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Sample records for adds additional complexity

  1. Traveling Companions Add Complexity and Hinder Performance in the Spatial Behavior of Rats.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Alex; Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Eilam, David

    2016-01-01

    We sought to uncover the impact of the social environment on the spatial behavior of rats. Food-deprived rats were trained in a spatial task of collecting food items from 16 equispaced objects. Following training, they were tested, first alone and then with a similarly-trained cage-mate. It was found that the presence of another rat substantially altered the rats' spatial behavior. Lone rats collected the food items faster while traveling a shorter distance, reflecting a higher efficiency of task completion. When accompanied by a partner, however, the rats traveled together, visiting the same set of objects in each trip with one of them leading. Whether alone or with a partner, rats continued to revisit the same objects; however, more such revisits occurred with a partner. We argue that revisiting objects is not necessarily an error, since returning to past places is an important aspect of rats' natural behavior. Revisiting an object following food depletion implies that searching for food was not the main driving force in the rats' spatial behavior. Specifically, despite food deprivation, rats were more attentive to one another than to the food. This could be adaptive, since foraging and feeding in groups is a way of poison avoidance in wild rats. Finally, the addition of a social component added complexity to the environment since the rats organized their spatial behavior in reference to one another in addition to their organization in the physical surrounding. Consequently, when tested with a partner, spatial behavior was less structured, less predictable and more chaotic.

  2. Episodic Memory Does Not Add Up: Verbatim-Gist Superposition Predicts Violations of the Additive Law of Probability

    PubMed Central

    Brainerd, C. J.; Wang, Zheng; Reyna, Valerie. F.; Nakamura, K.

    2015-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory’s assumptions about memory representation are cognitive examples of the familiar superposition property of physical quantum systems. When those assumptions are implemented in a formal quantum model (QEMc), they predict that episodic memory will violate the additive law of probability: If memory is tested for a partition of an item’s possible episodic states, the individual probabilities of remembering the item as belonging to each state must sum to more than 1. We detected this phenomenon using two standard designs, item false memory and source false memory. The quantum implementation of fuzzy-trace theory also predicts that violations of the additive law will vary in strength as a function of reliance on gist memory. That prediction, too, was confirmed via a series of manipulations (e.g., semantic relatedness, testing delay) that are thought to increase gist reliance. Surprisingly, an analysis of the underlying structure of violations of the additive law revealed that as a general rule, increases in remembering correct episodic states do not produce commensurate reductions in remembering incorrect states. PMID:26236091

  3. Explaining additional genetic variation in complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of complex traits, discovering >6000 variants associated with >500 quantitative traits and common complex diseases in humans. The associations identified so far represent only a fraction of those which influence phenotype, as there are likely to be very many variants across the entire frequency spectrum, each of which influences multiple traits, with only a small average contribution to the phenotypic variance. This presents a considerable challenge to further dissection of the remaining unexplained genetic variance within populations, which limits our ability to predict disease risk, identify new drug targets, improve and maintain food sources, and understand natural diversity. This challenge will be met within the current framework through larger sample size, better phenotyping including recording of non-genetic risk factors, focused study designs, and an integration of multiple sources of phenotypic and genetic information. The current evidence supports the application of quantitative genetic approaches, and we argue that one should retain simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power. PMID:24629526

  4. Implementation of Complexity Analyzing Based on Additional Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Na; Liang, Yanhong; Liu, Fang

    According to the Complexity Theory, there is complexity in the system when the functional requirement is not be satisfied. There are several study performances for Complexity Theory based on Axiomatic Design. However, they focus on reducing the complexity in their study and no one focus on method of analyzing the complexity in the system. Therefore, this paper put forth a method of analyzing the complexity which is sought to make up the deficiency of the researches. In order to discussing the method of analyzing the complexity based on additional effect, this paper put forth two concepts which are ideal effect and additional effect. The method of analyzing complexity based on additional effect combines Complexity Theory with Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). It is helpful for designers to analyze the complexity by using additional effect. A case study shows the application of the process.

  5. Accelerating procelain formation by incorporating a complex additive

    SciTech Connect

    Maslennikova, G.N.; Dubovitskii, S.A.; Moroz, I.K.

    1986-05-01

    The authors studied the influence of a complex additive consisting of oxides of calcium, zinc, and magnesium on the formaton of porcelain. In order to achieve a more uniform distribution of the complex additive in the porcelain body it was incorporated in the form of water soluble salts-nitrates, which ensured comparability of results and excluded the effect of the different types of anions. The study of the main parameters of sintering (porosity, shrinkage, and mechanical strength) for the test bodies showed that they sinter at lower temperatures and attain zero porosity, maximum shrinkage, and mechanical strength. The most typical bodies indentified in this way were investigated by methods of complex differential thermal analysis and x-ray diffraction. Thus, the introduction of complex additives consisting of calcium, zinc, and magnesium oxides contributes to the earlier formation of porcelain. With the reduction of firing temperatures by 100/sup 0/C the authors observe an improvement in the basic properties of porcelain.

  6. Dry building mixture with complex dispersed mineral additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ina, Liliia; Mukhina, Irina; Teplov, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of the complex dispersed mineral additive consisting of diopside and limestone was provided by the following factors. Diopside, due to the high hardness, reinforces formed hardened cement paste and prevents the spread of micro-cracks in it under the action of loads. Furthermore, diopside due to the greater elastic modulus than cement paste causes redistribution of stress between the additive particles and the cement. Limestone, since it has chemical affinity with the clinker minerals and products of their hydration hardening, effects on the hydration process and the formation of the contact area between the additive particles and the cement. The optimum quantity of complex dispersed mineral additive is 7%. At the same time the strength of the solution, made of dry building mixture "rough leveler for floor", increased by 22.1%, and the strength of the solution, made of dry mortar "masonry mixture" increased by 32.7%. With the mineral additive introduction the offset of the endoeffect temperatures to higher temperatures on derivatograms is fixed. If there is a mineral additive in the hardened cement paste, which may act as substrate for the tumors crystallization, the hardened cement paste structure strengthening while the complex thermal analysis is seen.

  7. Environmental Assessment, Add/Alter Intelligence Production Complex, National Air & Space Intelligence Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    buffer strip between San Antonio Avenue and Parking Lot 13 A east of the NASIC complex. The trees range from small crabapples (Malus spp.) to 30 inch...saccharinum), various oaks (Quercus spp.), and one elm (Ulmus spp.). Several large clump crabapples , green ash, and basswood (Tilia spp.) are also found

  8. Improving complex kinship analyses with additional STR loci.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Ilaria; Iozzi, Sara; Nutini, Anna Lucia; Torricelli, Francesca; Ricci, Ugo

    2014-11-01

    In a standard paternity testing, mother, child, and alleged father are analyzed with STR markers using commercially available kits. Since Italian civil legislation does not have thresholds to confirm a paternity, paternity is practically proven when likelihood ratio increases prior probability of paternity to posterior, accepted by court as sufficient. However, in some cases the number of markers included in a commercial kit may be insufficient to conclusively prove or disprove a relationship between individuals, especially when complex family scenarios are suspected or indirect analyses are required. Additional genetic information can increase the values of the likelihood ratio regarding the detection of true parental relationships in a pedigree, while reducing the chances of false attributions (e.g. false paternities). In these cases the introduction of a 26Plex amplification system allows to examine 23-26 additional markers depending on the commercial kit used, thus increasing the statistical power of the kinship analysis. The PCR conditions were optimized for a multiplex amplification system and a new generation CE instrument. In order to demonstrate the utility of additional STRs markers, four complex kinship cases are presented.

  9. Complex metallic alloys as new materials for additive manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Kenzari, Samuel; Bonina, David; Marie Dubois, Jean; Fournée, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing processes allow freeform fabrication of the physical representation of a three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) data model. This area has been expanding rapidly over the last 20 years. It includes several techniques such as selective laser sintering and stereolithography. The range of materials used today is quite restricted while there is a real demand for manufacturing lighter functional parts or parts with improved functional properties. In this article, we summarize recent work performed in this field, introducing new composite materials containing complex metallic alloys. These are mainly Al-based quasicrystalline alloys whose properties differ from those of conventional alloys. The use of these materials allows us to produce light-weight parts consisting of either metal–matrix composites or of polymer–matrix composites with improved properties. Functional parts using these alloys are now commercialized. PMID:27877661

  10. Complex metallic alloys as new materials for additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Kenzari, Samuel; Bonina, David; Marie Dubois, Jean; Fournée, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Additive manufacturing processes allow freeform fabrication of the physical representation of a three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) data model. This area has been expanding rapidly over the last 20 years. It includes several techniques such as selective laser sintering and stereolithography. The range of materials used today is quite restricted while there is a real demand for manufacturing lighter functional parts or parts with improved functional properties. In this article, we summarize recent work performed in this field, introducing new composite materials containing complex metallic alloys. These are mainly Al-based quasicrystalline alloys whose properties differ from those of conventional alloys. The use of these materials allows us to produce light-weight parts consisting of either metal-matrix composites or of polymer-matrix composites with improved properties. Functional parts using these alloys are now commercialized.

  11. Complex metallic alloys as new materials for additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenzari, Samuel; Bonina, David; Dubois, Jean Marie; Fournée, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Additive manufacturing processes allow freeform fabrication of the physical representation of a three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) data model. This area has been expanding rapidly over the last 20 years. It includes several techniques such as selective laser sintering and stereolithography. The range of materials used today is quite restricted while there is a real demand for manufacturing lighter functional parts or parts with improved functional properties. In this article, we summarize recent work performed in this field, introducing new composite materials containing complex metallic alloys. These are mainly Al-based quasicrystalline alloys whose properties differ from those of conventional alloys. The use of these materials allows us to produce light-weight parts consisting of either metal-matrix composites or of polymer-matrix composites with improved properties. Functional parts using these alloys are now commercialized.

  12. Building additional complexity to in vitro-derived intestinal tissues.

    PubMed

    Brugmann, Samantha A; Wells, James M

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders affect up to 25% of the US population. Common intestinal disorders include malabsorption, irritable bowel syndrome and fecal incontinence. Some GI disorders such as Hirschsprung's disease have a genetic basis and are associated with an absence or paucity of enteric nerves. Current treatment plans for GI disorders range from changes in diet to bowel resection, and there are very few drugs available that target the primary deficiencies in intestinal function such as controlled peristalsis. While animal models can recapitulate the broad range of intestinal pathologies of the GI tract, they are intrinsically complicated and of low throughput. Several in vitro systems have been established, and these range from epithelial enteroids to more complex organoids, which contain most intestinal cell types. One of the more complex organoid systems was derived from adult mouse intestines and contains functional enteric nerves and smooth muscle capable of peristalsis. Establishing an equivalent human intestinal system is challenging due to limited access and variable quality of human intestinal tissues. However, owing to recent advances, it is possible to differentiate human induced and embryonic pluripotent stem cells, collectively called pluripotent stem cells, into human intestinal organoids (HIOs) in vitro. Although HIOs contain a significant degree of epithelial and mesenchymal complexity, they lack enteric nerves and thus are unable to model the peristaltic movements of the gut. The goal of this review is to discuss approaches to generate complex in vitro systems that can be used to more comprehensively model common intestinal pathologies. New and more biologically complete human models of the intestine would allow for unprecedented studies of the cellular and molecular basis of normal and pathological gut function. Furthermore, fully functional HIOs could serve as a platform for preclinical drug studies to model absorption and efficacy.

  13. SNP Markers as Additional Information to Resolve Complex Kinship Cases

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, M. Lurdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Laréu, Maria Victoria; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers has been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic casework for nearly 20 years. However, in some cases of complex kinship investigation, the information provided by the conventionally used STR markers is not enough, often resulting in low likelihood ratio (LR) calculations. In these cases, it becomes necessary to increment the number of loci under analysis to reach adequate LRs. Recently, it has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used as a supportive tool to STR typing, eventually even replacing the methods/markers now employed. Methods In this work, we describe the results obtained in 7 revised complex paternity cases when applying a battery of STRs, as well as 52 human identification SNPs (SNPforID 52plex identification panel) using a SNaPshot methodology followed by capillary electrophoresis. Results Our results show that the analysis of SNPs, as complement to STR typing in forensic casework applications, would at least increase by a factor of 4 total PI values and correspondent Essen-Möller's W value. Conclusions We demonstrated that SNP genotyping could be a key complement to STR information in challenging casework of disputed paternity, such as close relative individualization or complex pedigrees subject to endogamous relations. PMID:26733770

  14. Complex Modelling Scheme Of An Additive Manufacturing Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Liliana Georgeta

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a modelling scheme sustaining the development of an additive manufacturing research centre model and its processes. This modelling is performed using IDEF0, the resulting model process representing the basic processes required in developing such a centre in any university. While the activities presented in this study are those recommended in general, changes may occur in specific existing situations in a research centre.

  15. Additional Complexities in Nakhlite Pyroxenes: A Progress (?) Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, G.; Mikouchi, T.; Schwandt, C.

    2006-01-01

    Nakhlites are olivine-bearing clinopyroxene cumulates [e.g., 1]. Based on petrographic characteristics, they may be divided into groups that cooled at different rates and may have been formed at different depths in a single flow [e.g., 2, 3]. The order of cooling rate is Lafayette < Governador Valadares Nakhla < Yamato000593 < NWA817 MIL03346. Nakhlite cumulus pyroxene grains consist of large cores that are nearly homogeneous in major element composition surrounded by thin rims that are zoned to Fe-rich compositions. Detailed study of these pyroxenes is important because they retain a record of the crystallization history of the nakhlite magma. Moreover, because the composition of the nakhlite parent melt cannot be directly determined, inversion of the major and minor element composition of the cumulate pyroxene cores can be used to estimate the composition of that melt. Thus it is important to understand the major and minor element zoning in the cumulus pyroxenes. We recently reported complications in the minor element zoning of nakhlite pyroxenes, especially for Al and Cr [4]. This abstract reports additional complications noted since that report.

  16. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  17. ADD: How Does It Add Up in the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumpter, R. David; Kidd, Libby

    1998-01-01

    Gives a short history of attention-deficit disorder (ADD), describes characteristics of ADD, discusses a four-step plan for identification of ADD, and presents four types of management techniques: medical, environmental, classroom activity, and behavioral management. Stresses importance of cooperation and communication among teacher, parent, and…

  18. Additional Constraints on the Shallow Seismic Velocity Structure of the Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henig, A. S.; Blackman, D. K.; Harding, A. J.; Kent, G. M.; Canales, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    We investigate the detailed structure of the uppermost ~km of Atlantis Massif, an oceanic core complex at 30°N on the Mid Atlantic Ridge, using pre-existing multichannel seismic data. The Synthetic On- Bottom Experiment (SOBE) method that we employ downward continues both the shots and receivers to a depth just above the seafloor. This allows us to pick refracted arrivals recorded on the streamer at very-near offset, providing constraints from rays that are received within the 300-2000 m range that was unavailable to earlier studies where standard shot gathers had been analyzed. Thus, we can better model the upper few hundred meters of the section which, in turn, adds confidence for determining the deeper (400-1500 m) structure. New work on a ridge-parallel line has been added to last year's work on a cross-axis line over the Central Dome of the massif. Tomographic results are similar for these crossing lines: a thin (100-150 m) low velocity (< 3 km/s) layer caps the dome; high horizontal gradients (>1.25 s-1) occur in local (1-2 km wide) regions within these 6-8 km long subsections of the MCS lines analyzed to date; and very high vertical velocity gradients, greater than 3.75 s-1, occur within the km just below the exposed detachment in these areas. We obtain general agreement with Canales et al., 2008, results over the Central Dome but our models suggest a finer scale lateral heterogeneity. We have begun analysis of additional and extended MCS lines over the domal core of the massif and our priority for this presentation is to assess the detailed structure of the Southern Ridge. In at least some areas the thin, low velocity layer contrasts sufficiently with underlying material that a clear refracted arrival is visible in supergathers. We will determine whether the low velocity layer persists over the whole dome or if it is restricted to the Central Dome. An important question is whether its thickness on the Southern Ridge, if it exists there, differs from that

  19. Selected Perspectives on ADD and ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Louise

    1997-01-01

    Offers an overview of ADD and ADHD, their causes and long-term prognoses, including the complexities of the conditions, the incomplete knowledge about them, and the difficulties of diagnosis during early childhood. Summarizes assessment and treatment options and concludes that the conditions have so many secondary effects that designing an…

  20. ADD: Does It Really Exist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Questions the existence of attention deficit disorder (ADD), a commonly diagnosed "disease" based on behavioral characteristics. There may be no medical or physiological basis for ADD. The National Association of School Psychologists deplores labeling children and creating categories of exclusion. Instead, educators should respond to individual…

  1. Proton and Electron Additions to Iron (II) Dinitrogen Complexes Containing Pendant Amines

    SciTech Connect

    Heiden, Zachariah M.; Chen, Shentan; Labios, Liezel AN; Bullock, R. Morris; Walter, Eric D.; Tyson, Elizabeth L.; Mock, Michael T.

    2014-03-10

    We describe a single site cis-(H)FeII-N2 complex, generated by the protonation of an iron-carbon bond of a "reduced" iron complex, that models key aspects of proposed protonated intermediates of the E4 state of nitrogenase. The influence on N2 binding from the addition of protons to the pendant amine sites in the second coordination sphere is described. Furthermore, the addition of electrons to the protonated complexes results in H2 loss. The mechanism of H2 loss is explored to draw a parallel to the origin of H2 loss (homolytic or heterolytic) and the nature of N2 coordination in intermediates of the E4 state of nitrogenase.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, Molecular Modeling, and DNA Interaction Studies of Copper Complex Containing Food Additive Carmoisine Dye.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Akbari, Alireza; Jamshidbeigi, Mina; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-06-02

    A copper complex of carmoisine dye; [Cu(carmoisine)2(H2O)2]; was synthesized and characterized by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding of this complex with calf thymus (ct) DNA was investigated by circular dichroism, absorption studies, emission spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements. UV-vis results confirmed that the Cu complex interacted with DNA to form a ground-state complex and the observed binding constant (2× 10(4) M(-1)) is more in keeping with the groove bindings with DNA. Furthermore, the viscosity measurement result showed that the addition of complex causes no significant change on DNA viscosity and it indicated that the intercalation mode is ruled out. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the reaction. The results of circular dichroism (CD) suggested that the complex can change the conformation of DNA from B-like form toward A-like conformation. The cytotoxicity studies of the carmoisine dye and its copper complex indicated that both of them had anticancer effects on HT-29 (colon cancer) cell line and they may be new candidates for treatment of the colon cancer.

  3. 24 CFR 990.190 - Other formula expenses (add-ons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other formula expenses (add-ons... formula expenses (add-ons). In addition to calculating operating subsidy based on the PEL and UEL, a PHA's eligible formula expenses shall be increased by add-ons. The allowed add-ons are: (a) Self-sufficiency....

  4. 24 CFR 990.190 - Other formula expenses (add-ons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other formula expenses (add-ons... formula expenses (add-ons). In addition to calculating operating subsidy based on the PEL and UEL, a PHA's eligible formula expenses shall be increased by add-ons. The allowed add-ons are: (a) Self-sufficiency....

  5. 24 CFR 990.190 - Other formula expenses (add-ons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other formula expenses (add-ons... formula expenses (add-ons). In addition to calculating operating subsidy based on the PEL and UEL, a PHA's eligible formula expenses shall be increased by add-ons. The allowed add-ons are: (a) Self-sufficiency....

  6. 24 CFR 990.190 - Other formula expenses (add-ons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other formula expenses (add-ons... formula expenses (add-ons). In addition to calculating operating subsidy based on the PEL and UEL, a PHA's eligible formula expenses shall be increased by add-ons. The allowed add-ons are: (a) Self-sufficiency....

  7. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  8. Nucleophilic addition/double cyclization cascade processes between enynyl Fischer carbene complexes and alkynyl malonates.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Fernández, Ana; Suárez-Rodríguez, Tatiana; Suárez-Sobrino, Ángel L

    2014-07-18

    Two new selective cascade processes for enynyl Fischer carbene complexes 1 are described in their reaction with alkynyl malonates. When carbene complexes 1 react with the sodium enolate of homopropargyl malonates 3 a consecutive Michael-type addition/cyclopentannulation/6-exo cyclization takes place leading, in a regio- and stereoselective way, to n/5/6 angular tricyclic compounds 5. Furthermore, when propargylic malonates are used, a delayed protonation of the reaction mixture allows intermediate 1,4-addition adduct Ia to evolve through a 5-exo cyclization, consisting of an intramolecular nucleophilic attack from the central carbon of the allenylmetallate over the triple C-C bond. Further spontaneous cyclopentannulation of the resulting metallatriene gives rise to bicyclic and linear polycyclic compounds 6 and 7, some of them bearing a polyquinane framework.

  9. ProPhenol-Catalyzed Asymmetric Additions by Spontaneously Assembled Dinuclear Main Group Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus The development of catalytic enantioselective transformations has been the focus of many research groups over the past half century and is of paramount importance to the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. Since the award of the Nobel Prize in 2001, the field of enantioselective transition metal catalysis has soared to new heights, with the development of more efficient catalysts and new catalytic transformations at increasing frequency. Furthermore, catalytic reactions that allow higher levels of redox- and step-economy are being developed. Thus, alternatives to asymmetric alkene dihydroxylation and the enantioselective reduction of α,β-unsaturated ketones can invoke more strategic C–C bond forming reactions, such as asymmetric aldol reactions of an aldehyde with α-hydroxyketone donors or enantioselective alkynylation of an aldehyde, respectively. To facilitate catalytic enantioselective addition reactions, including the aforementioned aldol and alkynylation reactions, our lab has developed the ProPhenol ligand. In this Account, we describe the development and application of the ProPhenol ligand for asymmetric additions of both carbon- and heteroatom-based nucleophiles to various electrophiles. The ProPhenol ligand spontaneously forms chiral dinuclear metal complexes when treated with an alkyl metal reagent, such as Et2Zn or Bu2Mg. The resulting complex contains both a Lewis acidic site to activate an electrophile and a Brønsted basic site to deprotonate a pronucleophile. Initially, our research focused on the use of Zn-ProPhenol complexes to facilitate the direct aldol reaction. Fine tuning of the reaction through ligand modification and the use of additives enabled the direct aldol reaction to proceed in high yields and stereoselectivities with a broad range of donor substrates, including acetophenones, methyl ynones, methyl vinyl ketone, acetone, α-hydroxy carbonyl compounds, and glycine Schiff bases. Additionally, an analogous

  10. America Makes: National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute (NAMII) Project 1: Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of Complex Metallic Additive Manufactured (AM) Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    titanium and nickel-base alloys after AM fabrication. 4.1 Additive Manufacturing Methods and Applications Three-dimensional printing ( 3D ...AM is defining the process of 3D printing , while additive manufacturing considers the broad application of 3D printing , and necessary manufacturing... printing could generate an economic impact of $230 billion to $550 billion per year by 2025.[4] According to the 2014 Wohlers Report, the 3D printing

  11. "Oxidative addition" of halogens to uranium(IV) bis(amidophenolate) complexes.

    PubMed

    Matson, Ellen M; Opperwall, Stacey R; Fanwick, Phillip E; Bart, Suzanne C

    2013-06-17

    A series of U(IV) complexes, ((R)ap)2U(THF)2 [R = tert-butyl (t-Bu) (1), adamantyl (Ad) (2), diisopropylphenyl (dipp) (3)], supported by the redox-active 4,6-di-tert-butyl-2-(R)amidophenolate ligand, have been synthesized by salt metathesis of 2 equiv of the alkali metal salt of the ligand, M2[(R)ap] [M = K (1 and 2), Na (3)], with UCl4. Exposure of these uranium complexes to 1 equiv of PhICl2 results in oxidative addition to uranium, forming the bis-(4,6-di-tert-butyl-2-(R)iminosemiquinone) ([(R)isq](1-)) uranium(IV) dichloride dimer, [((R)isq)2UCl]2(μ(2)-Cl)2 [R = t-Bu (4), Ad (5), dipp (6)]. The addition of iodine to 1 forms ((tBu)isq)2UI2(THF) (7), while the reactivity of I2 with 2 and 3 results in decomposition. Complexes 1-7 have been characterized by (1)H NMR and electronic absorption spectroscopies. X-ray crystallography was employed to elucidate structural parameters of 2, 3, 5, and 7.

  12. Use of additive technologies for practical working with complex models for foundry technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovik, E.; Butsanets, A. A.; Ageeva, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    The article presents the results of research of additive technology (3D printing) application for developing a geometrically complex model of castings parts. Investment casting is well known and widely used technology for the production of complex parts. The work proposes the use of a 3D printing technology for manufacturing models parts, which are removed by thermal destruction. Traditional methods of equipment production for investment casting involve the use of manual labor which has problems with dimensional accuracy, and CNC technology which is less used. Such scheme is low productive and demands considerable time. We have offered an alternative method which consists in printing the main knots using a 3D printer (PLA and ABS) with a subsequent production of castings models from them. In this article, the main technological methods are considered and their problems are discussed. The dimensional accuracy of models in comparison with investment casting technology is considered as the main aspect.

  13. An Assessment of Nondestructive Evaluation Capability for Complex Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James; Beshears, Ron; Lambert, Dennis; Tilson, William

    2016-01-01

    The primary focus of this work is to investigate some of the fundamental relationships between processing, mechanical testing, materials characterization, and NDE for additively manufactured (AM) components using the powder bed fusion direct melt laser sintered process. The goal is to understand the criticality of defects unique to the AM process and then how conventional nondestructive evaluation methods as well as some of the more non-traditional methods such as computed tomography, are effected by the AM material. Specific defects including cracking, porosity and partially/unfused powder will be addressed. Besides line-of-site NDE, as appropriate these inspection capabilities will be put into the context of complex AM geometries where hidden features obscure, or inhibit traditional NDE methods.

  14. The Bemisia tabaci species complex: additions from different parts of the world.

    PubMed

    Firdaus, Syarifin; Vosman, Ben; Hidayati, Nurul; Jaya Supena, Ence Darmo; Visser, Richard G F; van Heusden, Adriaan Willem

    2013-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci is one of the most threatening pests in many crops. We sequenced part of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene from fifty whitefly populations collected in Indonesia, Thailand, India and China. Nineteen unique sequences (haplotypes) of the cytochrome oxidase I were identified in these populations. They were combined with sequences available in databases, resulting in a total of 407 haplotypes and analyzed together with nine outgroup accessions. A phylogenetic tree was calculated using the maximum likelihood method. The tree showed that all groups that were found in previous studies were also present in our study. Additionally, seven new groups were identified based on the new haplotypes. Most B. tabaci haplotypes grouped based on their geographical origin. Two groups were found to have a worldwide distribution. Our results indicate that our knowledge on the species complex around B. tabaci is still far from complete.

  15. Next-generation biomedical implants using additive manufacturing of complex, cellular and functional mesh arrays.

    PubMed

    Murr, L E; Gaytan, S M; Medina, F; Lopez, H; Martinez, E; Machado, B I; Hernandez, D H; Martinez, L; Lopez, M I; Wicker, R B; Bracke, J

    2010-04-28

    In this paper, we examine prospects for the manufacture of patient-specific biomedical implants replacing hard tissues (bone), particularly knee and hip stems and large bone (femoral) intramedullary rods, using additive manufacturing (AM) by electron beam melting (EBM). Of particular interest is the fabrication of complex functional (biocompatible) mesh arrays. Mesh elements or unit cells can be divided into different regions in order to use different cell designs in different areas of the component to produce various or continually varying (functionally graded) mesh densities. Numerous design elements have been used to fabricate prototypes by AM using EBM of Ti-6Al-4V powders, where the densities have been compared with the elastic (Young) moduli determined by resonant frequency and damping analysis. Density optimization at the bone-implant interface can allow for bone ingrowth and cementless implant components. Computerized tomography (CT) scans of metal (aluminium alloy) foam have also allowed for the building of Ti-6Al-4V foams by embedding the digital-layered scans in computer-aided design or software models for EBM. Variations in mesh complexity and especially strut (or truss) dimensions alter the cooling and solidification rate, which alters the alpha-phase (hexagonal close-packed) microstructure by creating mixtures of alpha/alpha' (martensite) observed by optical and electron metallography. Microindentation hardness measurements are characteristic of these microstructures and microstructure mixtures (alpha/alpha') and sizes.

  16. Feature based Weld-Deposition for Additive Manufacturing of Complex Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchagnula, Jayaprakash Sharma; Simhambhatla, Suryakumar

    2016-08-01

    Fabricating functional metal parts using Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a leading trend. However, realizing overhanging features has been a challenge due to the lack of support mechanism for metals. Powder-bed fusion techniques like, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) employ easily-breakable-scaffolds made of the same material to realize the overhangs. However, the same approach is not extendible to deposition processes like laser or arc based direct energy deposition processes. Although it is possible to realize small overhangs by exploiting the inherent overhanging capability of the process or by blinding some small features like holes, the same cannot be extended for more complex geometries. The current work presents a novel approach for realizing complex overhanging features without the need of support structures. This is possible by using higher order kinematics and suitably aligning the overhang with the deposition direction. Feature based non-uniform slicing and non-uniform area-filling are some vital concepts required in realizing the same and are briefly discussed here. This method can be used to fabricate and/or repair fully dense and functional components for various engineering applications. Although this approach has been implemented for weld-deposition based system, the same can be extended to any other direct energy deposition processes also.

  17. Chlorobaculum tepidum TLS displays a complex transcriptional response to sulfide addition.

    PubMed

    Eddie, Brian J; Hanson, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Chlorobaculum tepidum is a green sulfur bacterium (GSB) that is a model system for phototrophic sulfur oxidation. Despite over 2 decades of research, conspicuous gaps exist in our understanding of its electron donor metabolism and regulation. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to provide a global picture of the C. tepidum transcriptome during growth on thiosulfate as the sole electron donor and at time points following the addition of sulfide to such a culture. Following sulfide addition, 121 to 150 protein-coding genes displayed significant changes in expression depending upon the time point. These changes included a rapid decrease in expression of thiosulfate and elemental sulfur oxidation genes. Genes and gene loci with increased expression included CT1087, encoding a sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase required for growth in high sulfide concentrations; a polysulfide reductase-like complex operon, psrABC (CT0496 to CT0494); and, surprisingly, a large cluster of genes involved in iron acquisition. Finally, two genes that are conserved as a cassette in anaerobic bacteria and archaea, CT1276 and CT1277, displayed a strong increase in expression. The CT1277 gene product contains a DNA-binding domain, suggesting a role for it in sulfide-dependent gene expression changes.

  18. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). Digest #445.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mary E.

    The term "attention deficit disorder" (ADD) is defined, criteria used by the American Psychiatric Association in diagnosing ADD are listed, and possible causes noted. Remediation needs of children with ADD include attention skills, self-esteem, and social skills. Early diagnosis is important, and teachers and parents need to identify…

  19. Effect of grain size on uranium(VI) surface complexation kinetics and adsorption additivity.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M

    2011-07-15

    The contribution of variable grain sizes to uranium adsorption/desorption was studied using a sediment from the US DOE Hanford site. The sediment was wet sieved into four size fractions: coarse sand (1-2 mm), medium sand (0.2-1 mm), fine sand (0.053-0.2 mm), and clay/silt fraction (<0.053 mm). For each size fraction and their composite (sediment), batch and flow-cell experiments were performed to determine uranium adsorption isotherms and kinetic uranium adsorption and subsequent desorption. The results showed that uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics were size specific, reflecting the effects of size-specific adsorption site concentration and kinetic rate constants. The larger-size fraction had a larger mass percentage in the sediment but with a smaller adsorption site concentration and generally a slower uranium adsorption/desorption rate. The same equilibrium surface complexation reaction and reaction constant could describe uranium adsorption isotherms for all size fractions and the composite after accounting for the effect of adsorption site concentration. Mass-weighted, linear additivity was observed for both uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics in the composite. One important implication of this study is that grain-size distribution may be used to estimate uranium adsorption site and adsorption/desorption kinetic rates in heterogeneous sediments from a common location.

  20. Additive surface complexation modeling of uranium(VI) adsorption onto quartz-sand dominated sediments.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenming; Wan, Jiamin

    2014-06-17

    Many aquifers contaminated by U(VI)-containing acidic plumes are composed predominantly of quartz-sand sediments. The F-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina (USA) is an example. To predict U(VI) mobility and natural attenuation, we conducted U(VI) adsorption experiments using the F-Area plume sediments and reference quartz, goethite, and kaolinite. The sediments are composed of ∼96% quartz-sand and 3-4% fine fractions of kaolinite and goethite. We developed a new humic acid adsorption method for determining the relative surface area abundances of goethite and kaolinite in the fine fractions. This method is expected to be applicable to many other binary mineral pairs, and allows successful application of the component additivity (CA) approach based surface complexation modeling (SCM) at the SRS F-Area and other similar aquifers. Our experimental results indicate that quartz has stronger U(VI) adsorption ability per unit surface area than goethite and kaolinite at pH ≤ 4.0. Our modeling results indicate that the binary (goethite/kaolinite) CA-SCM under-predicts U(VI) adsorption to the quartz-sand dominated sediments at pH ≤ 4.0. The new ternary (quartz/goethite/kaolinite) CA-SCM provides excellent predictions. The contributions of quartz-sand, kaolinite, and goethite to U(VI) adsorption and the potential influences of dissolved Al, Si, and Fe are also discussed.

  1. Generalized additive models reveal the intrinsic complexity of wood formation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Kiessé, Tristan Senga; Hartmann, Felix P; Barbeito, Ignacio; Fournier, Meriem

    2013-04-01

    The intra-annual dynamics of wood formation, which involves the passage of newly produced cells through three successive differentiation phases (division, enlargement, and wall thickening) to reach the final functional mature state, has traditionally been described in conifers as three delayed bell-shaped curves followed by an S-shaped curve. Here the classical view represented by the 'Gompertz function (GF) approach' was challenged using two novel approaches based on parametric generalized linear models (GLMs) and 'data-driven' generalized additive models (GAMs). These three approaches (GFs, GLMs, and GAMs) were used to describe seasonal changes in cell numbers in each of the xylem differentiation phases and to calculate the timing of cell development in three conifer species [Picea abies (L.), Pinus sylvestris L., and Abies alba Mill.]. GAMs outperformed GFs and GLMs in describing intra-annual wood formation dynamics, showing two left-skewed bell-shaped curves for division and enlargement, and a right-skewed bimodal curve for thickening. Cell residence times progressively decreased through the season for enlargement, whilst increasing late but rapidly for thickening. These patterns match changes in cell anatomical features within a tree ring, which allows the separation of earlywood and latewood into two distinct cell populations. A novel statistical approach is presented which renews our understanding of xylogenesis, a dynamic biological process in which the rate of cell production interplays with cell residence times in each developmental phase to create complex seasonal patterns.

  2. Cryptic biodiversity effects: importance of functional redundancy revealed through addition of food web complexity.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Pardee, Gabriella L; Gonthier, David J

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon spp.) on three predatory ant species and herbivores in a coffee agroecosystem. Specifically, we examined whether changes in ant richness affected fruit damage by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and whether phorids altered multi-predator effects. Each ant species reduced borer damage, and without phorids, increasing predator richness did not further decrease borer damage. However, with phorids, activity of one ant species was reduced, indicating that the presence of multiple ant species was necessary to limit borer damage. In addition, phorid presence revealed synergistic effects of multiple ant species, not observed without the presence of this parasite. Thus, a trait-mediated cascade resulting from a parasite-induced predator behavioral change revealed the importance of functional redundancy, predator diversity, and food web complexity for control of this important pest.

  3. Using Joint Interviews to Add Analytic Value.

    PubMed

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2016-10-01

    Joint interviewing has been frequently used in health research, and is the subject of a growing methodological literature. We review this literature, and build on it by drawing on a case study of how people make decisions about taking statins. This highlights two ways in which a dyadic approach to joint interviewing can add analytic value compared with individual interviewing. First, the analysis of interaction within joint interviews can help to explicate tacit knowledge and to illuminate the range of often hard-to-access resources that are drawn upon in making decisions. Second, joint interviews mitigate some of the weaknesses of interviewing as a method for studying practices; we offer a cautious defense of the often-tacit assumption that the "naturalness" of joint interviews strengthens their credibility as the basis for analytic inferences. We suggest that joint interviews are a particularly appropriate method for studying complex shared practices such as making health decisions.

  4. Effect of Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics and Adsorption Additivity

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M.

    2011-07-27

    Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the contribution of variable grain sizes to uranium adsorption/desorption in a sediment collected from the US DOE Hanford site. The sediment was wet-sieved into four size fractions: coarse sand (1-2 mm), medium sand (0.2-1 mm), fine sand (0.05-0.2 mm), and clay/silt fraction (< 0.05mm). For each size fraction and their composite (sediment), batch experiments were performed to determine uranium adsorption isotherms, and stirred flow-cell experiments were conducted to derive kinetic data of uranium adsorption and subsequent desorption. The results showed that uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics were size-specific, reflecting the effects of size-specific adsorption site concentration and kinetic rate constants. The larger-size fraction had a larger mass percentage in the sediment, but with a smaller adsorption site concentration and generally a slower uranium adsorption/desorption rate. The same equilibrium surface complexation reaction and reaction constant could describe uranium adsorption isotherms for all size fractions and the composite after accounting for the effect of adsorption site concentration. Mass-weighted, linear additivity was observed for both uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics in the composite. Our analysis also showed that uranium adsorption site concentration estimated from the adsorption isotherms was 3 orders of magnitude less than a site concentration estimated from sediment surface area and generic site density. One important implication of this study is that grain size distribution may be used to estimate uranium adsorption site, and adsorption/desorption kinetic rates in heterogeneous sediments from a common location.

  5. Production of complex organic molecules:H-atom addition versus UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, K.-J.; Fedoseev, G.; Qasim, D.; Ioppolo, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2017-01-01

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) have been identified in different environments in star-forming regions. Laboratory studies show that COMs form in the solid state, on icy grains, typically following a `non-energetic' (atom-addition) or `energetic' (UV photon absorption) trigger. So far, such studies have been largely performed for single processes. Here we present the first work that quantitatively investigates both the relative importance and the cumulative effect of `(non)energetic' processing. We focus on astronomically relevant CO:CH3OH = 4:1 ice analogues exposed to doses relevant for the collapse stage of dense clouds. Hydrogenation experiments result in the formation of methyl formate (MF; HC(O)OCH3), glycolaldehyde (GA; HC(O)CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (EG; H2C(OH)CH2OH) at 14 K. The absolute abundances and the abundance fractions are found to be dependent on the H-atom/CO:CH3OH-molecule ratios and on the overall deposition rate. In the case that ices are exposed to UV photons only, several different COMs are found. Typically, the abundance fractions are 0.2 for MF, 0.3 for GA, and 0.5 for EG as opposed to the values found in pure hydrogenation experiments without UV in which MF is largely absent: 0.0, 0.2-0.6 and 0.8-0.4, respectively. In experiments where both are applied, overall COM abundances drop to about half of those found in the pure UV irradiation experiments, but the composition fractions are very similar. This implies COM ratios can be used as a diagnostic tool to derive the processing history of an ice. Solid-state branching ratios derived here for GA and EG compare well with observations, while the MF case cannot be explained by solid state conditions investigated here.

  6. Traveling-wave Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Reveals Additional Mechanistic Details in the Stabilization of Protein Complex Ions through Tuned Salt Additives

    PubMed Central

    Han, Linjie; Ruotolo, Brandon T.

    2013-01-01

    Ion mobility–mass spectrometry is often applied to the structural elucidation of multiprotein assemblies in cases where X-ray crystallography or NMR experiments have proved challenging. Such applications are growing steadily as we continue to probe regions of the proteome that are less-accessible to such high-resolution structural biology tools. Since ion mobility measures protein structure in the absence of bulk solvent, strategies designed to more-broadly stabilize native-like protein structures in the gas-phase would greatly enable the application of such measurements to challenging structural targets. Recently, we have begun investigating the ability of salt-based solution additives that remain bound to protein ions in the gas-phase to stabilize native-like protein structures. These experiments, which utilize collision induced unfolding and collision induced dissociation in a tandem mass spectrometry mode to measure protein stability, seek to develop a rank-order similar to the Hofmeister series that categorizes the general ability of different anions and cations to stabilize gas-phase protein structure. Here, we study magnesium chloride as a potential stabilizing additive for protein structures in vacuo, and find that the addition of this salt to solutions prior to nano-electrospray ionization dramatically enhances multiprotein complex structural stability in the gas-phase. Based on these experiments, we also refine the physical mechanism of cation-based protein complex ion stabilization by tracking the unfolding transitions experienced by cation-bound complexes. Upon comparison with unbound proteins, we find strong evidence that stabilizing cations act to tether protein complex structure. We conclude by putting the results reported here in context, and by projecting the future applications of this method. PMID:23539363

  7. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Ritter, James A.; Ebner, Armin D.; Wang, Jun; Holland, Charles E.

