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Sample records for adds additional complexity

  1. Glucose in platelet additive solutions: to add or not to add?

    PubMed

    Gyongyossy-Issa, Maria I C

    2011-06-01

    The metabolic conversion of glucose to energy and reducing power by platelets is examined. Although platelets concurrently metabolize glucose aerobically and anaerobically, the balance between the cytosolic and mitochondrial pathways is affected not only by physiological activation but also by conditions prevailing during in vitro storage. The development of platelet additive solutions and pathogen reduction technologies point to increased glucose metabolism and consequent high levels of lactate production as the effect of platelet damage, rather than the cause. Consequently a different perspective of the data suggests that reduction rather than support of platelet metabolism in vitro would result in a better quality of stored platelets.

  2. Can metabolomics in addition to genomics add to prognostic and predictive information in breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Howell, Anthony

    2010-11-16

    Genomic data from breast cancers provide additional prognostic and predictive information that is beginning to be used for patient management. The question arises whether additional information derived from other 'omic' approaches such as metabolomics can provide additional information. In an article published this month in BMC Cancer, Borgan et al. add metabolomic information to genomic measures in breast tumours and demonstrate, for the first time, that it may be possible to further define subgroups of patients which could be of value clinically. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/10/628.

  3. An Additive Definition of Molecular Complexity.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Thomas

    2016-03-28

    A framework for molecular complexity is established that is based on information theory and consistent with chemical knowledge. The resulting complexity index Cm is derived from abstracting the information content of a molecule by the degrees of freedom in the microenvironments on a per-atom basis, allowing the molecular complexity to be calculated in a simple and additive way. This index allows the complexity of any molecule to be universally assessed and is sensitive to stereochemistry, heteroatoms, and symmetry. The performance of this complexity index is evaluated and compared against the current state of the art. Its additive character gives consistent values also for very large molecules and supports direct comparisons of chemical reactions. Finally, this approach may provide a useful tool for medicinal chemistry in drug design and lead selection, as demonstrated by correlating molecular complexities of antibiotics with compound-specific parameters.

  4. An Additive Definition of Molecular Complexity.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Thomas

    2016-03-28

    A framework for molecular complexity is established that is based on information theory and consistent with chemical knowledge. The resulting complexity index Cm is derived from abstracting the information content of a molecule by the degrees of freedom in the microenvironments on a per-atom basis, allowing the molecular complexity to be calculated in a simple and additive way. This index allows the complexity of any molecule to be universally assessed and is sensitive to stereochemistry, heteroatoms, and symmetry. The performance of this complexity index is evaluated and compared against the current state of the art. Its additive character gives consistent values also for very large molecules and supports direct comparisons of chemical reactions. Finally, this approach may provide a useful tool for medicinal chemistry in drug design and lead selection, as demonstrated by correlating molecular complexities of antibiotics with compound-specific parameters. PMID:26857537

  5. Insights into Chi recognition from the structure of an AddAB-type helicase–nuclease complex

    PubMed Central

    Saikrishnan, Kayarat; Yeeles, Joseph T; Gilhooly, Neville S; Krajewski, Wojciech W; Dillingham, Mark S; Wigley, Dale B

    2012-01-01

    In bacterial cells, processing of double-stranded DNA breaks for repair by homologous recombination is dependent upon the recombination hotspot sequence Chi and is catalysed by either an AddAB- or RecBCD-type helicase–nuclease. Here, we report the crystal structure of AddAB bound to DNA. The structure allows identification of a putative Chi-recognition site in an inactivated helicase domain of the AddB subunit. By generating mutant protein complexes that do not respond to Chi, we show that residues responsible for Chi recognition are located in positions equivalent to the signature motifs of a conventional helicase. Comparison with the related RecBCD complex, which recognizes a different Chi sequence, provides further insight into the structural basis for sequence-specific ssDNA recognition. The structure suggests a simple mechanism for DNA break processing, explains how AddAB and RecBCD can accomplish the same overall reaction with different sets of functional modules and reveals details of the role of an Fe–S cluster in protein stability and DNA binding. PMID:22307084

  6. Traveling Companions Add Complexity and Hinder Performance in the Spatial Behavior of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Alex; Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Eilam, David

    2016-01-01

    We sought to uncover the impact of the social environment on the spatial behavior of rats. Food-deprived rats were trained in a spatial task of collecting food items from 16 equispaced objects. Following training, they were tested, first alone and then with a similarly-trained cage-mate. It was found that the presence of another rat substantially altered the rats' spatial behavior. Lone rats collected the food items faster while traveling a shorter distance, reflecting a higher efficiency of task completion. When accompanied by a partner, however, the rats traveled together, visiting the same set of objects in each trip with one of them leading. Whether alone or with a partner, rats continued to revisit the same objects; however, more such revisits occurred with a partner. We argue that revisiting objects is not necessarily an error, since returning to past places is an important aspect of rats’ natural behavior. Revisiting an object following food depletion implies that searching for food was not the main driving force in the rats' spatial behavior. Specifically, despite food deprivation, rats were more attentive to one another than to the food. This could be adaptive, since foraging and feeding in groups is a way of poison avoidance in wild rats. Finally, the addition of a social component added complexity to the environment since the rats organized their spatial behavior in reference to one another in addition to their organization in the physical surrounding. Consequently, when tested with a partner, spatial behavior was less structured, less predictable and more chaotic. PMID:26727216

  7. Traveling Companions Add Complexity and Hinder Performance in the Spatial Behavior of Rats.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Alex; Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Eilam, David

    2016-01-01

    We sought to uncover the impact of the social environment on the spatial behavior of rats. Food-deprived rats were trained in a spatial task of collecting food items from 16 equispaced objects. Following training, they were tested, first alone and then with a similarly-trained cage-mate. It was found that the presence of another rat substantially altered the rats' spatial behavior. Lone rats collected the food items faster while traveling a shorter distance, reflecting a higher efficiency of task completion. When accompanied by a partner, however, the rats traveled together, visiting the same set of objects in each trip with one of them leading. Whether alone or with a partner, rats continued to revisit the same objects; however, more such revisits occurred with a partner. We argue that revisiting objects is not necessarily an error, since returning to past places is an important aspect of rats' natural behavior. Revisiting an object following food depletion implies that searching for food was not the main driving force in the rats' spatial behavior. Specifically, despite food deprivation, rats were more attentive to one another than to the food. This could be adaptive, since foraging and feeding in groups is a way of poison avoidance in wild rats. Finally, the addition of a social component added complexity to the environment since the rats organized their spatial behavior in reference to one another in addition to their organization in the physical surrounding. Consequently, when tested with a partner, spatial behavior was less structured, less predictable and more chaotic. PMID:26727216

  8. Essential drugs policy in three rural counties in China: what does a complexity lens add?

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yue; Zhao, Kun; Bishai, David M; Peters, David H

    2013-09-01

    In 2009 the government of China identified an essential drugs policy as one of five priority areas for health system reform. Since then, a national essential drugs policy has been defined, along with plans to implement it. As a large scale social intervention, the policy will have a significant impact on various local health actors. This paper uses the lens of complex adaptive systems to examine how the policy has been implemented in three rural Chinese counties. Using material gathered from interviews with key actors in county health bureaus and township health centers, we illustrate how a single policy can lead to multiple unanticipated outcomes. The complexity lens applied to the material gathered in interviews helps to identify relevant actors, their different relationships and policy responses and a new framework to better understand heterogeneous pathways and outcomes. Decision-makers and policy implementers are advised to embrace the complex and dynamic realities of policy implementation. This involves developing mechanisms to monitor different behaviors of key actors as well as the intended outcomes and unintended consequences of the policy.

  9. Episodic Memory Does Not Add Up: Verbatim-Gist Superposition Predicts Violations of the Additive Law of Probability

    PubMed Central

    Brainerd, C. J.; Wang, Zheng; Reyna, Valerie. F.; Nakamura, K.

    2015-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory’s assumptions about memory representation are cognitive examples of the familiar superposition property of physical quantum systems. When those assumptions are implemented in a formal quantum model (QEMc), they predict that episodic memory will violate the additive law of probability: If memory is tested for a partition of an item’s possible episodic states, the individual probabilities of remembering the item as belonging to each state must sum to more than 1. We detected this phenomenon using two standard designs, item false memory and source false memory. The quantum implementation of fuzzy-trace theory also predicts that violations of the additive law will vary in strength as a function of reliance on gist memory. That prediction, too, was confirmed via a series of manipulations (e.g., semantic relatedness, testing delay) that are thought to increase gist reliance. Surprisingly, an analysis of the underlying structure of violations of the additive law revealed that as a general rule, increases in remembering correct episodic states do not produce commensurate reductions in remembering incorrect states. PMID:26236091

  10. Explaining additional genetic variation in complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of complex traits, discovering >6000 variants associated with >500 quantitative traits and common complex diseases in humans. The associations identified so far represent only a fraction of those which influence phenotype, as there are likely to be very many variants across the entire frequency spectrum, each of which influences multiple traits, with only a small average contribution to the phenotypic variance. This presents a considerable challenge to further dissection of the remaining unexplained genetic variance within populations, which limits our ability to predict disease risk, identify new drug targets, improve and maintain food sources, and understand natural diversity. This challenge will be met within the current framework through larger sample size, better phenotyping including recording of non-genetic risk factors, focused study designs, and an integration of multiple sources of phenotypic and genetic information. The current evidence supports the application of quantitative genetic approaches, and we argue that one should retain simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power. PMID:24629526

  11. Implementation of Complexity Analyzing Based on Additional Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Na; Liang, Yanhong; Liu, Fang

    According to the Complexity Theory, there is complexity in the system when the functional requirement is not be satisfied. There are several study performances for Complexity Theory based on Axiomatic Design. However, they focus on reducing the complexity in their study and no one focus on method of analyzing the complexity in the system. Therefore, this paper put forth a method of analyzing the complexity which is sought to make up the deficiency of the researches. In order to discussing the method of analyzing the complexity based on additional effect, this paper put forth two concepts which are ideal effect and additional effect. The method of analyzing complexity based on additional effect combines Complexity Theory with Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). It is helpful for designers to analyze the complexity by using additional effect. A case study shows the application of the process.

  12. A Study to Determine if Addition of Palatal Petechiae to Centor Criteria Adds More Significance to Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V

    2016-01-01

    Objective. A study to determine if addition of palatal petechiae to Centor criteria adds more value for clinical diagnosis of acute strep pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis. In children, Centor Criteria does not cover all the symptoms and signs of acute strep pharyngitis. We hypothesize that addition of palatal petechiae to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of clinical diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Methods. One hundred patients with a complaint of sore throat were enrolled in the study. All the patients were examined clinically using the Centor Criteria. They were also examined for other signs and symptoms like petechial lesions over the palate, abdominal pain, and skin rash. All the patients were given rapid strep tests, and throat cultures were sent. No antibiotics were given until culture results were obtained. Results. The sample size was 100 patients. All 100 had fever, sore throat, and erythema of tonsils. Twenty of the 100 patients had tonsillar exudates, 85/100 had tender anterior cervical lymph nodes, and 86/100 had no cough. In total, 9 out of the 100 patients had positive throat cultures. We observed that petechiae over the palate, a very significant sign, is not included in the Centor Criteria. Palatal petechiae were present in 8 out of the 100 patients. Six out of these 8 with palatal petechiae had positive throat culture for strep (75%). Only 7 out of 20 with exudates had positive strep culture. Sixteen out of the 100 patients had rapid strep test positive. Those 84/100 who had negative rapid strep also had negative throat culture. Statistics. We used Fisher's exact test, comparing throat culture positive and negative versus presence of exudates and palatal hemorrhages with positive and negative throat cultures and the resultant P value <.0001. Conclusion. Our study concludes that addition of petechiae over the palate to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of diagnosing acute group A streptococcal

  13. A Study to Determine if Addition of Palatal Petechiae to Centor Criteria Adds More Significance to Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. A study to determine if addition of palatal petechiae to Centor criteria adds more value for clinical diagnosis of acute strep pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis. In children, Centor Criteria does not cover all the symptoms and signs of acute strep pharyngitis. We hypothesize that addition of palatal petechiae to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of clinical diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Methods. One hundred patients with a complaint of sore throat were enrolled in the study. All the patients were examined clinically using the Centor Criteria. They were also examined for other signs and symptoms like petechial lesions over the palate, abdominal pain, and skin rash. All the patients were given rapid strep tests, and throat cultures were sent. No antibiotics were given until culture results were obtained. Results. The sample size was 100 patients. All 100 had fever, sore throat, and erythema of tonsils. Twenty of the 100 patients had tonsillar exudates, 85/100 had tender anterior cervical lymph nodes, and 86/100 had no cough. In total, 9 out of the 100 patients had positive throat cultures. We observed that petechiae over the palate, a very significant sign, is not included in the Centor Criteria. Palatal petechiae were present in 8 out of the 100 patients. Six out of these 8 with palatal petechiae had positive throat culture for strep (75%). Only 7 out of 20 with exudates had positive strep culture. Sixteen out of the 100 patients had rapid strep test positive. Those 84/100 who had negative rapid strep also had negative throat culture. Statistics. We used Fisher’s exact test, comparing throat culture positive and negative versus presence of exudates and palatal hemorrhages with positive and negative throat cultures and the resultant P value <.0001. Conclusion. Our study concludes that addition of petechiae over the palate to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of diagnosing acute group A streptococcal

  14. Accelerating procelain formation by incorporating a complex additive

    SciTech Connect

    Maslennikova, G.N.; Dubovitskii, S.A.; Moroz, I.K.

    1986-05-01

    The authors studied the influence of a complex additive consisting of oxides of calcium, zinc, and magnesium on the formaton of porcelain. In order to achieve a more uniform distribution of the complex additive in the porcelain body it was incorporated in the form of water soluble salts-nitrates, which ensured comparability of results and excluded the effect of the different types of anions. The study of the main parameters of sintering (porosity, shrinkage, and mechanical strength) for the test bodies showed that they sinter at lower temperatures and attain zero porosity, maximum shrinkage, and mechanical strength. The most typical bodies indentified in this way were investigated by methods of complex differential thermal analysis and x-ray diffraction. Thus, the introduction of complex additives consisting of calcium, zinc, and magnesium oxides contributes to the earlier formation of porcelain. With the reduction of firing temperatures by 100/sup 0/C the authors observe an improvement in the basic properties of porcelain.

  15. Dry building mixture with complex dispersed mineral additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ina, Liliia; Mukhina, Irina; Teplov, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of the complex dispersed mineral additive consisting of diopside and limestone was provided by the following factors. Diopside, due to the high hardness, reinforces formed hardened cement paste and prevents the spread of micro-cracks in it under the action of loads. Furthermore, diopside due to the greater elastic modulus than cement paste causes redistribution of stress between the additive particles and the cement. Limestone, since it has chemical affinity with the clinker minerals and products of their hydration hardening, effects on the hydration process and the formation of the contact area between the additive particles and the cement. The optimum quantity of complex dispersed mineral additive is 7%. At the same time the strength of the solution, made of dry building mixture "rough leveler for floor", increased by 22.1%, and the strength of the solution, made of dry mortar "masonry mixture" increased by 32.7%. With the mineral additive introduction the offset of the endoeffect temperatures to higher temperatures on derivatograms is fixed. If there is a mineral additive in the hardened cement paste, which may act as substrate for the tumors crystallization, the hardened cement paste structure strengthening while the complex thermal analysis is seen.

