formation by lenses". The participants for this study were 70 Grade 11 learners from a selected senior secondary school in Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The qualitative approach employed in the study made use of…

  11. Establishing Quality Assurance in the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strydom, A. H.; Strydom, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides perspectives on the unique challenges and opportunities facing the national auditing and accreditation system in South African higher education. In doing so, the quality assurance contexts of developed countries, Africa and South Africa are considered and the issues of uncertainty and conformity are highlighted. This is…

  12. An Evaluation of the South African Model of MBA Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmur, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The South African Council on Higher Education (CHE) withdrew its accreditation of 15 Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees in May 2004. MBAs for which accreditation was withdrawn include those offered in South Africa by Bond University (Australia) and De Montfort University (UK). CHEs decisions have significant implications for students,…

  13. Pre-Service Teachers' Reflections of South African Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, S. K.; Singh, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of outcomes-based education in South Africa placed many challenges on the transformation of science classrooms. The 2009 National Education Evaluation and Development Unit (NEEDU) Report concluded that South African rural and township schools are largely dysfunctional. This article examined some of the reasons for the…

  14. PUBLISHING SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOLARSHIP IN THE GLOBAL ACADEMIC COMMUNITY.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Elizabeth

    2015-09-20

    South Africa's academic publishing history has been profoundly influenced by its colonial heritage. This is reflected in the publication of Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society (later, the Royal Society of South Africa) from 1878. Although the Society and journal sought to promote original research about South Africa, it was modelled after the Royal Society in London and formed part of an imperial scientific community. As the local higher education institutions grew more independent and research-focused, local scholarly publishing developed as well, with university presses playing an increasingly important role. The University of South Africa (Unisa) Press started publishing departmental journals in the 1950s, with a focus on journals that 'speak to the student', and it is today the only South African university press with an active journals publishing programme. As external funding declined and the country became intellectually isolated in the high apartheid period, the Press managed to attract journals that could no longer be subsidized by learned societies and other universities. More recently, new co-publishing arrangements have brought South African journals back into an international intellectual community. Although some argue that this constitutes a re-colonization of South African knowledge production, it is also an innovative strategy for positioning local research in a global context.

  15. South African Student Constructed Indlebe Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGruder, Charles H.; MacPherson, Stuart; Janse Van Vuuren, Gary Peter

    2017-01-01

    The Indlebe Radio Telescope (IRT) is a small transit telescope with a 5 m diameter parabolic reflector working at 21 cm. It was completely constructed by South African (SA) students from the Durban University of Technology (DUT), where it is located. First light occurred on 28 July 2008, when the galactic center, Sagittarius A, was detected. As a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, staff members in the Department of Electronic Engineering at DUT in 2006 decided to have their students create a fully functional radio telescope by 2009. The specific project aims are to provide a visible project that could generate interest in science and technology in high school students and to provide a real world system for research in radio astronomy in general and an optimization of low noise radio frequency receiver systems in particular. These aims must be understood in terms of the SA’s government interests in radio astronomy. SA is a partner in the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project, has constructed the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT) and MeerKat, which is the largest and most sensitive radio telescope in the southern hemisphere. SA and its partners in Africa are investing in the construction of the African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (AVN), an array of radio telescopes throughout Africa as an extension of the existing global Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (VLBI). These projects will allow SA to make significant contributions to astronomy and enable astronomy to contribute to the scientific education and development goals of the country. The IRT sees on a daily basis the transit of Sag A. The transit time is influenced by precession, nutation, polar motion, aberration, celestial pole offset, proper motion, length of the terrestrial day and variable ionospheric refraction. Of these eight factors six are either predictable or measureable. To date neither celestial pole offset nor variable ionospheric refraction are predicable

  16. Radiographic outcomes among South African coal miners.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Rajen N; Robins, Thomas G; Solomon, A; White, Neil; Franzblau, Alfred

    2004-10-01

    This study, the first to document the prevalence of pneumoconiosis among a living South African coal mining cohort, describes dose-response relationships between coal workers' pneumoconiosis and respirable dust exposure, and relationships between pneumoconiosis and both lung function deterioration and respiratory symptoms. A total of 684 current miners and 188 ex-miners from three bituminous-coal mines in Mpumalanga, South Africa, was studied. Chest radiographs were read according to the International Labour Organization (ILO) classification by two experienced readers, one an accredited National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) "B" reader. Interviews were conducted to assess symptoms, work histories (also obtained from company records), smoking, and other risk factors. Spirometry was performed by trained technicians. Cumulative respirable dust exposure (CDE) estimates were constructed from historical company-collected sampling and researcher-collected personal dust measurements. kappa-Statistics compared the radiographic outcomes predicted by the two readers. An average profusion score was used in the analysis for the outcomes of interest. Because of possible confounding by employment status, most analyses were stratified on current and ex-miner status. The overall prevalence of pneumoconiosis was low (2%-4%). The degree of agreement between the two readers for profusion was moderate to high (kappa=0.58). A significant association (P<0.001) and trend (P<0.001) was seen for pneumoconiosis with increasing categories of CDE among current miners only. A significant (P<0.0001) additional 58 mg-years/m3 CDE was seen among those with pneumoconiosis compared to those without. CDE contributed to a statistically significant 0.19% and 0.11% greater decline in the percent predicted 1-second forced expiration volume (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), respectively, among current miners with pneumoconiosis than among those without. Logistic regression

  17. Spermatocele in a South African Boerboel dog.

    PubMed

    Hesser, Andrea C; Davidson, Autumn P

    2015-03-01

    A 2-year-old intact male South African Boerboel presented for semen cryopreservation and was discovered to be azoospermic. The dog had excellent libido and had sired litters within 6 months, so a further investigation of why his collection lacked sperm was warranted. On further examination of his scrotal contents, his right epididymis had an enlarged area with a hard texture. Ultrasonography revealed that the enlarged area of the right epididymis was fluid filled. A sample of the fluid was aspirated for aerobic culture. No bacteria showed growth. Although the culture was negative, it was suspected that this dog had an epididymitis or epididymal abscess, and treatment with enrofloxacin at 10mg/kg orally was initiated for 4 weeks. The abnormal texture and fluid-filled cavity in the right epididymis persisted, despite antibiotic therapy. Cytology of a repeat aspiration of the fluid-filled area after antibiotic therapy revealed a mixture of red blood cells and sperm. Owing to the potential for blood-testis barrier disruption, a unilateral orchiectomy of the right testicle was performed, as an attempt to protect future sperm production of the remaining testicle. A spermatocele was confirmed on histopathology. After another month, an excellent-quality semen sample was collected, with 90% progressive motility, good concentration, and few morphologic abnormalities. A subsequent collection was acquired and was successfully cryopreserved for future breeding. In dogs with spermatoceles, semen quality can be preserved with aggressive treatment to remove the affected testicle. The disruption of the blood-testis barrier in spermatoceles may result in antisperm antibody production and eventual infertility; however, cryopreservation can result in long-term options for owners seeking to continue using an animal in their breeding program.

  18. South African parliament approves sweeping abortion reform.

    PubMed

    1996-11-22

    South Africa's National Assembly voted 209 to 87 for passage of the "Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act" on October 30; it was passed in the Senate, 49 to 21 (20 abstentions), on November 5. The African National Congress strongly supported the Act, while the National Party opposed it. Under the law, abortions during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy may to be performed by physicians or trained midwives. From week 13 through week 20, a physician, in consultation with the mother, may terminate the pregnancy after determining that continuing the pregnancy would threaten the woman's health (physical or mental) or circumstances (social or economic), or that the fetus is at substantial risk of suffering severe physical or mental abnormalities. Abortion is permitted after 20 weeks if two doctors (or midwives) decide continuing the pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or result in injury or severe malformation of the fetus. Only the pregnant woman's consent is required. Although an abortion provider must advise a young client to consult with parents, guardian, family members, or friends before the procedure, she is not required to comply. All women are to be informed of their rights under the Act; criminal penalties (up to 10 years) are mandated for unauthorized abortion providers, for persons who prevent a lawful abortion, or for those who obstruct access to an abortion facility. The new statute repeals the more restrictive Abortion and Sterilization Act of 1975, which permitted abortion only in cases of maternal life or health endangerment, severe fetal abnormality, rape, incest, or mental incapacity.

  19. The South African Higher Education Transformation Debate: Culture, Identity and "African Ways of Knowing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsthemke, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Following the first democratic election in South Africa in 1994, there has been a strong drive towards democratising education at all levels, primary, secondary and tertiary. The present paper examines some of the key ideas in the debate around transformation in higher education in South Africa, namely the notions of an African essence, culture…

  20. Addressing intersections in HIV/AIDS and mental health: the role of organizations for d/Deaf and hard of hearing individuals in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mall, Sumaya; Swartz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Like south africans generally, d/Deaf and hard of hearing South Africans are at risk of HIV/AIDS and mental disorders resulting from barriers to communication and care. In interviews and a focus group, members of South African organizations for d/Deaf and hard of hearing individuals all gave priority to HIV/AIDS education and prevention, citing risks resulting from language and communication barriers, inadequate schooling, and insufficient information in South African Sign Language. Participants gave varied descriptions of HIV/AIDS programs in schools for d/Deaf and hard of hearing students and described school initiatives they had directed. Some participants gave mental health problems lesser priority; others said susceptibility to mental disorders may result from communication difficulties and therefore warrants specialized services. Others, seeing a need to address mental health in HIV/AIDS prevention, had designed programs accordingly. Such prevention efforts merit support, as do activities to reduce communication barriers.

  1. Genetic diversity and conservation of South African indigenous chicken populations.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Groeneveld, E; Groeneveld, L F; Dzama, K; Weigend, S

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we compare the level and distribution of genetic variation between South African conserved and village chicken populations using microsatellite markers. In addition, diversity in South African chickens was compared to that of a reference data set consisting of other African and purebred commercial lines. Three chicken populations Venda, Ovambo and Eastern Cape and four conserved flocks of the Venda, Ovambo, Naked Neck and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Poultry Breeding Resource Unit of the Agricultural Research Council were genotyped at 29 autosomal microsatellite loci. All markers were polymorphic. Village chicken populations were more diverse than conservation flocks. structure software was used to cluster individuals to a predefined number of 2 ≤ K ≤ 6 clusters. The most probable clustering was found at K = 5 (95% identical runs). At this level of differentiation, the four conservation flocks separated as four independent clusters, while the three village chicken populations together formed another cluster. Thus, cluster analysis indicated a clear subdivision of each of the conservation flocks that were different from the three village chicken populations. The contribution of each South African chicken populations to the total diversity of the chickens studied was determined by calculating the optimal core set contributions based on Marker estimated kinship. Safe set analysis was carried out using bootstrapped kinship values calculated to relate the added genetic diversity of seven South African chicken populations to a set of reference populations consisting of other African and purebred commercial broiler and layer chickens. In both core set and the safe set analyses, village chicken populations scored slightly higher to the reference set compared to conservation flocks. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the conservation flocks of South African chickens displayed considerable genetic variability that is different from that of the

  2. The FDI African Strategy for Oral Health: addressing the specific needs of the continent.

    PubMed

    Hescot, Patrick; China, Emile; Bourgeois, Denis; Maina, Susan; Monteiro da Silva, Orlando; Luc Eiselé, Jean; Simpson, Christopher; Horn, Virginie

    2013-06-01

    The FDI World Dental Federation has defined a strategy for the development of oral health in Africa during the "African Summit" held in Cape Town, South Africa. The summit gathered presidents from 16 African National Dental Associations, FDI stakeholders, the World Health Organisation and government delegates. The outcomes of this summit were stated in a Declaration, defining the functional principles of the African strategy as three priorities: To establish and reinforce the credibility of NDAs To acquire and develop leadership and management skills Effective peer-to-peer exchange of information.

  3. Teaching professionalism: a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Preez, R R Du; Pickworth, G E; Van Rooyen, M

    2007-11-01

    Incorporating the teaching and assessment of professionalism in an undergraduate medical curriculum is a challenging process. There are two components that require attention: the cognitive and the experiential. This article outlines how the School of Medicine at the University of Pretoria (UP), South Africa is addressing the teaching and assessment of professionalism. To embed teaching and assessment of professionalism in a revised six-year undergraduate medical curriculum. This is a descriptive paper of a curriculum process that has stretched over a number of years. The eight principles regarding teaching professionalism provided by Cruess & Cruess (2006) are used to reflect on the current strengths and weaknesses of teaching and assessing professionalism in the UP undergraduate medical curriculum. The cognitive component of the curriculum has been addressed by introducing a series of stage appropriate, contextualized assignments in each year of the curriculum. Faculty committee structures supported the development and implementation of this component. Students' responses to an assignment on the influence of role models provided insight into how the experiential component impacts on their professional development. The teaching and assessment of the cognitive component were relatively easy to put in place. The challenge is to maintain this component. The experiential component appears to be much the same as it was prior to revision. Our way forward is to expand the teaching and assessment of professionalism in the experiential component. We want to facilitate faculty to develop a charter on professionalism. The principles and commitments of the charter will underlie a white coat ceremony for undergraduates. These principles will also provide guidelines for role models in their supervision of experiential learning and can inform criteria for assessment. An assessment strategy to assess professionalism in the experiential component needs to be developed and

  4. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.

  5. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women’s ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters’ reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites’ refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women’s few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals’ marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  6. Arched gonadal arteries in the South African negro.

    PubMed Central

    Grine, F E; Kramer, B

    1981-01-01

    The frequency with which the gonadal arteries follow a recurrent course, upwards and arching over the renal veins before descending to the gonads, is recorded for the South African Negro. The gonadal arteries follow such a course on the left side in 17, 2% and on the right side in 22% of cases. This incidence for arched left sided arteries is comparable to that recorded in other studies, but the frequency for arched right sided arteries in the South African Negro appears to be higher. Recognition of arching gonadal arteries is of importance to the vascular surgeon and urologist. PMID:7298490

  7. Beyond the Sterility of a Distinct African Bioethics: Addressing the Conceptual Bioethics Lag in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ssebunnya, Gerald M

    2017-04-01

    In the current debate on the future of bioethics in Africa, several authors have argued for a distinct communitarian African bioethics that can counter the dominancy of Western atomistic principlism in contemporary bioethics. In this article I examine this rather contentious argument and evaluate its validity and viability. Firstly, I trace the contextual origins of contemporary bioethics and highlight the rise and dominance of principlism. I particularly note that principlism was premised on a content-thin notion of the common morality that is in need of enrichment. I also contend that bioethics is essentially two-dimensional, being both conceptual and empirical, and indicate the lag in Africa with regard to conceptual bioethics. I then appeal for authentic engagement by 1) African health care professionals, 2) African health care training institutions, 3) Africa's bioethics development partners, and 4) African bioethicists and philosophers, towards addressing this critical lag. I underline the need to maintain the essential universality of bioethics as a discipline. I particularly argue against the pursuit of a distinct African bioethics, as it appears to be rooted in sterile African ethno-philosophy. Rather, African bioethicists and philosophers would do well to elucidate the universalisability of insights from traditional African thought, for the benefit of bioethics as a whole. Thus we must engage beyond the sterility of a distinct African bioethics - authentically reflecting on the essentially universal contemporary bioethical concerns - to effectively articulate a viable trajectory for bioethics in Africa.

  8. The African Renaissance and its relation to the geosciences: a South African perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtimkulu, M. N.; Motloung, M.; Graham, I. T.; Eriksson, P. G.; Bumby, A. J.

    2001-08-01

    Implicit in the African Renaissance is the synergy between government, the private sector, the educated minority and the disadvantaged majority. For this concept to work, belief and commitment must arise first from the African individual, whatever his or her potential contribution may be. The geosciences in South Africa provide a currently vibrant example of such cooperation, which has the potential to contribute significantly to the upliftment of the country and its neighbouring states. Based largely on personal interviews with various role players, from the Presidency of South Africa, through ministerial levels, the corporate sector and down to the individual, we present a spectrum of viewpoints and initiatives which are starting to result in practical implementation of the African revival. An end to conflict and xenophobia, the entrenchment of democratic government and corporate expression of the entrepreneurial spirit are essential to provide the framework within which the individual African can become a "Renaissance Man or Woman".

  9. United States-South African Relations: The Challenge for AFRICOM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-25

    line]; available from Jane’s.com; accessed 8 December 2007. 46 Nyirabu, 27-28. 47 Kent Hughes Butts and Paul R. Thomas, The Geopolitics of Southern...Africa: South Africa as a Regional Superpower (Boulder, Colorado, West View Press, 1986)1, 170. 48 Robert S. Chase, Emily B. Hill, and Paul Kennedy...16. 70 Neethling, 59. 71 Helmoed- Romer Heitman, Jane’s, The South African Army Outlines Vision 2020 Force Design Implementation,” (19 September

  10. Adult Agendas in Publishing South African Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Elwyn

    2002-01-01

    Considers how translations of indigenous folktales form a large proportion of South African children's books. Notes that at first those who published them were influenced by Social Darwinism, and later the folktales played a role in promoting the ideology of apartheid, but they were mainly the product of white paternalism. Notes that the folktales…

  11. Adult Agendas in Publishing South African Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Elwyn

    2002-01-01

    Considers how translations of indigenous folktales form a large proportion of South African children's books. Notes that at first those who published them were influenced by Social Darwinism, and later the folktales played a role in promoting the ideology of apartheid, but they were mainly the product of white paternalism. Notes that the folktales…

  12. Nasal aperture shape evaluation between black and white South Africans.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Jennifer L; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Kenyhercz, Michael W

    2012-10-10

    The purpose of this study was to combine morphoscopic and metric analyses to assess variation in nasal aperture size and shape of black and white South Africans. Thirteen landmarks were digitized from the bony nasal region of 152 crania using an electromechanic instrument for geometric morphometric (general procrustes analysis) and craniometric analyses. Elliptical Fourier analysis was used to assess shape of the nasal aperture via outlines applied through photographs. Both principal component and discriminant function analyses were applied to these statistical methods. Black South Africans were classified 95-96% correctly and white South Africans were classified 91-94% correctly. In a four-way analysis of sex and ancestry, classification accuracy ranged from 56 to 70%. Most misclassifications were between the sexes within each group which suggests an absence of sexual dimorphism. This study found that there is quantifiable variation in shape of the nasal aperture between black and white South African groups using all three statistical methods. In forensic application, standard craniometrics can be used to accurately classify an unknown person.

  13. Knowledge about Inquiry: A study in South African high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined during the process of coding and is presented. Results showed that the learners held more informed views than that reported in previous international studies, except for particularly naive views regarding multiple methods of investigation. The results are discussed in terms of the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS) that was taught from 2003 to 2010 in South African schools. This curriculum was founded on outcomes-based principles, valuing process skills rather than content. The study found that examples provided in the RNCS document correspond closely to the aspects of inquiry as described by the National Research Council. It is argued that the RNCS contributed to the more informed views about inquiry found among South African learners in this study.

  14. Internationalising a Rural, Historically Black South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony Rogers; Yang, Rui; Wolhuter, Charste Coetzee

    2004-01-01

    A strong international dimension has always been and is increasingly becoming an essential ingredient of the university. This article investigates the state of and prospects for internationalisation of an extremely peripheral and historically marginalised South African university. Questionnaires and semistructured interviews with academic and…

  15. Doing Justice to Social Justice in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjabane, Masebala; Pillay, Venitha

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to develop a conceptualisation of social justice in higher education based on a close reading of the current literature in the field. An important assumption we make is that higher education is a valuable mechanism for social justice. We set the literature against policy documents that detail South African aspirations with…

  16. Intellectual Disability in the Context of a South African Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromberg, Jennifer; Zwane, Esther; Manga, Prashiela; Venter, Andre; Rosen, Eric; Christianson, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Childhood disabilities, including intellectual disabilities (ID), are thought to occur in 5-17% of children in developing countries around the world. In order to identify and describe the childhood disabilities occurring in a rural South African population, as well as the context in which they occur, a study was carried out in the Bushbuckridge…

  17. Social Citizenship Formation at University: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie; Loots, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers citizenship formation at universities, drawing on the example of a student leadership project at the University of the Free State, a formerly White South African university, in a higher education context and society where racialised difference continues to influence peer relationships. The paper proposes a multi-dimensional…

  18. First Steps in Teaching Argumentation: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braund, Martin; Scholtz, Zena; Sadeck, Melanie; Koopman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    South African student teachers were studied to see how they coped with requirements to teach science using argumentation. Lesson observations, plans, reflective logs, post-teaching interviews and assessment of pupils' argumentation were used to compare student teachers' preparedness and interactions with pupils. Two clusters of students were…

  19. Dress Codes in Post-Apartheid South African Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Terri; Nodoba, Gaontebale

    2009-01-01

    There are many factors that influence dress code decision making in formal and informal business arenas. In South Africa, with its colonial and apartheid history followed by an exuberant resurgence of Africanism, factors such as diversity of race, ethnicity, religion, and culture play a critical role in lifestyle and worldview. These many and…

  20. First Steps in Teaching Argumentation: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braund, Martin; Scholtz, Zena; Sadeck, Melanie; Koopman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    South African student teachers were studied to see how they coped with requirements to teach science using argumentation. Lesson observations, plans, reflective logs, post-teaching interviews and assessment of pupils' argumentation were used to compare student teachers' preparedness and interactions with pupils. Two clusters of students were…

  1. Intellectual Disability in the Context of a South African Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromberg, Jennifer; Zwane, Esther; Manga, Prashiela; Venter, Andre; Rosen, Eric; Christianson, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Childhood disabilities, including intellectual disabilities (ID), are thought to occur in 5-17% of children in developing countries around the world. In order to identify and describe the childhood disabilities occurring in a rural South African population, as well as the context in which they occur, a study was carried out in the Bushbuckridge…

  2. Creating a Learning Climate: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrim, Nasima Mohamed Hoosen; Basson, Johan Schutte

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether there were differences in how one public and two private South African organizations created a learning climate. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on a survey and comparative analysis of specific departments in a chemical and gas company, an insurance company, and a…

  3. Dress Codes in Post-Apartheid South African Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Terri; Nodoba, Gaontebale

    2009-01-01

    There are many factors that influence dress code decision making in formal and informal business arenas. In South Africa, with its colonial and apartheid history followed by an exuberant resurgence of Africanism, factors such as diversity of race, ethnicity, religion, and culture play a critical role in lifestyle and worldview. These many and…

  4. Linguistic Ideologies in Multilingual South African Suburban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoe, Pinky; McKinney, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on language in South African schooling frequently draws attention to the problematic hegemony of English and the lack of access to quality education in the home language of the majority of learners, often drawing on the metaphor of a gap or a disjuncture between post-apartheid language in education policy (LiEP) and its…

  5. Evolutionary Ideas Held by Experienced South African Biology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriacou, Xenia; de Beer, Josef; Ramnarain, Umesh

    2015-01-01

    With evolutionary biology relatively recently introduced into the South African school curriculum, the need arose to explore practising teachers' knowledge of the subject. A number of anticipated as well as unanticipated cognitive and affective barriers to the understanding of evolutionary biology were identified from a questionnaire with…

  6. Shifting South African Learners towards Greater Autonomy in Scientific Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Hobden, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This report describes how teachers support ninth-grade students who are doing scientific investigations in Natural Sciences in South African schools. This is of interest as allowing students to participate in inquiry-based investigations is a significant shift from traditional practices. It presents a new challenge to teachers as it signals an…

  7. South African English: A New Voice of Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuki, Donna Hurst

    In this paper, a case study describes the lexis, phonology, grammar, and syntax of a speaker of South African English (SAE) and shows how these elements differ from those of a General American English (GAE) speaker. The subject was a 32-year-old female speaker of SAE, and that although she is a bilingual speaker of English and Afrikaans, English…

  8. Managerialism and Higher Education Governance: Implications for South African Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, F.

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary driver of higher…

  9. The Management of AIDS in South African Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosthuizen, Izak

    According to the Third National Survey of South African women who attend prenatal clinics, 120,000 more persons are estimated to have become infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) since 1991. This paper compares the teacher-student relationship with that of the confidential doctor-patient relationship, and asks whether a teacher should…

  10. Stem rust resistance in South African wheat cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The appearance and anticipated spread of race TTKS (syn. Ug99) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici have renewed interest in breeding for durable resistance to stem rust of wheat. In an attempt to determine the current status of stem rust resistance, 67 South African (SA) bread wheat cultivars and l...

  11. Burnout of Academic Staff in South African Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothmann, S.; Barkhuizen, N.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess the psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) for academic staff in South African higher education institutions and to investigate differences between the burnout levels of different demographic groups. A survey design was used, with stratified…

  12. Democratisation and Quality Assurance in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Ashley

    2006-01-01

    The article interprets a particular set of debates on whether quality assurance in South African higher education widens democracy or not. The interpretation explores the extent to which higher education quality assurance fulfils three conditions posited for democracy (inclusion, participation and enhancement), drawing in as points of reference…

  13. Linguistic Ideologies in Multilingual South African Suburban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoe, Pinky; McKinney, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on language in South African schooling frequently draws attention to the problematic hegemony of English and the lack of access to quality education in the home language of the majority of learners, often drawing on the metaphor of a gap or a disjuncture between post-apartheid language in education policy (LiEP) and its…

  14. The Transformation of Music Education: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Alethea

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I reflect on transformation in South African education policy, post-1994. The new curriculum for schools was underpinned by the democratic values of the constitution and was a time of renewal for music education. However, over time as the original curriculum documents were revised, the focus of promoting indigenous traditions was…

  15. Internationalisation of South African Higher Education in the Postapartheid Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouhani, Sepideh

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, there has been significant growth in the number of international students seeking access to South African higher education institutions. Concomitant with this growth has been a need for management of the internationalisation process at higher education institutions; however, this has not always been forthcoming. This…

  16. Job Satisfaction in a South African Academic Library in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Genevieve

    2010-01-01

    Job satisfaction was investigated at a South African university library undergoing change on many fronts. The study included 31 members of staff and the data were gathered via interviews/questionnaires, informed by standard HRM job satisfaction theory. The study found a "love-hate" relationship between respondents and their work. The key…

  17. Managerialism and Higher Education Governance: Implications for South African Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, F.

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary driver of higher…

  18. Shifting South African Learners towards Greater Autonomy in Scientific Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Hobden, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This report describes how teachers support ninth-grade students who are doing scientific investigations in Natural Sciences in South African schools. This is of interest as allowing students to participate in inquiry-based investigations is a significant shift from traditional practices. It presents a new challenge to teachers as it signals an…

  19. Creating a Learning Climate: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrim, Nasima Mohamed Hoosen; Basson, Johan Schutte

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether there were differences in how one public and two private South African organizations created a learning climate. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on a survey and comparative analysis of specific departments in a chemical and gas company, an insurance company, and a…

  20. Managing to Learn: Instructional Leadership in South African Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Ursula; Christie, Pam; Ward, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study of the management of curriculum and instruction in South African secondary schools. Drawing on data collected from 200 schools in 2007, a series of regression analyses tested the relationship between various dimensions of leadership and student achievement gains over time. Whilst the research confirms…

  1. Discriminant function sexing of fragmentary femur of South African blacks.

    PubMed

    Asala, S A; Bidmos, M A; Dayal, M R

    2004-10-04

    When fragmentary and incomplete bones are all that are available to the forensic anthropologist for use in sex determination, non-metric and metric sex discriminating parameters that have been derived from complete bones may be of little use. In such circumstances, sex discriminating metric methods that are of specific application to fragmentary bones will be more useful. Since such studies have not been systematically carried out in bones of South African blacks, the aim of this study was to begin to provide such data. Two hundred and twenty left femurs of black South Africans were obtained from the Raymond A. Dart Collection of African Skeleton, School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Five variables from the upper end of the femur and three variables from the lower end of the femur were measured and subjected to univariate and multivariate discriminant function analyses. The vertical head diameter and the medial condylar length were most successful in sex identification from the upper and lower ends of the femur respectively. The combined variables were more useful than the use of variables individually. Discriminant function score equations were derived for individual and combined variables from the upper and lower ends of the femur of the South African blacks.

  2. Job Satisfaction in a South African Academic Library in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Genevieve

    2010-01-01

    Job satisfaction was investigated at a South African university library undergoing change on many fronts. The study included 31 members of staff and the data were gathered via interviews/questionnaires, informed by standard HRM job satisfaction theory. The study found a "love-hate" relationship between respondents and their work. The key…

  3. The Transformation of Music Education: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Alethea

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I reflect on transformation in South African education policy, post-1994. The new curriculum for schools was underpinned by the democratic values of the constitution and was a time of renewal for music education. However, over time as the original curriculum documents were revised, the focus of promoting indigenous traditions was…

  4. Understanding Distributed Leadership in South African Schools: Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibanda, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Prior to 1994, the South African education system was entrenched by authoritarian leadership in which ultimate authority was vested in school principals and power was not distributed to other members of the school. However, the importance of distributed leadership has increasingly gained prominence across the world. After apartheid in 1994, the…

  5. The South African Experience: Beyond the CIDA Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, John M.

    2008-01-01

    The Community and Individual Development Association (CIDA) City Campus is presented by Heaton as an innovative African alternative to traditional business education. However, he considers the model in isolation from the unique educational and economic circumstances of postapartheid South Africa. As a response, this article goes beyond the CIDA…

  6. Language and Social Justice in South Africa's Higher Education: Insights from a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaniki, Munene

    2012-01-01

    The paper interrogates the issue of language and social justice in South Africa's higher education using quantitative and qualitative data collected at the University of the Free State (UFS). Data were collected using questionnaires. Through purposive sampling based on South African and UFS demographics, 120 questionnaires were administered to UFS…

  7. Language and Social Justice in South Africa's Higher Education: Insights from a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaniki, Munene

    2012-01-01

    The paper interrogates the issue of language and social justice in South Africa's higher education using quantitative and qualitative data collected at the University of the Free State (UFS). Data were collected using questionnaires. Through purposive sampling based on South African and UFS demographics, 120 questionnaires were administered to UFS…

  8. Academic Entrepreneurship in South African HEIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundling, J. P.; Steynberg, L.

    2008-01-01

    This article first identifies the principal forces that impact on and shape entrepreneurially-oriented higher education institutions (HEIs) in South Africa, and then analyses the degree to which those institutions have succeeded in becoming entrepreneurial. The results reveal that South Africa's HEIs are still in the initial phases of…

  9. Research capacity building: a US–South African partnership

    PubMed Central

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Shisana, Olive; Zungu, Nompumelelo; BeLue, Rhonda; Makofani, Daisy M.; Shefer, Tammy; Smith, Edward; Simbayi, Leickness

    2012-01-01

    Research capacity building engenders assets that allow communities (and, in this case, student fellows) to respond adequately to health issues and problems that are contextual, cultural and historical in nature. In this paper, we present a US–South African partnership that led to research training for 30 postgraduate students at two South African universities. We begin by exploring the nature of research capacity building in a partnership research project designed to promote HIV and AIDS-related stigma reduction. We examine methodological issues and their relevance to training of postgraduate students in South Africa. We conclude with recommendations for a successful model of partnership for building capacity of health researchers in Africa with the goal of developing research that informs policies and helps to bridge the health inequity gap globally. PMID:21596937

  10. Using Community Arts Events to Enhance Collective Efficacy and Community Engagement toAddress Depression in an African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Jones, Andrea; Corbett, Charles E.; Booker, Theodore; Wells, Kenneth B.; Collins, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We used community-partnered participatory research (CPPR) to measure collective efficacy and its role as a precursor of community engagement to improve depression care in the African American community of South Los Angeles. Methods. We collected survey data from participants at arts events sponsored by a CPPR workgroup. Both exploratory (photography exhibit; n = 747) and confirmatory (spoken word presentations; n = 104) structural equation models were developed to examine how knowledge and attitudes toward depression influenced community engagement. Results. In all models, collective efficacy to improve depression care independently predicted community engagement in terms of addressing depression (B = 0.64–0.97; P < .001). Social stigma was not significantly associated with collective efficacy or community engagement. In confirmatory analyses, exposure to spoken word presentations and previous exposure to CPPR initiatives increased perceived collective efficacy to improve depression care (B = 0.19–0.24; P < .05). Conclusions. Enhancing collective efficacy to improve depression care may be a key component of increasing community engagement to address depression. CPPR events may also increase collective efficacy. Both collective efficacy and community engagement are relevant constructs in the South Los Angeles African American community. PMID:19059844

  11. Using community arts events to enhance collective efficacy and community engagement to address depression in an African American community.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Jones, Andrea; Corbett, Charles E; Booker, Theodore; Wells, Kenneth B; Collins, Barry

    2009-02-01

    We used community-partnered participatory research (CPPR) to measure collective efficacy and its role as a precursor of community engagement to improve depression care in the African American community of South Los Angeles. We collected survey data from participants at arts events sponsored by a CPPR workgroup. Both exploratory (photography exhibit; n = 747) and confirmatory (spoken word presentations; n = 104) structural equation models were developed to examine how knowledge and attitudes toward depression influenced community engagement. In all models, collective efficacy to improve depression care independently predicted community engagement in terms of addressing depression (B = 0.64-0.97; P < .001). Social stigma was not significantly associated with collective efficacy or community engagement. In confirmatory analyses, exposure to spoken word presentations and previous exposure to CPPR initiatives increased perceived collective efficacy to improve depression care (B = 0.19-0.24; P < .05). Enhancing collective efficacy to improve depression care may be a key component of increasing community engagement to address depression. CPPR events may also increase collective efficacy. Both collective efficacy and community engagement are relevant constructs in the South Los Angeles African American community.