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  8. Additional shear resistance from fault roughness and stress levels on geometrically complex faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zijun; Dunham, Eric M.

    2013-07-01

    The majority of crustal faults host earthquakes when the ratio of average background shear stress τb to effective normal stress σeff is τb/σeff≈0.6. In contrast, mature plate-boundary faults like the San Andreas Fault (SAF) operate at τb/σeff≈0.2. Dynamic weakening, the dramatic reduction in frictional resistance at coseismic slip velocities that is commonly observed in laboratory experiments, provides a leading explanation for low stress levels on mature faults. Strongly velocity-weakening friction laws permit rupture propagation on flat faults above a critical stress level τpulse/σeff≈0.25. Provided that dynamic weakening is not restricted to mature faults, the higher stress levels on most faults are puzzling. In this work, we present a self-consistent explanation for the relatively high stress levels on immature faults that is compatible with low coseismic frictional resistance, from dynamic weakening, for all faults. We appeal to differences in structural complexity with the premise that geometric irregularities introduce resistance to slip in addition to frictional resistance. This general idea is quantified for the special case of self-similar fractal roughness of the fault surface. Natural faults have roughness characterized by amplitude-to-wavelength ratios α between 10-3 and 10-2. Through a second-order boundary perturbation analysis of quasi-static frictionless sliding across a band-limited self-similar interface in an ideally elastic solid, we demonstrate that roughness induces an additional shear resistance to slip, or roughness drag, given by τdrag=8π3α2G∗Δ/λmin, for G∗=G/(1-ν) with shear modulus Gand Poisson's ratio ν, slip Δ, and minimum roughness wavelength λmin. The influence of roughness drag on fault mechanics is verified through an extensive set of dynamic rupture simulations of earthquakes on strongly rate-weakening fractal faults with elastic-plastic off-fault response. The simulations suggest that fault rupture, in

  9. Microencapsulation of human insulin DEAE-dextran complex and the complex in liposomes by the emulsion non-solvent addition method.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, A; Manosroi, J

    1997-01-01

    Human insulin-DEAE (diethyl amino ethyl) dextran complex and human insulin DEAE-dextran complex in liposomes were encapsulated in cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) microcapsules by the emulsion non-solvent addition method. The ratio of core-to-coat used was 1:1. The average diameters of the complex microcapsules and the complex liposome microcapsules were 239.5 +/- 77.5 and 182.9 +/- 52.2 microns respectively. In vitro dissolution studies of both types of microcapsules in simulated intestinal fluid at pH 7.2 showed a sustained release of the complex and the complex liposome microcapsules with t50 = 1.5 h and 4 h respectively. This study can be applied to the further development of oral formulations of human insulin liposomes for diabetic treatment.

  10. Complexation of Statins with β-Cyclodextrin in Solutions of Small Molecular Additives and Macromolecular Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süle, András; Csempesz, Ferenc

    The solubility of lovastatin and simvastatin (inevitable drugs in the management of cardiovascular diseases) was studied by phase-solubility measurements in multicomponent colloidal and non-colloidal media. Complexation in aqueous solutions of the highly lipophilic statins with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in the absence and the presence of dissolved polyvinyl pyrrolidone, its monomeric compound, tartaric acid and urea, respectively, were investigated. For the characterization of the CD-statin inclusion complexes, stability constants for the associates have been calculated.

  11. The effect of two additional Eu3+ lumophors in two novel trinuclear europium complexes on their photoluminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chaolong; Xu, Jing; Ma, Jianying; Zhu, Dongyu; Zhang, Yunfei; Liang, Liyan; Lu, Mangeng

    2013-02-01

    Two novel trinuclear europium complexes based on trisphen(1,3,5-tris{4-((1,10-phenanthroline-[5,6-d]imidazol-2yl)phenoxy)methyl}-2,4,6-trimethyl-benzene) as a second ligand were designed, synthesized, and characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, UV-visible, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, elemental analysis (EA) and ESI-MS. The geometries of these two trinuclear europium complexes were predicted using the Sparkle/PM3 model and suggested a chemical environment of very low symmetry around the lanthanide ions (C(1)), which is in agreement with the luminescent spectra. CV analysis demonstrated that the trinuclear complexes possessed excellent electro-injection abilities. The effects of two additional Eu(3+) lumophors in these trinuclear europium complexes on their photoluminescent properties were investigated in detail. The results indicated that these trinuclear europium complexes exhibited highly luminescent quantum efficiencies and experimental intensity parameters in the solid state. Especially, due to the contribution of the two additional Eu(3+) lumophors in the trinuclear europium complexes, the quantum efficiency of the trinuclear complex Eu(3)(TTA)(9)trisphen was higher (ca. 34%) than the mononuclear europium complex Eu(TTA)(3)imidazophen.

  12. Acid-catalyzed oxidative addition of a C-H bond to a square planar d⁸ iridium complex.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Jason D; Kundu, Sabuj; Emge, Thomas J; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten; Goldman, Alan S

    2014-06-25

    While the addition of C-H bonds to three-coordinate Ir(I) fragments is a central theme in the field of C-H bond activation, addition to square planar four-coordinate complexes is far less precedented. The dearth of such reactions may be attributed, at least in part, to kinetic factors elucidated in seminal work by Hoffmann. C-H additions to square planar carbonyl complexes in particular are unprecedented, in contrast to the extensive chemistry of oxidative addition of other substrates (e.g., H2, HX) to Vaska's Complex and related species. We report that Bronsted acids will catalyze the addition of the alkynyl C-H bond of phenylacetylene to the pincer complex (PCP)Ir(CO). The reaction occurs to give exclusively the trans-C-H addition product. Our proposed mechanism, based on kinetics and DFT calculations, involves initial protonation of (PCP)Ir(CO) to generate a highly active five-coordinate cationic intermediate, which forms a phenylacetylene adduct that is then deprotonated to give product.

  13. Asymmetric dearomatization of the furan ring promoted by conjugate organolithium addition to (menthyloxy)(3-furyl)carbene complexes of chromium.

    PubMed

    Barluenga, José; Nandy, Sandip K; Laxmi, Y R Santosh; Suárez, José Ramón; Merino, Isabel; Flórez, Josefa; García-Granda, Santiago; Montejo-Bernardo, José

    2003-12-05

    The sequential low-temperature addition reaction of an organolithium compound and methyl triflate to (menthyloxy)(3-furyl)carbene complexes of chromium and tungsten proceeded with excellent regioselectivity (1,4-addition) and diastereoselectivity (2,3-trans disposition of the nucleophile and electrophile groups) to afford new 2,3-disubstituted (2,3-dihydro-3-furyl)carbene complexes. In addition, a high degree of diastereofacial selectivity was achieved by employing alkenyllithium compounds. After detachment of both the metal fragment and the chiral auxiliary group, trisubstituted 2,3-dihydrofuran derivatives containing a quaternary stereogenic center at the C3 position were obtained. The characterization, including X-ray crystallography, of a novel type of stable four-membered chelate (eta(2)-alkene)tetracarbonylcarbene complex of chromium is also reported.

  14. Phase Segregation and Dynamics in Strongly Interacting Small Molecule Additive - Block Copolymer Surfactant Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Rohit; Khalil, Ahmed; Henning Winter, H.; Watkins, James J.

    2012-02-01

    Rheology and Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) were used to investigate order to disorder transitions (ODTs) and disorder to order transitions (DOTs) of poly(ethyleneoxide-b-propyleneoxide-b-ethyleneoxide) block copolymer surfactants mixed with hydrogen-bond-donating small molecule additives. A series of additives having a core benzene ring and systematic variation in the number of carboxylic or hydroxyl groups attached to the ring were of particular interest. Ordered cylindrical morphologies, confirmed using SAXS, were obtained only in a certain additive concentration region. ODTs were characterized by sudden changes in the linear viscoelastic properties in low frequency region upon increasing temperature. The locations of ODTs varied widely with hydrogen-bond-donating ability of the functional group and were found to be strongly dependent on the number of functional groups attached to the ring. For a given additive, the temperature at which ODT occur was strong function of the additive loading, whereas the linear viscoelastic properties of the ordered state were little changed upon varying additive concentration in ordered region. The location and dynamics of DOTs upon cooling were comparable to the ODTs upon heating. Studies using these model systems provide insight into the design of well-ordered hybrid materials.

  15. Inviting Calm Within: ADD, Neurology, and Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riner, Phillip S.; Tanase, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM IV") describes ADD as behaviorally observed impairments in attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Officially known as AD/HD, we use ADD here because we are dealing primarily with attention, organizational, and impulsivity issues. A more…

  16. ADD: Acronym for Any Dysfunction or Difficulty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Gay; Poillion, Mary Jo

    1992-01-01

    Review of 48 articles and books on attention deficit disorder (ADD) found a total of 69 characteristics and 38 causes cited, evidencing no clearcut pattern for identifying the condition and little agreement for what causes ADD. The label appears to have limited value for communication, planning, decision making, or research efforts. (Author/DB)

  17. Eye movement correlates of younger and older adults' strategies for complex addition.

    PubMed

    Green, Heather J; Lemaire, Patrick; Dufau, Stéphane

    2007-07-01

    This study examined performance measures and eye movements associated with complex arithmetic strategies in young and older adults. Participants added pairs of three-digit numbers using two different strategies, under choice and no-choice conditions. Older adults made more errors but were not significantly slower than young adults, and response times and errors showed no interaction between age and the number of carries. Older adults chose strategies less adaptively than young adults. Eye movements were consistent with use of required strategies on no-choice trials and reported strategies on choice trials. Eye movement data also suggested that young adults more successfully distinguished between strategies. Implications of these findings for understanding aging effects in complex arithmetic are discussed.

  18. Enantioselective C-H bond addition of pyridines to alkenes catalyzed by chiral half-sandwich rare-earth complexes.

    PubMed

    Song, Guoyong; O, Wylie W N; Hou, Zhaomin

    2014-09-03

    Cationic half-sandwich scandium alkyl complexes bearing monocyclopentadienyl ligands embedded in chiral binaphthyl backbones act as excellent catalysts for the enantioselective C-H bond addition of pyridines to various 1-alkenes, leading to formation of a variety of enantioenriched alkylated pyridine derivatives in high yields and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 98:2 er).

  19. Apparent anti-Woodward-Hoffmann addition to a nickel bis(dithiolene) complex: the reaction mechanism involves reduced, dimetallic intermediates.

    PubMed

    Dang, Li; Shibl, Mohamed F; Yang, Xinzheng; Harrison, Daniel J; Alak, Aiman; Lough, Alan J; Fekl, Ulrich; Brothers, Edward N; Hall, Michael B

    2013-04-01

    Nickel dithiolene complexes have been proposed as electrocatalysts for alkene purification. Recent studies of the ligand-based reactions of Ni(tfd)2 (tfd = S2C2(CF3)2) and its anion [Ni(tfd)2](-) with alkenes (ethylene and 1-hexene) showed that in the absence of the anion, the reaction proceeds most rapidly to form the intraligand adduct, which decomposes by releasing a substituted dihydrodithiin. However, the presence of the anion increases the rate of formation of the stable cis-interligand adduct, and decreases the rate of dihydrodithiin formation and decomposition. In spite of both computational and experimental studies, the mechanism, especially the role of the anion, remained somewhat elusive. We are now providing a combined experimental and computational study that addresses the mechanism and explains the role of the anion. A kinetic study (global analysis) for the reaction of 1-hexene is reported, which supports the following mechanism: (1) reversible intraligand addition, (2) oxidation of the intraligand addition product prior to decomposition, and (3) interligand adduct formation catalyzed by Ni(tfd)2(-). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed on the Ni(tfd)2/Ni(tfd)2(-)/ethylene system to shed light on the selectivity of adduct formation in the absence of anion and on the mechanism in which Ni(tfd)2(-) shifts the reaction from intraligand addition to interligand addition. Computational results show that in the neutral system the free energy of activation for intraligand addition is lower than that for interligand addition, in agreement with the experimental results. The computations predict that the anion enhances the rate of the cis-interligand adduct formation by forming a dimetallic complex with the neutral complex. The [(Ni(tfd)2)2](-) dimetallic complex then coordinates ethylene and isomerizes to form a Ni,S-bound ethylene complex, which then rapidly isomerizes to the stable interligand adduct but not to the intraligand adduct

  20. The Additive and Logical Complexities of Linear and Bilinear Arithmetic Algorithms,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    of vectors, CV, cyclic convolution of vectors, CCV, and matrix multiplication, MM, are among the central problems of algebraic complexity theory , cf...a basi, set of vertices of D. (Lo(D) could be the set . of all vertices of D of indegree 0 but for D = D(A) we always choose Lo(D) as the set of...the directions of edges of D(A) and choose the set of input-variables of A as the basic set Lo(D) of the new digraph, D(A). Then our construction

  1. Congruence of Behavioral Symptomatology in Children with ADD/H, ADD/WO, and Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Lisa D.; Hynd, George W.

    1994-01-01

    This study compared parent and teacher behavioral ratings for 77 children (ages 5-16) diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H), attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity (ADD/WO), or learning disabilities (LD). ADD/WO and LD children were rated similarly on symptoms of withdrawal and impulsivity but differed…

  2. Catalytic enantioselective Michael additions to unsaturated ester derivatives using chiral copper(II) Lewis acid complexes.

    PubMed

    Evans, D A; Willis, M C; Johnston, J N

    1999-09-23

    [formula: see text] Chiral Cu(II) bisoxazoline (box) Lewis acids have been developed as catalysts of the Michael addition of enolsilanes to unsaturated ester derivatives. While enantioselection is stereoregular, the sense of diastereoselection is directly related to thioester enolsilane geometry: (E) enolsilanes give anti adducts and (Z) enolsilanes afford syn adducts. The size of the enolsilane alkylthio substituent directly impacts the magnitude of diastereoselection.

  3. Complex additive systems for Mn-Zn ferrites with low power loss

    SciTech Connect

    Töpfer, J. Angermann, A.

    2015-05-07

    Mn-Zn ferrites were prepared via an oxalate-based wet-chemical synthesis process. Nanocrystalline ferrite powders with particle size of 50 nm were sintered at 1150 °C with 500 ppm CaO and 100 ppm SiO{sub 2} as standard additives. A fine-grained, dense microstructure with grain size of 4–5 μm was obtained. Simultaneous addition of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ZrO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and SnO{sub 2} results low power losses, e.g., 65 mW/cm{sup 3} (500 kHz, 50 mT, 80 °C) and 55 mW/cm{sup 3} (1 MHz, 25 mT, 80 °C). Loss analysis shows that eddy current and residual losses were minimized through formation of insulating grain boundary phases, which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Addition of SnO{sub 2} increases the ferrous ion concentration and affects anisotropy as reflected in permeability measurements μ(T)

  4. Non-additive interactions between mitochondrial complex IV blockers and hypoxia in rat carotid body responses

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, David F; Kim, Insook; Mulligan, Eileen M; Carroll, John L

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic hypothesis of carotid body chemoreceptor hypoxia transduction proposes an impairment of ATP production as the signal for activation. We hypothesized that mitochondrial complex IV blockers and hypoxia would act synergistically in exciting afferent nerve activity. Following a pretreatment with low dosage sodium cyanide (10-20μM), the hypoxia-induced nerve response was significantly reduced along with hypoxia-induced catecholamine release. However, in isolated glomus cells, the intracellular calcium response was enhanced as initially predicted. This suggests a cyanide-mediated impairment in the step between the glomus cell intracellular calcium rise and neurotransmitter release from secretory vesicles. Administration of a PKC blocker largely reversed the inhibitory actions of cyanide on the neural response. We conclude that the expected synergism between cyanide and hypoxia occurs at the level of glomus cell intracellular calcium but not at downstream steps due to a PKC-dependent inhibition of secretion. This suggests that at least one regulatory step beyond the glomus cell calcium response may modulate the magnitude of chemoreceptor responsiveness. PMID:24096081

  5. 76 FR 49508 - ``Add Us In'' Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Disability Employment Program ``Add Us In'' Initiative AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. ACTION: Correction to the Funding Opportunity Number and Closing...

  6. Bismuth Infusion of ABS Enables Additive Manufacturing of Complex Radiological Phantoms and Shielding Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Ceh, Justin; Youd, Tom; Mastrovich, Zach; Peterson, Cody; Khan, Sarah; Sasser, Todd A.; Sander, Ian M.; Doney, Justin; Turner, Clark; Leevy, W. Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Radiopacity is a critical property of materials that are used for a range of radiological applications, including the development of phantom devices that emulate the radiodensity of native tissues and the production of protective equipment for personnel handling radioactive materials. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a fabrication platform that is well suited to creating complex anatomical replicas or custom labware to accomplish these radiological purposes. We created and tested multiple ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) filaments infused with varied concentrations of bismuth (1.2–2.7 g/cm3), a radiopaque metal that is compatible with plastic infusion, to address the poor gamma radiation attenuation of many mainstream 3D printing materials. X-ray computed tomography (CT) experiments of these filaments indicated that a density of 1.2 g/cm3 of bismuth-infused ABS emulates bone radiopacity during X-ray CT imaging on preclinical and clinical scanners. ABS-bismuth filaments along with ABS were 3D printed to create an embedded human nasocranial anatomical phantom that mimicked radiological properties of native bone and soft tissue. Increasing the bismuth content in the filaments to 2.7 g/cm3 created a stable material that could attenuate 50% of 99mTechnetium gamma emission when printed with a 2.0 mm wall thickness. A shielded test tube rack was printed to attenuate source radiation as a protective measure for lab personnel. We demonstrated the utility of novel filaments to serve multiple radiological purposes, including the creation of anthropomorphic phantoms and safety labware, by tuning the level of radiation attenuation through material customization. PMID:28245589

  7. Bismuth Infusion of ABS Enables Additive Manufacturing of Complex Radiological Phantoms and Shielding Equipment.

    PubMed

    Ceh, Justin; Youd, Tom; Mastrovich, Zach; Peterson, Cody; Khan, Sarah; Sasser, Todd A; Sander, Ian M; Doney, Justin; Turner, Clark; Leevy, W Matthew

    2017-02-24

    Radiopacity is a critical property of materials that are used for a range of radiological applications, including the development of phantom devices that emulate the radiodensity of native tissues and the production of protective equipment for personnel handling radioactive materials. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a fabrication platform that is well suited to creating complex anatomical replicas or custom labware to accomplish these radiological purposes. We created and tested multiple ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) filaments infused with varied concentrations of bismuth (1.2-2.7 g/cm³), a radiopaque metal that is compatible with plastic infusion, to address the poor gamma radiation attenuation of many mainstream 3D printing materials. X-ray computed tomography (CT) experiments of these filaments indicated that a density of 1.2 g/cm³ of bismuth-infused ABS emulates bone radiopacity during X-ray CT imaging on preclinical and clinical scanners. ABS-bismuth filaments along with ABS were 3D printed to create an embedded human nasocranial anatomical phantom that mimicked radiological properties of native bone and soft tissue. Increasing the bismuth content in the filaments to 2.7 g/cm³ created a stable material that could attenuate 50% of (99m)Technetium gamma emission when printed with a 2.0 mm wall thickness. A shielded test tube rack was printed to attenuate source radiation as a protective measure for lab personnel. We demonstrated the utility of novel filaments to serve multiple radiological purposes, including the creation of anthropomorphic phantoms and safety labware, by tuning the level of radiation attenuation through material customization.

  8. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  9. Synthesis of a lithium-cyclopentadienide complex by addition of LiNTf2 to a zwitterionic fulvalene.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Dominic; Seyboldt, Alexander; Eichele, Klaus; Kunz, Doris

    2016-12-20

    The synthesis of a η(5)-coordinated LiCp complex by simple addition of a Li-salt in benzene is presented. A strongly zwitterionic fulvalene serves as the Cp-precursor. Evidence for the coordination of Li(+) was obtained by the characterisitic (7)Li NMR chemical shifts, variable temperature experiments in solution and by X-ray structure analysis in the solid state.

  10. Dinuclear oxidative addition reactions using an isostructural series of Ni2, Co2, and Fe2 complexes.

    PubMed

    Behlen, Michael J; Zhou, You-Yun; Steiman, Talia J; Pal, Sudipta; Hartline, Douglas R; Zeller, Matthias; Uyeda, Christopher

    2016-12-20

    A family of low-valent Ni2, Co2, and Fe2 naphthyridine-diimine (NDI) complexes is presented. Ligand-based π* orbitals are sufficiently low-lying to fall within the metal 3d manifold, resulting in electronic structures that are highly delocalized across the conjugated [NDI]M2 system. This feature confers stability to metal-metal interactions during two-electron redox reactions, as demonstrated in a prototypical oxidative addition of allyl chloride.

  11. The addition of ketone bodies alleviates mitochondrial dysfunction by restoring complex I assembly in a MELAS cellular model.

    PubMed

    Frey, Samuel; Geffroy, Guillaume; Desquiret-Dumas, Valerie; Gueguen, Naig; Bris, Celine; Belal, Sophie; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Barth, Magalie; Henrion, Daniel; Lenaers, Guy; Bonneau, Dominique; Reynier, Pascal; Procaccio, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic Diet used to treat refractory epilepsy for almost a century may represent a treatment option for mitochondrial disorders for which effective treatments are still lacking. Mitochondrial complex I deficiencies are involved in a broad spectrum of inherited diseases including Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes syndrome leading to recurrent cerebral insults resembling strokes and associated with a severe complex I deficiency caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. The analysis of MELAS neuronal cybrid cells carrying the almost homoplasmic m.3243A>G mutation revealed a metabolic switch towards glycolysis with the production of lactic acid, severe defects in respiratory chain activity and complex I disassembly with an accumulation of assembly intermediates. Metabolites, NADH/NAD(+) ratio, mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption and BN-PAGE analysis were evaluated in mutant compared to control cells. A severe complex I enzymatic deficiency was identified associated with a major complex I disassembly with an accumulation of assembly intermediates of 400kDa. We showed that Ketone Bodies (KB) exposure for 4weeks associated with glucose deprivation significantly restored complex I stability and activity, increased ATP synthesis and reduced the NADH/NAD+ ratio, a key component of mitochondrial metabolism. In addition, without changing the mutant load, mtDNA copy number was significantly increased with KB, indicating that the absolute amount of wild type mtDNA copy number was higher in treated mutant cells. Therefore KB may constitute an alternative and promising therapy for MELAS syndrome, and could be beneficial for other mitochondrial diseases caused by complex I deficiency.

  12. Comparing GWAS Results of Complex Traits Using Full Genetic Model and Additive Models for Revealing Genetic Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Monir, Md. Mamun; Zhu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Most of the genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for human complex diseases have ignored dominance, epistasis and ethnic interactions. We conducted comparative GWASs for total cholesterol using full model and additive models, which illustrate the impacts of the ignoring genetic variants on analysis results and demonstrate how genetic effects of multiple loci could differ across different ethnic groups. There were 15 quantitative trait loci with 13 individual loci and 3 pairs of epistasis loci identified by full model, whereas only 14 loci (9 common loci and 5 different loci) identified by multi-loci additive model. Again, 4 full model detected loci were not detected using multi-loci additive model. PLINK-analysis identified two loci and GCTA-analysis detected only one locus with genome-wide significance. Full model identified three previously reported genes as well as several new genes. Bioinformatics analysis showed some new genes are related with cholesterol related chemicals and/or diseases. Analyses of cholesterol data and simulation studies revealed that the full model performs were better than the additive-model performs in terms of detecting power and unbiased estimations of genetic variants of complex traits. PMID:28079101

  13. Reversible methanol addition to copper Schiff base complexes: a kinetic, structural and spectroscopic study of reactions at azomethine C[double bond, length as m-dash]N bonds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wuyu; Saraei, Nina; Nie, Hanlin; Vaughn, John R; Jones, Alexis S; Mashuta, Mark S; Buchanan, Robert M; Grapperhaus, Craig A

    2016-10-12

    The reversible methanolysis of an azomethine C[double bond, length as m-dash]N in a series of copper(ii) Schiff base complexes has been investigated through combined spectroscopic, structural, and kinetic studies. Pentadentate copper(ii) complexes [L1-Cu(X)]Y (L1 = 1,2-bis[(1-methyl-2-imidazolyl)methyleneamino]ethane; X = Y = ClO4(-) (1); X = Y = TfO(-) (2); X = Y = BF4(-) (3); X = H2O, Y = (ClO4(-))2 (4) spontaneously add methanol in a ligand centered reaction to yield stable, isolable hemiaminal ether product complexes 5-8. In methanol free solution, 5-8 spontaneously release alcohol to regenerate 1-4. The methanol addition reaction is first-order in methanol and first-order in complex with second-order rate constants varying from 1.1 × 10(-4) to 187 × 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1) dependent on the donor ability of the axial ligand. Rate constants for methanol elimination vary from 0.67 to 3.7 × 10(-4) s(-1) with dependence on the counterion and water content of the solvent. Equilibrium constants for methanolysis range from 1.5 to 51 M(-1). Structural comparisons of the Schiff base complexes 1-4 and the hemiaminal ether complexes 5-8 suggest methanol addition is favored by the release of ligand strain associated with three planar five-membered chelates in 1-4.

  14. Grain-Size Based Additivity Models for Scaling Multi-rate Uranyl Surface Complexation in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Liu, Chongxuan; Hu, Bill X.; Hu, Qinhong

    2015-09-28

    This study statistically analyzed a grain-size based additivity model that has been proposed to scale reaction rates and parameters from laboratory to field. The additivity model assumed that reaction properties in a sediment including surface area, reactive site concentration, reaction rate, and extent can be predicted from field-scale grain size distribution by linearly adding reaction properties for individual grain size fractions. This study focused on the statistical analysis of the additivity model with respect to reaction rate constants using multi-rate uranyl (U(VI)) surface complexation reactions in a contaminated sediment as an example. Experimental data of rate-limited U(VI) desorption in a stirred flow-cell reactor were used to estimate the statistical properties of multi-rate parameters for individual grain size fractions. The statistical properties of the rate constants for the individual grain size fractions were then used to analyze the statistical properties of the additivity model to predict rate-limited U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment, and to evaluate the relative importance of individual grain size fractions to the overall U(VI) desorption. The result indicated that the additivity model provided a good prediction of the U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment. However, the rate constants were not directly scalable using the additivity model, and U(VI) desorption in individual grain size fractions have to be simulated in order to apply the additivity model. An approximate additivity model for directly scaling rate constants was subsequently proposed and evaluated. The result found that the approximate model provided a good prediction of the experimental results within statistical uncertainty. This study also found that a gravel size fraction (2-8mm), which is often ignored in modeling U(VI) sorption and desorption, is statistically significant to the U(VI) desorption in the sediment.

  15. Heterochromatin-associated interactions of Drosophila HP1a with dADD1, HIPP1, and repetitive RNAs.

    PubMed

    Alekseyenko, Artyom A; Gorchakov, Andrey A; Zee, Barry M; Fuchs, Stephen M; Kharchenko, Peter V; Kuroda, Mitzi I

    2014-07-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1a) has conserved roles in gene silencing and heterochromatin and is also implicated in transcription, DNA replication, and repair. Here we identify chromatin-associated protein and RNA interactions of HP1a by BioTAP-XL mass spectrometry and sequencing from Drosophila S2 cells, embryos, larvae, and adults. Our results reveal an extensive list of known and novel HP1a-interacting proteins, of which we selected three for validation. A strong novel interactor, dADD1 (Drosophila ADD1) (CG8290), is highly enriched in heterochromatin, harbors an ADD domain similar to human ATRX, displays selective binding to H3K9me2 and H3K9me3, and is a classic genetic suppressor of position-effect variegation. Unexpectedly, a second hit, HIPP1 (HP1 and insulator partner protein-1) (CG3680), is strongly connected to CP190-related complexes localized at putative insulator sequences throughout the genome in addition to its colocalization with HP1a in heterochromatin. A third interactor, the histone methyltransferase MES-4, is also enriched in heterochromatin. In addition to these protein-protein interactions, we found that HP1a selectively associated with a broad set of RNAs transcribed from repetitive regions. We propose that this rich network of previously undiscovered interactions will define how HP1a complexes perform their diverse functions in cells and developing organisms.

  16. Theoretical investigation on mechanism of asymmetric Michael addition of malononitrile to chalcones catalyzed by Cinchona alkaloid aluminium(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhishan; Lee, Hai Whang; Kim, Chan Kyung

    2011-09-21

    The mechanism of Michael addition of malononitrile to chalcones catalyzed by Cinchona alkaloid aluminium(III) complex has been investigated by DFT and ONIOM methods. Calculations indicate that the reaction proceeds through a dual activation mechanism, in which Al(III) acts as a Lewis acid to activate the electrophile α,β-unsaturated carbonyl substrate while the tertiary amine in the Cinchona alkaloid works as a Lewis base to promote the activation of the malononitrile and deprotonation. A stepwise pathway involving C-C bond formation followed by proton transfer from the catalyst to the carbonyl substrate is adopted, and latter step is predicted to be the rate-determining-step in the reaction with an energy barrier of 12.4 kcal mol(-1). In the absence of the Al(III)-complex, a Cinchona alkaloid activates the carbonyl substrate by a hydrogen bonding of the hydroxyl group, involving a higher energy barrier of 30.4 kcal mol(-1). The steric repulsion between the phenyl group attached to the carbonyl group in the chalcone and isopropoxyl groups of the Al(III)-complex may play an important role in the control of stereoselectivity. The π-π stacking effect between the quinuclidine ring of the quinine and the phenyl group of the chalcones may also help the stabilization of the preferred molecular complex. These results are in agreement with experimental observations.

  17. Family nurse practitioners: "value add" in outpatient chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Lynn

    2012-12-01

    Nurse practitioners are capable leaders in primary care design as practices nationwide move to consider and adopt the patient-centered medical home. The chronic care model provides a structure to enhance the care of chronic illness. Nurse practitioners are instrumental in many areas of this model as both leaders and caregivers. Safety and quality are basic medical home goals; nurse practitioners enhance both. The addition of a nurse practitioner to a practice is an effective "value add" in every way.

  18. Nonreciprocal photonic crystal add-drop filter

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Keyu; Xiao, Jun-Jun; Yin, Xiaobo

    2014-11-24

    We present a versatile add-drop integrated photonic filter (ADF) consisting of nonreciprocal waveguides in which the propagation of light is restricted in one predetermined direction. With the bus and add/drop waveguides symmetrically coupled through a cavity, the four-port device allows each individual port to add and/or drop a signal of the same frequency. The scheme is general and we demonstrate the nonreciprocal ADF with magneto-optical photonic crystals. The filter is immune to waveguide defects, allowing straightforward implementation of multi-channel ADFs by cascading the four-port designs. The results should find applications in wavelength-division multiplexing and related integrated photonic techniques.

  19. Grain-Size Based Additivity Models for Scaling Multi-rate Uranyl Surface Complexation in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Liu, Chongxuan; Hu, Bill X.; Hu, Qinhong

    2015-09-28

    The additivity model assumed that field-scale reaction properties in a sediment including surface area, reactive site concentration, and reaction rate can be predicted from field-scale grain-size distribution by linearly adding reaction properties estimated in laboratory for individual grain-size fractions. This study evaluated the additivity model in scaling mass transfer-limited, multi-rate uranyl (U(VI)) surface complexation reactions in a contaminated sediment. Experimental data of rate-limited U(VI) desorption in a stirred flow-cell reactor were used to estimate the statistical properties of the rate constants for individual grain-size fractions, which were then used to predict rate-limited U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment. The result indicated that the additivity model with respect to the rate of U(VI) desorption provided a good prediction of U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment. However, the rate constants were not directly scalable using the additivity model. An approximate additivity model for directly scaling rate constants was subsequently proposed and evaluated. The result found that the approximate model provided a good prediction of the experimental results within statistical uncertainty. This study also found that a gravel-size fraction (2 to 8 mm), which is often ignored in modeling U(VI) sorption and desorption, is statistically significant to the U(VI) desorption in the sediment.

  20. Shift-and-add for astronomical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribak, Erez; Hege, E. Keith; Strobel, Nicolas V.; Christou, Julian C.

    1989-01-01

    Diffraction-limited astronomical images have been obtained utilizing a variant of the shift-and-add method. It is shown that the matched filter approach for extending the weighted shift-and-add method reduces specklegrams from extended objects and from an object dominated by photon noise. The method is aberration-insensitive and yields very high dynamic range results. The iterative method for arriving at the matched filter does not automatically converge in the case of photon-noisy specklegrams for objects with more than one maximum.

  1. Recombination hotspots and single-stranded DNA binding proteins couple DNA translocation to DNA unwinding by the AddAB helicase-nuclease.

    PubMed

    Yeeles, Joseph T P; van Aelst, Kara; Dillingham, Mark S; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando

    2011-06-24

    AddAB is a helicase-nuclease that processes double-stranded DNA breaks for repair by homologous recombination. This process is modulated by Chi recombination hotspots: specific DNA sequences that attenuate the nuclease activity of the translocating AddAB complex to promote downstream recombination. Using a combination of kinetic and imaging techniques, we show that AddAB translocation is not coupled to DNA unwinding in the absence of single-stranded DNA binding proteins because nascent single-stranded DNA immediately re-anneals behind the moving enzyme. However, recognition of recombination hotspot sequences during translocation activates unwinding by coupling these activities, thereby ensuring the downstream formation of single-stranded DNA that is required for RecA-mediated recombinational repair. In addition to their implications for the mechanism of double-stranded DNA break repair, these observations may affect our implementation and interpretation of helicase assays and our understanding of helicase mechanisms in general.

  2. 76 FR 47240 - ``Add Us In'' Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Disability Employment Policy ``Add Us In'' Initiative AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. Announcement Type: New Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for...

  3. 75 FR 45164 - ``Add Us In'' Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Assistant Secretary for Office of Disability Employment Policy ``Add Us In'' Program AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. Announcement Type: New Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for...

  4. Shift Would Add Burden on Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how the transition from district-centered to school-based staff development can add to the burden on principals. This column first presents a brief review of the efforts of Braxton Hinsdale, a staff development director who advocated for moving professional development resources from the district level to the…

  5. Educational Interventions for Students with ADD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.; Elhoweris, Hala; van Garderen, Delinda

    2003-01-01

    Principles of educational interventions for students with attention deficit disorder (ADD) include: (1) giving complete and thorough directions; (2) individualizing in-class and homework assignments; (3) motivating students; (4) promoting active responding and monitoring understanding; (5) employing content enhancements; (6) offering learning…

  6. Add Control: plant virtualization for control solutions in WWTP.

    PubMed

    Maiza, M; Bengoechea, A; Grau, P; De Keyser, W; Nopens, I; Brockmann, D; Steyer, J P; Claeys, F; Urchegui, G; Fernández, O; Ayesa, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of the research work carried out in the Add Control project, which proposes an extension of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models and modelling architectures used in traditional WWTP simulation tools, addressing, in addition to the classical mass transformations (transport, physico-chemical phenomena, biological reactions), all the instrumentation, actuation and automation & control components (sensors, actuators, controllers), considering their real behaviour (signal delays, noise, failures and power consumption of actuators). Its ultimate objective is to allow a rapid transition from the simulation of the control strategy to its implementation at full-scale plants. Thus, this paper presents the application of the Add Control simulation platform for the design and implementation of new control strategies at the WWTP of Mekolalde.

  7. Add/Compare/Select Circuit For Rapid Decoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Becker, Neal D.; Johnson, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype decoding system operates at 200 Mb/s. ACS (add/compare/select) gate array is highly integrated emitter-coupled-logic circuit implementing arithmetic operations essential to Viterbi decoding of convolutionally encoded data signals. Principal advantage of circuit is speed. Operates as single unit performing eight additions and finds minimum of eight sums, or operates as two independent units, each performing four additions and finding minimum of four sums. Flexibility enables application to variety of different codes. Includes built-in self-testing circuitry, enabling unit to be tested at full speed with help of only simple test fixture.

  8. Intramolecular C-H oxidative addition to iridium(I) triggered by trimethyl phosphite in N,N'-diphosphanesilanediamine complexes.

    PubMed

    Passarelli, Vincenzo; Pérez-Torrente, Jesús J; Oro, Luis A

    2015-11-14

    The reaction of [Ir(SiNP)(cod)][PF6] ([1][PF6]) and of IrCl(SiNP)(cod) (5) (SiNP = SiMe2{N(4-C6H4CH3)PPh2}2) with trimethyl phosphite affords the iridium(iii) derivatives of the formula [IrHClx(SiNP-H){P(OMe)3}2-x]((1-x)+) (x = 0, 3(+); x = 1, 6) containing the κ(3)C,P,P'-coordinated SiNP-H ligand (SiNP-H = Si(CH2)(CH3){N(4-C6H4CH3)PPh2}2). The thermally unstable pentacoordinated cation [Ir(SiNP){P(OMe)3}(cod)](+) (2(+)) has been detected as an intermediate of the reaction and has been fully characterised in solution. Also, the mechanism of the C-H oxidative addition has been elucidated by DFT calculations showing that the square planar iridium(i) complexes of the formula [IrClx(SiNP){P(OMe)3}2-x]((1-x)+) (x = 0, 4(+); x = 1, 7) should be firstly obtained from 2(+) and finally should undergo the C-H oxidative addition to iridium(i) via a concerted intramolecular mechanism. The influence of the counterion of 2(+) on the outcome of the C-H oxidative addition reaction has also been investigated.

  9. Possibilities of the Technology of Additive Production for Making Complex-Shape Parts and Depositing Functional Coatings from Metallic Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, S. N.; Tarasova, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aspects of terminology, definitions and classification in the technology of additive production are considered. The principal possibility of fabrication of complex-shape parts from a refractory cobalt alloy by the method of selective laser melting and deposition of hard and wear-resistant coatings from Ti and SiC powders by coaxial laser surfacing is shown. The technological possibility of microlaser surfacing with lateral resolution about 100 μm in the production of parts from aluminum alloys is considered. The mechanisms of formation of structure in the studied alloys typical for selective laser melting, laser surfacing and microlaser surfacing are determined. The physical and mechanical properties of the alloys are investigated.

  10. Genetic dissection of Helicobacter pylori AddAB role in homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Marsin, Stéphanie; Lopes, Anne; Mathieu, Aurélie; Dizet, Eléa; Orillard, Emilie; Guérois, Raphaël; Radicella, J Pablo

    2010-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects the stomach of about half of the world's human population, frequently causing chronic inflammation at the origin of several gastric pathologies. One of the most remarkable characteristics of the species is its remarkable genomic plasticity in which homologous recombination (HR) plays a critical role. Here, we analyzed the role of the H. pylori homologue of the AddAB recombination protein. Bioinformatics analysis of the proteins unveils the similarities and differences of the H. pylori AddAB complex with respect to the RecBCD and AddAB complexes from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Helicobacter pylori mutants lacking functional addB or/and addA show the same level of sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents such as UV or irradiation and of deficiency in intrachromosomal RecA-dependent HR. Epistasis analyses of both DNA repair and HR phenotypes, using double and triple recombination mutants, demonstrate that, in H. pylori, AddAB and RecOR complexes define two separate presynaptic pathways with little functional overlap. However, neither of these complexes participates in the RecA-dependent process of transformation of these naturally competent bacteria.

  11. Evolutionary Genomics Suggests That CheV Is an Additional Adaptor for Accommodating Specific Chemoreceptors within the Chemotaxis Signaling Complex.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Davi R; Zhulin, Igor B

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are models for many experiments in molecular biology including chemotaxis, and most of the results obtained with one organism have been generalized to another. While most components of the chemotaxis pathway are strongly conserved between the two species, Salmonella genomes contain some chemoreceptors and an additional protein, CheV, that are not found in E. coli. The role of CheV was examined in distantly related species Bacillus subtilis and Helicobacter pylori, but its role in bacterial chemotaxis is still not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that in enterobacteria CheV functions as an additional adaptor linking the CheA kinase to certain types of chemoreceptors that cannot be effectively accommodated by the universal adaptor CheW. Phylogenetic profiling, genomic context and comparative protein sequence analyses suggested that CheV interacts with specific domains of CheA and chemoreceptors from an orthologous group exemplified by the Salmonella McpC protein. Structural consideration of the conservation patterns suggests that CheV and CheW share the same binding spot on the chemoreceptor structure, but have some affinity bias towards chemoreceptors from different orthologous groups. Finally, published experimental results and data newly obtained via comparative genomics support the idea that CheV functions as a "phosphate sink" possibly to off-set the over-stimulation of the kinase by certain types of chemoreceptors. Overall, our results strongly suggest that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex.