  16. Additional evidence for complex 2-site polarons in CMR manganites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, Frank; Kurczveil, Geza; Downward, Lisa; Neumeier, John J.

    2007-03-01

    Recently we have proposed a complex 2-site polaron model (which we call a dimeron) that exists for temperatures near and above the ferromagnetic transition temperature, Tc [1]. The dimeron has a hole delocalized over two Mn sites (i.e. a hole and an electron share the two Mn sites) and the two Mn sites have a reduced distortion compared to the remaining Jahn-Teller distorted electron sites. Magnetic clusters just above Tc are likely clusters of these dimeron quasiparticles. The average valance of the two Mn sites in the dimeron is 3.5 and the spin is 7/2. We show that the Mn K-absorption edge is much better described as a sum of a 3.5 valence edge (fraction 2x) plus a 3 valance edge (fraction 1-2x), compared to earlier simulations using x CaMnO3 plus 1-x LaMnO3. We also show that fitting the Mn-O peak to a sum of two experimental Mn-O standards leads to a similar result as in the earlier study - a fraction 2x of lower distorted Mn sites (dimerons) and a fraction 1-2x of more distorted sites with 1 eg electron. Both support the proposed complex - 2-site polaron model.Supported under NSF grant DMR0301971.[1] L. Downward et. al., Phys Rev Lett 95, 106401 (2005).

  17. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  18. Additional Constraints on the Shallow Seismic Velocity Structure of the Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henig, A. S.; Blackman, D. K.; Harding, A. J.; Kent, G. M.; Canales, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    We investigate the detailed structure of the uppermost ~km of Atlantis Massif, an oceanic core complex at 30°N on the Mid Atlantic Ridge, using pre-existing multichannel seismic data. The Synthetic On- Bottom Experiment (SOBE) method that we employ downward continues both the shots and receivers to a depth just above the seafloor. This allows us to pick refracted arrivals recorded on the streamer at very-near offset, providing constraints from rays that are received within the 300-2000 m range that was unavailable to earlier studies where standard shot gathers had been analyzed. Thus, we can better model the upper few hundred meters of the section which, in turn, adds confidence for determining the deeper (400-1500 m) structure. New work on a ridge-parallel line has been added to last year's work on a cross-axis line over the Central Dome of the massif. Tomographic results are similar for these crossing lines: a thin (100-150 m) low velocity (< 3 km/s) layer caps the dome; high horizontal gradients (>1.25 s-1) occur in local (1-2 km wide) regions within these 6-8 km long subsections of the MCS lines analyzed to date; and very high vertical velocity gradients, greater than 3.75 s-1, occur within the km just below the exposed detachment in these areas. We obtain general agreement with Canales et al., 2008, results over the Central Dome but our models suggest a finer scale lateral heterogeneity. We have begun analysis of additional and extended MCS lines over the domal core of the massif and our priority for this presentation is to assess the detailed structure of the Southern Ridge. In at least some areas the thin, low velocity layer contrasts sufficiently with underlying material that a clear refracted arrival is visible in supergathers. We will determine whether the low velocity layer persists over the whole dome or if it is restricted to the Central Dome. An important question is whether its thickness on the Southern Ridge, if it exists there, differs from that

  19. How much additional model complexity do the use of catchment hydrological signatures, additional data and expert knowledge warrant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrachowitz, M.; Fovet, O.; RUIZ, L.; Gascuel-odoux, C.; Savenije, H.

    2013-12-01

    In the frequent absence of sufficient suitable data to constrain hydrological models, it is not uncommon to represent catchments at a range of scales by lumped model set-ups. Although process heterogeneity can average out on the catchment scale to generate simple catchment integrated responses whose general flow features can frequently be reproduced by lumped models, these models often fail to get details of the flow pattern as well as catchment internal dynamics, such as groundwater level changes, right to a sufficient degree, resulting in considerable predictive uncertainty. Traditionally, models are constrained by only one or two objectives functions, which does not warrant more than a handful of parameters to avoid elevated predictive uncertainty, thereby preventing more complex model set-ups accounting for increased process heterogeneity. In this study it was tested how much additional process heterogeneity is warranted in models when optimizing the model calibration strategy, using additional data and expert knowledge. Long-term timeseries of flow and groundwater levels for small nested experimental catchments in French Brittany with considerable differences in geology, topography and flow regime were used in this study to test which degree of model process heterogeneity is warranted with increased availability of information. In a first step, as a benchmark, the system was treated as one lumped entity and the model was trained based only on its ability to reproduce the hydrograph. Although it was found that the overall modelled flow generally reflects the observed flow response quite well, the internal system dynamics could not be reproduced. In further steps the complexity of this model was gradually increased, first by adding a separate riparian reservoir to the lumped set-up and then by a semi-distributed set-up, allowing for independent, parallel model structures, representing the contrasting nested catchments. Although calibration performance increased

  20. Effectiveness of add-on l-methylfolate therapy in a complex psychiatric illness with MTHFR C677 T genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shailesh; Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Rajesh; Das, Aparna

    2016-08-01

    The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene plays a central role in folate metabolism. Many studies have demonstrated an association between MTHFR C677 T variant with depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as one of them being comorbid to other. This has justified the use of folate supplement in psychiatric disorders mainly depression but still not in various other comorbid complex psychiatric disorders. Here we have tried to show how the l-methylfolate in conjunction with the conventional psychotropic drugs can be useful in a state of such complex psychiatric phenomenon and comorbid diagnosis with genetic polymorphism of MTHFR C677 T mutation. PMID:27520898

  1. Healthcare reform adds complexities for today's CFO.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, D; Nelson, B

    1993-04-01

    The profile of the typical senior financial executive in a hospital or corporate healthcare setting has changed little over the past two years. A November 1992 survey of CFOs by HFMA and Zimmerman & Associates, Inc., which updates a similar survey conducted in 1990, showed that the typical healthcare CFO is an extremely busy 41-year-old male with a postgraduate education who has held the position of CFO for six years. Survey findings also reveal that the CFO title is the predominant title for senior financial executives in healthcare facilities. For those receiving incentive compensation, the average compensation in 1992 was 11.7 percent of base salary. Within the context of career advancement, the CFO is most interested in learning more about healthcare reform; declining operating margins was seen as the CFO's most significant career challenge. PMID:10145788

  2. Copper-homoscorpionate complexes as active catalysts for atom transfer radical addition to olefins.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Molina, José María; Caballero, Ana; Díaz-Requejo, M Mar; Trofimenko, Swiatoslaw; Belderraín, Tomas R; Pérez, Pedro J

    2007-09-17

    Cu(I) complexes containing trispyrazolylborate ligands efficiently catalyze the atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) of polyhalogenated alkanes to various olefins under mild conditions. The catalytic activity is enhanced when bulky and electron donating Tpx ligands are employed. Kinetic data have allowed the proposal of a mechanistic interpretation that includes a Cu(II) pentacoordinated species that regulates the catalytic cycle.

  3. Proton and Electron Additions to Iron (II) Dinitrogen Complexes Containing Pendant Amines

    SciTech Connect

    Heiden, Zachariah M.; Chen, Shentan; Labios, Liezel AN; Bullock, R. Morris; Walter, Eric D.; Tyson, Elizabeth L.; Mock, Michael T.

    2014-03-10

    We describe a single site cis-(H)FeII-N2 complex, generated by the protonation of an iron-carbon bond of a "reduced" iron complex, that models key aspects of proposed protonated intermediates of the E4 state of nitrogenase. The influence on N2 binding from the addition of protons to the pendant amine sites in the second coordination sphere is described. Furthermore, the addition of electrons to the protonated complexes results in H2 loss. The mechanism of H2 loss is explored to draw a parallel to the origin of H2 loss (homolytic or heterolytic) and the nature of N2 coordination in intermediates of the E4 state of nitrogenase.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, Molecular Modeling, and DNA Interaction Studies of Copper Complex Containing Food Additive Carmoisine Dye.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Akbari, Alireza; Jamshidbeigi, Mina; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-06-01

    A copper complex of carmoisine dye; [Cu(carmoisine)2(H2O)2]; was synthesized and characterized by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding of this complex with calf thymus (ct) DNA was investigated by circular dichroism, absorption studies, emission spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements. UV-vis results confirmed that the Cu complex interacted with DNA to form a ground-state complex and the observed binding constant (2× 10(4) M(-1)) is more in keeping with the groove bindings with DNA. Furthermore, the viscosity measurement result showed that the addition of complex causes no significant change on DNA viscosity and it indicated that the intercalation mode is ruled out. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the reaction. The results of circular dichroism (CD) suggested that the complex can change the conformation of DNA from B-like form toward A-like conformation. The cytotoxicity studies of the carmoisine dye and its copper complex indicated that both of them had anticancer effects on HT-29 (colon cancer) cell line and they may be new candidates for treatment of the colon cancer.

  5. Synthesis, Characterization, Molecular Modeling, and DNA Interaction Studies of Copper Complex Containing Food Additive Carmoisine Dye.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Akbari, Alireza; Jamshidbeigi, Mina; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-06-01

    A copper complex of carmoisine dye; [Cu(carmoisine)2(H2O)2]; was synthesized and characterized by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding of this complex with calf thymus (ct) DNA was investigated by circular dichroism, absorption studies, emission spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements. UV-vis results confirmed that the Cu complex interacted with DNA to form a ground-state complex and the observed binding constant (2× 10(4) M(-1)) is more in keeping with the groove bindings with DNA. Furthermore, the viscosity measurement result showed that the addition of complex causes no significant change on DNA viscosity and it indicated that the intercalation mode is ruled out. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the reaction. The results of circular dichroism (CD) suggested that the complex can change the conformation of DNA from B-like form toward A-like conformation. The cytotoxicity studies of the carmoisine dye and its copper complex indicated that both of them had anticancer effects on HT-29 (colon cancer) cell line and they may be new candidates for treatment of the colon cancer. PMID:27152751

  6. Insights into the Halogen Oxidative Addition Reaction to Dinuclear Gold(I) Di(NHC) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Baron, Marco; Tubaro, Cristina; Basato, Marino; Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Gennaro, Armando; Cavallo, Luigi; Graiff, Claudia; Dolmella, Alessandro; Falivene, Laura; Caporaso, Lucia

    2016-07-11

    Gold(I) dicarbene complexes [Au2 (MeIm-Y-ImMe)2 ](PF6 )2 (Y=CH2 (1), (CH2 )2 (2), (CH2 )4 (4), MeIm=1-methylimidazol-2-ylidene) react with iodine to give the mixed-valence complex [Au(MeIm-CH2 -ImMe)2 AuI2 ](PF6 )2 (1 a(I) ) and the gold(III) complexes [Au2 I4 (MeIm-Y-ImMe)2 ](PF6 )2 (2 c(I) and 4 c(I) ). Reaction of complexes 1 and 2 with an excess of ICl allows the isolation of the tetrachloro gold(III) complexes [Au2 Cl4 (MeIm-CH2 -ImMe)2 ](PF6 )2 (1 c(Cl) ) and [Au2 Cl4 (MeIm-(CH2 )2 -ImMe)2 ](Cl)2 (2 c(Cl) -Cl) (as main product); remarkably in the case of complex 2, the X-ray molecular structure of the crystals also shows the presence of I-Au-Cl mixed-sphere coordination. The same type of coordination has been observed in the main product of the reaction of complexes 3 or 4 with ICl. The study of the reactivity towards the oxidative addition of halogens to a large series of dinuclear bis(dicarbene) gold(I) complexes has been extended and reviewed. The complexes react with Cl2 , Br2 and I2 to give the successive formation of the mixed-valence gold(I)/gold(III) n a(X) and gold(III) n c(X) (excluding compound 1 c(I) ) complexes. However, complex 3 affords with Cl2 and Br2 the gold(II) complex 3 b(X) [Au2 X2 (MeIm-(CH2 )3 -ImMe)2 ](PF6 )2 (X=Cl, Br), which is the predominant species over compound 3 c(X) even in the presence of free halogen. The observed different relative stabilities of the oxidised complexes of compounds 1 and 3 have also been confirmed by DFT calculations. PMID:27297191

  7. The Purification of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast ClpP complex: additional subunits and structural features

    PubMed Central

    Derrien, Benoît; Majeran, Wojciech; Effantin, Grégory; Ebenezer, Joseph; Friso, Giulia; van Wijk, Klaas J.; Steven, Alasdair C.; Maurizi, Michael R.; Vallon, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The ClpP peptidase is a major constituent of the proteolytic machinery of bacteria and organelles. The chloroplast ClpP complex is unusual, in that it associates a large number of subunits, one of which (ClpP1) is encoded in the chloroplast, the others in the nucleus. The complexity of these large hetero-oligomeric complexes has been a major difficulty in their overproduction and biochemical characterization. In this paper, we describe the purification of native chloroplast ClpP complex from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using a strain that carries the Strep-tag II at the C-terminus of the ClpP1 subunit. Similar to land plants, the algal complex comprises active and inactive subunits (3 ClpP and 5 ClpR, respectively). Evidence is presented that a sub-complex can be produced by dissociation, comprising ClpP1 and ClpR1, 2, 3 and 4, similar to the ClpR-ring described in land plants. Our Chlamydomonas ClpP preparation also contains two ClpT subunits, ClpT3 and ClpT4, which like the land plant ClpT1 and ClpT2 show 2 Clp-N domains. ClpTs are believed to function in substrate binding and/or assembly of the two heptameric rings. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that ClpT subunits have appeared independently in Chlorophycean algae, in land plants and in dispersed cyanobacterial genomes. Negative staining electron microscopy shows that the Chlamydomonas complex retains the barrel-like shape of homo-oligomeric ClpPs, with 4 additional peripheral masses that we speculate represent either the additional IS1 domain of ClpP1 (a feature unique to algae) or ClpTs or extensions of ClpR subunits PMID:22772861

  8. The purification of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast ClpP complex: additional subunits and structural features.

    PubMed

    Derrien, Benoît; Majeran, Wojciech; Effantin, Grégory; Ebenezer, Joseph; Friso, Giulia; van Wijk, Klaas J; Steven, Alasdair C; Maurizi, Michael R; Vallon, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    The ClpP peptidase is a major constituent of the proteolytic machinery of bacteria and organelles. The chloroplast ClpP complex is unusual, in that it associates a large number of subunits, one of which (ClpP1) is encoded in the chloroplast, the others in the nucleus. The complexity of these large hetero-oligomeric complexes has been a major difficulty in their overproduction and biochemical characterization. In this paper, we describe the purification of native chloroplast ClpP complex from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using a strain that carries the Strep-tag II at the C-terminus of the ClpP1 subunit. Similar to land plants, the algal complex comprises active and inactive subunits (3 ClpP and 5 ClpR, respectively). Evidence is presented that a sub-complex can be produced by dissociation, comprising ClpP1 and ClpR1, 2, 3 and 4, similar to the ClpR-ring described in land plants. Our Chlamydomonas ClpP preparation also contains two ClpT subunits, ClpT3 and ClpT4, which like the land plant ClpT1 and ClpT2 show 2 Clp-N domains. ClpTs are believed to function in substrate binding and/or assembly of the two heptameric rings. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that ClpT subunits have appeared independently in Chlorophycean algae, in land plants and in dispersed cyanobacterial genomes. Negative staining electron microscopy shows that the Chlamydomonas complex retains the barrel-like shape of homo-oligomeric ClpPs, with 4 additional peripheral masses that we speculate represent either the additional IS1 domain of ClpP1 (a feature unique to algae) or ClpTs or extensions of ClpR subunits.