  12. The TG/HDL-C ratio does not predict insulin resistance in overweight women of African descent: a study of South African, African American and West African women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael G; Goedecke, Julia H; Ricks, Madia; Evans, Juliet; Levitt, Naomi S; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Sumner, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Women of African descent have a high prevalence of diseases caused by insulin resistance. To positively impact cardiometabolic health in Black women, effective screening tests for insulin resistance must be identified. Recently, the TG/HDL-C ratio has been recommended as a tool to predict insulin resistance in overweight people. While the ratio predicts insulin resistance in White women, it is ineffective in African American women. As there are no data for African women, we tested the ability of the TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in Black women from South Africa, West Africa and the United States. For comparison, the ratio was also tested in White women from South Africa. Participants were 801 women (157 Black South African, 382 African American, 119 West African, 143 White South African, age 36 +/- 9y [mean +/- SD]). Standardized scores were created from log-transformed homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values from each population. Participants in the upper third of their population distribution were classified as insulin-resistant. To predict insulin resistance by the TC/HDL-C ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve was used and criteria were: 0.50 for no discrimination and > or = 0.70 for acceptable. Seventy-one percent of the Black women were overweight vs 51% of White women (P<.01). In overweight White women, AUC-ROC curve for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was 0.76 +/- 0.06, but below the 0.70 threshold in each group of overweight Black women (Black South African: 0.64 +/- 0.06, African American: 0.66 +/- 0.03, and West African: 0.63 +/- 0.07). Therefore, TG/HDL-C does not predict insulin resistance in overweight African American women and this investigation extends that finding to overweight Black South African and West African women. Resources to identify effective markers of insulin resistance are needed to improve cardiometabolic health in women of African descent.

  13. Key Copyright Issues in African Distance Education: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ncube, Caroline B.

    2011-01-01

    This report draws primarily on the results of the recently concluded African Copyright and Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project, which investigated copyright and access to learning materials in face-to-face, distance education (DE), and dual-mode tertiary educational institutions in Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa,…

  14. Key Copyright Issues in African Distance Education: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ncube, Caroline B.

    2011-01-01

    This report draws primarily on the results of the recently concluded African Copyright and Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project, which investigated copyright and access to learning materials in face-to-face, distance education (DE), and dual-mode tertiary educational institutions in Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa,…

  15. South African minerals and world demand

    SciTech Connect

    van Rensburg, W.C.J.

    1983-01-01

    South Africa is a prodigious source of many mineral supplies that are critical to the industrial nations. Increasing and intensifying Soviet and Soviet-surrogate thrusts into Africa reflect a longstanding ambition to target the ''weak links'' in vulnerable Western supplies. The dangers to the Western countries relate not only to direct denial of critical resources, but to a trend toward a mineral cartel. The cessation of mineral supplies from South Africa would in most cases have a more serious effect on the availability of these commodities to the West than on their prices. A review ofpossible Soviet control and international trade developments suggests that the Western nations must consider the possible elimination of South Africa as a major supplier. 15 references, 1 figure.

  16. Rotavirus vaccination within the South African Expanded Programme on Immunisation.

    PubMed

    Seheri, L Mapaseka; Page, Nicola A; Mawela, Mothahadini P B; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Steele, A Duncan

    2012-09-07

    Diarrhoeal diseases are ranked the third major cause of childhood mortality in South African children less than 5 years, where the majority of deaths are among black children. Acute severe dehydrating rotavirus diarrhoea remains an important contributor towards childhood mortality and morbidity and has been well documented in South Africa. As the preventive strategy to control rotavirus diarrhoea, South Africa became the first country in the WHO African Region to adopt the rotavirus vaccine in the national childhood immunisation programme in August 2009. The rotavirus vaccine in use, Rotarix, GSK Biologicals, is given at 6 and 14 weeks of age, along with other vaccines as part of Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). Studies which facilitated the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in South Africa included the burden of rotavirus disease and strain surveillance, economic burden of rotavirus infection and clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of vaccine candidates. This paper reviews the epidemiology of rotavirus in South Africa, outlines some of the steps followed to introduce rotavirus vaccine in the EPI, and highlights the early positive impact of vaccination in reducing the rotavirus burden of disease based on the post-marketing surveillance studies at Dr George Mukhari hospital, a sentinel site at University of Limpopo teaching hospital in Pretoria, South Africa, which has conducted rotavirus surveillance for >20 years.

  17. Living wills and advance directives in South African Law.

    PubMed

    Skeen, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The legal status of living wills and advance directives in South African Law will be considered. Presently there is no reported judgment of a court in South Africa which has directly ruled on the validity of an advance directive or living will. In a case decided in 1992 the issue as to whether to discontinue life supporting treatment was decided with reference to the legal persuasions of society and whether, in light of these, it would be reasonable to discontinue artificial feeding of the patient. The judge indicated that just as a living person has an interest in the disposal of his body so did he think that the patient's wishes as expressed when he was in good health should be given effect. In South African law every person is legally entitled to refuse medical treatment even if the consequences may be to hasten death. The South African Law Convention has extensively investigated the issue in its report entitled Report on Euthanasia and the Artificial Preservation of Life in 1998. Certain problems were identified and a draft bill was suggested.

  18. Changing the "Landscape" of Learning: The Future of Blended Learning Provision in Newly Merged South African Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the implications of recent institutional mergers for information systems development and in particular for the provision of blended and collaborative learning in the South African higher education system. The merged institutions are only beginning to address these challenges. The article therefore draws attention to current…

  19. Language and "New" African Migration to South Africa: An Overview and Some Reflections on Theoretical Implications for Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orman, Jon

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of African migration to post-apartheid South Africa from a language-sociological perspective. Although the subject has been one largely neglected by language scholars, the handful of studies which have addressed the issue have yielded ethnographic data and raised questions of considerable significance for the…

  20. Argumentation and Indigenous Knowledge: Socio-Historical Influences in Contextualizing an Argumentation Model in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallard Martinez, Alejandro J.

    2011-01-01

    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and…

  1. Argumentation and Indigenous Knowledge: Socio-Historical Influences in Contextualizing an Argumentation Model in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallard Martinez, Alejandro J.

    2011-01-01

    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and…

  2. Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Doggale, Constantino; Pasquale, Harriet; Azairwe, Robert; Baba, Samson; Mnzava, Abraham

    2013-02-08

    Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM) strategic plan 2007-2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements.

  3. Psychological Characteristics of South African Street Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    le Roux, Johann; Smith, Cheryl Sylvia

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to identify the psychological characteristics that predispose certain children to run away and to survive, often for long periods, on the streets of South Africa. Examines vulnerability and resilience as well as social conditions that mediate the psychological predisposition to become a street child. (Author/GCP)

  4. Managing Workforce Diversity in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemann, Rita

    2006-01-01

    An attempt is made to assess the effect of human resource diversity in South Africa and provide strategies for managing such diverse institutions. A pilot study using questionnaires was conducted to determine the circumstances surrounding workforce diversity in a number of educational institutions. Thereafter, qualitative interviews provided…

  5. Analysing post-apartheid gender and racial transformation in medical education in a South African province.

    PubMed

    Khan, Taskeen; Thomas, Leena S; Naidoo, Shan

    2013-01-24

    In light of global concerns about insufficient numbers of doctors, midwives, and nurses, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified the scale-up of the production of medical professionals who are competent and responsive to community needs as urgent and necessary. Coincident with this imperative, South African medical schools have also had to consider redressing apartheid-era inequities in access to medical education and changing the racial and gender profile of medical graduates to be representative of the population. In this article, we explore progress and challenges with regard to transformation, defined as intentional and planned changes aimed at addressing historical disadvantages, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using data on medical school admissions and graduations from the Health and Education Departments for the period 1999-2011. Admission and graduation statistics of 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2011 were analysed according to race and gender. The results show that there has been progress in transforming the race and gender composition of medical students and graduates, in line with the transformation strategies of the South African government. In 1999, black African enrolments and graduates were conspicuously low in two of the three medical schools in the Gauteng province. By 2011, an almost six-fold increase in black African student enrolments was seen in one medical school that was previously designated as a white institution. In contrast, at the historically black medical school, whites only represented 0.40% of enrolments in 1999 and 7.4% in 2011. Since 1999, the number and proportion of female medical enrolments and graduates has also increased substantially. While there has been progress with redressing historical disparities and inequities in terms of race and gender, further efforts are needed to ensure that student intakes and graduations are in line with the South African

  6. Analysing post-apartheid gender and racial transformation in medical education in a South African province.

    PubMed

    Khan, Taskeen; Thomas, LeenaS; Naidoo, Shan

    2013-01-01

    In light of global concerns about insufficient numbers of doctors, midwives, and nurses, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified the scale-up of the production of medical professionals who are competent and responsive to community needs as urgent and necessary. Coincident with this imperative, South African medical schools have also had to consider redressing apartheid-era inequities in access to medical education and changing the racial and gender profile of medical graduates to be representative of the population. In this article, we explore progress and challenges with regard to transformation, defined as intentional and planned changes aimed at addressing historical disadvantages, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using data on medical school admissions and graduations from the Health and Education Departments for the period 1999-2011. Admission and graduation statistics of 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2011 were analysed according to race and gender. The results show that there has been progress in transforming the race and gender composition of medical students and graduates, in line with the transformation strategies of the South African government. In 1999, black African enrolments and graduates were conspicuously low in two of the three medical schools in the Gauteng province. By 2011, an almost six-fold increase in black African student enrolments was seen in one medical school that was previously designated as a white institution. In contrast, at the historically black medical school, whites only represented 0.40% of enrolments in 1999 and 7.4% in 2011. Since 1999, the number and proportion of female medical enrolments and graduates has also increased substantially. While there has been progress with redressing historical disparities and inequities in terms of race and gender, further efforts are needed to ensure that student intakes and graduations are in line with the South African

  7. Analysing post-apartheid gender and racial transformation in medical education in a South African province

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Taskeen; Thomas, Leena S.; Naidoo, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In light of global concerns about insufficient numbers of doctors, midwives, and nurses, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified the scale-up of the production of medical professionals who are competent and responsive to community needs as urgent and necessary. Coincident with this imperative, South African medical schools have also had to consider redressing apartheid-era inequities in access to medical education and changing the racial and gender profile of medical graduates to be representative of the population. In this article, we explore progress and challenges with regard to transformation, defined as intentional and planned changes aimed at addressing historical disadvantages, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using data on medical school admissions and graduations from the Health and Education Departments for the period 1999–2011. Admission and graduation statistics of 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2011 were analysed according to race and gender. Results The results show that there has been progress in transforming the race and gender composition of medical students and graduates, in line with the transformation strategies of the South African government. In 1999, black African enrolments and graduates were conspicuously low in two of the three medical schools in the Gauteng province. By 2011, an almost six-fold increase in black African student enrolments was seen in one medical school that was previously designated as a white institution. In contrast, at the historically black medical school, whites only represented 0.40% of enrolments in 1999 and 7.4% in 2011. Since 1999, the number and proportion of female medical enrolments and graduates has also increased substantially. Conclusion While there has been progress with redressing historical disparities and inequities in terms of race and gender, further efforts are needed to ensure that student intakes and graduations

  8. How Affluent Is the South African Higher Education Sector and How Strong Is the South African Academic Profession in the Changing International Academic Landscape?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, C. C.; Higgs, P.; Higgs, L. G.; Ntshoe, I.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine to what extent South African higher education and the South African academic profession can hold their own, within the international constellation of higher education systems and academic profession contingents. The article uses the theoretical framework of current changes taking place in higher education…

  9. How Affluent Is the South African Higher Education Sector and How Strong Is the South African Academic Profession in the Changing International Academic Landscape?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, C. C.; Higgs, P.; Higgs, L. G.; Ntshoe, I.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine to what extent South African higher education and the South African academic profession can hold their own, within the international constellation of higher education systems and academic profession contingents. The article uses the theoretical framework of current changes taking place in higher education…

  10. The South African oil pollution research program

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.

    1980-05-01

    A program to establish the impacts of oil pollution on the coastal ecosystem of South Africa was undertaken by the Committee for Marine Pollution of the Nat'l Program for Environmental Science. Research is needed to: predict oil spill movement, including coastal dynamics, the effects of winds on oil slicks, and other factors determining oil spill movement; quantify the effects of oil and;or dispersants on biota for use when compiling contingency plans to minimize damage after a spill; develop ways to contain, combat, and clean oil spills; collect and synthesize data on petroleum hydrocarbon input to the coastal waters of South Africa; and determine the fate, transfer, and physical and biological properties of these hydrocarbons and dispersants in selected ecosystems.s)

  11. Military social work in the South African National Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Kruger, A; Van Breda, A D

    2001-11-01

    The transformation of the South African National Defence Force has prompted a critical reassessment of the Directorate of Social Work. As a result, the directorate realized the need for a formal business plan to align the profession strategically with the core business of the military system. After completion of the business plan, the need for a unique military social work practice model was identified. Such a model should present social workers with a strategy for the achievement of the goals and objectives of the business plan. The practice model rests on two key concepts: binocular vision and practice positions. Since the onset of the transformation process in the South African National Defence Force, these two documents have reflected the changing milieu within which social work is practiced. The main concepts of these documents are presented.

  12. South African, urban youth narratives: Resilience within community

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Rashid; Ports, Katie A.; Simon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    South African youth in low-income, urbanized communities are exposed to high levels of daily stressors, which increase their risk to negative outcomes. Resiliency can provide avenues for youth to transcend adversity and may contribute to their positive development. To provide a deeper understanding of the pathways that adolescents use to overcome adversity, this paper examined future aspirations of South African youth, and how these aspirations were connected to resiliency factors framed by their lived context. A phenomenological approach was used to explore the perceptions of high school students. Fourteen focus groups with girls and boys (N=112) were conducted. Data was analyzed using a thematic approach. Discussions of the harsh conditions undermining the community’s future highlighted opportunities for improvement. Community connectedness, hope and altruism were prevalent in youth’s responses and could be used to facilitate community and individual resiliency. Our overall findings have important implications for positive youth development efforts. PMID:25897181

  13. Defining and Measuring Spirituality in South African Specialist Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Janse van Rensburg, A B R; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C P H; Szabo, C P

    2015-10-01

    To define the meaning of "spirituality" in a South African phenomenological, theory-generating qualitative inquiry, theory construction methodology was used. This refers to the tradition of nursing theory development, where a central core concept identified from the integrated data-in this case, interviews and the literature content-had to be defined. A major focus of the study was to distinguish spirituality from religion. The denotative and connotative meanings of "spirituality" were explored to establish the components for a definition. The attributes of this definition included that spirituality constitutes a "quality", a "journey", a "relationship" as well as a "capacity". While these items derived from this local definition of spirituality can be proposed for inclusion in a questionnaire for measuring spirituality in a South African context, the limits of the scope of the explorative qualitative inquiry from which it was derived must be considered.

  14. South African control surveys from Maclear to the present.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, D. P. M.

    1995-08-01

    For many years the South African survey system with its well monumented control beacons was the envy of many countries. The success of the integrated system plus the ease with which all types of surveys could be based on the system led to South African surveyors being referred to as fellows with 0.01 mentality. This 0.01 figure was a reference to the days prior to metrication when urban cadastral diagrams and general plans required distances to 0.01 of a foot. This historical resumé covers a period of over 100 years when surveying not only required average scientific ability but also demanded tremendous physical effort and perseverance.

  15. South African, urban youth narratives: Resilience within community.

    PubMed

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ahmed, Rashid; Ports, Katie A; Simon, Christian

    2015-06-01

    South African youth in low-income, urbanized communities are exposed to high levels of daily stressors, which increase their risk to negative outcomes. Resiliency can provide avenues for youth to transcend adversity and may contribute to their positive development. To provide a deeper understanding of the pathways that adolescents use to overcome adversity, this paper examined future aspirations of South African youth, and how these aspirations were connected to resiliency factors framed by their lived context. A phenomenological approach was used to explore the perceptions of high school students. Fourteen focus groups with girls and boys (N=112) were conducted. Data was analyzed using a thematic approach. Discussions of the harsh conditions undermining the community's future highlighted opportunities for improvement. Community connectedness, hope and altruism were prevalent in youth's responses and could be used to facilitate community and individual resiliency. Our overall findings have important implications for positive youth development efforts.

  16. Environmental stressors, low well-being, smoking, and alcohol use among South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brook, David W; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2011-05-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N = 2195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2195 Black, mixed ancestry ("Colored"), Indian, and White youth, aged 12-17 years old (mean age = 14.6; SD = 1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant's preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Stressors, Low Well-being, Smoking, and Alcohol Use Among South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N=2,195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2,195 Black, mixed ancestry (“Coloured”), Indian, and White youth, aged 12 to 17 years old (mean age=14.6; SD=1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant’s preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies. PMID:21492977

  18. South African life orientation teachers: (not) teaching about sexuality diversity.

    PubMed

    DePalma, Renée; Francis, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Although South Africa is one of the most progressive countries in the world in terms of constitutional and legislative rights for LGBT individuals, education is one of many social arenas where these ideals are not carried out. Interviews with 25 practicing teachers revealed very little description of practice, but widely divergent understandings around sexual diversity that drew on various authoritative discourses, including religious teachings, educational policy, science, and the powerful human rights framework of the South African constitution. Implications for teacher education include directly engaging with these discourses and providing training, teaching materials, and practical guidelines based on existing policy.

  19. Analysis of pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge of pharmacogenetic variability in diverse populations is scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we characterised population frequencies of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African population groups. We genotyped 211 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in 12 genes that influence antiretroviral drug disposition, in 176 South African individuals belonging to two distinct population groups residing in the Western Cape: the Xhosa (n = 109) and Cape Mixed Ancestry (CMA) (n = 67) groups. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs) of eight tagSNPs in six genes (those encoding the ATP binding cassette sub-family B, member 1 [ABCB1], four members of the cytochrome P450 family [CYP2A7P1, CYP2C18, CYP3A4, CYP3A5] and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 [UGT1A1]) were significantly different between the Xhosa and CMA populations (Bonferroni p < 0.05). Twenty-seven haplotypes were inferred in four genes (CYP2C18, CYP3A4, the gene encoding solute carrier family 22 member 6 [SLC22A6] and UGT1A1) between the two South African populations. Characterising the Xhosa and CMA population frequencies of variant alleles important for drug transport and metabolism can help to establish the clinical relevance of pharmacogenetic testing in these populations. PMID:21712189

  20. Nicotine dependence and problem behaviors among urban South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South African adolescents. A community sample (N = 731) consisting of "Black," "White," "Coloured," and "Indian" youths aged 12-17 years was drawn from the Johannesburg metropolitan area. Structured interviews were administered by trained interviewers. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher levels of nicotine dependence significantly predicted elevated levels of violent behavior, deviant behavior, marijuana and other illegal drug use, binge drinking, early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use, despite control on the adolescents' demographic characteristics, peer smoking, conflict with parents, peer deviance, and the availability of legal and illegal substances. These relationships were robust across ethnicity and gender. The findings indicate the need for policy makers and prevention and intervention programs in South Africa to consider adolescent nicotine dependence in conjunction with comorbid problem behaviors, including other substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and deviant behaviors.

  1. Migrants from other African countries in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chimere-dan, O

    1996-02-01

    This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position.

  2. Stifled Voices: Barriers to Help-Seeking Behavior for South African Childhood Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses…

  3. South African hypertension practice guideline 2014

    PubMed Central

    Seedat, YK; Rayner, BL; Veriava, Yosuf

    2014-01-01

    Summary Outcomes Extensive data from many randomised, controlled trials have shown the benefit of treating hypertension (HTN). The target blood pressure (BP) for antihypertensive management is systolic < 140 mmHg and diastolic < 90 mmHg, with minimal or no drug side effects. Lower targets are no longer recommended. The reduction of BP in the elderly should be achieved gradually over one month. Co-existent cardiovascular (CV) risk factors should also be controlled. Benefits Reduction in risk of stroke, cardiac failure, chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease. Recommendations Correct BP measurement procedure is described. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors and recommendations for antihypertensive therapy are stipulated. Lifestyle modification and patient education are cornerstones of management. The major indications, precautions and contra-indications are listed for each antihypertensive drug recommended. Drug therapy for the patient with uncomplicated HTN is either mono- or combination therapy with a low-dose diuretic, calcium channel blocker (CCB) and an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Combination therapy should be considered ab initio if the BP is ≥ 160/100 mmHg. In black patients, either a diuretic and/or a CCB is recommended initially because the response rate is better compared to an ACEI. In resistant hypertension, add an alpha-blocker, spironolactone, vasodilator or β-blocker. Validity The guideline was developed by the Southern African Hypertension Society 2014©. PMID:25629715

  4. Addressing health concerns of pregnant African American women using the lens of complexity theory.

    PubMed

    Sims, Traci

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant African American women are at higher risk for multiple complex health issues, including depression, than their European American counterparts (Canady, Bullen, Holzman, Broman, & Tian, 2008; Martin et al, 2011; Mathews & MacDorman, 2007; Orr, Blazer, & James, 2006; Segre, Losch, & O'Hara, 2006). Various strategies must be used to address depression through preventive care and promotion of access to appropriate mental health services. Nurses and other health care providers need to examine the relationships between the multifactorial problems to improve the health and well-being of pregnant African American women and their unborn children. This article presents a case study demonstrating the use of complexity science theory to understand and prevent poor health outcomes for pregnant African American women with depression and their unborn children.

  5. South African labour law and HIV / AIDS.

    PubMed

    Smart, R; Strode, A

    1999-01-01

    This article contains five key pieces of labor legislation in South Africa, including one applying specifically to the mining industry which protect the rights of employees. These laws include: the Employment Equity Act, No. 55 of 1998; the Labour Relations Act, No. 66 of 1995; the Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993; the Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act No. 130 of 1993; the Mines Health and Safety Act, No. 29 of 1996; and the Basic Conditions of Employment Act, No. 75 of 1997. This paper further presents the Medical Schemes Act, No. 131 of 1998 and the protection of the right to privacy and dignity. Although HIV/AIDS was expressly referred to only in the Employment Equity Act, there are provisions in all the other Acts, which have relevance to HIV/AIDS.

  6. Linking adults and immatures of South African marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Dirk; Connell, Allan D; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-11-01

    The early life-history stages of fishes are poorly known, impeding acquisition of the identifications needed to monitor larval recruitment and year-class strength. A comprehensive database of COI sequences, linked to authoritatively identified voucher specimens, promises to change this situation, representing a significant advance for fisheries science. Barcode records were obtained from 2526 early larvae and pelagic eggs of fishes collected on the inshore shelf within 5 km of the KwaZulu-Natal coast, about 50 km south of Durban, South Africa. Barcodes were also obtained from 3215 adults, representing 946 South African fish species. Using the COI reference library on BOLD based on adults, 89% of the immature fishes could be identified to a species level; they represented 450 species. Most of the uncertain sequences could be assigned to a genus, family, or order; only 92 specimens (4%) were unassigned. Accumulation curves based on inference of phylogenetic diversity indicate near-completeness of the collecting effort. The entire set of adult and larval fishes included 1006 species, representing 43% of all fish species known from South African waters. However, this total included 189 species not previously recorded from this region. The fact that almost 90% of the immatures gained a species identification demonstrates the power and completeness of the DNA barcode reference library for fishes generated during the 10 years of FishBOL.

  7. Application of neural networks to South African GPS TEC modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habarulema, John Bosco; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Cilliers, Pierre J.; Opperman, Ben D. L.

    2009-06-01

    The propagation of radio signals in the Earth's atmosphere is dominantly affected by the ionosphere due to its dispersive nature. Global Positioning System (GPS) data provides relevant information that leads to the derivation of total electron content (TEC) which can be considered as the ionosphere's measure of ionisation. This paper presents part of a feasibility study for the development of a Neural Network (NN) based model for the prediction of South African GPS derived TEC. The South African GPS receiver network is operated and maintained by the Chief Directorate Surveys and Mapping (CDSM) in Cape Town, South Africa. Vertical total electron content (VTEC) was calculated for four GPS receiver stations using the Adjusted Spherical Harmonic (ASHA) model. Factors that influence TEC were then identified and used to derive input parameters for the NN. The well established factors used are seasonal variation, diurnal variation, solar activity and magnetic activity. Comparison of diurnal predicted TEC values from both the NN model and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2001) with GPS TEC revealed that the IRI provides more accurate predictions than the NN model during the spring equinoxes. However, on average the NN model predicts GPS TEC more accurately than the IRI model over the GPS locations considered within South Africa.

  8. Learning through South-South Development: Cuban-African Partnerships in Sport and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, Simon C.; Huish, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Cuba has offered scholarships to students from low-resource countries to attend the Escuela Internacional de Educación Física y Deporte (EIEFD) for a six-year degree in sport, physical education, and coaching. Drawing on the experiences of EIEFD graduates from four Southern African countries (Zambia, South Africa, Mozambique, and…

  9. U.S. Foundation Funding for Change in South Africa: An Update. South African Information Exchange Working Paper Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micou, Ann M.

    The South African Information Exchange (SAIE) has published an update of 35 existing organizations who are engaged in funding initiatives for specific areas of South African and United States educational exchange programs. One list is alphabetical by such program categories as: academic exchange, academic support, adult education, advocacy,…

  10. A South African perspective on children's rights: general principles.

    PubMed

    Klinck, M E; Iuris, B; Louw, D A; Peens, B J

    2000-01-01

    South Africa has made rapid progress in the field of human and especially children's rights. This is in sharp contrast with it's apartheid history where even the basic principles of human rights were negated. In this article an overview will be given of the general principles on which the realization of children's rights in South Africa are based. More specifically information on the population, economic status, political climate and recent developments in this field is presented. This is followed by a discussion on the social-economic nature of children's rights, the courts as enforcement mechanisms, and the contents of the best interest standard as described both in convention on the rights of the child and the South African Constitution.

  11. The Iraqization of Africa? Looking at AFRICOM from a South African Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Esterhuyse.indd 111 2/7/08 8:25:12 AM The Iraqization of Africa ? Looking at AFRICOM from a South African Perspective Abel Esterhuyse...Introduction The South African government has openly expressed its opposition towards the creation of the US Africa Command (AFRICOM).1 What’s more...South Africa presents its position on AFRICOM as representative of the country as a whole, but particularly on behalf of a group of African countries

  12. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  13. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine.

    The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington

  14. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  15. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine.

    The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington

  16. South African indigenous healing: how it works.

    PubMed

    Cumes, David

    2013-01-01

    Sangomas or inyangas are shamans, healers, priests, and prophets that have been the backbone of Bantu communities, especially in the rural areas of Southern Africa for eons. However, with rapid Westernization and the increasing allure of the commodity market, the old ways are rapidly eroding. Indigenous knowledge has always been transmitted orally, and there is little written down about the secret traditions of initiation. Hence, the bibliography listed at the end of this article is scant. This information is a result of personal experience gleaned during my own initiation into the world of sangoma and my subsequent experiences with these healing realms. The knowledge has been gained experientially and not by the scientific method. Some of it is secret and cannot be revealed. The information may differ somewhat from healer to healer but the general principles are the same. Most sub-Saharan African peoples believe in the importance of the ancestors being able to guide events, and they revere them because they have this power. I mostly will be describing the traditions that I encountered during my initiation and subsequent practice. There are others. Since sangoma wisdom is an oral tradition the individual's initiation will depend on the mentor and the spirit guides involved. That particular sangoma's healing repertoire will be somewhat different to another though the principles remain the same. The ancestors find the most efficient way to impart the information so that the healer can do the work. The way in which they transmit the knowledge will be unique to that person's receptivity and talents. Objective proof is not part of the experiential training. In fact, any attempt at systematic inquiry gets in the way of the process. One has to put cognitive, left-brained intellect aside. Obsession with data obliterates the intuitive. The sangoma or inyanga has a lot to teach the West about the spirit world and our ancestral roots. Science has put us in touch with a

  17. Lactase deficiency in the South African black population.

    PubMed

    Segal, I; Gagjee, P P; Essop, A R; Noormohamed, A M

    1983-12-01

    H2 breath analysis was carried out to determine the prevalence of lactase deficiency in different tribes of the South African Black population. Lactase deficiency was common (78%), despite the fact that two of the largest tribes (Zulu and Xhosa) are cattle herders and milk drinkers. This apparent anomaly is due to the consumption of a traditional fermented buttermilk, ("amasi" which has a low lactose content) instead of fresh milk. The most important reason for lactase deficiency, however, is that the South African Blacks originated in the West and Central African zone of nonmilking and took up dairying and milk use fairly recently. Thus they have not had enough time for genetic selection for lactase deficiency through life. The implications inherent in this study are that it would be more prudent to supply milk to developing countries in the form of a fermented milk product such as buttermilk. This is readily accepted by the Black population and would not be counter to accepted cultural practice.

  18. Breakfast habits of adolescents in for South African populations.

    PubMed

    Walker, A R; Walker, B F; Jones, J; Ncongwane, J

    1982-10-01

    Breakfast habits by using questionnaires, were established in a total of 4717 South African pupils of 16 to 18 yr. In the groups of rural and urban Black, Indian, European-African-Malay, and white pupils studied, respective proportions who had no solid breakfast (both sexes combined) were approximately 21, 19, 13, 13, and 14%. Proportions who had only porridge or bread (or toast) plus drink were 77, 73, 61, 71, and 56%. Such breakfast provided ranges of means of 223 to 345 kcal, 9 to 14 g protein, 7 to 18 g fat, 51 to 185 mg calcium, and 3.2 to 5.1 mg iron. Proportions who had a cooked breakfast (including egg, meat, fish), eaten with or without a cereal food, were 1, 4, 17, 8, and 29%. Such meals contributed means of 495 to 704 kcal, 11 to 26 g protein, 24 to 39 g fat, 110 to 225 mg calcium, and 3.9 to 5.5 mg iron. In the South African groups studied, the issue of breakfast or no breakfast had no clear-cut bearing on weight, height, class position, or frequency of absence from school. The degree by which, in a given community, nutrition in general and breakfast in particular, regulates health and/or academic performance, needs proper research in prospective studies.

  19. Energy Usage Optimisation in South African Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Ali; Twala, Bhekisipho; Ouahada, Khmaies; Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, South Africa has encountered a critical electricity supply which necessitated the implementation of demand-side management (DSM) projects. Load shifting and energy (EE) efficiency projects were introduced in mining sector to reduce the electricity usage during day peak time. As the compressed air networks and the water pumping systems are using large amounts of the mines' electricity, possible ways were investigated and implemented to improve and optimise the energy consumption and to reduce the costs. Implementing DSM and EE in four different mines resulted in achieving the desired energy savings and load-shifting. W ostatnich latach w Południowej Afryce zanotowano pewne trudności z dostawami energii elektrycznej, co wymusiło wdrożenie działań mających na celu skuteczne zarządzanie zagadnieniami energetycznymi. Wprowadzono działania mające na celu zmianę systemu obciążeń roboczych i bardziej efektywne wykorzystanie energii tak, by obniżyć zapotrzebowanie na energię w trakcie szczytowych godzin w ciągu dnia. Sieci dostarczające sprężone powietrze oraz stacje pomp zużywają znaczne ilości energii w kopalni, przeanalizowano więc możliwe sposoby redukcji i optymalizacji zapotrzebowania na energię i tym samym obniżenia kosztów produkcji. Wdrożenie odpowiednich projektów nakierowanych na oszczędności i optymalizację w czterech kopalniach doprowadziło do oczekiwanych oszczędności energii i umożliwiło zmianę systemu obciążeń roboczych w trakcie procesu produkcji.