  12. Evolutionary genomics suggests that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex

    DOE PAGES

    Ortega, Davi R.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Punta, Marco

    2016-02-04

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are models for many experiments in molecular biology including chemotaxis, and most of the results obtained with one organism have been generalized to another. While most components of the chemotaxis pathway are strongly conserved between the two species, Salmonella genomes contain some chemoreceptors and an additional protein, CheV, that are not found in E. coli. The role of CheV was examined in distantly related species Bacillus subtilis and Helicobacter pylori, but its role in bacterial chemotaxis is still not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that in enterobacteria CheV functions as an additional adaptor linkingmore » the CheA kinase to certain types of chemoreceptors that cannot be effectively accommodated by the universal adaptor CheW. Phylogenetic profiling, genomic context and comparative protein sequence analyses suggested that CheV interacts with specific domains of CheA and chemoreceptors from an orthologous group exemplified by the Salmonella McpC protein. Structural consideration of the conservation patterns suggests that CheV and CheW share the same binding spot on the chemoreceptor structure, but have some affinity bias towards chemoreceptors from different orthologous groups. Finally, published experimental results and data newly obtained via comparative genomics support the idea that CheV functions as a "phosphate sink" possibly to off-set the over-stimulation of the kinase by certain types of chemoreceptors. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex.« less

  13. Evolutionary genomics suggests that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Davi R.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Punta, Marco

    2016-02-04

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are models for many experiments in molecular biology including chemotaxis, and most of the results obtained with one organism have been generalized to another. While most components of the chemotaxis pathway are strongly conserved between the two species, Salmonella genomes contain some chemoreceptors and an additional protein, CheV, that are not found in E. coli. The role of CheV was examined in distantly related species Bacillus subtilis and Helicobacter pylori, but its role in bacterial chemotaxis is still not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that in enterobacteria CheV functions as an additional adaptor linking the CheA kinase to certain types of chemoreceptors that cannot be effectively accommodated by the universal adaptor CheW. Phylogenetic profiling, genomic context and comparative protein sequence analyses suggested that CheV interacts with specific domains of CheA and chemoreceptors from an orthologous group exemplified by the Salmonella McpC protein. Structural consideration of the conservation patterns suggests that CheV and CheW share the same binding spot on the chemoreceptor structure, but have some affinity bias towards chemoreceptors from different orthologous groups. Finally, published experimental results and data newly obtained via comparative genomics support the idea that CheV functions as a "phosphate sink" possibly to off-set the over-stimulation of the kinase by certain types of chemoreceptors. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex.

  14. Evolutionary Genomics Suggests That CheV Is an Additional Adaptor for Accommodating Specific Chemoreceptors within the Chemotaxis Signaling Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Davi R.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are models for many experiments in molecular biology including chemotaxis, and most of the results obtained with one organism have been generalized to another. While most components of the chemotaxis pathway are strongly conserved between the two species, Salmonella genomes contain some chemoreceptors and an additional protein, CheV, that are not found in E. coli. The role of CheV was examined in distantly related species Bacillus subtilis and Helicobacter pylori, but its role in bacterial chemotaxis is still not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that in enterobacteria CheV functions as an additional adaptor linking the CheA kinase to certain types of chemoreceptors that cannot be effectively accommodated by the universal adaptor CheW. Phylogenetic profiling, genomic context and comparative protein sequence analyses suggested that CheV interacts with specific domains of CheA and chemoreceptors from an orthologous group exemplified by the Salmonella McpC protein. Structural consideration of the conservation patterns suggests that CheV and CheW share the same binding spot on the chemoreceptor structure, but have some affinity bias towards chemoreceptors from different orthologous groups. Finally, published experimental results and data newly obtained via comparative genomics support the idea that CheV functions as a “phosphate sink” possibly to off-set the over-stimulation of the kinase by certain types of chemoreceptors. Overall, our results strongly suggest that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex. PMID:26844549

  15. [Assessment of efficiency of dietotherapy with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Lapik, I A; Sokol'nikov, A A; Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Sentsova, T B; Plotnikova, O A

    2014-01-01

    The influence of diet inclusion of vitamin and mineral complex (VMC), potassium and magnesium in the form of asparaginate on micronutrient status, body composition and biochemical parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) has been investigated. 120 female patients with DM2 and obesity of I-III degree (mean age - 58 +/- 6 years) have been included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: main group (n = 60) and control group (n = 60). For 3 weeks patients of both groups received a low-calorie diet (1600 kcal/day). Patients of the main group received VMC, providing an additional intake of vitamins C and E (100-120% RDA), beta-carotene (40% RDA), nicotinamide (38% RDA), pantothenic acid and biotin (60% RDA), vitamins B12, B2 and folic acid (75-83% RDA), vitamins B1 and B6 (160-300% RDA), zinc (100% RDA) and chromium (400% RDA), and also received magnesium (17.7% RDA) and potassium (9.4% RDA) in the form of asparaginate. Body composition, biochemical parameters and micronutrient status (blood serum level of vitamins C, D, B6, B12, folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus) were evaluated in all patients before and after the 3-week course of diet therapy. After the low-calorie diet therapy average body weight reduction was 4.2 +/- 0.2 kg in the main group, and 4.4 +/- 0.1 kg in the control group, without statistically significant differences between groups. Statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose concentration in blood serum was registered in both groups. It should be noted that in the control group glycemia decreased on 1.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, while the main group showed a decrease on 1.8 +/- 0.1 (p < 0.05) to normal values (5.4 +/- 0.1 mmol/l). Initial assessment of vitamin and mineral status revealed that most patients were optimal supplied with vitamins and minerals. After the dietotherapy significant increase of vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12

  16. Mixed N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Bis(oxazolinyl)borato Rhodium and Iridium Complexes in Photochemical and Thermal Oxidative Addition Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songchen; Manna, Kuntal; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D

    2014-12-08

    In order to facilitate oxidative addition chemistry of fac-coordinated rhodium(I) and iridium(I) compounds, carbene–bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborate proligands have been synthesized and reacted with organometallic precursors. Two proligands, PhB(OxMe2)2(ImtBuH) (H[1]; OxMe2 = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline; ImtBuH = 1-tert-butylimidazole) and PhB(OxMe2)2(ImMesH) (H[2]; ImMesH = 1-mesitylimidazole), are deprotonated with potassium benzyl to generate K[1] and K[2], and these potassium compounds serve as reagents for the synthesis of a series of rhodium and iridium complexes. Cyclooctadiene and dicarbonyl compounds {PhB(OxMe2)2ImtBu}Rh(η4-C8H12) (3), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(η4-C8H12) (4), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(CO)2 (5), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(η4-C8H12) (6), and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(CO)2 (7) are synthesized along with ToMM(η4-C8H12) (M = Rh (8); M = Ir (9); ToM = tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate). The spectroscopic and structural properties and reactivity of this series of compounds show electronic and steric effects of substituents on the imidazole (tert-butyl vs mesityl), effects of replacing an oxazoline in ToM with a carbene donor, and the influence of the donor ligand (CO vs C8H12). The reactions of K[2] and [M(μ-Cl)(η2-C8H14)2]2 (M = Rh, Ir) provide {κ4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes'CH2}Rh(μ-H)(μ-Cl)Rh(η2-C8H14)2 (10) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(η3-C8H13) (11). In the former compound, a spontaneous oxidative addition of a mesityl ortho-methyl to give a mixed-valent dirhodium species is observed, while the iridium compound forms a monometallic allyl hydride. Photochemical reactions of dicarbonyl compounds 5 and 7 result in C–H bond oxidative addition providing the compounds {κ4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes'CH2}RhH(CO) (12) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(Ph)CO (13). In 12, oxidative addition results in cyclometalation of the mesityl ortho-methyl similar to 10, whereas the iridium compound reacts with the benzene solvent to give a rare crystallographically characterized cis

  17. Control of morphology and nanostructure of copper and cobalt oxalates: Effect of complexing ions, polymeric additives and molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Paul; Pujol, Ollivier; Jongen, Nathalie; Lemaître, Jacques; Fink, Alke; Stadleman, Pierre; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2010-11-01

    Precipitated oxalates are often nanostructured and can be used as precursors for nanostructured oxides for different applications. The modification of the particle shape and nanostructures of both copper and cobalt oxalates has been demonstrated using polymeric additives or complexing counter-ions. In the case of cobalt oxalate the characteristic elongated rod particle shape (axial ratio of 10) can be modified by using polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) to produce particles with lower axial ratios of 2, through cubes all the way to platelets (axial ratio 0.2). The PMMA inhibits the growth of the particles along the [101] direction more and more strongly as the concentration of the polymer increases. The crystallite size from XRD line broadening is not modified by the PMMA indicating that the PMMA does not influence the nucleation and growth but modifies the aggregation kinetics. Copper oxalates precipitated in the presence of different cellulose derived polymers with different molecular weights and functional groups (methyl and propyl) showed sensitivity to both molecular weight and functional group. Higher molecular weights did not influence the copper oxalate particle shape, whereas methyl cellulose gave elongated particles and propyl celluloses gave platelet like particles. Copper oxalate precipitated in the presence of acetate counter ions gave platelets with an axial ratio of 0.15 compared to the cushion-like morphology (axial ratio 0.5). The primary crystallites were more elongated along the [001] direction in the presence of acetate, modifying the proportion of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces and hence influencing the aggregation kinetics and particle shape. The copper and cobalt oxalate particle formation seems to be dominated by the primary particle aggregation with the different additives interacting specifically with different crystallographic faces of the primary particles. By tuning this interaction particles with different shapes and substructures

  18. The diverse roles of the Nup93/Nic96 complex proteins - structural scaffolds of the nuclear pore complex with additional cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Benjamin; Antonin, Wolfram

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear pore complexes mediate the transport between the cell nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. These 125 MDa structures are among the largest assemblies found in eukaryotes, built from proteins organized in distinct subcomplexes that act as building blocks during nuclear pore complex biogenesis. In this review, we focus on one of these subcomplexes, the Nup93 complex in metazoa and its yeast counterpart, the Nic96 complex. We discuss its essential function in nuclear pore complex assembly as a linker between the nuclear membrane and the central part of the pore and its various roles in nuclear transport processes and beyond.

  19. User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 1: General ADD code description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the AXISYMMETRIC DIFFUSER DUCT code or ADD code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

  20. User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 3: ADD code coordinate generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

  1. Mothers whose children have ADD/ADHD discuss their children's medication use: an investigation of blogs.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Juanne N; Lang, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a frame and discourse analysis of Internet blog sites where parents (usually mothers) discuss their concerns about medication use by their children with attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). This is a particularly important topic in an era characterized by powerful circulating discourses around the contentious medicalization of, and prevalent pharmaceutical treatments for, ADD/ADHD, as well as the mother blame associated with having a child diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. The findings document that the mothers see ADD/ADHD as legitimate medical diagnoses and view themselves as caretakers of children with brain and neuro-chemical anomalies affecting the behavior of their children. They favor pharmaceutical use and describe themselves as experts in the difficult and complex issues related to pharmaceuticalized parenting. At the same time their adoption of medicalization is contingent as they express specific critiques of some doctors, some types of doctors, and critically evaluate science.

  2. Independents add gas reserves, forego romance

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, D.

    1981-08-01

    Incentive pricing for low-permeability reservoirs and tax advantages for drilling them are 2 big reasons why more independents may start making a special effort to add gas reserves to their inventories. If so, it will be a change from past practices, which saw independents build up big gas positions by circumstance rather than by intention. There are always major refiners ready and willing to buy whole crude oil reservoirs from small producers, but purchasers willing to take gas fields in a single investment are few and far between. Lower-than-normal return on equity during the first 20 years, plus the heavy front-end cost of a frac necessary to produce the tight gas might dissuade independents from drilling tight gas sands, but those liabilities are offset by the higher price tight gas gets and the peculiar tax advantages of exploring for it that make a nice fit with the small operator's way of doing business.

  3. Comparison of reactivity of Pt(II) center in the mononuclear and binuclear organometallic diimineplatinum complexes toward oxidative addition of methyl iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    The reactivities of Pt(II) center in a series of organometallic mononuclear Pt(II), binuclear Pt(II) and binuclear mixed-valence Pt(II)-Pt(IV) complexes toward oxidative addition of MeI have been compared from a theoretical point of view. The nucleophilicity index and electron-donation power were calculated for each of these complexes. The energies of HOMO and dZ2 orbital were determined for these complexes. Very good correlations were found between logk2 (k2 is the experimentally determined second order rate constant for the oxidative addition of MeI on these complexes) and nucleophilicity index or electron-donation power for these complexes. The correlation between logk2 and the energy of HOMO or the energy of dZ2 orbital were also very good. The condensed-to-atom Fukui functions for electrophilic attack on these complexes showed that the Pt(II) center is the preferred site for the oxidative addition of MeI. All of these observations are in agreement with the proposed SN2 type mechanism in the oxidative addition of MeI on the Pt(II) center in these complexes.

  4. Children with Attention Deficit Disorders. ADD Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Harvey C.

    This fact sheet summarizes basic information on Attention Deficit Disorders (ADD), including prevalence and characteristics, causes, identification, treatment, outcomes, and suggestions. Children with ADD comprise approximately 3-5 percent of the school age population, with boys significantly outnumbering girls. Of 14 characteristics of ADD, the…

  5. Effect of BST additive on the complex permeability and permittivity of Z-type hexaferrite in the range of 1 MHz-1 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, P.; Deng, L. J.; Xie, J. X.; Liang, D. F.; Chen, L.

    2004-04-01

    Z-type hexaferrite (Ba 3(Co 0.4Zn 0.6) 2Fe 23.4O 41) with BST(Ba 0.5Sr 0.5TiO 3) additive was prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. We have investigated the effects of BST additive on the complex permeability, permittivity and microwave absorption in the range of 1 MHz-1 GHz. The results from XRD and SEM indicate that as the amount of BST increases, the major phase changes to Z-phase, simultaneously M-phase and perovskite phase appear, and grain size increases. When the weight percent of BST additive in Z-type hexaferrite varied from 0% to 1.5%, the BST additive not only improved complex permeability and complex permittivity, but also provided broadband reflectivity characteristics. Meanwhile the minimum reflection point shifts to lower frequency with increase of BST content.

  6. Stereoselective Michael Addition of Glycine Anions to Chiral Fischer Alkenylcarbene Complexes. Asymmetric Synthesis of beta-Substituted Glutamic Acids.

    PubMed

    Ezquerra, Jesús; Pedregal, Concepción; Merino, Isabel; Flórez, Josefa; Barluenga, José; García-Granda, Santiago; Llorca, María-Amparo

    1999-09-03

    The reaction of lithium enolates of achiral N-protected glycine esters with chiral alkoxyalkenylcarbene complexes of chromium provided the corresponding Michael adducts with either high anti or syn selectivity depending on the nature of the nitrogen protecting group, and high diastereofacial selectivity when carbene complexes containing the (-)-8-phenylmenthyloxy group were employed. Subsequent oxidation of the metal-carbene moiety followed by deprotection of the amine group and hydrolysis of both carboxylic esters afforded enantiomerically enriched 3-substituted glutamic acids of natural as well as unnatural stereochemistry. Alternatively, when the deprotection step was performed previously to the oxidation, cyclic aminocarbene complexes were formed, which finally led to optically active 3-substituted pyroglutamic acids.

  7. Electrophilic Anti Addition of Bromine to 2-Methylbut-2-Ene with the N-Methylpyrrolidin-2-One Hydrotribromide Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrien, Jean-Francois; Provot, Olivier; Joseph, Delphine; Bekaert, Alain

    2004-01-01

    The N-methylpyrrolidin-2-one hydrotribromide complex (MPHT) is a stable solid that can be stored several months at room temperature. The MPHT is not corrosive, not necrosing, less toxic and easier to handle for students as compared to the molecular bromine.

  8. Chiral-at-Metal Rh(III) Complex-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Michael Addition of β-Keto Acids with α,β-Unsaturated 2-Acyl Imidazoles or Pyridine.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Wu; Gong, Jun; Kang, Qiang

    2017-03-17

    A newly prepared chiral-at-metal Rh(III) complex-catalyzed, highly efficient enantioselective decarboxylative Michael addition of β-keto acids with α,β-unsaturated 2-acyl imidazoles or pyridine has been developed, affording the corresponding adducts in 94-98% yield with up to 96% enantioselectivity. This protocol exhibits remarkable reactivity, as the complex with a Rh(III) loading as low as 0.05 mol % can catalyze the decarboxylative Michael addition on a gram scale without loss of enantioselectivity.

  9. The Fanconi family adds a fraternal twin.

    PubMed

    Grompe, Markus; van de Vrugt, Henri

    2007-05-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway plays an important role in DNA repair. In a recent issue of Cell, Smogorzewska et al. (2007) now demonstrate that FANCD2 has a paralog, FANCI. FANCI and FANCD2 form the "ID" complex that loads onto chromatin after DNA damage. Like FANCD2, monoubiquitination of FANCI requires the FA core complex. Importantly, FANCI and FANCD2 monoubiquitination is co-dependent, suggesting a novel mechanism in ubiquitin conjugation.

  10. Antecedents and Correlates of Course Cancellation in a University "Drop and Add" Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babad, Elisha; Icekson, Tamar; Yelinek, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    Most institutions of higher education allow students to drop or add courses in the first 2-3 weeks of each term (D&A). Arguing that course cancellation is not merely an administrative issue involving enrollment trends but represents complex decision making processes taken by students, this study investigated antecedents and correlates of course…

  11. Development of catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition and [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions using chiral calcium complexes.

    PubMed

    Tsubogo, Tetsu; Saito, Susumu; Seki, Kazutaka; Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Shu

    2008-10-08

    Catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition and [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions using chiral calcium species prepared from calcium isopropoxide and chiral bisoxazoline ligands have been developed. Glycine Schiff bases reacted with acrylic esters to afford 1,4-addition products, glutamic acid derivatives, in high yields with high enantioselectivities. During the investigation of the 1,4-addition reactions, we unexpectedly found that a [3 + 2] cycloaddition occurred in the reactions with crotonate derivatives, affording substituted pyrrolidine derivatives in high yields with high enantioselectivities. On the basis of this finding, we investigated asymmetric [3 + 2] cycloadditions, and it was revealed that several kinds of optically active substituted pyrrolidine derivatives containing contiguous stereogenic tertiary and quaternary carbon centers were obtained with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. In addition, optically active pyrrolidine cores of hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent polymerase inhibitors and potential effective antiviral agents have been synthesized using this [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. NMR spectroscopic analysis and observation of nonamplification of enantioselectivity in nonlinear effect experiments suggested that a monomeric calcium species with an anionic ligand was formed as an active catalyst. A stepwise mechanism of the [3 + 2] cycloaddition, consisting of 1,4-addition and successive intramolecular Mannich-type reaction was suggested. Furthermore, modification of the Schiff base structure resulted in a modification of the reaction course from a [3 + 2] cycloaddition to a 1,4-addition, affording 3-substituted glutamic acid derivatives with high diasterero- and enantioselectivities.

  12. Reactions of Anilines and Benzamides with a Fourteen-Electron Iridium(I) Bis(Phosphinite) Complex: N-H Oxidative Addition versus Lewis Base Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Alison Cartwright; White, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Anilines react with (POCOP)Ir(C6H5)(H), 12, (POCOP = 2,6-(OPtBu2)2C6H3) to yield equilibrium mixtures of 12, the Ir(I) σ-complexes (POCOP)Ir(NH2Ar), 13, and the Ir(III) oxidative addition adducts (POCOP)Ir(H)(NHAr), 14. Quantitative studies of these equilibria for a series of anilines were carried out. Anilines possessing electron-withdrawing groups favor the Ir(III) oxidative addition adduct over the Ir(I) sigma complex. Low temperature studies using p-chloroaniline show that the Ir(I) σ-complex is the kinetic product of reaction and is likely the precursor to the Ir(III) oxidative addition adduct. Reductive elimination of complexes 14 in the presence of ethylene led to the corresponding anilines and the ethylene complex (POCOP)Ir(C2H4). Kinetic analysis of these reactions for 14e,f,g bearing electron-withdrawing aryl groups (Ar- = p-CF3C6H4-, C6F5-, 3,5-bis(CF3)C6H3-) shows the rate is independent of ethylene concentration. The ΔG‡ values for these reductive eliminations fall in the range of 21–22 kcal/mol. X-Ray analysis establishes 14f (Ar- = C6F5-) as a square pyramidal complex with the hydride occupying the apical site. Reaction of 12 with benzamides 21a,b yields quantitatively the Ir(III) oxidative addition adducts, (POCOP)Ir(H)(NHC(O)Ar), 22. X-Ray analysis of 22b (Ar- = C6F5-) shows significant interaction of the carbonyl oxygen with Ir in the site trans to hydride. The barrier to reductive elimination of 22a, 29 kcal/mol, is substantially higher than for complexes 14e,f,g. PMID:19079781

  13. Coordination of 1,4-Diazabutadiene Ligands to Decamethylytterbocene: Additional Examples of Spin Coupling in Ytterbocene Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Richard; Walter, Marc D.; Berg, David J.; Andersen, Richard A.

    2006-11-04

    The paramagnetic 1:1 coordination complexes of (C5Me5)2Yb with a series of diazabutadiene ligands, RN=C(R')C(R')=NR, where R= CMe3, CHMe2, adamantyl, p-tolyl, p-anisyl, and mesityl when R'=H, and R= p-anisyl when R'= Me, have been prepared. The complexes are paramagnetic, but their magnetic moments are less than expected for the two uncoupled spin carriers, (C5Me5)2Yb(III, 4f13) and the diazabutadiene radical anions (S=1/2), which implies exchange coupling between the spins. The variable temperature 1H NMR spectra show that rotation about the R-N bond is hindered and these barriers are estimated. The barriers are largely determined by steric effects but electronic effects are not unimportant.

  14. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... pesticides where other legal premarket approval requirements apply. Direct food additives are those that are added to ... and other foods to add texture -- is a direct additive. Most direct additives are identified on the ...

  15. Asymmetric Michael addition of nitroalkanes to nitroalkenes catalyzed by C2-symmetric tridentate bis(oxazoline) and bis(thiazoline) zinc complexes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-Feng; Du, Da-Ming; Xu, Jiaxi; Zhang, Shi-Wei

    2006-06-14

    The first asymmetric synthesis of 1,3-dinitro compounds through Michael addition of nitroalkanes to nitroalkenes catalyzed by C2-symmetric chiral tridentate bis(oxazoline) and bis(thiazoline) zinc complexes was achieved with high enantioselectivities (up to 95% ee).

  16. An efficient route to tetrahydronaphthols via addition of ortho-lithiated stilbene oxides to alpha,beta-unsaturated fischer carbene Complexes.

    PubMed

    Capriati, Vito; Florio, Saverio; Luisi, Renzo; Perna, Filippo Maria; Salomone, Antonio; Gasparrini, Francesco

    2005-10-27

    [reaction: see text] A stereoselective/stereospecific synthesis of polysubstituted tetrahydronaphthols based on the Michael addition of ortho-lithiated stilbene oxides to alpha,beta-unsaturated Fischer carbene complexes followed by an unusual cyclization of the corresponding intermediate in a 6-endo-tet mode is described.

  17. Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

  18. Animating platelet production adds physiological context.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N; Kitterman, Alice C; Italiano, Joseph E

    2013-10-01

    Animating complex biological processes contextualizes them within their underlying physiology, identifies gaps in our mechanistic understanding, affirms the importance of continued research, and provides a bridge between academic scientists and the general public. Here, two videos illustrate the clinical value of and translate state-of-the-art research in platelet production.

  19. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations.

    PubMed

    Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2014-09-01

    The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

  20. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) III: a new species from Tablas Island.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew R; Geheber, Aaron D; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Feller, Kathryn D; Ashford, Alissa; Kouri, Josh; Nguyen, Daniel; Shauberger, Kathryn; Sheatsley, Kyra; Winfrey, Claire; Wong, Rachel; Sanguila, Marites B; Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D

    2016-06-28

    Studies of the diversity of Philippine amphibians and reptiles have resulted in the continued description of cryptic species. Species formerly thought to range across multiple recognized faunal regions are now considered to be assemblages of multiple unique species, each restricted to a single faunal region. This pattern continues to hold true when considering Philippine skinks of the genus Brachymeles. Recent studies have resulted in the description of numerous unique species with many exhibiting various degrees of digit loss or limb reduction, as well as suggesting that unique lineages are still present in the B. bonitae Complex. In this paper, we describe a new species of fossorial skink within this species complex from Tablas Island based on collections made nearly 50 years ago. Although no genetic data are available for the new species, examinations of morphological data (qualitative traits, meristic counts, and mensural measurements) support its distinction from all other members of the genus. Brachymeles dalawangdaliri sp. nov. is differentiated from other members of the genus based on a suite of unique phenotypic characteristics, including a small body size (SVL 66.0-80.9 mm), bidactyl fore-limbs, digitless, unidactyl, or bidactyl hind limbs, a high number of presacral vertebrae (49), the absence of auricular openings, and distinct dorsal head scale patterns. The description of the new species increases the diversity of endemic vertebrates recognized to occur in the Romblon Island Group in the central Philippines.

  1. 78 FR 23192 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds New Discussion Topic to Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Wireline Competition Bureau adds a new virtual workshop discussion topic, entitled... for submitting comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the usual methods for filing...

  2. 78 FR 38265 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds Two New Discussion Topics to Connect America Cost Model Virtual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Model Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Wireline Competition Bureau adds two new virtual workshop discussion topics.../ecfs2/ . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the...

  3. Effect of Ligand Steric Properties and Halide Identity on the Mechanism for Oxidative Addition of Haloarenes to Trialkylphosphine Pd(0) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Barrios-Landeros, Fabiola; Carrow, Brad P.; Hartwig, John F.

    2010-01-01

    The oxidative addition of PhX (X = I, Br, Cl) to the complexes Pd(PtBu3)2 (1), Pd(1-AdPtBu2)2 (2), Pd(CyPtBu2)2 (3), and Pd(PCy3)2 (4) were studied to determine the effect of steric properties on the coordination number of the species that undergoes oxidative addition and to determine if the type of halide affects the identity of this species. The kinetic data imply that the number of phosphines coordinated to the complex that reacts in the irreversible step of the oxidative addition processes for complexes 1-4 depends on the halide more than the steric properties of the ligands. The rate-limiting step of the oxidative addition of PhI occurred with L2Pd(0) in all cases, as determined by the lack of dependence of kobs on [PtBu3], [1-AdPtBu2], and [CyPtBu2] and the inverse dependence of the rate constant on [PCy3] when the reaction is initiated with Pd(PCy3)3. The irreversible step of the oxidative addition of PhCl occurred with a monophosphine species in each case, as signaled by an inverse dependence of the rate constant on the concentration of ligand. The irreversible step of the oxidative addition of PhBr occurred with a bisphosphine species, as signaled by the zeroth-order or small dependence of the rate constant on the concentration of phosphine. Thus, the additions of the less reactive chloroarenes occur through lower-coordinate intermediates than additions of the more reactive haloarenes. PMID:19469511

  4. Lithium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of thylakoid membranes at 4 degrees C: Characterizations of two additional chlorophyll a-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Delepelaire, P; Chua, N H

    1979-01-01

    Lithium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii thylakoid membranes at room temperature gave two chlorophyll-protein complexes, CP I and CP II, as had been reported previously. However, when the electrophoresis was performed at 4 degrees C, there was an increase in the amount of chlorophyll associated with CP I and CP II, and in addition, three other chlorophyll-protein complexes appeared. Two of these complexes, designated CP III and CP IV, were characterized and found to be similar in their compositions. Each complex contains four to five molecules of chlorophyll a, one molecule of beta-carotene, and one polypeptide chain. The apoprotein of CP III is polypeptide 5 (M(r) 50,000) and that of CP IV is polypeptide 6 (M(r) 47,000); the two polypeptides are structurally unrelated. Chlorophyll-protein complexes similar to C. reinhardtii CP III and CP IV were also detected in higher plants (e.g., Pisum sativum). The apoproteins of the higher plant complexes are immunochemically related to those of the C. reinhardtii complexes, as shown by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Absorption spectra of CP III and CP IV at -196 degrees C revealed a component at 682 nm. This observation, together with the previous results on photosystem II mutants [Chua, N.-H. & Bennoun, P. (1975) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 2175-2179], provides indirect evidence that CP III and CP IV may be involved in the primary photochemistry of photosystem II.

  5. Social Capital: Does It Add to the Health Inequalities Debate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Funk, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relationship between advantage, social capital and health status to assess (a) whether social capital adds explanatory power to what we already know about the relationship between advantage and health and (b) whether social capital adds anything beyond its component parts, namely social participation and trust.…

  6. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  7. Dyslexia and ADD: 20 Questions Parents Ask. Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Joyce S.

    2002-01-01

    This article uses a question-answer format to present information for parents on dyslexia and attention deficit disorders (ADD). Information includes typical behaviors and skills of children with dyslexia or ADD, how parents can help their children, and the use of medication to control hyperactivity. (KB)

  8. Separate information required for nuclear and subnuclear localization: additional complexity in localizing an enzyme shared by mitochondria and nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, A M; Joyce, P B; Hopper, A K; Martin, N C

    1992-01-01

    The TRM1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for a tRNA modification enzyme, N2,N2-dimethylguanosine-specific tRNA methyltransferase (m2(2)Gtase), shared by mitochondria and nuclei. Immunofluorescent staining at the nuclear periphery demonstrates that m2(2)Gtase localizes at or near the nuclear membrane. In determining sequences necessary for targeting the enzyme to nuclei and mitochondria, we found that information required to deliver the enzyme to the nucleus is not sufficient for its correct subnuclear localization. We also determined that mislocalizing the enzyme from the nucleus to the cytoplasm does not destroy its biological function. This change in location was caused by altering a sequence similar to other known nuclear targeting signals (KKSKKKRC), suggesting that shared enzymes are likely to use the same import pathway as proteins that localize only to the nucleus. As with other well-characterized mitochondrial proteins, the mitochondrial import of the shared methyltransferase depends on amino-terminal amino acids, and removal of the first 48 amino acids prevents its import into mitochondria. While this truncated protein is still imported into nuclei, the immunofluorescent staining is uniform throughout rather than at the nuclear periphery, a staining pattern identical to that described for a fusion protein consisting of the first 213 amino acids of m2(2)Gtase in frame with beta-galactosidase. As both of these proteins together contain the entire m2(2)Gtase coding region, the information necessary for association with the nuclear periphery must be more complex than the short linear sequence necessary for nuclear localization. Images PMID:1448094

  9. Evolution of the additive genetic variance–covariance matrix under continuous directional selection on a complex behavioural phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Careau, Vincent; Wolak, Matthew E.; Carter, Patrick A.; Garland, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Given the pace at which human-induced environmental changes occur, a pressing challenge is to determine the speed with which selection can drive evolutionary change. A key determinant of adaptive response to multivariate phenotypic selection is the additive genetic variance–covariance matrix (G). Yet knowledge of G in a population experiencing new or altered selection is not sufficient to predict selection response because G itself evolves in ways that are poorly understood. We experimentally evaluated changes in G when closely related behavioural traits experience continuous directional selection. We applied the genetic covariance tensor approach to a large dataset (n = 17 328 individuals) from a replicated, 31-generation artificial selection experiment that bred mice for voluntary wheel running on days 5 and 6 of a 6-day test. Selection on this subset of G induced proportional changes across the matrix for all 6 days of running behaviour within the first four generations. The changes in G induced by selection resulted in a fourfold slower-than-predicted rate of response to selection. Thus, selection exacerbated constraints within G and limited future adaptive response, a phenomenon that could have profound consequences for populations facing rapid environmental change. PMID:26582016

  10. Evolution of the additive genetic variance-covariance matrix under continuous directional selection on a complex behavioural phenotype.

    PubMed

    Careau, Vincent; Wolak, Matthew E; Carter, Patrick A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-11-22

    Given the pace at which human-induced environmental changes occur, a pressing challenge is to determine the speed with which selection can drive evolutionary change. A key determinant of adaptive response to multivariate phenotypic selection is the additive genetic variance-covariance matrix ( G: ). Yet knowledge of G: in a population experiencing new or altered selection is not sufficient to predict selection response because G: itself evolves in ways that are poorly understood. We experimentally evaluated changes in G: when closely related behavioural traits experience continuous directional selection. We applied the genetic covariance tensor approach to a large dataset (n = 17 328 individuals) from a replicated, 31-generation artificial selection experiment that bred mice for voluntary wheel running on days 5 and 6 of a 6-day test. Selection on this subset of G: induced proportional changes across the matrix for all 6 days of running behaviour within the first four generations. The changes in G: induced by selection resulted in a fourfold slower-than-predicted rate of response to selection. Thus, selection exacerbated constraints within G: and limited future adaptive response, a phenomenon that could have profound consequences for populations facing rapid environmental change.

  11. Addition of Si-H and B-H bonds and redox reactivity involving low-coordinate nitrido-vanadium complexes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Rick; Tran, Ba L; Ghosh, Soumya; Chen, Chun-Hsing; Pink, Maren; Gao, Xinfeng; Carroll, Patrick J; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Mindiola, Daniel J

    2015-03-16

    In this study we enumerate the reactivity for two molecular vanadium nitrido complexes of [(nacnac)V≡N(X)] formulation [nacnac = (Ar)NC(Me)CHC(Me)(Ar)(-), Ar = 2,6-(CHMe2)2C6H3); X(-) = OAr (1) and N(4-Me-C6H4)2 (Ntolyl2) (2)]. Density functional theory calculations and reactivity studies indicate the nitride motif to have nucleophilic character, but where the nitrogen atom can serve as a conduit for electron transfer, thus allowing the reduction of the vanadium(V) metal ion with concurrent oxidation of the incoming substrate. Silane, H2SiPh2, readily converts the nitride ligand in 1 into a primary silyl-amide functionality with concomitant two-electron reduction at the vanadium center to form the complex [(nacnac)V{N(H)SiHPh2}(OAr)] (3). Likewise, addition of the B-H bond in pinacolborane to the nitride moiety in 2 results in formation of the boryl-amide complex [(nacnac)V{N(H)B(pinacol)}(Ntolyl2)] (4). In addition to spectroscopic data, complexes 3 and 4 were also elucidated structurally by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. One-electron reduction of 1 with 0.5% Na/Hg on a preparative scale allowed for the isolation and structural determination of an asymmetric bimolecular nitride radical anion complex having formula [Na]2[(nacnac)V(N)(OAr)]2 (5), in addition to room-temperature solution X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic studies.

  12. Add 16-bit processing to any computer

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, W.

    1983-01-01

    A zoom computer is a simple, fast, and friendly computer in a very small package. Zoom architecture provides an easy migration path from existing 8-bit computers to today's 16-bit and tomorrow's 32-bit designs. With zoom, the benefits of the VLSI technological explosion can be attained with your present peripherals-there is no need to purchase new peripherals because all your old applications run unhindered on zoom. And in addition to all your old applications, zoom offers a whole new world of processing power at your fingertips.

  13. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  14. "Bunched Black Swans" in Complex Geosystems: Cross-Disciplinary Approaches to the Additive and Multiplicative Modelling of Correlated Extreme Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, N. W.; Rypdal, M.; Lovsletten, O.

    2012-12-01

    -stationarity explicitly built in. In record breaking statistics, a record is defined in the sense used in everyday language, to be the largest value yet recorded in a time series, for example, the 2004 Sumatran Boxing Day earthquake was at the time the largest to be digitally recorded. The third group of approaches (e.g. avalanches) are explicitly spatiotemporal and so also include spatial structure. This presentation will discuss two examples of our recent work on the burst problem. We will show numerical results extending the preliminary results presented in [Watkins et al, PRE, 2009] using a standard additive model, linear fractional stable motion (LFSM). LFSM explicitly includes both heavy tails and long range dependence, allowing us to study how these 2 effects compete in determining the burst duration and size exponent probability distributions. We will contrast these simulations with new analytical studies of bursts in a multiplicative process, the multifractal random walk (MRW). We will present an analytical derivation for the scaling of the burst durations and make a preliminary comparison with data from the AE index from solar-terrestrial physics. We believe our result is more generally applicable than the MRW model, and that it applies to a broad class of multifractal processes.

  15. New sources add to lead poisoning concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Benevich, T. )

    1990-02-09

    Lead poisoning again is edging to the forefront of medical concerns, spurred by the addition of unusual sources and a growing amount of information about the severity of its consequences. Ingesting or breathing in the lead from paint is till a major cause. Still, the source of lead is not always from paint. Lead can be inhaled from the dust that comes from the clothes, skin, shoes, and cars of people who work in lead-related industries. There also is the relatively new occupation of deleading homes that contain the older lead-based paint as part of building rehabilitation. Effects of lead poisoning are most pronounced in children and fetuses because it can damage the immature central nervous system.

  16. Selectivity control between Mizoroki-Heck and homo-coupling reactions for synthesising multinuclear metal complexes: unique addition effects of tertiary phosphines and O2.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yasuomi; Ishitani, Osamu

    2017-04-05

    The addition of a tertiary phosphine and O2 to reaction solutions strongly affected the reactivity and selectivity of coupling reactions between transition metal complexes. The Mizoroki-Heck reaction between metal complexes with bromo and those with vinyl groups in the diimine ligand did not proceed using Pd(OAc)2 in the presence of 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',6'-dimethoxybiphenyl (Sphos) under Ar but proceeded selectively after injection of air into the reaction vessel. In the absence of the phosphine ligand, on the other hand, not only the Mizoroki-Heck reaction but also a homo-coupling reaction between the metal complexes with the bromo groups proceeded at the same time. Mechanistic investigation showed that nanoparticles of Pd species were produced in the absence of the phosphine ligand and worked as catalysts for both the Mizoroki-Heck and homo-coupling reactions. On the other hand, larger Pd particles, which were produced in the presence of Sphos but after addition of air for oxidising Sphos, selectively catalysed the Mizoroki-Heck reaction. 'Molecular' Pd species that were stabilised in the presence of non-oxidised Sphos could not catalyse both coupling reactions under the reaction conditions. Based on these results, reaction conditions were established for the selective progress of the Mizoroki-Heck and the homo-coupling reactions.

  17. 'Pokemon Go' Players Add 2,000 Steps a Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pokemon Go' Players Add 2,000 Steps a Day Smartphone game benefits overweight, sedentary people most, researchers ... as likely to walk 10,000 steps a day than they were before taking up the game, ...

  18. Top 5 Ways to Help Students with ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests five ways to help students with ADD/ADHD. These are: (1) Integrate the primitive reflexes; (2) Diet; (3) Visual attention; (4) Help for auditory attention; and (5) Cognitive training.

  19. TDRS-K to Add to Vital Space Network

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA officials discuss the launch of the TDRS-K spacecraft to add to the space network that enables communications between the International Space Station and Earth-orbiting satellites and ground c...

  20. Mechanistic implications of the enantioselective addition of alkylzinc reagents to aldehydes catalyzed by nickel complexes with α-amino amide ligands.

    PubMed

    Escorihuela, Jorge; Burguete, M Isabel; Ujaque, Gregori; Lledós, Agustí; Luis, Santiago V

    2016-11-29

    The enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes catalysed by nickel(ii)-complexes derived from α-amino amides was studied by means of density functional theory (DFT) and ONIOM (B3LYP:UFF) calculations. A mechanism was proposed in order to investigate the origin of enantioselectivity. The chirality-determining step for the alkylation was the formation of the intermediate complexes with the involvement of a 5/4/4-fused tricyclic transition state. The predominant products predicted theoretically were of (S)-configuration, in good agreement with experimental observations. The scope of the reaction was examined and high yields and enantioselectivities were observed for the enantioselective addition of Et2Zn and Me2Zn to aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes.

  1. EPA Adds Five Hazardous Waste Sites to Superfunds National Priorities List and Proposes an Additional Seven

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -- Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is adding five hazardous waste sites that pose risks to human health and the environment to the Superfund National Priorities List (NPL). A separate action includes a proposal to ad

  2. Estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) using accumulated degree-days (ADD) in a temperate region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Jolandie; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Steyn, Maryna; Becker, Piet J

    2013-06-10

    The validity of the method in which total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree-days (ADD) are used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) is examined. TBS and ADD were recorded for 232 days in northern South Africa, which has temperatures between 17 and 28 °C in summer and 6 and 20 °C in winter. Winter temperatures rarely go below 0°C. Thirty pig carcasses, which weighed between 38 and 91 kg, were used. TBS was scored using the modified method of Megyesi et al. [1]. Temperature was acquired from an on site data logger and the weather station bureau; differences between these two sources were not statistically significant. Using loglinear random-effects maximum likelihood regression, an r(2) value for ADD (0.6227) was produced and linear regression formulae to estimate PMI from ADD with a 95% prediction interval were developed. The data of 16 additional pigs that were placed a year later were then used to validate the accuracy of this method. The actual PMI and ADD were compared to the estimated PMI and ADD produced by the developed formulae as well as the estimated PMIs within the 95% prediction interval. A validation of the study produced poor results as only one pig of 16 fell within the 95% interval when using the formulae, showing that ADD has limited use in the prediction of PMI in a South African setting.