  9. Complex esthetic and functional rehabilitation with an additive, minimally invasive restorative approach.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher Ck

    2014-06-01

    Historically, the management of patients presenting with extensive tooth wear comprised the use of conventional fixed prosthodontics, an approach that often entailed invasive dentistry and increased biomechanical risk. With the development of adhesive bonding, a dentition can be restored in a much more conservative manner using an additive approach. This case report describes the concepts employed in a complex rehabilitation involving tooth erosion, applying both direct and indirect restorations with minimal biological risk to the patient.

  10. An automatic system for the assessment of complex medium additives under cultivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Iding, K; Büntemeyer, H; Gudermann, F; Deutschmann, S M; Kionka, C; Lehmann, J

    2001-06-20

    Complex medium additives such as yeast extract or peptone are often used in industrial cell culture processes to prolong cell growth and/or to improve product formation. The quality of those supplements is dependent on the preparation method and can differ from lot to lot. To guarantee consistent production these different lots have to be tested prior to use in fermentation processes. Because a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of all components of such a complex mixture is a very difficult task, another assessment method has to be chosen. The best way to evaluate the effect of such supplements is to monitor cell activity during real cultivation conditions with and without the added supplement lot. A bioreactor-based test system has been developed to determine the oxygen requirement of the cells as a response to the addition of a supplement to be tested under standardized conditions. Investigations were performed with a mouse-mouse hybridoma cell line and yeast extracts as an example for complex medium additives. The results showed differences in the impact between different extract lots and between different concentrations of an extract.

  11. ProPhenol-Catalyzed Asymmetric Additions by Spontaneously Assembled Dinuclear Main Group Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus The development of catalytic enantioselective transformations has been the focus of many research groups over the past half century and is of paramount importance to the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. Since the award of the Nobel Prize in 2001, the field of enantioselective transition metal catalysis has soared to new heights, with the development of more efficient catalysts and new catalytic transformations at increasing frequency. Furthermore, catalytic reactions that allow higher levels of redox- and step-economy are being developed. Thus, alternatives to asymmetric alkene dihydroxylation and the enantioselective reduction of α,β-unsaturated ketones can invoke more strategic C–C bond forming reactions, such as asymmetric aldol reactions of an aldehyde with α-hydroxyketone donors or enantioselective alkynylation of an aldehyde, respectively. To facilitate catalytic enantioselective addition reactions, including the aforementioned aldol and alkynylation reactions, our lab has developed the ProPhenol ligand. In this Account, we describe the development and application of the ProPhenol ligand for asymmetric additions of both carbon- and heteroatom-based nucleophiles to various electrophiles. The ProPhenol ligand spontaneously forms chiral dinuclear metal complexes when treated with an alkyl metal reagent, such as Et2Zn or Bu2Mg. The resulting complex contains both a Lewis acidic site to activate an electrophile and a Brønsted basic site to deprotonate a pronucleophile. Initially, our research focused on the use of Zn-ProPhenol complexes to facilitate the direct aldol reaction. Fine tuning of the reaction through ligand modification and the use of additives enabled the direct aldol reaction to proceed in high yields and stereoselectivities with a broad range of donor substrates, including acetophenones, methyl ynones, methyl vinyl ketone, acetone, α-hydroxy carbonyl compounds, and glycine Schiff bases. Additionally, an analogous

  12. Enantioselective addition of silicon nucleophiles to aldimines using a preformed NHC-Copper(I) complex as the catalyst.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Alexander; Nagura, Kazuhiko; Delvos, Lukas B; Oestreich, Martin

    2014-05-01

    A remaining major challenge in the asymmetric addition of silicon nucleophiles to typical prochiral acceptors, the enantioselective 1,2-addition to aldimines, is addressed. Activation of the SiB bond in the silicon pronucleophile by a copper(I) alkoxide with McQuade's chiral six-membered N-heterocyclic carbene as a supporting ligand releases the silicon nucleophile, which adds to various aldimines with high levels of enantioselectivity. The new method provides a catalytic asymmetric access to α-silylated amines.

  13. "Oxidative addition" of halogens to uranium(IV) bis(amidophenolate) complexes.

    PubMed

    Matson, Ellen M; Opperwall, Stacey R; Fanwick, Phillip E; Bart, Suzanne C

    2013-06-17

    A series of U(IV) complexes, ((R)ap)2U(THF)2 [R = tert-butyl (t-Bu) (1), adamantyl (Ad) (2), diisopropylphenyl (dipp) (3)], supported by the redox-active 4,6-di-tert-butyl-2-(R)amidophenolate ligand, have been synthesized by salt metathesis of 2 equiv of the alkali metal salt of the ligand, M2[(R)ap] [M = K (1 and 2), Na (3)], with UCl4. Exposure of these uranium complexes to 1 equiv of PhICl2 results in oxidative addition to uranium, forming the bis-(4,6-di-tert-butyl-2-(R)iminosemiquinone) ([(R)isq](1-)) uranium(IV) dichloride dimer, [((R)isq)2UCl]2(μ(2)-Cl)2 [R = t-Bu (4), Ad (5), dipp (6)]. The addition of iodine to 1 forms ((tBu)isq)2UI2(THF) (7), while the reactivity of I2 with 2 and 3 results in decomposition. Complexes 1-7 have been characterized by (1)H NMR and electronic absorption spectroscopies. X-ray crystallography was employed to elucidate structural parameters of 2, 3, 5, and 7.

  14. Use of additive technologies for practical working with complex models for foundry technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovik, E.; Butsanets, A. A.; Ageeva, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    The article presents the results of research of additive technology (3D printing) application for developing a geometrically complex model of castings parts. Investment casting is well known and widely used technology for the production of complex parts. The work proposes the use of a 3D printing technology for manufacturing models parts, which are removed by thermal destruction. Traditional methods of equipment production for investment casting involve the use of manual labor which has problems with dimensional accuracy, and CNC technology which is less used. Such scheme is low productive and demands considerable time. We have offered an alternative method which consists in printing the main knots using a 3D printer (PLA and ABS) with a subsequent production of castings models from them. In this article, the main technological methods are considered and their problems are discussed. The dimensional accuracy of models in comparison with investment casting technology is considered as the main aspect.

  15. Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Götzinger, Erich; Hitzenberger, Christoph K

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate a new full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography (FRC SD-OCT) method. Other than FRC SD-OCT systems reported in literature, which employed devices such as electro-/acousto optic modulators or piezo-driven mirrors providing the phase modulations necessary for retrieval of the complex-valued signal, the system presented works without any additional phase shifting device. The required phase shift is introduced by the galvanometer scanner used for transversally scanning the sample beam. By means of a slight displacement of the probe beam with respect to the scanning mirror's pivot axis, the sample arm length and thus the phase is continuously modulated as the beam is scanned in lateral direction. From such modulated spectral data, the complex-valued data yielding a twofold increase of accessible depth range can be calculated using an algorithm based on the Hilbert transform. To demonstrate the performance of our method quantitative measurements of the suppression of mirror images as a function of induced phase shift were performed. In order to validate the FRC SD-OCT technique for high-speed imaging of biological tissue, we present full-range images of the human anterior chamber in vivo. PMID:19550607

  16. Beyond Mutations: Additional Mechanisms and Implications of SWI/SNF Complex Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Stefanie B.; Thompson, Kenneth W.; Lu, Li; Reisman, David

    2015-01-01

    SWI/SNF is a major regulator of gene expression. Its role is to facilitate the shifting and exposure of DNA segments within the promoter and other key domains to transcription factors and other essential cellular proteins. This complex interacts with a wide range of proteins and does not function within a single, specific pathway; thus, it is involved in a multitude of cellular processes, including DNA repair, differentiation, development, cell adhesion, and growth control. Given SWI/SNF’s prominent role in these processes, many of which are important for blocking cancer development, it is not surprising that the SWI/SNF complex is targeted during cancer initiation and progression both by mutations and by non-mutational mechanisms. Currently, the understanding of the types of alterations, their frequency, and their impact on the SWI/SNF subunits is an area of intense research that has been bolstered by a recent cadre of NextGen sequencing studies. These studies have revealed mutations in SWI/SNF subunits, indicating that this complex is thus important for cancer development. The purpose of this review is to put into perspective the role of mutations versus other mechanisms in the silencing of SWI/SNF subunits, in particular, BRG1 and BRM. In addition, this review explores the recent development of synthetic lethality and how it applies to this complex, as well as how BRM polymorphisms are becoming recognized as potential clinical biomarkers for cancer risk. Significance: Recent reviews have detailed the occurrence of mutations in nearly all SWI/SNF subunits, which indicates that this complex is an important target for cancer. However, when the frequency of mutations in a given tumor type is compared to the frequency of subunit loss, it becomes clear that other non-mutational mechanisms must play a role in the inactivation of SWI/SNF subunits. Such data indicate that epigenetic mechanisms that are known to regulate BRM may also be involved in the loss of

  17. An Assessment of Nondestructive Evaluation Capability for Complex Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James; Beshears, Ron; Lambert, Dennis; Tilson, William

    2016-01-01

    The primary focus of this work is to investigate some of the fundamental relationships between processing, mechanical testing, materials characterization, and NDE for additively manufactured (AM) components using the powder bed fusion direct melt laser sintered process. The goal is to understand the criticality of defects unique to the AM process and then how conventional nondestructive evaluation methods as well as some of the more non-traditional methods such as computed tomography, are effected by the AM material. Specific defects including cracking, porosity and partially/unfused powder will be addressed. Besides line-of-site NDE, as appropriate these inspection capabilities will be put into the context of complex AM geometries where hidden features obscure, or inhibit traditional NDE methods.

  18. The guanidine and maleic acid (1:1) complex. The additional theoretical and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Marek; Dudzic, Damian

    2012-04-01

    On the basis of experimental literature data the theoretical studies for guanidinium and maleic acid complex with using DFT method are performed. In these studies the experimental X-ray data for two different forms of investigated crystal were used. During the geometry optimization process one equilibrium structure was found, only. According to this result the infrared spectrum for one theoretical molecule was calculated. On the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) analysis the clear-cut assignments of observed bands were performed. For the calculated molecule with energy minimum the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were obtained and graphically illustrated. The energy difference (GAP) between HOMO and LUMO was analyzed. Additionally, the nonlinear properties of this molecule were calculated. The α and β (first and second order) hyperpolarizability values are obtained. On the basis of these results the title crystal was classified as new second order NLO generator.

  19. Feature based Weld-Deposition for Additive Manufacturing of Complex Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchagnula, Jayaprakash Sharma; Simhambhatla, Suryakumar

    2016-08-01

    Fabricating functional metal parts using Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a leading trend. However, realizing overhanging features has been a challenge due to the lack of support mechanism for metals. Powder-bed fusion techniques like, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) employ easily-breakable-scaffolds made of the same material to realize the overhangs. However, the same approach is not extendible to deposition processes like laser or arc based direct energy deposition processes. Although it is possible to realize small overhangs by exploiting the inherent overhanging capability of the process or by blinding some small features like holes, the same cannot be extended for more complex geometries. The current work presents a novel approach for realizing complex overhanging features without the need of support structures. This is possible by using higher order kinematics and suitably aligning the overhang with the deposition direction. Feature based non-uniform slicing and non-uniform area-filling are some vital concepts required in realizing the same and are briefly discussed here. This method can be used to fabricate and/or repair fully dense and functional components for various engineering applications. Although this approach has been implemented for weld-deposition based system, the same can be extended to any other direct energy deposition processes also.

  20. Attentional bias induced by solving simple and complex addition and subtraction problems.

    PubMed

    Masson, Nicolas; Pesenti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The processing of numbers has been shown to induce shifts of spatial attention in simple probe detection tasks, with small numbers orienting attention to the left and large numbers to the right side of space. Recently, the investigation of this spatial-numerical association has been extended to mental arithmetic with the hypothesis that solving addition or subtraction problems may induce attentional displacements (to the right and to the left, respectively) along a mental number line onto which the magnitude of the numbers would range from left to right, from small to large numbers. Here we investigated such attentional shifts using a target detection task primed by arithmetic problems in healthy participants. The constituents of the addition and subtraction problems (first operand; operator; second operand) were flashed sequentially in the centre of a screen, then followed by a target on the left or the right side of the screen, which the participants had to detect. This paradigm was employed with arithmetic facts (Experiment 1) and with more complex arithmetic problems (Experiment 2) in order to assess the effects of the operation, the magnitude of the operands, the magnitude of the results, and the presence or absence of a requirement for the participants to carry or borrow numbers. The results showed that arithmetic operations induce some spatial shifts of attention, possibly through a semantic link between the operation and space. PMID:24833320

  1. Attentional bias induced by solving simple and complex addition and subtraction problems.

    PubMed

    Masson, Nicolas; Pesenti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The processing of numbers has been shown to induce shifts of spatial attention in simple probe detection tasks, with small numbers orienting attention to the left and large numbers to the right side of space. Recently, the investigation of this spatial-numerical association has been extended to mental arithmetic with the hypothesis that solving addition or subtraction problems may induce attentional displacements (to the right and to the left, respectively) along a mental number line onto which the magnitude of the numbers would range from left to right, from small to large numbers. Here we investigated such attentional shifts using a target detection task primed by arithmetic problems in healthy participants. The constituents of the addition and subtraction problems (first operand; operator; second operand) were flashed sequentially in the centre of a screen, then followed by a target on the left or the right side of the screen, which the participants had to detect. This paradigm was employed with arithmetic facts (Experiment 1) and with more complex arithmetic problems (Experiment 2) in order to assess the effects of the operation, the magnitude of the operands, the magnitude of the results, and the presence or absence of a requirement for the participants to carry or borrow numbers. The results showed that arithmetic operations induce some spatial shifts of attention, possibly through a semantic link between the operation and space.