  20. Impediments to the adoption of alternative sewerage in South African urban informal settlements.

    PubMed

    Ashipala, N; Armitage, N P

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades South Africa has witnessed a substantial growth in its urban population. This growth has been accompanied by the mushrooming of informal settlements (shantytowns) flanking more formal development. The lack of adequate urban drainage in many of these informal settlements has resulted in extremely polluted environments which add to the disease burden of the poor people who live there. In many instances, informal settlements in South Africa are established on marginal land that is inherently difficult to service using conventional gravity sewerage. International experience has shown that various alternative wastewater collection systems may present more appropriate ways of providing water-borne sewerage in areas that are difficult to service by conventional means. Alternative sewerage schemes have however had a poor record of success in South African informal settlements - primarily stemming from the implementing agencies' failure to adequately address various social and institutional factors. In this paper, a review of South African experiences with simplified sewerage, settled sewerage and vacuum sewerage in urban informal settlements is used to highlight the key constraints that currently impede the application of these technologies.

  1. Africans and the myth of rural retirement in South Africa, ca 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Aran S

    2008-06-01

    The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid.

  2. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela; de Jager, Pieter; Naidoo, Shan; Naicker, Nisha

    2017-02-01

    Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10μg/dl (p<0.001). Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The cost of a healthy diet: a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Temple, Norman J; Steyn, Nelia P

    2011-05-01

    Energy-dense foods are relatively cheap sources of energy but typically have a low nutrient density. People with a low income may therefore select a relatively less healthy diet. The high energy density of such diets helps explain the association between obesity and low socioeconomic status. Most studies have been carried out in highly developed countries. We have extended this research to South Africa. Some foods, such as oats, beans, carrots, and apples, are moderately priced sources of energy and are healthy (i.e., they have a low energy density and are nutrient dense). However, such foods are likely to be less desired than many other foods, such as candy, cookies, jam, and chocolate, that have a similar cost (in terms of food energy) but are less healthy. We compared the cost of a typical South African diet with a healthier one. On average, the healthier diet costs 69% more, but this estimate is greatly affected by food choices. For a family whose household income is exceeded by one-third of the population, this increased expenditure represents about 30% of total household income. This could be decreased to about 10% to 15% if a healthy diet is carefully designed. Overall, a healthy diet is unaffordable for most South Africans. This shows the importance of not only educating people in developing countries to the importance of a healthy diet but also explaining how to make such a diet affordable. A more effective strategy is government intervention that manipulates food prices.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100 μg/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06 μg/ml) was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22704594

  5. Sexual dimorphism of the calcaneus of South African blacks.

    PubMed

    Bidmos, Mubarak Ariyo; Asala, Samuel A

    2004-05-01

    Forensic anthropology is a rapidly growing field in South Africa and skeletal biologists are often called upon by the police to assist in personal identification from skeletal remains, which are recovered in suspected cases of homicide and suicide and in mass disaster. Measurements of the calcaneus have been shown to be sexually dimorphic in South African whites. Since the validity of discriminant function equations in sex determination is population specific, the aim of the present study was to derive similar equations for the calcanei of the South African blacks. The bones that were used in this study were obtained from the Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons, School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. One hundred and sixteen (116) intact and non-pathological calcanei, consisting of 58 males and 58 females and belonging to individuals whose age at death ranged between 22 and 75 years, were selected by the simple random sampling technique. The measured variables included the maximum length, the load arm length, the dorsal articular facet length, the body height, the maximum height, the cuboidal facet height, the middle breadth, the dorsal articular facet breadth and the maximum breadth. Discriminant function analyses were done using the Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) program. All measured parameters of the calcaneus showed significant sexual differences. Length measurements were found to be the most sexually dimorphic. Combinations of variables provided better estimate of sex (79%-86%) than individual variables (64%-79%).

  6. Skin lightening practices: an epidemiological study of South African women of African and Indian ancestries.

    PubMed

    Dlova, N C; Hamed, S H; Tsoka-Gwegweni, J; Grobler, A

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous adverse sequelae of skin lightening creams present with myriad skin complications and affect dermatology practice, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where such products are widely used, with a prevalence of 25-67%. To examine the skin lightening practices of both African and Indian women living in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in the general outpatient departments of two regional university hospitals in Durban, South Africa. All consenting African and Indian women aged 18-70 years were recruited and asked to complete a questionnaire. Six hundred women completed the questionnaire, of whom 32·7% reported using skin lightening products. The main reasons cited were treatment of skin problems (66·7%) and skin lightening (33·3%). Products were purchased from a variety of sources. Twenty-five percent reported using sunscreen. The use of skin lightening cosmetics is common among darkly pigmented South African women, including those of both African and Indian ancestries. Despite more than 20 years of governmental regulations aimed at prohibiting both the sale of cosmetics containing mercury, hydroquinone and corticosteroids, and the advertising of any kind of skin lightener, they are far from having disappeared. The main motivations for using these products are the desire to treat skin disorders and to achieve a lighter skin colour. Television and magazine advertisements seem to influence women's choice of these products and, thus, would be efficient channels for raising public awareness about the dangers of using uncontrolled skin lighteners. © 2015 The Authors BJD © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. South-western African climate depends on Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuut, J.-B. W.; Crosta, X.; van der Borg, K.; Schneider, R. R.

    2003-04-01

    The typical Fynbos vegetation of the Cape region of South-western Africa is brought about by the local Mediterranean (winter rainfall) climate and its associated sharp seasonal contrasts, especially in precipitation. This biome is bordered by hyper-arid deserts which may rapidly expand in response to future global warming, such as during the last warm period 125.000 years ago. It is therefore essential to understand the mechanisms that drive the winter rainfall in such a restricted area. We relate variations in South-western African humidity to changes in Antarctic sea-ice extent. New records of Antarctic sea-ice extent compared to existing palaeoclimate records of South-western Africa reveal a coherent signal during the last 50 kyr BP, with enhanced continental humidity and trade-wind intensity during periods of increased sea-ice presence. We propose that greater glacial Antarctic sea-ice extent causes a Northward shift of oceanic and atmospheric frontal zones, thereby increasing latitudinal temperature and pressure gradients, leading to enhanced trade-wind intensities. In addition, the equatorward shift and increased intensity of the Southern Westerlies causes an expansion of the winter-rain region and increased precipitation in South-western Africa. This relationship implies enhanced desertification in South-western Africa in response to retreating sea-ice edge in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean if global warming continues.

  8. Construction and validation of the South African version of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Käthe; Loxton, Helene; Kagee, Ashraf; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2012-09-01

    The Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (Ollendick, 1983) is an 80-item self-report instrument that has been used internationally to asses the number of fears and general level of fearfulness among children. Despite its widespread use, this instrument has not been adapted to the South African context. The present study addressed this gap by means of a 2-phase investigation aimed at developing a South African version of the instrument. In Phase 1, semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 children (7 to 13 years of age). Qualitative data obtained from these interviews were used to construct additional items for inclusion in the South African Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised. The modified scale, consisting of 97 items, was then administered to a sample of 646 children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. Further psychometric considerations resulted in the final version of the scale consisting of 74 items with high internal consistency (α=.97). The factor structure was explored by means of principal component analysis with varimax rotation and a 5-factor solution was found to provide the best conceptual fit. The factors identified were as follows: Fear of Death and Danger; Fear of the Unknown; Fear of Small Animals and Minor Threats to Self; Large Animal Fears; and Situational Fears. Differences between the South African version and the original Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised are noted and implications for the study of fear in South Africa and other countries are discussed.

  9. Brightness discrimination in the South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Scholtyssek, C; Dehnhardt, G

    2013-05-24

    Underwater, the contrast between object and background is much larger reduced with increasing distance between object and observer than in air. For marine predators, such as pinnipeds, it would therefore be advantageous to possess a high sensitivity for brightness differences, since this would increase the distance at which prey can be detected visually. Few studies have examined the brightness discrimination thresholds of pinnipeds. Two studies with phocid seals have confirmed low brightness discrimination thresholds in pinnipeds whereas the threshold obtained for the South African fur seal seems to be twice as high as that of the phocids. However, the experiments with the South African fur seal have been conducted under inadequate conditions which likely resulted in an underestimation of the brightness discrimination ability of this species. The study at hand reinvestigated the brightness discrimination threshold of the South African fur seal under well controlled conditions. In a two alternative forced choice task, one fur seal was trained to indicate the position of the brighter of two gray discs presented on a black background on a monitor. The thresholds were determined for 11 standard intensities each tested against 8 lower comparison intensities. It was found that the fur seal was able to perceive brightness differences of 8-10%, which is better than the phocid species tested so far. For low standard intensities, however, the threshold increased which could to be due to a relative slow dark adaptation rate of the fur seal. The results are discussed in terms of the relevance of visual information for pinnipeds during foraging dives and are directly compared to the results obtained for the harbor seal which has been tested under the same conditions as the fur seal in a previous study.

  10. Genetic diversity in black South Africans from Soweto

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the unparalleled genetic diversity of its peoples, Africa is attracting growing research attention. Several African populations have been assessed in global initiatives such as the International HapMap and 1000 Genomes Projects. Notably excluded, however, is the southern Africa region, which is inhabited predominantly by southeastern Bantu-speakers, currently suffering under the dual burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Limited reference data for these individuals hampers medical research and prevents thorough understanding of the underlying population substructure. Here, we present the most detailed exploration, to date, of genetic diversity in 94 unrelated southeastern Bantu-speaking South Africans, resident in urban Soweto (Johannesburg). Results Participants were typed for ~4.3 million SNPs using the Illumina Omni5 beadchip. PCA and ADMIXTURE plots were used to compare the observed variation with that seen in selected populations worldwide. Results indicated that Sowetans, and other southeastern Bantu-speakers, are a clearly distinct group from other African populations previously investigated, reflecting a unique genetic history with small, but significant contributions from diverse sources. To assess the suitability of our sample as representative of Sowetans, we compared our results to participants in a larger rheumatoid arthritis case–control study. The control group showed good clustering with our sample, but among the cases were individuals who demonstrated notable admixture. Conclusions Sowetan population structure appears unique compared to other black Africans, and may have clinical implications. Our data represent a suitable reference set for southeastern Bantu-speakers, on par with a HapMap type reference population, and constitute a prelude to the Southern African Human Genome Programme. PMID:24059264

  11. The Role of African topography in the South Asian Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H. H.; Bordoni, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Somali cross-equatorial jet is estimated to contribute up to half of the mass flux crossing the equator during the Asian monsoon season. Previous studies have argued that the Somali jet is strengthened by the East African Highlands, which act as a wall and accelerate the flow (e.g., Krishnamurti et al. 1976, Sashegyi and Geisler 1987). Besides, observational studies have shown a positive correlation between the strength of the Somali jet and the South Asian Monsoon (SAM) precipitation (e.g., Findlater 1969, Halpern and Woiceshyn 2001). These imply that the existence of the topography would relate to a stronger SAM. However, in a more recent study, Chakraborty et al. (2002) found that if the African topography is removed in a comprehensive general circulation model (GCM), the SAM strengthens. In this study, we use the GFDL AM2.1 GCM to conduct experiments with and without topography in Africa, to further examine its influence on the cross-equatorial Somali jet and the SAM. We find that when the African topography is removed, the SAM precipitation increases, consistent with the results in Chakraborty et al. (2002). Interestingly, our results also show that the cross-equatorial Somali jet does weaken in the absence of the African topography, in agreement with previous studies. The moisture budget shows that the increase in precipitation in the no-African topography experiment is primarily due to stronger wind convergence. The dynamics of the cross-equatorial Somali jet is investigated within the framework of the Potential Vorticity (PV) budget, showing the contribution of the changes in friction and diabatic heating to the circulation as the topography is removed. A backward trajectory analysis is also conducted to further examine the influence of topography on both the material tendencies of the PV budget and trajectories of parcels reaching the Indian subcontinent.

  12. Simplifying trauma airway management in South African rural hospitals.

    PubMed

    Berry, Michael; Wood, Darryl

    2014-05-14

    South African emergency centres witness high levels of trauma. Successfully managing a compromised trauma airway requires considerable skill and expertise. In the rural healthcare setting, clinics and hospitals are often staffed by junior doctors without formal advanced airway training. Current airway management algorithms tend to ignore lack of resources and skill. We therefore propose a simplified guideline for the rural hospital practitioner. Our algorithm offers a step-by-step approach, with the aim of providing an easy sequence to follow that will ensure successful airway management and patient safety. The lack of advanced airway equipment in most rural hospitals is taken into consideration.

  13. Recent Advances in Drug Discovery from South African Marine Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Veale, Clinton G L

    2015-10-14

    Recent developments in marine drug discovery from three South African marine invertebrates, the tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and the sponge Topsentia pachastrelloides, are presented. Recent reports of the bioactivity and synthesis of the anti-cancer secondary metabolites cephalostatin and mandelalides (from C. gilchristi and Lissoclinum sp., respectively) and various analogues are presented. The threat of drug-resistant pathogens, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is assuming greater global significance, and medicinal chemistry strategies to exploit the potent MRSA PK inhibition, first revealed by two marine secondary metabolites, cis-3,4-dihydrohamacanthin B and bromodeoxytopsentin from T. pachastrelloides, are compared.

  14. The dmfs and dmft of young South African children.

    PubMed

    Cleaton-Jones, P E; Hargreaves, J A; Roberts, G; Williams, S D; Leidal, T I

    1989-02-01

    As part of a series of frequent epidemiological field studies to determine caries prevalences in the primary dentition of young South African children, 1436 children of 1-4 yr of age from five ethnic groups were examined. Using WHO diagnostic criteria decayed, missing, and filled surfaces were determined with mirror and probe and caries free, dmfs, dfs, ds, mfs, and dmft scores were calculated. The investigation has shown that urban coloured and Indian children have the highest caries prevalences and urban white children have the lowest. It is suggested that the percentage of caries-free children should be used to set goals for reduction in caries.

  15. The Growing Political Influence of the South African Military.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    hegemony in the area. The militarization of South African society was a result of many influences . Among them were the consoli- dation of Afrikaner...nationalism that had been organized earlier in the secret Broederbond society and mobilized into an Afrikaner populist appeal. After 1948, with the...MMMMMhhhhmhhhm IK."’ 1.0.8 111I1 2 *- 13 11111.6 WC0V P PEO TO IS -HAR AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT C NO. AU-AWC-86-160 4 THE GROWING POLITICAL INFLUENCE OF

  16. Recent Advances in Drug Discovery from South African Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Veale, Clinton G. L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in marine drug discovery from three South African marine invertebrates, the tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and the sponge Topsentia pachastrelloides, are presented. Recent reports of the bioactivity and synthesis of the anti-cancer secondary metabolites cephalostatin and mandelalides (from C. gilchristi and Lissoclinum sp., respectively) and various analogues are presented. The threat of drug-resistant pathogens, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is assuming greater global significance, and medicinal chemistry strategies to exploit the potent MRSA PK inhibition, first revealed by two marine secondary metabolites, cis-3,4-dihydrohamacanthin B and bromodeoxytopsentin from T. pachastrelloides, are compared. PMID:26473891

  17. Exploring Options to Address Chinas Strategy in South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    political legitimacy. (Exports thrive on low-wage unskilled labour; later, value added industries need higher wages, which increases inflation, but...Project power Expand export S Reach by sea, air, land S S 2B. Economics S Secure energy supply S Legend Manage dissent 6. Internal security Apply soft...South Asia Legend : very high (VH), high (H), medium (M), low (L) and very low (VL) Second Order Consequences Its positive effects are that 1

  18. The quality of nursing service management in South African hospitals.

    PubMed

    Muller, M

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine--explore and describe--the quality of nursing service management in South African hospitals. A combined qualitative and quantitative pre- and post-test research strategy, in accordance with the COHSASA programme, was utilised. The hospitals implement the national standards during the preparatory phase, after having entered into an agreement with COHSASA. They determine their baseline status by means of an assisted self-evaluation. This is followed by an external survey phase where the hospital's compliance with the standards is evaluated. The nursing service is one of the professional services included in the accreditation programme. Their performance is compared with selected other professional services and their compliance with the core elements is also evaluated. The nursing services in South Africa are compliant with the national standards. The deficiencies are mainly within the quality improvement programmes that require further development and refinement.

  19. Road to Equality in South African Education: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    South Africa is currently experiencing a crisis in its educational systems that if not addressed, could threaten the stability of the newly established democracy. A lack of access to quality education and severe shortage of skilled trained educators is perpetuating vestiges of the old apartheid state in the nation. Approximately 6,000 students…

  20. The Curriculum Ideology of the South African Secondary School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mnguni, Lindelani

    2013-01-01

    South Africa has had a number of curriculum reforms since 1994 which have been based on both political and education grounds. However, there is a dearth of knowledge about the nature of the envisioned graduates, especially with respect to social challenges. This can be addressed by exploring the curriculum ideology which outlines the vision of…

  1. U.S.{/}South African Undergraduate Education and Research Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, K. M.; Nolan, J. R.; Davis, K. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Kieft, T. L.; van Heerden, E.; Litthauer, D.; Pfiffner, S. M.

    2002-12-01

    Deep South African mines (2 to 3.5 km below land surface) have provided unique opportunities for research investigating geochemical and microbial processes in deep subsurface environments. The environments encountered in these mines range from prolific biofilms to hot saline water emanating from gas-rich boreholes. This venture is an outgrowth of ongoing research funded by the NSF Life in Extreme Environments Program as the Witswatersrand Deep Microbiology Project. A workshop for U.S. and South African underrepresented undergraduates was held in December 2001 and is being repeated in December 2002. The main purpose of the workshops were to provide a field and laboratory research experience for underrepresented undergraduate students from the United States (U.S.) and South Africa (S.A.) in the fields of earth, biological, and environmental sciences and engineering. Additional purposes included continuing the exchange of scientific, educational, and biotechnological efforts, and to discuss and explore opportunities for expanding the educational, research and biotechnological efforts. The workshop goals were to recruit and engage undergraduate students in unique and exciting research not normally available to them. The workshops offered state-of-the-art experimental opportunities on specific scientific topics, including subsurface biogeochemstry and microbial ecology. The workshops strengthened scientific and technological collaborations between the South African and U.S. academic communities and South African mining companies. The mines welcome opportunities to host under represented student education initiatives and are forthcoming with refreshments, mining gear, underground transport and geologists. We successfully demonstrated that a workshop with underground activities involving students from both nations was safe, feasible, and career enhancing. Student activities included chemical analyses of groundwater, enrichment for iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria and

  2. Adolescent pregnancy and associated factors in South African youth.

    PubMed

    Mchunu, G; Peltzer, K; Tutshana, B; Seutlwadi, L

    2012-12-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, occurring in girls aged 10-19 years, remains a serious health and social problem worldwide, and has been associated with numerous risk factors evident in the young people's family, peer, school, and neighbourhood contexts. To assess the prevalence of adolescent pregnancy and associated factors in the South African context, as part of a population-based household survey that formed part of an evaluation of the impact of loveLife, South Africa's national HIV prevention campaign for young people. A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling approach. The total sample included 3123 participants, aged 18-24, 54.6% men and 45.4% women, from four of nine provinces in South Africa (Eastern Cape, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga). Among female youth 19.2% said that they had an adolescent pregnancy, while 5.8% of male youth indicated that they had impregnated a girl when they were an adolescent (12-19 years), 16.2% of the women indicated that they ever had an unwanted pregnancy and 6.7% had ever terminated a pregnancy. In multivariable analysis among women it was found that being employed or unemployed, greater poverty, having higher sexually permissive attitudes and scoring higher on the contraceptive or the condom use index was associated with adolescent pregnancy, and among men wanting the pregnancy and having a sense of the future were associated with adolescent pregnancy. Adolescent pregnancy was found to be high in this sample of South African youth. Multiple factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy have been identified which can be used in targeting young people on the prevention of adolescent pregnancy.

  3. Calcaneal measurement in estimation of stature of South African blacks.

    PubMed

    Bidmos, Mubarak; Asala, Samuel

    2005-03-01

    Stature (height) is an important factor in establishing the identity of a person in the living as well as in the skeletonized state. When stature is estimated from the bones of the limbs, regression equations, which estimate the ratios of the lengths of bones to the height of the individual, are generated. The majority of bones that were used previously were the long bones. The calcaneus was used for estimating stature only in American whites and blacks (Holland [1995] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 96:315-320). The regression equations that he generated were found to be useful for stature estimation in these population groups. Since the calcaneus has not been used for the same purpose in South Africa, the aim of this study was to derive regression equations that will allow this bone to be used for stature estimation in South African blacks. In total, 116 complete skeletons (60 males and 56 females) were selected from the Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons, School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand (Johannesburg, South Africa). The skeletal heights of these sets of skeletons were calculated using the anatomical method of Fully ([1956] Ann. Med. Leg. 35:266-273). Nine parameters of the calcaneus were measured and matched against skeletal heights, using univariate and multivariate regression methods. Regression equations were obtained for estimation of the stature of the South African black population from the calcaneus. The standard error of estimate that was obtained with univariate regression analysis was higher than the corresponding values using multivariate regression analysis. In both cases, the standard errors of estimate compared well with the values obtained for fragmentary long bones by previous authors. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. South African Astronomy in the Internet Era: exploiting the AVO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Phil

    2007-04-01

    The combination of SALT, the bid to host SKA and the association with HESS have propelled South Africa into a world-class position with regard to multi-wavelength observational facilities, indicating the scale of their hopes and aspirations post-1994. All of these facilities exploit the geographical advantage that South Africa possesses, combined with substantial international collaborations to share the financial burden, whilst benefitting the infrastructure and development of South African science and industry. However, the effective use of SALT (and which is far more critical for KAT, an SKA technology demonstrator) requires dramatic improvements in both the local and international Internet bandwidth, which lags far behind First World norms (in terms of both the data rates available and their cost). Such connectivity is essential for raw data transfer from telescope to data centre, and then subsequent access by (national and international) users of the processed data. Current capabilities are stretched to the limit by SALT operations alone (which are measured in terms of Gb/night), but completely different solutions will be needed for KAT and SKA (which require Gb/s). Potential solutions for both South African and international users of SALT are being developed which exploit the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) and Grid concepts and the substantial international investment that is currently ongoing. A collaboration with the UK's AstroGRID is acting as a testbed in which the raw data archive will remain in Cape Town at SAAO, but AstroGRID will act as a front end for setting up data pipelining procedures from which only mostly reduced data need be transferred to the end user. Comparisons with other remote international facilities (e.g the observatories in La Palma, Spain) plus the infrastructure required for KAT will be presented and discussed.

  5. Staff Responsiveness to Transformation Initiatives and Diversity at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert, J. P. R.; Martins, N.

    2013-01-01

    South African organisations and particularly institutions of higher learning have been confronted with workforces that increasingly reflect the diversity of the South African population. This changing workforce composition implies that the multitude of individual and cultural differences and similarities become increasingly apparent among…

  6. Indigenous African Knowledge Systems and Innovation in Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, P.; Higgs, L. G.; Venter, E.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of innovation in higher education is recognised in South African educational discourse. The South African White Paper on Science and Technology, issued in September 1996 and entitled, "Preparing for the 21st Century", states that, "the White Paper is built upon the twin concepts of "innovation" and a…

  7. South African Teachers' Attitudes toward the Inclusion of Learners with Different Abilities in Mainstream Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Dana K.; Bornman, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This research sought to examine South African teachers' attitudes toward the inclusion of learners with different abilities in their hypothetical mainstream classrooms. Participants were 93 South African teachers who responded to the Teachers' Attitudes and Expectations Scale, a measure developed for this study, regarding four vignettes depicting…

  8. Estimation of Promotion, Repetition and Dropout Rates for Learners in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uys, Daniël Wilhelm; Alant, Edward John Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A new procedure for estimating promotion, repetition and dropout rates for learners in South African schools is proposed. The procedure uses three different data sources: data from the South African General Household survey, data from the Education Management Information Systems, and data from yearly reports published by the Department of Basic…

  9. Estimation of Promotion, Repetition and Dropout Rates for Learners in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uys, Daniël Wilhelm; Alant, Edward John Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A new procedure for estimating promotion, repetition and dropout rates for learners in South African schools is proposed. The procedure uses three different data sources: data from the South African General Household survey, data from the Education Management Information Systems, and data from yearly reports published by the Department of Basic…

  10. Teaching Thinking in Subject-Specific Contexts to Disadvantaged South African Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehl, Merlin C.; Lochhead, Jack

    This document characterizes South African education as resulting in large numbers of students who are poorly equipped to meet academic requirements of first-year university courses, especially in science related disciplines. It reports on a study designed to investigate the learning problems of disadvantaged South Africans in an attempt to…

  11. Staff Responsiveness to Transformation Initiatives and Diversity at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert, J. P. R.; Martins, N.

    2013-01-01

    South African organisations and particularly institutions of higher learning have been confronted with workforces that increasingly reflect the diversity of the South African population. This changing workforce composition implies that the multitude of individual and cultural differences and similarities become increasingly apparent among…

  12. Student Teachers' Attitudes towards and Willingness to Teach Evolution in a Changing South African Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrie, A. L.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes of South African student teachers towards the theory of evolution and their willingness to teach it. The teaching of evolution has been excluded from the South African school curriculum for most of the 20th century. In 2008, Grade 12 learners were for the first time exposed to the concept of evolution in the…

  13. The South African English Language Scene within a (Global) Holographic Triadic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is on the triangulated work of the 1996 South African Constitution, the Pan South African Language Board (PanSALB), and one of the latter's eleven language subsidiaries: the English National Language Body (ENLB), with special reference to the ENLB's likewise triadic projects on literature; on variation and…

  14. A Teacher Proposed Heuristic for ICT Professional Teacher Development and Implementation in the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Andre; Webb, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative interpretive exploratory case study investigated a sample of South African teachers' perceptions of the requirements for successful implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Professional Teacher Development (PTD) within disadvantaged South African township schools in the Port Elizabeth district in South…

  15. South African Physical Sciences Teachers' Perceptions of New Content in a Revised Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Fortus, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on South African teachers' perceptions of the educational value of new topics in a revised physical sciences high school curriculum, their content knowledge competency of these topics, and their pedagogical content knowledge in teaching them. In view of the historical inequalities of the South African education system, a focus…

  16. Tracking the Demographics of (Urban) Language Shift--An Analysis of South African Census Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deumert, Ana

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of language shift from African languages to English (and Afrikaans) in South Africa, using home language data from the South African population census (1996 and 2001). Although census data have been criticised for its "essentialist" construction of language, they nevertheless provide sociolinguists with a…

  17. Analysis of South African Graduate Degrees in Science Education: 1930-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2005-01-01

    This analysis of research conducted by graduate students at South African universities over the last 70 years is an attempt to identify the foci of South African science education research. Appropriate graduate degrees were systematically identified by interrogating electronic databases and verifying details. Title and abstract were then used to…

  18. Dangerous Learning in Edgy Contexts: Creativity and Innovation in the South African Arts Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovey, Ken; Muller, Lizzie

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we outline a pilot project aimed at exploring the role of contextual factors in the facilitation of creativity and innovation within a range of South African art forms. Interviews with 11 people who have rich experience of the South African art domain delivered an insightful perspective on the contextual factors driving lifelong…

  19. Unpacking (White) Privilege in a South African University Classroom: A Neglected Element in Multicultural Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Sharlene; Arogundade, Emma; Davis, Danya

    2014-01-01

    Multiculturalism currently aims for the political accommodation of difference instead of the subversion of the resulting privileges of difference. In the South African context such a distinction is especially important since the economic and symbolic subjugation of the majority of Black South Africans continues despite political transformation,…

  20. Ideological Alchemy: The Transmutation of South African Didactics (and Fundamental Pedagogics) into "Apartheid Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonge, George D.

    2008-01-01

    In his response to Kruger, Le Grange claims that: (1) the South African discourse of fundamental pedagogics was closely allied with Christian National Education and functioned as a powerful educational doctrine in the service of the South African policy of apartheid education; (2) fundamental pedagogics bracketed political discourse; (3) the…

  1. Ideological Alchemy: The Transmutation of South African Didactics (and Fundamental Pedagogics) into "Apartheid Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonge, George D.

    2008-01-01

    In his response to Kruger, Le Grange claims that: (1) the South African discourse of fundamental pedagogics was closely allied with Christian National Education and functioned as a powerful educational doctrine in the service of the South African policy of apartheid education; (2) fundamental pedagogics bracketed political discourse; (3) the…

  2. Knowledge, Narrative and National Reconciliation: Storied Reflections on the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie; Unterhalter, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the educational work that narrative does. Against the context of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission that examined the crimes of apartheid, it discusses the narrative implications of South African poet Antjie Krog's multi-layered text of Truth Commission testimony, and autobiographical and philosophical…

  3. Student Teachers' Attitudes towards and Willingness to Teach Evolution in a Changing South African Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrie, A. L.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes of South African student teachers towards the theory of evolution and their willingness to teach it. The teaching of evolution has been excluded from the South African school curriculum for most of the 20th century. In 2008, Grade 12 learners were for the first time exposed to the concept of evolution in the…

  4. Unpacking (White) Privilege in a South African University Classroom: A Neglected Element in Multicultural Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Sharlene; Arogundade, Emma; Davis, Danya

    2014-01-01

    Multiculturalism currently aims for the political accommodation of difference instead of the subversion of the resulting privileges of difference. In the South African context such a distinction is especially important since the economic and symbolic subjugation of the majority of Black South Africans continues despite political transformation,…

  5. U.S. Support Organizations Raising Money for South African Causes: An Introduction and a Directory: South African Information Exchange Working Paper #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micou, Ann McKinstry; McLean, Sheila Arvin

    This working paper provides information on 29 U.S. support organizations raising money for South African causes. Usually provided for each organization are a mission statement; a description of program areas and specific activities; and names of directors, trustees, and contacts. The organizations listed are: the Africa Fund; the African Arts…

  6. A preliminary phylogeny of the South African Lentulidae.

    PubMed

    Matenaar, Daniela; Bröder, Linda; Hochkirch, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The grasshopper family Lentulidae is endemic to eastern and southern Africa, with its center of diversity situated in South Africa, the highest diversity being found in the Cape Floristic Region, which is one of the global biodiversity hotspots. The family consists of 35 genera sorted in two subfamilies. This study provides first insights into the phylogeny of Lentulidae. Two mitochondrial genes (12S and NDS) were sequenced and the phylogeny was inferred through Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference. Our results indicate that the current classification into the subfamilies Lentulinae and Shelforditinae may be incorrect as Uvarovidium, Leatettix (Shelforditinae) and Devylderia (Lentulinae) clustered together in one main clade, while Betiscoides, Basutacris and Gymnidium (all Lentulinae) formed the second main clade. The genera Uvarovidium and Leatettix, which had been assigned to the Acrididae (subfamily Hemiacridinae) in the past, grouped within the Lentulidae, confirming their current assignment to this family. The East African Usambilla group is likely to represent a sister clade to the south African Lentula and Eremidium. Diversification patterns in the genus Devylderia and Betiscoides suggest a higher number of species than currently known. Our phylogeny is not in line with the current systematics of Lentulidae, suggesting that a broader sampling and a study of the genitalia would be useful to clarify the taxonomy. Furthermore, some genera (particularly Betiscoides and Devylderia) are in need of taxonomic revision, as the number of species within these genera is likely to be higher than the current taxonomy suggests.

  7. Collective efficacy and HIV prevention in South African townships

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Demetria; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Eaton, Lisa; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Harel, Ofer; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2013-01-01

    South African townships have high HIV prevalence and a strong need for collective action to change normative sexual risk behaviors. This study investigated the relationship between perceptions of individuals about collective efficacy in the community’s ability to prevent HIV and their personal HIV risk behaviors. Men (n=1581) and women (n=718) completed anonymous surveys within four Black African Townships in Cape Town, South Africa from June 2008 to December 2010. Measures included demographics, alcohol use, attitudinal and behavioral norms, sexual health communications, and sexual risk behaviors. In multivariate logistic regressions, men were more likely to endorse collective efficacy if they were married, drank less often in alcohol serving establishments, believed that fewer men approve of HIV risk behaviors, talk more with others about HIV/AIDS, and had more sex partners in the past month. Women were more likely to endorse collective efficacy if they drank alcohol less often, talked more with others about HIV/AIDS, had more sex partners in the past month, but reported fewer unprotected sex acts in the past month. Community level interventions that strengthen collective efficacy beliefs will have to consider both protective and risk behaviors associated with believing that the community is ready and capable of preventing HIV. PMID:23660646

  8. Archaeal Diversity in Waters from Deep South African Gold Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Takai, Ken; Moser, Duane P.; Deflaun, Mary; Onstott, Tullis C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2001-12-01

    Culture-independent molecular analysis of archaeal communities in waters collected from deep South African gold (Au) mines was performed by PCR-mediated terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of rRNA genes (rDNA) in conjunction with sequencing analysis of archaeal rDNA clone libraries. Water samples represented various environments including: deep fissure water; mine service water; and water from an overlying dolomite aquifer. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the ribotype distribution of archaea varied directly with the source of the water. The archaeal communities in the deep Au mine environments revealed a large phylogenetic diversity; the majority of members were most closely related to uncultivated species. Some archaeal rDNA clones obtained from mine service water and dolomite aquifer water samples were most closely related to the environmental rDNA clones from surface soil (Soil clones) and marine environments (Marine Group I; MGI). Other clones possessed an intermediate phylogenetic affiliation between soil clones and MGI within the Crenarchaea. Fissure water samples, derived from active or dormant geothermal environments, yielded archaeal sequences of novel phylogeny including a novel lineage of Euryarchaeota. These results suggest that deep South African Au mines harbor novel archaeal communities distinct from those observed in other environments. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of archaeal strains and rDNA clones, including these newly discovered archaeal rDNA clones, the evolutionary relationship and the phylogenetic organization of the domain Archaea is reevaluated.