  3. Crystallization of a complex between human CDK6 and a virus-encoded cyclin is critically dependent on the addition of small charged organic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze-Gahmne, Ursula; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2001-07-06

    Human CDK6 plays an important role in controlling entry into the eucaryotic cell cycle. An activated complex of human CDK6 with a viral cyclin from herpesvirus saimiri was purified to homogeneity and crystallized using polyethylene glycol 3350 as precipitant. Crystallization was critically dependent on a narrow range of Ca Acetate concentration and the presence of Sulfo-betaine 201 as additive. Crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6122 or P6522 with unit cell parameters a = b = 70.14 Angstrom, c = 448.77 Angstrom, g = 120 degrees and diffract X-rays to at least 3.1 Angstrom resolution.

  4. Frustrated Lewis Pair-Like Reactivity of Rare-Earth Metal Complexes: 1,4-Addition Reactions and Polymerizations of Conjugated Polar Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Yao, Yingming; Xu, Xin

    2017-01-26

    Three rare-earth aryloxide ion pairs {[L1REOAr](+) /[B(C6 F5 )4 ](-) ; L1=CH3 C(2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 N)CHC(CH3 )(NCH2 CH2 PPh2 ); RE=Sc, Y, Lu; Ar=2,6-tBu2 C6 H3 } were reported that feature rare-earth/phosphorus (RE/P) combinations exhibiting frustrated Lewis pair (FLP)-like 1,4-addition reactions towards conjugated carbonyl substrates (e.g., enone, ynone, and acrylic substrates). Furthermore, these RE/P complexes were found to be effective catalysts for the polymerization of conjugated polar alkene monomers. Mechanistic studies revealed that the rare-earth metal-catalyzed polymerizations were initiated by new FLP-type 1,4-additions rather than traditional and ubiquitous covalent RE-E (E=H, C, N, etc.) bond insertion or single-electron transfer.

  5. Proposed helmet PET geometries with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-10-07

    For dedicated brain PET, we can significantly improve sensitivity for the cerebrum region by arranging detectors in a compact hemisphere. The geometrical sensitivity for the top region of the hemisphere is increased compared with conventional cylindrical PET consisting of the same number of detectors. However, the geometrical sensitivity at the center region of the hemisphere is still low because the bottom edge of the field-of-view is open, the same as for the cylindrical PET. In this paper, we proposed a helmet PET with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain PET imaging for both center and top regions. The key point is the add-on detectors covering some portion of the spherical surface in addition to the hemisphere. As the location of the add-on detectors, we proposed three choices: a chin detector, ear detectors, and a neck detector. For example, the geometrical sensitivity for the region-of-interest at the center was increased by 200% by adding the chin detector which increased the size by 12% of the size of the hemisphere detector. The other add-on detectors gave almost the same increased sensitivity effect as the chin detector did. Compared with standard whole-body-cylindrical PET, the proposed geometries can achieve 2.6 times higher sensitivity for brain region even with less than 1/4 detectors. In addition, we conducted imaging simulations for geometries with a diameter of 250 mm and with high resolution depth-of-interaction detectors. The simulation results showed that the proposed geometries increased image quality, and all of the add-on detectors were equivalently effective. In conclusion, the proposed geometries have high potential for widespread applications in high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and low-cost brain PET imaging.

  6. Proposed helmet PET geometries with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-10-01

    For dedicated brain PET, we can significantly improve sensitivity for the cerebrum region by arranging detectors in a compact hemisphere. The geometrical sensitivity for the top region of the hemisphere is increased compared with conventional cylindrical PET consisting of the same number of detectors. However, the geometrical sensitivity at the center region of the hemisphere is still low because the bottom edge of the field-of-view is open, the same as for the cylindrical PET. In this paper, we proposed a helmet PET with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain PET imaging for both center and top regions. The key point is the add-on detectors covering some portion of the spherical surface in addition to the hemisphere. As the location of the add-on detectors, we proposed three choices: a chin detector, ear detectors, and a neck detector. For example, the geometrical sensitivity for the region-of-interest at the center was increased by 200% by adding the chin detector which increased the size by 12% of the size of the hemisphere detector. The other add-on detectors gave almost the same increased sensitivity effect as the chin detector did. Compared with standard whole-body-cylindrical PET, the proposed geometries can achieve 2.6 times higher sensitivity for brain region even with less than 1/4 detectors. In addition, we conducted imaging simulations for geometries with a diameter of 250 mm and with high resolution depth-of-interaction detectors. The simulation results showed that the proposed geometries increased image quality, and all of the add-on detectors were equivalently effective. In conclusion, the proposed geometries have high potential for widespread applications in high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and low-cost brain PET imaging.

  7. Enantioseparation of mandelic acid derivatives by high performance liquid chromatography with substituted β-cyclodextrin as chiral mobile phase additive and evaluation of inclusion complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shengqiang; Zhang, Hu; Shen, Mangmang

    2014-01-01

    The enantioseparation of ten mandelic acid derivatives was performed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) or sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as chiral mobile phase additives, in which inclusion complex formations between cyclodextrins and enantiomers were evaluated. The effects of various factors such as the composition of mobile phase, concentration of cyclodextrins and column temperature on retention and enantioselectivity were studied. The peak resolutions and retention time of the enantiomers were strongly affected by the pH, the organic modifier and the type of β-cyclodextrin in the mobile phase, while the concentration of buffer solution and temperature had a relatively low effect on resolutions. Enantioseparations were successfully achieved on a Shimpack CLC-ODS column (150×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm). The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.10 mol L-1 of phosphate buffer at pH 2.68 containing 20 mmol L-1 of HP-β-CD or SBE-β-CD. Semi-preparative enantioseparation of about 10 mg of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid and α-cyclopentylmandelic acid were established individually. Cyclodextrin-enantiomer complex stoichiometries as well as binding constants were investigated. Results showed that stoichiomertries for all the inclusion complex of cyclodextrin-enantiomers were 1:1. PMID:24893270

  8. When 'solutions of yesterday become problems of today': crisis-ridden decision making in a complex adaptive system (CAS)--the Additional Duty Hours Allowance in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agyepong, Irene Akua; Kodua, Augustina; Adjei, Sam; Adam, Taghreed

    2012-10-01

    Implementation of policies (decisions) in the health sector is sometimes defeated by the system's response to the policy itself. This can lead to counter-intuitive, unanticipated, or more modest effects than expected by those who designed the policy. The health sector fits the characteristics of complex adaptive systems (CAS) and complexity is at the heart of this phenomenon. Anticipating both positive and negative effects of policy decisions, understanding the interests, power and interaction between multiple actors; and planning for the delayed and distal impact of policy decisions are essential for effective decision making in CAS. Failure to appreciate these elements often leads to a series of reductionist approach interventions or 'fixes'. This in turn can initiate a series of negative feedback loops that further complicates the situation over time. In this paper we use a case study of the Additional Duty Hours Allowance (ADHA) policy in Ghana to illustrate these points. Using causal loop diagrams, we unpack the intended and unintended effects of the policy and how these effects evolved over time. The overall goal is to advance our understanding of decision making in complex adaptive systems; and through this process identify some essential elements in formulating, updating and implementing health policy that can help to improve attainment of desired outcomes and minimize negative unintended effects.

  9. Linagliptin as add-on therapy to insulin for patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    von Websky, Karoline; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Hocher, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a highly prevalent, progressive disease that often is poorly controlled. The combination of an incretin-based therapy and insulin is a promising approach to optimize the management of glycemic control without hypoglycemia and weight gain. Linagliptin, a recently approved oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, has a unique pharmacological profile. The convenient, once-daily dosing does not need adjustment in patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment. In clinical studies linagliptin shows an important reduction of blood glucose with an overall safety profile similar to that of placebo. So far, the combination of linagliptin and insulin has been tested in three major clinical studies in different populations. It has been shown that linagliptin is an effective and safe add-on therapy to insulin in patients with T2DM. The efficacy and safety of this combination was also shown in vulnerable, elderly T2DM patients and in patients with T2DM and renal impairment. Favorable effects regarding the counteraction of hypoglycemia make linagliptin especially interesting as an add-on therapy to insulin. This review aims to present the existing clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of linagliptin as add-on therapy to insulin in patients with T2DM in the context of current literature. Additionally, the possible advantages of linagliptin as an add-on therapy to insulin in relation to cardiovascular safety, patient-centered therapy and the prevention of hypoglycemia, are discussed.

  10. Word add-in for ontology recognition: semantic enrichment of scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the current era of scientific research, efficient communication of information is paramount. As such, the nature of scholarly and scientific communication is changing; cyberinfrastructure is now absolutely necessary and new media are allowing information and knowledge to be more interactive and immediate. One approach to making knowledge more accessible is the addition of machine-readable semantic data to scholarly articles. Results The Word add-in presented here will assist authors in this effort by automatically recognizing and highlighting words or phrases that are likely information-rich, allowing authors to associate semantic data with those words or phrases, and to embed that data in the document as XML. The add-in and source code are publicly available at http://www.codeplex.com/UCSDBioLit. Conclusions The Word add-in for ontology term recognition makes it possible for an author to add semantic data to a document as it is being written and it encodes these data using XML tags that are effectively a standard in life sciences literature. Allowing authors to mark-up their own work will help increase the amount and quality of machine-readable literature metadata. PMID:20181245

  11. Regioselective nucleophilic addition of triphenylphosphine to the nitrosylruthenium alkynyl complexes having a hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate: formation of phosphonio-alkenyl, alkynyl, and allenyl species.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yoshimasa; Arikawa, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takanori; Onishi, Masayoshi

    2005-03-07

    A nitrosylruthenium alkynyl complex of TpRuCl(C[triple bond]CPh)(NO)(1a) was reacted with PPh3 in the presence of HBF4.Et2O at room temperature to give a beta-phosphonio-alkenyl complex (E)-[TpRuCl{CH=C(PPh3)Ph}(NO)]BF4(2.BF4). On the other hand, for gamma-hydroxyalkynyl complexes TpRuCl{C[triple bond]CC(R)2OH}(NO)(R = Me (1b), Ph (1c), H (1d)), similar treatments with PPh3 were found to give gamma-phosphonio-alkynyl [TpRuCl{C[triple bond]CC(Me)2PPh3}(NO)]BF4(3.BF4),alpha-phosphonio-allenyl [TpRuCl{C(PPh3)=C=CPh2}(NO)]BF4(4.BF4), and a novel product of gamma-hydroxy-beta-phosphonio-alkenyl (E)-[TpRuCl{CH=C(PPh3)CH2OH}(NO)]BF4(5.BF4), respectively. Dominant factors for the selectivity in affording 3-5 were associated with the steric congestion and electronic properties at the gamma-carbons, along with those around the metal fragment. From the bis(alkynyl) complex TpRu(C[triple bond]CPh)2(NO)6, a bis(beta-phosphonio-alkenyl)(E,E)-[TpRu{CH=C(PPh3)Ph}2(NO)](BF4)2{7.(BF4)2} was produced at room temperature. However, similar reactions at 0 degrees C gave an alkynyl beta-phosphonio-alkenyl complex (E)-[TpRu(C[triple bondCPh){CH=C(PPh3)Ph}(NO)]BF4(8.BF4) as a sole product, of which additional hydration in the presence of HBF4.Et2O afforded a [small beta]-phosphonio-alkenyl ketonyl (E)-[TpRu{CH2C(O)Ph}{CH=C(PPh3)Ph}(NO)]BF(.9BF4). Five complexes, 2-5 and 7 were crystallographically characterized.

  12. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Zak C.; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Schaedler, Tobias A.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  13. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  14. A New Nitrogenase Mechanism Using a CFe8S9 Model: Does H2 Elimination Activate the Complex to N2 Addition to the Central Carbon Atom?

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael L

    2016-02-11

    A truncated model of the FeMo cofactor is used to explore a new mechanism for the conversion of N2 to NH3 by the nitrogenase enzyme. After four initial protonation/reduction steps, the H4CFe8S9 cluster has two hydrogen atoms attached to sulfur, one hydrogen bridging two iron centers and one hydrogen bonded to carbon. The loss of the CH and FeHFe hydrogens as molecular hydrogen activates the cluster to addition of N2 to the carbon center. This unique step takes place at a nearly planar four-coordinate carbon center and leads to an intermediate with a significantly weakened N-N bond. A hydrogen attached to a sulfur atom is then transferred to the distal nitrogen atom. Additional prontonation/reduction steps are modeled by adding a hydrogen atom to sulfur and locating the transition states for transfer to nitrogen. The first NH3 is lost in a thermal neutral step, while the second step is endothermic. The loss of H2 activates the complex by reducing the barrier for N2 addition by 3.5 kcal/mol. Since this is the most difficult step in the mechanism, reducing the barrier for this step justifies the "extra expense" of H2 production.

  15. Scope and mechanism of enantioselective Michael additions of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds to nitroalkenes catalyzed by nickel(II)-diamine complexes.

    PubMed

    Evans, David A; Mito, Shizue; Seidel, Daniel

    2007-09-19

    Readily prepared Ni(II)-bis[(R,R)-N,N'-dibenzylcyclohexane-1,2-diamine]Br(2) was shown to catalyze the Michael addition of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds to nitroalkenes at room temperature in good yields with high enantioselectivities. The two diamine ligands in this system each play a distinct role: one serves as a chiral ligand to provide stereoinduction in the addition step while the other functions as a base for substrate enolization. Ligand modification within the catalyst was also investigated to facilitate the reaction of aliphatic nitroalkenes, 1,3-diketones, and beta-ketoacids. Ni(II)-bis[(R,R)-N,N'-di-p-bromo-benzylcyclohexane-1,2-diamine]Br(2) was found to be an effective catalyst in these instances. Furthermore, monodiamine complex, Ni(II)-[(R,R)-N,N'-dibenzylcyclohexane-1,2-diamine]Br(2), catalyzed the addition reaction in the presence of water. The proposed model for stereochemical induction is shown to be consistent with X-ray structure analysis.

  16. ProADD: A database on Protein Aggregation Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shobana, Ramesh; Pandaranayaka, Eswari PJ

    2014-01-01

    ProADD, a database for protein aggregation diseases, is developed to organize the data under a single platform to facilitate easy access for researchers. Diseases caused due to protein aggregation and the proteins involved in each of these diseases are integrated. The database helps in classification of proteins involved in the protein aggregation diseases based on sequence and structural analysis. Analysis of proteins can be done to mine patterns prevailing among the aggregating proteins. Availability http://bicmku.in/ProADD PMID:25097386

  17. Discovery of a Plains Caldera Complex and Extinct Lava Lake in Arabia Terra, Mars: Implications for the Discovery of Additional Highland Volcanic Source Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, Jacob; Michalski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped topographic depressions occur near the dichotomy boundary in northern Arabia Terra, Mars. The geomorphology of these features suggests that they formed by collapse, opposed to meteor impact. At least one depression (approx.55 by 85 km) displays geologic features indicating a complex, multi-stage collapse history. Features within and around the collapse structure indicate volcanic processes. The complex occurs within Hesperian ridged plains of likely volcanic origin and displays no crater rim or evidence for ejecta. Instead the depression consists of a series of circumferential graben and down-dropped blocks which also display upper surfaces similar to ridged plain lavas. Large blocks within the depression are tilted towards the crater center, and display graben that appear to have originally been linked with circumferential graben outside of the complex related to earlier collapse events. A nearly 700 m high mound exists along a graben within the complex that might be a vent. The deepest depression displays two sets of nearly continuous terraces, which we interpret as high-stands of a drained lava lake. These features appear similar to the black ledge described during the Kilauea Iki eruption in 1959. A lacustrine origin for the terraces seems unlikely because of the paucity of channels found in or around the depression that could be linked to aqueous surface processes. In addition, there is no obvious evidence for lacustrine sediments within the basin. Together with the presence of significant faulting that is indicative of collapse we conclude that this crater complex represents a large caldera formed in the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian. Other linear and irregular depressions in the region also might be linked to ancient volcanism. If that hypothesis is correct, it suggests that northern Arabia Terra could contain a large, previously unrecognized highland igneous province. Evacuation of magma via explosive and effusive activity

  18. Effect of "add-on" interventions on exercise training in individuals with COPD: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Camillo, Carlos A; Osadnik, Christian R; van Remoortel, Hans; Burtin, Chris; Janssens, Wim; Troosters, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify the effectiveness of therapies added on to conventional exercise training to maximise exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Electronic databases were searched, identifying trials comparing exercise training with exercise training plus "add-on" therapy. Outcomes included peak oxygen uptake (V'O2peak), work rate and incremental/endurance cycle and field walking tests. Individual trial effects on exercise capacity were extracted and collated into eight subgroups and pooled for meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the stability of effect estimates across studies employing patient-centred designs and those deemed to be of "high" quality (PEDro score >5 out of 10). 74 studies (2506 subjects) met review inclusion criteria. Interventions spanned a broad scope of clinical practice and were most commonly evaluated via the 6-min walking distance and V'O2peak. Meta-analysis revealed few clinically relevant and statistically significant benefits of "add-on" therapies on exercise performance compared with exercise training. Benefits favouring "add-on" therapies were observed across six different interventions (additional exercise training, noninvasive ventilation, bronchodilator therapy, growth hormone, vitamin D and nutritional supplementation). The sensitivity analyses included considerably fewer studies, but revealed minimal differences to the primary analysis. The lack of systematic benefits of "add-on" interventions is a probable reflection of methodological limitations, such as "one size fits all" eligibility criteria, that are inherent in many of the included studies of "add-on" therapies. Future clarification regarding the exact value of such therapies may only arise from adequately powered, multicentre clinical trials of tailored interventions for carefully selected COPD patient subgroups defined according to distinct clinical phenotypes.

  19. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  20. Additive effects of mitochondrion-targeted cytochrome CYP2E1 and alcohol toxicity on cytochrome c oxidase function and stability of respirosome complexes.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Seema; Srinivasan, Satish; Anandasadagopan, Sureshkumar; Chowdhury, Anindya Roy; Selvaraj, Venkatesh; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Joseph, Joy; Avadhani, Narayan G

    2012-05-04

    Alcohol treatment induces oxidative stress by a combination of increased production of partially reduced oxygen species and decreased cellular antioxidant pool, including GSH. Recently, we showed that mitochondrion-targeted CYP2E1 augments alcohol-mediated toxicity, causing an increase in reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress. Here, we show that cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal oxidase of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is a critical target of CYP2E1-mediated alcohol toxicity. COS-7 and Hep G2 cell lines expressing predominantly mitochondrion-targeted (Mt(++)) CYP2E1 and livers from alcohol-treated rats showed loss of CcO activity and increased protein carbonylation, which was accompanied by a decline in the steady state levels of subunits I, IVI1, and Vb of the CcO complex. This was also accompanied by reduced mitochondrial DNA content and reduced mitochondrial mRNA. These changes were more prominent in Mt(++) cells in comparison with wild type (WT) CYP2E1-expressing or ER(+) (mostly microsome-targeted) cells. In addition, mitochondrion-specific antioxidants, ubiquinol conjugated to triphenyl phosphonium, triphenylphosphonium conjugated carboxyl proxyl, and the CYP2E1 inhibitor diallyl sulfide prevented the loss of CcO activity and the CcO subunits, most likely through reduced oxidative damage to the enzyme complex. Our results suggest that damage to CcO and dissociation of respirosome complexes are critical factors in alcohol-induced toxicity, which is augmented by mitochondrion-targeted CYP2E1. We propose that CcO is one of the direct and immediate targets of alcohol-induced toxicity causing respiratory dysfunction.

  1. Localization of eight additional genes in the human major histocompatibility complex, including the gene encoding the casein kinase II {beta} subunit (CSNK2B)

    SciTech Connect

    Albertella, M.R.; Jones, H.; Thomson, W.

    1996-09-01

    A wide range of autoimmune and other diseases are known to be associated with the major histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility antigens in the class I and class II regions, but some appear to be more strongly associated with genes in the central 1100-kb class III region, making it important to characterize this region fully for the presence of novel genes. An {approximately}220-kb segment of DNA in the class III region separating the Hsp70 (HSPA1L) and BAT1 (D6S8IE) genes, which was previously known to contain 14 genes. Genomic DNA fragments spanning the gaps between the known genes were used as probes to isolate cDNAs corresponding to five new genes within this region. Evidence from Northern blot analysis and exon trapping experiments that suggested the presence of at least two more new genes was also obtained. Partial cDNA and complete exonic genomic sequencing of one of the new genes has identified it as the casein kinase II{beta} subunit (CSNK2B). Two of the other novel genes lie within a region syntenic to that implicated in susceptibility to experimental allergic orchitis in the mouse, an autoimmune disease of the testis, and represent additional candidates for the Orch-1 locus associated with this disease. In addition, characterization of the 13-kb intergenic gap separating the RD (D6545) and G11 (D6S60E) genes has revealed the presence of a gene encoding a 1246-amino-acid polypeptide that shows significant sequence similarity to the yeast anti-viral Ski2p gene product. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Addition complex and insertion isomers on the potential energy surface of the reaction of indium dimer with water studied with relativistic ECP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moc, Jerzy

    2013-10-01

    Stationary points on the lowest singlet and triplet In2 + H2O potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been explored using the coupled cluster method, including single and double excitations with perturbative triples (CCSD(T)), and the density functional theory (DFT), employing the effective core potential (ECP) for indium (In), which accounts for scalar relativistic effects, with the triple-zeta quality basis set. The CCSD(T) calculated binding energy and anharmonic ν2-bending mode frequency for the triplet ground-state addition complex, In2… OH2(3B1), are consistent with the complex detected in the matrix isolation infrared (IR) spectroscopic study under the thermal conditions. The two minimum energy crossing points between the triplet and the singlet PESs that have been located between the structures of In2…OH2 and the transition state for the O-H bond breakage are not likely to be thermally accessible under the low-temperature matrix conditions. With the CCSD(T)-calculated In2 + H2O reaction profile and anharmonic vibrational frequencies for several In2(H)(OH) insertion product isomers, we support the IR matrix isolation detection (by two experimental groups) of the lowest energy singlet double-bridged In(μ-H)(μ-OH)In isomer. For the proposed two-step mechanism of H2 elimination from the In2(H)(OH) species, the estimated energy barriers are also compatible with experiment.

  3. Enhancing Teaching using MATLAB Add-Ins for Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I will illustrate how to extend the capabilities of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with add-ins created by MATLAB. Excel provides a broad array of fundamental tools but often comes up short when more sophisticated scenarios are involved. To overcome this short-coming of Excel while retaining its ease of use, I will describe how…

  4. Four Simple Ways to Add Movement in Daily Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, John

    2011-01-01

    Adding movement to classroom activities not only engages students, but also may improve the classroom climate and reduce disruptions. In this article, the author discusses four simple activities to add movement in daily lessons. These activities are: (1) Vocabulary/Notes around the Room; (2) Cooperative Learning: Posting Task Assignments; (3)…

  5. Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Melana Zyla

    2010-01-01

    Universities are providing extra time on tests, quiet exam rooms, in-class note-takers, and other assistance to college students with modest learning disabilities. But these policies are shrouded in secrecy. This paper, "Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia," by Melana Zyla Vickers, examines…

  6. Medicalised Pupils: The Case of ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2009-01-01

    Recent decades have seen an increasing number of life's problems conceptualised and interpreted through the prism of disease; among them are those affecting pupils at school. Witness the cases of hyperactivity and deficient attention, so often diagnosed as ADD/ADHD. Research indicates that there is at least some tendency towards overdiagnosis of…

  7. Water Softeners: How Much Sodium Do They Add?

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy eating I'm trying to watch the sodium in my diet. Should I be concerned about sodium from water softeners? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Regular tap water contains very little sodium. The amount of sodium a water softener adds ...

  8. Face equipment lighting: integrated vs. add-on

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, F.E.

    1982-10-01

    The problems of providing lighting on face equipment are examined. In the US, some equipment manufacturers are building-in lighting systems to their machinery; others will install lighting systems as add-on or retrofitted items. The pros and cons of each method are examined and the views of manufacturers are quoted.

  9. Mode-routed fiber-optic add-drop filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Shaw, Herbert John (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    New elements mode-converting two-mode grating and mode-filtering two-mode coupler are disclosed and used as elements in a system for communications, add-drop filtering, and strain sensing. Methods of fabrication for these new two-mode gratings and mode-filtering two-mode couplers are also disclosed.

  10. ADD and ADHD: An Overview for School Counselors. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pledge, Deanna S.

    School counselors are often consultants for parents and teachers on problems that children and adolescents face. Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is one such problem. It is frequently misunderstood, presenting a challenge for parents and teachers alike. The counselor is a resource for initial identification and interventions at home and in the…

  11. Serving Students Diagnosed with ADD: Avoiding Deficits in Professional Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Gary; Carey, Sean P.

    1992-01-01

    Responds to previous article (Hakola, this issue) on legal rights of students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). Presents contrasting perspective on educational services for children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, linked more closely to professional research and practice than to law. Concerns discussed are grounded in…

  12. Meeting Learning Challenges: Working with the Child Who Has ADD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stanley I.

    2006-01-01

    The terms ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) are applied to several symptoms, including: difficulty in paying attention, distractibility, having a hard time following through on things, and sometimes over-activity and impulsivity. There are many different reasons why children have these symptoms.…

  13. Studies on a complex mechanism for the activation of plasminogen by kaolin and by chloroform: the participation of Hageman factor and additional cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Ogston, Derek; Ogston, C. Marie; Ratnoff, Oscar D.; Forbes, Charles D.

    1969-01-01

    As demonstrated by others, fibrinolytic activity was generated in diluted, acidified normal plasma exposed to kaolin, a process requiring Hageman factor (Factor XII). Generation was impaired by adsorbing plasma with glass or similar agents under conditions which did not deplete its content of Hageman factor or plasminogen. The defect could be repaired by addition of a noneuglobulin fraction of plasma or an agent or agents eluted from diatomaceous earth which had been exposed to normal plasma. The restorative agent, tentatively called Hageman factor-cofactor, was partially purified by chromatography and had an apparent molecular weight of approximately 165,000. It could be distinguished from plasma thromboplastin antecedent (Factor XI) and plasma kallikrein, other substrates of Hageman factor, and from the streptokinase-activated pro-activator of plasminogen. Evidence is presented that an additional component may be needed for the generation of fibrinolytic activity in mixtures containing Hageman factor, HF-cofactor, and plasminogen. The long-recognized generation of plasmin activity in chloroform-treated euglobulin fractions of plasma was found to be dependent upon the presence of Hageman factor. Whether chloroform activation of plasminogen requires Hageman factor-cofactor was not determined, but glass-adsorbed plasma, containing Hageman factor and plasminogen, did not generate appreciable fibrinolytic or caseinolytic activity. These studies emphasize the complex nature of the mechanisms which lead to the generation of plasmin in human plasma. PMID:4241814

  14. Stochastic sampled-data control for synchronization of complex dynamical networks with control packet loss and additive time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Rakkiyappan, R; Sakthivel, N; Cao, Jinde

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the exponential synchronization of complex dynamical networks with control packet loss and additive time-varying delays. Additionally, sampled-data controller with time-varying sampling period is considered and is assumed to switch between m different values in a random way with given probability. Then, a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) with triple integral terms is constructed and by using Jensen's inequality and reciprocally convex approach, sufficient conditions under which the dynamical network is exponentially mean-square stable are derived. When applying Jensen's inequality to partition double integral terms in the derivation of linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions, a new kind of linear combination of positive functions weighted by the inverses of squared convex parameters appears. In order to handle such a combination, an effective method is introduced by extending the lower bound lemma. To design the sampled-data controller, the synchronization error system is represented as a switched system. Based on the derived LMI conditions and average dwell-time method, sufficient conditions for the synchronization of switched error system are derived in terms of LMIs. Finally, numerical example is employed to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  15. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  16. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  17. Chi hotspots trigger a conformational change in the helicase-like domain of AddAB to activate homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Gilhooly, Neville S.; Carrasco, Carolina; Gollnick, Benjamin; Wilkinson, Martin; Wigley, Dale B.; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Dillingham, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks is modulated by Chi sequences. These are recognised by helicase-nuclease complexes that process DNA ends for homologous recombination. Chi activates recombination by changing the biochemical properties of the helicase-nuclease, transforming it from a destructive exonuclease into a recombination-promoting repair enzyme. This transition is thought to be controlled by the Chi-dependent opening of a molecular latch, which enables part of the DNA substrate to evade degradation beyond Chi. Here, we show that disruption of the latch improves Chi recognition efficiency and stabilizes the interaction of AddAB with Chi, even in mutants that are impaired for Chi binding. Chi recognition elicits a structural change in AddAB that maps to a region of AddB which resembles a helicase domain, and which harbours both the Chi recognition locus and the latch. Mutation of the latch potentiates the change and moderately reduces the duration of a translocation pause at Chi. However, this mutant displays properties of Chi-modified AddAB even in the complete absence of bona fide hotspot sequences. The results are used to develop a model for AddAB regulation in which allosteric communication between Chi binding and latch opening ensures quality control during recombination hotspot recognition. PMID:26762979

  18. [Role of an educational-and-methodological complex in the optimization of teaching at the stage of additional professional education of physicians in the specialty "anesthesiology and reanimatology"].

    PubMed

    Buniatian, A A; Sizova, Zh M; Vyzhigina, M A; Shikh, E V

    2010-01-01

    An educational-and-methodological complex (EMC) in the specialty 'Anesthesiology and Reanimatology", which promotes manageability, flexibility, and dynamism of an educational process, is of great importance in solving the problem in the systematization of knowledge and its best learning by physicians at a stage of additional professional education (APE). EMC is a set of educational-and-methodological materials required to organize and hold an educational process for the advanced training of anesthesiologists and resuscitation specialists at the stage of APE. EMC includes a syllabus for training in the area "Anesthesiology and Reanimatology" by the appropriate training pattern (certification cycles, topical advanced training cycles); a work program for training in the specialty "Anesthesiology and Reanimatology"; a work curriculums for training in allied specialties (surgery, traumatology and orthopedics, obstetrics and gynecology, and pediatrics); work programs on basic disciplines (pharmacology, normal and pathological physiology, normal anatomy, chemistry and biology); working programs on the area "Public health care and health care service", guidelines for the teacher; educational-and-methodological materials for the student; and quiz programs. The main point of EMC in the specialty "Anesthesiology and Reanimatology" is a work program. Thus, educational-and-methodological and teaching materials included into the EMC in the specialty 'Anesthesiology and Reanimatology" should envisage the logically successive exposition of a teaching material, the use of currently available methods and educational facilities, which facilitates the optimization of training of anesthesiologists and resuscitation specialists at the stage of APE.

  19. [Chiral separation of five beta-blockers using di-n-hexyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex as mobile phase additive by reversed-phase liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Wang, Lijuan; Guo, Qiaoling; Yang, Gengliang

    2012-03-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method using the di-n-hexyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex as a chiral mobile phase additive was developed for the enantioseparation of five beta-blockers including propranolol, esmolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol and sotalol. In order to obtain a better enantioseparation, the influences of concentrations of di-n-butyl L-tartrate and boric acid, the type, concentration and pH of the buffer, methanol content as well as the molecular structure of analytes were extensively investigated. The separation of the analytes was performed on a Venusil MP-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). The mobile phase was 15 mmol/L ammonium acetate-methanol containing 60 mmol/L boric acid, 70 mmol/L di-n-hexyl L-tartrate (pH 6.00). The volume ratios of 15 mmol/L ammonium acetate to methanol were 20: 80 for propranolol, esmolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol and 30: 70 for sotalol. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and the detection wavelength was set at 214 nm. Under the optimized conditions, baseline enantioseparation was obtained separately for the five pairs of analytes.

  20. Thiol-copper(I) and disulfide-dicopper(I) complex O2-reactivity leading to sulfonate-copper(II) complex or the formation of a cross-linked thioether-phenol product with phenol addition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunho; Lee, Dong-Heon; Sarjeant, Amy A Narducci; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2007-11-01

    In order to better understand copper mediated oxidative chemistry via ligand-Cu(I)/O(2) reactivity employing S-donor ligands for copper, O(2)-reactivity studies of the copper(I) complexes (1 and 2, Chart 2) have been carried out with a tridentate N(2)S thiol ligand (1-(N-methyl-N-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl)amino)propane-2-thiol; L(SH)) or its oxidized disulfide form (L(SS)). Reactions of [L(SH)Cu(I)](+) (1) and [L(SS)(Cu(I))(2)(X)(2)](2+) (2) with O(2) give approximately 90% and approximately 70% yields of [L(SO3)Cu(II)(MeOH)(2)](+) (3), respectively, where L(SO3) is S-oxygenated sulfonate; 3 was characterized by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Mimicking TyrCys galactose oxidase cofactor biogenesis, a new C-S bond is formed (within new thioether moiety L(SPhOH)) from cuprous complex (both 1 and 2) dioxygen reactivity in the presence of 2,4-tBu(2)-phenolate. In addition, the disulfide ligand (L(SS)) reacts with 2equiv. cupric ion salts and the phenolate to efficiently give the cross-linked product L(SPhOH) in high yield (>90%) under anaerobic conditions. Separately, complex [L(SPhO)Cu(II)(ClO(4))] (4), possessing the cross-linked L(SPhOH), was characterized by ESI mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography.

  1. Randomized Controlled Trials of Add-On Antidepressants in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Grigori; Stenberg, Jan-Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite adequate treatment with antipsychotics, a substantial number of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate only suboptimal clinical outcome. To overcome this challenge, various psychopharmacological combination strategies have been used, including antidepressants added to antipsychotics. Methods: To analyze the efficacy of add-on antidepressants for the treatment of negative, positive, cognitive, depressive, and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia, published randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of adjunctive antidepressants in schizophrenia were reviewed using the following parameters: baseline clinical characteristics and number of patients, their on-going antipsychotic treatment, dosage of the add-on antidepressants, duration of the trial, efficacy measures, and outcomes. Results: There were 36 randomized controlled trials reported in 41 journal publications (n=1582). The antidepressants used were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, duloxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nefazodone, reboxetin, trazodone, and bupropion. Mirtazapine and mianserin showed somewhat consistent efficacy for negative symptoms and both seemed to enhance neurocognition. Trazodone and nefazodone appeared to improve the antipsychotics-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. Imipramine and duloxetine tended to improve depressive symptoms. No clear evidence supporting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors’ efficacy on any clinical domain of schizophrenia was found. Add-on antidepressants did not worsen psychosis. Conclusions: Despite a substantial number of randomized controlled trials, the overall efficacy of add-on antidepressants in schizophrenia remains uncertain mainly due to methodological issues. Some differences in efficacy on several schizophrenia domains seem, however, to exist and to vary by the antidepressant subgroups—plausibly due to differences in the mechanisms of action. Antidepressants may not worsen

  2. Stereovision Imaging in Smart Mobile Phone Using Add on Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Magen Numhauser, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present the use of a prism-based add on component installed on top of a smart phone to achieve stereovision capabilities using iPhone mobile operating system. Through these components and the combination of the appropriate application programming interface and mathematical algorithms the obtained results will permit the analysis of possible enhancements for new uses to such system, in a variety of areas including medicine and communications.

  3. Higher Curvature Effects in the ADD and RS Models

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2006-07-05

    Over the last few years several extra-dimensional models have been introduced in attempt to deal with the hierarchy problem. These models can lead to rather unique and spectacular signatures at Terascale colliders such as the LHC and ILC. The ADD and RS models, though quite distinct, have many common feature including a constant curvature bulk, localized Standard Model(SM) fields and the assumption of the validity of the EH action as a description of gravitational interactions.

  4. radEq Add-On Module for CFD Solver Loci-CHEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Loci-CHEM to be applied to flow velocities where surface radiation due to heating from compression and friction becomes significant. The module adds a radiation equilibrium boundary condition to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to produce accurate results. The module expanded the upper limit for accurate CFD solutions of Loci-CHEM from Mach 4 to Mach 10 based on Space Shuttle Orbiter Re-Entry trajectories. Loci-CHEM already has a very promising architecture and performance, but absence of radiation equilibrium boundary condition limited the application of Loci-CHEM to below Mach 4. The immediate advantage of the add-on module is that it allows Loci-CHEM to work with supersonic flows up to Mach 10. This transformed Loci-CHEM from a rocket engine- heritage CFD code with general subsonic and low-supersonic applications, to an aeroheating code with hypersonic applications. The follow-on advantage of the module is that it is a building block for additional add-on modules that will solve for the heating generated at Mach numbers higher than 10.

  5. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  6. Optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; Strand, Oliver T.; Garrett, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    An optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems and construction methods are disclosed. The add/drop filter includes a first ferrule having a first pre-formed opening for receiving a first optical fiber; an interference filter oriented to pass a first set of wavelengths along the first optical fiber and reflect a second set of wavelengths; and, a second ferrule having a second pre-formed opening for receiving the second optical fiber, and the reflected second set of wavelengths. A method for constructing the optical add/drop filter consists of the steps of forming a first set of openings in a first ferrule; inserting a first set of optical fibers into the first set of openings; forming a first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule; dividing the first ferrule into a first ferrule portion and a second ferrule portion; forming an interference filter on the first ferrule portion; inserting guide pins through the first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule portion and second ferrule portion to passively align the first set of optical fibers; removing material such that light reflected from the interference filter from the first set of optical fibers is accessible; forming a second set of openings in a second ferrule; inserting a second set of optical fibers into the second set of openings; and positioning the second ferrule with respect to the first ferrule such that the second set of optical fibers receive the light reflected from the interference filter.

  7. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-02-10

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called "stress bandage", the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.

  8. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  9. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  10. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  11. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  12. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  13. Dual mode of cell death upon the photo-irradiation of a RuII polypyridyl complex in interphase or mitosis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc00387g Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Pierroz, Vanessa; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Gentili, Christian; Patra, Malay; Mari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive, complementary medical technique to chemotherapy. Among the different photosensitizers (PSs) employed, Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes were found to be valid substitutes to porphyrin-based or phthalocyanine-based PSs. Here, we confirm that one such complex, namely [Ru(bipy)2-dppz-7-methoxy][PF6]2 (Ru65), which localizes in the nucleus of various cancer and normal cells, displays cytotoxicity only upon UV-A irradiation. Importantly, we disclose the molecular mechanism of the UV-A mediated cytotoxic action of Ru65. We demonstrate that Ru65 intercalates in DNA and, upon light irradiation, promotes guanine oxidation, resulting in nicks in the double helix. We confirm this mechanism of action in living cells, showing that the UV-A irradiation of cells loaded with Ru65 results in a transient DNA damage response and cell death. Strikingly, the photo-irradiation of Ru65 triggered distinct mechanisms of cell death in interphase or mitotic cells. The former underwent cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and massive cytoplasmic vacuolation, which was paralleled by an unfolded-protein stress response, resulting in a reduction of viability and cell death through a paraptosis-like mechanism. On the other hand, the UV-A irradiation of Ru65 in cells synchronized by G2/M block-release with a selective CDK1 inhibitor led to blocking mitotic entry and rapid cell death through classic apoptotic pathways. Importantly, targeting mitotic cells with Ru65 allowed increasing its photo-toxicity by a factor of 3.6. Overall, our findings show that the use of a combination of a cell cycle inhibitor and a PS targeting the nucleus could open up new avenues in PDT. PMID:27708751

  14. 78 FR 17624 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds New Discussion Topic To Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Wireline Competition Bureau adds a new virtual workshop discussion topic, entitled ``Rate of.... Virtual Workshop: In addition to the usual methods for filing electronic comments, the Commission...