  2. Sonification and haptic feedback in addition to visual feedback enhances complex motor task learning.

    PubMed

    Sigrist, Roland; Rauter, Georg; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Concurrent augmented feedback has been shown to be less effective for learning simple motor tasks than for complex tasks. However, as mostly artificial tasks have been investigated, transfer of results to tasks in sports and rehabilitation remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of different concurrent feedback was evaluated in trunk-arm rowing. It was then investigated whether multimodal audiovisual and visuohaptic feedback are more effective for learning than visual feedback only. Naïve subjects (N = 24) trained in three groups on a highly realistic virtual reality-based rowing simulator. In the visual feedback group, the subject's oar was superimposed to the target oar, which continuously became more transparent when the deviation between the oars decreased. Moreover, a trace of the subject's trajectory emerged if deviations exceeded a threshold. The audiovisual feedback group trained with oar movement sonification in addition to visual feedback to facilitate learning of the velocity profile. In the visuohaptic group, the oar movement was inhibited by path deviation-dependent braking forces to enhance learning of spatial aspects. All groups significantly decreased the spatial error (tendency in visual group) and velocity error from baseline to the retention tests. Audiovisual feedback fostered learning of the velocity profile significantly more than visuohaptic feedback. The study revealed that well-designed concurrent feedback fosters complex task learning, especially if the advantages of different modalities are exploited. Further studies should analyze the impact of within-feedback design parameters and the transferability of the results to other tasks in sports and rehabilitation.

  3. Uncoupling of bait-protein expression from the prey protein environment adds versatility for cell and tissue interaction proteomics and reveals a complex of CARP-1 and the PKA Cbeta1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Erlbruch, Andrea; Hung, Chien-Wen; Seidler, Joerg; Borrmann, Katrin; Gesellchen, Frank; König, Norbert; Kübler, Dieter; Herberg, Friedrich W; Lehmann, Wolf D; Bossemeyer, Dirk

    2010-08-01

    An expression-uncoupled tandem affinity purification assay is introduced which differs from the standard TAP assay by uncoupling the expression of the TAP-bait protein from the target cells. Here, the TAP-tagged bait protein is expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The two concatenated purification steps of the classical TAP are performed after addition of the purified bait to brain tissue homogenates, cell and nuclear extracts. Without prior genetic manipulation of the target, upscaling, free choice of cell compartments and avoidance of expression triggered heat shock responses could be achieved in one go. By the strategy of separating bait expression from the prey protein environment numerous established, mostly tissue-specific binding partners of the protein kinase A catalytic subunit Cbeta1 were identified, including interactions in binary, ternary and quaternary complexes. In addition, the previously unknown small molecule inhibitor-dependent interaction of Cbeta1 with the cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein-1 was verified. The uncoupled tandem affinity purification procedure presented here expands the application range of the in vivo TAP assay and may serve as a simple strategy for identifying cell- and tissue-specific protein complexes.

  4. Cryptic biodiversity effects: importance of functional redundancy revealed through addition of food web complexity.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Pardee, Gabriella L; Gonthier, David J

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon spp.) on three predatory ant species and herbivores in a coffee agroecosystem. Specifically, we examined whether changes in ant richness affected fruit damage by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and whether phorids altered multi-predator effects. Each ant species reduced borer damage, and without phorids, increasing predator richness did not further decrease borer damage. However, with phorids, activity of one ant species was reduced, indicating that the presence of multiple ant species was necessary to limit borer damage. In addition, phorid presence revealed synergistic effects of multiple ant species, not observed without the presence of this parasite. Thus, a trait-mediated cascade resulting from a parasite-induced predator behavioral change revealed the importance of functional redundancy, predator diversity, and food web complexity for control of this important pest.

  5. Additive surface complexation modeling of uranium(VI) adsorption onto quartz-sand dominated sediments.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenming; Wan, Jiamin

    2014-06-17

    Many aquifers contaminated by U(VI)-containing acidic plumes are composed predominantly of quartz-sand sediments. The F-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina (USA) is an example. To predict U(VI) mobility and natural attenuation, we conducted U(VI) adsorption experiments using the F-Area plume sediments and reference quartz, goethite, and kaolinite. The sediments are composed of ∼96% quartz-sand and 3-4% fine fractions of kaolinite and goethite. We developed a new humic acid adsorption method for determining the relative surface area abundances of goethite and kaolinite in the fine fractions. This method is expected to be applicable to many other binary mineral pairs, and allows successful application of the component additivity (CA) approach based surface complexation modeling (SCM) at the SRS F-Area and other similar aquifers. Our experimental results indicate that quartz has stronger U(VI) adsorption ability per unit surface area than goethite and kaolinite at pH ≤ 4.0. Our modeling results indicate that the binary (goethite/kaolinite) CA-SCM under-predicts U(VI) adsorption to the quartz-sand dominated sediments at pH ≤ 4.0. The new ternary (quartz/goethite/kaolinite) CA-SCM provides excellent predictions. The contributions of quartz-sand, kaolinite, and goethite to U(VI) adsorption and the potential influences of dissolved Al, Si, and Fe are also discussed.

  6. Spectrophotometric study of complexation equilibria with H-point standard addition and H-point curve isolation methods.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, H; Zeinali, S

    2004-01-01

    The use of H-point curve isolation (HPCIM) and H-point standard addition methods (HPSAM) for spectrophotometric studies of complex formation equilibria are proposed. One step complex formation, two successive stepwise and mononuclear complex formation systems, and competitive complexation systems are studied successfully by the proposed methods. HPCIM is used for extracting the spectrum of complex or sum of complex species and HPSAM is used for calculation of equilibrium concentrations of ligand for each sample. The outputs of these procedures are complete concentration profiles of equilibrium system, spectral profile of intermediate components, and good estimation of conditional formation constants. The reliability of the method is evaluated using model data. Spectrophotometric studies of murexide-calcium, dithizone-nickel, methyl thymol blue (MTB)-copper, and competition of murexide and sulfate ions for complexation with zinc, are used as experimental model systems with different complexation stoichiometries and spectral overlapping of involved components.

  7. Temporal dark adaptation to spatially complex backgrounds: effect of an additional light source.

    PubMed

    Stokkermans, M G M; Heynderickx, I E J

    2014-07-01

    Visual adaptation (and especially dark adaptation) has been studied extensively in the past, however, mainly addressing adaptation to fully dark backgrounds. At this stage, it is unclear whether these results are not too simple to be applied to complex situations, such as predicting adaptation of a motorist driving at night. To fill this gap we set up a study investigating how spatially complex backgrounds influence temporal dark adaptation. Our results showed that dark adaptation to spatially complex backgrounds leads to much longer adaptation times than dark adaptation to spatially uniform backgrounds. We conclude therefore that the adaptation models based on past studies overestimate the visual system's sensitivity to detect luminance variations in spatially complex environments. Our results also showed large variations in adaptation times when varying the degree of spatial complexity of the background. Hence, we may conclude that it is important to take into account models that are based on spatially complex backgrounds when predicting dark adaptation for complex environments.

  8. Effect of Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics and Adsorption Additivity

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M.

    2011-07-27

    Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the contribution of variable grain sizes to uranium adsorption/desorption in a sediment collected from the US DOE Hanford site. The sediment was wet-sieved into four size fractions: coarse sand (1-2 mm), medium sand (0.2-1 mm), fine sand (0.05-0.2 mm), and clay/silt fraction (< 0.05mm). For each size fraction and their composite (sediment), batch experiments were performed to determine uranium adsorption isotherms, and stirred flow-cell experiments were conducted to derive kinetic data of uranium adsorption and subsequent desorption. The results showed that uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics were size-specific, reflecting the effects of size-specific adsorption site concentration and kinetic rate constants. The larger-size fraction had a larger mass percentage in the sediment, but with a smaller adsorption site concentration and generally a slower uranium adsorption/desorption rate. The same equilibrium surface complexation reaction and reaction constant could describe uranium adsorption isotherms for all size fractions and the composite after accounting for the effect of adsorption site concentration. Mass-weighted, linear additivity was observed for both uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics in the composite. Our analysis also showed that uranium adsorption site concentration estimated from the adsorption isotherms was 3 orders of magnitude less than a site concentration estimated from sediment surface area and generic site density. One important implication of this study is that grain size distribution may be used to estimate uranium adsorption site, and adsorption/desorption kinetic rates in heterogeneous sediments from a common location.

  9. Using Joint Interviews to Add Analytic Value.

    PubMed

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2016-10-01

    Joint interviewing has been frequently used in health research, and is the subject of a growing methodological literature. We review this literature, and build on it by drawing on a case study of how people make decisions about taking statins. This highlights two ways in which a dyadic approach to joint interviewing can add analytic value compared with individual interviewing. First, the analysis of interaction within joint interviews can help to explicate tacit knowledge and to illuminate the range of often hard-to-access resources that are drawn upon in making decisions. Second, joint interviews mitigate some of the weaknesses of interviewing as a method for studying practices; we offer a cautious defense of the often-tacit assumption that the "naturalness" of joint interviews strengthens their credibility as the basis for analytic inferences. We suggest that joint interviews are a particularly appropriate method for studying complex shared practices such as making health decisions. PMID:25850721

  10. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Ritter, James A.; Ebner, Armin D.; Wang, Jun; Holland, Charles E.

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  11. Microencapsulation of human insulin DEAE-dextran complex and the complex in liposomes by the emulsion non-solvent addition method.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, A; Manosroi, J

    1997-01-01

    Human insulin-DEAE (diethyl amino ethyl) dextran complex and human insulin DEAE-dextran complex in liposomes were encapsulated in cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) microcapsules by the emulsion non-solvent addition method. The ratio of core-to-coat used was 1:1. The average diameters of the complex microcapsules and the complex liposome microcapsules were 239.5 +/- 77.5 and 182.9 +/- 52.2 microns respectively. In vitro dissolution studies of both types of microcapsules in simulated intestinal fluid at pH 7.2 showed a sustained release of the complex and the complex liposome microcapsules with t50 = 1.5 h and 4 h respectively. This study can be applied to the further development of oral formulations of human insulin liposomes for diabetic treatment.

  12. A general access to organogold(iii) complexes by oxidative addition of diazonium salts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Long; Rominger, Frank; Rudolph, Matthias; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2016-05-11

    At room temperature under mild photochemical conditions, namely irradiation with a simple blue light LED, gold(i) chloro complexes of both phosphane and carbene ligands in combination with aryldiazonium salts afford arylgold(iii) complexes. With chelating P,N-ligands cationic six- or five-membered chelate complexes were isolated in the form of salts with weakly coordinating counter anions that were brought in from the diazonium salt. With monodentate P ligands or N-heterocyclic carbene ligands and diazonium chlorides neutral arylgold(iii) dichloro complexes were obtained. The coordination geometry was determined by X-ray crystal structure analyses of representative compounds, a cis arrangement of the aryl and the phosphane ligand at the square planar gold(iii) center is observed. PMID:27094217

  13. Complexation of Statins with β-Cyclodextrin in Solutions of Small Molecular Additives and Macromolecular Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süle, András; Csempesz, Ferenc

    The solubility of lovastatin and simvastatin (inevitable drugs in the management of cardiovascular diseases) was studied by phase-solubility measurements in multicomponent colloidal and non-colloidal media. Complexation in aqueous solutions of the highly lipophilic statins with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in the absence and the presence of dissolved polyvinyl pyrrolidone, its monomeric compound, tartaric acid and urea, respectively, were investigated. For the characterization of the CD-statin inclusion complexes, stability constants for the associates have been calculated.

  14. Differential Expression of Functional Fc-Receptors and Additional Immune Complex Receptors on Mouse Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suwanichkul, Adisak; Wenderfer, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    The precise mechanisms by which circulating immune complexes accumulate in the kidney to form deposits in glomerulonephritis are not well understood. In particular, the role of resident cells within glomeruli of the kidney has been widely debated. Immune complexes have been shown to bind one glomerular cell type (mesangial cells) leading to functional responses such as pro-inflammatory cytokine production. To further assess the presence of functional immunoreceptors on resident glomerular cells, cultured mouse renal epithelial, endothelial, and mesangial cells were treated with heat-aggregated mouse IgG or preformed murine immune complexes. Mesangial and renal endothelial cells were found to bind IgG complexes, whereas glomerular epithelial cell binding was minimal. A blocking antibody for Fc-gamma receptors reduced binding to mesangial cells but not renal endothelial cells, suggesting differential immunoreceptor utilization. RT-PCR and immunostaining based screening of cultured renal endothelial cells showed limited low-level expression of known Fc-receptors and Igbinding proteins. The interaction between mesangial cells and renal endothelial cells and immune complexes resulted in distinct, cell-specific patterns of chemokine and cytokine production. This novel pathway involving renal endothelial cells likely contributes to the predilection of circulating immune complex accumulation within the kidney and to the inflammatory responses that drive kidney injury. PMID:23911392

  15. The effect of two additional Eu3+ lumophors in two novel trinuclear europium complexes on their photoluminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chaolong; Xu, Jing; Ma, Jianying; Zhu, Dongyu; Zhang, Yunfei; Liang, Liyan; Lu, Mangeng

    2013-02-01

    Two novel trinuclear europium complexes based on trisphen(1,3,5-tris{4-((1,10-phenanthroline-[5,6-d]imidazol-2yl)phenoxy)methyl}-2,4,6-trimethyl-benzene) as a second ligand were designed, synthesized, and characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, UV-visible, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, elemental analysis (EA) and ESI-MS. The geometries of these two trinuclear europium complexes were predicted using the Sparkle/PM3 model and suggested a chemical environment of very low symmetry around the lanthanide ions (C(1)), which is in agreement with the luminescent spectra. CV analysis demonstrated that the trinuclear complexes possessed excellent electro-injection abilities. The effects of two additional Eu(3+) lumophors in these trinuclear europium complexes on their photoluminescent properties were investigated in detail. The results indicated that these trinuclear europium complexes exhibited highly luminescent quantum efficiencies and experimental intensity parameters in the solid state. Especially, due to the contribution of the two additional Eu(3+) lumophors in the trinuclear europium complexes, the quantum efficiency of the trinuclear complex Eu(3)(TTA)(9)trisphen was higher (ca. 34%) than the mononuclear europium complex Eu(TTA)(3)imidazophen.

  16. Electrophilic addition to cyanide ligands in tungsten(II) four-electron-donor alkyne complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Frohnapfel, D.S.; Reinartz, S.; White, P.S.; Templeton, J.L.

    1998-08-17

    Extended reflux of Tp{prime}(CO)(I)W(RC{triple_bond}CR{prime}) (Tp{prime} = hydridotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate) complexes in ethyl acetate in the presence of silver cyanide produces Tp{prime}(CO)(CN)W(RC{triple_bond}CR{prime}) complexes in moderate to high yields. A single-crystal X-ray structure of Tp{prime}(CO)(CN)W(PhC{triple_bond}CMe) shows that the alkyne is aligned parallel to the M{single_bond}CO axis. Electrophilic attack at the nitrogen of the cyanide ligand with methyl triflate or triflic acid yields cationic isocyanide complexes, whereas attack with HBF{sub 4} results in neutral BF{sub 3} adduct complexes. Coordination of the Tp{prime}(CO)(PhC{triple_bond}CMe)W{sup +} fragment to the cyanide nitrogen of Tp{prime}(CO)(CN)W(HC{triple_bond}CBu{sup n}) to form a CN-bridged dinuclear complex has been achieved. Variable-temperature {sup 1}H NMR measurements reflect acetylene rotation barriers in the Tp{prime}(CO)(L)W(HC{triple_bond}CH){sup n+} series (L = CO, CNH, CNMe {l_brace}n = 1{r_brace}; CN{sup {minus}}, CNBF{sub 3}{sup {minus}} {l_brace}n = 0{r_brace}) and, thus, quantify {pi}-effects for the cyanide and isocyanide ligands with respect to steric considerations. Extended Hueckel molecular orbital calculations were carried out on a series of model complexes, [H{sub 3}(CO)(L)W(HC{triple_bond}CH)]{sup n{minus}} (L = CO, CNH {l_brace}n = 1{r_brace}; CN{sup {minus}}, H{sup {minus}} {l_brace}n = 2{r_brace}) to augment the experimental data.