  9. Archaeal Diversity in Waters from Deep South African Gold Mines

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Ken; Moser, Duane P.; DeFlaun, Mary; Onstott, Tullis C.; Fredrickson, James K.

    2001-01-01

    A culture-independent molecular analysis of archaeal communities in waters collected from deep South African gold mines was performed by performing a PCR-mediated terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of rRNA genes (rDNA) in conjunction with a sequencing analysis of archaeal rDNA clone libraries. The water samples used represented various environments, including deep fissure water, mine service water, and water from an overlying dolomite aquifer. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the ribotype distribution of archaea varied with the source of water. The archaeal communities in the deep gold mine environments exhibited great phylogenetic diversity; the majority of the members were most closely related to uncultivated species. Some archaeal rDNA clones obtained from mine service water and dolomite aquifer water samples were most closely related to environmental rDNA clones from surface soil (soil clones) and marine environments (marine group I [MGI]). Other clones exhibited intermediate phylogenetic affiliation between soil clones and MGI in the Crenarchaeota. Fissure water samples, derived from active or dormant geothermal environments, yielded archaeal sequences that exhibited novel phylogeny, including a novel lineage of Euryarchaeota. These results suggest that deep South African gold mines harbor novel archaeal communities distinct from those observed in other environments. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of archaeal strains and rDNA clones, including the newly discovered archaeal rDNA clones, the evolutionary relationship and the phylogenetic organization of the domain Archaea are reevaluated. PMID:11722932

  10. Fears of South African children affected by HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Zwemstra, Pedro; Loxton, Helene

    2011-07-01

    Although fears are part of normal development, the living environment of HIV/AIDS affected children is conducive to the development of particular fears. This study examined the fears of 39 South African children (7-13 years) living in a low socioeconomic community with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The aim was to consider if these children were a special population with regard to their fears. The Free Option Method was used to identify the children's fears. Data were analyzed by means of a priori thematic analysis, followed by a qualitative analysis. The expressed fears could be described with fear categories previously reported by normative samples. The wild animal category and specifically snake fears were reported most. The second analysis revealed a substantial minority of fears reflecting life in the South African HIV/AIDS affected context. It was concluded that the children represented a normative population who experienced particular fears due to their special circumstances. Further investigation of HIV/AIDS affected children's fears and related psychological issues is recommended.

  11. Raman spectroscopic study of ancient South African domestic clay pottery.

    PubMed

    Legodi, M A; de Waal, D

    2007-01-01

    The technique of Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the composition of ancient African domestic clay pottery of South African origin. One sample from each of four archaeological sites including Rooiwal, Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop was studied. Normal dispersive Raman spectroscopy was found to be the most effective analytical technique in this study. XRF, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques. All representative samples contained common features, which were characterised by kaolin (Al2Si2O5(OH)5), illite (KAl4(Si7AlO20)(OH)4), feldspar (K- and NaAlSi3O8), quartz (alpha-SiO2), hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), montmorillonite (Mg3(Si,Al)4(OH)2 x 4.5 5H(2)O[Mg]0.35), and calcium silicate (CaSiO3). Gypsum (CaSO4 x 2H2O) and calcium carbonates (most likely calcite, CaCO3) were detected by Raman spectroscopy in Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop shards. Amorphous carbon (with accompanying phosphates) was observed in the Raman spectra of Lydenburg, Rooiwal and Makahane shards, while rutile (TiO(2)) appeared only in Makahane shard. The Raman spectra of Lydenburg and Rooiwal shards further showed the presence of anhydrite (CaSO4). The results showed that South African potters used a mixture of clays as raw materials. The firing temperature for most samples did not exceed 800 degrees C, which suggests the use of open fire. The reddish brown and grayish black colours were likely due to hematite and amorphous carbon, respectively.

  12. Raman spectroscopic study of ancient South African domestic clay pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legodi, M. A.; de Waal, D.

    2007-01-01

    The technique of Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the composition of ancient African domestic clay pottery of South African origin. One sample from each of four archaeological sites including Rooiwal, Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop was studied. Normal dispersive Raman spectroscopy was found to be the most effective analytical technique in this study. XRF, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques. All representative samples contained common features, which were characterised by kaolin (Al 2Si 2O 5(OH) 5), illite (KAl 4(Si 7AlO 20)(OH) 4), feldspar (K- and NaAlSi 3O 8), quartz (α-SiO 2), hematite (α-Fe 2O 3), montmorillonite (Mg 3(Si,Al) 4(OH) 2·4.5H 2O[Mg] 0.35), and calcium silicate (CaSiO 3). Gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) and calcium carbonates (most likely calcite, CaCO 3) were detected by Raman spectroscopy in Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop shards. Amorphous carbon (with accompanying phosphates) was observed in the Raman spectra of Lydenburg, Rooiwal and Makahane shards, while rutile (TiO 2) appeared only in Makahane shard. The Raman spectra of Lydenburg and Rooiwal shards further showed the presence of anhydrite (CaSO 4). The results showed that South African potters used a mixture of clays as raw materials. The firing temperature for most samples did not exceed 800 °C, which suggests the use of open fire. The reddish brown and grayish black colours were likely due to hematite and amorphous carbon, respectively.

  13. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context.

    PubMed

    London, Leslie; Tangwa, Godfrey; Matchaba-Hove, Reginald; Mkhize, Nhlanhla; Nwabueze, Remi; Nyika, Aceme; Westerholm, Peter

    2014-06-23

    International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address workplace hazards demand

  14. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Discussion Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address

  15. Cancer perceptions of South African mothers and daughters: implications for health promotion programs.

    PubMed

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Simon, Christian; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-09-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. A major reason why women do not obtain cancer screening procedures relates to the high levels of fear associated with cancer. In this study, we explored South African mothers' and daughters' reaction to the word "cancer" specifically. The study sample included 157 randomly selected mother and adolescent daughter pairs from an urban community in Cape Town, South Africa. Mothers and their adolescent daughters had very similar responses to the term "cancer." We found that most South African mothers and daughters had a fear-based attitude toward the illness. When we asked mothers what they immediately thought of upon hearing "cancer," a majority of women (69%) thought of death, and another 43% thought of suffering and the detrimental consequences of the illness. Similarly, 50% of the daughters also thought of death, and 42% thought of the detrimental aspects of cancer. Fatalistic attitudes and negative emotional reactions have important implications in cancer prevention and need to be addressed within a public health context.

  16. Cancer Perceptions of South African Mothers and Daughters: Implications for Health Promotion Programs

    PubMed Central

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Simon, Christian; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. A major reason why women do not obtain cancer screening procedures relates to the high levels of fear associated with cancer. In this study, we explored South African mothers’ and daughters’ reaction to the word “cancer” specifically. The study sample included 157 randomly selected mother and adolescent daughter pairs from an urban community in Cape Town, South Africa. Mothers and their adolescent daughters had very similar responses to the term “cancer.” We found that most South African mothers and daughters had a fear-based attitude towards the illness. When we asked mothers what they immediately thought of upon hearing “cancer”, a majority of women (69%) thought of death and another 43% thought of suffering and the detrimental consequences of the illness. Similarly, 50% of the daughters also thought of death and 42% thought of the detrimental aspects of cancer. Fatalistic attitudes and negative emotional reactions have important implications in cancer prevention and need to be addressed within a public health context. PMID:20677037

  17. Measuring Financial Literacy: Developing and Testing a Measurement Instrument with a Selected Group of South African Military Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwella, E.; van Nieuwenhuyzen, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Are South Africans financially literate, and how can this be measured? Until 2009 there was no South African financial literacy measure and, therefore, the aim was to develop a South African measurement instrument that is scientific, socially acceptable, valid and reliable. To achieve this aim a contextual and conceptual analysis of financial…

  18. Measuring Financial Literacy: Developing and Testing a Measurement Instrument with a Selected Group of South African Military Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwella, E.; van Nieuwenhuyzen, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Are South Africans financially literate, and how can this be measured? Until 2009 there was no South African financial literacy measure and, therefore, the aim was to develop a South African measurement instrument that is scientific, socially acceptable, valid and reliable. To achieve this aim a contextual and conceptual analysis of financial…

  19. South African-ness among Adolescents: The Emergence of a Collective Identity within the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Shane A.; Roeser, Robert W.; Richter, Linda M.; Lewin, Nina; Ginsburg, Carren; Fleetwood, Stella A.; Taole, Elizabeth; van der Wolf, Kees

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the emergence of a South African identity among Black, Colored (mixed ancestral origin), White (predominantly English speaking), and Indian adolescents participating in a birth cohort study called "Birth to Twenty" in Johannesburg, South Africa. They examined young people's certainty of their self-categorization as…

  20. South African-ness among Adolescents: The Emergence of a Collective Identity within the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Shane A.; Roeser, Robert W.; Richter, Linda M.; Lewin, Nina; Ginsburg, Carren; Fleetwood, Stella A.; Taole, Elizabeth; van der Wolf, Kees

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the emergence of a South African identity among Black, Colored (mixed ancestral origin), White (predominantly English speaking), and Indian adolescents participating in a birth cohort study called "Birth to Twenty" in Johannesburg, South Africa. They examined young people's certainty of their self-categorization as…

  1. How diverse is the diet of adult South Africans?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of the current study was to measure dietary diversity in South Africans aged 16 years and older from all population groups as a proxy of food security. Methods A cross-sectional study representative of adults from all specified ages, provinces, geographic localities, and socio-economic strata in South Africa was used (n = 3287). Trained interviewers visited participants at their homes during the survey. Dietary data was collected by means of a face validated 24 hour recall which was not quantified. A dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated by counting each of 9 food groups. A DDS <4 was regarded as reflecting poor dietary diversity and poor food security. Results The provinces with the highest prevalence of poor dietary diversity (DDS <4) were Limpopo (61.8%) and the Eastern Cape (59.6%). By contrast, only 15.7% of participants in Western Cape had a low score. Participants in tribal areas (63.9%) and informal urban areas (55.7%) were by far the worst affected. There were significant differences in DDS by Living Standards Mean (LSM) analysis (p < 0.05) with the lowest LSM group having the lowest mean DDS (2.93).The most commonly consumed food groups were cereals/roots; meat/fish; dairy and vegetables other than vitamin A rich. Eggs, legumes, and vitamin A rich fruit and vegetables were the least consumed. Conclusion Overall the majority of South Africans consumed a diet low in dietary variety. The tribal areas and informal urban areas were worst affected and eggs, legumes and vitamin A rich fruit and vegetables, were the least consumed. PMID:21496326

  2. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    PubMed

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  3. The status of fish conservation in South African estuaries.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, A K; Cowley, P D

    2010-06-01

    Estuary-dependent fish species are defined as those taxa whose populations would be adversely affected by the loss of estuarine habitats. Of the 155 species regularly recorded in South African estuaries, only 32 (21%) are completely dependent on these systems, but this figure increases to 103 species (66%) if partially dependent taxa are included in the analysis. The conservation of fishes in estuaries on the subcontinent is threatened by a number of factors, including habitat degradation, disruption of essential ecological processes, hydrological manipulations, environmental pollution, overexploitation due to fishing activities and, more recently, climate change and the effects of introduced aquatic animals. Although major threats to fishes are usually linked to environmental degradation, there is increasing evidence that the stocks of certain fish species are overexploited or collapsed. Fish conservation and fisheries management does not depend on the implementation of a single action, but rather the co-ordination of a detailed plan, often in a multidisciplinary context. Some examples of innovative means of contributing to estuarine fish conservation in a South African context include the determination and implementation of the ecological freshwater requirements for estuaries, the zoning of estuaries for different uses and the recognition that the maintenance of ecological processes are vital to aquatic ecosystem health. Apart from the designation of protected areas, the main direct means of conserving fish species and stocks include habitat conservation, controls over fishing methods, effort, efficiency and seasonality, pollution control and the prevention of artificial manipulation of estuary mouths. Since becoming a democracy in 1994, environmental legislation, policy and institutional arrangements in South Africa have undergone some major changes, which, if fully implemented, will be very positive for fish conservation in estuaries on the subcontinent.

  4. Copper sulphate use in South African traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Street, Renée A; Kabera, Gaëtan M; Connolly, Catherine

    2016-04-08

    Copper (Cu) is an essential element to humans; however, exposure to elevated concentrations through occupational hazard and/or environmental means may be detrimental. This paper provides results of a cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of copper sulphate (CuSO4) use in South African traditional medicine by traditional health practitioners (THPs) and details the use thereof. A total of 201 THPs were enrolled from two main municipal areas of KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Information on demographic characteristics of THPs, reasons for using or not using CuSO4 as well as administration methods and age groups of recipients were collected. Of the 201 THPs interviewed, 145 (72 %) use CuSO4 for healing purposes. The use of CuSO4 was strongly associated with gender (p = 0.009) where the proportion of CuSO4 users was higher for female than male THPs. CuSO4 was reportedly administered to individuals of all ages, including infants and children. The main routes of administration were enema (n = 110; 76 %), oral (n = 40; 28 %) and use in bath (n = 40; 28 %). The reasons cited for use are diverse and included skin rashes (n = 43; 30 %), aches, pains and swelling (n = 38; 28 %) as well as sexually transmitted diseases (n = 28; 19 %). This study identified a high prevalence of THPs using CuSO4 for healing purposes. These findings support the need to regulate South African traditional medicine to safeguard the user.

  5. What do young black South Africans think about AIDS?

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, D

    1992-07-01

    In South Africa, a fatalistic attitude prevails among young black youth toward prevention of HIV transmission. Many of the 3 million black migrant laborers in single-sex hostels have many partners who are prostitutes. Due to culture, race, and class, black women are so oppressed that they cannot even require sex partners to wear condoms. Blacks perceive condoms as a governmental means to control population growth. The Centre for Health and Social Studies has learned that 14-17 year old blacks have been sexually active for a long time, so it has decided to also market its AIDS prevention program to 11-13 year olds. AIDS has not yet reached epidemic proportions in South Africa, however, and a full scale intervention program implemented between the end of 1992 and mid-1993 could stem the epidemic. The Health and Refugee Trust has developed a data base about the attitudes of South African refugees toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. It plans to distribute educational materials to hostels, squatter settlements, and rural communities. The Transport and General Workers Union has also set up an AIDS prevention program since truckers are at high risk of HIV infection. At the end of 1991, 445,000 people in South Africa have been infected with HIV. Heterosexuality is the predominate mode of HIV transmission among blacks, but among whites, it is homosexuality. Educated, affluent whites tend to be knowledge about AIDS and practice safer sex. Among the working class whites, however, knowledge levels are high, but they do not necessarily practice safer sex. Awareness tends to be quite high among blacks, but they do not generally practice safer sex. South Africa and the US are the only 2 developed countries that do not provide health care for all. This weak system limits AIDS prevention efforts. 80% of whites have health insurance compared with only 7% of blacks.

  6. The HIV epidemic and sexual and reproductive health policy integration: views of South African policymakers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Diane; Mantell, Joanne E; Moodley, Jennifer; Mall, Sumaya

    2015-03-04

    Integration of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV policies and services delivered by the same provider is prioritised worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence is highest. South Africa has the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme in the world, with an estimated 2.7 million people on ART, elevating South Africa's prominence as a global leader in HIV treatment. In 2011, the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society published safer conception guidelines for people living with HIV (PLWH) and in 2013, the South African government published contraceptive guidelines highlighting the importance of SRH and fertility planning services for people living with HIV. Addressing unintended pregnancies, safer conception and maternal health issues is crucial for improving PLWH's SRH and combatting the global HIV epidemic. This paper explores South African policymakers' perspectives on public sector SRH-HIV policy integration, with a special focus on the need for national and regional policies on safer conception for PLWH and contraceptive guidelines implementation. It draws on 42 in-depth interviews with national, provincial and civil society policymakers conducted between 2008-2009 and 2011-2012, as the number of people on ART escalated. Interviews focused on three key domains: opinions on PLWH's childbearing; the status of SRH-HIV integration policies and services; and thoughts and suggestions on SRH-HIV integration within the restructuring of South African primary care services. Data were coded and analysed according to themes. Participants supported SRH-HIV integrated policy and services. However, integration challenges identified included a lack of policy and guidelines, inadequately trained providers, vertical programming, provider work overload, and a weak health system. Participants acknowledged that SRH-HIV integration policies, particularly for safer conception, contraception and cervical cancer, had been neglected. Policymakers

  7. Seismic anisotropy of South African upper mantle xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C.; Christensen, N. I.

    2000-07-01

    Seismic properties of six upper mantle xenoliths from South Africa were determined both by laboratory measurements at elevated pressure and numerical calculations from petrofabric analyses, in order to provide constraints on the structural interpretation of the field seismic data obtained in recent years. The samples studied include harzburgite, garnet harzburgite, mica harzburgite, lherzolite and garnet lherzolite. Average anisotropies calculated from petrofabrics are 5.4% for Vp and 4.4% for Vs. Ultrasonic measured anisotropies from xenolith rock cores are approximately 1% lower than calculated values. This difference is likely due to simplifications in modal mineralogy used in the calculations and small amounts of alteration in the samples used in the velocity measurements. Comparison of laboratory data with the SKS and Pn data yields possible structural orientations in the upper mantle beneath the South Africa continent. Our results suggest that foliation in the upper mantle is likely horizontal, and the stretching lineation (olivine a-axis) is oriented N30°E, which coincides with the absolute plate motion (APM) of the South African continent. It is apparent from our data that the fast S-wave polarization depends on the propagation direction with respect to petrofabric orientations and does not always indicate the stretching lineation.

  8. The oral susceptibility of South African field populations of Culicoides to African horse sickness virus.

    PubMed

    Venter, G J; Wright, I M; Van Der Linde, T C; Paweska, J T

    2009-12-01

    Twenty-two isolates of African horse sickness virus (AHSV), representing its distinct serotypes, geographical and historical origins, were fed to three populations of South African livestock-associated Culicoides spp. (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Infective blood meals included 12 recent isolates, nine historical reference strains and one live attenuated vaccine strain serotype 7 (AHSV-7) of the virus. Field-collected midges were fed through a chicken-skin membrane on sheep blood spiked with one of the viruses, which concentrations ranged from 5.4 to 8.8 log(10)TCID(50)/mL of blood. After 10 days incubation at 23.5 degrees C, AHSV was isolated from 11 Culicoides species. Standard in vitro passaging of AHSV-7, used for the preparation of live attenuated vaccine, did not reduce its ability to infect Culicoides species. Virus recovery rates in orally infected Culicoides midges differed significantly between species and populations, serotypes, isolates and seasons. Significant variations in oral susceptibility recorded in this study emphasize a complex inter-relationship between virus and vector, which is further influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors. As it is not possible to standardize all these factors under laboratory conditions, conclusive assessment of the role of field-collected Culicoides midges in the transmission of orbiviruses remains problematic. Nevertheless, results of this study suggest the potential for multi-vector transmission of AHSV virus in South Africa.

  9. Mental health service use among South Africans for mood, anxiety and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Seedat, Soraya; Williams, David R; Herman, Allen A; Moomal, Hashim; Williams, Stacey L; Jackson, Pamela B; Myer, Landon; Stein, Dan J

    2009-05-01

    Europe and North America have low rates of mental health service use despite high rates of mental disorder. Little is known about mental health service use among South Africans. A nationally representative survey of 4351 adults. Twelve-month DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition) diagnoses, severity, and service utilisation were determined using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Twelve-month treatment was categorised by sector and province. South Africans in households and hostel quarters were interviewed between 2002 and 2004 in all nine provinces. 4 317 respondents 18 years and older were analysed. Bivariate logistic regression models predicted (i) 12-month treatment use of service sectors by gender, and (ii) 12-month treatment use by race by gender. Of respondents with a mental disorder, 25.2% had sought treatment within the previous 12 months; 5.7% had used any formal mental health service. Mental health service use was highest for adults with mood and anxiety disorders, and among those with a mental disorder it varied by province, from 11.4% (Western Cape) to 2.2% (Mpumalanga). More women received treatment, and this was largely attributable to higher rates of treatment in women with mood disorders. Age, income, education and marital status were not significantly associated with mental health service use. Race was associated with the treatment sector accessed in those with a mental disorder. There is a substantial burden of untreated mental disorders in the South African population, across all provinces and even in those with substantial impairment. Greater allocation of resources to mental health services and more community awareness initiatives are needed to address the unmet need.

  10. Intention to switch to smokeless tobacco use among South African smokers: results from the 2007 South African Social Attitudes Survey.

    PubMed

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Agaku, Israel T

    2014-01-01

    Some smokeless tobacco products (SLT) have been shown to be associated with only a fraction of the risks of cigarettes. This study assessed South African smokers' interest in switching to a hypothetical reduced harm SLT product. The 2007 South African Social Attitudes Survey was analysed for 678 exclusive cigarette smokers. Respondents were asked about their perceptions about relative harm of snuff compared to cigarettes, and their interest in switching to snuff if informed it was 99% less harmful than cigarettes. About 49.7% of exclusive cigarette smokers believed that snuff was equally as harmful as cigarettes; 12.9% thought snuff was more harmful; 5.7% thought snuff was less harmful; while 31.8% did not know if there was a difference in harm between snuff and cigarettes. Approximately 24.2% of exclusive cigarette smokers indicated interest in switching to snuff, with significantly greater interest observed among those exposed to 100% smoke-free work environment. Interest in switching was highest (34.7%) among smokers who believed a priori that using snuff was more harmful than cigarettes, and lowest (14.5%) among those who did not know if there was a difference in harm. In a multi-variable adjusted logistic regression model, this latter group remained less likely to be interested in harm reduction switching (adjusted odds ratio = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.91). About a quarter of smokers indicated interest in harm reduction switching to snuff. SLT products have a potential role in reducing the harm from smoking in South Africa, but only if they are not used to circumvent smoke-free laws that have been associated with reduced smoking.

  11. Men who have sex with men inadequately addressed in African Aids National Strategic Plans

    PubMed Central

    Makofane, K.; Gueboguo, C.; Lyons, D.; Sandfort, T.

    2013-01-01

    Through an analysis of Aids National Strategic Plans (NSPs), this study investigated the responses of African governments to the HIV epidemics faced by men who have sex with men (MSM). NSPs from 46 African countries were systematically analysed, paying attention to (1) the representation of MSM and their HIV risk, (2) inclusion of epidemiologic information on the HIV epidemic amongst MSM and (3) government-led interventions addressing MSM. 34 out of 46 NSPs mentioned MSM. While two-thirds of these NSPs acknowledged vulnerability of MSM to HIV infection, fewer than half acknowledged the role of stigma or criminalisation. Four NSPs showed estimated HIV prevalence amongst MSM, and one included incidence. Two-thirds of the NSPs proposed government-led HIV interventions that address MSM. Those that did plan to intervene planned to do so through policy interventions, social interventions, HIV prevention interventions, HIV treatment interventions, and monitoring activities. Overall, the governments of the countries included in the study exhibited little knowledge of HIV disease dynamics amongst MSM and little knowledge of the social dynamics behind MSM’s HIV risk. Concerted action is needed to integrate MSM in NSPs and governmental health policies in a way that acknowledges this population and its specific HIV/AIDS related needs. PMID:23252398

  12. Sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of South African chromite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qing; Liu, Cheng-jun; Shi, Pei-yang; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Mao-fa; Zhang, Qing-song; Zevenhoven, Ron; Saxén, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    The sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of South African chromite was investigated. The negative influence of a solid product layer constituted of a silicon-rich phase and chromium-rich sulfate was eliminated by crushing the chromite and by selecting proper leaching conditions. The dimensionless change in specific surface area and the conversion rate of the chromite were observed to exhibit a proportional relationship. A modified shrinking particle model was developed to account for the change in reactive surface area, and the model was fitted to experimental data. The resulting model was observed to describe experimental findings very well. Kinetics analysis revealed that the leaching process is controlled by a chemical reaction under the employed experimental conditions and the activation energy of the reaction is 48 kJ·mol-1.

  13. Antimicrobial rubrolides from a South African species of Synoicum tunicate.

    PubMed

    Sikorska, Justyna; Parker-Nance, Shirley; Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Vining, Oliver B; Sikora, Aleksandra E; McPhail, Kerry L

    2012-10-26

    The CH₂Cl₂-MeOH extract of a South African tunicate described as the new Synoicum globosum Parker-Nance sp. nov. (Ascidiacea, Aplousobranchia) was subjected to ¹H NMR-guided fractionation. This resulted in the identification of new 3″-bromorubrolide F (1), 3'-bromorubrolide E (2), 3'-bromorubrolide F (3), and 3',3″-dibromorubrolide E (4) and reisolation of known rubrolides E (5) and F (6), based on NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Biological testing of both new and known members of this reported antimicrobial family of halogenated, aryl-substituted furanones indicated moderate antibacterial properties for 3'-bromorubrolide E (2), 3',3″-dibromorubrolide E (4), and rubrolide F (6) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and S. epidermidis.

  14. Antimicrobial Rubrolides from a South African Species of Synoicum Tunicate

    PubMed Central

    Sikorska, Justyna; Parker-Nance, Shirley; Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Vining, Oliver B.; Sikora, Aleksandra E.; McPhail, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    The CH2Cl2-MeOH extract of a South African tunicate described as the new Synoicum globosum Parker-Nance sp. nov. (Ascidiacea, Aplousobranchia) was subjected to 1H NMR-guided fractionation. This resulted in the identification of new 3″-bromorubrolide F (1), 3′-bromorubrolide E (2), 3′-bromorubrolide F (3) and 3′, 3″-dibromorubrolide E (4), and reisolation of known rubrolides E (5) and F (6), based on NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Biological testing of both new and known members of this reported antimicrobial family of halogenated, aryl-substituted furanones indicated moderate antibacterial properties for 3′-bromorubrolide E (2), 3′, 3″-dibromorubrolide E (4), and rubrolide F (6) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and S. epidermidis. PMID:23030848

  15. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Monyeki, Makama Andries; Awotidebe, Adedapo; Strydom, Gert L.; de Ridder, J. Hans; Mamabolo, Ramoteme Lesly; Kemper, Han C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South African studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%–66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%–32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas in transition are

  16. Alkaloids of the South African Amaryllidaceae: a review.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jerald J; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Caries; Viladomat, Francesc; van Staden, Johannes

    2013-09-01

    The plant family Amaryllidaceae is known for its horticultural and ornamental appeal as well as its medicinal value. In relation to these characteristics, trade in Amaryllid flower varieties (especially daffodils) is a multi-million dollar revenue generator for the floriculture industry. Of greater significance are the medicinal attributes of the family, which has already spawned the Alzheimer's prescription drug galanthamine, a potent and selective inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, of significance in the progression of neurodegeneration associated with motor neuron diseases, with annual global sales of around $150 million. Furthermore, it is anticipated that an anticancer drug target related to the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid pancratistatin, presently under advanced clinical evaluation, will enter commercial circulation within the next decade. Members of the Amaryllidaceae are distributed through both tropical and subtropical regions of the globe, but are of prominence within three distinct geographical locations, including Andean South America, the Mediterranean basin, and southern Africa. The southern African zone is known to harbor at least a third of the worldwide complement of around 1000 species, many of which are widely utilized in the traditional medicinal practices of the indigenous people of the region. Given its therapeutic and economic value, its natural abundance in the southern African region, coupled to its widespread usage in ethnic medicine, the family Amaryllidaceae provides a diverse and accessible platform for phytochemical based drug discovery. A consolidation of its traditional usage as well as its chemical and pharmacological profiles will thus guide efforts aimed at maximizing this potential. In undertaking this survey of the Amaryllidaceae of southern African, we aimed to achieve these goals.

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among South African Gold Miners

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James J.; Connors, Jeremy; Chihota, Violet N.; Shashkina, Elena; van der Meulen, Minty; Graviss, Edward A.; Ha, Ngan P.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Grant, Alison D.; Fielding, Katherine L.; Dorman, Susan E.; Churchyard, Gavin J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: HIV-associated tuberculosis remains a major health problem among the gold-mining workforce in South Africa. We postulate that high levels of recent transmission, indicated by strain clustering, are fueling the tuberculosis epidemic among gold miners. Objectives: To combine molecular and epidemiologic data to describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity, estimate levels of transmission, and examine risk factors for clustering. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of culture-positive M. tuberculosis isolates in 15 gold mine shafts across three provinces in South Africa. All isolates were subject IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and we performed spoligotyping analysis and combined it with basic demographic and clinical information. Measurements and Main Results: Of the 1,602 M. tuberculosis patient isolates, 1,240 (78%) had genotyping data available for analysis. A highly diverse bacillary population was identified, comprising a total of 730 discrete genotypes. Four genotypic families (Latin American Mediterranean spoligotype family; W-Beijing; AH or X; and T1–T4) accounted for over 50% of all strains. Overall, 45% (560/1,240) of strains were genotypically clustered. The minimum estimate for recent transmission (n − 1 method) was 32% (range, 27–34%). There were no individual-level risk factors for clustering, apart from borderline evidence for being non–South African and having self-reported HIV infection. Conclusions: The high M. tuberculosis genetic diversity and lack of risk factors for clustering are indicative of a universal risk for disease among gold miners and likely mixing with nonmining populations. Our results underscore the urgent need to intensify interventions to interrupt transmission across the entire gold-mining workforce in South Africa. PMID:25419914

  18. Respiratory outcomes among South African coal miners at autopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Murray, J.

    2005-09-01

    Studies of dose-response relationships between respiratory outcomes at autopsy and coal dust exposure are limited. The Pathology Automation System (PATHAUT) database of South African miners, is one of the largest autopsy databases of occupational lung disease. This study described the prevalence of respiratory outcomes among South African coal miners at autopsy, and determined whether dose response relationships existed between emphysema and exposure. Autopsies conducted from 1975 to 1997 on coal miners with exclusive coal mining exposure and having exposure duration information (n = 3,167) were analyzed from PATHAUT Logistic regression was used to determine relationships between exposure and outcomes, controlling for race, smoking and age on a subset for whom smoking history was available (n = 725). The prevalence of silicosis, tuberculosis (TB), coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), and moderate and marked emphysema were 10.7%, 5.2%, 7.3%, and 64%, respectively. All diseases, except TB, were associated with exposure duration. Black miners had 8.3 and 1.2 fold greater risks for TB and CWP, respectively, than white miners. White miners had an increased risk of 1.4 and 5.4 for silicosis and moderate to marked emphysema, respectively. In models unadjusted for age, and including smoking, moderate to marked emphysema was strongly associated with exposure duration (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.9-5.9 for highest tercile of exposure duration). Exposure-related risk estimates were reduced when age was introduced into the model. However age and duration of exposure were highly correlated, = 0. 68) suggesting a dilution of the exposure effect by age. There were significant dose related associations of disease, including emphysema, with coal dust exposure.

  19. Origins of common fears in South African children.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; du Plessis, Michelle; Loxton, Helene

    2008-12-01

    The present study examined the origins of common childhood fears within a South African context. Six-hundred-and-fifty-five 10- to 14-year-old children were given a brief fear list that helped them to identify their most intense fear and then completed a brief questionnaire for assessing the origins of fears that was based on Rachman's [Rachman, S. (1977). The conditioning theory of fear acquisition: A critical examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 375-387; Rachman, S. (1991). Neoconditioning and the classical theory of fear acquisition. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 47-67] three-pathways theory. More precisely, children were asked to report whether they had experienced conditioning, modeling, and negative information experiences in relation to their most feared stimulus or situation, and also had to indicate to what extent such experiences had actually played a role in the onset and/or intensification of their fears. Results showed that children most frequently reported indirect learning experiences (i.e., modeling and negative information) in relation to their fears, whereas conditioning was clearly less often mentioned. The majority of the children had no precise idea of how their fear had actually begun, but a substantial proportion of them reported various learning experiences in relation to the onset and intensification of fears. Significant cultural differences were not only observed in the prevalence of common fears, but also in the pathways reported for the origins of fears. The results are briefly discussed in terms of the living conditions of South African children from various cultural backgrounds.