  15. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimation of the "risk region" during acute anterior or inferior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Vervaat, F E; Bouwmeester, S; van Hellemond, I E G; Wagner, G S; Gorgels, A P M

    2014-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) is an important aspect in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It represents the myocardium at the onset of the STEMI that is ischemic and could become infarcted if no reperfusion occurs. The MaR, therefore, has clinical value because it gives an indication of the amount of myocardium that could potentially be salvaged by rapid reperfusion therapy. The most validated method for measuring the MaR is (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT, but this technique is not easily applied in the clinical setting. Another method that can be used for measuring the MaR is the standard ECG-based scoring system, Aldrich ST score, which is more easily applied. This ECG-based scoring system can be used to estimate the extent of acute ischemia for anterior or inferior left ventricular locations, by considering quantitative changes in the ST-segment. Deviations in the ST-segment baseline that occur following an acute coronary occlusion represent the ischemic changes in the transmurally ischemic myocardium. In most instances however, the ECG is not available at the very first moments of STEMI and as times passes the ischemic myocardium becomes necrotic with regression of the ST-segment deviation along with progressive changes of the QRS complex. Thus over the time course of the acute event, the Aldrich ST score would be expected to progressively underestimate the MaR, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard; anterior STEMI (r=0.21, p=0.32) and inferior STEMI (r=0.17, p=0.36). Another standard ECG-based scoring system is the Selvester QRS score, which can be used to estimate the final infarct size by considering the quantitative changes in the QRS complex. Therefore, additional consideration of the Selvester QRS score in the acute phase could potentially provide the "component" of infarcted myocardium that is missing when the Aldrich ST score alone is used to determine the MaR in the acute phase, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold

  16. Effects of saxagliptin add-on therapy to insulin on blood glycemic fluctuations in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-fei; Jiang, Lan-lan; Yan, Reng-na; Zhu, Hong-hong; Zhou, Pei-hua; Zhang, Dan-feng; Su, Xiao-fei; Wu, Jin-dan; Ye, Lei; Ma, Jian-hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: To investigate whether saxagliptin add-on therapy to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) further improve blood glycemic control than CSII therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: This was a single-center, randomized, control, open-labeled trial. Newly diagnosed T2D patients were recruited between February 2014 and December 2015. Subjects were divided into saxagliptin add-on therapy to CSII group (n = 31) and CSII therapy group (n = 38). The treatment was maintained for 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed at baseline. Serum samples were obtained before and 30 and 120 minutes after oral administration for glucose, insulin, and C-peptide determination. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was performed before and endpoint. Results: A total of 69 subjects were admitted. After 4-week therapy, CGM data showed that patients with saxagliptin add-on therapy exhibited further improvement of mean amplitude glycemic excursion (MAGE), the incremental area under curve of plasma glucose >7.8 and 10 mmol/L compared with that of control group. In addition, the hourly mean blood glucose concentrations, especially between 0000 and 0600 in patient with saxagliptin add-on therapy, were significantly lower compared with that of the control patients. Furthermore, patients in saxagliptin add-on group needed lower insulin dose to maintain euglycemic control. In addition, severe hypoglycemic episode was not observed from any group. Conclusion: Saxagliptin add-on therapy to insulin had the ability of further improve blood glycemic controlling, with lower insulin dose required by patients with T2D to maintain euglycemic controlling. PMID:27787387

  17. Add-on therapy of pitavastatin and eicosapentaenoic acid improves outcome of peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Kohjima, Motoyuki; Enjoji, Munechika; Yoshimoto, Tsuyoshi; Yada, Ryoko; Fujino, Tatsuya; Aoyagi, Yoko; Fukushima, Nobuyoshi; Fukuizumi, Kunitaka; Harada, Naohiko; Yada, Masayoshi; Kato, Masaki; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Manabu; Sakamoto, Naoya; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Nakamuta, Makoto

    2013-02-01

    Despite the use of pegylated-interferon (peg-IFN) plus ribavirin combination therapy, many patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-1b remain HCV-positive. To determine whether addition of pitavastatin and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is beneficial, the "add-on" therapy option (add-on group) was compared retrospectively with unmodified peg-IFN/ribavirin therapy (standard group). Association of host- or virus-related factors with sustained virological response was assessed. In HCV replicon cells, the effects of pitavastatin and/or EPA on HCV replication and expression of innate-immunity- and lipid-metabolism-associated genes were investigated. In patients infected with HCV-1b, sustained virological response rates were significantly higher in the add-on than standard group. In both groups, sustained virological response rates were significantly higher in patients with genotype TT of IL-28B (rs8099917) than in those with non-TT genotype. Among the patients with non-TT genotype, sustained virological response rates were markedly higher in the add-on than standard group. By multivariate analysis, genome variation of IL28B but not add-on therapy remained as a predictive factor of sustained virological response. In replicon cells, pitavastatin and EPA suppressed HCV replication. Activation of innate immunity was obvious in pitavastatin-treated cells and EPA suppressed the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and low-density lipoprotein receptor. Addition of pitavastatin and EPA to peg-IFN/ribavirin treatment improved sustained virological response in patients infected with HCV-1b. Genotype variation of IL-28B is a strong predictive factor in add-on therapy.

  18. Astronomical imaging by filtered weighted-shift-and-add technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribak, Erez

    1986-01-01

    The weighted-shift-and-add speckle imaging technique is analyzed using simple assumptions. The end product is shown to be a convolution of the object with a typical point-spread function (psf) that is similar in shape to the telescope psf and depends marginally on the speckle psf. A filter can be applied to each data frame before locating the maxima, either to identify the speckle locations (matched filter) or to estimate the instantaneous atmospheric psf (Wiener filter). Preliminary results show the power of the technique when applied to photon-limited data and to extended objects.

  19. Image restoration by the shift-and-add algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bagnuolo, W G

    1985-05-01

    A new method for image restoration based on the shift-and-add (SAA) algorithm is presented, the main advantages of which appear to be speed and simplicity. The SAA pattern produced by an object is given by the object correlated by a nonlinear replica of itself whose intensity distribution is strongly weighted toward the brighter pixels. A method of successive substitutions analogous to Fienup's algorithm can then be used to decorrelate the SAA pattern and recover the object. The method is applied to the case of the extended chromosphere of Betelgeuse.

  20. ``Additive'' cooperativity of hydrogen bonds in complexes of catechol with proton acceptors in the gas phase: FTIR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Klimovitskii, Alexander E.; Abaidullina, Dilyara I.; Madzhidov, Timur I.; Solomonov, Boris N.

    2012-06-01

    Experimental study of hydrogen bond cooperativity in hetero-complexes in the gas phase was carried out by IR-spectroscopy method. Stretching vibration frequencies of Osbnd H groups in phenol and catechol molecules as well as of their complexes with nitriles and ethers were determined in the gas phase using a specially designed cell. Osbnd H groups experimental frequency shifts in the complexes of catechol induced by the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds are significantly higher than in the complexes of phenol due to the hydrogen bond cooperativity. It was shown that the cooperativity factors of hydrogen bonds in the complexes of catechol with nitriles and ethers in the gas phase are approximately the same. Quantum chemical calculations of the studied systems have been performed using density functional theory (DFT) methods. It was shown, that theoretically obtained cooperativity factors of hydrogen bonds in the complexes of catechol with proton acceptors are in good agreement with experimental values. Cooperative effects lead to a strengthening of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the complexes of catechol on about 30%, despite the significant difference in the proton acceptor ability of the bases. The analysis within quantum theory of atoms in molecules was carried out for the explanation of this fact.

  1. "Additive" cooperativity of hydrogen bonds in complexes of catechol with proton acceptors in the gas phase: FTIR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A; Klimovitskii, Alexander E; Abaidullina, Dilyara I; Madzhidov, Timur I; Solomonov, Boris N

    2012-06-01

    Experimental study of hydrogen bond cooperativity in hetero-complexes in the gas phase was carried out by IR-spectroscopy method. Stretching vibration frequencies of O-H groups in phenol and catechol molecules as well as of their complexes with nitriles and ethers were determined in the gas phase using a specially designed cell. O-H groups experimental frequency shifts in the complexes of catechol induced by the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds are significantly higher than in the complexes of phenol due to the hydrogen bond cooperativity. It was shown that the cooperativity factors of hydrogen bonds in the complexes of catechol with nitriles and ethers in the gas phase are approximately the same. Quantum chemical calculations of the studied systems have been performed using density functional theory (DFT) methods. It was shown, that theoretically obtained cooperativity factors of hydrogen bonds in the complexes of catechol with proton acceptors are in good agreement with experimental values. Cooperative effects lead to a strengthening of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the complexes of catechol on about 30%, despite the significant difference in the proton acceptor ability of the bases. The analysis within quantum theory of atoms in molecules was carried out for the explanation of this fact.

  2. Does Chiropractic ‘Add Years to Life’?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Lon

    2004-01-01

    The chiropractic cliché “Chiropractic Adds Life to Years and Years to Life” was examined for validity. It was assumed that chiropractors themselves would be the best informed about the health benefits of chiropractic care. Chiropractors would therefore be most likely to receive some level of chiropractic care, and do so on a long-term basis. If chiropractic care significantly improves general health then chiropractors themselves should demonstrate longer life spans than the general population. Two separate data sources were used to examine chiropractic mortality rates. One source used obituary notices from past issues of Dynamic Chiropractic from 1990 to mid-2003. The second source used biographies from Who Was Who in Chiropractic – A Necrology covering a ten year period from 1969–1979. The two sources yielded a mean age at death for chiropractors of 73.4 and 74.2 years respectively. The mean ages at death of chiropractors is below the national average of 76.9 years and is below their medical doctor counterparts of 81.5. This review of mortality date found no evidence to support the claim that chiropractic care “Adds Years to Life.” PMID:17549121

  3. Collimator based tracking with an add-on multileaf collimator: Moduleaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhler, A.; Weichenberger, H.; Gaisberger, C.; Sedlmayer, F.; Deutschmann, H.

    2015-04-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most important methods used for the treatment of cancer. Irradiating a moving target is also one of the most challenging tasks to accomplish in modern radiotherapy. We have developed a tracking system by modifying an add-on collimator, the Siemens Moduleaf, for realtime applications in radiotherapy. As the add-on collimator works nearly completely independently of the linear accelerator (LinAc), no modifications to the latter were necessary. The adaptations to the Moduleaf were mainly software-based. In order to reduce the complexity of the system, outdated electronic parts were replaced with newer components where practical. Verification was performed by measuring the latency of the system as well as the impact on applied dose to a predefined target volume, moving in the leaf’s travel direction. Latency measurements in the software were accomplished by comparing the target and current positions of the leaves. For dose measurements, a Gafchromic EBT2 film was placed beneath the target 4D phantom, in between solid water plates and moved alongside with it. Comparing the dose distribution on the film with a moving target between ‘tracking disabled’ towards ‘tracking enabled’ functions resulted in penumbra widths of 23 mm to 4 mm for 0.1 Hz sinusoidal movements with an amplitude of 32 mm, respectively. The maximum speed was therefore 20 mm s-1. Latency was measured to be less than 50 ms for the signal runtimes. Based on the results, a tracking-capable add-on collimator seems to be a useful tool for reducing the margins for the treatment of small, slow-moving targets.

  4. Reversible Inter- and Intramolecular Carbon-Hydrogen Activation, Hydrogen Addition, and Catalysis by the Unsaturated Complex Pt(IPr)(SnBu(t)3)(H).

    PubMed

    Koppaka, Anjaneyulu; Captain, Burjor

    2016-03-21

    The complex Pt(IPr)(SnBu(t)3)(H) (1) was obtained from the reaction of Pt(COD)2 with Bu(t)3SnH and IPr [IPr = N,N'-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]. Complex 1 undergoes exchange reactions with deuterated solvents (C6D6, toluene-d8, and CD2Cl2), where the hydride ligand and the methyl hydrogen atoms on the isopropyl group of the IPr ligand have been replaced by deuterium atoms. Complex 1 reacts with H2 gas reversibly at room temperature to yield the complex Pt(IPr)(SnBu(t)3)(H)3 (2). Complex 2 also undergoes exchange reactions with deuterated solvents as in 1 to deuterate the hydride ligands and the methyl hydrogen atoms on the isopropyl group of the IPr ligand. Complex 1 catalyzes the hydrogenation of styrene to ethylbenzene at room temperature. The reaction of 1 with 1 equiv of styrene at -20 °C yields the η(2)-coordinated product Pt(IPr)(SnBu(t)3)(η(2)-CH2CHPh)(H) (3), and with 2 equiv of styrene, it forms Pt(IPr)(η(2)-CH2CHPh)2 (4).

  5. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  6. Gold(I)-catalyzed asymmetric induction of planar chirality by intramolecular nucleophilic addition to chromium-complexed alkynylarenes: asymmetric synthesis of planar chiral (1H-isochromene and 1,2-dihydroisoquinoline)chromium complexes.

    PubMed

    Murai, Masato; Sota, Yumi; Onohara, Yuki; Uenishi, Jun'ichi; Uemura, Motokazu

    2013-11-01

    Gold(I)-catalyzed asymmetric intramolecular cyclization of prochiral 1,3-dihydroxymethyl-2-alkynylbenzene or 1,3-bis(carbamate)-2-alkynylbenzene tricarbonylchromium complexes with axially chiral diphosphine ligand gave planar chiral tricarbonylchromium complexes of 1H-isochromene or 1,2-dihydroisoquinoline with high enantioselectivity. An enantiomeric excess of the planar chiral arene chromium complexes was largely affected by a combination of axially chiral diphosphine(AuCl)2 precatalysts and silver salts. In the case of 1,3-dihydroxymethyl-2-alkynylbenzene chromium complexes, a system of segphos(AuCl)2 with AgBF4 resulted in the formation of the corresponding antipode.

  7. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Verbiest, G J; van der Zalm, D J; Oosterkamp, T H; Rost, M J

    2015-03-01

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  8. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, G. J.; Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J.

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  9. Add-on gabapentin in the treatment of opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Raga, José; Sabater, Ana; Perez-Galvez, Bartolome; Castellano, Miguel; Cervera, Gaspar

    2004-05-01

    Gabapentin is an antiepileptic drug shown to be effective in the treatment of pain disorders and appears to be useful as well for several psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal and cocaine dependence. Gabapentin, at a dose of 600 mg three times a day, was evaluated as an add-on medication to a standard detoxification regime in seven heroin dependent individuals undergoing outpatient opiate withdrawal treatment. All seven patients successfully completed opiate detoxification and commenced opiate antagonist treatment with naltrexone on day five of withdrawal treatment, as scheduled. No adverse event was noted. Gabapentin appeared to lead a reduction in symptomatic medication and an overall beneficial effect on symptoms of heroin withdrawal.

  10. Radio Telescopes Will Add to Cassini-Huygens Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-12-01

    When the European Space Agency's Huygens spacecraft makes its plunge into the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan on January 14, radio telescopes of the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) will help international teams of scientists extract the maximum possible amount of irreplaceable information from an experiment unique in human history. Huygens is the 700-pound probe that has accompanied the larger Cassini spacecraft on a mission to thoroughly explore Saturn, its rings and its numerous moons. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia and eight of the ten telescopes of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), located at Pie Town and Los Alamos, NM, Fort Davis, TX, North Liberty, IA, Kitt Peak, AZ, Brewster, WA, Owens Valley, CA, and Mauna Kea, HI, will directly receive the faint signal from Huygens during its descent. Along with other radio telescopes in Australia, Japan, and China, the NRAO facilities will add significantly to the information about Titan and its atmosphere that will be gained from the Huygens mission. A European-led team will use the radio telescopes to make extremely precise measurements of the probe's position during its descent, while a U.S.-led team will concentrate on gathering measurements of the probe's descent speed and the direction of its motion. The radio-telescope measurements will provide data vital to gaining a full understanding of the winds that Huygens encounters in Titan's atmosphere. Currently, scientists know little about Titan's winds. Data from the Voyager I spacecraft's 1980 flyby indicated that east-west winds may reach 225 mph or more. North-south winds and possible vertical winds, while probably much weaker, may still be significant. There are competing theoretical models of Titan's winds, and the overall picture is best summarized as

  11. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  12. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  13. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  14. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a... ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee....

  15. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  16. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  17. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  18. 5 CFR 330.105 - Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instructions on how to add a vacancy... Service § 330.105 Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS. An agency can find the instructions to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS on OPM's Web site at http://www.usajobs.gov....

  19. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  20. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  1. 5 CFR 330.105 - Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instructions on how to add a vacancy... Service § 330.105 Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS. An agency can find the instructions to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS on OPM's Web site at http://www.usajobs.gov....

  2. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  3. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  4. 5 CFR 330.105 - Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instructions on how to add a vacancy... Service § 330.105 Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS. An agency can find the instructions to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS on OPM's Web site at http://www.usajobs.gov....

  5. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a... ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee....

  6. College Students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD): Implications for Learning Assistance Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Shevawn; Wyland, Sharon

    1996-01-01

    Examines the research and theory about attention deficit disorder (ADD) in college students and discusses how learning assistance professionals can better assist college students with ADD. Appended in this article are strategies for faculty/learning center professionals in accommodating students with ADD and a list of suggested readings. Contains…

  7. Neurofeedback combined with training in metacognitive strategies: effectiveness in students with ADD.

    PubMed

    Thompson, L; Thompson, M

    1998-12-01

    A review of records was carried out to examine the results obtained when people with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) received 40 sessions of training that combined neurofeedback with the teaching of metacognitive strategies. While not a controlled scientific study, the results, including pre- and post-measures, are consistent with previously published research concerning the use of neurofeedback with children. A significant addition is that a description of procedures is included. The 111 subjects, 98 children (age 5 to 17) and 13 adults (ages 18 to 63), attended forty 50-min sessions, usually twice a week. Feedback was contingent on decreasing slow wave activity (usually 4-7 Hz, occasionally 9-11 Hz) and increasing fast wave activity (15-18 Hz for most subjects but initially 13-15 Hz for subjects with impulsivity and hyperactivity). Metacognitive strategies related to academic tasks were taught when the feedback indicated the client was focused. Some clients also received temperature and/or EDR biofeedback during some sessions. Initially, 30 percent of the children were taking stimulant medications (Ritalin), whereas 6 percent were on stimulant medications after 40 sessions. All charts were included where pre- and post-testing results were available for one or more of the following: the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA, n = 76), Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WISC-R, WISC-III, or WAIS-R, n = 68), Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 3, n = 99), and the electroencephalogram assessment (QEEG) providing a ratio of theta (4-8 Hz) to beta (16-20 Hz) activity (n = 66). Significant improvements (p < .001) were found in ADD symptoms (inattention, impulsivity, and variability of response times on the TOVA), in both the ACID pattern and the full-scale scores of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, and in academic performance on the WRAT 3. The average gain for the full scale IQ equivalent scores was 12 points. A decrease in the EEG ratio of theta/beta was also observed. These

  8. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) II: a new species from the northern Philippines.

    PubMed

    Siler, Cameron D; Davis, Drew R; Freitas, Elyse S; Huron, Nicholas A; Geheber, Aaron D; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Papeș, Monica; Amrein, Andrew; Anwar, Alyssa; Cooper, Dontae; Hein, Tucker; Manning, Annalisa; Patel, Neeral; Pinaroc, Lauren; Diesmos, Arvin C; Diesmos, Mae L; Oliveros, Carl H; Brown, Rafe M

    2016-06-28

    We describe a new digitless scincid lizard of the genus Brachymeles from northern Luzon and Camiguin Norte islands in the Philippines. This species belongs to the Brachymeles bonitae Complex, and both molecular and morphological data confirm that this species is distinct from all other congeners. Formerly considered to be a single widespread species, this group of species has been the focus of recent systematic reviews. Here we describe a new species in the B. bonitae Complex, recognized currently to constitute five species. Brachymeles ilocandia sp. nov. is the second digitless and the seventeenth non-pentadactyl species in genus. The description of this species brings the total number of species in the genus to 40, and provides new insight into unique distribution patterns of species of the northern Philippines.

  9. The hormonal profile of norethindrone acetate: rationale for add-back therapy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Chwalisz, Kristof; Surrey, Eric; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2012-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) are an effective treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. The use of hormonal add-back therapy can alleviate the hypoestrogenic symptoms associated with GnRHa therapy, while preserving therapeutic efficacy. Norethindrone acetate (NETA) is a unique progestin that has both estrogenic and androgenic properties and is effective as an add-back regimen without estrogen supplementation. Through its estrogenic activity, NETA exerts beneficial effects on bone mineral density and vasomotor symptoms in women treated with GnRHa. In addition, NETA exhibits strong endometrial antiproliferative effects, which may result in further benefits for the endometriosis patient population. However, NETA add-back may be associated with progestogenic side effects and may lower high-density lipoprotein due to androgenic activity. These effects must be balanced with the overall benefits of NETA add-back therapy.

  10. Gantry and isocenter displacements of a linear accelerator caused by an add-on micromultileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, Hans L.; Zimmermann, Sune J.; Hjelm-Hansen, Mogens

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The delivery of high quality stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments to the patient requires knowledge of the position of the isocenter to submillimeter accuracy. To meet the requirements the deviation between the radiation and mechanical isocenters must be less than 1 mm. The use of add-on micromultileaf collimators ({mu}MLCs) in SRS and SRT is an additional challenge to the anticipated high-level geometric and dosimetric accuracy of the treatment. The aim of this work was to quantify the gantry excursions during rotation with and without an add-on {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. In addition, the shift in the position of the isocenter and its correlation to the kV beam center of the cone-beam CT system was included in the study. Methods: The quantification of the gantry rotational performance was done using a pointer supported by an in-house made rigid holder attached to the gantry head of the accelerator. The pointer positions were measured using a digital theodolite. To quantify the effect of an {mu}MLC of 50 kg, the measurements were repeated with the {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. The displacement of the isocenter due to an add-on {mu}MLC of 50 kg was also investigated. In case of the pointer measurement the {mu}MLC was simulated by weights attached to the gantry head. A method of least squares was applied to determine the position and displacement of the mechanical isocenter. Additionally, the displacement of the radiation isocenter was measured using a ball-bearing phantom and the electronic portal image device system. These measurements were based on 8 MV photon beams irradiated onto the ball from the four cardinal angles and two opposed collimator angles. The measurements and analysis of the data were carried out automatically using software delivered by the manufacturer. Results: The displacement of the mechanical isocenter caused by a 50 kg heavy {mu}MLC was found to be (-0.01 {+-} 0.05, -0

  11. Digital Tomosynthesis System Geometry Analysis Using Convolution-Based Blur-and-Add (BAA) Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Yoon, Sungwon; Solomon, Edward G; Star-Lack, Josh; Pelc, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis is a three-dimensional imaging technique with a lower radiation dose than computed tomography (CT). Due to the missing data in tomosynthesis systems, out-of-plane structures in the depth direction cannot be completely removed by the reconstruction algorithms. In this work, we analyzed the impulse responses of common tomosynthesis systems on a plane-to-plane basis and proposed a fast and accurate convolution-based blur-and-add (BAA) model to simulate the backprojected images. In addition, the analysis formalism describing the impulse response of out-of-plane structures can be generalized to both rotating and parallel gantries. We implemented a ray tracing forward projection and backprojection (ray-based model) algorithm and the convolution-based BAA model to simulate the shift-and-add (backproject) tomosynthesis reconstructions. The convolution-based BAA model with proper geometry distortion correction provides reasonably accurate estimates of the tomosynthesis reconstruction. A numerical comparison indicates that the simulated images using the two models differ by less than 6% in terms of the root-mean-squared error. This convolution-based BAA model can be used in efficient system geometry analysis, reconstruction algorithm design, out-of-plane artifacts suppression, and CT-tomosynthesis registration.

  12. Highly Diastereo- and Enantioselective Michael Addition of Nitroalkanes to 2-Enoyl-Pyridine N-Oxides Catalyzed by Scandium(III)/Copper(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijun; Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Yanbin; Li, Yanan; Li, Chong; Zha, Zhenggen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-09-07

    A C2 -symmetric Schiff-base ligand, derived from tridentate-Schiff-base, was developed and successfully applied to the asymmetric Michael addition of nitroalkanes to 2-enoyl-pyridine N-oxides. With this newly catalytic system, an unprecedented diastereoselectivity was obtained in the asymmetric Michael addition of nitroalkanes to 2-enoyl-pyridine N-oxides. In addition, a switch in enantioselectivity was achieved by using this newly catalytic system and our previous catalyst. After a facile reduction, the optically active adduct was converted to a biologically active dihydro-2H-pyrrol 4 a. Furthermore, a connection of two tridentate-Schiff-base subunits proved to be an effective strategy in ligand design.

  13. From enantiopure hydroxyaldehydes to complex heterocyclic scaffolds: development of domino Petasis/Diels-Alder and cross-metathesis/Michael addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Cannillo, Alexandre; Norsikian, Stéphanie; Tran Huu Dau, Marie-Elise; Retailleau, Pascal; Iorga, Bogdan I; Beau, Jean-Marie

    2014-09-15

    One-step assembly of hexahydroisoindole scaffolds by a sequence that combines the Petasis (borono-Mannich) and Diels-Alder reactions is described. The unique selectivity observed experimentally was confirmed by quantum calculations. The current method is applicable to a broad range of substrates, including free sugars, and holds significant potential to efficiently and stereoselectively build new heterocyclic structures. This easy and fast entry to functionalized polycyclic compounds can be pursued by further transformations, for example, additional ring closure by a cross-metathesis/Michael addition domino sequence.

  14. ADD and the College Student: A Guide for High School and College Students with Attention Deficit Disorder. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Patricia O., Ed.

    This handbook contains practical information and advice to help students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) transition from high school to college. Part 1 provides an introduction to ADD and includes a questionnaire identifying the characteristics of a person with ADD. Part 2 describes life with ADD. It explains how ADD can affect high school…

  15. Enantioselective addition of phenylacetylene to N-aryl arylimines catalyzed by Cu(II)-pyridine containing N-tosylatedaminoimine ligand complex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bao; Zhong, Yao; Li, Xingshu

    2009-06-01

    Chiral tridentate N-tosylated pyridine-containing ligands were prepared and used in the Cu(II)-catalyzed enantioselective addition of phenylacetylene to N-aryl arylimines. Moderate to high enantioselectivities (up to 95% ee) were obtained in very mild reaction conditions.

  16. A ferrocenyl-DHIPOH/Cu(OAc)2 complex for diastereo- and enantioselective catalysis of the 1,4-addition of glycine derivatives to alkylidene malonates.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu-Hua; Wang, Zheng; Hu, Bin; Wang, Ming; Fossey, John S; Deng, Wei-Ping

    2011-11-18

    A planar chiral ferrocene derivative Fc-DHIPOH served as an excellent N,O- chiral ligand for asymmetric copper catalyzed 1,4-addition of glycine derivatives to alkylidene malonates. The corresponding 1,4-adducts were obtained in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities up to 95% ee.

  17. The 2.1 A structure of an elicitin-ergosterol complex: a recent addition to the Sterol Carrier Protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Boissy, G.; O'Donohue, M.; Gaudemer, O.; Perez, V.; Pernollet, J. C.; Brunie, S.

    1999-01-01

    Elicitins, produced by most of the phytopathogenic fungi of the genus Phytophthora, provoke in tobacco both remote leaf necrosis and the induction of a resistance against subsequent attack by various microorganisms. Despite the recent description of the three-dimensional crystal structure of cryptogein (CRY), the molecular basis of the interactions between Phytophthora and plants largely remains unknown. The X-ray crystal structure, refined at 2.1 A, of a ligand complexed, mutated CRY, K13H, is reported. Analysis of this structure reveals that CRY is able to encapsulate a ligand that induces only a minor conformational change in the protein structure. The ligand has been identified as an ergosterol by gas chromatographic analysis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. This result is consistent with biochemical data that have shown that elicitins are a distinct class of Sterol Carrier Proteins (SCP). Data presented here provide the first structural description of the pertinent features of the elicitin sterol interaction and permit a reassessment of the importance of both the key residue 13 and the mobility of the omega loop for the accessibility of the sterol to the cavity. The biological implications thereof are discussed. This paper reports the first structure of a SCP/sterol complex. PMID:10386869

  18. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  19. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed Central

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H.; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Gren, Åsa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A.; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H.; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture’s reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  20. Climatic Drivers of Past Antarctic Ice Sheet Evolution Add Nonlinearly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigchelaar, M.; Timmermann, A.; Pollard, D.; Friedrich, T.; Heinemann, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet has varied substantially in shape and volume in the past, with evidence for strong regional differences in evolution history. Recent observations of change in the Antarctic environment indicate that different regions respond differently to ongoing changes in global climate -- over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet strong increases in sub-shelf melt rates indicate a sensitivity to changes in ocean temperature and circulation, while in East Antarctica the mass balance is increasingly positive due to an increase in accumulation in response to rising temperatures. Modeling the long term evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet can help address questions about its regional sensitivity to external forcing. We have conducted experiments with an established ice sheet model over the last eight glacial cycles using spatially and temporally varying climate forcing from an EMIC. These simulations indicate a glacial-interglacial amplitude of ~11m SLE. Using a series of sensitivity experiments we address the dominant climatic forcing of this evolution. While sea level changes are the main driver of grounding line movement, they alone are not sufficient to explain the full glacial amplitude. Local insolation changes contribute to the initiation of terminations, while accumulation and sub-shelf melt changes feed back positively and negatively respectively onto the ice sheet evolution. This implies that climatic drivers add nonlinearly and the full spectrum of climate forcing needs to be considered when evaluating the sensitivity of the Antarctic ice sheet to past and future climate change.

  1. Diastereo- and enantioselective conjugate addition of alpha-ketoesters to nitroalkenes catalyzed by a chiral Ni(OAc)(2) complex under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ayako; Lectard, Sylvain; Hashizume, Daisuke; Hamashima, Yoshitaka; Sodeoka, Mikiko

    2010-03-31

    A highly efficient, catalytic, diastereo- and enantioselective conjugate addition of alpha-ketoesters to nitroalkenes has been devised. The reaction was applicable to various substrates. Notably, the combination of endogenous and exogenous bases was effective, allowing a small amount of the catalyst (0.1-1 mol % Ni) to promote the reaction efficiently. The synthetic utility of this reaction was demonstrated in the synthesis of substituted pyrrolidine derivatives, whose stereochemistry is closely related to biologically important natural products such as kainic acid.

  2. Effect of “add-on” interventions on exercise training in individuals with COPD: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Camillo, Carlos A.; van Remoortel, Hans; Burtin, Chris; Janssens, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify the effectiveness of therapies added on to conventional exercise training to maximise exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Electronic databases were searched, identifying trials comparing exercise training with exercise training plus “add-on” therapy. Outcomes included peak oxygen uptake (V′O2peak), work rate and incremental/endurance cycle and field walking tests. Individual trial effects on exercise capacity were extracted and collated into eight subgroups and pooled for meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the stability of effect estimates across studies employing patient-centred designs and those deemed to be of “high” quality (PEDro score >5 out of 10). 74 studies (2506 subjects) met review inclusion criteria. Interventions spanned a broad scope of clinical practice and were most commonly evaluated via the 6-min walking distance and V′O2peak. Meta-analysis revealed few clinically relevant and statistically significant benefits of “add-on” therapies on exercise performance compared with exercise training. Benefits favouring “add-on” therapies were observed across six different interventions (additional exercise training, noninvasive ventilation, bronchodilator therapy, growth hormone, vitamin D and nutritional supplementation). The sensitivity analyses included considerably fewer studies, but revealed minimal differences to the primary analysis. The lack of systematic benefits of “add-on” interventions is a probable reflection of methodological limitations, such as “one size fits all” eligibility criteria, that are inherent in many of the included studies of “add-on” therapies. Future clarification regarding the exact value of such therapies may only arise from adequately powered, multicentre clinical trials of tailored interventions for carefully selected COPD patient subgroups defined according to distinct clinical

  3. Monitoring of ractopamine concentration in the mixture of this feed additive with vitamin mineral complex and with swine feed by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ellen Figueiredo; Borges, Keyller Bastos; Tanimoto, Hélio; Nogueira, Raquel Tassara; Bertolini, Lucimara Cristiane Toso; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto

    2013-01-01

    Ractopamine (RAC) analysis at all stages in the feed chain until its final mixing into swine feed is necessary to ensure the safety of all meat consumers and to decrease waste and the cost of supplementation of feed. Two suitable HPLC methods were developed and validated for RAC determination in vitamin mineral complex (VMC) and in swine feed. Both methods employed reverse-phase (C18 column at 40°C) and isocratic elution, but with some modifications to the methods. Validation parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, precision, trueness and robustness, were shown to be within the acceptable range. Therefore, the developed methods can be successfully applied for the monitoring of RAC concentrations in samples of VMC and swine feed ensuring economy to producers and security to consumers of swine meat.

  4. A novel inclusion complex (β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A) with antibiotic propertiess for use as an anti-Agrobacterium additive in transgenic poplar rooting medium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Li, Jianfeng; Movahedi, Ali; Sang, Ming; Xu, Chen; Xu, Junjie; Wei, Zhiheng; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous effort to develop novel antibiotics with new modes of action.We recently reported that ABP-dHC-cecropin A exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activity, making it a candidate antibiotic substitute. In this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) combined with ABP-dHC-cecropin A enhanced the physical and chemical properties of ABP-dHC-cecropin A but did not significantly decrease its antibacterial activity. Thus, β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A should be considered a novel antibacterial drug. We used β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A as an anti-Agrobacterium compound to supplementtransgenic poplar medium. Sideeffects of the inclusion complex had little impact on plantgrowth. Thus, β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A may be used as traditional antibiotics forpoplar transplantation with greater antibbacterial effects.

  5. Mutations in LZTR1 add to the complex heterogeneity of schwannomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Miriam J.; Isidor, Bertand; Beetz, Christian; Williams, Simon G.; Bhaskar, Sanjeev S.; Richer, Wilfrid; O'Sullivan, James; Anderson, Beverly; Daly, Sarah B.; Urquhart, Jill E.; Fryer, Alan; Rustad, Cecilie F.; Mills, Samantha J.; Samii, Amir; du Plessis, Daniel; Halliday, Dorothy; Barbarot, Sebastien; Bourdeaut, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to determine the proportion of individuals in our schwannomatosis cohort whose disease is associated with an LZTR1 mutation. Methods: We used exome sequencing, Sanger sequencing, and copy number analysis to screen 65 unrelated individuals with schwannomatosis who were negative for a germline NF2 or SMARCB1 mutation. We also screened samples from 39 patients with a unilateral vestibular schwannoma (UVS), plus at least one other schwannoma, but who did not have an identifiable germline or mosaic NF2 mutation. Results: We identified germline LZTR1 mutations in 6 of 16 patients (37.5%) with schwannomatosis who had at least one affected relative, 11 of 49 (22%) sporadic patients, and 2 of 39 patients with UVS in our cohort. Three germline mutation–positive patients in total had developed a UVS. Mosaicism was excluded in 3 patients without germline mutation in NF2, SMARCB1, or LZTR1 by mutation screening in 2 tumors from each. Conclusions: Our data confirm the relationship between mutations in LZTR1 and schwannomatosis. They indicate that germline mutations in LZTR1 confer an increased risk of vestibular schwannoma, providing further overlap with NF2, and that further causative genes for schwannomatosis remain to be identified. PMID:25480913

  6. Knowledge Theories Can Inform Evaluation Practice: What Can a Complexity Lens Add?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawe, Penelope; Bond, Lyndal; Butler, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Programs and policies invariably contain new knowledge. Theories about knowledge utilization, diffusion, implementation, transfer, and knowledge translation theories illuminate some mechanisms of change processes. But more often than not, when it comes to understanding patterns about change processes, "the foreground" is privileged more…

  7. Novel asymmetric michael addition of alpha-cyanopropionates to acrolein by the use of a bis(oxazolinyl)phenylstannane-derived rhodium(III) complex as a chiral Lewis acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Yukihiro; Koga, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Kouji; Aoki, Katsuyuki; Nishiyama, Hisao

    2002-07-02

    The rhodium complex prepared in situ by simply mixing [[RhCl(c-octene)2]2] and [(Phebox)SnMe3] (1) (Phebox = 2,6-bis(oxazolinyl)phenyl) was found to serve as an efficient catalyst for the asymmetric Michael addition of alpha-cyanopropionates (4) to acrolein under mild and neutral conditions. In the present catalytic system, both the temperature of catalyst preparation and the order of the addition of the substrates were very important for the catalytic efficiency and enantioselectivity. Detailed mechanistic studies of this catalytic system revealed that the [(Phebox)RhIII(SnMe3)Cl] complex (9), generated by oxidative addition of [[RhCl(c-octene)2]2] to 1, is an active catalyst and the turnover number (TON) of the present actual catalyst existing in a reaction mixture is greater than 10,000. The obtained (R) stereochemistry of the Michael adducts 5 can be explained by N-bonded enol intermediates C', which are formed by enolization of 4 bound to the Lewis acidic rhodium complex 9. We also found that the active catalyst 9 gradually decomposed in the presence of the remaining [[RhCl(c-octene)2]2] in the reaction mixture to form the catalytically nonactive [(Phebox)RhCl2] fragment A, whose structure was characterized by an X-ray crystallographic study after converting to the tBuNC complex 10.

  8. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand–receptor design

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand–receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand–receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:26350224

  9. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M

    2015-09-09

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand-receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  10. Some additional considerations in modelling the dynamic traits and genome-wide association studies. Comments on "Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system" by L. Sun and R. Wu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kiranmoy

    2015-06-01

    The revolution in the genetic research in our time is mainly due to (i) the successful completion of human genome project (2003) and its derivative hapmap project (2005), (ii) advanced statistical methodologies for analyzing ultrahigh dimensional data and (iii) the availability of statistical softwares (R, SAS etc.) to analyze large datasets. When complex traits are to be modeled as dynamic systems, the statistical issues regarding the complexity in the model, predictive power of the model, computational cost etc. are to be addressed adequately for powerful inferences. I will mention two additional considerations (statistical) which make dynamic models more meaningful and the results from GWAS more reliable.

  11. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  12. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  13. Modeling of Ionic Conductivity Enhancement of LiClO4-PVA-C System by TiO2 Addition Using Complex Numerical Model of PDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokrollahi, Mahvash; Semnani, Dariush; Morshed, Mohammad; Rezaei, Behzad; Mirsoofian, Mehdi

    2013-12-01

    PVA-TiO2 nanocomposite polymer electrolytes (PEs) were produced with different amounts of TiO2 (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt.%) using the electrospinning process. Morphological studies of PVA-TiO2 nanofibers were accomplished with SEM. PVA-TiO2 membranes exhibited a high porosity of 79-91%. The impedance results showed that incorporation of TiO2 into the nanofiber membrane improved its ionic conductivity from 0.7 × 10-5 to 2.5 × 10-5 S/cm at room temperature. Nanofiber PEs showed very good reversibility and electrochemical stability up to 4.7 V. Diffusion coefficient of Li ion into PVA-TiO2 nanocomposite PEs was estimated by using a complex numerical model of partial differential equation for evaluation of ion transmission. Diffusion coefficient of PVA-TiO2 PEs containing different amounts of TiO2 (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt.%) increased with increasing the nanoparticles content.

  14. Cyanovanadate(III) complexes as novel additives for efficient generation of volatile cadmium species in complex samples prior to determinations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Vedat; Arslan, Zikri; Rose, LaKeysha; Little, Maria D

    2013-10-15

    A new method has been described for generation of volatile species of Cd using vanadium(III) cyanide complex. Aqueous solutions of 0.04 mol L(-1) vanadium chloride (VCl3) and 0.12 mol L(-1) potassium cyanide (KCN) were reacted on-line yielding a suspension of vanadium hydroxide, V(OH)3. This suspension was dissolved along the stream of sample solution in dilute HCl to form heptacyanovanadate(III) complex, [V(CN)7]4-. Volatile Cd species were generated by reacting the stream of sample solution and cyanovanadate(III) complex with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Feasibility of off-line and on-online approaches was investigated for quantitative determinations. Better precision and daily stability were achieved with on-line settings. Optimum signals were obtained from sample solutions within a range of 3 to 5% v/v HCl. A concentration of 2% m/v NaBH4 was adequate to achieve an enhancement of 20-fold in the presence of cyanovanadate(III) complex. The limits of detection were 5.0 and 4.5 ng L(-1) for 110Cd and 111Cd isotopes, respectively. Precision (%RSD) was better than 4.7% for six replicate measurements. The interferences of Cu(II) and Ni(II) were marginal (<10%) at 1.0 µg mL(-1). Depressive effects from Bi, Se and Sn were not significant below 0.1 µg mL(-1). The method was validated by determination of Cd using ICP-MS in certified reference materials of Nearshore seawater (CASS-4), Bone ash (SRM 1400), Dogfish liver (DOLT-4) and Mussel tissue (SRM 2976).

  15. Students' Responses To Different Representations Of A Vector Addition Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Jeffrey M.; Thompson, John R.; Wittmann, Michael C.; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Frank, Brian W.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate if the visual representation of vectors can affect which methods students use to add them. We gave students one of four questions with different graphical representations, asking students to add the same two vectors. For students in an algebra-based class the arrangement of the vectors had a statistically significant effect on the vector addition method chosen while the addition or removal of a grid did not.