  17. Eye movement correlates of younger and older adults' strategies for complex addition.

    PubMed

    Green, Heather J; Lemaire, Patrick; Dufau, Stéphane

    2007-07-01

    This study examined performance measures and eye movements associated with complex arithmetic strategies in young and older adults. Participants added pairs of three-digit numbers using two different strategies, under choice and no-choice conditions. Older adults made more errors but were not significantly slower than young adults, and response times and errors showed no interaction between age and the number of carries. Older adults chose strategies less adaptively than young adults. Eye movements were consistent with use of required strategies on no-choice trials and reported strategies on choice trials. Eye movement data also suggested that young adults more successfully distinguished between strategies. Implications of these findings for understanding aging effects in complex arithmetic are discussed.

  18. Making oxidation potentials predictable: coordination of additives applied to the electronic fine tuning of an iron(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Haslinger, Stefan; Kück, Jens W; Hahn, Eva M; Cokoja, Mirza; Pöthig, Alexander; Basset, Jean-Marie; Kühn, Fritz E

    2014-11-01

    This work examines the impact of axially coordinating additives on the electronic structure of a bioinspired octahedral low-spin iron(II) N-heterocyclic carbene (Fe-NHC) complex. Bearing two labile trans-acetonitrile ligands, the Fe-NHC complex, which is also an excellent oxidation catalyst, is prone to axial ligand exchange. Phosphine- and pyridine-based additives are used for substitution of the acetonitrile ligands. On the basis of the resulting defined complexes, predictability of the oxidation potentials is demonstrated, based on a correlation between cyclic voltammetry experiments and density functional theory calculated molecular orbital energies. Fundamental insights into changes of the electronic properties upon axial ligand exchange and the impact on related attributes will finally lead to target-oriented manipulation of the electronic properties and consequently to the effective tuning of the reactivity of bioinspired systems.

  19. Arthroderma olidum, sp. nov. A new addition to the Trichophyton terrestre complex.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Colin K; Borman, Andrew M; Linton, Christopher J; Bridge, Paul D; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2006-08-01

    In 1981, four fungal isolates from hair of the European badger (Meles meles) were examined by Dr Phyllis Stockdale at the Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, and deposited in the UK National Collection of Pathogenic Fungi as an undescribed member of the Trichophyton terrestre complex. The present paper formalizes the complete description of a new ascomycete taxon, Arthroderma olidum following successful recent attempts to re-isolate the same fungus from the soil of Badger holes in South West England. Furthermore, using ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we show that the asexual form of A. olidum is conspecific with the recently described Trichophyton eboreum1 isolated from a human skin specimen in Germany. PMID:16882612

  20. Complex additive systems for Mn-Zn ferrites with low power loss

    SciTech Connect

    Töpfer, J. Angermann, A.

    2015-05-07

    Mn-Zn ferrites were prepared via an oxalate-based wet-chemical synthesis process. Nanocrystalline ferrite powders with particle size of 50 nm were sintered at 1150 °C with 500 ppm CaO and 100 ppm SiO{sub 2} as standard additives. A fine-grained, dense microstructure with grain size of 4–5 μm was obtained. Simultaneous addition of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ZrO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and SnO{sub 2} results low power losses, e.g., 65 mW/cm{sup 3} (500 kHz, 50 mT, 80 °C) and 55 mW/cm{sup 3} (1 MHz, 25 mT, 80 °C). Loss analysis shows that eddy current and residual losses were minimized through formation of insulating grain boundary phases, which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Addition of SnO{sub 2} increases the ferrous ion concentration and affects anisotropy as reflected in permeability measurements μ(T)

  1. Antibodies to phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex as an additional diagnostic marker of APS?

    PubMed

    Žigon, P; Čučnik, S; Ambrožič, A; Sodin Šemrl, S; Kveder, T; Božič, B

    2012-06-01

    Antiprothrombin antibodies can be measured by ELISA using either a prothrombin/phosphatidylserine complex (aPS/PT) or prothrombin alone (aPT) as antigen. We aimed to compare the clinical features of autoimmune patients with avidity of aPS/PT and determine the diagnostic efficiency of aPS/PT and aPT for assessing antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). aPS/PT were of low (n = 9), heterogeneous (n = 31) and high (n = 8) avidity out of 48 cases. None of the samples with low avidity were positive in aPT ELISA. Among patients with heterogeneous or high avidity aPS/PT, there was a significantly greater number of patients with APS as compared to patients with low avidity (38/39 vs. 7/9; p < 0.05). No SLE patients had high avidity antiprothrombin antibodies.

  2. ADDE: Application Development for the Distributed Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franckson, Marcel; Hall, John; Helmerich, Alfred; Canadas, Rafael; Dehn, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Application Development for the Distributed Enterprise (ADDE) project, a methodological set that supports the design of distributed business processes and information and communication technologies. Discusses principles behind ADDE, guidance on definition and planning of application development, guidance on distributed application…

  3. Inviting Calm Within: ADD, Neurology, and Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riner, Phillip S.; Tanase, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM IV") describes ADD as behaviorally observed impairments in attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Officially known as AD/HD, we use ADD here because we are dealing primarily with attention, organizational, and impulsivity issues. A more…

  4. ADD Teacher Inservice Project. Final Grant Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Mark C.; Schulz, Eldon G.

    The report describes activities and achievements of the Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) Teacher Inservice Project. The inservice program was developed using a formal process to identify the critical issues related to ADD awareness, assessment, and intervention. Program content was designed to address critical issues identified in the research…

  5. Determination of Free Acid by Standard Addition with Potassium Thiocyanate as Complexant

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.

    2001-05-29

    A method is described for determination of free acid in solutions containing the hydrolyzable ions Al (III), Cr(III), Fe(III), Hg(II), Ni(II), Th(IV), and U(VI). The concentration of the sample is calculated either by solving three simultaneous Nernst equations, by the Gran plot procedure, or by means of a microprocessor pH meter. Molar concentrations of metal ion up to 2.5 times that of the acid can be tolerated. The method has been applied to analysis of nuclear processing solutions that contain Pu(III), in addition to the ions listed above.

  6. Enantioselective conjugate addition of alkylboranes catalyzed by a copper-N-heterocyclic carbene complex.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Mika; Ohmiya, Hirohisa; Sawamura, Masaya

    2012-07-25

    The first catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition of alkylboron compounds has been achieved. Reactions between alkylboranes and imidazol-2-yl α,β-unsaturated ketones proceeded with high enantioselectivity under the influence of a Cu(I) catalyst system, prepared in situ from CuCl, a new chiral imidazolium salt as a precursor for the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, and PhOK. Alkylboranes are widely obtained via alkene hydroboration. A variety of functional groups are tolerated in alkylboranes and α,β-unsaturated ketones. PMID:22746339

  7. Modeling the Structure of Complex Aluminosilicate Glasses: The Effect of Zinc Addition.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Andrea; Dapiaggi, Monica; Pavese, Alessandro; Agostini, Giovanni; Bernasconi, Maurizio; Bowron, Daniel T

    2016-03-10

    An empirical potential structure refinement of neutron and X-ray diffraction data combined with extended absorption fine structure evidence has been applied to the investigation of two distinct sets of complex aluminosilicate glasses containing different quantities of zinc. Data come from (i) neutron and X-ray total scattering experiments, which have been performed at the ISIS neutron spallation source (SANDALS beamline) and at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ID11 beamline), and (ii) EXAFS experiments which have been performed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM23 beamline). By careful examination of the modeled ensemble of atoms, a wide range of structural information has been extracted: coordination numbers, bond distances, cluster sizes, type of oxygen sharing, and the preference of large cations to adopt a charge-compensating role. The first series of glasses, which is characterized by a fixed network modifier element content (i.e., Na), shows how the introduction of Zn at the expense of Si and Al network forming elements does not significantly alter the polymerization degree, as a result of its dominant 4-fold coordination. In the case of the second series, which is characterized by fixed network forming element content (i.e., Si and Al), it is shown how the replacement of a network modifier element (i.e., Ca) with the introduction of Zn does not change the propensity of Zn to be mainly 4-fold coordinated by promoting the network. Where appropriate the experimental results have been compared with classical theoretical approaches such as stoichiometric models based on Zachariasen's rules and computational routines. PMID:26848740

  8. Add grace to psychiatric practice

    PubMed Central

    Patkar, Shobha V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The uniqueness of mindset of an individual makes psychiatric practice interesting, sensitive, and at times subjective. The practice in setup of an organization makes the situation more complex in view of administrative regulations, existing work culture, and issues like confidentiality, etc., Dilemmas are often faced while balancing loyalty between an organization and the patients, values of the therapist and the patient, and different dimension of justice coming from different cultural backgrounds of the patients and the treating doctors. A lot of mental work needs to be put in by the practitioner to consistently adhere to medical ethics and professional approach for taking key decisions despite of contradictory external forces from within and without. Aims: I thought of sharing my experiences especially in setup of an organization with my colleagues so that the decision-taking process becomes somewhat easy and balancing for them. Settings and Design: I have to try to interpret my clinical experiences gathered while working with my patients from the Department of Atomic Energy as well as from my private practice. Conclusion: The need of psycho education to self and others from time to time never ceases simply to make the practice more objective, justified, and graceful. PMID:23825861

  9. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  10. Chromium films obtained by pyrolysis of bis(arene)chromium complexes in presence of sulfur-containing additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lugin, A.S.; Polikarpov, V.B.; Dodonov, V.A.; Klement'ev, E.K.

    1988-11-20

    Sulfur and its compounds catalyze deposition of chromium during thermal decomposition of its bis(arene) complexes. In this investigation we studied the influence of diphenyl and dibenzyl sulfides on this process. The character of the dependence of the rate of chromium deposition on the dibenzyl sulfide concentration in the original mixture shows that sulfur compounds, like chlorinated additives, have a promoting effect on the autocatalytic process of pyrolysis of bis(arene) chromium complexes. Aromatic sulfides raise the rate of chromium deposition, suppress secondary processes of ligands dehydrogenation, and accordingly lower the carbon contents in the deposits during thermal decomposition of bis(arene)chromium complexes. Sulfur compounds direct the deposition process toward formation of ordered crystalline phases of chromium and its carbides.

  11. Mechanistic and computational studies of the atom transfer radical addition of CCl4 to styrene catalyzed by copper homoscorpionate complexes.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Molina, José María; Sameera, W M C; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Maseras, Feliu; Belderrain, Tomás R; Pérez, Pedro J

    2011-03-21

    Experimental as well as theoretical studies have been carried out with the aim of elucidating the mechanism of the atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) of styrene and carbon tetrachloride with a Tp(x)Cu(NCMe) complex as the catalyst precursor (Tp(x) = hydrotrispyrazolyl-borate ligand). The studies shown herein demonstrate the effect of different variables in the kinetic behavior. A mechanistic proposal consistent with theoretical and experimental data is presented.

  12. Preparation and tribological properties of inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin/dialkyl pentasulfide as additive in PEG-600 aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jiju; Xu, Xuefeng; Li, Gan; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and dialkyl pentasulfide (DPS), in which DPS was incorporated into β-CD cavities, was prepared by a co-precipitation method. The tribological properties of the complex used as lubricant additive in PEG 600 aqueous solution were investigated by a four-ball tester. The complex exhibited better tribological properties than β-CD under different loads, and also showed better anti-friction performance than DPS in the latter half of the test duration. The tribological action mechanism of the complex on a steel surface was studied according to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The β-CD molecules of the complexes were decomposed into various molecular fragments and the DPS molecules were released under the friction condition. It revealed that thiolate and ferrous sulfide (FeS) films formed by DPS played a major role, and iron alkoxide and carbon deposition films formed by the friction fragments of β-CD mainly exhibited anti-friction property on FeS-to-FeS interface. The interactions among different films led to the formation of a mixed boundary lubrication film.

  13. Genetic association studies in complex disease: disentangling additional predisposing loci from associated neutral loci using a constrained - permutation approach.

    PubMed

    Spijker, G T; Nolte, I M; Jansen, R C; Te Meerman, G J

    2005-01-01

    In the process of genetically mapping a complex disease, the question may arise whether a certain polymorphism is the only causal variant in a region. A number of methods can answer this question, but unfortunately these methods are optimal for bi-allelic loci only. We wanted to develop a method that is more suited for multi-allelic loci, such as microsatellite markers. We propose the Additional Disease Loci Test (ADLT): the alleles at an additional locus are permuted within the subsample of haplotypes that have identical alleles at the predisposing locus. The hypothesis being tested is, whether the predisposing locus is the sole factor predisposing to the trait that is in LD with the additional locus under study. We applied ADLT to simulated datasets and a published dataset on Type 1 Diabetes, genotyped for microsatellite markers in the HLA-region. The method showed the expected number of false-positive results in the absence of additional loci, but proved to be more powerful than existing methods in the presence of additional disease loci. ADLT was especially superior in datasets with less LD or with multiple predisposing alleles. We conclude that the ADLT can be useful in identifying additional disease loci.

  14. Theoretical investigation on mechanism of asymmetric Michael addition of malononitrile to chalcones catalyzed by Cinchona alkaloid aluminium(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhishan; Lee, Hai Whang; Kim, Chan Kyung

    2011-09-21

    The mechanism of Michael addition of malononitrile to chalcones catalyzed by Cinchona alkaloid aluminium(III) complex has been investigated by DFT and ONIOM methods. Calculations indicate that the reaction proceeds through a dual activation mechanism, in which Al(III) acts as a Lewis acid to activate the electrophile α,β-unsaturated carbonyl substrate while the tertiary amine in the Cinchona alkaloid works as a Lewis base to promote the activation of the malononitrile and deprotonation. A stepwise pathway involving C-C bond formation followed by proton transfer from the catalyst to the carbonyl substrate is adopted, and latter step is predicted to be the rate-determining-step in the reaction with an energy barrier of 12.4 kcal mol(-1). In the absence of the Al(III)-complex, a Cinchona alkaloid activates the carbonyl substrate by a hydrogen bonding of the hydroxyl group, involving a higher energy barrier of 30.4 kcal mol(-1). The steric repulsion between the phenyl group attached to the carbonyl group in the chalcone and isopropoxyl groups of the Al(III)-complex may play an important role in the control of stereoselectivity. The π-π stacking effect between the quinuclidine ring of the quinine and the phenyl group of the chalcones may also help the stabilization of the preferred molecular complex. These results are in agreement with experimental observations. PMID:21796318

  15. Family nurse practitioners: "value add" in outpatient chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Lynn

    2012-12-01

    Nurse practitioners are capable leaders in primary care design as practices nationwide move to consider and adopt the patient-centered medical home. The chronic care model provides a structure to enhance the care of chronic illness. Nurse practitioners are instrumental in many areas of this model as both leaders and caregivers. Safety and quality are basic medical home goals; nurse practitioners enhance both. The addition of a nurse practitioner to a practice is an effective "value add" in every way.