  20. Problems and Prospects in the Cultural History of South African Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedegar, K.

    2007-07-01

    The inauguration of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) is an auspicious moment for reflection on South African astronomical history, the manner in which this heritage has been represented in the past, and how it might best be represented in the future. It is now appropriate to reassess the history of Euro pean astronomy in South Africa, confronting rather than ignoring issues of national identity, scientific politics, and racism. There are also wide opportunities for scholarship on South African archaeoastronomy and indigenous knowledge systems, with potential applications to culturally relevant basic science education. In the case of astronomy, reconciliation to a rich if troubled history will only come to pass when the science is not only pursued in South Africa, but when its heritage pertains to all South Africans.

  1. East African and Kuunga Orogenies in Tanzania - South Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Tenczer, V.

    2012-04-01

    Tanzania and southern Kenya hold a key position for reconstructing Gondwana consolidation because here different orogen belts with different tectonic styles interfere. The older, ca. 650-620 Ma East African Orogeny resulted from the amalgamation of arc terranes in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and continental collision between East African pieces and parts of the Azania terrane in the south (Collins and Pisarevsky, 2005). The change form arc suturing to continental collision settings is found in southern Kenya where southernmost arcs of the ANS conjoin with thickened continental margin suites of the Eastern Granulite Belt. The younger ca. 570-530 Ma Kuunga orogeny heads from the Damara - Zambesi - Irumide Belts (De Waele et al., 2006) over Tanzania - Mozambique to southern India and clashes with the East African orogen in southern-central Tanzania. Two transitional orogen settings may be defined, (1) that between island arcs and inverted passive continental margin within the East African Orogen and, (2) that between N-S trending East African and W-E trending Kuungan orogenies. The Neoproterozoic island arc suites of SE-Kenya are exposed as a narrow stripe between western Azania and the Eastern Granulite belt. This suture is a steep, NNW stretched belt that aligns roughly with the prominent southern ANS shear zones that converge at the southern tip of the ANS (Athi and Aswa shear zones). Oblique convergence resulted in low-vorticity sinstral shear during early phases of deformation. Syn-magmatic and syn-tectonic textures are compatible with deformation at granulite metamorphic conditions and rocks exhumed quickly during ongoing transcurrent motion. The belt is typified as wrench tectonic belt with horizontal northwards flow of rocks within deeper portions of an island arc. The adjacent Eastern Granulite Nappe experienced westward directed, subhorizontal, low-vorticity, high temperature flow at partly extreme metamorphic conditions (900°C, 1.2 to 1.4 GPa

  2. Understanding ICT Integration in South African Classrooms. Research: Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson-Strydom, Merridy; Thomson, Janet; Hodgkinson-Williams, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Integration of ICT into teaching and learning has risen on the South African education agenda, particularly with the release of the White Paper on e-Education in 2003. This empirical paper draws on survey data from the evaluation of the Intel[R] Teach to the Future programme in South Africa to reflect on ICT integration in South African…

  3. From Policy to Practice: A South-African Perspective on Implementing Inclusive Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naicker, Sigamoney

    2007-01-01

    The advent of a democracy in South Africa ushered in refreshing changes within the South African context. Given South Africa's dark apartheid history, every policy intervention had to ensure a human rights ethos prevails. Inclusive Education, through the publication of the policy document Education White Paper 6 on Special Needs Education:…

  4. Is Entrepreneurial Education at South African Universities Successful? An Empirical Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentoor, E. R.; Friedrich, C.

    2007-01-01

    After more than ten years of democracy in South Africa, many of the previously disadvantaged segments of the community, especially Blacks, would have hoped that a new economic order would have been created. Instead, South Africa still has very high unemployment and even young Black South Africans with a degree are not guaranteed a job. The purpose…

  5. Metabolic Syndrome After HIV Acquisition in South African Women.

    PubMed

    Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Werner, Lise; Mlisana, Koleka; Naicker, Nivashnee; Feinstein, Addi; Gray, Clive M; Masson, Lindi; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Williamson, Carolyn; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Garrett, Nigel J

    2016-12-01

    Noncommunicable diseases are common among chronically infected patients with HIV in the developed world, but little is known about these conditions in African cohorts. We assessed the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome among young South African women during the first 3 years after HIV acquisition. A total of 160 women were followed prospectively in the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study. Metabolic syndrome was defined as a constellation of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia/diabetes, and abdominal obesity. Time trends were assessed using generalized estimation equation models. Median age was 24 years and body mass index 27 kg/m. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome at infection was 8.7% increasing to 19.2% over 36 months (P = 0.001). The proportion of women with body mass index >30 kg/m increased from 34.4% to 47.7% (P = 0.004), those with abnormal waist circumference and elevated blood pressure increased from 33.5% to 44.3% (P = 0.060) and 23.8% to 43.9% (P < 0.001), respectively. Incidence of metabolic syndrome was 9.13/100 person-years (95% CI: 6.02 to 13.28). Predictors of metabolic syndrome were age (per year increase odds ratio (OR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.16), time postinfection (per year OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.92), family history of diabetes (OR = 3.13; 95% CI: 1.71 to 5.72), and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*81:01 allele (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.21 to 7.17), whereas any HLA-B*57 or B*58:01 alleles were protective (OR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.77). HIV-1 RNA (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.27) and CD4 count (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.11) did not predict metabolic syndrome. The high burden of metabolic conditions in young South African HIV-infected women highlights the need to integrate noncommunicable disease and HIV care programs. Interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease must start at HIV diagnosis, rather than later during the disease course.

  6. A performance evaluation of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) processes within the South African context

    SciTech Connect

    Retief, Francois . E-mail: ggffpr@puk.ac.za

    2007-01-15

    SEA has been described as being more about process than about product. Yet very little research has been conducted to gain a better understanding of how SEA processes perform within developing country contexts. To address this gap in knowledge the research underlying this paper aimed to evaluate the quality of SEA processes within the South African context against specifically designed key performance indicators. Comparison of the different data patterns revealed general SEA process features as well as three broad models, namely the 'stand alone', 'central to decision making' and 'integrated' models. The research results suggest a particularly poor performance in terms of process quality for the SEA case studies investigated. Moreover, it shows that there is no one understanding of SEA process within the South African context. The main limitations related to a weak understanding of the decision making processes SEA aimed to inform, as well as an inability to incorporate flexibility into process design. To take the debate forward it is proposed that SEA follow-up and effectiveness research be explored to determine which of these models (if any) ultimately contributed to influencing decision making and promote sustainability.

  7. Failure to address African Americans' spiritual needs during hospitalization: identifying predictors of dissatisfaction across the arc of service provision.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R; Wolosin, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Using a national sample of recently hospitalized older African Americans (N = 2,227), this study identified predictors of dissatisfaction with the manner in which clients' spiritual needs were addressed during hospitalization. Of 8 major areas of service provision examined, 3 were significant predictors of dissatisfaction: nurses, physicians, and the discharge process. The findings underscore the importance of collaborative efforts to address elderly Black clients' spiritual needs. Social workers, who frequently oversee the discharge process, can play an important role in addressing African Americans' spiritual needs by developing discharge plans that incorporate clients' spiritual strengths and resources into the planning process.

  8. A synopsis of South African psychology from apartheid to democracy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Saths

    2014-11-01

    In this concatenated overview, the development of psychology in South Africa is traced from its origins in the late 19th century to the present. The seminal influences on the science and practice of psychology of the racialized polity and the responses to the prevailing regimen are also explored. The significant events in the patinated layers of psychological discourse and consequent policies in these constrained circumstances are traversed. Despite the nonracial era occasioned by the formation of the Psychological Society of South Africa three months before the advent of democracy under Nelson Mandela in 1994, the profession of psychology remains demographically skewed. Nevertheless, psychology in the current democratic dispensation enjoys a high profile and is actively engaged in ongoing and reflexive self-examination to ensure that it is more accessible and truly serves humanity. If Africa is psychology's last frontier, the critical denouement of the various issues confronting psychology in the southern tip of the African continent will provide a positive growth path that is likely to merit attention beyond its borders.

  9. Pharmacological and toxicological insights to the South African Amaryllidaceae.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jerald J; van Staden, Johannes

    2013-12-01

    The plant family Amaryllidaceae is of provenance in the South African region which is known to harbor about a third of the global complement of around 1000 species. It has widespread usage in the traditional medicinal practices of the indigenous peoples of the region. As a consequence and given its unique alkaloid principles, its members have provided a viable platform for phytochemical based drug discovery. The medicinal potential of the family has been realized through the commercialization of galanthamine as an Alzheimer's drug due to its potent and selective inhibitory activity against the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Further promising chemotherapeutic candidates of the family reside with the phenanthridone class of alkaloids such as pancratistatin which exhibit potent and cell line specific antiproliferative properties with significant potential for clinical development. Despite these interesting medicinal attributes, plants of the Amaryllidaceae are known to be poisonous and several of them have been classified as such. This survey taking into consideration Amaryllidaceae plants native to South Africa aims to strike a balance between the medicinal potential of the family on one hand and its adverse and toxic effects on the other.

  10. Brain fag symptoms in rural South African secondary school pupils.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, K; Cherian, V I; Cherian, L

    1998-12-01

    The study investigated brain fag symptoms in rural South African Secondary School pupils. The sample included 622 Grade 11, Secondary School pupils in the age range of 17 to 24 years (M age 19.3 yr., SD = 2.6) chosen at random from schools throughout the Northern Province of South Africa. A Cultural Orientation Scale, a Student Stress Scale, a General Self-efficacy Scale and Self-reporting Questionnaire were administered to collect data on socioeconomic status, cultural orientation, stress events, self-efficacy, perceived stress, "neurotic" disorder, and brain fag symptoms. Analysis indicated that 25% of the pupils suffered from the brain fag symptoms. There were positive significant relations for collectivism, socioeconomic status, female birth order, depression score on the Self-reporting Questionnaire, total score but not the anxiety score of the questionnaire with brain fag symptoms. This suggests the brain fag syndrome is basically a depressive disorder and to some extent an anxiety and depressive disorder. The findings are discussed in relation to the nature of brain fag symptoms, precipitating factors, and socioeconomic status.

  11. HIV infection in the South African construction industry.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Paul; Govender, Rajen; Edwards, Peter; Lake, Antony

    2017-09-20

    South Africa has one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world, and compared with other sectors of the national economy, the construction industry is disproportionately adversely affected. Using data collected nationally from more than 57,000 construction workers, HIV infection among South African construction workers was estimated, together with an assessment of the association between worker HIV serostatus and worker characteristics of gender, age, nature of employment, occupation, and HIV testing history. The HIV infection of construction workers was estimated to be lower than that found in a smaller 2008 sample. All worker characteristics are significantly associated with HIV serostatus. In terms of most at-risk categories: females are more at risk of HIV infection than males; workers in the 30-49 year old age group are more at risk than other age groups; workers employed on a less permanent basis are more at risk; as are workers not having recently tested for HIV. Among occupations in the construction industry, general workers, artisans, and operator/drivers are those most at risk. Besides yielding more up-to-date estimated infection statistics, this research also identifies vulnerable sub-groups as valuable pointers for more targeted workplace interventions by construction firms.

  12. Pamidronate treatment for osteogenesis imperfecta in black South Africans.

    PubMed

    Henderson, B D; Isaac, N; Mabele, O; Khiba, S; Nkayi, A; Mokoena, T

    2016-05-25

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable disorder of bone connective tissue. Type III has a high incidence in the black pop-ulation of South Africa. Affected people experience numerous fractures, bone pain and progressive disability. Until the introduction of bisphosphonates to reduce fracture incidence, treatment revolved around orthopaedic and supportive care. Objective. To assess the subjective attitude of patients towards pamidronate treatment. Thirty black patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type III treated at Universitas Hospital were approached and 26 were included in this study. Patients or their parents were interviewed using a standardised researcher-administered questionnaire, either in person or by telephone. Most patients reported a reduction in symptoms, a feeling of increased wellbeing, increased strength and rated the pamidronate treatment highly. The intravenous route of administration and the side-effects experienced were bearable. Overall all patients would recommend this treatment to other affected persons. This is first study to look at bisphosphonate treatment for osteogenesis imperfecta type III in black South Africans. The treatment is well tolerated and highly rated by the patients. Reported improvements and side-effects are similar to those reported in other populations. Using this form of treatment in this population is supported by these findings.

  13. Elevated Blood Pressure among Rural South African Children in Thohoyandou, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    GOON, Daniel; AMUSA, Lateef; MHLONGO, Dorothy; KHOZA, Lunic; ANYANWU, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Background Whilst there seem to be available data on blood pressure profiles of South African children, especially in urban areas, few data exist on rural children. The aims of this study were to determine the blood pressure profiles of rural South African children residing in Thohoyandou; and to examine the relationship between body mass index and blood pressure among the children. Methods: The study involved 296 (134 boys and 135 girls) children aged 7–13 years. Body weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Overweight was defined by body mass index (BMI) for gender and age. Blood pressure was monitored in each child thrice using validated electronic devices (Omron 7051T). Hypertension was determined as the average of three separate blood pressure readings where the systolic or diastolic blood pressure was ≥ 90th percentile for age and sex. Results: Overweight among the girls (4.7%) was higher compared with the boys (3.9%). Both systolic and diastolic pressures (SBP and DBP) increase with age in both sexes. The proportion of children with > 90th percentile occur at only ages 12 and 13 years. The incidence of hypertension (SBP > 90th percentile) was 0.4% and 0.2% in boys and girls, respectively. The SBP and DBP pressures significantly (P<0.05) correlate with age; body mass, height and BMI. Conclusion: Elevated blood pressure is prevalent among rural South African children residing in this region. Also, blood pressure increased with age in both boys and girls, and this positively correlated with age, body weight, height and BMI. PMID:23802106

  14. Poor consistency in evaluating South African adults with neurogenic dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Mckinley; Pillay, Mershen

    2017-01-23

    Speech-language therapists are specifically trained in clinically evaluating swallowing in adults with acute stroke. Incidence of dysphagia following acute stroke is high in South Africa, and health implications can be fatal, making optimal management of this patient population crucial. However, despite training and guidelines for best practice in clinically evaluating swallowing in adults with acute stroke, there are low levels of consistency in these practice patterns. The aim was to explore the clinical practice activities of speech-language therapists in the clinical evaluation of swallowing in adults with acute stroke. Practice activities reviewed included the use and consistency of clinical components and resources utilised. Clinical components were the individual elements evaluated in the clinical evaluation of swallowing (e.g. lip seal, vocal quality, etc.)Methods: The questionnaire used in the study was replicated and adapted from a study increasing content- and criterion-related validity. A narrative literature review determined what practice patterns existed in the clinical evaluation of swallowing in adults. A pilot study was conducted to increase validity and reliability. Purposive sampling was used by sending a self-administered, electronic questionnaire to members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Thirty-eight participants took part in the study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and the small qualitative component was subjected to textual analysis. There was high frequency of use of 41% of the clinical components in more than 90% of participants (n = 38). Less than 50% of participants frequently assessed sensory function and gag reflex and used pulse oximetry, cervical auscultation and indirect laryngoscopy. Approximately a third of participants showed high (30.8%), moderate (35.9%) and poor (33.3%) consistency of practice each. Nurses, food and liquids and medical consumables were used usually and

  15. Biomedical research, a tool to address the health issues that affect African populations.

    PubMed

    Peprah, Emmanuel; Wonkam, Ambroise

    2013-10-21

    Traditionally, biomedical research endeavors in low to middle resources countries have focused on communicable diseases. However, data collected over the past 20 years by the World Health Organization (WHO) show a significant increase in the number of people suffering from non-communicable diseases (e.g. heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases). Within the coming years, WHO predicts significant decreases in communicable diseases while non-communicable diseases are expected to double in low and middle income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The predicted increase in the non-communicable diseases population could be economically burdensome for the basic healthcare infrastructure of countries that lack resources to address this emerging disease burden. Biomedical research could stimulate development of healthcare and biomedical infrastructure. If this development is sustainable, it provides an opportunity to alleviate the burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases through diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In this paper, we discuss how research using biomedical technology, especially genomics, has produced data that enhances the understanding and treatment of both communicable and non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. We further discuss how scientific development can provide opportunities to pursue research areas responsive to the African populations. We limit our discussion to biomedical research in the areas of genomics due to its substantial impact on the scientific community in recent years however, we also recognize that targeted investments in other scientific disciplines could also foster further development in African countries.

  16. Biomedical research, a tool to address the health issues that affect African populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, biomedical research endeavors in low to middle resources countries have focused on communicable diseases. However, data collected over the past 20 years by the World Health Organization (WHO) show a significant increase in the number of people suffering from non-communicable diseases (e.g. heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases). Within the coming years, WHO predicts significant decreases in communicable diseases while non-communicable diseases are expected to double in low and middle income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The predicted increase in the non-communicable diseases population could be economically burdensome for the basic healthcare infrastructure of countries that lack resources to address this emerging disease burden. Biomedical research could stimulate development of healthcare and biomedical infrastructure. If this development is sustainable, it provides an opportunity to alleviate the burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases through diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In this paper, we discuss how research using biomedical technology, especially genomics, has produced data that enhances the understanding and treatment of both communicable and non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. We further discuss how scientific development can provide opportunities to pursue research areas responsive to the African populations. We limit our discussion to biomedical research in the areas of genomics due to its substantial impact on the scientific community in recent years however, we also recognize that targeted investments in other scientific disciplines could also foster further development in African countries. PMID:24143865

  17. Increased cardiovascular risk in South African patients with Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Ross, I L; Bergthorsdottir, R; Levitt, N S; Schatz, D A; Johannsson, G; Marais, A D

    2013-11-01

    Patients with Addison's disease (AD) are believed to be at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). South Africa, like the rest of the developing world is experiencing an increase in CVD and patients with AD may be at double the risk of their peers. We wished to explore AD patients' CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional nationwide study in South Africa of patients with AD was conducted. A cohort of 147 patients with AD and 147 healthy control subjects were matched by age, gender, ethnicity, and BMI as far as was possible. Lipoproteins and highly-sensitive C-reactive-protein (hs-CRP) were the main outcome measures. AD patients had significantly higher triglycerides; (p=0.001), lower HDLC (p<0.001), higher hs-CRP (p<0.001), and more small dense LDL; (p=0.002) than controls. Nonesterified fatty acids were lower in patients (p<0.001). Approximately 65% [95% confidence interval (CI 55.6-72.4%)] had hypercholesterolaemia, 75% (CI 64.8-81.2%) had low HDLC, and 75% (CI 68.0-84.1%) had a higher LDLC. Thirteen percent of AD patients had diabetes mellitus, but none of the risk factors differed from the nondiabetics. Only HDLC correlated positively with daily hydrocortisone dose (r=0.32; p=0.005). In conclusion dyslipidaemia is common in South African AD patients; CVD risk assessment and intervention are probably warranted in the management of these patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug use progression: findings from the South African Stress and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Myers, B; van Heerden, MS; Grimsrud, A; Myer, L; Williams, DR; Stein, DJ

    2012-01-01

    Objective Atypical sequences of drug use progression are thought to have important implications for the development of substance dependence. The extent to which this assumption holds for South African populations is unknown. This paper attempts to address this gap by examining the prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug progression among South Africans. Method Data on substance use and other mental health disorders from a nationally representative sample of 4351 South Africans were analysed. Weighted cross tabulations were used to estimate prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug use progression. Results Overall, 12.2% of the sample reported atypical patterns of drug use progression. The most common violation was the use of extra-medical drugs prior to alcohol and tobacco. Gender was significantly associated with atypical patterns of drug use with the risk pattern varying by the type of drug. None of the anxiety or mood disorders were associated with atypical patterns of use. Atypical patterns of drug use were not associated with increased risk for a lifetime substance use disorder. Conclusion Atypical patterns of drug use initiation seem more prevalent in South Africa compared to other countries. The early use of extra-medical drugs is common, especially among young women. Drug availability and social environmental factors may influence patterns of drug use. The findings have important implications for prevention initiatives and future research. PMID:21509404

  19. Experiences addressing health-related financial challenges with disease management among African American women with asthma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minal R; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Id-Deen, Effat; Clark, Noreen M

    2014-06-01

    Despite economic hardship, compliance with self-management regimens is still evident among individuals and families managing chronic disease. The purpose of this study was to describe how women with asthma address cost-related challenges to management of their condition. In 2012 and 2013, four focus groups were conducted in Southeast Michigan with 26 African American women with asthma, recruited based on maximum variation sampling procedures. A semi-structured interview protocol was employed by trained facilitators. Coded transcripts were analyzed for themes regarding means to reduce the impact of the cost of asthma management. Major themes identified were acceptance of the status quo; stockpiling and sharing medicines; utilizing community assistance programs; reaching out to healthcare providers and social networks for help; foregoing self-management; and utilizing urgent care. Awareness of strategies that are helpful to patients in reducing out-of-pocket costs may better equip service providers and others to develop interventions to make useful strategies more widely available.

  20. Uneducating South Africa: The failure to address the 1910-1993 legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedderke, Johannes W.; de Kadt, Raphael; Luiz, John M.

    2000-07-01

    This paper analyses various data on the South African schooling system since 1910. The data collected for the study cover a wide range of education indicators, from pupil enrolments, pupil teacher ratios, real expenditure (aggregate and per capita), matriculation pass rates, to some indicators of the quality of matriculation passes. The authors provide an indication of both inputs into and outputs of the educational system. In broad terms, the data indicate that from an educational perspective South Africa followed a modernisation trajectory that, although it drew ever larger numbers of pupils into the schooling system, was partial, distorted and fundamentally dysfunctional. The educational process was strongly affected by racial factors. To the extent that education is an important determinant of long run growth performance of economies, this implies that South Africa's educational policies were inimical to its long run growth.

  1. The challenges of underweight and overweight in South African children: are we winning or losing the battle? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Monyeki, Makama Andries; Awotidebe, Adedapo; Strydom, Gert L; de Ridder, J Hans; Mamabolo, Ramoteme Lesly; Kemper, Han C G

    2015-01-22

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%-66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%-32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas in transition are faced

  2. Albertina Sisulu 1918-2011 Nurse and South African anti-apartheid activist.

    PubMed

    Earl, Geoff

    2011-07-13

    Albertina Sisulu, nurse and political activist, has died at the age of 92. In a message read to mourners at her state funeral, former president Nelson Mandela paid tribute to her as 'one of the greatest South Africans'.

  3. The Depression in the South: Seymour Fogel's Images of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert L.; Fogel, Jared A.

    1998-01-01

    Provides background information on Seymour Fogel, a Depression era muralist. Considers Fogel's artwork of African Americans during the Depression, depicting such scenes as lynchings and the plight of the poor in many areas of the South. (CMK)

  4. Capacity Building in South African Astronomy and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGruder, Charles H.; Dunsby, Peter; Whitelock, Patricia; Norris, Lawrence; Assamagan, Ketevi; Holbrook, Jarita; Imara, Nia; Oluseyi, Hakeem; Medupe, Thebe

    2016-01-01

    South Africa (SA) has had great success in creating major astronomical facilities - SALT, KAT and MeerKAT. However, the existing SA astronomical community is almost entirely white. The lack of black scientists (80% of SA population is black) is obviously one of the many legacies of apartheid and a major initiative was required to rectify the situation. The National Astrophysics and Space Science Program (NASSP) is aimed at ensuring the development of high level physics skills within SA, and specifically takes graduates with bachelor's degrees in math or the physical sciences and prepares them to do PhDs in astrophysics and related disciplines. However, in 2003 when NASSP was established, there were no black SA astronomers, who could act as role models and mentors. This jeopardized the chances of success of NASSP and with it astronomy in SA. An American organization, the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) received a $355,000 grant from the WK Kellogg Foundation to increase the number of black SA astronomers. It enabled African American scientists - both professionals and students - to participate in NASSP. The African American professionals taught NASSP courses and acted as role models and mentors. The project was an overwhelming success. From its beginning in 2003, the NASSP honors program graduates have gone on to a Master's or PhD program at a rate of 60% (USA rate: 35%). American participation started in 2008. In the very next year the number of black students jumped dramatically, reaching 80% in 2013 and this level continued in 2010-2014. We believe this increase and its maintenance is in large part due to bringing black SA students from SA historically black colleges for two weeks to expose them to astronomy, to a one year program to allow them to catch up academically and to the mentoring activities of the members of NSBP.

  5. Poverty, malnutrition, underdevelopment and cardiovascular disease: a South African perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vorster, HH; Kruger, A

    2007-01-01

    Summary Summary This article explores possible mechanisms to explain the known relationships between poverty, undernutrition, underdevelopment and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in developing countries. Poverty is a multidimensional concept. It is both a cause and consequence of undernutrition. The article shows how malnutrition during pregnancy could lead to low birth-weight babies, who are not only at increased risk of mental and physical underdevelopment, but also ‘programmed’ to be at increased risk of CVD and other noncommunicable diseases in adult life. The underdevelopment leads to decreased ‘human capital and competence’ with an inability to create food security and an enabling environment for self and family to escape poverty and undernutrition in the next generation. It is accepted that a lack of education and knowledge in the poor for primary prevention of CVD through healthy eating patterns and lifestyles, as well as limited access to healthcare services for secondary prevention and treatment contribute to CVD. This article postulates that the link between poverty and CVD in South Africa can be explained by the high prevalence of undernutrition in one- to nine-year-old children (9% underweight, 23% stunted and 3% wasted), the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults (54.5% in white men and 58.5% in African women) as well as the negative trends in nutrient intakes when Africans (the population group with the largest numbers of poor people) urbanise, acculturate and adopt westernised eating patterns that will increase CVD risk. In conclusion, we plead for a holistic, integrated but transdisciplinary and multisectorial approach to break the vicious circle of poverty and undernutrition for the longterm prevention of CVD. PMID:17985032

  6. Poverty, malnutrition, underdevelopment and cardiovascular disease: a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Vorster, H H; Kruger, A

    2007-01-01

    This article explores possible mechanisms to explain the known relationships between poverty, undernutrition, underdevelopment and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in developing countries. Poverty is a multidimensional concept. It is both a cause and consequence of undernutrition. The article shows how malnutrition during pregnancy could lead to low birth-weight babies, who are not only at increased risk of mental and physical underdevelopment, but also 'programmed' to be at increased risk of CVD and other non-communicable diseases in adult life. The underdevelopment leads to decreased 'human capital and competence' with an inability to create food security and an enabling environment for self and family to escape poverty and undernutrition in the next generation. It is accepted that a lack of education and knowledge in the poor for primary prevention of CVD through healthy eating patterns and lifestyles, as well as limited access to healthcare services for secondary prevention and treatment contribute to CVD. This article postulates that the link between poverty and CVD in South Africa can be explained by the high prevalence of undernutrition in one- to nine year- old children (9% underweight, 23% stunted and 3% wasted), the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults (54.5% in white men and 58.5% in African women) as well as the negative trends in nutrient intakes when Africans (the population group with the largest numbers of poor people) urbanise, acculturate and adopt westernised eating patterns that will increase CVD risk. In conclusion, we plead for a holistic, integrated but transdisciplinary and multisectorial approach to break the vicious circle of poverty and undernutrition for the longterm prevention of CVD.

  7. The Role of Public Schools in HIV Prevention: Perspectives from African Americans in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R.; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-01-01

    Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates…

  8. African Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Relevance of Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Hassan O.; Seleti, Yonah N.

    2013-01-01

    The higher education system in Africa and South Africa in particular, is still too academic and distant from the developmental challenges of African local communities. The integration of African indigenous knowledge systems (AIKS) into the higher educational system could improve its relevance. This is due to the holistic, community-based nature…

  9. Teachers' Exodus in South African Schools: A Smoke with Burning Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumadi, Mutendwahothe Walter

    2008-01-01

    African teachers in general and South Africans in particular face tremendous challenges, several of which are curriculum related. These challenges manifest themselves at various levels and in various areas, that is, from national level to within the classroom. There are various role players who may make a contribution towards overcoming these…

  10. The Role of Public Schools in HIV Prevention: Perspectives from African Americans in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R.; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-01-01

    Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates…

  11. Teaching Aids: Struggling with/through Student Resistances in Psychology Curricula in South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbraham, Lindy

    2016-01-01

    African universities have been called to respond to the social issues of trauma, adversity, injustice and inequality that trouble their embedding communities, their staff and their students. The need for South African universities to respond to HIV/Aids (in particular) includes the opening up of new knowledge about and ways of managing the impacts…

  12. African Language Publishing for Children in South Africa: Challenges for Translators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Viv; Ngwaru, Jacob Marriote

    2011-01-01

    The commitment to multilingualism embedded in the 1996 South African Constitution has wide ranging implications for many aspects of education. This paper focuses on the dearth of teaching and learning materials in African languages required to deliver effective bilingual education, and on the potential role of translation in offering solutions for…

  13. African Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Relevance of Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Hassan O.; Seleti, Yonah N.

    2013-01-01

    The higher education system in Africa and South Africa in particular, is still too academic and distant from the developmental challenges of African local communities. The integration of African indigenous knowledge systems (AIKS) into the higher educational system could improve its relevance. This is due to the holistic, community-based nature…

  14. Experiences of Chinese International Students Learning English at South African Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayliff, D.; Wang, G.

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to provide insight into the experiences of Chinese international students in some South African tertiary institutions. The study investigates their successes and failures in endeavouring to learn English and the culture shock and "learning shock" they endure when registering to study in an African country with an…

  15. "Inhloso Kanye Bizo": Exploring South African University Students' Conceptions and Enactment of Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Henry D.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative study that explored South African conceptions and enactment of life purpose. Data collected using semi-structured interviews with 25 first-year university students (female = 56%, age range = 18-25) offer a unique insight into African young adults' conceptions of life purpose. From a phenomenological analysis…

  16. Teaching Aids: Struggling with/through Student Resistances in Psychology Curricula in South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbraham, Lindy

    2016-01-01

    African universities have been called to respond to the social issues of trauma, adversity, injustice and inequality that trouble their embedding communities, their staff and their students. The need for South African universities to respond to HIV/Aids (in particular) includes the opening up of new knowledge about and ways of managing the impacts…

  17. The Impact of the Great Migration on Mortality of African Americans: Evidence from the Deep South

    PubMed Central

    Black, Dan A.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Evan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Migration—the massive migration of African Americans out of the rural South to largely urban locations in the North, Midwest, and West—was a landmark event in U.S. history. Our paper shows that this migration increased mortality of African Americans born in the early twentieth century South. This inference comes from an analysis that uses proximity of birthplace to railroad lines as an instrument for migration. PMID:26345146

  18. Experimental plague infection in South African wild rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, A. J.; Leman, P. A.; Hummitzsch, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Susceptibility studies were undertaken to determine the response of some South African wild rodent species to experimental plague (Yersinia pestis) infection. A degree of plague resistance was found in three gerbil species captured in the plague enzootic region of the northern Cape Province, these being the Namaqua gerbil, Desmodillus auricularis, (LD50 1 X 10(6) organisms), the bushveld gerbil, Tatera leucogaster, (LD50 9.1 X 10(5)) and the highveld gerbil, T. brantsii (LD50 4 X 10(2)). Animals from a population of the four-striped mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio, captured in the plague area of Port Elizabeth, proved moderately resistant to experimental plague infection (LD50 1.3 X 10(4)) while those from another population of the same species captured in a plague-free area of the Orange Free State were extremely susceptible (LD50, 5 organisms). The response of both populations however was a heterogeneous one. Marked differences in susceptibility were also found between two populations of multimammate mice, Mastomys natalensis (2n = 32) although both originated from areas outwith the known distribution of plague in southern Africa. The 50% infectious dose was relatively high in T. leucogaster (3.2 X 10(2)) and D. auricularis (1.7 X 10(3)), but was low (2-16 organisms) in the other rodent species tested. The plague antibody response, determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was extremely short-lived in T. leucogaster, only 10% of inoculated animals remaining seropositive at low titres after 11 weeks. Antibodies persisted for only slightly longer in the sera of T. brantsii which were reinoculated with 2 X 10(3) plague organisms 6 weeks after initial challenge. The demonstration of the existence of both susceptible and resistant populations of R. pumilio and M. natalensis indicates that these species must be considered as potential plague reservoir hosts in parts of South Africa. The results suggest that resistance to plague infection in previously epizootic

  19. "She Told Them, Oh That Bitch Got AIDS": Experiences of Multilevel HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Among African American Women Living with HIV/AIDS in the South.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Faith; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Kerr, Jelani; Buchberg, Meredith; Bogdan-Lovis, Libby; Philpott-Jones, Sean

    2016-07-01

    African American women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Although they constitute only 13% of the US population, African Americans account for nearly 65% of all new HIV infections among American women. In addition, this population suffers comparatively greater adverse health outcomes related to HIV status. African American women living with HIV in the South may be further burdened by HIV/AIDS stigma, which is comparatively more pronounced in this region. To further explore this burden, we used narrative data and the Social Ecological Model to explore how African American women living with HIV in the US South recount, conceptualize, and cope with HIV/AIDS stigma at interpersonal, community, and institutional levels. Our narrative analysis suggests that HIV-positive African American women living in the South are vulnerable to experiences of multilevel HIV stigma in various settings and contexts across multiple domains of life. Stigma subsequently complicated disclosure decisions and made it difficult for women to feel supported in particular social, professional and medical settings that are generally regarded as safe spaces for noninfected individuals. Findings suggest that the debilitating and compounded effect of multilevel HIV/AIDS stigma on HIV-positive African American women in the South warrants closer examination to tailor approaches that effectively address the unique needs of this population.