  16. Chandra Adds to Story of the Way We Were

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have enabled astronomers to use a new way to determine if a young star is surrounded by a planet-forming disk like our early Sun. These results suggest that disks around young stars can evolve rapidly to form planets, or they can be disrupted by close encounters with other stars. Chandra observed two young star systems, TW Hydrae and HD 98800, both of which are in the TW Hydrae Association, a loose cluster of 10 million-year-old stars. Observations at infrared and other wavelengths have shown that several stars in the TW Hydrae Association are surrounded by disks of dust and gas. At a distance of about 180 light years from Earth, these systems are among the nearest analogs to the early solar nebula from which Earth formed. "X-rays give us an excellent new way to probe the disks around stars," said Joel Kastner of the Rochester Institute of Technology in Rochester, NY during a press conference today in Nashville, Tenn. at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society. "They can tell us whether a disk is very near to its parent star and dumping matter onto it, or whether such activity has ceased to be important. In the latter case, presumably the disk has been assimilated into larger bodies - perhaps planets--or disrupted." TW Hydrae and HD 98800A Chandra 0th Order Image of HD98800 Kastner and his colleagues found examples of each type of behavior in their study. One star, TW Hydrae, namesake of the TW Hydrae Association, exhibited features in its X-ray spectrum that provide strong, new evidence that matter is accreting onto the star from a circumstellar disk. They concluded that matter is guided by the star's magnetic field onto one or more hot spots on the surface of the star. In contrast, Chandra observations of the young multiple star system HD 98800 revealed that its brightest star, HD 98800A, is producing X-rays much as the Sun does, from a hot upper atmosphere or corona. HD 98800 is a complex multiple-star system

  17. Addition Reactions of Me3 SiCN with Aldehydes Catalyzed by Aluminum Complexes Containing in their Coordination Sphere O, S, and N Ligands.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Yi, Yafei; Zhong, Mingdong; De, Sriman; Mondal, Totan; Koley, Debasis; Ma, Xiaoli; Zhang, Dongxiang; Roesky, Herbert W

    2016-05-10

    The reaction of one equivalent of LAlH2 (1; L=HC(CMeNAr)2 , Ar=2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 , β-diketiminate ligand) with two equivalents of 2-mercapto-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine hydrate resulted in LAl[(μ-S)(m-C4 N2 H)(CH2 )2 ]2 (2) in good yield. Similarly, when N-2-pyridylsalicylideneamine, N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)salicylaldimine, and ethyl 3-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxylate were used as starting materials, the corresponding products LAl[(μ-O)(o-C6 H4 )CN(C5 NH4 )]2 (3), LAlH[(μ-O)(o-C4 H4 )CN(2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 )] (4), and LAl[(μ-NH)(o-C8 SH8 )(COOC2 H5 )]2 (5) were isolated. Compounds 2-5 were characterized by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy as well as by single-crystal X-ray structural analysis. Surprisingly, compounds 2-5 exhibit good catalytic activity in addition reactions of aldehydes with trimethylsilyl cyanide (TMSCN).

  18. 75 FR 52724 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    .... Services Service Type/Location: Custodial Service, National Weather Service, 587 Aero Drive, Buffalo, NY... action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies... the products and services and impact of the additions on the current or most recent contractors,...

  19. 75 FR 72815 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ..., National Weather Service, 728 & 732 Woodlane Rd, Mt. Holly, NJ. NPA: Occupational Training Center of... action adds services to the Procurement List that will be provided by nonprofit agencies employing... nonprofit agencies to provide the services and impact of the additions on the current or most...

  20. 77 FR 67343 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    .... SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a product and services to the Procurement List that will be... required to procure the product and services listed below from nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. The following product and services are proposed for addition...

  1. Calculation of ionization energy, electron affinity, and hydride affinity trends in pincer-ligated d(8)-Ir((tBu4)PXCXP) complexes: implications for the thermodynamics of oxidative H2 addition.

    PubMed

    Baroudi, Abdulkader; El-Hellani, Ahmad; Bengali, Ashfaq A; Goldman, Alan S; Hasanayn, Faraj

    2014-12-01

    DFT methods are used to calculate the ionization energy (IE) and electron affinity (EA) trends in a series of pincer ligated d(8)-Ir((tBu4)PXCXP) complexes (1-X), where C is a 2,6-disubstituted phenyl ring with X = O, NH, CH2, BH, S, PH, SiH2, and GeH2. Both C2v and C2 geometries are considered. Two distinct σ-type ((2)A1 or (2)A) and π-type ((2)B1 or (2)B) electronic states are calculated for each of the free radical cation and anion. The results exhibit complex trends, but can be satisfactorily accounted for by invoking a combination of electronegativity and specific π-orbital effects. The calculations are also used to study the effects of varying X on the thermodynamics of oxidative H2 addition to 1-X. Two closed shell singlet states differentiated in the C2 point group by the d(6)-electon configuration are investigated for the five-coordinate Ir(III) dihydride product. One electronic state has a d(6)-(a)(2)(b)(2)(b)(2) configuration and a square pyramidal geometry, the other a d(6)-(a)(2)(b)(2)(a)(2) configuration with a distorted-Y trigonal bipyramidal geometry. No simple correlations are found between the computed reaction energies of H2 addition and either the IEs or EAs. To better understand the origin of the computed trends, the thermodynamics of H2 addition are analyzed using a cycle of hydride and proton addition steps. The analysis highlights the importance of the electron and hydride affinities, which are not commonly used in rationalizing trends of oxidative addition reactions. Thus, different complexes such as 1-O and 1-CH2 can have very similar reaction energies for H2 addition arising from opposing hydride and proton affinity effects. Additional calculations on methane C-H bond addition to 1-X afford reaction and activation energy trends that correlate with the reaction energies of H2 addition leading to the Y-product.

  2. A review of modafinil and armodafinil as add-on therapy in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Arends, Johannes; Timmerman, Leo; Lancel, Marike

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by reality distortion, psychomotor poverty and cognitive disturbances. These characteristics contribute to a lesser social functioning and lower quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. It has been suggested that modafinil and its isomer armodafinil as an add-on strategy to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia may improve cognitive functioning, attenuate fatigue, inactiveness and other negative functions as well as weight gain. In this paper we review the literature relevant to the question of whether modafinil and armodafinil are beneficial as add-on therapy in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia. A total of 15 articles were included in this review; of the 15 articles, 10 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Evidence for the use of modafinil or armodafinil as add-on therapy to antipsychotic drugs to alleviate fatigue, sleepiness and inactivity is inconclusive. One cohort study and one out of two single-dose crossover RCTs in which modafinil addition was studied could demonstrate a positive effect. All five RCTs of modafinil (three RCTs) and armodafinil (two RCTs) addition with a longer study duration could not demonstrate a positive effect. With respect to cognitive disturbances, animal models of cognitive deficits show clear improvements with modafinil. In RCTs with a treatment duration of 4 weeks or more, however, no positive effect could be demonstrated on cognitive functioning with modafinil and armodafinil addition. Yet, four single-dose crossover RCTs of modafinil addition show significant positive effects on executive functioning, verbal memory span, visual memory, working memory, spatial planning, slowing in latency, impulse control and recognition of faces expressing sadness and sadness misattribution in the context of disgust recognition. The addition of modafinil or armodafinil to an antipsychotic regime, despite theoretical and preclinical considerations, has not been proved to

  3. Add Java extensions to your wiki: Java applets can bring dynamic functionality to your wiki pages

    SciTech Connect

    Scarberry, Randall E.

    2008-08-12

    Virtually everyone familiar with today’s world wide web has encountered the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia many times. What you may not know is that Wikipedia is driven by an excellent open-source product called MediaWiki which is available to anyone for free. This has led to a proliferation of wiki sites devoted to just about any topic one can imagine. Users of a wiki can add content -- all that is required of them is that they type in their additions into their web browsers using the simple markup language called wikitext. Even better, the developers of wikitext made it extensible. With a little server-side development of your own, you can add your own custom syntax. Users aware of your extensions can then utilize them on their wiki pages with a few simple keystrokes. These extensions can be custom decorations, formatting, web applications, and even instances of the venerable old Java applet. One example of a Java applet extension is the Jmol extension (REF), used to embed a 3-D molecular viewer. This article will walk you through the deployment of a fairly elaborate applet via a MediaWiki extension. By no means exhaustive -- an entire book would be required for that -- it will demonstrate how to give the applet resize handles using using a little Javascript and CSS coding and some popular Javascript libraries. It even describes how a user may customize the extension somewhat using a wiki template. Finally, it explains a rudimentary persistence mechanism which allows applets to save data directly to the wiki pages on which they reside.

  4. Evolution of trophic transmission in parasites: Why add intermediate hosts?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choisy, Marc; Brown, Sam P.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Thomas, Frédéric

    2003-01-01

    Although multihost complex life cycles (CLCs) are common in several distantly related groups of parasites, their evolution remains poorly understood. In this article, we argue that under particular circumstances, adding a second host to a single-host life cycle is likely to enhance transmission (i.e., reaching the target host). For instance, in several situations, the propagules of a parasite exploiting a predator species will achieve a higher host-finding success by encysting in a prey of the target predator than by other dispersal modes. In such a case, selection should favor the transition from a singleto a two-host life cycle that includes the prey species as an intermediate host. We use an optimality model to explore this idea, and we discuss it in relation to dispersal strategies known among free-living species, especially animal dispersal. The model found that selection favored a complex life cycle only if intermediate hosts were more abundant than definitive hosts. The selective value of a complex life cycle increased with predation rates by definitive hosts on intermediate hosts. In exploring trade-offs between transmission strategies, we found that more costly trade-offs made it more difficult to evolve a CLC while less costly trade-offs between traits could favor a mixed strategy.

  5. Add-on conservation benefits of marine territorial user rights fishery policies in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Godoy, Natalio; Prado, Luis; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    To combine the rational use of marine benthic resources and economic development of small-scale fishers, Chile passed legislation in 1991 establishing a comanagement policy that grants exclusive territorial user rights for fisheries (TURFs) to artisanal fisher organizations in well-defined inshore coastal areas, known as Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABRs). In general the policy has been proclaimed a management and economic success because benthic resource abundances have increased inside MEABRs in comparison with open-access areas. However, there is a lack of studies assessing the impact of this management policy on nontargeted subtidal species and community assemblages and the policy's implications for biodiversity and conservation. This study starts to fill this gap and links the allocation of TURFs for benthic resources with add-on conservation benefits for species that are not directly linked with the fishery policy. Comparative subtidal surveys inside vs. outside MEABRs were used to assess the effects of three MEABRs on managed targeted benthic species, biodiversity (species richness), and community assemblages in central Chile. Surveys focused exclusively on subtidal kelp forest habitats dominated by Lessonia trabeculata, spanning 4-12 m in depth and with similar levels of habitat complexity. The study comprised: (1) quantification of kelp forest complexity, (2) understory survey of sessile species, (3) quantification of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates, including those under management, and (4) quantification of reef-fish species inside the kelp habitat. Results showed population enhancement of target-managed invertebrates inside MEABRs. Moreover, reef-fish species were significantly more diverse and abundant inside MEABRs, and community assemblages of nontarget benthic invertebrates and reef fish were significantly different inside vs. outside MEABRs. The comanagement of inshore benthic resources in Chile, through MEABRs

  6. Lithium as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with acute mania: a 6-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel S; Severus, Emanuel; Schronen, Juan P; Gass, Peter; Szamosi, Johan; Eriksson, Hans; Chandrashekar, Hongally

    2014-01-01

    Quetiapine extended release (XR) and lithium are treatments with proven efficacy in acute mania. This randomized study evaluated the efficacy and safety of lithium or placebo as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with manic or mixed symptoms of bipolar I disorder. In this 6-week, double-blind study (Trial D144AC00003), adult patients with DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed bipolar I disorder (current episode manic or mixed), a Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score ≥20, and score ≥4 on two of four core YMRS items were administered quetiapine XR (400 to 800 mg/day) and randomly assigned to receive add-on lithium (600 to 1,800 mg/day) or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was change in the YMRS total score from baseline to day 43, analyzed using a mixed-model for repeated measures (MMRM) approach. Secondary efficacy and safety end points were also measured. Rating scales were administered by trained staff. Three hundred fifty-six patients treated with quetiapine XR were randomized to add-on lithium (n = 173) or placebo (n = 183). Two hundred ninety-one patients (81.7%) completed the study. At day 43, least squares mean change in YMRS total score was -22.8 for add-on lithium and -20.1 for add-on placebo, a statistically significant treatment group difference of -2.69 (p < 0.001). On secondary measures, add-on lithium was associated with significant improvements in response, remission, illness severity, and overall illness versus add-on placebo (p < 0.05). The number needed to treat was 9.1 for response and 7.9 for remission for add-on lithium compared with add-on placebo. Lithium in combination with quetiapine XR was generally well tolerated, with a similar profile to quetiapine XR in combination with placebo. The addition of lithium to quetiapine XR therapy was associated with significantly greater efficacy than placebo as add-on and was generally well tolerated in patients with acute bipolar I mania. This study was registered under Clinicaltrials

  7. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3966 How do I determine the add-on control device emission... the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency as part of the performance...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4566 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction... add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency as part of the performance...

  9. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3966 How do I determine the add-on control device emission... the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency as part of the performance...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4566 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction... add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency as part of the performance...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4566 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction... add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency as part of the performance...

  12. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3966 How do I determine the add-on control device emission... the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency as part of the performance...

  13. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3966 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction... add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency as part of the performance...

  14. Add-on therapy with doxazosin in patients with hypertension influences arterial stiffness and albuterol-mediated arterial vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Adamska, Karolina; Milewska, Agata; Wysocki, Henryk

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Hypertension is associated with increased arterial stiffness and impaired endothelial function. Arterial vasodilation depends on endothelial function and can be regulated by β2-adrenergic stimulation. Doxazosin is a known and potent antihypertensive agent. However, its effects on arterial stiffness and vasodilation have not been fully established. What this study adds Sixteen-week add-on antihypertensive therapy with 4 mg of doxazosin extended release daily: Reduces arterial stiffness. Improves albuterol-mediated, i.e. endothelium-dependent, arterial vasodilation. Does not influence nitroglycerin-mediated, i.e. endothelium-independent, arterial vasodilation. Aims Doxazosin is an antihypertensive agent with largely unknown effects on arterial stiffness and vasodilation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of doxazosin extended-release (ER) to the standard management of hypertension in patients with inadequately controlled blood pressure (BP) on arterial stiffness and arterial vasodilation. Methods Twenty patients with inadequately controlled hypertension were treated with 4 mg doxazosin ER daily for 16 weeks as an adjunct to their existing antihypertensive regimen. Results Doxazosin ER add-on therapy was associated with significantly reduced systolic (P < 0.0001) and diastolic (P = 0.0003) BP, improved arterial stiffness (determined by digital volume pulse analysis (P = 0.048) and albuterol-mediated arterial vasodilation (P = 0.030). Conclusions Add-on therapy with 4 mg of doxazosin ER daily reduces BP and arterial stiffness and improves arterial vasodilation in response to adrenergic stimulation. PMID:17635498

  15. Measuring Narcissism within Add Health: The Development and Validation of a New Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mark S.; Brunell, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the development of a measure of narcissism within the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. In Study 1, items were selected from Wave III to form the Add Health Narcissism Scale (AHNS). These were factor analyzed, yielding a single factor comprised of five subscales. We correlated the AHNS and…

  16. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  18. Cognitive Control and Attentional Selection in Adolescents with ADHD versus ADD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Laurie; Henderson, John; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    An important research question is whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is related to early- or late-stage attentional control mechanisms and whether this differentiates a nonhyperactive subtype (ADD). This question was addressed in a sample of 145 ADD/ADHD and typically developing comparison adolescents (aged 13-17). Attentional…

  19. 75 FR 73075 - Notice of Motion To Add Exhibit to Petition for Declaratory Order and Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Motion To Add Exhibit to Petition for Declaratory Order and... of Pella, Iowa (Complainant) filed a motion to add a document as Exhibit P-28 to its July 2, 2010... document is added to a subscribed docket(s). For assistance with any FERC Online service, please...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  1. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a taxon added to the noxious weeds lists in § 360.200. Details of the petitioning process for adding a taxon...

  2. Right Hemisphere Deficit Syndrome: Similarities with Subtypes of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matazow, Gail S.; Hynd, George W.

    Children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) often exhibit problems in visual spatial perception, math achievement, and social skills, and it has been postulated that this constellation of behaviors may constitute Right Hemisphere Deficit Syndrome (RHDS). This study examined 21 children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H),…

  3. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Add-on Control Systems Compliance.... 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control Systems Compliance... compliance options by using an emissions control system . . . Fiberboard mat dryer heated zones (at...

  4. Power Parenting for Children with ADD/ADHD: A Practical Parent's Guide for Managing Difficult Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, Grad L.

    The first step in dealing with an attention deficit disorder (ADD/ADHD) child's difficult behavior is to understand its origins. This book presents behavior management techniques to help parents care for their ADD child while ensuring that the child continues to develop positive, healthy self-esteem. The guide shows how to: (1) ensure an accurate…

  5. Prevalence of Aggression and Defiance in Children with ADD/ADHD Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Janella

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) appear to have become more prevalent in the past few years. Many children who display ADD/ADHD tendencies also display behaviors which cause problems in a classroom setting. Considering the fact that these behaviors could be displayed by the student population as…

  6. 20 Ways To...Collaborate with Families of Children with ADD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Smita; Smith, Robin M.

    2003-01-01

    Twenty ideas for collaborating with families of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) include: (1) providing information about ADD to families; (2) planning meetings to accommodate family members; (3) addressing the language needs of families; (4) helping family members develop their advocacy skills; and (5) helping families network with…

  7. It All ADDs Up: Help for Children with Attention Deficit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marilyn

    2000-01-01

    Suggestions for working with students with attention deficit disorders (ADD) include: seek medical evaluation; discuss treatment options with the physician and school; communicate with the child's teachers; provide feedback, praise, and consequences; help the child develop social skills; understand when ADD with hyperactivity is disabling; know…

  8. Test Review: Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scales and Brown ADD Diagnostic Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniz, Linda

    1996-01-01

    This article on the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) Scale for Adolescents and the Brown ADD Scale for Adults describes the tests' recommended uses, administration, components, standardization, reliability, and validity. The self-report measures are designed for initial screening, as one part of a comprehensive diagnostic assessment, and for…

  9. Capturing the Complexity of Additively Manufactured Microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Livescu, Veronica; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan; Vander Wiel, Scott Alan; Mayeur, Jason Rhea; Brown, Donald William; Dippo, Olivia

    2016-05-12

    The underlying mechanisms and kinetics controlling damage nucleation and growth as a function of material microstructure and loading paths are discussed. These experiments indicate that structural features such as grain boundaries, grain size distribution, grain morphology crystallographic texture are all factors that influence mechanical behavior.

  10. Quantifying a Negative: How Homeland Security Adds Value

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    responders who put their lives at risk to protect those who could not protect themselves. Your courage, dedication, and true brilliance under fire have laid...environment where fire suppression services are disabled. In addition, all of the structures where assumed to be wood , which is not an accurate...radiant heat can be considered at risk. Further research is needed to fine tune this number and take into consideration the type of structure (e.g., wood

  11. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 2: aldol, Mannich addition reactions, deracemization and (S) to (R) interconversion of α-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2013-11-01

    This review provides a comprehensive treatment of literature data dealing with asymmetric synthesis of α-amino-β-hydroxy and α,β-diamino acids via homologation of chiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases using aldol and Mannich-type reactions. These reactions proceed with synthetically useful chemical yields and thermodynamically controlled stereoselectivity and allow direct introduction of two stereogenic centers in a single operation with predictable stereochemical outcome. Furthermore, new application of Ni(II) complexes of α-amino acids Schiff bases for deracemization of racemic α-amino acids and (S) to (R) interconversion providing additional synthetic opportunities for preparation of enantiomerically pure α-amino acids, is also reviewed. Origin of observed diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the aldol, Mannich-type and deracemization reactions, generality and limitations of these methodologies are critically discussed.

  12. Cleavage of ether, ester, and tosylate C(sp3)-O bonds by an iridium complex, initiated by oxidative addition of C-H bonds. Experimental and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sabuj; Choi, Jongwook; Wang, David Y; Choliy, Yuriy; Emge, Thomas J; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten; Goldman, Alan S

    2013-04-03

    A pincer-ligated iridium complex, (PCP)Ir (PCP = κ(3)-C6H3-2,6-[CH2P(t-Bu)2]2), is found to undergo oxidative addition of C(sp(3))-O bonds of methyl esters (CH3-O2CR'), methyl tosylate (CH3-OTs), and certain electron-poor methyl aryl ethers (CH3-OAr). DFT calculations and mechanistic studies indicate that the reactions proceed via oxidative addition of C-H bonds followed by oxygenate migration, rather than by direct C-O addition. Thus, methyl aryl ethers react via addition of the methoxy C-H bond, followed by α-aryloxide migration to give cis-(PCP)Ir(H)(CH2)(OAr), followed by iridium-to-methylidene hydride migration to give (PCP)Ir(CH3)(OAr). Methyl acetate undergoes C-H bond addition at the carbomethoxy group to give (PCP)Ir(H)[κ(2)-CH2OC(O)Me] which then affords (PCP-CH2)Ir(H)(κ(2)-O2CMe) (6-Me) in which the methoxy C-O bond has been cleaved, and the methylene derived from the methoxy group has migrated into the PCP Cipso-Ir bond. Thermolysis of 6-Me ultimately gives (PCP)Ir(CH3)(κ(2)-O2CR), the net product of methoxy group C-O oxidative addition. Reaction of (PCP)Ir with species of the type ROAr, RO2CMe or ROTs, where R possesses β-C-H bonds (e.g., R = ethyl or isopropyl), results in formation of (PCP)Ir(H)(OAr), (PCP)Ir(H)(O2CMe), or (PCP)Ir(H)(OTs), respectively, along with the corresponding olefin or (PCP)Ir(olefin) complex. Like the C-O bond oxidative additions, these reactions also proceed via initial activation of a C-H bond; in this case, C-H addition at the β-position is followed by β-migration of the aryloxide, carboxylate, or tosylate group. Calculations indicate that the β-migration of the carboxylate group proceeds via an unusual six-membered cyclic transition state in which the alkoxy C-O bond is cleaved with no direct participation by the iridium center.

  13. Catalytic addition of amine N-H bonds to carbodiimides by half-sandwich rare-earth metal complexes: efficient synthesis of substituted guanidines through amine protonolysis of rare-earth metal guanidinates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Xiong; Nishiura, Masayoshi; Hou, Zhaomin

    2007-01-01

    Reaction of [Ln(CH(2)SiMe(3))(3)(thf)(2)] (Ln=Y, Yb, and Lu) with one equivalent of Me(2)Si(C(5)Me(4)H)NHR' (R'=Ph, 2,4,6-Me(3)C(6)H(2), tBu) affords straightforwardly the corresponding half-sandwich rare-earth metal alkyl complexes [{Me(2)Si(C(5)Me(4))(NR')}Ln(CH(2)SiMe(3))(thf)(n)] (1: Ln = Y, R' = Ph, n=2; 2: Ln = Y, R' = C(6)H(2)Me(3)-2,4,6, n=1; 3: Ln = Y, R' = tBu, n=1; 4: Ln = Yb, R' = Ph, n=2; 5: Ln = Lu, R' = Ph, n=2) in high yields. These complexes, especially the yttrium complexes 1-3, serve as excellent catalyst precursors for the catalytic addition of various primary and secondary amines to carbodiimides, efficiently yielding a series of guanidine derivatives with a wide range of substituents on the nitrogen atoms. Functional groups such as C[triple chemical bond]N, C[triple chemical bond]CH, and aromatic C--X (X: F, Cl, Br, I) bonds can survive the catalytic reaction conditions. A primary amino group can be distinguished from a secondary one by the catalyst system, and therefore, the reaction of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-aminoisoquinoline with iPrN==C==NiPr can be achieved stepwise first at the primary amino group to selectively give the monoguanidine 38, and then at the cyclic secondary amino unit to give the biguanidine 39. Some key reaction intermediates or true catalyst species, such as the amido complexes [{Me(2)Si(C(5)Me(4))(NPh)}Y(NEt(2))(thf)(2)] (40) and [{Me(2)Si(C(5)Me(4))(NPh)}Y(NHC(6)H(4)Br-4)(thf)(2)] (42), and the guanidinate complexes [{Me(2)Si(C(5)Me(4))(NPh)}Y{iPrNC(NEt(2))(NiPr)}(thf)] (41) and [{Me(2)Si(C(5)Me(4))(NPh)}Y{iPrN}C(NC(6)H(4)Br-4)(NHiPr)}(thf)] (44) have been isolated and structurally characterized. Reactivity studies on these complexes suggest that the present catalytic formation of a guanidine compound proceeds mechanistically through nucleophilic addition of an amido species, formed by acid-base reaction between a rare-earth metal alkyl bond and an amine N--H bond, to a carbodiimide, followed by amine protonolysis of the

  14. Ab initio molecular orbital study of substituent effects in vaska type complexes (trans-IrL{sub 2}(CO)X): Electron affinities, ionization potentials, carbonyl stretch frequencies, and the thermodynamics of H{sub 2} dissociative addition

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Hasanayn, F.; Goldman, A.S.; Krogh-Jespersen, K.

    1994-10-26

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations are used to study substituent effects in Vaska-type complexes, trans-IrL{sub 2}(CO)X (1-X) (X = F, Cl, Br, I, CN, H, CH{sub 3}, SiH{sub 3}, OH, and SH; L = PH{sub 3}). Both the electron affinity and the ionization potential of 1-X are computed to increase upon descending the halogen series of complexes, which indicates, surprisingly, that the complexes with more electronegative halogens are more difficult to reduce and easier to oxidize. The computed electron affinity trend is consistent with the half-wave reduction potential trend known for 1-X (L = PPh{sub 3}; X = F, Cl, Br, and I). Computed carbonyl stretch frequencies for 1-X are greater than experimental values (L = PPh{sub 3}), but observed trends are well reproduced. The redox and spectroscopic trends are discussed in terms of the substituent effects on the electronic structure of 1-X, particularly as revealed in the molecular orbital energy level diagrams of these complexes. The reaction energy for H{sub 2} addition to 1-X, leading to the cis,trans-(H){sub 2}IrL{sub 2}(CO)X (2-X) product, has been computed. After electron correlation effects are included (MP4(SDTQ)), the reaction enthalpy computed for 1-CI is {minus}18.4 kcal/mol (L = PH{sub 3}) as compared to a reported experimental value of {minus}14 kcal/mol (L = PPh{sub 3}). Compared with available experimental data, the electronic effects of L(L = PH{sub 3}, NH{sub 3}, or AsH{sub 3}) and X on the thermodynamics of the H{sub 2} addition reaction are accurately reproduced by the model calculations at all levels of theory (HF and MPn). Formation of the hypothetical products cis,trans- and trans,trans-(H){sub 2}IrL{sub 2}(CO)X(2-X and 3-X) (X = BH{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}, and PH{sub 2}) is used to demonstrate that {pi}-acceptor substituents promote the H{sub 2} addition reaction to 1-X while {pi}-donor substituents disfavor addition.

  15. Floodlights illuminate view of Skylab 3 vehicle at Pad B, Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Floodlights illuminate this nighttime view of the Skylab 3/Saturn 1B space vehicle at Pad B, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during prelaunch preparations. The reflection in the water adds to the scene. In addition to the Command/Service Module and its launch escape system, the Skylab 3 space vehicle consists of the Saturn 1B first (S-1B) stage and the Saturn 1B second (S-1VB) stage.

  16. Non-sunscreen photoprotection: antioxidants add value to a sunscreen.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Mary S; Hsia, Andrew; Miller, Janine D; Hanneman, Kaija; Scull, Heather; Cooper, Kevin D; Baron, Elma

    2009-08-01

    The association between ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and both skin cancer and photo-aging is well documented. In addition to the conventional organic-chemical and physical-mineral type sunscreens, other non-sunscreen protective strategies have been developed. These include topically applied botanical extracts and other antioxidants as well as topical DNA repair enzymes. Standard terms of photoprotection such as sun protection factor (SPF) do not accurately reflect the photoprotection benefits of these materials. For example, in spite of minimal SPF, tea extract containing polyphenols such as (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to protect against UV-induced DNA damage and immune suppression, in part through its ability to reduce oxidative stress and inhibit NF-kB. The addition of botanical antioxidants and vitamins C and E to a broad-spectrum sunscreen may further decrease UV-induced damage compared with sunscreen alone. These agents have been shown to enhance protection against UV-induced epidermal thickening, overexpression of MMP-1and MMP-9, and depletion of CD1a(+) Langerhans cells. Non-sunscreen materials such as botanical extracts, antioxidants, and DNA repair enzymes can contribute value when applied topically to human skin in vivo.Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings (2009) 14, 56-59; doi:10.1038/jidsymp.2009.14.

  17. What Does Leaders' Character Add to Transformational Leadership?

    PubMed

    Liborius, Patrick

    2017-04-03

    The influence of leaders' character (e.g., integrity, humility/forgiveness) has rarely been examined in leadership research. The current investigation focused on the impact of integrity and humility/forgiveness on both followers' perceptions of leaders' worthiness of being followed (WBF) and stress. Results from a scenario experiment (n = 347) and a field study (n = 110) indicated that these aspects incrementally predict WBF above and beyond the impact of transformational leadership. Similar results were found concerning followers' stress with the exception of leader integrity in the field study. According to relative importance analyses, integrity and transformational leadership predict WBF equally well. The results have conceivable implications for human resources (personnel selection and development). Future research should examine additional outcome variables that are affected by certain leader characteristics as well as potential negative effects of the examined character aspects.

  18. Low-power microelectromechanically tunable silicon photonic ring resonator add-drop filter.

    PubMed

    Errando-Herranz, Carlos; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Gylfason, Kristinn B

    2015-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a microelectromechanically (MEMS) tunable photonic ring resonator add-drop filter, fabricated in a simple silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based process. The device uses electrostatic parallel plate actuation to perturb the evanescent field of a silicon waveguide, and achieves a 530 pm resonance wavelength tuning, i.e., more than a fourfold improvement compared to previous MEMS tunable ring resonator add-drop filters. Moreover, our device has a static power consumption below 100 nW, and a tuning rate of -62  pm/V, i.e., the highest reported rate for electrostatic tuning of ring resonator add-drop filters.

  19. Optimisation of add-on NPN Transistor for a CMOS Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurola, Artto; Ronkainen, Hannu; Mellin, Joni

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to add an npn-bipolar transistor for a CMOS process. This was to be done with minimal additional process steps and without changing any existing CMOS parameters. The minimum line width of the process was 1.2µm, the wafers were p-type and 100mm in diameter and no epitaxial or polysilicon layers were used. To minimise the additional process steps a triple diffused transistor was selected as the basis of the research. The emitter was formed from a diffusion contacting NMOSFET source and drain to aluminium. As collector diffusion two approaches were investigated the pnpbipolar transistors isolation nwell and the PMOSFET n-well. The only additional step to the CMOS process due to the npn-transistor fabrication resulted from the formation of base diffusion. The specifications for the npn-transistor were 80 for the current gain, 100V for the early voltage and 60MHz for the transition frequency at 1µA collector current. Four different transistor structures were investigated two octagonal transistors having either emitter or base in the centre and two minimum area rectangular transistors having either base or emitter in the middle. The octagonal transistor having the emitter in the centre was chosen as the basis of simulations. It was first simulated with a device simulator. Next combined process and device simulations were done. Based on simulation results different processes were tested on wafers. Only the octagonal transistor having the emitter in the middle satisfied the specifications when a pnp isolation n-well was used as a collector.

  20. Health information: what can mobile phone assessments add?

    PubMed

    Stomberg, Margareta Warrén; Platon, Birgitta; Widén, Annette; Wallner, Ingegerd; Karlsson, Ove

    2012-01-01

    In healthcare, pain assessment is a key factor in effectively treating postoperative pain and reducing the risk of developing chronic pain. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether a mobile phone support system can be used as a basis to continuously document patients' health information in real time and provide conditions for optimal, individual pain management after cholecystectomy and hysterectomy procedures.In this pilot study, two randomly selected groups of patients provided information about their pain for one week postoperatively. One group responded via cell phones, and the other, a control group, responded using paper-based questionnaires.The mobile phone system was found to provide a fast and safe basis for reporting pain postoperatively in real time. The results indicate that on days 3 and 4 the mobile phone group reported significantly higher levels of pain than the control group, and the cholecystectomy patients reported significantly more pain at movement on days 3 and 4 than the hysterectomy patients.The mobile phone approach is an adaptation to modern technology and the mobility of individuals. This technology is user friendly and requires minimal support. However, as the sample size was small (n = 37), further studies are needed before additional conclusions can be drawn.

  1. Clobazam: An effective add-on therapy in refractory status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Sanjeev; Ibrahim, Mohammad; Parker, Dennis; Norris, Gregory; Shah, Aashit; Mohamed, Wazim

    2015-06-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a medical emergency, with significant morbidity and mortality. The use and effectiveness of clobazam, a unique 1,5-benzodiazepine, in the management of RSE has not been reported before. Over the last 24 months, we identified 17 patients with RSE who were treated with clobazam in our hospital. Eleven of the 17 patients had prior epilepsy. Fifteen patients had focal status epilepticus. Use of clobazam was prompted by a favorable pharmacokinetic profile devoid of drug interactions. Clobazam was introduced after a median duration of 4 days and after a median of three failed antiepileptic drugs. A successful response, defined as termination of RSE within 24 h of administration, without addition or modification of concurrent AED and with successful wean of anesthetic infusions, was seen in 13 patients. Indeterminate response was seen in three patients, whereas clobazam was unsuccessful in one patient. Clobazam averted the need for anesthetic infusions in five patients. Clobazam was well tolerated, and appears to be an effective and promising option as add-on therapy in RSE. Its efficacy, particularly early in the course of SE, should be further investigated in prospective, randomized trials.

  2. PKSolver: An add-in program for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis in Microsoft Excel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Huo, Meirong; Zhou, Jianping; Xie, Shaofei

    2010-09-01

    This study presents PKSolver, a freely available menu-driven add-in program for Microsoft Excel written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), for solving basic problems in pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data analysis. The program provides a range of modules for PK and PD analysis including noncompartmental analysis (NCA), compartmental analysis (CA), and pharmacodynamic modeling. Two special built-in modules, multiple absorption sites (MAS) and enterohepatic circulation (EHC), were developed for fitting the double-peak concentration-time profile based on the classical one-compartment model. In addition, twenty frequently used pharmacokinetic functions were encoded as a macro and can be directly accessed in an Excel spreadsheet. To evaluate the program, a detailed comparison of modeling PK data using PKSolver and professional PK/PD software package WinNonlin and Scientist was performed. The results showed that the parameters estimated with PKSolver were satisfactory. In conclusion, the PKSolver simplified the PK and PD data analysis process and its output could be generated in Microsoft Word in the form of an integrated report. The program provides pharmacokinetic researchers with a fast and easy-to-use tool for routine and basic PK and PD data analysis with a more user-friendly interface.

  3. Add-on angiotensin II receptor blockade lowers urinary transforming growth factor-beta levels.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Siva, Senthuran; Dunn, Stephen R; Sharma, Kumar

    2002-03-01

    TGF-beta1 that improved over 1 month of add-on therapy with losartan. We speculate that dual blockade with losartan and an ACE inhibitor may provide additional renoprotection by decreasing renal production of TGF-beta1.

  4. EPA adds Old American Zinc in Fairmont City to Superfund cleanup list

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For Immediate Release No. 16-OPA009 EPA adds Old American Zinc in Fairmont City to Superfund cleanup list CHICAGO (April 6, 2016) - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced that the Old American Zinc

  5. U.S. EPA Proposes to Add California Mine Site to Superfunds National Priorities List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is proposing to add eight hazardous waste sites to the Superfund program's National Priorities List (NPL), including California's Argonaut Mine. Superfund is the federal program that investiga

  6. Add More Vegetables to Your Day: 10 Tips to Help You Eat More Vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    ... dish to add to any meal. Steam green beans, carrots, or broccoli in a bowl with a ... salad by using colorful vegetables such as black beans, sliced red bell peppers, shredded radishes, chopped red ...

  7. EPA Adds Sites to National Priorities List to Reduce Risk to Public Health and Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is adding five and proposing to add eight hazardous waste sites to the Superfund program's National Priorities List (NPL). These are sites with known or threatened hazardous waste releases

  8. Half-sandwich o-N,N-dimethylaminobenzyl complexes over the full size range of group 3 and lanthanide metals. synthesis, structural characterization, and catalysis of phosphine P--H bond addition to carbodiimides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Xiong; Nishiura, Masayoshi; Mashiko, Tomohiro; Hou, Zhaomin

    2008-01-01

    The acid-base reactions between the rare-earth metal (Ln) tris(ortho-N,N-dimethylaminobenzyl) complexes [Ln(CH2C(H4NMe2-o)3] with one equivalent of the silylene-linked cyclopentadiene-amine ligand (C5Me4H)SiMe2NH(C6H2Me3-2,4,6) afforded the corresponding half-sandwich aminobenzyl complexes [{Me2Si(C5Me4)(NC6H2Me3-2,4,6)}Ln(CH2C6H4NMe2-o)(thf)] (2-Ln) (Ln=Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Lu) in 60-87 % isolated yields. The one-pot reaction between ScCl(3) and [Me2Si(C5Me4)(NC6H2Me3-2,4,6)]Li2 followed by reaction with LiCH2C6H4NMe2-o in THF gave the scandium analogue [{Me2Si(C5Me4)(NC6H2Me3-2,4,6)}Sc(CH2C6H4NMe2-o)] (2-Sc) in 67 % isolated yield. 2-Sc could not be prepared by the acid-base reaction between [Sc(CH2C6H4NMe2-o)3] and (C5Me4H)SiMe2NH(C6H2Me3-2,4,6). These half-sandwich rare-earth metal aminobenzyl complexes can serve as efficient catalyst precursors for the catalytic addition of various phosphine P--H bonds to carbodiimides to form a series of phosphaguanidine derivatives with excellent tolerability to aromatic carbon-halogen bonds. A significant increase in the catalytic activity was observed, as a result of an increase in the metal size with a general trend of La>Pr, Nd>Sm>Gd>Lu>Sc. The reaction of 2-La with 1 equiv of Ph2PH yielded the corresponding phosphide complex [{Me2Si(C5Me4)(NC6H2Me3-2,4,6)}La(PPh2)(thf)2] (4), which, on recrystallization from benzene, gave the dimeric analogue [{Me2Si(C5Me4)(NC6H2Me3-2,4,6)}La(PPh2)]2 (5). Addition of 4 or 5 to iPrN=C=NiPr in THF yielded the phosphaguanidinate complex [{Me2Si(C5Me4)(NC6H2Me3-2,4,6)}La{iPrNC(PPh2)NiPr}(thf)] (6), which, on recrystallization from ether, afforded the ether-coordinated structurally characterizable analogue [{Me2Si(C5Me4)(NC6H2Me3-2,4,6)}La{iPrNC(PPh2)NiPr}(OEt2)] (7). The reaction of 6 or 7 with Ph2PH in THF yielded 4 and the phosphaguanidine iPrN=C(PPh2)NHiPr (3a). These results suggest that the catalytic formation of a phosphaguanidine compound proceeds through the nucleophilic addition

  9. LANDSAT-D project ADDS/LAS. Scrounge interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The content and format of all data to be exchanged between the Applications Developmental data System (ADDS) and the LANDSAT-D Assessment System (LAS) for satisfaction of early access thematic mapper product generation requirements is specified. The ADDS provides partially processed TM data tapes on CCT's. The LANDSAT-D Assessment System processes the TM data to fully processed data tapes on 6250 bpi computer compatible tapes and provides required film data products.

  10. A delay-and-Boolean-ADD imaging algorithm for damage detection with a small number of piezoceramic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guangtao; Li, Yourong; Song, Gangbing

    2016-09-01

    The delay-and-sum (DAS) imaging algorithm usually sends an excitation signal at each piezoceramic transducer and obtains a defect image by using transmitter-sensor pair signals to draw ellipses or hyperbolas. A delay-and-Boolean-ADD (DABA) imaging algorithm is developed for defect detection of plate-like structures with a small number of piezoceramic transducers. This new method requires sending only one excitation signal for each detection, and obtains a better defect image by employing Boolean ADD operation instead of addition or multiplication operation in the DAS algorithm. A reflection coefficient is introduced in the new algorithm to attenuate the signals reflected from the boundary. The widely used envelop-detection method based on Hilbert-transformation is replaced by a new envelop-detection technique based on a local maximum value to increase the accuracy of locating. An additional time shift due to the excitation signal itself is also considered to decrease the location error. The results of the experiments conducted on an aluminum plate indicate that the proposed DABA imaging algorithm combining with the new techniques can detect a bonded mass defect accurately and efficiently.

  11. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) sibling pairs data.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Haberstick, Brett C; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the design and phenotype and genotype data available for sibling pairs with varying genetic relatedness in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Add Health is a nationally representative longitudinal study of over 20,000 adolescents in the United States in 1994-1995 who have been followed for 15 years into adulthood. The Add Health design included oversamples of more than 3,000 pairs of individuals with varying genetic resemblance, ranging from monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, full siblings, half siblings, and unrelated siblings who were raised in the same household. Add Health sibling pairs are therefore nationally representative and followed longitudinally from early adolescence into adulthood with four in-home interviews during the period 1994-2009. Add Health has collected rich longitudinal social, behavioral, environmental, and biological data, as well as buccal cell DNA from all sample members, including sibling pairs. Add Health has an enlightened dissemination policy and to date has released phenotype and genotype data to more than 10,000 researchers in the scientific community.