  16. Nonreciprocal photonic crystal add-drop filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Keyu; Xiao, Jun-Jun; Yin, Xiaobo

    2014-11-01

    We present a versatile add-drop integrated photonic filter (ADF) consisting of nonreciprocal waveguides in which the propagation of light is restricted in one predetermined direction. With the bus and add/drop waveguides symmetrically coupled through a cavity, the four-port device allows each individual port to add and/or drop a signal of the same frequency. The scheme is general and we demonstrate the nonreciprocal ADF with magneto-optical photonic crystals. The filter is immune to waveguide defects, allowing straightforward implementation of multi-channel ADFs by cascading the four-port designs. The results should find applications in wavelength-division multiplexing and related integrated photonic techniques.

  17. Nonreciprocal photonic crystal add-drop filter

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Keyu; Xiao, Jun-Jun; Yin, Xiaobo

    2014-11-24

    We present a versatile add-drop integrated photonic filter (ADF) consisting of nonreciprocal waveguides in which the propagation of light is restricted in one predetermined direction. With the bus and add/drop waveguides symmetrically coupled through a cavity, the four-port device allows each individual port to add and/or drop a signal of the same frequency. The scheme is general and we demonstrate the nonreciprocal ADF with magneto-optical photonic crystals. The filter is immune to waveguide defects, allowing straightforward implementation of multi-channel ADFs by cascading the four-port designs. The results should find applications in wavelength-division multiplexing and related integrated photonic techniques.

  18. Shift-and-add for astronomical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribak, Erez; Hege, E. Keith; Strobel, Nicolas V.; Christou, Julian C.

    1989-01-01

    Diffraction-limited astronomical images have been obtained utilizing a variant of the shift-and-add method. It is shown that the matched filter approach for extending the weighted shift-and-add method reduces specklegrams from extended objects and from an object dominated by photon noise. The method is aberration-insensitive and yields very high dynamic range results. The iterative method for arriving at the matched filter does not automatically converge in the case of photon-noisy specklegrams for objects with more than one maximum.

  19. 76 FR 49508 - ``Add Us In'' Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Register on August 4, 2011 at 76 FR 150. Specifically, we are correcting the Funding Opportunity... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Disability Employment Program ``Add Us In'' Initiative AGENCY: Office of Disability...

  20. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) I: a new species from Lubang Island.

    PubMed

    Geheber, Aaron D; Davis, Drew R; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Feller, Kathryn D; Davey, Conner S; Ellsworth, Elyse D; Flanagan, Rachel L; Heitz, Brendan B; Moore, Tana; Nguyen, Marie D C; Roberts, Austyn; Sutton, John; Sanguila, Marites B; Linkem, Charles W; Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D

    2016-01-01

    A new species of slender skink is described from the Philippines. The species is endemic to Lubang Island, and is assigned to the Brachymeles bonitae Complex based on phenotypic and genetic data. Specimens were collected from Lubang Island between 1991 and 2012, and were examined based on morphological data (qualitative traits, meristic counts, and mensural measurements). Published genetic sequence data from phylogenetic studies of the genus reveal the new species to be highly divergent from congeners. Brachymeles ligtas sp. nov. is differentiated from other members of the genus based on a number of distinct morphological features, including small body size (SVL 60.7-79.6 mm), bidactyl fore-limbs, digitless hind limbs, high number of presacral vertebrae (50), and the absence of auricular openings. Additionally, the new species has diagnostic, distinct dorsal head scale patterns. This new species becomes the only member of the genus known to occur on the deep-ocean island of Lubang. PMID:27395648

  1. Add Control: plant virtualization for control solutions in WWTP.

    PubMed

    Maiza, M; Bengoechea, A; Grau, P; De Keyser, W; Nopens, I; Brockmann, D; Steyer, J P; Claeys, F; Urchegui, G; Fernández, O; Ayesa, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of the research work carried out in the Add Control project, which proposes an extension of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models and modelling architectures used in traditional WWTP simulation tools, addressing, in addition to the classical mass transformations (transport, physico-chemical phenomena, biological reactions), all the instrumentation, actuation and automation & control components (sensors, actuators, controllers), considering their real behaviour (signal delays, noise, failures and power consumption of actuators). Its ultimate objective is to allow a rapid transition from the simulation of the control strategy to its implementation at full-scale plants. Thus, this paper presents the application of the Add Control simulation platform for the design and implementation of new control strategies at the WWTP of Mekolalde. PMID:23863420

  2. Add/Compare/Select Circuit For Rapid Decoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Becker, Neal D.; Johnson, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype decoding system operates at 200 Mb/s. ACS (add/compare/select) gate array is highly integrated emitter-coupled-logic circuit implementing arithmetic operations essential to Viterbi decoding of convolutionally encoded data signals. Principal advantage of circuit is speed. Operates as single unit performing eight additions and finds minimum of eight sums, or operates as two independent units, each performing four additions and finding minimum of four sums. Flexibility enables application to variety of different codes. Includes built-in self-testing circuitry, enabling unit to be tested at full speed with help of only simple test fixture.

  3. Application of the modified additivity rule to the calculation of electron-impact ionization cross sections of complex molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, H.; Becker, K.; Basner, R.; Schmidt, M.; Maerk, T.D.

    1998-11-05

    This paper describes the application of the modified additivity rule (MAR) to the calculation of total (counting) electron-impact ionization cross sections of complex molecules with sum formulas of the form A{sub x},B{sub y}, A{sub x},B{sub y},C{sub z}, and A{sub p},B{sub s}C{sub t}D{sub u}. The MAR incorporates weighting factors for the contributions to the molecular ionization cross section from the ionization cross sections of the constituent atoms, which depend explicitly on the atomic radii and the effective number of atomic electrons except for a few special cases (hydrides where the other constituent atom has a radius smaller than the radius of the H atom and species where both constituent atoms have radii smaller than the radius of the H atom), where the weighting factors depend only on the atomic radii, i.e., on geometric effects. A comprehensive comparison of the predictions of the modified additivity rule with available experimental data and with other theoretical predictions is presented.

  4. Oxidative Addition of Carbon–Carbon Bonds with a Redox-Active Bis(imino)pyridine Iron Complex

    PubMed Central

    Darmon, Jonathan M.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Sylvester, Kevin T.; Fernández, Ignacio; Lobkovsky, Emil; Semproni, Scott P.; Bill, Eckhard; Wieghardt, Karl; DeBeer, Serena; Chirik, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Addition of biphenylene to the bis(imino)pyridine iron dinitrogen complexes, (iPrPDI)Fe(N2)2 and [(MePDI)Fe(N2)]2(μ2-N2) (RPDI = 2,6-(2,6-R2—C6H3— N=CMe)2C5H3N; R = Me, iPr), resulted in oxidative addition of a C—C bond at ambient temperature to yield the corresponding iron biphenyl compounds, (RPDI)Fe-(biphenyl). The molecular structures of the resulting bis-(imino)pyridine iron metallacycles were established by X-ray diffraction and revealed idealized square pyramidal geometries. The electronic structures of the compounds were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, and X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopies. The experimental data, in combination with broken-symmetry density functional theory calculations, established spin crossover (low to intermediate spin) ferric compounds antiferromagnetically coupled to bis(imino)pyridine radical anions. Thus, the overall oxidation reaction involves cooperative electron loss from both the iron center and the redox-active bis(imino)pyridine ligand. PMID:23043331

  5. Evolutionary Genomics Suggests That CheV Is an Additional Adaptor for Accommodating Specific Chemoreceptors within the Chemotaxis Signaling Complex.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Davi R; Zhulin, Igor B

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are models for many experiments in molecular biology including chemotaxis, and most of the results obtained with one organism have been generalized to another. While most components of the chemotaxis pathway are strongly conserved between the two species, Salmonella genomes contain some chemoreceptors and an additional protein, CheV, that are not found in E. coli. The role of CheV was examined in distantly related species Bacillus subtilis and Helicobacter pylori, but its role in bacterial chemotaxis is still not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that in enterobacteria CheV functions as an additional adaptor linking the CheA kinase to certain types of chemoreceptors that cannot be effectively accommodated by the universal adaptor CheW. Phylogenetic profiling, genomic context and comparative protein sequence analyses suggested that CheV interacts with specific domains of CheA and chemoreceptors from an orthologous group exemplified by the Salmonella McpC protein. Structural consideration of the conservation patterns suggests that CheV and CheW share the same binding spot on the chemoreceptor structure, but have some affinity bias towards chemoreceptors from different orthologous groups. Finally, published experimental results and data newly obtained via comparative genomics support the idea that CheV functions as a "phosphate sink" possibly to off-set the over-stimulation of the kinase by certain types of chemoreceptors. Overall, our results strongly suggest that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex.

  6. Evolutionary genomics suggests that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex

    DOE PAGES

    Ortega, Davi R.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Punta, Marco

    2016-02-04

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are models for many experiments in molecular biology including chemotaxis, and most of the results obtained with one organism have been generalized to another. While most components of the chemotaxis pathway are strongly conserved between the two species, Salmonella genomes contain some chemoreceptors and an additional protein, CheV, that are not found in E. coli. The role of CheV was examined in distantly related species Bacillus subtilis and Helicobacter pylori, but its role in bacterial chemotaxis is still not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that in enterobacteria CheV functions as an additional adaptor linkingmore » the CheA kinase to certain types of chemoreceptors that cannot be effectively accommodated by the universal adaptor CheW. Phylogenetic profiling, genomic context and comparative protein sequence analyses suggested that CheV interacts with specific domains of CheA and chemoreceptors from an orthologous group exemplified by the Salmonella McpC protein. Structural consideration of the conservation patterns suggests that CheV and CheW share the same binding spot on the chemoreceptor structure, but have some affinity bias towards chemoreceptors from different orthologous groups. Finally, published experimental results and data newly obtained via comparative genomics support the idea that CheV functions as a "phosphate sink" possibly to off-set the over-stimulation of the kinase by certain types of chemoreceptors. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex.« less

  7. [Assessment of efficiency of dietotherapy with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Lapik, I A; Sokol'nikov, A A; Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Sentsova, T B; Plotnikova, O A

    2014-01-01

    The influence of diet inclusion of vitamin and mineral complex (VMC), potassium and magnesium in the form of asparaginate on micronutrient status, body composition and biochemical parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) has been investigated. 120 female patients with DM2 and obesity of I-III degree (mean age - 58 +/- 6 years) have been included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: main group (n = 60) and control group (n = 60). For 3 weeks patients of both groups received a low-calorie diet (1600 kcal/day). Patients of the main group received VMC, providing an additional intake of vitamins C and E (100-120% RDA), beta-carotene (40% RDA), nicotinamide (38% RDA), pantothenic acid and biotin (60% RDA), vitamins B12, B2 and folic acid (75-83% RDA), vitamins B1 and B6 (160-300% RDA), zinc (100% RDA) and chromium (400% RDA), and also received magnesium (17.7% RDA) and potassium (9.4% RDA) in the form of asparaginate. Body composition, biochemical parameters and micronutrient status (blood serum level of vitamins C, D, B6, B12, folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus) were evaluated in all patients before and after the 3-week course of diet therapy. After the low-calorie diet therapy average body weight reduction was 4.2 +/- 0.2 kg in the main group, and 4.4 +/- 0.1 kg in the control group, without statistically significant differences between groups. Statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose concentration in blood serum was registered in both groups. It should be noted that in the control group glycemia decreased on 1.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, while the main group showed a decrease on 1.8 +/- 0.1 (p < 0.05) to normal values (5.4 +/- 0.1 mmol/l). Initial assessment of vitamin and mineral status revealed that most patients were optimal supplied with vitamins and minerals. After the dietotherapy significant increase of vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12

  8. [Assessment of efficiency of dietotherapy with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Lapik, I A; Sokol'nikov, A A; Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Sentsova, T B; Plotnikova, O A

    2014-01-01

    The influence of diet inclusion of vitamin and mineral complex (VMC), potassium and magnesium in the form of asparaginate on micronutrient status, body composition and biochemical parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) has been investigated. 120 female patients with DM2 and obesity of I-III degree (mean age - 58 +/- 6 years) have been included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: main group (n = 60) and control group (n = 60). For 3 weeks patients of both groups received a low-calorie diet (1600 kcal/day). Patients of the main group received VMC, providing an additional intake of vitamins C and E (100-120% RDA), beta-carotene (40% RDA), nicotinamide (38% RDA), pantothenic acid and biotin (60% RDA), vitamins B12, B2 and folic acid (75-83% RDA), vitamins B1 and B6 (160-300% RDA), zinc (100% RDA) and chromium (400% RDA), and also received magnesium (17.7% RDA) and potassium (9.4% RDA) in the form of asparaginate. Body composition, biochemical parameters and micronutrient status (blood serum level of vitamins C, D, B6, B12, folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus) were evaluated in all patients before and after the 3-week course of diet therapy. After the low-calorie diet therapy average body weight reduction was 4.2 +/- 0.2 kg in the main group, and 4.4 +/- 0.1 kg in the control group, without statistically significant differences between groups. Statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose concentration in blood serum was registered in both groups. It should be noted that in the control group glycemia decreased on 1.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, while the main group showed a decrease on 1.8 +/- 0.1 (p < 0.05) to normal values (5.4 +/- 0.1 mmol/l). Initial assessment of vitamin and mineral status revealed that most patients were optimal supplied with vitamins and minerals. After the dietotherapy significant increase of vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12

  9. Mixed N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Bis(oxazolinyl)borato Rhodium and Iridium Complexes in Photochemical and Thermal Oxidative Addition Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songchen; Manna, Kuntal; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D

    2014-12-08

    In order to facilitate oxidative addition chemistry of fac-coordinated rhodium(I) and iridium(I) compounds, carbene–bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborate proligands have been synthesized and reacted with organometallic precursors. Two proligands, PhB(OxMe2)2(ImtBuH) (H[1]; OxMe2 = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline; ImtBuH = 1-tert-butylimidazole) and PhB(OxMe2)2(ImMesH) (H[2]; ImMesH = 1-mesitylimidazole), are deprotonated with potassium benzyl to generate K[1] and K[2], and these potassium compounds serve as reagents for the synthesis of a series of rhodium and iridium complexes. Cyclooctadiene and dicarbonyl compounds {PhB(OxMe2)2ImtBu}Rh(η4-C8H12) (3), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(η4-C8H12) (4), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(CO)2 (5), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(η4-C8H12) (6), and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(CO)2 (7) are synthesized along with ToMM(η4-C8H12) (M = Rh (8); M = Ir (9); ToM = tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate). The spectroscopic and structural properties and reactivity of this series of compounds show electronic and steric effects of substituents on the imidazole (tert-butyl vs mesityl), effects of replacing an oxazoline in ToM with a carbene donor, and the influence of the donor ligand (CO vs C8H12). The reactions of K[2] and [M(μ-Cl)(η2-C8H14)2]2 (M = Rh, Ir) provide {κ4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes'CH2}Rh(μ-H)(μ-Cl)Rh(η2-C8H14)2 (10) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(η3-C8H13) (11). In the former compound, a spontaneous oxidative addition of a mesityl ortho-methyl to give a mixed-valent dirhodium species is observed, while the iridium compound forms a monometallic allyl hydride. Photochemical reactions of dicarbonyl compounds 5 and 7 result in C–H bond oxidative addition providing the compounds {κ4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes'CH2}RhH(CO) (12) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(Ph)CO (13). In 12, oxidative addition results in cyclometalation of the mesityl ortho-methyl similar to 10, whereas the iridium compound reacts with the benzene solvent to give a rare crystallographically characterized cis

  10. GWAS of human bitter taste perception identifies new loci and reveals additional complexity of bitter taste genetics

    PubMed Central

    Ledda, Mirko; Kutalik, Zoltán; Souza Destito, Maria C.; Souza, Milena M.; Cirillo, Cintia A.; Zamboni, Amabilene; Martin, Nathalie; Morya, Edgard; Sameshima, Koichi; Beckmann, Jacques S.; le Coutre, Johannes; Bergmann, Sven; Genick, Ulrich K.