  20. Health promotion and disease prevention through sanitation education in South African Zulu and Xhosa women.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maria A; Garbharran, Hari; Edwards, M Jo; O'Hara-Murdock, Peggy

    2004-01-01

    Poor sanitation and hygiene facilitate transmission of environmental diseases and pose a threat to the health of South African residents. This study focused on identifying sanitation needs from the perspective of informal community residents, addressing need related issues, and empowering Zulu and Xhosa women. The study used a multistep approach to identify and access communities of interest, reflexive critique during data collection from 300 heads of households, and a reiterative process to identify major themes. A process, which impacted 1,467 residents, was developed; it included culturally sensitive presentation styles and educational materials that facilitated understanding of sanitation concepts. Main sanitation themes were health knowledge and community role models. Educational sessions incorporated women. Using women as educators elevated their status and validated their community importance. Project participation added to the educational background of the Zulu and Xhosa women. It empowered them and provided an opportunity for them to articulate community needs.

  1. Determinants of relative skeletal maturity in South African children.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Nicola L; Rousham, Emily K; Johnson, William; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; Cameron, Noël

    2012-01-01

    The variation of skeletal maturity about chronological age is a sensitive indicator of population health. Age appropriate or advanced skeletal maturity is a reflection of adequate environmental and social conditions, whereas delayed maturation suggests inadequate conditions for optimal development. There remains a paucity of data, however, to indicate which specific biological and environmental factors are associated with advancement or delay in skeletal maturity. The present study utilises longitudinal data from the South African Birth to Twenty (Bt20) study to indentify predictors of relative skeletal maturity (RSM) in early adolescence. A total of 244 black South African children (n=131 male) were included in this analysis. Skeletal maturity at age 9/10 years was assessed using the Tanner and Whitehouse III RUS technique. Longitudinal data on growth, socio-economic position and pubertal development were entered into sex-specific multivariable general linear regression models with relative skeletal maturity (skeletal age-chronological age) as the outcome. At 9/10 years of age males showed an average of 0.66 years delay in skeletal maturation relative to chronological age. Females showed an average of 1.00 year delay relative to chronological age. In males, being taller at 2 years (p<0.01) and heavier at 2 years (p<0.01) predicted less delay in RSM at age 9/10 years, independent of current size and body composition. In females, both height at 2 years and conditional weight at 2 years predicted less delay in RSM at 9/10 years (p<0.05) but this effect was mediated by current body composition. Having greater lean mass at 9/10 years was associated with less delayed RSM in females (p<0.01) as was pubertal status at the time of skeletal maturity assessment (p<0.01). This study identifies several predictors of skeletal maturation at 9/10 years, indicating a role for early life exposures in determining the rate of skeletal maturation during childhood independently of

  2. Research vulnerability: an illustrative case study from the South African mining industry.

    PubMed

    Horn, Lyn

    2007-12-01

    The concept of 'vulnerability' is well established within the realm of research ethics and most ethical guidelines include a section on 'vulnerable populations'. However, the term 'vulnerability', used within a human research context, has received a lot of negative publicity recently and has been described as being simultaneously 'too broad' and 'too narrow'. The aim of the paper is to explore the concept of research vulnerability by using a detailed case study - that of mineworkers in post-apartheid South Africa. In particular, the usefulness of Kipnis's taxonomy of research vulnerability will be examined. In recent years the volume of clinical research on human subjects in South Africa has increased significantly. The HIV and TB pandemics have contributed to this increase. These epidemics have impacted negatively on the mining industry; and mining companies have become increasingly interested in research initiatives that address these problems. This case study explores the potential research vulnerability of mineworkers in the context of the South African mining industry and examines measures that can reduce this vulnerability.

  3. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Keet, D.F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P.C.; Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I.J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Waveform Modeling Constraints on the South African Superplume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, D.; Ni, S.

    2003-12-01

    Tomographic studies of the lower mantle structure beneath South Africa reveal large-scale slow velocities from the core-mantle-boundary (CMB) to about a depth of 1500 km. Predicted SKS delay patterns (up to 3 sec) for some of these models fit observations (South African Array Data) quite well except for magnitude level, explaining less than ((1)/(2)) the anomaly. Moreover, the sharpness in travel time offsets and waveform complications require nearly vertical walls separating the anomalous structure from the normal PREM mantle. We present numerous record sections along with 2D and 3D synthetics displaying multi-pathing of arrivals (Sdiff, SKS, SKKS, S and ScS) based on our previous plume model. This ridge model has a crescent shape with one apex beneath the Indian Ocean (Kerguelen) with the other beneath the mid-Atlantic (Cape Verde). The structure extends upward through the lower mantle similar to Grand's model but with an average uniform velocity decrease of about 3% relative to PREM, although there is some evidence for a still slower core or upward doming near the middle of the structure. Some record sections fit the observed waveform complexity better than our standard model by injecting a thin (50 km wide) thermal boundary layer along the walls with depressed velocities. We have not found any evidences for ULVZ's beneath the main structure but ample evidence at some locations near the edges. We also analyzed Pdiff and the differentials of (PcP-P) along the same great circle paths (same events). The P-velocity is not very anomalous, perhaps -.5%, arguing for a chemical origin.

  5. Addressing Reading Underachievement in African American Boys through a Multi-Contextual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about reading disparities between African American males and other student groups. Interestingly, the majority of this scholarship focuses on African American males at preadolescent states of development and beyond. To date, relatively little has been documented relative to improving reading outcomes in African American males…

  6. On some sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from off the south and west coasts of South Africa collected by the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON).

    PubMed

    Thandar, Ahmed S; Rambaran, Ryan

    2015-08-07

    Twenty four specimens of holothuroids recently received from the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON), collected from off the south and west coasts of South Africa, are herein recorded and/or described. The specimens comprise eight nominal and one indeterminate species and represent both shallow-water and deep-sea forms, distributed from Plettenberg Bay to just north of Lambert's Bay in the Western Cape Province. There are no new species but two new records for the South African region and extensions of horizontal and bathymetric distributions of the other species. Additions to the South African fauna are Zygothuria lactea (Théel, 1886) and Synallactes cf. challengeri (Théel, 1886). The paper also contains the first definite record of Thyone venusta Selenka, 1868, originally described from the Red Sea. Distribution ranges of the following species have been altered Synallactes viridilimus Cherbonnier, 1952; S. mollis Cherbonnier, 1952 and Psuedostichopus langeae Thandar, 2009.

  7. South African managers in public service: on being authentic.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Antoni; Simbhoo, Nirvana

    2014-01-01

    South African managers in public service consistently face challenges related to managing a well-adjusted and productive diverse workforce. Following the notion that leadership authenticity fosters positive psychological employee capacity, the aim of this study was to explore the meaning essence of authenticity as lived in the work-life experiences of senior managers in public service. Five senior managers in public service were purposefully selected based on their articulated challenges with being authentic at work, whilst attending a diversity sensitivity workshop. From a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, in-depth interviews were used, and an interpretative phenomenological analysis yielded two predominant themes offering a description of what it means to be authentic. Authenticity is experienced as an affective state that results from a continuous self-appraisal of the extent to which expression of self is congruent with a subjective and socially constructed expectation of self in relation to others. Authenticity seems to develop through a continuous process of internal and external adaptation, and it leads to ultimately building a differentiated yet integrated identity of self. A reciprocal dynamic between feeling authentic and self-confidence alludes to the potential importance of authenticity dynamics in identity work.

  8. South African managers in public service: On being authentic

    PubMed Central

    Simbhoo, Nirvana

    2014-01-01

    South African managers in public service consistently face challenges related to managing a well-adjusted and productive diverse workforce. Following the notion that leadership authenticity fosters positive psychological employee capacity, the aim of this study was to explore the meaning essence of authenticity as lived in the work–life experiences of senior managers in public service. Five senior managers in public service were purposefully selected based on their articulated challenges with being authentic at work, whilst attending a diversity sensitivity workshop. From a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, in-depth interviews were used, and an interpretative phenomenological analysis yielded two predominant themes offering a description of what it means to be authentic. Authenticity is experienced as an affective state that results from a continuous self-appraisal of the extent to which expression of self is congruent with a subjective and socially constructed expectation of self in relation to others. Authenticity seems to develop through a continuous process of internal and external adaptation, and it leads to ultimately building a differentiated yet integrated identity of self. A reciprocal dynamic between feeling authentic and self-confidence alludes to the potential importance of authenticity dynamics in identity work. PMID:24434054

  9. Tuberculosis in a South African prison - a transmission modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnstone-Robertson, Simon; Lawn, Stephen D; Welte, Alex; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wood, Robin

    2011-11-01

    Prisons are recognised internationally as institutions with very high tuberculosis (TB) burdens where transmission is predominantly determined by contact between infectious and susceptible prisoners. A recent South African court case described the conditions under which prisoners awaiting trial were kept. With the use of these data, a mathematical model was developed to explore the interactions between incarceration conditions and TB control measures. Cell dimensions, cell occupancy, lock-up time, TB incidence and treatment delays were derived from court evidence and judicial reports. Using the Wells-Riley equation and probability analyses of contact between prisoners, we estimated the current TB transmission probability within prison cells, and estimated transmission probabilities of improved levels of case finding in combination with implementation of national and international minimum standards for incarceration. Levels of overcrowding (230%) in communal cells and poor TB case finding result in annual TB transmission risks of 90% per annum. Implementing current national or international cell occupancy recommendations would reduce TB transmission probabilities by 30% and 50%, respectively. Improved passive case finding, modest ventilation increase or decreased lock-up time would minimally impact on transmission if introduced individually. However, active case finding together with implementation of minimum national and international standards of incarceration could reduce transmission by 50% and 94%, respectively. Current conditions of detention for awaiting-trial prisoners are highly conducive for spread of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant TB. Combinations of simple well-established scientific control measures should be implemented urgently.

  10. Sex estimation from the long bones of modern South Africans.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Gabriele C; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Stull, Kyra E

    2017-01-01

    Best scientific practice for sex estimation incorporates accurate techniques that employ appropriate standards and population- and period-specific data. Single measurements provide accurate sex estimations, but multiple measurements and multivariate techniques offer greater validity to biological profile assessments. Appropriate, modern standards for sex estimation are limited to the cranium in South Africans (SA), which warrants the examination of the potential for sex estimation using the postcrania of socially defined SA blacks, whites and coloureds through multivariate models and advanced statistical techniques. A total of 39 standard osteometric measurements were taken from the postcrania of 360 socially defined SA blacks, whites and coloureds (equal sex and ancestry). Univariate and multivariate models were evaluated. Multivariate models, with cross-validation and equal priors, were explored with linear and flexible discriminant analysis (LDA and FDA, respectively). Classification accuracies associated with univariate models ranged from 56 to 89%, whereas multivariate classification accuracies using bone models (i.e. all measurements from one element) ranged from 75 to 91%. The highest correct classifications were achieved with multivariate subsets (i.e. combinations of measurements from different bones) and ranged from 90 to 98%. Overall, FDA and LDA yielded similar accuracy rates. Postcranial bones achieve comparable classification accuracies to the pelvis and higher accuracies than metric or morphological techniques using the cranium. While LDA is the most commonly used classification statistic in biological anthropology, FDA provides a good alternative for classification.

  11. Probable postpartum hypomania and depression in a South African cohort.

    PubMed

    Pingo, Janine; van den Heuvel, Leigh L; Vythylingum, Bavinisha; Seedat, Soraya

    2017-04-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of, and factors associated with, postpartum hypomania (PPH) and postpartum depression (PPD) in a South African sample. Data from 57 women were analysed as part of a larger prospective study of maternal stress in pregnancy. On day 3 postpartum, women were assessed for probable PPH using the Highs scale. On day 3 and at week 6, probable PPD was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), while social support was evaluated using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). PPH was present in 49.1% of the participants at day 3 postpartum whilst PPD was present in 33.3% of participants on day 3 postpartum and in 45.6% at week 6. Participants meeting the clinical cut-off for both PPH and PPD on day 3 (17.5%) had significantly higher depression scores at week 6 than those with only PPH (p = 0.010) or only PPD (p = 0.035) on day 3. Depression scores on day 3 and lower social support scores at week 6 were predictive of PPD at week 6. Consistent with findings in other settings, early-onset PPD and poor social support were predictive of persisting PPD (i.e. at week 6). Women meeting criteria for both PPH and PPD on day 3 had greater depressive symptomatology at week 6. This may be indicative of an underlying bipolar disorder and warrants further investigation.

  12. An Autopsy Survey of Bantu South African Coal-miners

    PubMed Central

    Chatgidakis, C. B.

    1963-01-01

    An autopsy survey of 1,010 Bantu South African coal-miners has been carried out in order to ascertain the commonest causes of death and the incidence of cardiorespiratory tuberculosis and of coal-workers' pneumoconiosis. These are consecutive autopsy cases. By law, all miners who die from any cause whatsoever, while still employed by the mines immediately before death, must be autopsied, but few autopsies are performed on repatriated miners who die in their homes. For this reason a serious bias has taken place and this limits the possibility of generalizing from this paper. The commonest cause of death was multiple injuries. Primary carcinoma of the liver was the commonest malignancy and the incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma was low. These are the usual findings in the Bantu. Active tuberculosis of the respiratory organs was found in 12% of cases. Coal-workers' pneumoconiosis was present in 26·8%, and 94% of these cases were of the simple type. There were only 17 cases of progressive massive fibrosis, and this is due to the fact that few autopsies were carried out on such cases. Active tuberculosis of the respiratory organs was present in 21% of cases with simple coal-workers' pneumoconiosis. The commonest cardiac lesion was chronic non-specific adhesive pericarditis. Myocardial infarction was absent in this series but this is not unusual as infarction of the heart is rare in the Bantu. PMID:14046162

  13. Antimicrobial activity and chemometric modelling of South African propolis.

    PubMed

    Suleman, T; van Vuuren, S; Sandasi, M; Viljoen, A M

    2015-10-01

    This study reports on the inhibitory and bactericidal properties of 39 South African (SA) propolis samples and three propolis samples from Brazil. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared and their antimicrobial activities tested using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays. Some samples displayed substantial antimicrobial activity with MIC and MBC values as low as 6 μg ml(-1) against Staphylococcus aureus. The correlation between liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) chemical data and the antimicrobial activity of propolis extracts was investigated using multivariate data analysis tools. Orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) models were created for the two Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and S. aureus) and Candida albicans. Using the S-plot function, it was possible to identify the bioactive constituents in propolis as chrysin, pinocembrin, galangin and pinobanksin-3-O-acetate. The SA propolis samples tested displayed noteworthy antimicrobial activity, favourably comparable to that of the Brazilian comparator and 'gold standard'. The observed antimicrobial activity of SA propolis can possibly be attributed to its flavonoid content. Based on the good antimicrobial activity observed for SA propolis, this natural resource shows promise and should be considered for development which may contribute to growing the bio-economy in the region. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. IYA2009 in Africa: A South African perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In Africa the stars have always been a part of people's everyday lives, be it in the form of folklore, superstition or even agricultural indicators. Modern astronomy, however, has not been very widespread, with only a few African countries having sufficient facilities or academics to support a modern astronomical community. The International Year of Astronomy serves not only as an opportunity to boost these astronomical communities, but also to celebrate the rich history and culture that has existed for thousands of years. On this, the poorest continent, with so many millions living in rural areas, there is one glaring advantage over other continents - people's abundant access to a dark night sky. We would like to see 2009 as the year that everyone in Africa, no matter what their background or lifestyle, turn their heads to the skies in appreciation of the beauty of the Universe, in celebration of their cultural heritage, and in the hope that they are inspired to overcome harsh challenges that this small planet and its occupants may have placed on them. It is an opportunity not just to promote astronomy, but also to spark curiosity and spur on a culture of learning. The perspective will be given from South Africa, home to a number of major astronomical facilities, and a major player in the development of astronomy across Africa. IYA2009 progress to date and plans for the future will be discussed.

  15. The importance of biographic research: a South African black nurses' perspective.

    PubMed

    Mhlongo, T P

    1999-09-01

    This article is an attempt to highlight the importance of biographic research to South African nursing. The writer believes that a particular attention should be paid to the contributions of South African Black/African nurse practitioners. South Africa has produced remarkable African nurses: they range from nurse Professors and Head of the University Nursing Departments to clinical nursing specialists and nursing administrators. The writer--having used the biographical approach in his Doctoral thesis--will highlight some practical and professional issues around biographic research. For the purpose of this publication, however, discussion will be confined to defining biographic research, reviewing different types of biographies, and discussing the value of the biographical research. Furthermore, the writer will identify some biographic concepts, examine their relationships, draw inferences and (hopefully) emerge with an increased understanding of the impact of biography as scientific concept.

  16. Race and Resources: Black Parents' Perspectives on Post-Apartheid South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2012-01-01

    The dismantling of apartheid in 1994 brought an array of democratic changes in South Africa, including changes in curriculum and educational policies. One of the most momentous changes was the desegregation of public schools. While this was significant in South African education politics, it presented some educational challenges, especially to…

  17. Evaluation of eLearning Usage in South African Universities: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagarukayo, Emily; Kalema, Billy

    2015-01-01

    Although eLearning is the use of technology for teaching, learning and assessment, there is no common approach to it across South African Higher Education Institutions. There is therefore a concern that the full potential of eLearning approach is not utilised. This paper examines the nature and the extent of eLearning activities in South African…

  18. Dual Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco among South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantao, Masego; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors associated with dual use of tobacco products in a population of black South African adolescents. Methods: Data were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed by a representative sample of grade 8 students from 21 randomly selected secondary state schools in the Limpopo Province, South Africa (n =…

  19. Education Quality in Post-Apartheid South African Policy: Balancing Equity, Diversity, Rights and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yusuf; Ahmed, Rashid

    2011-01-01

    In spite of numerous definitions of quality, consensus on what constitutes quality is less clear and contested. Using South Africa as a case study, this paper explores the current conceptual thinking and debates about education quality. Specifically the paper reviews selected South African policy texts to identify how some of the global dimensions…

  20. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS among Young South Africans in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…

  1. Responding to AIDS-Related Bereavement in the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demmer, Craig

    2007-01-01

    AIDS continues to be a death sentence for many individuals living in South Africa where it remains the leading cause of death. Little is currently known about what it is like to experience the loss of a loved one to AIDS from the South African perspective and how to assist individuals who are living in a context vastly different from similarly…

  2. Dual Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco among South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantao, Masego; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors associated with dual use of tobacco products in a population of black South African adolescents. Methods: Data were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed by a representative sample of grade 8 students from 21 randomly selected secondary state schools in the Limpopo Province, South Africa (n =…

  3. Beyond Passivity: Constructions of Femininities in a Single-Sex South African School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia; Pillay, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the calamitous effects of gender violence on the experience of schooling for South African girls, single-sex schools have been advanced as a strategy to protect girls from violence. In this paper, the experiences of a selected group of girls in a single-sex school in Durban, South Africa are illustrated to provide a counter…

  4. Navigating the Byways of Polyculturalism--Whose Dance Are We Teaching in South African Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The post-apartheid Dance Studies curriculum in South Africa is attempting to offer school learners both an education and training in dance as an art form. The outcomes-based syllabi are intended to ensure that learners come to respect the diversity of South African society, and therefore a range of dance styles and genres are offered in order to…

  5. "The Thing That Kill Us": Student Perspectives on Language Support in a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    South African higher education institutions, in line with international practice and as a result of the "social turn", are progressing towards mainstream academic literacy support for students. This shift has a political dimension in South Africa where, historically, disadvantage has had racial dimensions, in its departure from…

  6. The Introduction of External Quality Assurance in South African Higher Education: An Analysis of Stakeholder Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckett, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the take-up of proposals for a national quality assurance system in South Africa using different approaches to quality assurance to classify stakeholder responses to survey and interview questions. The context of the study was the introduction of an external quality assurance system for South African higher education by an…

  7. Responding to AIDS-Related Bereavement in the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demmer, Craig

    2007-01-01

    AIDS continues to be a death sentence for many individuals living in South Africa where it remains the leading cause of death. Little is currently known about what it is like to experience the loss of a loved one to AIDS from the South African perspective and how to assist individuals who are living in a context vastly different from similarly…

  8. The Gendered Nature of South African Teachers' Discourse on Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, R.; Francis, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, high pregnancy and infection rates show that many teenagers are having sex, and that they are not adequately protecting themselves against undesired pregnancies and disease. Sex education is usually taught as part of the subject area Life Orientation. In a qualitative study of 25 Life Orientation teachers in the South African Free…

  9. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS among Young South Africans in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…

  10. The Psychological Effects of Apartheid on the Mental Health of Black South African Women Domestics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohutsioa-Makhudu, Yvonne Nono K.

    1989-01-01

    Claims ideology of apartheid creates circumstances for feelings of incompleteness and inferiority among Black domestics in South Africa. Contends that apartheid has been created by the White racist minority to oppress and psychologically devastate the mental health of Black South Africans, particularly Black women domestics. (ABL)

  11. Corporal Punishment in Schools and Fundamental Human Rights: A South African Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsloo, Justus

    In many western countries, corporal punishment has been abolished as a form of punishment in criminal trials and in schools. Under South African common law, persons entitled to enforce discipline may inflict corporal punishment within certain guidelines established by the Supreme Court. For the first time in the Republic of South Africa (RSA), the…

  12. Beyond Passivity: Constructions of Femininities in a Single-Sex South African School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia; Pillay, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the calamitous effects of gender violence on the experience of schooling for South African girls, single-sex schools have been advanced as a strategy to protect girls from violence. In this paper, the experiences of a selected group of girls in a single-sex school in Durban, South Africa are illustrated to provide a counter…

  13. Fostering Disciplinary Literacy? South African Physics Lecturers' Educational Responses to Their Students' Lack of Representational Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Anne; Airey, John; Mayaba, Nokhanyo; Webb, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the South African Institute of Physics undertook a major review of university physics education. The report highlighted the necessity for further transformation of the teaching of physics, particularly in relation to the teaching of under-prepared students. In this article we examine how physics lecturers in South Africa reported how…

  14. The Emergence of Research in the South African Academic Development Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughey, Chrissie; Niven, Penny

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses an analytical framework developed from the work of philosopher Roy Bhaskar and sociologist Margaret Archer to explore the emergence of a body of research on teaching and learning in South African higher education. This research, generated in a field known as "Academic Development" in South Africa and as "Educational…

  15. Career Counselling in the 21st Century: South African Institutions of Higher Education at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, J. G.

    2009-01-01

    The current state of career counselling in South African institutions of higher education in the 21st century is explored in this article in an attempt to locate current work in the field of career counselling in South Africa in the light of global trends (academic and economic) and in terms of local history and current economic climate. The…

  16. Shifting the Future? Teachers as Agents of Social Change in South African Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappy, Christina Lane

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has risen to the forefront of educational debates that claim schooling can promote social justice and social cohesion. By drawing on Freire's (1970) theory of critical pedagogy, this paper examines how South African teachers in rural and township schools encourage students to reflect critically upon their own lives and take action to…

  17. Mock Languages and Symbolic Power: The South African Radio Series "Applesammy and Naidoo."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend

    2002-01-01

    Examines the text of a popular radio series in natal, South Africa in the 1940s, "Applesammy and Naidoo," with a view to adding to the historical data base on Indian South African English. A comparison is made between direct speech of the Indian characters in the series and tape recordings of pre-basilectal speakers. Data suggest the…

  18. Education Quality in Post-Apartheid South African Policy: Balancing Equity, Diversity, Rights and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yusuf; Ahmed, Rashid

    2011-01-01

    In spite of numerous definitions of quality, consensus on what constitutes quality is less clear and contested. Using South Africa as a case study, this paper explores the current conceptual thinking and debates about education quality. Specifically the paper reviews selected South African policy texts to identify how some of the global dimensions…

  19. The African Renaissance and the Transformation of the Higher Education Curriculum in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum is a critical element in the transformation of higher education, and as a result, I argue for the inclusion of what I refer to as an African epistemic in higher education curricula in South Africa. In so doing, attention is directed at the decolonisation of the curriculum in higher education in South Africa, which aims to give…

  20. History in Black and White: An Analysis of South African School History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Elizabeth; And Others

    Designed to examine the way that different ethnic groups are presented in South African secondary school history textbooks, this study gives special attention to the extent and nature of ethnic stereotyping in texts and the endorsement of particular social and political attitudes relevant to contemporary South Africa. By using a sociological…

  1. Shifting the Future? Teachers as Agents of Social Change in South African Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappy, Christina Lane

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has risen to the forefront of educational debates that claim schooling can promote social justice and social cohesion. By drawing on Freire's (1970) theory of critical pedagogy, this paper examines how South African teachers in rural and township schools encourage students to reflect critically upon their own lives and take action to…

  2. The Gendered Nature of South African Teachers' Discourse on Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, R.; Francis, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, high pregnancy and infection rates show that many teenagers are having sex, and that they are not adequately protecting themselves against undesired pregnancies and disease. Sex education is usually taught as part of the subject area Life Orientation. In a qualitative study of 25 Life Orientation teachers in the South African Free…

  3. Political Studies: An Entry into "Social Science Thought" in the South African Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tselapedi, Thapelo

    2016-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the epistemic orientation of the Politics discipline in South Africa, and specifically in "formerly white universities". The focus is to expose the disparity between this epistemic orientation and the South African locale that it finds itself in; that is, a locale whose history is different from its…

  4. Contradictory Transformations: Observations on the Intellectual Dynamics of South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Helena

    2009-01-01

    What sort of expectations of transformation of higher education have been aroused by liberation movements? Has the new South Africa fulfilled such expectations? This paper explores the promises and processes that have enveloped South African universities in recent decades. It focuses on the underlying assumptions shaping academic disciplines in…

  5. Navigating the Byways of Polyculturalism--Whose Dance Are We Teaching in South African Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The post-apartheid Dance Studies curriculum in South Africa is attempting to offer school learners both an education and training in dance as an art form. The outcomes-based syllabi are intended to ensure that learners come to respect the diversity of South African society, and therefore a range of dance styles and genres are offered in order to…

  6. Can Authoritarian Separatism Give Way to Linguistic Rights? A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heugh, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a background to recent developments in language planning in South Africa. Following a historical review, it focuses on a Bill of Rights in the new constitution which has, since 1993, demanded a shift towards rights-based language policy within a liberal framework. Debates within the Pan South African Language Board (PANSALB)…

  7. Online Learning in a South African Higher Education Institution: Determining the Right Connections for the Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queiros, Dorothy R.; de Villiers, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Online learning is a means of reaching marginalised and disadvantaged students within South Africa. Nevertheless, these students encounter obstacles in online learning. This research investigates South African students' opinions regarding online learning, culminating in a model of important connections (facets that connect students to their…

  8. The African Renaissance and the Transformation of the Higher Education Curriculum in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum is a critical element in the transformation of higher education, and as a result, I argue for the inclusion of what I refer to as an African epistemic in higher education curricula in South Africa. In so doing, attention is directed at the decolonisation of the curriculum in higher education in South Africa, which aims to give…

  9. "The Thing That Kill Us": Student Perspectives on Language Support in a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    South African higher education institutions, in line with international practice and as a result of the "social turn", are progressing towards mainstream academic literacy support for students. This shift has a political dimension in South Africa where, historically, disadvantage has had racial dimensions, in its departure from…

  10. Career Counselling in the 21st Century: South African Institutions of Higher Education at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, J. G.

    2009-01-01

    The current state of career counselling in South African institutions of higher education in the 21st century is explored in this article in an attempt to locate current work in the field of career counselling in South Africa in the light of global trends (academic and economic) and in terms of local history and current economic climate. The…

  11. HIV testing and self-reported HIV status in South African MSM: Results from a community-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Nel, Juan; Rich, Eileen; Reddy, Vasu; Yi, Huso

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of South African men who have sex with men (MSM) who (1) have been tested for HIV and (2) are HIV-positive. Methods Data were collected among 1045 MSM in community surveys using questionnaires which were administered either face-to-face, mail, or on the internet. The mean age of the men was 29.9 years. The racial distribution was as follows: 35.3% black, 17.0% coloured, 5.3% Indian, and 41.1% white. Results The proportion of MSM that were HIV-tested was 69.7%; having been tested was independently associated with being older, being more open about one's homosexuality, and being homosexually instead of bisexually attracted; black MSM, students, and MSM living in KwaZulu-Natal were less likely to have been tested. Of the 728 MSM who had ever been tested, 14.1% (n=103) reported to be HIV-positive (9.9% of the total sample). Being HIV-positive is independently associated with two factors: men who were positive were more likely to have a lower level of education and to know other persons who were living with HIV/AIDS; race was not independently associated with HIV status among those who had been tested. Conclusions The likelihood of having been tested for HIV seems to decrease with increasing social vulnerability. Racially, the distribution of HIV among MSM seems to differ from that of the general South African population, suggesting that while intertwined with the heterosexual epidemic, there is also an epidemic among South African MSM with specific dynamics. These findings suggest that in-depth research is urgently needed to address the lack of understanding of HIV testing practices and HIV prevalence in South African MSM. PMID:19028940

  12. Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

    2011-09-01

    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model

  13. Barriers to Clinical Trial Participation: Comparing Perceptions and Knowledge of African American and White South Carolinians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sei-Hill; Tanner, Andrea; Friedman, Daniela B; Foster, Caroline; Bergeron, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing data from a survey of African American and White residents in South Carolina, this study attempts to understand how to better promote clinical trial participation specifically within the African American population. To explore why participation is lower in the African American population, the authors examined two sets of potential barriers: structural/procedural (limited accessibility, lack of awareness, doctors not discussing clinical trial options, lack of health insurance) and cognitive/psychological (lack of subjective and factual knowledge, misperceptions, distrust, fear, perceived risk). Findings revealed that African Americans were significantly less willing than Whites to participate in a clinical trial. African Americans also had lower subjective and factual knowledge about clinical trials and perceived greater risk involved in participating in a clinical trial. The authors found that lack of subjective knowledge and perceived risk were significant predictors of African Americans' willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Implications of the findings are discussed in detail.

  14. Unregulated gambling in South African townships: a policy conundrum?

    PubMed

    Scott, Leanne; Barr, Graham

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to explore the nature of informal or illegal gambling in South African townships, to investigate what motivates people to participate in this form of gambling and what they perceive are the associated benefits and dis-benefits. A series of focus group workshops was conducted with two groups of gamblers, all of whom had experience of some form of township gambling: one group currently lived in townships and the other had previously resided in townships. Gambling for the township residents was a far more frequent activity than for non-township residents and consumed substantially more of their time. The majority of the township residents classified themselves as unemployed, while of those who were unemployed, most people indicated that gambling was a major source of their income; some even described it as their only source of income. The most significant difference between what township and non-township residents expressed as wanting and getting from gambling was that the former indicated quite clearly and unanimously that what they sought and gained from gambling was money. Township residents were far more likely to indicate that they used gambling to balance their budgets than ex-township residents who gambled primarily at casinos. A lottery type game called "Fahfee" is the most widely spread and pervasive form of gambling and was unanimously portrayed as a necessary and beneficial form of support for the poor and unemployed. Lottery and Casino gambling were, in contrast, widely perceived by the township participants as being 'rigged' and unfair. Township Dice and cards were perceived as being 'fairer' and as allowing punters to be more in control than casino gambling. The downside of township gambling was reported to be high levels of violence, crime and insecurity surrounding, in particular, the game of Dice. There was widespread inability to calculate expected payoffs or odds, and an apparent belief that these were not particularly

  15. Divergent thermal specialisation of two South African entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Hill, Matthew P; Malan, Antoinette P; Terblanche, John S

    2015-01-01

    Thermal physiology of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) is a critical aspect of field performance and fitness. Thermal limits for survival and activity, and the ability of these limits to adjust (i.e., show phenotypic flexibility) depending on recent thermal history, are generally poorly established, especially for non-model nematode species. Here we report the acute thermal limits for survival, and the thermal acclimation-related plasticity thereof for two key endemic South African EPN species, Steinernema yirgalemense and Heterorhabditis zealandica. Results including LT50 indicate S. yirgalemense (LT50 = 40.8 ± 0.3 °C) has greater high temperature tolerance than H. zealandica (LT50 = 36.7 ± 0.2 °C), but S. yirgalemense (LT50 = -2.4 ± 0 °C) has poorer low temperature tolerance in comparison to H. zealandica (LT50 = -9.7 ± 0.3 °C), suggesting these two EPN species occupy divergent thermal niches to one another. Acclimation had both negative and positive effects on temperature stress survival of both species, although the overall variation meant that many of these effects were non-significant. There was no indication of a consistent loss of plasticity with improved basal thermal tolerance for either species at upper lethal temperatures. At lower temperatures measured for H. zealandica, the 5 °C acclimation lowered survival until below -12.5 °C, where after it increased survival. Such results indicate that the thermal niche breadth of EPN species can differ significantly depending on recent thermal conditions, and should be characterized across a broad range of species to understand the evolution of thermal limits to performance and survival in this group.