  12. Effect and Potential Mechanism of Electroacupuncture Add-On Treatment in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Zhe; Jia, Jun; Liu, Zhuo; Huang, Xi-Yan; Yu, Shu-Yang; Zuo, Li-Jun; Cao, Chen-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To explore effectiveness and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) add-on treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Methods. Fifty PD patients were randomly assigned to drug plus EA (D + EA) group and drug alone (D) group. Subjects in D + EA group received stimulation in points of bilateral fengfu, fengchi, hegu, and central dazhui. Participants were evaluated by scales for motor and nonmotor symptoms. Levels of neuroinflammatory factors and neurotransmitters in serum were detected. Results. EA add-on treatment remarkably reduced scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and its subitems of tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia and conspicuously decreased UPDRS III scores in patients with bradykinesia-rigidity and mixed types and mild severity. Depression and sleep disturbances were eased, which were reflected by decreased scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and elevated noradrenaline level. Effects of EA add-on treatment on motor symptoms and sleep disturbances were superior to drug alone treatment, markedly improving life quality of PD patients. EA add-on treatment decreased nitric oxide level in serum. Conclusions. EA add-on treatment is effective on most motor symptoms and some nonmotor symptoms and is particularly efficacious in PD patients at early stage. Antineuroinflammation may be a mechanism of EA add-on treatment.

  13. A role for α-adducin (ADD-1) in nematode and human memory.

    PubMed

    Vukojevic, Vanja; Gschwind, Leo; Vogler, Christian; Demougin, Philippe; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stetak, Attila

    2012-03-21

    Identifying molecular mechanisms that underlie learning and memory is one of the major challenges in neuroscience. Taken the advantages of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we investigated α-adducin (add-1) in aversive olfactory associative learning and memory. Loss of add-1 function selectively impaired short- and long-term memory without causing acquisition, sensory, or motor deficits. We showed that α-adducin is required for consolidation of synaptic plasticity, for sustained synaptic increase of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GLR-1) content and altered GLR-1 turnover dynamics. ADD-1, in a splice-form- and tissue-specific manner, controlled the storage of memories presumably through actin-capping activity. In support of the C. elegans results, genetic variability of the human ADD1 gene was significantly associated with episodic memory performance in healthy young subjects. Finally, human ADD1 expression in nematodes restored loss of C. elegans add-1 gene function. Taken together, our findings support a role for α-adducin in memory from nematodes to humans. Studying the molecular and genetic underpinnings of memory across distinct species may be helpful in the development of novel strategies to treat memory-related diseases.

  14. 77 FR 39760 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Add...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...-04] Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Add... will amend Chapter 26 of ICC's rules to add Section 26C to provide for the clearance of the...

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure and DFT studies of a Zinc(II) complex of 1,3-diaminopropane (Dap), [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2][Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]n. The additional stabilizing role of S⋯π chalcogen bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaibi, Mshari A.; Alharthi, Abdulrahman I.; Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Akhtar, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mazhar, Muhammad; Isab, Anvarhusein A.; Ahmad, Saeed

    2017-04-01

    A zinc(II) complex of 1,3-diaminopropane (Dap), [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2][Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]n (1) has been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H &13C NMR spectroscopy, and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of 1 consists of two types of molecules, a discrete monomer and a polymeric one. In the monomeric unit, the zinc atom is bound to one terminal Dap molecule and to two N-bound thiocyanate ions, while in the polymeric unit, Dap acts as a bridging ligand forming a linear chain. The Zn(II) ions in both assume a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry. The structures of two systems: the [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2][Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]3 complex as a model of 1 and [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]4 as a simple polymeric structure were optimized with the B3LYP-D3 method. The DFT results support that the experimentally determined structure (1) is more stable in comparison to a simple polymeric structure, [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]n (2). The interaction energies (ΔE) for NCS anions obtained by B3LYP-D3 method are about -145 kcal mol-1, while the calculated ΔE values for neutral organic ligands are about twice smaller. The X-ray structure of 1 shows that the complex is stabilized mainly by hydrogen bonds. We also found that weak chalcogen bonds play an additional role in stabilization of compound 1. Some of the intermolecular S⋯N distances are smaller than the sum of the van der Waals radii of the corresponding atoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the structure where the trivalent sulfur is involved in formation of a S⋯π chalcogen bond. The NBO and NCI analyses confirm the existence of this kind of interactions.

  16. Modifications made to ModelMuse to add support for the Saturated-Unsaturated Transport model (SUTRA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winston, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    This report (1) describes modifications to ModelMuse,as described in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Techniques and Methods (TM) 6–A29 (Winston, 2009), to add support for the Saturated-Unsaturated Transport model (SUTRA) (Voss and Provost, 2002; version of September 22, 2010) and (2) supplements USGS TM 6–A29. Modifications include changes to the main ModelMuse window where the model is designed, addition of methods for generating a finite-element mesh suitable for SUTRA, defining how some functions shouldapply when using a finite-element mesh rather than a finite-difference grid (as originally programmed in ModelMuse), and applying spatial interpolation to angles. In addition, the report describes ways of handling objects on the front view of the model and displaying data. A tabulation contains a summary of the new or modified dialog boxes.

  17. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Emission Limitations § 63.3166 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the add-on...

  18. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood Building Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4766 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Large Appliances Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4166 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or...

  20. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the add-on control device emission destruction...

  1. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Limitations § 63.3166 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the add-on control...

  2. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Emission Limitations § 63.3166 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the add-on...

  3. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Requirements § 63.4362 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the add-on control...

  4. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Metal Cans Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3545 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood Building Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4766 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... § 63.4362 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the add-on control...

  7. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the add-on control device emission destruction...

  8. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... to add this to the total dose estimate. For monitoring periods where external dosimetry data...

  9. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Metal Cans Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3545 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Requirements § 63.4362 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the add-on control...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Metal Furniture Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4965 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or...

  12. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Emission Limitations § 63.3166 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the add-on...

  13. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... to add this to the total dose estimate. For monitoring periods where external dosimetry data...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Large Appliances Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4166 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or...

  15. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the add-on control device emission destruction...

  16. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... to add this to the total dose estimate. For monitoring periods where external dosimetry data...

  17. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Metal Cans Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3545 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal...

  18. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4566 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Requirements § 63.4362 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the add-on control...

  20. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Coating of Metal Cans Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3545 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must...

  1. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Metal Furniture Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4965 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or...

  2. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Large Appliances Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4166 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or...

  3. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... to add this to the total dose estimate. For monitoring periods where external dosimetry data...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Coating of Wood Building Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4766 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Coating of Large Appliances Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4166 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Coating of Metal Furniture Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4965 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You...

  7. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Metal Furniture Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4965 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or...

  8. Using stereoscopy to teach complex biological concepts.

    PubMed

    Ferdig, Richard; Blank, James; Kratcoski, Annette; Clements, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Used effectively, stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) technologies can engage students with complex disciplinary content as they are presented with informative representations of abstract concepts. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that stereoscopy may enhance learning and retention in some educational settings. Biological concepts particularly benefit from this type of presentation since complex spatially oriented structures frequently define function within these systems. Viewing biological phenomena in 3D as they are in real life allows the user to relate these spatial relationships and easily grasp concepts making the key connection between structure and function. In addition, viewing these concepts interactively in 3D and in a manner that leads to increased engagement for young prospective scientists can further increase the impact. We conducted two studies evaluating the use of this technology as an instructional tool to teach high school students complex biological concepts. The first study tested the use of stereoscopic materials for teaching brain function and human anatomy to four classes. The second study evaluated stereoscopic images to support the learning of cell structure and DNA in four different high school classes. Most important, students who used stereoscopic 3D had significantly higher test scores than those who did not. In addition, students reported enjoying 3D presentations, and it was among their top choices for learning about these complex concepts. In summary, our evidence adds further support for the benefits of 3D images to students' learning of science concepts.

  9. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  10. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  11. 27 CFR 19.303 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. 19.303 Section 19.303 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. A proprietor may add caramel that has no material... oak chips that have not been treated with any chemical to packages of spirits prior to or after...

  12. 27 CFR 19.303 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. 19.303 Section 19.303 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. A proprietor may add caramel that has no material... oak chips that have not been treated with any chemical to packages of spirits prior to or after...

  13. 27 CFR 19.303 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. 19.303 Section 19.303 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. A proprietor may add caramel that has no material... oak chips that have not been treated with any chemical to packages of spirits prior to or after...

  14. 27 CFR 19.303 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. 19.303 Section 19.303 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. A proprietor may add caramel that has no material... oak chips that have not been treated with any chemical to packages of spirits prior to or after...

  15. Complex quantum network model of energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes.

    PubMed

    Ai, Bao-Quan; Zhu, Shi-Liang

    2012-12-01

    The quantum network model with real variables is usually used to describe the excitation energy transfer (EET) in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complexes. In this paper we add the quantum phase factors to the hopping terms and find that the quantum phase factors play an important role in the EET. The quantum phase factors allow us to consider the space structure of the pigments. It is found that phase coherence within the complexes would allow quantum interference to affect the dynamics of the EET. There exist some optimal phase regions where the transfer efficiency takes its maxima, which indicates that when the pigments are optimally spaced, the exciton can pass through the FMO with perfect efficiency. Moreover, the optimal phase regions almost do not change with the environments. In addition, we find that the phase factors are useful in the EET just in the case of multiple pathways. Therefore, we demonstrate that the quantum phases may bring the other two factors, the optimal space of the pigments and multiple pathways, together to contribute the EET in photosynthetic complexes with perfect efficiency.

  16. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  17. Polymorphisms in the GNB3 and ADD1 genes and blood pressure in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shufeng; Wang, Hongwei; Lu, Xiangfeng; Liu, De-Pei; Chen, Jing; Jaquish, Cashell E; Rao, Dabeeru C; Hixson, James E; Kelly, Tanika N; Hou, Liping; Wang, Laiyuan; Huang, Jianfeng; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Rice, Treva K; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang; Gu, Dongfeng

    2010-08-01

    A large proportion of the phenotypic variation in blood pressure (BP) appears to be inherited as a polygenic trait. This study examined the association between 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the guanine nucleotide binding protein beta polypeptide 3 (GNB3) and adducin 1 alpha (ADD1) genes and systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial (MAP) BP. A total of 3,142 individuals from 636 families were recruited from rural north China, and 2,746 met the eligibility criteria for analysis. BP measurements were obtained using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Genetic variants were determined using SNPlex assays on an automated DNA Sequencer. A mixed linear model was used to estimate the association between each SNP and BP level. After Bonferroni correction, marker rs4963516 of the GNB3 gene remained significantly associated with DBP (corrected P values = 0.006, 0.007 and 0.002 for co-dominant, additive, and recessive models, respectively) and MAP (corrected P values = 0.02, 0.049, and 0.005, respectively). Compared to carriers of the major A allele, CC homozygotes had higher mean DBP (75.81 +/- 0.62 vs. 73.46 +/- 0.25 mmHg, P = 0.0002) and MAP (91.87 +/- 0.68 vs. 89.42 +/- 0.28 mmHg, P = 0.0004) after adjusting for covariates of age, gender, BMI, study site, and room temperature during BP measurement. In summary, these data support a role for the GNB3 gene in BP regulation in the Chinese population. Future studies aimed at replicating these novel findings are warranted.

  18. Successful Use of Cyclophosphamide as an Add-On Therapy for Multiple Myeloma Patients with Acquired Resistance to Bortezomib or Lenalidomide

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Shigeki; Oyake, Tatsuo; Murai, Kazunori; Ishida, Yoji

    2013-01-01

    Novel agents such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib have been shown to possess potent activity against multiple myeloma. However, the treatment strategy for patients who acquired resistance to these agents has not been established. In addition to switching drug classes, intensified treatment strategy, including increase in the dosage of current agents and addition of other agents, may be considered for these patients. We here describe 2 myeloma patients with acquired resistance to bortezomib or lenalidomide, in whom add-on therapy with low-dose cyclophosphamide was effective and tolerable. These cases suggest that add-on therapy with cyclophosphamide is one of the treatment options to overcome resistance to novel agents in patients with multiple myeloma. A larger prospective study is needed to clarify the efficacy and safety of this strategy for novel agent-resistant multiple myeloma. PMID:23607005

  19. Sensitivity analysis of add-on price estimate for select silicon wafering technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The cost of producing wafers from silicon ingots is a major component of the add-on price of silicon sheet. Economic analyses of the add-on price estimates and their sensitivity internal-diameter (ID) sawing, multiblade slurry (MBS) sawing and fixed-abrasive slicing technique (FAST) are presented. Interim price estimation guidelines (IPEG) are used for estimating a process add-on price. Sensitivity analysis of price is performed with respect to cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials (blade life) and utilities, and the production parameters such as slicing rate, slices per centimeter and process yield, using a computer program specifically developed to do sensitivity analysis with IPEG. The results aid in identifying the important cost parameters and assist in deciding the direction of technology development efforts.

  20. Four-channel optical add-drop multiplexer based on dual racetrack micro-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Danning; Wu, Yuanda; Wang, Yue; An, Junming; Hu, Xiongwei

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we report on a four-channel optical add-drop multiplexer based on dual racetrack micro-ring resonators in submicron SOI rib waveguides. The free spectral range (FSR) is about 18.6 nm. The device can add/drop four optical channels in half C-band. When the device acts as an optical drop multiplexer, the channel spacing is about 1.5 nm, maximum extinction ratio is 23.75 dB, the minimum insertion loss 9.94 dB and the maximum adjacent channels crosstalk is -12.12 dB. When the device acts as an optical add multiplexer, the maximum extinction ratio is 28.72 dB and the minimum insertion loss 7.35 dB. The fabricated device has effectively and perfectly realized the signals upload and download.

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of the amer dizziness diagnostic scale (adds) for patients with vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Al Saif, Amer; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of a newly developed diagnostic tool, the Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale (ADDS), to evaluate and differentially diagnose vestibular disorder and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the scale and its usefulness in clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred subjects of both genders (72 males, 128 females) aged between 18 to 60 (49.5±7.8) who had a history of vertigo and/or dizziness symptoms for this previous two weeks or less were recruited for the study. All subjects were referred by otolaryngologists, neurologists or family physicians in and around Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. On the first clinic visit, all the patients were evaluated once using the ADDS, following which they underwent routine testing of clinical signs and symptoms, audiometry, and a neurological examination, coupled with tests of Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex function, which often serves as the "gold standard" for determining the probability of a vestibular deficit. [Results] The results show that the ADDS strongly correlated with "true-positive" and "true-negative" responses for determining the probability of a vestibular disorder (r =0.95). A stepwise linear regression was conducted and the results indicate that the ADDS was a significant predictor of "true-positive" and "true-negative" responses in vestibular disorders (R(2) =0.90). Approximately 90% of the variability in the vestibular gold standard test was explained by its relationship to the ADDS. Moreover, the ADDS was found to have a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 96%. [Conclusion] This study showed that the Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale has high sensitivity and specificity and that it can be used as a method of differential diagnosis for patients with vestibular disorders.

  2. ACR White Paper: Task Force to Evaluate the Value Add Impact on Business Models.

    PubMed

    Lexa, Frank; Berlin, Jonathan William; Boland, Giles W L; Smith, Geoffrey Giles; Jensen, Mark D; Seidenwurm, David J; Hoppe, Richard; Stroud, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Radiology practices are seeing both evolutionary and revolutionary changes in their business models. The Task Force to Evaluate the Value Add Impact on Business Models was charged with considering how radiologists and their practices add value in these novel settings. Both traditional and novel forms of added value were considered. Types of new business models that were evaluated included hybrid groups of radiologists and other practitioners, regional or national megagroups, and novel services both within and beyond the traditional purview of radiology practice. Recommendations for both how to measure and how to capture this value were considered at both the practice and national levels.

  3. How acidic is the lidocaine we are injecting, and how much bicarbonate should we add?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Simon G; Lalonde, Donald H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The infiltration of local anesthetics can be painful, which is likely due, in part, to their acidity. In spite of a Cochrane study that recommended neutralizing lidocaine with bicarbonate to decrease the pain of injection, not many surgeons have adopted the practice, and there are many ‘recipes’ for how much bicarbonate one should add. OBJECTIVE: To determine the acidity of lidocaine and the correct ratio of bicarbonate that should be added to neutralize lidocaine to achieve body pH. METHODS: Fifty samples each of commonly used anesthetics (lidocaine 1% and 2%, with and without epinephrine 1:100,000) were obtained and tested for pH. Data were also analyzed according to whether the vials had been previously opened. Ten additional samples of lidocaine 1% with 1:100,000 epinephrine were titrated against sodium bicarbonate 8.4% and tested for pH and the presence of precipitate. RESULTS: A solution of 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine had a mean (± SD) pH of 4.24±0.42, and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine had a mean pH of 3.93±0.43. Plain 1% lidocaine had a pH of 6.09±0.16, and plain 2% lidocaine had a pH of 6.00±0.27. Epinephrine-containing solutions were more acidic when they had been previously opened. One per cent lidocaine with epinephrine required 8.4% sodium bicarbonate at a ratio of 1.1 mL:10 mL to 1.8 mL:10 mL to achieve the target tissue pH of 7.38 to 7.62. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine with epinephrine was approximately 1000 times more acidic than subcutaneous tissue. The addition of bicarbonate to the local anesthetic solution is simple to perform and is inexpensive. The proper volume ratio of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate to 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine is approximately 1 mL:10 mL. Surgeons should be more aware of the simplicity and value of buffering with bicarbonate to decrease the pain of injection. PMID:23730153

  4. Laboratory tests on an aircraft fuselage to determine the insertion loss of various acoustic add-on treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K. E.; Mixson, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory study of add-on acoustic treatments for a propeller-driven light aircraft fuselage. The treatments included: no treatment (i.e., baseline fuselage); a production-type double-wall interior; and various amounts of high density fiberglass added to the baseline fuselage. The sound source was a pneumatic-driver with attached exponential horn, supplied with a broadband signal. Data were acquired at the approximate head positions of the six passenger seats. The results were analyzed on space-averaged narrowband, one-third octave band and overall insertion loss basis. In addition, insertion loss results for the different configurations at specific frequencies representing propeller tone spectra are presented. The propeller tone data includes not only the space-averaged insertion loss, but also the variation of insertion loss at these particular frequencies across the six microphone positions.

  5. Addition of NH3 to Al3O3-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrwas, Richard B.; Jarrold, Caroline Chick; Das, Ujjal; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2006-05-01

    Recent computational studies on the addition of ammonia (NH3) to the Al3O3- cluster anion [A. Guevara-Garcia, A. Martinez, and J. V. Ortiz, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 214309 (2005)] have motivated experimental and additional computational studies, reported here. Al3O3- is observed to react with a single NH3 molecule to form the Al3O3NH3- ion in mass spectrometric studies. This is in contrast to similarly performed studies with water, in which the Al3O5H4- product was highly favored. However, the anion PE spectrum of the ammoniated species is very similar to that of Al3O4H2-. The adiabatic electron affinity of Al3O3NH3 is determined to be 2.35(5)eV. Based on comparison between the spectra and calculated electron affinities, it appears that NH3 adds dissociatively to Al3O3-, suggesting that the time for the Al3O3-•NH3 complex to either overcome or tunnel through the barrier to proton transfer (which is higher for NH3 than for water) is short relative to the time for collisional cooling in the experiment.

  6. Conducting Automated Test Assembly Using the Premium Solver Platform Version 7.0 with Microsoft Excel and the Large-Scale LP/QP Solver Engine Add-In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cor, Ken; Alves, Cecilia; Gierl, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    This review describes and evaluates a software add-in created by Frontline Systems, Inc., that can be used with Microsoft Excel 2007 to solve large, complex test assembly problems. The combination of Microsoft Excel 2007 with the Frontline Systems Premium Solver Platform is significant because Microsoft Excel is the most commonly used spreadsheet…

  7. Project DyAdd: Visual Attention in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Salomaa, Jonna; Cousineau, Denis; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura; Dye, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, three aspects of visual attention were investigated in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n = 35) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 22), and in healthy controls (n = 35). Temporal characteristics of visual attention were assessed with Attentional Blink (AB), capacity of visual attention…

  8. ATRX ADD Domain Links an Atypical Histone Methylation Recognition Mechanism to Human Mental-Retardation Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    S Iwase; B Xiang; S Ghosh; T Ren; P Lewis; J Cochrane; C Allis; D Picketts; D Patel; et al.

    2011-12-31

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  9. ATRX ADD domain links an atypical histone methylation recognition mechanism to human mental-retardation syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, Shigeki; Xiang, Bin; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Ren, Ting; Lewis, Peter W.; Cochrane, Jesse C.; Allis, C. David; Picketts, David J.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Li, Haitao; Shi, Yang

    2011-07-19

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  10. Tiotropium in the add-on treatment of asthma in adults: clinical trial evidence and experience.

    PubMed

    Vogelberg, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease, and its treatment is frequently challenging despite detailed national and international guidelines. While basic anti-inflammatory therapy usually consists of inhaled corticosteroids in doses adapted to the asthma severity, add-on treatment with bronchodilators is essential in more severe asthma. Only recently, the long-acting anticholinergic tiotropium was introduced into the GINA guidelines. This review reports on the studies that have been performed with tiotropium in adult asthmatic patients. Following early proof-of-concept studies, several studies with tiotropium as an add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), with or without a long-acting beta agonist (LABA), demonstrated convincing clinical benefit for patients. Important lung function parameters and quality of life scores significantly improved shortly after onset of the add-on therapy with tiotropium, and some studies even demonstrated non-inferiority against salmeterol. All studies reported an excellent safety profile of tiotropium. The still growing body of tiotropium studies, both in adults and children, will help to identify the position of tiotropium in future asthma guidelines and might also indicate which patients benefit most from an add-on therapy with tiotropium.

  11. A Practical Approach To Managing the Behaviors of Students with ADD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhaney, Laurel M. Garrick

    2003-01-01

    This article offers a repertoire of behavior management strategies to help students with attention deficit disorder (ADD) succeed in school. Strategies range from conducting a functional behavioral assessment to antecedents- and consequences-based strategies. The article also discusses factors that educators may consider in meeting the behavioral…

  12. Project DyAdd: Implicit Learning in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Väre, Jenni; Oksanen-Hennah, Henna; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Pothos, Emmanuel; Cleeremans, Axel

    2014-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, implicit learning was investigated through two paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n?=?36) or with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n?=?22) and in controls (n?=?35). In the serial reaction time (SRT) task, there were no group differences in learning. However, those with ADHD exhibited…

  13. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children

    PubMed Central

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10–40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89–98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  14. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

  15. Break out of the box: how to add value to the security function.

    PubMed

    Jones, Russell F

    2007-01-01

    Opportunities to create programs that enhance the value of the security function are present now and will be in the future, according to the author, who illustrates a number of ways the resourceful security practitioner can add to his department's reputation and his organization's bottom line.

  16. 47 CFR 73.9006 - Add-in covered demodulator products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 73.9006 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73.9006 Add-in covered...) Using a robust method; or (2) Protected by an authorized digital output protection technology...

  17. TEST DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF ADD-ON NOX CONTROL UTILIZING OZONE INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the test design for environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-0n nitrogen oxides (NOx) control utilizing ozone injection. (NOTE: ETV is an EPA-established program to enhance domestic and international market acceptance of new or improved commercially...

  18. 76 FR 65935 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION..., and Poultry Programs, National Center for Animal Health Programs, VS, APHIS, 210 Walnut Street...

  19. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program (ADD) 1994-95. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulaney, Charles N.

    The Wake County Public School System used Alcohol and Drug Defense Program (ADD) federal funds in 1994-95 to reduce the impact of drugs and alcohol on the system's 12 high schools by implementing a Student Assistance Program (SAP). SAP provides intervention and support for students identified as being at risk of substance abuse because of academic…

  20. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood Products...

  1. Civic Engagement and Global Citizenship in a University Context: Core Business or Desirable Add-On?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munck, Ronaldo

    2010-01-01

    Can civic engagement become a "core business" of the contemporary university, or is it an attractive "add-on" that is not affordable in the current economic climate? Contemporary universities often play an important role in local community development and, as such, have the opportunity to develop civic engagement strategies to…

  2. Strategies for Successfully Teaching Students with ADD or ADHD in Instrumental Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melago, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers can easily encounter students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the instrumental lesson setting. Applicable to instrumental lesson settings in the public or private schools, private studios, or college studios, this article focuses on specific strategies ranging from the…

  3. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children.

    PubMed

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities.

  4. Managing the Behavior of Children with ADD in Inclusive Classrooms: A Collaborative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Joy F.; Forrest, Lois

    2002-01-01

    A collaborative approach for managing behavior of children with attention deficit disorders (ADD) developed and implemented in a fourth grade inclusive classroom is outlined in this article. The approach involves teacher, parent, and student participation using multiple component treatment such as providing academic adaptations, and using…

  5. Improving Content and Technology Skills in ADD/ADHD via a Web Enhanced Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, LuAnn; Smith, Sean; Dillon, Ann S.; Algozzine, Bob; Beattie, John; Spooner, Fred; Fisher, Ashlee L.

    2004-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) create concerns in public education and in teacher education programs. Because of continuous advances in technology, distance learning is a viable option for delivering coursework to preservice and inservice teacher education students challenged by geography, time…

  6. School Nurses' Knowledge and Beliefs about the Management of Children with ADD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasman, Alan; Tinsley, Barbara; Thompson, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine school nurses' knowledge and beliefs about the management of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Seven hundred eighty-six school nurses responded to mailed surveys regarding their attitudes and knowledge about the management of children with attention deficit disorder. Surveys were mailed to…

  7. How to Add Philosophy Dimensions in Your Basic International Business Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanopoulos, John

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to assist professors in introducing concepts of self, philosophy, religions, the universe, existential dilemmas, etc., in their basic international business classes. Using active learning and five-member student teams, a student organized and administered conference adds a very useful dimension of knowledge sacrificing only one…

  8. 101 Ways To Help Children with ADD Learn: Tips from Successful Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesapeake Inst., Washington, DC.

    This how-to guide for teachers suggests ways to help children with attention deficit disorders (ADD) in the general classroom, by means of specific instructional practices to be used as part of an instructional program based on classroom accommodations, behavior management, and individualized academic instruction. Basic steps in developing an…

  9. Add-on fluvoxamine treatment for schizophrenia: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Hirota, Tomoya; Iwata, Nakao

    2013-12-01

    We performed an updated meta-analysis of fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics based on two previous meta-analyses (Sepehry et al., in J Clin Psychiatry 68:604-610, 2007 and Singh et al., in Br J Psychiatry J Mental Sci 197:174-179, 2010). We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library database, and PsycINFO up to January 2013. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled trials comparing fluvoxamine add-on therapy with placebo. The risk ratio (RR), 95 % confidence intervals (CI), and standardized mean difference (SMD) were calculated. Seven studies (total n = 272) were identified. These included two clozapine studies, one olanzapine study, one second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) monotherapy study, and three first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) monotherapy studies. There were significant effect of fluvoxamine add-on therapy on overall (SMD = -0.46, CI = -0.75 to -0.16, p = 0.003, I (2) = 0 %, 5 studies, n = 180) and negative symptoms (SMD = -0.44, CI = -0.74 to -0.14, p = 0.004, I (2) = 0 %, 5 studies, n = 180). However, fluvoxamine add-on therapy showed no significant effects on positive symptoms, depressive symptoms, and discontinuations from any cause or adverse events. Fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients primarily treated with SGAs improved overall (p = 0.02) but not negative symptoms (p = 0.31). On the other hand, fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients primarily treated with FGAs improved both overall (p = 0.04) and negative symptoms (p = 0.004) compared with control groups. Our results suggest that fluvoxamine add-on therapy is more beneficial on the psychopathology (especially negative symptoms) than controls in patients with schizophrenia who are primarily treated with FGAs. Given that a small number of studies were included in this meta-analysis, the results should be treated with caution.

  10. Plasma Renin Activity Predicts Blood Pressure Responses to β-Blocker and Thiazide Diuretic as Monotherapy and Add-On Therapy for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Stephen T.; Schwartz, Gary L.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Gums, John G.; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Johnson, Julie A.; Bailey, Kent R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Age and race categories or renin profiling have been recommended to predict blood pressure responses to monotherapy with a β-blocker or thiazide diuretic. Whether these or other characteristics predict blood pressure responses when the drugs are administered as add-on therapy is uncertain. METHODS We evaluated predictors of blood pressure response in 363 men and women ≤65 years of age with primary hypertension (152 blacks, 211 whites), 86 of whom (24%) were untreated and 277 of whom (76%) were withdrawn from previous antihypertensive drugs before randomization to either atenolol followed by addition of hydrochlorothiazide (N = 180) or hydrochlorothiazide followed by addition of atenolol (N = 183). Responses were determined by home blood pressure averages before and after each drug administration. Race, age, plasma renin activity, and other characteristics including pretreatment blood pressure levels were incorporated into linear regression models to quantify their contributions to prediction of blood pressure responses. RESULTS Plasma renin activity and pretreatment blood pressure level consistently contributed to prediction of systolic and diastolic responses to each drug administered as mono- and as add-on therapy. Higher plasma renin activity was consistently associated with greater blood pressure responses to atenolol and lesser responses to hydrochlorothiazide. The predictive effects of plasma renin activity were statistically independent of race, age, and other characteristics. CONCLUSIONS Plasma renin activity and pretreatment blood pressure level predict blood pressure responses to atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide administered as mono- and as add-on therapy in men and women ≤65 years of age. PMID:20725057

  11. Loxapine Add-on for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Irritability

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Gregory; Cain, Sharon E.; Zhou, Xinghua; Barth, Francis X.; Aman, Michael G.; Palaguachi, Gladys I.; Mikhnev, Dmytro; Teng, Rujia; Andridge, Rebecca; Logan, Marilyn; Butler, Merlin G.; Han, Joan C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Our clinical experience with low dose loxapine (5–15 mg/day) suggests promising efficacy and safety for irritability in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We studied low dose loxapine prospectively in adolescents and adults with ASD and irritability. Additionally, we measured loxapine and metabolite concentrations, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a biomarker of neuromodulation. Methods: We performed a 12 week open trial of add-on loxapine in subjects, ages 13–65 years, diagnosed with ASD, and Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale scores >14. Loxapine was dosed flexibly up to 15 mg daily, starting with 5 mg on alternate days. From weeks 1 to 6, other psychoactive medications were tapered if possible; from weeks 6 to 12, all medication doses were held stable. The primary outcome was the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement subscale (CGI-I), ratings of Much Improved or Very Much Improved. Secondary outcomes were the ABC-I, Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, and Schalock Quality of Life scale. Serum BDNF and loxapine and metabolite concentrations were assayed. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped. Results: Sixteen subjects were enrolled; 12 completed all visits. Median age was 18 years (range 13–39). Median final loxapine dose was 7.5 mg/day (2.5–15). All 14 subjects (100%) with data at week 12 were rated as Much Improved on CGI-I at 12 weeks. Mean change on ABC-I at 12 weeks was −31%, p=0.01. Mean body mass index (BMI)-Z decreased between weeks 6 and 12, p=0.03. Side effects were minimal, and prolactin elevation occurred in only one subject. BDNF concentrations measured in 11 subjects increased significantly (p=0.04). Subjects with AG genotype for BDNF rs6265 required a lower dose of loxapine at study end, but had similar behavioral and BDNF concentration changes as the GG genotype. Conclusions: Low dose loxapine shows promise as a repurposed drug for irritability in ASD. Loxapine effects on BDNF warrant

  12. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  13. Calorimetric and laser induced fluorescence investigation of the complexation geometry of selected europium-gem-diphosphonate complexes in acidic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Rao, L.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1995-05-10

    Details of the coordination chemistry of europium complexes with methanediphosphonic acid (MDPA), vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (VDPA), and 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) in acidic aqueous solutions have been investigated by titration calorimetry and laser-induced fluorescence. For the 1:1 complexes, thermodynamic parameters and complex hydration are consistent with those previously reported for europium complexes with the carboxylate structural analog malonate. In the 1:2 complexes, markedly different thermodynamic parameters and cation dehydration are observed. The second diphosphonate ligand adds to the 1:1 complex displacing four additional water molecules from the primary coordination sphere (as compared with two for the addition of a second malonate). This reaction is also characterized by a nearly zero entropy change. The results are rationalized using molecular mechanics to suggest an unusual geometry in which the diphosphonate ligands and bound water molecules are appreciably segregated in the europium coordination sphere. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding and second hydration sphere ordering are suggested to explain the low complexation entropies.

  14. A method to add richness to the National Landslide Database of Great Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith; Freeborough, Katy; Malamud, Bruce; Demeritt, David

    2014-05-01

    2012, 72 of these resulted in additions to the BGS NLD and 4 in amendments to previously collected information. This raises the total number of landslides reported in 2012 from 186 to 258. Using the increased presence of landslides in the news and social media, 2012 had already resulted in the largest number of landslides for a given year being recorded by BGS in the NLD. With the additions from this current study to the NLD, we estimate that the annual total number of landslides was around six times higher in 2012 than the average annual total between 2006 and 2011. Years prior to 2012 plan to be revisited using this method, and more broadly, this method of searching newspaper archives could be applied to many other natural hazards to add richness to databases of historical events and improve our understanding of hazard occurrence and impact.

  15. Synthesis of [Pt(SnBu(t)3)(IBu(t))(μ-H)]2, a Coordinatively Unsaturated Dinuclear Compound which Fragments upon Addition of Small Molecules to Form Mononuclear Pt-Sn Complexes.

    PubMed

    Koppaka, Anjaneyulu; Yempally, Veeranna; Zhu, Lei; Fortman, George C; Temprado, Manuel; Hoff, Carl D; Captain, Burjor

    2016-01-04

    The reaction of Pt(COD)2 with one equivalent of tri-tert-butylstannane, Bu(t)3SnH, at room temperature yields Pt(SnBu(t)3)(COD)(H)(3) in quantitative yield. In the presence of excess Bu(t)3SnH, the reaction goes further, yielding the dinuclear bridging stannylene complex [Pt(SnBu(t)3)(μ-SnBu(t)2)(H)2]2 (4). The dinuclear complex 4 reacts rapidly and reversibly with CO to furnish [Pt(SnBu(t)3)(μ-SnBu(t)2)(CO)(H)2]2 (5). Complex 3 reacts with N,N'-di-tert-butylimidazol-2-ylidene, IBu(t), at room temperature to give the dinuclear bridging hydride complex [Pt(SnBu(t)3)(IBu(t))(μ-H)]2 (6). Complex 6 reacts with CO, C2H4, and H2 to give the corresponding mononuclear Pt complexes Pt(SnBu(t)3)(IBu(t))(CO)(H)(7), Pt(SnBu(t)3)(IBu(t))(C2H4)(H)(8), and Pt(SnBu(t)3)(IBu(t))(H)3 (9), respectively. The reaction of IBu(t) with the complex Pt(SnBu(t)3)2(CO)2 (10) yielded an abnormal Pt-carbene complex Pt(SnBu(t)3)2(aIBu(t))(CO) (11). DFT computational studies of the dimeric complexes [Pt(SnR3)(NHC)(μ-H)]2, the potentially more reactive monomeric complexes Pt(SnR3)(NHC)(H) and the trihydride species Pt(SnBu(t)3)(IBu(t))(H)3 have been performed, for NHC = IMe and R = Me and for NHC = IBu(t) and R = Bu(t). The structures of complexes 3-8 and 11 have been determined by X-ray crystallography and are reported.

  16. Effects of minocycline add-on treatment on brain morphometry and cerebral perfusion in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Cristiano; Marque, Cristiane R; Maia-de-Oliveira, João P; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Ferrari, Thiago B; Santos, Antonio C; Araújo, David; Machado-de-Sousa, João P; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Elkis, Helio; Crippa, José A; Guimarães, Francisco S; Zuardi, Antônio W; Baker, Glen B; Dursun, Serdar M; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2015-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the tetracycline antibiotic minocycline has neuroprotective effects and is a potential treatment for schizophrenia. However, the mechanisms of action of minocycline in the CNS remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of minocycline on brain morphology and cerebral perfusion in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia after 12months of a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of minocycline add-on treatment. This study included 24 outpatients with recent-onset schizophrenia randomized for 12months of adjuvant treatment with minocycline (200mg/d) or placebo. MRI (1.5T) and [(99m)Tc]-ECD SPECT brain scans were performed at the end of the 12-month of trial. Between-condition comparisons of SPECT and MRI brain images were performed using statistical parametric mapping and analyzed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Minocycline adjuvant treatment significantly reduced positive and negative symptoms when compared with placebo. The VBM analysis of MRI scans showed that the patients in the placebo group had significant lower gray matter volumes in the midposterior cingulate cortex and in the precentral gyrus in comparison with the patients in the minocycline group. In addition, a decreased ECD uptake in the minocycline condition was observed in fronto-temporal areas. These results suggest that minocycline may protect against gray matter loss and modulate fronto-temporal areas involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, minocycline add-on treatment may be a potential treatment in the early stages of schizophrenia and may ameliorate clinical deterioration and brain alterations observed in this period.

  17. Novel "Add-On" Molecule Based on Evans Blue Confers Superior Pharmacokinetics and Transforms Drugs to Theranostic Agents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haojun; Jacobson, Orit; Niu, Gang; Weiss, Ido D; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Liu, Yi; Ma, Ying; Wu, Hua; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-04-01

    One of the major design considerations for a drug is its pharmacokinetics in the blood. A drug with a short half-life in the blood is less available at a target organ. Such a limitation dictates treatment with either high doses or more frequent doses, both of which may increase the likelihood of undesirable side effects. To address the need for additional methods to improve the blood half-life of drugs and molecular imaging agents, we developed an "add-on" molecule that contains 3 groups: a truncated Evans blue dye molecule that binds to albumin with a low micromolar affinity and provides a prolonged half-life in the blood; a metal chelate that allows radiolabeling for imaging and radiotherapy; and maleimide for easy conjugation to drug molecules. Methods: The truncated Evans blue molecule was conjugated with the chelator NOTA or DOTA, and the resulting conjugate was denoted as NMEB or DMEB, respectively. As a proof of concept, we coupled NMEB and DMEB to c(RGDfK), which is a small cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide, for targeting integrin αvβ3 NMEB and DMEB were radiolabeled with (64)Cu and (90)Y, respectively, and tested in xenograft models. Results: The resulting radiolabeled conjugates showed a prolonged circulation half-life and enhanced tumor accumulation in integrin αvβ3-expressing tumors. Tumor uptake was markedly improved over that with NOTA- or DOTA-conjugated c(RGDfK). Tumor radiotherapy experiments in mice with (90)Y-DMEB-RGD showed promising results; existing tumors were eliminated. Conclusion: Conjugation of our novel add-on molecule, NMEB or DMEB, to potential tracers or therapeutic agents improved blood half-life and tumor uptake and could transform such agents into theranostic entities.

  18. Monolithically integrated reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for mode-division-multiplexing systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shipeng; Wu, Hao; Tsang, Hon Ki; Dai, Daoxin

    2016-11-15

    An integrated reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) for mode-division-multiplexing systems is proposed and demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The present ROADM with four mode-channels is composed of a four-channel mode demultiplexer, four identical 2×2 thermo-optic Mach-Zehnder switches (MZSs), and a four-channel mode multiplexer, which are integrated monolithically on silicon. All the devices are designed for operation with TM polarization. The ROADM can add/drop any one of the mode channels freely by thermally turning on/off the corresponding MZS. For the added/dropped mode-channels, the excess loss is 1-5 dB, and the extinction ratio is 15-20 dB in the wavelength range of 1535-1565 nm.

  19. Loss of a Candidate Biliary Atresia Susceptibility Gene, add3a, Causes Biliary Developmental Defects in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Vivian; Cofer, Zenobia C.; Cui, Shuang; Sapp, Valerie; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Matthews, Randolph P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive fibroinflammatory cholangiopathy affecting the bile ducts of neonates. Although BA is the leading indication for pediatric liver transplantation, the etiology remains elusive. Adducin 3 (ADD3) and X-prolyl aminopeptidase 1 (XPNPEP1) are 2 genes previously identified in genome-wide association studies as potential BA susceptibility genes. Using zebrafish, we investigated the importance of ADD3 and XPNPEP1 in functional studies. Methods: To determine whether loss of either gene leads to biliary defects, we performed morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO) knockdown studies targeting add3a and xpnpep1 in zebrafish. Individuals were assessed for decreases in biliary function and the presence of biliary defects. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on pooled 5 days postfertilization larvae to assess variations in transcriptional expression of genes of interest. Results: Although both xpnpep1 and add3a are expressed in the developing zebrafish liver, only knockdown of add3a produced intrahepatic defects and decreased biliary function. Similar results were observed in homozygous add3a mutants. MO-mediated knockdown of add3a also showed higher mRNA expression of hedgehog (Hh) targets. Inhibition of Hh signaling rescued biliary defects caused by add3a knockdown. Combined knockdown of add3a and glypican-1 (gpc1), another mediator of Hh activity that is also a BA susceptibility gene, resulted in more severe biliary defects than knockdown of either alone. Conclusions: Our results support previous studies identifying ADD3 as a putative genetic risk factor for BA susceptibility. Our results also provide evidence that add3a may be affecting the Hh pathway, an important factor in BA pathogenesis. PMID:27526058

  20. 76 FR 17019 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... 3150-AI90 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition AGENCY: Nuclear... the Commission) is amending its regulations to add the HI-STORM Flood/Wind cask system to the ``List... spent fuel storage cask designs. Discussion This rule will add the Holtec HI-STORM Flood/Wind (FW)...