    2014-01-01

    Human perception of bitterness displays pronounced interindividual variation. This phenotypic variation is mirrored by equally pronounced genetic variation in the family of bitter taste receptor genes. To better understand the effects of common genetic variations on human bitter taste perception, we conducted a genome-wide association study on a discovery panel of 504 subjects and a validation panel of 104 subjects from the general population of São Paulo in Brazil. Correction for general taste-sensitivity allowed us to identify a SNP in the cluster of bitter taste receptors on chr12 (10.88– 11.24 Mb, build 36.1) significantly associated (best SNP: rs2708377, P = 5.31 × 10−13, r2 = 8.9%, β = −0.12, s.e. = 0.016) with the perceived bitterness of caffeine. This association overlaps with—but is statistically distinct from—the previously identified SNP rs10772420 influencing the perception of quinine bitterness that falls in the same bitter taste cluster. We replicated this association to quinine perception (P = 4.97 × 10−37, r2 = 23.2%, β = 0.25, s.e. = 0.020) and additionally found the effect of this genetic locus to be concentration specific with a strong impact on the perception of low, but no impact on the perception of high concentrations of quinine. Our study, thus, furthers our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of bitter taste perception. PMID:23966204

  11. GWAS of human bitter taste perception identifies new loci and reveals additional complexity of bitter taste genetics.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Mirko; Kutalik, Zoltán; Souza Destito, Maria C; Souza, Milena M; Cirillo, Cintia A; Zamboni, Amabilene; Martin, Nathalie; Morya, Edgard; Sameshima, Koichi; Beckmann, Jacques S; le Coutre, Johannes; Bergmann, Sven; Genick, Ulrich K

    2014-01-01

    Human perception of bitterness displays pronounced interindividual variation. This phenotypic variation is mirrored by equally pronounced genetic variation in the family of bitter taste receptor genes. To better understand the effects of common genetic variations on human bitter taste perception, we conducted a genome-wide association study on a discovery panel of 504 subjects and a validation panel of 104 subjects from the general population of São Paulo in Brazil. Correction for general taste-sensitivity allowed us to identify a SNP in the cluster of bitter taste receptors on chr12 (10.88- 11.24 Mb, build 36.1) significantly associated (best SNP: rs2708377, P = 5.31 × 10(-13), r(2) = 8.9%, β = -0.12, s.e. = 0.016) with the perceived bitterness of caffeine. This association overlaps with-but is statistically distinct from-the previously identified SNP rs10772420 influencing the perception of quinine bitterness that falls in the same bitter taste cluster. We replicated this association to quinine perception (P = 4.97 × 10(-37), r(2) = 23.2%, β = 0.25, s.e. = 0.020) and additionally found the effect of this genetic locus to be concentration specific with a strong impact on the perception of low, but no impact on the perception of high concentrations of quinine. Our study, thus, furthers our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of bitter taste perception.

  12. Werner Complexes with ω-Dimethylaminoalkyl Substituted Ethylenediamine Ligands: Bifunctional Hydrogen-Bond-Donor Catalysts for Highly Enantioselective Michael Additions.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subrata K; Ganzmann, Carola; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai; Gladysz, John A

    2016-03-18

    The racemic carbonate complex [Co(en)2 O2 CO](+) Cl(-) (en=1,2-ethylenediamine) and (S)-[H3 NCH((CH2 )n NHMe2 )CH2 NH3 ](3+) 3 Cl(-) (n=1-4) react (water, charcoal, 100 °C) to give [Co(en)2 ((S)-H2 NCH((CH2 )n NHMe2 )CH2 NH2 )](4+) 4 Cl(-) (3 a-d H(4+) 4 Cl(-) ) as a mixture of Λ/Δ diastereomers that separate on chiral-phase Sephadex columns. These are treated with NaOH/Na(+) BArf (-) (BArf =B(3,5-C6 H3 (CF3 )2 )4 ) to give lipophilic Λ- and Δ-3 a-d(3+) 3 BArf (-) , which are screened as catalysts (10 mol %) for additions of dialkyl malonates to nitroalkenes. Optimal results are obtained with Λ-3 c(3+) 3 BArf (-) (CH2 Cl2 , -35 °C; 98-82 % yields and 99-93 % ee for six β-arylnitroethenes). The monofunctional catalysts Λ- and Δ-[Co(en)3 ](3+) 3 BArf (-) give enantioselectivities of <10 % ee with equal loadings of Et3 N. The crystal structure of Δ-3 a H(4+) 4 Cl(-) provides a starting point for speculation regarding transition-state assemblies. PMID:26918320

  13. Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules can protect from diabetes by positively selecting T cells with additional specificities.

    PubMed

    Lühder, F; Katz, J; Benoist, C; Mathis, D

    1998-02-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes is heavily influenced by genes encoded within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), positively by some class II alleles and negatively by others. We have explored the mechanism of MHC class II-mediated protection from diabetes using a mouse model carrying the rearranged T cell receptor (TCR) transgenes from a diabetogenic T cell clone derived from a nonobese diabetic mouse. BDC2.5 TCR transgenics with C57Bl/6 background genes and two doses of the H-2(g7) allele exhibited strong insulitis at approximately 3 wk of age and most developed diabetes a few weeks later. When one of the H-2(g7) alleles was replaced by H-2(b), insulitis was still severe and only slightly delayed, but diabetes was markedly inhibited in both its penetrance and time of onset. The protective effect was mediated by the Abetab gene, and did not merely reflect haplozygosity of the Abetag7 gene. The only differences we observed in the T cell compartments of g7/g7 and g7/b mice were a decrease in CD4(+) cells displaying the transgene-encoded TCR and an increase in cells expressing endogenously encoded TCR alpha-chains. When the synthesis of endogenously encoded alpha-chains was prevented, the g7/b animals were no longer protected from diabetes. g7/b mice did not have a general defect in the production of Ag7-restricted T cells, and antigen-presenting cells from g7/b animals were as effective as those from g7/g7 mice in stimulating Ag7-restricted T cell hybridomas. These results argue against mechanisms of protection involving clonal deletion or anergization of diabetogenic T cells, or one depending on capture of potentially pathogenic Ag7-restricted epitopes by Ab molecules. Rather, they support a mechanism based on MHC class II-mediated positive selection of T cells expressing additional specificities. PMID:9449718

  14. Comparison of reactivity of Pt(II) center in the mononuclear and binuclear organometallic diimineplatinum complexes toward oxidative addition of methyl iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    The reactivities of Pt(II) center in a series of organometallic mononuclear Pt(II), binuclear Pt(II) and binuclear mixed-valence Pt(II)-Pt(IV) complexes toward oxidative addition of MeI have been compared from a theoretical point of view. The nucleophilicity index and electron-donation power were calculated for each of these complexes. The energies of HOMO and dZ2 orbital were determined for these complexes. Very good correlations were found between logk2 (k2 is the experimentally determined second order rate constant for the oxidative addition of MeI on these complexes) and nucleophilicity index or electron-donation power for these complexes. The correlation between logk2 and the energy of HOMO or the energy of dZ2 orbital were also very good. The condensed-to-atom Fukui functions for electrophilic attack on these complexes showed that the Pt(II) center is the preferred site for the oxidative addition of MeI. All of these observations are in agreement with the proposed SN2 type mechanism in the oxidative addition of MeI on the Pt(II) center in these complexes.

  15. User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 1: General ADD code description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the AXISYMMETRIC DIFFUSER DUCT code or ADD code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

  16. Mothers whose children have ADD/ADHD discuss their children's medication use: an investigation of blogs.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Juanne N; Lang, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a frame and discourse analysis of Internet blog sites where parents (usually mothers) discuss their concerns about medication use by their children with attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). This is a particularly important topic in an era characterized by powerful circulating discourses around the contentious medicalization of, and prevalent pharmaceutical treatments for, ADD/ADHD, as well as the mother blame associated with having a child diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. The findings document that the mothers see ADD/ADHD as legitimate medical diagnoses and view themselves as caretakers of children with brain and neuro-chemical anomalies affecting the behavior of their children. They favor pharmaceutical use and describe themselves as experts in the difficult and complex issues related to pharmaceuticalized parenting. At the same time their adoption of medicalization is contingent as they express specific critiques of some doctors, some types of doctors, and critically evaluate science.

  17. Independents add gas reserves, forego romance

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, D.

    1981-08-01

    Incentive pricing for low-permeability reservoirs and tax advantages for drilling them are 2 big reasons why more independents may start making a special effort to add gas reserves to their inventories. If so, it will be a change from past practices, which saw independents build up big gas positions by circumstance rather than by intention. There are always major refiners ready and willing to buy whole crude oil reservoirs from small producers, but purchasers willing to take gas fields in a single investment are few and far between. Lower-than-normal return on equity during the first 20 years, plus the heavy front-end cost of a frac necessary to produce the tight gas might dissuade independents from drilling tight gas sands, but those liabilities are offset by the higher price tight gas gets and the peculiar tax advantages of exploring for it that make a nice fit with the small operator's way of doing business.

  18. Silver(I) complexes of tris(pyrazolyl)borate ligands bearing six trifluoromethyl and three additional electron-withdrawing substituents.

    PubMed

    Jayaratna, Naleen B; Pardue, Daniel B; Ray, Sriparna; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Thakur, Krishna G; Cundari, Thomas R; Dias, H V Rasika

    2013-11-21

    Sodium salts of two new tris(pyrazolyl)borates [HB(4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3](-) and [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3](-), which are not only highly fluorinated, but also loaded with additional electron-withdrawing substituents, have been synthesized by reacting 4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2PzH or 4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2PzH with NaBH4 under nitrogen in a solventless process, and isolated after a work up in tetrahydrofuran (THF) or diethyl ether (Et2O), as their THF or Et2O adducts. Metathesis of these sodium salts with AgOTf in THF leads to [HB(4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(THF) and [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(THF). The corresponding cis-cyclooctene (c-COE) complexes [HB(4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) and [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) were obtained by displacing THF with cis-cyclooctene. The related [HB(3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) can also be obtained via a similar process. X-ray crystal structures show that [HB(4-(R)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) (R = H, Cl, NO2) feature pseudo-tetrahedral silver sites supported by κ(3)-bound tris(pyrazolyl)borate ligands. [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) displays the smallest upfield shift of the alkene carbon peak (versus free alkene) followed by [HB(4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) and [HB(3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE). Experimental and computational data indicate very electron poor silver(I) sites in all three [HB(4-(R)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) adducts with minimal Ag → (cis-cyclooctene) backbonding. Although the impact of R (H, Cl, NO2) on the alkene carbon chemical shift of these adducts and the olefin π/π* populations is small, the (13)C NMR chemical shifts and NBO analysis suggest that [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) possesses the most electrophilic metal site, which correlates with the pKa values of the free pyrazoles. [HB(4-(R)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) adducts effectively catalyze the insertion of the carbene moiety of ethyl diazoacetate into C-H bonds of 2,3-dimethylbutane. The [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) catalyst shows a higher selectivity

  19. Highly efficient asymmetric additions of diethylzinc to aldehydes triply activated by chiral phosphoramide-Zn(II) complexes derived from cinchona alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bin; Huang, Huayin; Bian, Guangling; Zong, Hua; Song, Ling

    2013-09-01

    New chiral phosphoramide ligands derived from cinchona alkaloids were developed, which react with diethylzinc to form chiral phosphoramide-Zn(II) complexes containing two Lewis bases and one Lewis acid. These trifunctional complexes can serve as highly efficient chiral catalysts for triple activation of enantioselective addition reactions of diethylzinc with aldehydes to give desired alcohol products with excellent yields and enantiomeric excess (ee) values up to 99%.

  20. Using Patient Lists to Add Value to Integrated Data Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Ted D.; Zelarney, Pearlanne T.; Hum, Richard C.; McGee, Sylvia; Batson, Deborah H.

    2014-01-01

    Patient lists are project-specific sets of patients that can be queried in integrated data repositories (IDR’s). By allowing a set of patients to be an addition to the qualifying conditions of a query, returned results will refer to, and only to, that set of patients. We report a variety of use cases for such lists, including: restricting retrospective chart review to a defined set of patients; following a set of patients for practice management purposes; distributing “honest-brokered” (deidentified) data; adding phenotypes to biosamples; and enhancing the content of study or registry data. Among the capabilities needed to implement patient lists in an IDR are: capture of patient identifiers from a query and feedback of these into the IDR; the existence of a permanent internal identifier in the IDR that is mappable to external identifiers; the ability to add queryable attributes to the IDR; the ability to merge data from multiple queries; and suitable control over user access and de-identification of results. We implemented patient lists in a custom IDR of our own design. We reviewed capabilities of other published IDRs for focusing on sets of patients. The widely used i2b2 IDR platform has various ways to address patient sets, and it could be modified to add the low-overhead version of patient lists that we describe. PMID:24534444

  1. Electrophilic Anti Addition of Bromine to 2-Methylbut-2-Ene with the N-Methylpyrrolidin-2-One Hydrotribromide Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrien, Jean-Francois; Provot, Olivier; Joseph, Delphine; Bekaert, Alain

    2004-01-01

    The N-methylpyrrolidin-2-one hydrotribromide complex (MPHT) is a stable solid that can be stored several months at room temperature. The MPHT is not corrosive, not necrosing, less toxic and easier to handle for students as compared to the molecular bromine.