  16. Variation in enamel development of South African fossil hominids.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Rozzi, Fernando Ramirez; Bromage, Timothy G

    2006-12-01

    Dental tissues provide important insights into aspects of hominid palaeobiology that are otherwise difficult to obtain from studies of the bony skeleton. Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which demonstrate daily secretory rhythms developing tissue-specific structures known as cross striations, and longer period markings called striae of Retzius. These enamel features were studied in the molars of two well known South African hominid species, Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus. Using newly developed portable confocal microscopy, we have obtained cross striation periodicities (number of cross striations between adjacent striae) for the largest sample of hominid teeth reported to date. These data indicate a mean periodicity of seven days in these small-bodied hominids. Important differences were observed in the inferred mechanisms of enamel development between these taxa. Ameloblasts maintain high rates of differentiation throughout cervical enamel development in P. robustus but not in A. africanus. In our sample, there were fewer lateral striae of Retzius in P. robustus than in A. africanus. In a molar of P. robustus, lateral enamel formed in a much shorter time than cuspal enamel, and the opposite was observed in two molars of A. africanus. In spite of the greater occlusal area and enamel thickness of the molars of both fossil species compared with modern humans, the total crown formation time of these three fossil molars was shorter than the corresponding tooth type in modern humans. Our results provide support for previous conclusions that molar crown formation time was short in Plio-Pleistocene hominids, and strongly suggest the presence of different mechanisms of amelogenesis, and thus tooth development, in these taxa.

  17. Appositional enamel growth in molars of South African fossil hominids.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G

    2006-07-01

    Enamel is formed incrementally by the secretory activity of ameloblast cells. Variable stages of secretion result in the formation of structures known as cross striations along enamel prisms, for which experimental data demonstrate a correspondence with daily periods of secretion. Patterns of variation in this daily growth are important to understanding mechanisms of tooth formation and the development of enamel thickness. Transmitted light microscopy (TLM) of histological ground sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of bulk specimens or their surface replicas are the usual methods for investigating cross striations. However, these methods pose some constraints on the study of these features in Plio-Pleistocene hominid enamel, the specimens of which may only rarely be sectioned for TLM or examined on only their most superficial surfaces for SEM. The recent development of portable confocal scanning optical microscopy (PCSOM) resolves some of the restrictions on fractured enamel surfaces, allowing the visualization of cross striations by direct examination. This technology has been applied here to the study of Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus hominid molars from the Plio-Pleistocene of South Africa. We hypothesize that these taxa have increased enamel appositional rates compared with modern humans, because despite having thicker enamelled molars (particularly P. robustus), the enamel crowns of these fossil taxa take an equivalent or reduced amount of time to form. Cross striations were measured in cuspal, lateral and cervical regions of the enamel crowns, and, within each region, the inner, middle and outer zones. Values obtained for A. africanus outer zones of the enamel crown are, in general, lower than those for P. robustus, indicating faster forming enamel in the latter, while both taxa show higher rates of enamel growth than modern humans and the African great apes. This demonstrates a relatively high degree of variability in the

  18. Acceptability of Early Antiretroviral Therapy Among South African Women.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Nigel; Norman, Emily; Leask, Kerry; Naicker, Nivashnee; Asari, Villeshni; Majola, Nelisile; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Karim, Salim S Abdool

    2017-02-21

    WHO guidelines recommend immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all individuals at HIV diagnosis regardless of CD4 count, but concerns remain about potential low uptake or poor adherence among healthy patients with high CD4 counts, especially in resource-limited settings. This study assessed the acceptability of earlier treatment among HIV-positive South African women, median age at enrollment 25 (IQR 22-30), in a 10 year prospective cohort study by (i) describing temporal CD4 count trends at initiation in relation to WHO guidance, (ii) virological suppression rates post-ART initiation at different CD4 count thresholds, and (iii) administration of a standardized questionnaire. 158/232 (68.1%) participants initiated ART between 2006 and 2015. Mean CD4 count at initiation was 217 cells/µl (range 135-372) before 2010, and increased to 531 cells/µl (range 272-1095) by 2015 (p < 0.001). Median viral load at ART initiation decreased over this period from 5.2 (IQR 4.6-5.6) to 4.1 (IQR 3.4-4.6) log copies/ml (p = 0.004). Virological suppression rates at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months were consistently above 85% with no statistically significant differences for participants starting ART at different CD4 count thresholds. A questionnaire assessing uptake of early ART amongst ART-naïve women, median age 28 (IQR 24-33), revealed that 40/51 (78.4%) were willing to start ART at CD4 ≥500. Of those unwilling, 6/11 (54.5%) started ART within 6 months of questionnaire administration. Temporal increases in CD4 counts, comparable virological suppression rates, and positive patient perceptions confirm high acceptability of earlier ART initiation for the majority of patients.

  19. Divergent thermal specialisation of two South African entomopathogenic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Malan, Antoinette P.; Terblanche, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal physiology of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) is a critical aspect of field performance and fitness. Thermal limits for survival and activity, and the ability of these limits to adjust (i.e., show phenotypic flexibility) depending on recent thermal history, are generally poorly established, especially for non-model nematode species. Here we report the acute thermal limits for survival, and the thermal acclimation-related plasticity thereof for two key endemic South African EPN species, Steinernema yirgalemense and Heterorhabditis zealandica. Results including LT50 indicate S. yirgalemense (LT50 = 40.8 ± 0.3 °C) has greater high temperature tolerance than H. zealandica (LT50 = 36.7 ± 0.2 °C), but S. yirgalemense (LT50 = −2.4 ± 0 °C) has poorer low temperature tolerance in comparison to H. zealandica (LT50 = −9.7 ± 0.3 °C), suggesting these two EPN species occupy divergent thermal niches to one another. Acclimation had both negative and positive effects on temperature stress survival of both species, although the overall variation meant that many of these effects were non-significant. There was no indication of a consistent loss of plasticity with improved basal thermal tolerance for either species at upper lethal temperatures. At lower temperatures measured for H. zealandica, the 5 °C acclimation lowered survival until below −12.5 °C, where after it increased survival. Such results indicate that the thermal niche breadth of EPN species can differ significantly depending on recent thermal conditions, and should be characterized across a broad range of species to understand the evolution of thermal limits to performance and survival in this group. PMID:26157609

  20. Incidence of the coracoclavicular joint in South African populations.

    PubMed Central

    Nalla, S; Asvat, R

    1995-01-01

    The presence of a diarthrotic coracoclavicular joint, as represented by an articular facet on the conoid tubercle of the clavicle and the superior surface of the coracoid process of the scapula, was investigated. The sample consisted of 60 white and 180 black South African (60 Sotho, 60 Xhosa and 60 Zulu) skeletons. Each group consisted of 30 male and 30 female skeletons. The presence of the articular facet was recorded as either bilateral, unilateral left or unilateral right. The effect of clavicular length, scapular size and first rib angle on the presence of the coracoclavicular joint was also investigated. The presence of the articular facet was noted in 23 (9.6%) of the 240 individuals studied. Of these 23 individuals, 6 (26.1%) were white and 17 (73.9%) were black. Males (56.5%) presented a higher incidence of this anomaly than females (43.5%). The articular facet occurred bilaterally in 47.9% (11/23), unilaterally on the left in 30.4% (7/23) and unilaterally on the right in 21.7% (5/23). Sexual, racial and tribal differences were not statistically significant. Individuals possessing the joint showed statistically significantly (P < 0.01) larger scapulae (increased border lengths and superior angles), longer clavicles and longer first ribs. No statistically significant differences in the first rib angles were observed between individuals who possessed the joint and those who did not, thus implying similar thoracic inlet size. It is proposed that the aforementioned morphometry of the scapulae, clavicles and first ribs may restrict associated movements of the scapulae, resulting in the development of the coracoclavicular joint. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7559137

  1. Mitigating intimate partner violence among South African women testing HIV positive during mobile counseling and testing.

    PubMed

    Brown, L Lauren; Van Zyl, Michiel A Riaan

    2017-09-13

    South African women continue to suffer disproportionately from the interlinked epidemics of HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). Effective strategies are needed to mitigate HIV-related IPV, which often creates barriers to successful engagement along the HIV continuum of care. More information is needed on how IPV impacts women's safety following mobile HCT diagnosis, and the HIV IPV Risk Assessment & Safety-planning (HIRS) protocol was developed to address several related gaps in knowledge. The sample included 255 black South African women experiencing IPV and testing HIV+ during mobile HCT in Gauteng province. Outcomes were compared between a standard of care (SOC) group and an Experimental group with two dosage levels (D1, D2). Of the total sample and in the last year, 99.2% had experienced non-violent control, 40.7% physical abuse, 44.8% sexual abuse, and 67.3% physical or sexual abuse. There were no significant differences in pre/post safety scores, or for satisfaction or acceptability items. The overall linkage rate was 45.8% (M = 12.97 days), and the Experimental group had more links to care in certain age groups-the highest in those aged ≤23 years in D1 (70%). The lowest linkage rate was for those aged 33-43 years in the SOC (22.2%). Almost two thirds of participants reported using the safety plan (61.9%), with 80% reporting it was helpful, and 80% using ≥1 safety strategy. The Experimental group reported significantly less violence upon partner notification of serostatus, but all groups felt significantly less safe getting to medical appointments by post-test. Overall, the study indicates the HIRS protocol is safe and helpful, brief to administer, and may mitigate violence during partner notification of serostatus, but further investigation is needed before implementing it as a standard of care.

  2. HIV misconceptions associated with condom use among black South Africans: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M; Skinner, Donald; Weinhardt, Lance S; Glasman, Laura; Sitzler, Cheryl; Toefy, Yoesrie; Kalichman, Seth C

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa, approximately 20% of 15–49-year-olds are infected with HIV. Among black South Africans, high levels of HIV/AIDS misconceptions (e.g. HIV is manufactured by whites to reduce the black African population; AIDS is caused by supernatural forces or witchcraft) may be barriers to HIV prevention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 150 young, black adults (aged 18–26; 56% males) visiting a public clinic for sexually transmitted infections, to investigate whether HIV/AIDS misconceptions were related to low condom use in main partner relationships. We assessed agreement with HIV/AIDS misconceptions relating to the supernatural (e.g. witchcraft as a cause of HIV) and to genocide (e.g. the withholding of a cure). In multivariate models, agreement that ‘Witchcraft plays a role in HIV transmission’ was significantly related to less positive attitudes about condoms, less belief in condom effectiveness for HIV prevention, and lower intentions to use condoms among men. The belief that ‘Vitamins and fresh fruits and vegetables can cure AIDS’ was associated with lower intentions among men to use condoms. Women who endorsed the belief linking HIV to witchcraft had a higher likelihood of unprotected sex with a main partner, whereas women who endorsed the belief that a cure for AIDS was being withheld had a lower likelihood of having had unprotected sex. Knowledge about distinct types of HIV/AIDS misconceptions and their correlates can help in the design of culturally appropriate HIV-prevention messages that address such beliefs. PMID:21804784

  3. Community engagement and education: addressing the needs of South Asian families with genetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasaim; Kerr, Gifford; Kingston, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Consanguineous marriage is common among the South Asian heritage community in the UK. While conferring social and cultural benefits, consanguinity is associated with an increased risk of autosomal recessive disorders and an increase in childhood death and disability. We have previously developed a genetic service to address the needs of this community. We report the extension of this service to include community-based initiatives aimed at promoting understanding of genetic issues related to consanguinity and improving access to genetic services. Our approach was to develop integrated clinical, educational and community engagement initiatives that would be sustainable on a long-term basis. The service provided for South Asian families by a specialist genetic counsellor was extended, and a series of genetics education and awareness sessions were provided for a diverse range of frontline healthcare workers. Two community genetic outreach worker posts were established to facilitate the engagement of the local South Asian population with genetics. The education and awareness sessions helped address the lack of genetic knowledge among primary health care professionals and community workers. Engagement initiatives by the genetic outreach worker raised awareness of genetic issues in the South Asian community and families affected by autosomal recessive disorders. All three elements of the extended service generated positive feedback. A three-stranded approach to addressing the needs of consanguineous families affected by autosomal recessive disorders as recommended by the World Health Organisation is suggested to be an acceptable, effective and sustainable approach to delivery of service in the UK.

  4. Application of FORDISC 3.0 to explore differences among crania of North American and South African blacks and whites.

    PubMed

    L'Abbé, Ericka N; Kenyhercz, Michael; Stull, Kyra E; Keough, Natalie; Nawrocki, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    Using discriminant function analysis, classification accuracies for ancestry and sex in white and black South Africans were compared using North American (FDB), African groups in Howells (HDB), and South African (SADB) databases in FORDISC 3.0. (FD3). Twenty-four standard linear measures were collected from a total of 86 black and 101 white crania obtained from the Pretoria Bone Collection. White and black South Africans classified 73% correctly in FDB, 55% correctly in HDB, and 71% correctly in SADB. The percentage of atypical cases was higher with FDB than SADB. In all three databases, misclassification occurred more with sex than ancestry revealing differences in sexual dimorphism between population groups. Broad ancestral differences may explain low misclassification rates for ancestry. FD3, with a modern South African reference sample, can assist South African anthropologists to standardize methodology and to justify procedures for estimating ancestry.

  5. Soft tissue thickness values for black and coloured South African children aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Briers, N; Briers, T M; Becker, P J; Steyn, M

    2015-07-01

    In children, craniofacial changes due to facial growth complicate facial approximations and require specific knowledge of soft tissue thicknesses (STT). The lack of South African juvenile STT standards of particular age groups, sex and ancestry is problematic. According to forensic artists in the South African Police Service the use of African-American values to reconstruct faces of Black South African children yields poor results. In order to perform a facial approximation that presents a true reflection of the child in question, information regarding differences in facial soft tissue at different ages, sexes and ancestry groups is needed. The aims of this study were to provide data on STT of South African Black and Coloured children and to assess differences in STT with respect to age, sex and ancestry. STT was measured using cephalograms of South African children (n=388), aged 6-13 years. After digitizing the images, STT measurements were taken at ten mid-facial landmarks from each image using the iTEM measuring program. STT comparisons between groups per age, sex and ancestry were statistically analyzed. The results showed that STT differences at lower face landmarks are more pronounced in age groups per ancestry as opposed to differences per age and sex. Generally, an increase in STT was seen between 6-10 year old groups and 11-13 year old groups, regardless of ancestry and sex, at the midphiltrum, labiale inferius, pogonion, and beneath chin landmarks. This research created a reference dataset for STT of South African children of Black and Coloured ancestry per age and sex that will be useful for facial reconstruction/approximation of juvenile remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Addressing cancer control needs of African-born immigrants in the US: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Song, Minna; Kigen, Ocla; Jennings, Yvonne; Nwabukwu, Ify; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2014-10-01

    Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African immigrants have worse cancer outcomes. However, there is little research about cancer behaviors and/or interventions in this growing population as they are generally grouped with populations from America or the Caribbean. This systematic review examines cancer-related studies that included African-born participants. We searched PsycINFO, Ovid Medline, Pubmed, CINHAL, and Web of Science for articles focusing on any type of cancer that included African-born immigrant participants. Twenty articles met study inclusion criteria; only two were interventions. Most articles focused on one type of cancer (n=11) (e.g., breast cancer) and were conducted in disease-free populations (n=15). Studies included African participants mostly from Nigeria (n=8) and Somalia (n=6). However, many papers (n=7) did not specify nationality or had small percentages (<5%) of African immigrants (n=5). Studies found lower screening rates in African immigrants compared to other subpopulations (e.g. US-born). Awareness of screening practices was limited. Higher acculturation levels were associated with higher screening rates. Barriers to screening included access (e.g. insurance), pragmatic (e.g. transportation), and psychosocial barriers (e.g. shame). Interventions to improve cancer outcomes in African immigrants are needed. Research that includes larger samples with diverse African subgroups including cancer survivors is necessary to inform future directions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Addressing Cancer Control Needs of African-born Immigrants in the US: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Song, Minna; Kigen, Ocla; Jennings, Yvonne; Nwabukwu, Ify; Sheppard, Vanessa B.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African immigrants have worse cancer outcomes. However, there is little research about cancer behaviors and/or interventions in this growing population as they are generally grouped with populations from America or the Caribbean. This systematic review examines cancer-related studies that included African-born participants. We searched PsychINFO, Ovid Medline, Pubmed, CINHAL, and Web of Science for articles focusing on any type of cancer that included African-born immigrant participants. Twenty articles met study inclusion criteria; only two were interventions. Most articles focused on one type of cancer (n=11) (e.g., breast cancer) and were conducted in disease-free populations (n=15). Studies included African participants mostly from Nigeria (n=8) and Somalia (n=6). However, many papers (n=7) did not specify nationality or had small percentages (<5%) of African immigrants (n=5). Studies found lower screening rates in African immigrants compared to other subpopulations (e.g. US born). Awareness of screening practices was limited. Higher acculturation levels were associated with higher screening rates. Barriers to screening included access (e.g. insurance), pragmatic (e.g. transportation), and psychosocial barriers (e.g. shame). Interventions to improve cancer outcomes in African immigrants are needed. Research that includes larger samples with diverse African subgroups including cancer survivors are necessary to inform future directions. PMID:25034729

  8. Addressing the Underrepresentation of African-Americans in Counseling and Psychology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haizlip, Breyan N.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been an upward trend in the number of African-American doctoral students completing counseling and psychology programs. However, despite these trends, African-American faculty continue to be significantly underrepresented as counseling educators and psychology faculty. Similarly, counseling education programs…

  9. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. Methods The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritonal status. Results Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%), was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97). HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Conclusions This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival. PMID:21439041

  10. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; Tollman, Stephen M; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier F; Dunger, David B; Kahn, Kathleen

    2011-03-25

    Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritional status. Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%), was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97). HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival.

  11. Unequal contribution of native South African phylogeographic lineages to the invasion of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Courant, Julien; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Rödder, Dennis; Measey, G. John; Backeljau, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Due to both deliberate and accidental introductions, invasive African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) populations have become established worldwide. In this study, we investigate the geographic origins of invasive X. laevis populations in France and Portugal using the phylogeographic structure of X. laevis in its native South African range. In total, 80 individuals from the whole area known to be invaded in France and Portugal were analysed for two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, allowing a comparison with 185 specimens from the native range. Our results show that native phylogeographic lineages have contributed differently to invasive European X. laevis populations. In Portugal, genetic and historical data suggest a single colonization event involving a small number of individuals from the south-western Cape region in South Africa. In contrast, French invasive X. laevis encompass two distinct native phylogeographic lineages, i.e., one from the south-western Cape region and one from the northern regions of South Africa. The French X. laevis population is the first example of a X. laevis invasion involving multiple lineages. Moreover, the lack of population structure based on nuclear DNA suggests a potential role for admixture within the invasive French population. PMID:26855879

  12. Unequal contribution of native South African phylogeographic lineages to the invasion of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in Europe.

    PubMed

    De Busschere, Charlotte; Courant, Julien; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Rödder, Dennis; Measey, G John; Backeljau, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Due to both deliberate and accidental introductions, invasive African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) populations have become established worldwide. In this study, we investigate the geographic origins of invasive X. laevis populations in France and Portugal using the phylogeographic structure of X. laevis in its native South African range. In total, 80 individuals from the whole area known to be invaded in France and Portugal were analysed for two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, allowing a comparison with 185 specimens from the native range. Our results show that native phylogeographic lineages have contributed differently to invasive European X. laevis populations. In Portugal, genetic and historical data suggest a single colonization event involving a small number of individuals from the south-western Cape region in South Africa. In contrast, French invasive X. laevis encompass two distinct native phylogeographic lineages, i.e., one from the south-western Cape region and one from the northern regions of South Africa. The French X. laevis population is the first example of a X. laevis invasion involving multiple lineages. Moreover, the lack of population structure based on nuclear DNA suggests a potential role for admixture within the invasive French population.

  13. Anoplodiscus Sonsino, 1890 (Monogenea: Anoplodiscidae): a new Australian species, and the first African record from South African hosts.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, David B; Christison, Kevin W

    2017-09-01

    Species of Anoplodiscus Sonsino, 1890 were previously only known from host members of Sparidae. A new species, Anoplodiscus hutsonae n. sp. is proposed for museum specimens originally collected from species of Scolopsis Cuvier (Nemipteridae) off Heron Island and Lizard Island, Australia. Additionally, Anoplodiscus tai Ogawa, 1994 is synonymised with Anoplodiscus cirrusspiralis Roubal, Armitage & Rohde, 1983 due to a lack of support for differential characters, and Anoplodiscus richiardii is considered a species inquirenda. Anoplodiscus cirrusspiralis causes visible lesions on the skin and fins of its host, and may also contribute to poor food conversion rates in sparid aquaculture. Anoplodiscus cirrusspiralis has been recorded from cultured sparids in Australia, Japan, South Africa, and South Korea, and was implicated as a disease agent in fish from the former two countries. However, the discovery of A. cirrusspiralis on Chrysoblephus gibbiceps (Valenciennes), Ch. laticeps (Valenciennes) and Cymatoceps nasutus (Castelnau) in South Africa, ?Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel) in South Korea, and P. auratus (Forster) in Australia, New Zealand and Japan suggests that this species may have a wide distribution and low host-specificity within the Sparidae. In South Africa, A. cirrusspiralis was first encountered on a morbid C. nasutus and Ch. gibbiceps from two public aquaria in 2009 (Two Oceans Aquarium, Cape Town and uShaka Sea World, Durban, respectively). Additional material was collected from C. laticeps kept at an abalone farm in Hermanus that originated from Struisbaai on the South African south coast. Anoplodiscus cirrusspiralis is redescribed from the South African specimens. This is the first record of a member of Anoplodiscidae Tagliani, 1912 from Africa.

  14. A South African Municipality Mapping the Way Forward for Social Inclusion Through Universal Design.

    PubMed

    Aalbers, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Since becoming a democracy, South African legislation has changed. The South African Constitution and legislation governing the structures and mandate of the different spheres of government aim towards municipalities needing to become more developmental in the way it serves the community with a specific focus on the poor and vulnerable. It sets ideals to overcome the inheritance of the past. However, how to do this is sometimes still unclear. This paper is a case study illustrating how Stellenbosch Municipality overcame obstacles of perceived legislative restrictions, silo operations and antiquated thinking, working towards social inclusion for all its citizens. In moving away from disability accessibility and embracing universal access as a way in which to deliver basic services, Stellenbosch discovered the beginning of the process of overcoming the negative legacy of the past. Understanding the Universal Design principles and approach illustrated how South African municipalities can promote the concept of our rainbow nation as envisioned in the Constitution.

  15. Addressing Low Colorectal Cancer Screening in African Americans: Using Focus Groups to Inform the Development of Effective Interventions.

    PubMed

    May, Folasade P; Whitman, Cynthia B; Varlyguina, Ksenia; Bromley, Erica G; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2016-09-01

    African Americans have the highest burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States of America (USA) yet lower CRC screening rates than whites. Although poor screening has prompted efforts to increase screening uptake, there is a persistent need to develop public health interventions in partnership with the African American community. The aim of this study was to conduct focus groups with African Americans to determine preferences for the content and mode of dissemination of culturally tailored CRC screening interventions. In June 2013, 45-75-year-old African Americans were recruited through online advertisements and from an urban Veterans Affairs system to create four focus groups. A semi-structured interview script employing open-ended elicitation was used, and transcripts were analyzed using ATLAS.ti software to code and group data into a concept network. A total of 38 participants (mean age = 54) were enrolled, and 59 ATLAS.ti codes were generated. Commonly reported barriers to screening included perceived invasiveness of colonoscopy, fear of pain, and financial concerns. Facilitators included poor diet/health and desire to prevent CRC. Common sources of health information included media and medical providers. CRC screening information was commonly obtained from medical personnel or media. Participants suggested dissemination of CRC screening education through commercials, billboards, influential African American public figures, Internet, and radio. Participants suggested future interventions include culturally specific information, including details about increased risk, accessing care, and dispelling of myths. Public health interventions to improve CRC screening among African Americans should employ media outlets, emphasize increased risk among African Americans, and address race-specific barriers. Specific recommendations are presented for developing future interventions.

  16. African and Caucasian body ideals in South Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Perrett, David I

    2011-01-01

    African women are often thought to be protected from developing eating disorder pathology because they experience less cultural pressure to be thin. Yet, to our knowledge, no previous study has quantified the African body ideals portrayed by the media. We determined the African and Caucasian body ideals portrayed by the media in the United States (US) and South Africa (RSA), by calculating the average body mass index of male and female fashion models in the respective countries. The African female body ideal was significantly heavier than the Caucasian body ideal in the US, but significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in RSA. The African male body ideal was significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in both countries. Findings indicate that the body ideals portrayed by the media parallel the previously reported eating disorder pathology for both sexes, and in both countries.

  17. Do Tutors Matter? Assessing the Impact of Tutors on First-Year Academic Performance at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Tracey Morton

    2016-01-01

    This research sought to determine if a teaching intervention using tutors in a South African university could promote epistemological access to university for first-year students. Although hiring, developing and managing tutors takes money, time and energy, the effectiveness of tutors in the South African context is underreported. The first-year…

  18. Post-Modern Career Assessment for Traditionally Disadvantaged South African Learners: Moving Away from the "Expert Opinion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, David; Alexander, Dinah

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the perceptions of learners from a disadvantaged community regarding the limitations and advantages of traditional and post-modern career assessment techniques in the South African context, when conducted in a group context. Through the use of traditional psychometric instruments, South African professionals are inclined to…

  19. "You Must Know Where You Come From": South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural coding.…

  20. Teachers' Perceptions about their Own and their Schools' Readiness for Computer Implementation: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Andre; Webb, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This case study, involving 30 participating teachers from six previously disadvantaged South African schools, provides data on teacher perceptions of the challenges related to implementing Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The schools had minimal resources as a residual result of the South African apartheid policy prior to 1994 and…

  1. "You Must Know Where You Come From": South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural coding.…

  2. Education for Democracy: Using the Classroom Community of Inquiry to Develop Habits of Reflective Judgement in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on an initiative to introduce, not the Philosophy for Children (P4C) programme itself, but its principles and some of its practices, into South African schools. The paper points out the conceptual links between P4C and the understanding of human development that underpins the new South African curriculum, and provides a brief…

  3. Challenges Experienced by District-Based Support Teams in the Execution of Their Functions in a Specific South African Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhalemele, Thabo; Nel, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an embedded mixed-method South African study that investigated the challenges experienced by District-Based Support Team (DBST) members in the sub-directorate of Inclusive Education of a South African province in the execution of their functions. A Likert-scale questionnaire and individual semi-structured…

  4. Challenges Experienced by District-Based Support Teams in the Execution of Their Functions in a Specific South African Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhalemele, Thabo; Nel, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an embedded mixed-method South African study that investigated the challenges experienced by District-Based Support Team (DBST) members in the sub-directorate of Inclusive Education of a South African province in the execution of their functions. A Likert-scale questionnaire and individual semi-structured…

  5. Call to Home: African Americans Reclaim the Rural South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Carol

    This book relates the story of urban Black Americans choosing to return "home" to the rural South. The book is based on research in rural areas in North and South Carolina, considered the top nonmetropolitan areas for Black Americans moving south. By 1975, the U.S. Census Bureau released the first numbers suggesting that the exodus of…

  6. A longitudinal study of the aftermath of rape among rural South African women.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Gail E; Davhana-Maselesele, Mashudu; Zhang, Muyu; Wong, Lauren H; Nicholson, Fiona; Sarkissian, Alissa Der; Makhado, Lufuno; Myers, Hector F

    2017-05-01

    Sexual assaults against women are a global health crisis, with alarmingly high rates in South Africa. However, we know very little about the circumstances and the aftermath of these experiences. Further, there is limited information about how factors specific to the rape (e.g., fighting back) versus those that are specific to the individual-and potentially modifiable-influence mental health outcomes. This study examined how situational characteristics of rape as well as individual and situational factors confer risk for symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dysfunctional sexual behavior at 12-month follow-up. Two hundred nine (N = 209) South African women were recruited from rural rape clinics in the Limpopo Province (LP) and North West Province (NWP) of South Africa. Interviews were conducted at baseline (within 6 months of the rape incident) and at 6 and 12 months by trained staff at the clinics in English or the women's native languages. Women were interviewed after services were provided in a private room. One hundred thirty-two (n = 132) women were lost to follow-up at 12 months, resulting in 77 women with interview data for all time points. Undermining by the survivor's social support system and an increased belief in myths about rape were associated with increased dysfunctional sexual practices and symptoms of depression. These findings demonstrate the need for interventions that address the most pervasive effects of rape over time. These behaviors can increase risks for revictimization and reduce psychological well-being in the aftermath of rape. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The Pedagogical Orientations of South African Physical Sciences Teachers Towards Inquiry or Direct Instructional Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Schuster, David

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, inquiry-based science instruction has become widely advocated in science education standards in many countries and, hence, in teacher preparation programmes. Nevertheless, in practice, one finds a wide variety of science instructional approaches. In South Africa, as in many countries, there is also a great disparity in school demographic situations, which can also affect teaching practices. This study investigated the pedagogical orientations of in-service physical sciences teachers at a diversity of schools in South Africa. Assessment items in a Pedagogy of Science Teaching Test (POSTT) were used to identify teachers' science teaching orientations, and reasons for pedagogical choices were probed in interviews. The findings reveal remarkable differences between the orientations of teachers at disadvantaged township schools and teachers at more privileged suburban schools. We found that teachers at township schools have a strong `active direct' teaching orientation overall, involving direct exposition of the science followed by confirmatory practical work, while teachers at suburban schools exhibit a guided inquiry orientation, with concepts being developed via a guided exploration phase. The study identified contextual factors such as class size, availability of resources, teacher competence and confidence, time constraints, student ability, school culture and parents' expectations as influencing the methods adopted by teachers. In view of the recent imperative for inquiry-based learning in the new South African curriculum, this study affirms the context specificity of curriculum implementation (Bybee 1993) and suggests situational factors beyond the curriculum mandate that need to be addressed to achieve successful inquiry-based classroom instruction in science.

  8. Revisiting the roles and responsibilities of speech-language therapists in South African schools.

    PubMed

    Wium, A M; Louw, B

    2013-12-01

    The role of speech-language therapists (SLTs) in schools in South Africa needs to be revisited based on the changing educational needs in the country. This article builds on a paper by Kathard et al. (2011), which discussed the changing needs of the country with regard to the role of SLTs working in schools. South African policy changes indicated a shift from supporting the child to supporting the teacher, but also place more emphasis on the support of all learners in literacy in an effort to address past inequities. This paper addresses several of the questions that emerged from Kathard et al. and explores the collaborative roles played by SLTs on four levels in the education context. Collaboration at the learner level (level 1) focuses on prevention and support, whereas collaboration at the teacher level (level 2) is described in terms of training, mentoring, monitoring and consultation. Collaboration can also occur at the district level (level 3), where the focus is mainly on the development and implementation of support programmes for teachers in areas of literacy and numeracy. Collaboration at the level of national and provincial education (level 4) is key to all other roles, as it impacts on policy. This last level is the platform to advocate for the employment of SLTs in schools. Such new roles and responsibilities have important implications for the preparation of future SLTs. Suggestions for curricular review and professional development are discussed. It is proposed that SASLHA responds to the changes by developing a position statement on the roles and responsibilities of SLTs in schools.