  1. Drell-Yan, , production in SM & ADD model to NLOPS accuracy at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederix, R.; Mandal, M. K.; Mathews, P.; Ravindran, V.; Seth, S.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present the next-to-leading order QCD corrections for di-lepton, di-electroweak boson (, ) production in both the SM and the ADD model, matched to the HERWIG parton shower using the aMC@NLO framework. A selection of results at the 8 TeV LHC, which exhibit deviations from the SM as a result of the large extra-dimension scenario, are presented.

  2. Diphoton production in the ADD model to NLO + parton shower accuracy at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederix, R.; Mandal, Manoj K.; Mathews, Prakash; Ravindran, V.; Seth, Satyajit; Torrielli, P.; Zaro, M.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present the next-to-leading order predictions for diphoton production in the ADD model, matched to the HERWIG parton shower using the MC@NLO formalism. A selection of the results is presented for d = 2-6 extra dimensions, using generic cuts as well as analysis cuts mimicking the search strategies as pursued by the ATLAS and CMS experiments.

  3. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors as add-on therapy to insulin: rationale and evidences.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-08

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus being a progressive disease will eventually require insulin therapy. While insulin therapy is the ultimate option, many patients still fall short of target glycemic goals. This could, perhaps be due to the fear, unwillingness and practical barriers to insulin intensification. Hypoglycemia, oedema and weight gain is another limitation. Newer therapies with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are exciting options as both classes do not cause hypoglycemia and are either weight neutral or cause weight loss. DPP-4 inhibitors are an appealing option as an add-on therapy to insulin especially in elderly and patients with renal impairment. Moreover, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) mediated augmentation of glucagon by DPP-4 inhibitors could also protect against hypoglycemia. These collective properties make these class a potential add-on candidate to insulin therapy. This article will review the efficacy and safety of DPP-4 inhibitors as an add-on to insulin therapy.

  4. 76 FR 70148 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Norton Co. (or a subsequent owner), Worcester, Massachusetts,...

  5. 76 FR 70147 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Piqua Organic Moderated Reactor, Piqua, Ohio, to the...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4766 Section 63.4766 Protection of Environment... Coating of Wood Building Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4766 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal...

  7. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury debt? 5.5 Section 5.5 Money and Finance... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  8. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce debt? 19.5 Section 19.5 Commerce and... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  9. 78 FR 64501 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Baker Brothers,...

  10. 36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks... § 1011.5 What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a...

  11. 76 FR 37114 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... to add a class of employees from the Dow Chemical Company in Madison, Illinois, to the...

  12. 76 FR 37115 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... to add a class of employees from the Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company (i.e., Building 23 and...

  13. 78 FR 64502 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Pantex Plant...

  14. 78 FR 18351 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from General Steel...

  15. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  16. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury debt? 5.5 Section 5.5 Money and Finance... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  17. 36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks... § 1011.5 What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a...

  18. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce debt? 19.5 Section 19.5 Commerce and... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  19. 77 FR 76490 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 249 (Friday, December 28, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 76490] [FR Doc No: 2012-31283] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add... Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add...

  20. 77 FR 76490 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 249 (Friday, December 28, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 76490] [FR Doc No: 2012-31316] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add... Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add...

  1. 36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks... § 1011.5 What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a...

  2. 78 FR 98 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the United...

  3. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  4. 36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks... § 1011.5 What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a...

  5. 78 FR 18351 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Hanford site...

  6. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce debt? 19.5 Section 19.5 Commerce and... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  7. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury debt? 5.5 Section 5.5 Money and Finance... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  8. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury debt? 5.5 Section 5.5 Money and Finance... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  9. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce debt? 19.5 Section 19.5 Commerce and... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  10. 77 FR 58383 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Titanium...

  11. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  12. 76 FR 37115 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... to add a class of employees from the Bliss & Laughlin Steel Company located at 110 Hopkins...

  13. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury debt? 5.5 Section 5.5 Money and Finance... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  14. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce debt? 19.5 Section 19.5 Commerce and... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  15. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  16. 36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks, Forests... What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?...

  17. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... those described in the NIOSH Research Issues Workshop, 2 to estimate the missing component of dose...

  18. Maxillofacial Trauma: Managing Potentially Dangerous And Disfiguring Complex Injuries.

    PubMed

    Das, Devjanl; Salazar, Lea

    2017-04-01

    Patients with maxillofacial trauma require a careful evaluation due to the anatomical proximity of the maxillofacial region to the head and neck. Facial injuries can range from soft-tissue lacerations and nondisplaced nasal fractures to severe, complex fractures, eye injuries, and possible brain injury. Though the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines provide a framework for the management of trauma patients, they do not provide a detailed reference for many subtle or complex facial injuries. This issue adds a more comprehensive and systematic approach to the secondary survey of the maxillofacial area and emergency department management of injuries to the face. In addition to an overall review of maxillofacial trauma pathophysiology, associated injuries, and physical examination, this review will also discuss relevant imaging, treatment, and disposition plans.

  19. Progress in the analysis of complex atmospheric particles

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup

    2016-06-01

    This study presents an overview of recent advances in field and laboratory studies of atmospheric particles formed in processes of environmental air-surface interactions. The overarching goal of these studies is to advance predictive understanding of atmospheric particle composition, particle chemistry during aging, and their environmental impacts. The diversity between chemical constituents and lateral heterogeneity within individual particles adds to the chemical complexity of particles and their surfaces. Once emitted, particles undergo transformation via atmospheric aging processes that further modify their complex composition. We highlight a range of modern analytical approaches that enable multimodal chemical characterization of particles with both molecular and lateral specificity. When combined, these approaches provide a comprehensive arsenal of tools for understanding the nature of particles at air-surface interactions and their reactivity and transformations with atmospheric aging. We discuss applications of these novel approaches in recent studies and highlight additional research areas to explore the environmental effects of air-surface interactions.

  20. Progress in the Analysis of Complex Atmospheric Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup

    2016-06-16

    This manuscript presents an overview on recent advances in field and laboratory studies of atmospheric particles formed in processes of environmental air-surfaces interactions. The overarching goal of these studies is to advance predictive understanding of atmospheric particle composition, particle chemistry during aging, and their environmental impacts. The diversity between chemical constituents and lateral heterogeneity within individual particles adds to the chemical complexity of particles and their surfaces. Once emitted, particles undergo transformation via atmospheric aging processes that further modify their complex composition. We highlight a range of modern analytical approaches that enable multi-modal chemical characterization of particles with both molecular and lateral specificity. When combined, they provide a comprehensive arsenal of tools for understanding the nature of particles at air-surface interactions and their reactivity and transformations with atmospheric aging. We discuss applications of these novel approaches in recent studies and highlight additional research areas to explore environmental effects of air-surface interactions.

  1. Progress in the Analysis of Complex Atmospheric Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup

    2016-06-01

    This article presents an overview of recent advances in field and laboratory studies of atmospheric particles formed in processes of environmental air-surface interactions. The overarching goal of these studies is to advance predictive understanding of atmospheric particle composition, particle chemistry during aging, and their environmental impacts. The diversity between chemical constituents and lateral heterogeneity within individual particles adds to the chemical complexity of particles and their surfaces. Once emitted, particles undergo transformation via atmospheric aging processes that further modify their complex composition. We highlight a range of modern analytical approaches that enable multimodal chemical characterization of particles with both molecular and lateral specificity. When combined, these approaches provide a comprehensive arsenal of tools for understanding the nature of particles at air-surface interactions and their reactivity and transformations with atmospheric aging. We discuss applications of these novel approaches in recent studies and highlight additional research areas to explore the environmental effects of air-surface interactions.

  2. The increasing genomic complexity of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Jacob M

    2014-01-01

    Therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is impacted by the increasing genomic complexity of the disease. Multiple targets as expressed by genetics and mutations and the relationships between them add another layer of intricacy to the prognosis and treatment of the disease. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the interactions between mutations are of utmost importance, particularly from a prognostic standpoint. For example, inv(16) or 6(16; 16) AML frequently involves a second genetic lesion that significantly impacts prognosis. In addition, epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, are becoming increasingly integrated into the genetic landscape and may also have prognostic impact. Despite increased understanding of the genetic and epigenetic aspects of AML, the outcome for AML patients has not changed significantly. Until it does, further inquiry into the genomic complexity of the disease and advances in drug development are needed.

  3. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...) Moderate Category: For a food additive petition without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or...) Complex Category: For a food additive petition with complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, and/or... investigational food additive file without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or safety issues,...

  4. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as an add-on to insulin therapy: A comparative review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    The gradual decline in β-cell function is inevitable in type 2 diabetes mellitus and therefore, substantial proportions of patients require insulin subsequently, in order to achieve optimal glucose control. While weight gain, hypoglycemia, and fluid retention especially during dose intensification is a known limitation to insulin therapy, these adverse effects also reduce patient satisfaction and treatment adherence. It is also possible that the benefits of intensive control achieved by insulin therapy, perhaps get nullified by the weight gain and hypoglycemia. In addition, improvement in plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) itself is associated with weight gain. Notably, studies have already suggested that reduction in body weight by ~3-5%, may allow a significantly better glycemic control. Thus, a class of drugs, which can reduce HbA1c effectively, yet are weight neutral or preferably reduce body weight, could be the most sought out strategy as an add-on therapy to insulin. While sulfonylureas (SUs) are associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia, pioglitazone increases body weight and fluid retention. Moreover, SUs are not recommended once premix or prandial insulin is commenced. The addition of newer agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist to insulin certainly appears to be an effective tool in reducing both HbA1c and body weight as is evident across the studies; however, this approach incurs an additional injection as well as cost. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I) and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are other exciting options, as an add-on to insulin therapy primarily because these are oral drugs and do not possess any intrinsic potential of hypoglycemia. Furthermore, these are either weight neutral or induce significant weight loss. This review article aims to comparatively analyze the safety and efficacy of DPP-4I and SGLT-2I, as an add-on therapy to insulin.

  5. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  6. Insulin versus an oral antidiabetic agent as add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes after failure of an oral antidiabetic regimen: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, JM; Brown, Lauren C; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    Background Although evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus provide clear recommendations for initial therapy, evidence on an optimal treatment strategy after secondary failure is unclear. Purpose To compare the efficacy of add-on therapy using basal insulin versus an additional oral antidiabetic agent in patients with type 2 diabetes and secondary failure. Data sources We searched the following electronic databases from inception until June 2007: MEDLINE; EMBASE; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Web of Science; Scopus; CINAHL; International Pharmaceutical Abstracts; Academic OneFile; PASCAL; Global Health Database; LILACS; HealthSTAR; PubMed. Reference lists of potentially relevant articles and clinical trial databases were searched, pharmaceutical manufacturers were contacted, and grey literature sources were sought. Study selection Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving subjects with type 2 diabetes with secondary failure who were randomly assigned to receive additional basal insulin therapy (insulin glargine, detemir, or NPH [neutral protamine Hagedorn]) versus another oral antidiabetic agent from any class. Data extraction Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Our primary outcome was glycemic control measured by change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and the proportion of subjects achieving a HbA1C value of ≤ 7%. Data synthesis To compare overall efficacy between the 2 treatment strategies, change in HbA1C was pooled across studies using a random-effects model and weighted mean difference (WMD). Eleven RCTs, involving 757 participants with a median age of 56 and a median known duration of diabetes of 11 years, were included in our analysis. Insulin treatment demonstrated a small but statistically significant improvement in HbA1C compared with the use of an additional oral agent as add-on therapy (WMD -0.17; 95% CI [confidence interval] -0

  7. Use of a Microsoft Excel based add-in program to calculate plasma sinistrin clearance by a two-compartment model analysis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Sarah M L; Sturgess, Christopher P; Dunning, Mark D; Neiger, Reto

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of renal function by means of plasma clearance of a suitable marker has become standard procedure for estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Sinistrin, a polyfructan solely cleared by the kidney, is often used for this purpose. Pharmacokinetic modeling using adequate software is necessary to calculate disappearance rate and half-life of sinistrin. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of a Microsoft excel based add-in program to calculate plasma sinistrin clearance, as well as additional pharmacokinetic parameters such as transfer rates (k), half-life (t1/2) and volume of distribution (Vss) for sinistrin in dogs with varying degrees of renal function.

  8. Microwave gallium-68 radiochemistry for kinetically stable bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes: structural investigations and cellular uptake under hypoxia† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1001632–1001634. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5dt02537k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Israt S.; Arrowsmith, Rory L.; Cortezon-Tamarit, Fernando; Twyman, Frazer; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Botchway, Stanley W.; Dilworth, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the microwave synthesis of several bis(thiosemicarbazones) and the rapid gallium-68 incorporation to give the corresponding metal complexes. These proved kinetically stable under ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ biological assays and were investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and radioactive cell retention studies under normoxia and hypoxia. 68Ga complex retention was found to be 34% higher in hypoxic cells than in normoxic cells over 30 min, further increasing to 53% at 120 min. Our data suggests that this class of gallium complexes show hypoxia selectivity suitable for imaging in living cells and in vivo tests by microPET in nude athymic mice showed that they are excreted within 1 h of their administration. PMID:26583314

  9. Enzyme classification using complex dynamic hemithioacetal systems† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR spectra, linear discriminant analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc01823h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Jayawardena, H. Surangi N.

    2016-01-01

    A complex dynamic hemithioacetal system was generated for the evaluation of lipase reactivities in organic media. In combination with pattern recognition methodology, twelve different lipases were successfully classified into four distinct groups following their reaction selectivities and reactivities. A probe lipase was further categorized using the training matrix with predicted reactivity. PMID:26987550

  10. Novel optical add-drop multiplexer for wavelength-division-multiplexing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Peng-Chun; Chang, Ching-Hung; Lu, Hai-Han; Lin, Yi-Tzai; Sun, Jen-Wei; Jiang, Chang-Han

    2012-06-01

    Two novel optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) with different self-healing functionalities for reliable wavelength-division-multiplexing networks are presented and demonstrated. Single or multiple failure-link traffics can be bi-directionally restored without the need for wavelength conversion or extra backup fiber links. To evaluate the performances of the proposed structures, a 77-channel CATV signal is experimentally transmitted with a favorable carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO) and composite triple beat (CTB) performances.

  11. Experience with the matched filtered weighted-shift-and-add method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hege, E. Keith; Strobel, Nicolas V.; Ribak, Erez; Christou, Julian C.

    1987-01-01

    It is presently demonstrated that while the matched filter formulated by Ribak (1986) for the extension of the weighted-shift-and-add (WSA) method successfully reduces photon statistics-dominated specklegrams, the iterative method originally proposed by Ribak does not converge in the case of photon-noisy specklegrams for objects having more than one maxima. Attention is accordingly given to methods for rendering the procedure more 'artificially intelligent'. An error matrix is defined that is useful in evaluating the validity of the results produced by the matched filter extension of the WSA method.

  12. Sensitivity analysis of the add-on price estimate for the silicon web growth process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The web growth process, a silicon-sheet technology option, developed for the flat plate solar array (FSA) project, was examined. Base case data for the technical and cost parameters for the technical and commercial readiness phase of the FSA project are projected. The process add on price, using the base case data for cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials and utilities, and the production parameters such as growth rate and run length, using a computer program developed specifically to do the sensitivity analysis with improved price estimation are analyzed. Silicon price, sheet thickness and cell efficiency are also discussed.

  13. Amyloidosis: The Newer Discovered ALECT2 Associated with der7q add(7)

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Priyanka; Chakrabartty, Joydeep

    2016-01-01

    Amyloidosis is characterized by pathological deposition of abnormal protein aggregates in various tissues, AL protein being the commonest. ALECT 2 is the newest protein described, having a predisposition to affect the kidneys, sometimes the liver and rarely other organs. We present a case of renal amyloid ALECT 2 due to leucocyte cell derived chemotaxin 2, a novel amyloidogenic protein. The patient presented with mild proteinuria, scattered plasma cells on bone marrow examination and altered kappa/lambda ratio with associated cytogenetic abnormality of der7q add(7). It is essential to correctly type this protein and differentiate it from AL during diagnosis for appropriate and effective clinical management. PMID:27790444

  14. Induction and add-on therapy with mitoxantrone and interferon beta in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zaffaroni, Mauro; Rizzo, Annalisa; Baldini, Silvana Maria; Ghezzi, Angelo; Comi, Giancarlo

    2008-09-01

    We retrospectively analyzed data from 70 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with mitoxantrone (MX) before Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) because of clinically and MRI very active isolated syndrome (CIS) or relapsing-remitting MS (induction therapy) or due to breakthrough/persistently active disease in spite of IFN-beta (add-on/combination therapy), or for increased disability suggesting a secondary progression (rescue therapy). After almost 2-year follow-up, relapse rate and disability decreased very significantly in the two former groups while MX was essentially ineffective as rescue therapy. Induction therapy is a valid option for very aggressive/active CIS and MS at onset.

  15. Significant treatment effect of add-on ketamine anesthesia in electroconvulsive therapy in depressive patients: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dian-Jeng; Wang, Fu-Chiang; Chu, Che-Sheng; Chen, Tien-Yu; Tang, Chia-Hung; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Chow, Philip Chik-Keung; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Tseng, Ping-Tao; Lin, Pao-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Add-on ketamine anesthesia in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been studied in depressive patients in several clinical trials with inconclusive findings. Two most recent meta-analyses reported insignificant findings with regards to the treatment effect of add-on ketamine anesthesia in ECT in depressive patients. The aim of this study is to update the current evidence and investigate the role of add-on ketamine anesthesia in ECT in depressive patients via a systematic review and meta-analysis. We performed a thorough literature search of the PubMed and ScienceDirect databases, and extracted all relevant clinical variables to compare the antidepressive outcomes between add-on ketamine anesthesia and other anesthetics in ECT. Total 16 articles with 346 patients receiving add-on ketamine anesthesia in ECT and 329 controls were recruited. We found that the antidepressive treatment effect of add-on ketamine anesthesia in ECT in depressive patients was significantly higher than that of other anesthetics (p<0.001). This significance persisted in both short-term (1-2 weeks) and moderate-term (3-4 weeks) treatment courses (all p<0.05). However, the side effect profiles and recovery time profiles were significantly worse in add-on ketamine anesthesia group than in control group. Our meta-analysis highlights the significantly higher antidepressive treatment effect of add-on ketamine in depressive patients receiving ECT compared to other anesthetics. However, clinicians need to take undesirable side effects into consideration when using add-on ketamine anesthesia in ECT in depressive patients.

  16. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY CO-ADD: A GALAXY PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, Ribamar R. R.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Annis, James; Dodelson, Scott; Hao Jiangang; Johnston, David; Kubo, Jeffrey; Lin Huan; Seo, Hee-Jong; Simet, Melanie

    2012-03-01

    We present and describe a catalog of galaxy photometric redshifts (photo-z) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Co-add Data. We use the artificial neural network (ANN) technique to calculate the photo-z and the nearest neighbor error method to estimate photo-z errors for {approx}13 million objects classified as galaxies in the co-add with r < 24.5. The photo-z and photo-z error estimators are trained and validated on a sample of {approx}83,000 galaxies that have SDSS photometry and spectroscopic redshifts measured by the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7), the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Field Galaxy Survey, the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe Data Release 3, the VIsible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph-Very Large Telescope Deep Survey, and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. For the best ANN methods we have tried, we find that 68% of the galaxies in the validation set have a photo-z error smaller than {sigma}{sub 68} = 0.031. After presenting our results and quality tests, we provide a short guide for users accessing the public data.

  17. Adult Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Disorder in Finland--Project DyAdd: WAIS-III cognitive profiles.

    PubMed

    Laasonen, Marja; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The project Adult Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Disorder in Finland (Project DyAdd) compares adults (n = 119, 18-55 years) with dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia together with ADHD (comorbid), and healthy controls with neuropsychological, psychophysical, and biological methods. The focus of this article is on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III). The clinical groups performed well compared to the norms, and they did not differ from each other. However, compared to the controls, all of them were slightly poorer in their Full IQ, and of the factors, processing speed was relatively difficult for all of them. In addition to the group comparisons, a cluster analysis based on subtest scores was conducted over the clinical groups. It did not suggest a solution that would differentiate between the clinical groups. Instead, four clusters emerged: above average, average, poor perceptual organization, and poor working memory. Thus, differentiating between these clinical groups with the WAIS-III was not possible. However, all of them shared a relative difficulty in processing speed, and group-independent clusters with perceptual or memory difficulties emerged.

  18. Insulin dose adjustments with add-on glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Carla Francés; Stokes, Victoria; Tan, Garry D; Theodorakis, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are gaining ground as therapeutic modalities in combination with insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exploiting the multiple benefits of incretin-based therapies in certain patient populations, especially in those who would benefit most from potential weight loss or prevention of body weight gain, has provided a valuable add-on option in diabetes management. However, caution needs to be exercised when initiating such a double injectable therapy, as evidence indicates that, in most instances, the insulin dose needs to be re-adjusted. The majority of published studies suggest reduction of insulin dose, especially related to the 'bolus' component; however, some have also recommended that insulin dose should actually be increased, but we found no credible evidence to support the latter. An important determinant of the titration process is the insulin formulation already in use at baseline. As more potent and long-acting GLP-1RAs are introduced, optimal insulin dose scaling is a major challenge, especially in a primary setting. We provide an overview of the current knowledge in this rapidly changing field. Based on currently reported evidence, a reduction of basal insulin by 10% and a decrease of prandial insulin by 30 - 40% is recommended on addition of GLP-1RAs.

  19. Confirmation of Down syndrome critical region by FISH analysis in a patient with add(21)(p11)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Naomichi; Niikawa, Norio; Mikawa, Makoto

    1995-12-04

    We have studied a patient with clinical Down syndrome (DS) who has a mosaic 46, XX/46, XX, 21p+ karyotype. The patient was born at 39 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 3,025 g to healthy parents. At age 2 months, she was diagnosed clinically to have DS; she had flat facies, upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, telecanthus, flat nasal bridge, abnormal dentition, malformed ears, short neck, short fingers, clinodactyly with single flexion crease of the fifth fingers, hyperextension of joints, pes planus, distal axial triradii, and bilateral tibial arch patterns. Chromosome analysis showed mosaicism consisting of a normal 46,XX cell line and a line with a 21p+ chromosome, the final karyotype being mos46,XX[57]/46,XX,add(21)(p11)[43]. Although the origin of an additional segment on chromosome 21 was not identified with conventional banding analyses, it was suspected to represent partial trisomy 21 on the basis of clinical manifestations. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  20. 76 FR 37114 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... to add a class of employees from the Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, to the Special... Department of Energy employees and Atomic Weapons Employees who worked at the Linde Ceramics Plant...

  1. 77 FR 32642 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Hangar 481 at Kirtland... authorized under EEOICPA: All employees who worked at Hangar 481, Kirtland Air Force Base, from March 1,...

  2. FAQs Related to Response to Petition to Add Oil And Gas Extraction Sector to the TRI Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Questions and answers related to EPA's response to a petition by the Environmental Integrity Project and 16 other organizations to add the Oil and Gas Extraction sector to the scope of industries subject to TRI reporting requirements.

  3. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... = concentration of organic compounds as carbon in the vent gas, as determined by Method 25 or Method 25A, parts... Kelvin (K) and 760 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)). (e) For each test run, determine the add-on...

  4. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (kg/h). Cc = Concentration of organic compounds as carbon in the vent gas, as determined by Method 25...) and 760 millimeters of mercury (mmHg)). (e) For each test run, determine the add-on control...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 2F, or 2G, dry standard cubic meters/hour (dscm/h). Cc = Concentration of organic compounds as carbon...) and 760 millimeters of mercury (mmHg)). (e) For each test run, determine the add-on control...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organic compounds as carbon in the vent gas, as determined by Method 25 or Method 25A, parts per million... 760 millimeters of mercury (mmHg)). (e) For each test run, determine the add-on control device...

  7. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... = concentration of organic compounds as carbon in the vent gas, as determined by Method 25 or Method 25A, parts... Kelvin and 760 millimeters of mercury ). (d) For each test run, determine the add-on control...

  8. 76 FR 37115 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... to add a class of employees from the Wah Chang facility in Albany, Oregon, to the Special Exposure... Atomic Weapons Employees who worked in any building at the Wah Chang facility in Albany, Oregon, for...

  9. Advanced methods for modeling water-levels and estimating drawdowns with SeriesSEE, an Excel add-in

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith; Garcia, C. Amanda; Fenelon, Joe; Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2012-12-21

    Water-level modeling is used for multiple-well aquifer tests to reliably differentiate pumping responses from natural water-level changes in wells, or “environmental fluctuations.” Synthetic water levels are created during water-level modeling and represent the summation of multiple component fluctuations, including those caused by environmental forcing and pumping. Pumping signals are modeled by transforming step-wise pumping records into water-level changes by using superimposed Theis functions. Water-levels can be modeled robustly with this Theis-transform approach because environmental fluctuations and pumping signals are simulated simultaneously. Water-level modeling with Theis transforms has been implemented in the program SeriesSEE, which is a Microsoft® Excel add-in. Moving average, Theis, pneumatic-lag, and gamma functions transform time series of measured values into water-level model components in SeriesSEE. Earth tides and step transforms are additional computed water-level model components. Water-level models are calibrated by minimizing a sum-of-squares objective function where singular value decomposition and Tikhonov regularization stabilize results. Drawdown estimates from a water-level model are the summation of all Theis transforms minus residual differences between synthetic and measured water levels. The accuracy of drawdown estimates is limited primarily by noise in the data sets, not the Theis-transform approach. Drawdowns much smaller than environmental fluctuations have been detected across major fault structures, at distances of more than 1 mile from the pumping well, and with limited pre-pumping and recovery data at sites across the United States. In addition to water-level modeling, utilities exist in SeriesSEE for viewing, cleaning, manipulating, and analyzing time-series data.

  10. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  11. Application of shift-and-add algorithms for imaging objects within biological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizert, Avishai; Moshe, Tomer; Abookasis, David

    2017-01-01

    The Shift-and-Add (SAA) technique is a simple mathematical operation developed to reconstruct, at high spatial resolution, atmospherically degraded solar images obtained from stellar speckle interferometry systems. This method shifts and assembles individual degraded short-exposure images into a single average image with significantly improved contrast and detail. Since the inhomogeneous refractive indices of biological tissue causes light scattering similar to that induced by optical turbulence in the atmospheric layers, we assume that SAA methods can be successfully implemented to reconstruct the image of an object within a scattering biological medium. To test this hypothesis, five SAA algorithms were evaluated for reconstructing images acquired from multiple viewpoints. After successfully retrieving the hidden object's shape, quantitative image quality metrics were derived, enabling comparison of imaging error across a spectrum of layer thicknesses, demonstrating the relative efficacy of each SAA algorithm for biological imaging.

  12. Gravitational scattering in the ADD model at high and low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, G.; Sjödahl, M.

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational scattering in the ADD model is considered at both sub- and transplanckian energies using a common formalism. By keeping a physical cut-off in the KK tower associated with virtual KK exchange, such as the cut-off implied by a finite brane width, troublesome divergences are removed from the calculations in both energy ranges. The scattering behavior depends on three different energy scales: the fundamental Planck mass, the collision energy and the inverse brane width. The result for energies low compared to the effective cut-off (inverse brane width) is a contact-like interaction. At high energies the gravitational scattering associated with the extra dimensional version of Newton’s law is recovered.

  13. Top Quarks Spin Correlations with Graviton in ADD and RS Models at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Masato; Okada, Nobuchika; Smolek, Karel; Šimák, Vladislav

    2008-03-01

    In LHC physics we study the spin correlation of top-antitop pairs production to investigate the production mechanism of heavy quarks[F. Hubard et al. Eur. Phys. J. C 44 (2006) 13]. The s-channel process mediated by graviton Kaluza-Klein modes in ADD model with several extra dimensions[N. Arkani-Hamed, S. Dimopoulos and G. Dvali, Phys. Lett. 429B (1998) 263, hep-ph/9803315] or in the Randall-Sundrum model with only one extra dimension[L. Randall and R. Sundrum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 3370 hep-ph/9905221] contribute to the top-antitop pair production and affects the resulting top spin correlations. We calculated the full density matrix for the top-antitop pair production. We find a sizable deviation of the top spin correlations from the Standard.

  14. Nanophotonic graphene-based racetrack-resonator add/drop filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth L., A.; da Silva, M. G.; Neves, D. M. C.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2016-05-01

    We are presenting and analyzing a graphene-based nanophotonic device to operate as a resonator-add/drop filter, whose control is obtained by varying the graphene chemical potential. That device consists of graphene-based waveguides, two directional couplers and a racetrack resonator with 90° bends. Since the graphene chemical potential provides the achievement of the necessary parameters, the resonance and filtering of the signals are obtained by applying the correct value of the graphene chemical potential in the graphene nanoribbons. The results of this study should help in the development of new graphene-based nanophotonic devices operating in the terahertz and infrared range (including in the C-band of the International Telecommunication Union - ITU), for use in future communications networks.

  15. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus.

  16. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The current Space Station Systems Technology Study add on task was an outgrowth of the Advanced Platform Systems Technology Study (APSTS) that was completed in April 1983 and the subsequent Space Station System Technology Study completed in April 1984. The first APSTS proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of five for detailed trade studies. During the advanced platform study, the technical issues and options were evaluated through detailed trade processes, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement, and advancement plans were developed. An approach similar to that was used in the subsequent study, with emphasis on system definition in four specific technology areas to facilitate a more in depth analysis of technology issues.

  17. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in Add Health.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; Deleone, Felicia Yang

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early marriage (before age 26), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are used to examine the health effects of early marriage and cohabitation accounting for potential health selection into unions. Our results indicate that early marriage by young adults does not have protective effects for African Americans, and finds more negative effects for African American men than women. There are mixed results for whites with some protective effects of marriage for binge drinking. Early marriage for both African Americans and whites is associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI). Cohabitation is uniformly associated with negative health outcomes for all race and sex groups.

  18. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials

    PubMed Central

    De Berardis, Domenico; Vellante, Federica; Santacroce, Rita; Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Girinelli, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Gambi, Francesco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. PMID:27524864

  19. Channelized broadband signal spectrum analysis based on weighted overlap-add structure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lianping; Jiang, Jun; Tan, Feng; Pan, Huiqing; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Hao; Bai, Lihong

    2016-10-01

    The digital channelization technology has been applied in many electronic areas, and the real-time broadband spectrum analysis has been the research hotspot in the area of signal processing. This paper introduces the channelized broadband signal spectrum analysis method. Based on the weighted overlap-add (WOLA) structure, this method divides the input broadband signal into several sub-bands or channels, and then downconverts and decimates the sub-band signals to obtain the baseband signals with a low sampling rate. The spectrum analysis results of the input broadband signal are achieved by conducting further decimation, fast Fourier transform and spectrum splicing to the baseband signals. The Matlab simulation results verify the correctness of the WOLA structure, and finally, an experimental platform is designed in detail to verify the practicability of this broadband spectrum analysis method.

  20. SAPling: a Scan-Add-Print barcoding database system to label and track asexual organisms

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Michael A.; Schötz, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY We have developed a ‘Scan-Add-Print’ database system, SAPling, to track and monitor asexually reproducing organisms. Using barcodes to uniquely identify each animal, we can record information on the life of the individual in a computerized database containing its entire family tree. SAPling has enabled us to carry out large-scale population dynamics experiments with thousands of planarians and keep track of each individual. The database stores information such as family connections, birth date, division date and generation. We show that SAPling can be easily adapted to other asexually reproducing organisms and has a strong potential for use in large-scale and/or long-term population and senescence studies as well as studies of clonal diversity. The software is platform-independent, designed for reliability and ease of use, and provided open source from our webpage to allow project-specific customization. PMID:21993779

  1. Channelized broadband signal spectrum analysis based on weighted overlap-add structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lianping; Jiang, Jun; Tan, Feng; Pan, Huiqing; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Hao; Bai, Lihong

    2016-10-01

    The digital channelization technology has been applied in many electronic areas, and the real-time broadband spectrum analysis has been the research hotspot in the area of signal processing. This paper introduces the channelized broadband signal spectrum analysis method. Based on the weighted overlap-add (WOLA) structure, this method divides the input broadband signal into several sub-bands or channels, and then downconverts and decimates the sub-band signals to obtain the baseband signals with a low sampling rate. The spectrum analysis results of the input broadband signal are achieved by conducting further decimation, fast Fourier transform and spectrum splicing to the baseband signals. The Matlab simulation results verify the correctness of the WOLA structure, and finally, an experimental platform is designed in detail to verify the practicability of this broadband spectrum analysis method.

  2. SCEW: a Microsoft Excel add-in for easy creation of survival curves.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2006-07-01

    Survival curves are frequently used for reporting survival or mortality outcomes of experimental pharmacological/toxicological studies and of clinical trials. Microsoft Excel is a simple and widely used tool for creation of numerous types of graphic presentations however it is difficult to create step-wise survival curves in Excel. Considering the familiarity of clinicians and biomedical scientists with Excel, an algorithm survival curves in Excel worksheet (SCEW) has been developed for easy creation of survival curves directly in Excel worksheets. The algorithm has been integrated in the form of Excel add-in for easy installation and usage. The program is based on modification of frequency data for binary break-up using the spreadsheet formula functions whereas a macro subroutine automates the creation of survival curves. The advantages of this program are simple data input, minimal procedural steps and the creation of survival curves in the familiar confines of Excel.

  3. A study of high repetition rate pulse generation and all-optical add/drop multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongmin

    Ultra high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed (OTDM) transmission technologies are essential for the construction of ultra high-speed all-optical networks needed in the information era. In this Ph. D thesis dissertation, essential mechanisms associated with ultra high speed OTDM transmission systems, such as, high speed ultra short pulse generation, all optical demultiplexing and all optical add/drop multiplexing, have been studied. Both experimental demonstrations and numerical simulations have been performed. In order to realize high-speed optical TDM systems, high repetition rate, ultra short pulses are needed. A rational harmonic mode-locked ring fiber laser has been used to produce ultrashort pulses, the pulse jitter will be eliminated using a Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL), and the self-pulsation has been suppressed using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Sub pico-second pulses are very important for all optical sampling in the ultrahigh-speed OTDM transmission system. In this thesis, a two stage compression scheme utilizing the nonlinearity and dispersion of the optical fibers has been constructed and used to compress the gain switched DFB laser pulses. Also a nonlinear optical loop mirror has been constructed to suppress the wings associated with nonlinear compression. Pedestal free, transform-limited pulses with pulse widths in range of 0.2 to 0.4 ps have been generated. LiNbO3 modulators play a very important role in fiber optical communication systems. In this thesis, LiNbO3 modulators have been used to perform high repetition rate pulse generation, all optical demultiplexing and all optical add/drop for the TDM transmission system.

  4. The CONVEX Liner Add-On to the DIAMOND-FORTUNE event

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.; Swift, R.P.; Hill, L.R.; Barrett, W.H.

    1993-11-15

    This report describes the execution of the CONVEX Liner Add-On to the DIAMOND FORTUNE low-yield cavity test of the Defense Nuclear Agency. CONVEX stands for COntained Nuclear Vessel EXperiment. It concerns the design of underground chambers where repeated low-yield nuclear explosions could be conducted. The approach proposed by the first author in the early 1980`s was to engineer a steel-lined rock cavern where the steel liner would be prestressed against the rock by tendons and/or bolts. These would daylight in tunnels surrounding the main cavity. From there, they could be initially tensioned and retensioned, if needed, after each test. The CONVEX Liner Add-On to DIAMOND FORTUNE consisted of anchoring a 1.4-m square, 2.5-cm thick steel plate to the wall of the cavity, using a 5-cm diameter center bolt, and four 2.5-cm diameter comer bolts. The bolts daylighted in a drift surrounding the gallery, and separated from it by a 9-m thick rock pillar. The liner plate, the bolts, and the rock pillar were equipped with 23 gages to describe the thermal and mechanical response of the system during pretensioning, during the dynamic loading phase, and post-test. Particular emphasis was given to obtaining the response both upon loading and during the rebound of the system, in order to determine whether the plate ever separated from the rock. So, the main operational objectives of this project were to acquire response data of the system under nuclear loading and to ascertain the status of contact between the steel plate and the rock, as shown by toadstool data and bolt tension data. The instrumentation and data acquisition system performed extremely well. Data were recorded during the dynamic phase; plate temperature was monitored for several hours after the test; and the remaining tension was obtained for several bolts more than three months after the test, upon re-entry in the runaround drift.

  5. Add-on memantine to valproate treatment increased HDL-C in bipolar II disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Po See; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Yu-Shan; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I. Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lu, Ru-Band; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2016-01-01

    Memantine is a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. As an augmenting agent, it has an antidepressant-like and mood-stabilizing effect. Memantine also reduces binge eating episodes and weight. We investigated whether memantine added on to valproate (VPA) is more effective than VPA alone for treating BP-II depression and improving the patient’s metabolic profile. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. BP-II patients undergoing regular VPA treatments were randomly assigned to one of two groups: VPA plus either add-on [1] memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 62) or [2] placebo (n = 73) for 12 weeks. The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were used to evaluate clinical response. Height, weight, fasting serum glucose, fasting total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were followed regularly. Multiple linear regressions with generalized estimating equation methods were used to analyze the effects of memantine on clinical performance. There were no significant differences in pre- and post-treatment YMRS and HDRS scores between the VPA + memantine and VPA + placebo groups. Although there were no significant differences in the pre- and post-treatment values of most metabolic indices between the two groups, there was a significant increase of HDL-C (p = 0.009) in the VPA + memantine group compared with the VPA + placebo group. This increase remained significant even after controlling for body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.020). We conclude that add-on memantine plus VPA treatment of BP-II depression increases the blood level of HDL-C even in the absence of change in affective symptoms. PMID:23870798

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  7. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  8. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  9. Substrate-controlled Michael additions of chiral ketones to enones.

    PubMed

    Fàbregas, Mireia; Gómez-Palomino, Alejandro; Pellicena, Miquel; Reina, Daniel F; Romea, Pedro; Urpí, Fèlix; Font-Bardia, Mercè

    2014-12-05

    Substrate-controlled Michael additions of the titanium(IV) enolate of lactate-derived ketone 1 to acyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones in the presence of a Lewis acid (TiCl4 or SnCl4) provide the corresponding 2,4-anti-4,5-anti dicarbonyl compounds in good yields and excellent diastereomeric ratios. Likely, the nucleophilic species involved in such additions are bimetallic enolates that may add to enones through cyclic transition states. Finally, further studies indicate that a structurally related β-benzyloxy chiral ketone can also participate in such stereocontrolled conjugate additions.

  10. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the... Limitations § 63.3169 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not... capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into account when...

  11. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the applicable emission limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which...

  12. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the... Electrodeposition Primer Emission Limitations § 63.3174 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on... limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into...

  13. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with... Emission Limitations § 63.3169 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device...? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into account...

  14. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the applicable emission limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the....3169 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into... systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into account when demonstrating...

  16. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the applicable emission limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose...

  17. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with... Emission Limitations § 63.3169 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device...? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into account...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the....3169 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into... systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into account when demonstrating...

  19. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the... Electrodeposition Primer Emission Limitations § 63.3174 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on... limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into...

  20. Addition, cycloaddition, and metathesis reactions of the cationic carbyne complexes [Cp(CO)[sub 2]Mn[triple bond]CCH[sub 2]R][sup +] and neutral vinylidene complexes Cp(CO)[sub 2]M=C=C(H)R (M = Mn, Re)

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, M.R.; Mercando, L.A.; Kelley, C.; Geoffroy, G.L. ); Nombel, P.; Lugan, N.; Mathieu, R. ); Ostrander, R.L.; Owens-Waltermire, B.E.; Rheingold, A.L. )

    1994-03-01

    The cationic alkylidyne complexes [Cp(CO)[sub 2]M=VCCH[sub 2]R][sup +] (M = Re, R = H; M = Mn, R = H, Me, Ph) undergo facile deprotonation to give the corresponding neutral vinylidene complexes Cp(CO)[sub 2]M=C=C(H)R. For [Cp(CO)[sub 2]Re=VCCH[sub 3