  9. Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: A Preliminary South African Health Promotion Activity Using Service-Learning Principles.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Sunitha C; Paphitis, Sharli Anne

    2016-06-01

    A marked increase in the chronic non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus in the South African population is in concert with global trends. A health promotion activity carried out by pharmacy students for school learners during the Sasol National Festival of Science and Technology (SciFest) in South Africa was used as a service-learning opportunity. Pilot tested quizzes on hypertension and diabetes were used to determine the level of knowledge of attendees before and after taking the computer based quiz. Posters, information leaflets and interactive models on these two conditions were also used to reach out to the larger population. Of the 203 participants for the hypertension quiz, 169 completed both the pre- and post-intervention quizzes. Similarly, 86 of the 104 participants for the diabetes quiz, completed both the pre- and post-intervention quizzes. The results show that the post-intervention quiz resulted in a significant increase in the scores from 78.2 to 85.6 % in the case of Hypertension while a marginal increase from 94.2 to 95.5 % was obtained in the case of diabetes. The knowledge of the SciFest attendees with regard to both conditions is above average and improved further after the educational intervention. Health promotion activities which include interactive educational methods and culturally appropriate materials carried out by pharmacy students during service-learning courses are important for improving the awareness on the prevention of these chronic health conditions. Heath promotion service-learning courses can assist in addressing the health care gaps which arise because of a lack of co-ordinated efforts between NGO's and local Government to address the prevention and management of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  10. Addressing poverty and HIV using microenterprise: findings from qualitative research to reduce risk among unemployed or underemployed African American women.

    PubMed

    Prather, Cynthia; Marshall, Khiya; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Williams, Kim; Eke, Agatha; O'Leary, Ann; Stratford, Dale

    2012-08-01

    Microenterprise programs are widely used to improve health outcomes among women internationally. However, there is little information on applicability to American women living in poverty. We conducted formative research to identify activities that are viable and attractive, that may produce income to address some proportion of economic need and could be incorporated in the development of a micro-enterprise HIV-prevention intervention to reduce HIV/STD transmission among unemployed or underemployed African American women at risk for HIV. Focus groups were convened with young African American women and community leaders in two southern states. Interviews with women participating in the focus groups were also convened. Findings suggest an intervention should incorporate activities to increase self-esteem, enhance employability and job sustainability to decrease financial dependence. This research serves as the foundation for developing a novel approach to HIV prevention in the U.S. that may directly address poverty as a social determinant of health.

  11. Lifestyles and routine activities of South African teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution.

    PubMed

    Lutya, Thozama Mandisa

    2010-12-01

    The United Nations estimates that 79% of teenage girls trafficked globally every year are forced into involuntary prostitution. About 247 000 South African children work in exploitative conditions; about 40 000 South African female teenagers work as prostitutes. This paper investigates lifestyles and routine activities of teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution. The key concepts involuntary prostitution, intergenerational sex and exploitative conditions are defined in relation to the lifestyles and routine activities of South African female teenagers. Human trafficking for involuntary prostitution is described, based on a literature review. Lifestyle exposure and routine activities theories help to explain the potential victimisation of these teenagers in human trafficking for involuntary prostitution. Actual lifestyle and routine activities of South African teenagers and risky behaviours (substance abuse, intergenerational sex and child prostitution) are discussed as factors that make teens vulnerable to such trafficking. This paper recommends that human trafficking prevention efforts (awareness programmes and information campaigns) be directed at places frequented by human traffickers and teenagers in the absence of a capable guardian to reduce victimisation, as traffickers analyse the lifestyles and routine activities of their targets. South Africa should also interrogate entrenched practices such as intergenerational sex.

  12. An evaluation of nasal bone and aperture shape among three South African populations.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Jennifer L; Kenyhercz, Michael W; L'Abbé, Ericka N

    2015-07-01

    Reliable and valid population specific standards are necessary to accurately develop a biological profile, which includes an estimation of peer-reported social identification (Hefner, 2009). During the last 300 years, colonialism, slavery and apartheid created geographic, physical and social divisions of population groups in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate variation in nasal bone and aperture shape in a modern population of black, white, and coloured South Africans using standard craniometric variables and geometric morphometrics, namely general Procrustes and elliptical Fourier analyses. Fourteen standard landmarks were digitally recorded or computationally derived from 310 crania using a 3D coordinate digitizer for discriminant function, principal components and generalized Procrustes analyses. For elliptical Fourier analysis, outlines of the nasal aperture were generated from standardized photographs. All classification accuracies were better than chance; the lowest accuracies were for coloured and the highest accuracies were for white South Africans. Most difficulties arose in distinguishing coloured and black South African groups from each other. Generally, misclassifications were noted between the sexes within each group rather than among groups, which suggests that sex has less influence on nasal bone and aperture shape than ancestry. Quantifiable variation in shape of the nasal aperture region between white and non-white South African groups was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Representations of MDR and XDR-TB in South African newspapers.

    PubMed

    Daku, Mark; Gibbs, Andrew; Heymann, Jody

    2012-07-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis has brought with it diverse perspectives concerning the way in which the disease should be managed. The media is an important source of these perspectives, as they perform the dual role of reflecting and shaping public discourse. In this study, we are interested in how the media presents multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in South Africa, where both variants are a growing public health concern. We examined newspaper content from 310 South African newspaper articles from February 2004 to July 2009 that discussed MDR-TB and XDR-TB. Newspaper articles were collected from the Dow Jones Factiva database and imported into QDA Miner v3.2.1 for analysis. Using Attride-Stirling's thematic network analysis method, articles were analyzed according to themes, sub-themes, and thematic networks. This analysis identified two main dimensions: causes of MDR/XDR-TB and treatment approaches/solutions. Causes of MDR/XDR-TB revolved around three main global themes: i) patient-centred causes (32.6%); ii) lack of infection control procedures (18.7%); and iii) health systems failures (19.4%). Treatment approaches or solutions to tackling MDR/XDR-TB focused on i) patient targeted solutions (38.4%); ii) improving infection control (12.3%); iii) systems restructuring (10.6%); and iv) new diagnostic and therapeutic options (10%). Our analysis identifies a trend in the South African media to identify a broad range of causes of MDR/XDR-TB, while emphasizing that treatment approaches should be directed primarily at the individual. Of particular importance is the fact that such a perspective runs contrary to the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations for approaching the TB epidemic, in particular by insufficiently addressing systemic and social drivers of the epidemic. Due to the media's potential influence on policy formation, how the media presents issues - especially issues

  14. Conducting health survey research in a deep rural South African community: challenges and adaptive strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the developing world, rural health requires focused policy attention, informed by reliable, representative health data. Yet there is surprisingly little published material to guide health researchers who face the unique set of hurdles associated with conducting field research in remote rural areas. Methods In this paper we provide a detailed description of the key challenges encountered during health survey field research carried out in 2010 in a deep rural site in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim of the field research was to collect data on the health of children aged 10 to 17 years old, and their primary adult caregivers, as part of a larger national health survey; the research was a collaboration between several South African and foreign universities, South African national government departments, and various NGO partners. In presenting each of the four fieldwork challenges encountered on this site, we describe the initial planning decisions made, the difficulties faced when implementing these in the field, and the adaptive strategies we used to respond to these challenges. We reflect on learnings of potential relevance for the research community. Results Our four key fieldwork challenges were scarce research capacity, staff relocation tensions, logistical constraints, and difficulties related to community buy-in. Addressing each of these obstacles required timely assessment of the situation and adaptation of field plans, in collaboration with our local NGO partner. Adaptive strategies included a greater use of local knowledge; the adoption of tribal authority boundaries as the smallest geopolitical units for sampling; a creative developmental approach to capacity building; and planned, on-going engagement with multiple community representatives. Conclusions We argue that in order to maintain high scientific standards of research and manage to ‘get the job done’ on the ground, it is necessary to respond to fieldwork challenges

  15. Trade in Educational Services: Reflections on the African and South African Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the emergence of globalisation and its impact on developments within the African continent. Africa's response at a regional level through the New Partnership for Africa's Development and at a subregional level through the Southern African Development Community's "Protocol on Education" come under…

  16. Trade in Educational Services: Reflections on the African and South African Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the emergence of globalisation and its impact on developments within the African continent. Africa's response at a regional level through the New Partnership for Africa's Development and at a subregional level through the Southern African Development Community's "Protocol on Education" come under…

  17. The Right to Basic Education for All: Addressing the Educational Needs and Barriers of Immigrant Learners in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marishane, Nylon

    2013-01-01

    The South African Constitution guarantees the right to basic education for all learners, including children of immigrants from across the country's borders. In view of this constitutional imperative, the Department of Basic Education is mandated to provide quality education to all learners, irrespective of their socio-economic and other…

  18. Autochthonous Transmission of East/Central/South African Genotype Chikungunya Virus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Marcela S; Cruz, Nádia V G; Schnellrath, Laila C; Medaglia, Maria Luiza Gomes; Casotto, Michele E; Albano, Rodolpho M; Costa, Luciana J; Damaso, Clarissa R

    2017-10-01

    We isolated East/Central/South African genotype chikungunya virus during the 2016 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Genome sequencing revealed unique mutations in the nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4-A481D) and envelope protein 1 (E1-K211T). Moreover, all Brazil East/Central/South isolates shared the exclusive mutations E1-M407L and E2-A103T.

  19. "There is nothing wrong with me": disability invisibility in a rural South African town.

    PubMed

    Visagie, Surona; Swartz, Leslie

    2017-04-11

    At a political and academic level, South Africa propagates a rights-based approach to disability. The aim of this paper is to explore how disability is conceptualized by persons with disabilities living in a rural area of South Africa. In keeping with explorative studies, the study utilized a qualitative design in the form of eight case studies. Case study participants were sampled purposively and data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed according to the principles of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Five themes evolved from the findings. These were no identification with disability, individual approach to disability, the role of personal factors, the role of Christianity as well as attitudes, and support of significant others. Findings showed that there is a need to bridge the divide between rhetoric and reality for these participants whose stories might resonate with those of many other South Africans. Implications for rehabilitation South Africa is seen as a country that has an inclusive approach to disability and approach disability from a human rights angle. The article shows that some South Africans are excluded from the dialog on disability, human rights, access, and health care. Their health and community integration outcomes are left to crippling beliefs about disability, chance and personal attributes. The academic and political rhetoric does not describe the situation of study participants, and by assuming all South Africans are included, it further marginalizes them.

  20. An overview of a cohort of South African patients with mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Smuts, Izelle; Louw, Roan; du Toit, Hanli; Klopper, Brenda; Mienie, Lodewyk J; van der Westhuizen, Francois H

    2010-12-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are frequently encountered inherited diseases characterized by unexplained multisystem involvement with a chronic, intermittent, or progressive nature. The objective of this paper is to describe the profile of patients with mitochondrial disorders in South Africa. Patients with possible mitochondrial disorders were accessed over 10 years. Analyses for respiratory chain and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex enzymes were performed on muscle. A diagnosis of a mitochondrial disorder was accepted only if an enzyme activity was deficient. Sixty-three patients were diagnosed with a mitochondrial disorder, including 40 African, 20 Caucasian, one mixed ancestry, and two Indian patients. The most important findings were the difference between African patients and other ethnicities: respiratory chain enzyme complexes CI+III or CII+III deficiencies were found in 52.5% of African patients, being of statistical significance (p value = 0.0061). They also presented predominantly with myopathy (p value = 0.0018); the male:female ratio was 1:1.2. Twenty-five (62.5%) African patients presented with varying degrees of a myopathy accompanied by a myopathic face, high palate, and scoliosis. Fourteen of these 25 also had ptosis and/or progressive external ophthalmoplegia. No patients of other ethnicities presented with this specific myopathic phenotype. Caucasian patients (16/20) presented predominantly with central nervous system involvement. Of the South African pediatric neurology patients, Africans are more likely to present with myopathy and CII+III deficiency, and Caucasian patients are more likely to present with encephalopathy or encephalomyopathy.

  1. African American Women and HIV/AIDS: A National Call for Targeted Health Communication Strategies to Address a Disparity

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Monisha; Behforouz, Heidi L.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    Dr Arya is assistant professor of medicine in the section of infectious diseases at the Baylor College of Medicine and a health services researcher at the Houston Center for Quality of Care and Utilization Studies in Houston. Dr Behforouz is assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, medical and executive director of the Prevention and Access to Care and Treatment Project, and associate physician in the Brigham Internal Medicine Associates at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston. Dr Viswanath is associate professor of society, human development and health at the Harvard School of Public Health and director of the Health Communication Core of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, Boston. At the time of manuscript submission, Dr Arya was a fellow in the division of infectious diseases at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School. African American women are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. To address this disparity, the CDC released a call for targeted communication campaigns in African American communities. The mass media is an HIV/AIDS information source used by African Americans, and media initiatives can be cost-effective for delivering HIV prevention messages. Needed is research in communities at risk to determine the messages needed and the preferred formats and channels with which to deliver the messages so that targeted communication campaigns can be part of the multifaceted approach to ending the HIV/AIDS disparity affecting African American women. PMID:19271331

  2. U.S. Church-Related Funding for Change in South Africa: An Analysis and an Inventory. South African Information Exchange Working Paper Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micou, Ann McKinstry

    A working paper on U.S. church-related funding for (or sponsorship of) South African programs is presented to guide support-seeking organizations in South Africa to appropriate resources and to inform interested parties outside South Africa about potential resources and ways in which they might cooperate or assist. Information is provided in two…

  3. Government Funding as Leverage for Quality Teaching and Learning: A South African Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essack, Sabiha Y.; Naidoo, Indirani; Barnes, Glen

    2010-01-01

    The South African Higher Education Funding Framework uses funding as a lever to achieve equitable student access, quality teaching and research, and improved student retention and success. Maximising a university subsidy from the national Department of Education necessitates innovative strategies at the pre- and post-student admission stages. This…

  4. Provision of Mental Health Services in South African Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan

    2009-01-01

    To date, South African research has not examined mental health service provision in substance abuse treatment facilities, even though these services improve client retention and treatment outcomes. To describe the extent to which substance abuse treatment facilities in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provide clients with mental health services…

  5. Leading and Managing in Complexity: The Case of South African Deans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Oliver; Cross, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, deanship in universities has become more complex and challenging. Deans in South African universities take up their positions without appropriate training and prior executive experience, and with no clear understanding of the ambiguity and complexity of their roles. This paper calls for appropriate leadership development…

  6. Problematising the Standardisation of Leadership and Management Development in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    In 2007 the Department of Education introduced the standards-based Advanced Certificate in Education: School Management and Leadership. The standardisation of leadership and management development in South African schools has been uncritically accepted by most academics and professionals. The purpose of this article is to problematise the…

  7. "Disappearance" and Feminist Research in the South African Academy of Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Following a global trend in humanities since the mid-1970s, South African humanities faculties began to include formal programmes in gender and sexualities studies from the mid-1990s on. While the immediate post-flag democratic era encouraged intellectual concentration on diverse questions of power and knowledge, the new century saw a decline in…

  8. Economic Status, Community Danger and Psychological Problems among South African Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarin, Oscar A.; Richter, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the role of community violence and poverty in the psychological difficulties of South African children residing in black townships. Mothers' ratings of their 6-year-olds confirmed community danger as a risk factor for anxiety, depression, aggression, and low affability in children. Lower socioeconomic status was unrelated to…

  9. Career Choice and Unemployment Length: A Study of Graduates from a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncayi, Precious; Dunga, Steven Henry

    2016-01-01

    Graduate unemployment is especially problematic in a country where much emphasis is placed on furthering academic studies for economic and personal rewards. This article investigates the relationship between career choice and unemployment length among graduates from a South African university. Data were collected by means of a survey questionnaire…

  10. Family Structure, Parental Investment, and Educational Outcomes among Black South Africans. Population Studies Center Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kermyt G.

    This study examined the relationship between family structure, expenditures on education, and children's educational outcomes for black South Africans, using the nationally representative 1995 October Household Survey. The analyses focused on 28,215 individuals, ages 10 to 24 years, who had not completed secondary schools. The findings indicated…

  11. Teaching of Chemical Bonding: A Study of Swedish and South African Students' Conceptions of Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmermark, Anders; Ohrstrom, Lars; Mårtensson, Jerker; Davidowitz, Bette

    2016-01-01

    Almost 700 Swedish and South African students from the upper secondary school and first-term chemistry university level responded to our survey on concepts of chemical bonding. The national secondary school curricula and most common textbooks for both countries were also surveyed and compared for their content on chemical bonding. Notable…

  12. Drivers of Learning Management System Use in a South African Open and Distance Learning Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, Peet; van Rensburg, Mari Jansen; Davis, Annemarie

    2012-01-01

    The study on which this article reports examined the determinants of usage of an online learning management system (LMS) by fourth level business students at a South African open and distance learning university using an extension of the widely used technology acceptance model (TAM) as a theoretical basis. A survey was conducted among students at…

  13. Learning Difficulties Experienced by Grade 12 South African Students in the Chemical Representation of Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Joseph, Aleyamma

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the learning difficulties of grade 12 South African students in a national chemistry examination. A quantitative analysis of students' performance in the examination revealed there was a significant difference between student performance in questions where students needed to execute a transformation across levels of…

  14. "Once upon a Time in Bearland": Longitudinal Development of Fictional Narratives in South African Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willenberg, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Children's narrative skills have been widely studied in North America, but there is a paucity of African research. Within South Africa's diverse socio-cultural context, this study of mixed-race children explored the development of narrative production and the influence of home background variables. Using the Bear Story picture prompt, this…

  15. Generating Social Capital at the Workplace: A South African Case of Inside-Out Social Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovey, Ken; Onyx, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    A case study of a South African workplace illustrated how workplace learning and experience of team culture influenced changes in workers' family life and community participation. Results showed how social capital is generated from within for the benefit of civil society. (Contains 35 references.) (SK)

  16. Between People-Pleasing and Mathematizing: South African Learners' Struggle for Numeracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyd-Metzuyanim, Einat; Graven, Mellony

    2016-01-01

    The reported research attempts to trace possible reasons for third grade learners' limited progress in numeracy in a low socioeconomic status (SES) South African context. This is done through two lenses, both stemming from Sfard's commognitive (The term "commognition" has been offered by Sfard (2008) as an amalgam of…

  17. Autonomy and Accountability in the Regulation of the Teaching Profession: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Jonathan D.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the struggles of the South African government to establish school-wide evaluation policies within post-apartheid institutions. It is demonstrated that even when such evaluation policies promise teacher development and whole-school improvement, there is significant resistance to government intervention in the school…

  18. Adding Net Value: The Nature of Online Education at a South African Residential Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axmann, Mandi; Fourie, Wiida; Papo, William Duncan

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of online learning focuses on course development at a South African residential institution that incorporated online assignments into a face-to-face journalism course to introduce information technology. Describes course structure, activities, assessment methods, student involvement, and problems with students' lack of computer skills…

  19. Technophobia and Personality Subtypes in a Sample of South African University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, L. M.; Clarke, M. C.; Anderson, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined levels of techophobia, described as negative psychological reactions toward technology, in a sample of South African university students. Describes use of the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and reports results that show techophobia was inversely correlated with computer experience, weakly correlated with age, but not associated with…

  20. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Jacobus Gideon

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  1. A Culture in Transition: Poor Reading and Writing Ability among Children in South African Townships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors contributing to poor literacy and numeracy development among black South African children ages 5.5 to 7 years. Findings pointed to a conglomerate of factors, namely inadequate visual-motor integration, poor visual analysis and synthesis, poor fine motor development, and inadequate exposure to mediated reading and…

  2. South African Teacher Voices: Recurring Resistances and Reconstructions for Teacher Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper will focus on the shifts in discourses about teacher education and teacher voice within the South African research and policy environment over the last four decades. The alignment of the political and educational agenda in providing resistance to the apartheid system culminated in 1994, the start of the new democracy. The preceding…

  3. Creating Supportive Learning Environments: Experiences of Lesbian and Gay-Parented Families in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breshears, Diana; Lubbe-De Beer, Carien

    2016-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 12 children in lesbian/gay-parented families, we explored the experiences of this unique family form in South African schools. Specifically, families reflected on their positive and negative experiences in the children's education and used these reflections to offer advice to teachers and…

  4. Learner Support Requirements for Online Workplace Training in the South African Furniture Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Iain S.; Bullen, Mark; Kozak, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    A qualitative research project was conducted to evaluate the suitability of e-learning as a means of delivering training to workplace learners in the South African furniture manufacturing sector. Twenty learners participated in a three-month pilot e-learning course and were monitored throughout. While the study was designed primarily to…

  5. Perceptions of Fortune and Misfortune in Older South African Households: Social Assistance and the "Good Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Valerie; Radloff, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that better living standards will boost subjective well-being. The post-apartheid South African government subscribes to this idea; its social policies aim to provide "a better life for all". Since the coming of democracy in 1994, the state has built over 3 million houses and supplied electricity and clean water to…

  6. The Emergence of Marketing and Communications Strategy in South African Further Education and Training Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Simon; Akoojee, Salim

    2007-01-01

    South African further education and training (FET) colleges have been enjoined to become more responsive to their external environment, in keeping with international trends in public vocational education and training (VET) reform. One mechanism for achieving this goal is to market colleges and communicate more effectively to future students,…

  7. Valuing and Revaluing Education: What Can We Learn about Measurement from the South African Poor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reflects on the identification of relevant aspects of education for measurement purposes. It begins by reviewing some detailed lists of educational capabilities from disparate literatures. It then considers how ordinary South Africans perceive education by drawing on two open-ended surveys, and attempts to reconcile their views with…

  8. Differences in Students' Reading Comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards: A South African Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee, Stephen A.; Janse van Rensburg, Cecile; Schmulian, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This study explores differences in students' reading comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards in a South African financial reporting class with a heterogeneous student cohort. Statistically significant differences were identified for prior academic performance, language of instruction, first language and enrolment in the…

  9. The Achievement Goals Orientation of South African First Year University Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain; Ramaila, Sam

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the achievement goals orientation of first year physics students at a South African university. The mixed methods design involved a quantitative survey of 291 students using an achievement goals questionnaire and individual interviews of selected participants. Results showed that the students perceived they have a stronger…

  10. Developing Self-Expression and Community among South African Women with Persona Doll Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Dorothy Yumi

    2014-01-01

    Township-dwelling Black South African women must cope with an array of traumatizing stressors that stunt individual voice and diminish the creation of supportive female communities. At issue was the capacity of women under these conditions to thrive as individuals and contributing members of society, thus the rationale for this project study. The…

  11. South African Academia in Crisis: The Spread of "Contrived Collegial Managerialism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, on the eve of rationalisation of South African higher education, J. M. Coetzee published a book entitled "Disgrace". In this publication he narrates the tale of a Classics and Modern Languages professor transformed into an adjunct professor of Communications, a marketable identity, as a consequence of rationalisation. Coetzee,…

  12. Between People-Pleasing and Mathematizing: South African Learners' Struggle for Numeracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyd-Metzuyanim, Einat; Graven, Mellony

    2016-01-01

    The reported research attempts to trace possible reasons for third grade learners' limited progress in numeracy in a low socioeconomic status (SES) South African context. This is done through two lenses, both stemming from Sfard's commognitive (The term "commognition" has been offered by Sfard (2008) as an amalgam of…

  13. Rainbow Nation's "Ubuntu": Discovering Distinctness as a Spectrum through South African Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Colin Bridges

    2007-01-01

    Apartheid created more than physical distances between color groups; South Africa is made up of people with often separated minds. Leaders of the democratic government draw from and modify the ancient African tribal value called "ubuntu" as the philosophic basis for their cultural strategy of unification. Sandra Chait has pointed out…

  14. Measuring and Monitoring in the South African "Kha Ri Gude" Mass Literacy Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    After many previous failed attempts to reach illiterate adults, the award-winning South African "Kha Ri Gude" mass literacy campaign, launched in 2008, undertook to ensure that learners seized the opportunity to learn--for many adults, this was a "last chance". Written from an insider perspective by the campaign's founding…

  15. Career Choice and Unemployment Length: A Study of Graduates from a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncayi, Precious; Dunga, Steven Henry

    2016-01-01

    Graduate unemployment is especially problematic in a country where much emphasis is placed on furthering academic studies for economic and personal rewards. This article investigates the relationship between career choice and unemployment length among graduates from a South African university. Data were collected by means of a survey questionnaire…

  16. Using Collaborative Learning Exercises to Transfer Pervasive Skills: Some South African Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss-Keevy, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The Competency Framework, introduced by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA) details technical competencies, but also places emphasis on the pervasive skills that need to be attained by candidates for them to qualify as chartered accountants (CAs). Thus, an additional onus has been placed on academics to ensure that they…

  17. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea

    2006-01-01

    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  18. Towards an Integrated Learning Strategies Approach to Promoting Scientific Literacy in the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on selected recent South African research studies that have explored efforts to promote the discussion, writing, and arguing aspects of scientific literacy in primary and middle schools, particularly amongst second-language learners. These studies reveal improvements in the participants' abilities to both use the…

  19. Unpacking the Predominance of Case Study Methodology in South African Postgraduate Educational Research, 1995-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, P.; Davey, B.; Balfour, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Project Postgraduate Educational Research (PPER) data indicate that case study is the most popular methodology among South African education masters and doctorate students in the period 1995-2004. This article reflects on the reasons for the preference for case study by considering epistemological and contextual factors. It unpacks the links…

  20. Comparing Fears in South African Children with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visagie, Lisa; Loxton, Helene; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Steel, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study presented here was to determine whether significant differences exist between the fear profiles of South African children in middle childhood (aged 8-13) with different levels of visual impairments and those of their sighted counterparts. Methods: A differential research design was used, and a total of 129…

  1. Necessary versus Sufficient Conditions for Using New Languages in South African Higher Education: A Linguistic Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend

    2008-01-01

    This paper critically examines one particular issue against the background of changes in South Africa's higher education system consequent upon the advent of a non-racial democracy--the possibility of implementing multilingual instructional polices that include indigenous African languages in its universities. Currently, a great deal of applied…

  2. Motion Event Categorisation in a Nativised Variety of South African English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Emanuel; Athanasopoulos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    The present study seeks to expand the current focus on acquisition situations in linguistic relativity research by exploring the effects of nativisation (the process by which a L2 is acquired as a L1) on language-specific cognitive behaviour. Categorisation preferences of goal-oriented motion events were investigated in South African speakers who…

  3. Are South African Geography Education Students Ready for Problem-Based Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golightly, Aubrey; Muniz, Osvaldo A.

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is one of the possible training strategies that could be more fully implemented in the South African formal education system. The intention to migrate from teacher-centred to learner-centred instructions in higher education institutions and schools makes PBL a plausible option. Geography education students might be…

  4. Spread of Chikungunya Virus East/Central/South African Genotype in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Charlys da Costa, Antonio; Thézé, Julien; Komninakis, Shirley Cavalcante Vasconcelos; Sanz-Duro, Rodrigo Lopes; Felinto, Marta Rejane Lemos; Moura, Lúcia Cristina Corrêa; Barroso, Ivoneide Moreira de Oliveira; Santos, Lucineide Eliziario Correia; Nunes, Mardjane Alves de Lemos; Moura, Adriana Avila; Lourenço, José; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric L; Guimarães, Maria Raquel Dos Anjos Silva; Pybus, Oliver G; Sabino, Ester C; Faria, Nuno R

    2017-10-01

    We investigated an outbreak of exanthematous illness in Maceió by using molecular surveillance; 76% of samples tested positive for chikungunya virus. Genetic analysis of 23 newly generated genomes identified the East/Central/South African genotype, suggesting that this lineage has persisted since mid-2014 in Brazil and may spread in the Americas and beyond.

  5. Comparing Fears in South African Children with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visagie, Lisa; Loxton, Helene; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Steel, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study presented here was to determine whether significant differences exist between the fear profiles of South African children in middle childhood (aged 8-13) with different levels of visual impairments and those of their sighted counterparts. Methods: A differential research design was used, and a total of 129…

  6. How Would Ludwig Wittgenstein Have Performed in the Current South African Higher Education System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2009-01-01

    The pressure to perform has migrated from the corporate world into academe. Academics across the globe feel this pressure to perform, often expressed as "publish or perish". I reflect on the rising culture of performativity in recent decades and how it has penetrated South African universities. In doing so, I specifically look at the…

  7. Educational Renovation in a South African "Township on the Move": A Social-Spatial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fataar, Aslam

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an account of the ways education reform has been mediated in one South African township. It suggests that the normative policy intentions of the reforming post-apartheid state have been reworked in light of the specific social configuration of the township and its schools. It employs social-spatial lenses to understand the…

  8. The Nature, Causes and Effects of School Violence in South African High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ncontsa, Vusumzi Nelson; Shumba, Almon

    2013-01-01

    We sought to investigate the nature, causes and effects of school violence in four South African high schools. A purposive sample of five principals, 80 learners and 20 educators was selected from the four schools used in the study. A sequential mixed method approach was used in this study; both questionnaires and interviews were used. The design…

  9. An Assessment of the State of South African Universities from 1994 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mngomezulu, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    South African universities have arguably performed well in many areas since the advent of democracy in 1994. Discernible measurements can be gleaned from: curriculum changes, research outputs and student admission policies. However, these universities have not performed to their optimal level due to a confluence of factors. The purpose of this…

  10. Using a Film to Challenge Heteronormativity: South African Teachers "Get Real" in Working with LGB Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    The author explains how the film "Get Real" enabled him to explore, with a group of South African student teachers, the complex ways in which queer adolescents negotiate their daily lives, the struggles they have with "coming out" to their friends and families, the problems with representation, and the connections between…

  11. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene. PMID:25062511

  12. Linguistic Gender Sensitivity Strategies in Current South African Intermediate Phase English Workbooks: Feminisation or Degenderisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibanda, Jabulani; Sibanda, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    This study extends research on manifestations of gender insensitivity in learners' reading materials by shifting attention to the linguistic strategies that authors of current texts employ for the realisation of gender sensitivity. We analysed the content of 12 current (2014) English workbooks (Grade 4-6) used in South African government and…

  13. Awareness of Conservation Issues among Visitors to Three South African Nature Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, G. R.; Fuggle, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study into the awareness of conservation issues, and the enhancement thereof, as a result of visiting interpretive facilities in three South African nature reserves. Results indicate a statistically significant increase in awareness at all three reserves, although the levels of awareness were low. (TW)

  14. "Disappearance" and Feminist Research in the South African Academy of Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Following a global trend in humanities since the mid-1970s, South African humanities faculties began to include formal programmes in gender and sexualities studies from the mid-1990s on. While the immediate post-flag democratic era encouraged intellectual concentration on diverse questions of power and knowledge, the new century saw a decline in…

  15. Comparing Three South African Student Cohorts on Their Attitudes to the Rights of Working Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Cynthia Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study compares three cohorts (1998-1999, 2005-2006 and 2010) of undergraduate psychology students at a South African university on the level of support for working women (women in paid employment) on various issues considered to be feminist. Cohort 1 (n?=?244), cohort 2 (n?=?311) and cohort 3 (n?=?266) completed an adapted version of a…

  16. Science Theatre: Changing South African Students' Intended Behaviour towards HIV AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Graham J.; Stocklmayer, Susan M.; Grant, Will J.

    2013-01-01

    Science centres and other informal learning environments are increasingly becoming venues in which socioscientific issues are presented, sometimes with the aim of influencing attitudes and behaviour. This study investigated the effects of an HIV AIDS science theatre presentation on the behavioural intentions of 697 South African students, a…

  17. Measuring and Monitoring in the South African "Kha Ri Gude" Mass Literacy Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    After many previous failed attempts to reach illiterate adults, the award-winning South African "Kha Ri Gude" mass literacy campaign, launched in 2008, undertook to ensure that learners seized the opportunity to learn--for many adults, this was a "last chance". Written from an insider perspective by the campaign's founding…

  18. Shifting Selves: The Emergence of New Identities in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2008-01-01

    This is an exploratory study on the nature and extent of racial integration in South African schools in the post-apartheid period. While there is vigilant media attention to occasional, dramatic incidents of racial conflict in white schools, there is very little research on the ways in which student identities are framed, challenged, asserted and…

  19. Personalized Learning Support through Web 2.0: A South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Emmanuel L.; Kekwaletswe, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    In a typical South African contact university, where learning and instruction is done following a strict class schedule, the challenge of providing personalized learning support is still prevalent. This paper argues that the advent of Web 2.0 affords varied opportunities to cushion this challenge, faced by learners. In this paper, social presence…

  20. Sexuality Education in South African Schools: The Challenge for Civil Society Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams Tucker, Leigh; George, Gavin; Reardon, Candice; Panday, Saadhna

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Drawing on the perceptions of various key stakeholders, the paper explores the strengths and limitations of involving civil society organisations in the delivery of HIV and AIDS and sexuality education in South African schools. Design: Qualitative study with a cross-sectional design. Setting: Research was conducted at 16 public…