  2. Tandem olefin metathesis/hydrogenation at ambient temperature: activation of ruthenium carbene complexes by addition of hydrides.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bernd; Pohler, Michael

    2003-07-21

    Sodium hydride activates ruthenium carbene complexes to catalyze hydrogenation reactions subsequent to ring closing olefin metathesis. Under these conditions, hydrogenation of cyclopentenols proceeds smoothly at ambient temperature and under 1 atm of hydrogen in toluene. An alternative protocol was developed that involves the formation of hydrogen in situ by reaction of excess sodium hydride with protic functional groups and water. PMID:12956069

  3. Open complex scrunching before nucleotide addition accounts for the unusual transcription start site of E. coli ribosomal RNA promoters.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, Jared T; Chandrangsu, Pete; Ross, Wilma; Gourse, Richard L

    2016-03-29

    Most Escherichia coli promoters initiate transcription with a purine 7 or 8 nt downstream from the -10 hexamer, but some promoters, including the ribosomal RNA promoter rrnB P1, start 9 nt from the -10 element. We identified promoter and RNA polymerase determinants of this noncanonical rrnB P1 start site using biochemical and genetic approaches including mutational analysis of the promoter, Fe(2+) cleavage assays to monitor template strand positions near the active-site, and Bpa cross-linking to map the path of open complex DNA at amino acid and nucleotide resolution. We find that mutations in several promoter regions affect transcription start site (TSS) selection. In particular, we show that the absence of strong interactions between the discriminator region and σ region 1.2 and between the extended -10 element and σ region 3.0, identified previously as a determinant of proper regulation of rRNA promoters, is also required for the unusual TSS. We find that the DNA in the single-stranded transcription bubble of the rrnB P1 promoter complex expands and is "scrunched" into the active site channel of RNA polymerase, similar to the situation in initial transcribing complexes. However, in the rrnB P1 open complex, scrunching occurs before RNA synthesis begins. We find that the scrunched open complex exhibits reduced abortive product synthesis, suggesting that scrunching and unusual TSS selection contribute to the extraordinary transcriptional activity of rRNA promoters by increasing promoter escape, helping to offset the reduction in promoter activity that would result from the weak interactions with σ.

  4. Oxidative addition of n-alkyl halides to diimine-dialkylplatinum(II) complexes: a closer look at the kinetic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nabavizadeh, S Masoud; Hoseini, S Jafar; Momeni, Badri Z; Shahabadi, Nahid; Rashidi, Mehdi; Pakiari, Ali H; Eskandari, Keyamars

    2008-05-14

    The n-alkyl halides, RX, were oxidatively added to the platina(II)cyclopentane complexes [Pt[(CH2)4](NN)], in which NN = bpy (2,2'-bipyridyl) or phen (1,10-phenanthroline), to give the platinum(IV) complexes [PtRX[(CH2)4](NN)], R = Et and X = Br or I; R = nBu and X = I, 1-3. The same reactions with the analogous dimethyl complex [PtMe2(bpy)] gave the expected platinum(IV) complexes [PtRXMe2(bpy)], R = Et or nPr and X = Br or I; R = nBu and X = I, 4-8. Kinetics of the reactions in benzene and acetone was studied using UV-vis spectrophotometery and a common S(N)2 mechanism was suggested for each case. The platina(ii)cyclopentane complexes reacted faster than the corresponding dimethyl analogs by a factor of 2-3. This is described as being due to a lower positive charge, calculated by density functional theory (DFT), on the platinum atom of [Pt[(CH)2)4](bpy)] compared with that on the platinum atom of the dimethyl analog [PtMe2(bpy)]. The values of DeltaDeltaS(double dagger) = DeltaS(double dagger)(acetone) - DeltaS(double dagger)(benzene) were found to be either positive or negative in different reactions and this is related to the solvation of the corresponding alkyl halide. It is suggested that in these reactions of RX reagents, for a given X, the electronic effects of the R group are mainly responsible for the change in the rates of the reactions and the bulkiness of the group is far less important.

  5. Open complex scrunching before nucleotide addition accounts for the unusual transcription start site of E. coli ribosomal RNA promoters.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, Jared T; Chandrangsu, Pete; Ross, Wilma; Gourse, Richard L

    2016-03-29

    Most Escherichia coli promoters initiate transcription with a purine 7 or 8 nt downstream from the -10 hexamer, but some promoters, including the ribosomal RNA promoter rrnB P1, start 9 nt from the -10 element. We identified promoter and RNA polymerase determinants of this noncanonical rrnB P1 start site using biochemical and genetic approaches including mutational analysis of the promoter, Fe(2+) cleavage assays to monitor template strand positions near the active-site, and Bpa cross-linking to map the path of open complex DNA at amino acid and nucleotide resolution. We find that mutations in several promoter regions affect transcription start site (TSS) selection. In particular, we show that the absence of strong interactions between the discriminator region and σ region 1.2 and between the extended -10 element and σ region 3.0, identified previously as a determinant of proper regulation of rRNA promoters, is also required for the unusual TSS. We find that the DNA in the single-stranded transcription bubble of the rrnB P1 promoter complex expands and is "scrunched" into the active site channel of RNA polymerase, similar to the situation in initial transcribing complexes. However, in the rrnB P1 open complex, scrunching occurs before RNA synthesis begins. We find that the scrunched open complex exhibits reduced abortive product synthesis, suggesting that scrunching and unusual TSS selection contribute to the extraordinary transcriptional activity of rRNA promoters by increasing promoter escape, helping to offset the reduction in promoter activity that would result from the weak interactions with σ. PMID:26976590

  6. Development of catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition and [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions using chiral calcium complexes.

    PubMed

    Tsubogo, Tetsu; Saito, Susumu; Seki, Kazutaka; Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Shu

    2008-10-01

    Catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition and [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions using chiral calcium species prepared from calcium isopropoxide and chiral bisoxazoline ligands have been developed. Glycine Schiff bases reacted with acrylic esters to afford 1,4-addition products, glutamic acid derivatives, in high yields with high enantioselectivities. During the investigation of the 1,4-addition reactions, we unexpectedly found that a [3 + 2] cycloaddition occurred in the reactions with crotonate derivatives, affording substituted pyrrolidine derivatives in high yields with high enantioselectivities. On the basis of this finding, we investigated asymmetric [3 + 2] cycloadditions, and it was revealed that several kinds of optically active substituted pyrrolidine derivatives containing contiguous stereogenic tertiary and quaternary carbon centers were obtained with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. In addition, optically active pyrrolidine cores of hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent polymerase inhibitors and potential effective antiviral agents have been synthesized using this [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. NMR spectroscopic analysis and observation of nonamplification of enantioselectivity in nonlinear effect experiments suggested that a monomeric calcium species with an anionic ligand was formed as an active catalyst. A stepwise mechanism of the [3 + 2] cycloaddition, consisting of 1,4-addition and successive intramolecular Mannich-type reaction was suggested. Furthermore, modification of the Schiff base structure resulted in a modification of the reaction course from a [3 + 2] cycloaddition to a 1,4-addition, affording 3-substituted glutamic acid derivatives with high diasterero- and enantioselectivities.

  7. Development of catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition and [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions using chiral calcium complexes.

    PubMed

    Tsubogo, Tetsu; Saito, Susumu; Seki, Kazutaka; Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Shu

    2008-10-01

    Catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition and [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions using chiral calcium species prepared from calcium isopropoxide and chiral bisoxazoline ligands have been developed. Glycine Schiff bases reacted with acrylic esters to afford 1,4-addition products, glutamic acid derivatives, in high yields with high enantioselectivities. During the investigation of the 1,4-addition reactions, we unexpectedly found that a [3 + 2] cycloaddition occurred in the reactions with crotonate derivatives, affording substituted pyrrolidine derivatives in high yields with high enantioselectivities. On the basis of this finding, we investigated asymmetric [3 + 2] cycloadditions, and it was revealed that several kinds of optically active substituted pyrrolidine derivatives containing contiguous stereogenic tertiary and quaternary carbon centers were obtained with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. In addition, optically active pyrrolidine cores of hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent polymerase inhibitors and potential effective antiviral agents have been synthesized using this [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. NMR spectroscopic analysis and observation of nonamplification of enantioselectivity in nonlinear effect experiments suggested that a monomeric calcium species with an anionic ligand was formed as an active catalyst. A stepwise mechanism of the [3 + 2] cycloaddition, consisting of 1,4-addition and successive intramolecular Mannich-type reaction was suggested. Furthermore, modification of the Schiff base structure resulted in a modification of the reaction course from a [3 + 2] cycloaddition to a 1,4-addition, affording 3-substituted glutamic acid derivatives with high diasterero- and enantioselectivities. PMID:18783222

  8. Coordination of 1,4-Diazabutadiene Ligands to Decamethylytterbocene: Additional Examples of Spin Coupling in Ytterbocene Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Richard; Walter, Marc D.; Berg, David J.; Andersen, Richard A.

    2006-11-04

    The paramagnetic 1:1 coordination complexes of (C5Me5)2Yb with a series of diazabutadiene ligands, RN=C(R')C(R')=NR, where R= CMe3, CHMe2, adamantyl, p-tolyl, p-anisyl, and mesityl when R'=H, and R= p-anisyl when R'= Me, have been prepared. The complexes are paramagnetic, but their magnetic moments are less than expected for the two uncoupled spin carriers, (C5Me5)2Yb(III, 4f13) and the diazabutadiene radical anions (S=1/2), which implies exchange coupling between the spins. The variable temperature 1H NMR spectra show that rotation about the R-N bond is hindered and these barriers are estimated. The barriers are largely determined by steric effects but electronic effects are not unimportant.

  9. Mor-Dalphos-Pd (II) oxidative addition complexes and related NH3 adducts: Insights into bonding and nonbonding interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima Batista, Ana P.; Braga, Ataualpa A. C.

    2016-09-01

    The stabilizing effects and bonding properties of the Pd metallic center in [(κ2 -P,N-Mor-Dalphos)Pd(Ar)Cl] complexes and related NH3 adducts were investigated by density functional theory (DFT), the intrinsic bond orbital (IBO) approach and the Su-Li energy decomposition method (Su-Li EDA). The IBO analysis showed that the P atom from the P,N-Mor-Dalphos structure has stabilizing contributions in all Pd-Cl and Pd-NH3 bonds in the complexes. According to the Su-Li energy decomposition analysis, the main energy that drives the interaction between the [Mor-Dalphos-Pd(Ar)] moiety and Cl- is the electrostatic term, therefore, the electrostatic energy interaction between them might be an important factor for taking into account when designing other [Mor-Dalphos-Pd(Ar)]-Cl precatalysts.

  10. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... new PBV request for proposals is not required. The anniversary and expiration dates of the HAP contract for the additional units must be the same as the anniversary and expiration dates of the HAP... execution date of the HAP contract to add additional PBV contract units in the same building. An...

  11. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... new PBV request for proposals is not required. The anniversary and expiration dates of the HAP contract for the additional units must be the same as the anniversary and expiration dates of the HAP... execution date of the HAP contract to add additional PBV contract units in the same building. An...

  12. Complex polyfluoride additives in Fmoc-amino acid fluoride coupling processes. Enhanced reactivity and avoidance of stereomutation.

    PubMed

    Carpino, Louis A; Ionescu, Dumitru; El-Faham, Ayman; Beyermann, Michael; Henklein, Peter; Hanay, Christiane; Wenschuh, Holger; Bienert, Michael

    2003-04-01

    [reaction: see text] Isolated Fmoc amino acid fluorides have previously been shown to be among the most efficient reagents for peptide bond formation. Now, it has been found that anionic, polyhydrogen fluoride additives are capable of diverting many of the classical peptide coupling processes to acid fluoride couplings. Examples include the use of N-HBTU or N-HATU and the carbodiimide technique. As HF-containing species, these additives provide a more suitable medium for the coupling of systems that are sensitive to loss of configuration at the reactive carboxyl function.

  13. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) III: a new species from Tablas Island.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew R; Geheber, Aaron D; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Feller, Kathryn D; Ashford, Alissa; Kouri, Josh; Nguyen, Daniel; Shauberger, Kathryn; Sheatsley, Kyra; Winfrey, Claire; Wong, Rachel; Sanguila, Marites B; Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the diversity of Philippine amphibians and reptiles have resulted in the continued description of cryptic species. Species formerly thought to range across multiple recognized faunal regions are now considered to be assemblages of multiple unique species, each restricted to a single faunal region. This pattern continues to hold true when considering Philippine skinks of the genus Brachymeles. Recent studies have resulted in the description of numerous unique species with many exhibiting various degrees of digit loss or limb reduction, as well as suggesting that unique lineages are still present in the B. bonitae Complex. In this paper, we describe a new species of fossorial skink within this species complex from Tablas Island based on collections made nearly 50 years ago. Although no genetic data are available for the new species, examinations of morphological data (qualitative traits, meristic counts, and mensural measurements) support its distinction from all other members of the genus. Brachymeles dalawangdaliri sp. nov. is differentiated from other members of the genus based on a suite of unique phenotypic characteristics, including a small body size (SVL 66.0-80.9 mm), bidactyl fore-limbs, digitless, unidactyl, or bidactyl hind limbs, a high number of presacral vertebrae (49), the absence of auricular openings, and distinct dorsal head scale patterns. The description of the new species increases the diversity of endemic vertebrates recognized to occur in the Romblon Island Group in the central Philippines. PMID:27395650

  14. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations.

    PubMed

    Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2014-09-01

    The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

  15. Evaluation of AA5052 alloy anode in alkaline electrolyte with organic rare-earth complex additives for aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Li, Heshun; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Daquan; Gao, Lixin; Tong, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Behaviours of the AA5052 aluminium alloy anode of the alkaline aluminium-air battery are studied by the hydrogen evolution test, the electrochemical measurements and the surface analysis method. The combination of amino-acid and rare earth as electrolyte additives effectively retards the self-corrosion of AA5052 aluminium alloy in 4 M NaOH solution. It shows that the combination of L-cysteine and cerium nitrate has a synergistic effect owing to the formation of a complex film on AA5052 alloy surface. The organic rare-earth complex can decrease the anodic polarisation, suppress the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  16. mRNA export through an additional cap-binding complex consisting of NCBP1 and NCBP3

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, Anna; Habjan, Matthias; Benda, Christian; Meiler, Arno; Haas, Darya A.; Hein, Marco Y.; Mann, Angelika; Mann, Matthias; Habermann, Bianca; Pichlmair, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The flow of genetic information from DNA to protein requires polymerase-II-transcribed RNA characterized by the presence of a 5′-cap. The cap-binding complex (CBC), consisting of the nuclear cap-binding protein (NCBP) 2 and its adaptor NCBP1, is believed to bind all capped RNA and to be necessary for its processing and intracellular localization. Here we show that NCBP1, but not NCBP2, is required for cell viability and poly(A) RNA export. We identify C17orf85 (here named NCBP3) as a cap-binding protein that together with NCBP1 forms an alternative CBC in higher eukaryotes. NCBP3 binds mRNA, associates with components of the mRNA processing machinery and contributes to poly(A) RNA export. Loss of NCBP3 can be compensated by NCBP2 under steady-state conditions. However, NCBP3 becomes pivotal under stress conditions, such as virus infection. We propose the existence of an alternative CBC involving NCBP1 and NCBP3 that plays a key role in mRNA biogenesis. PMID:26382858

  17. Water-Insoluble Surface Coatings of Polyion-Surfactant Ion Complex Salts Respond to Additives in a Surrounding Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Charlotte; Obiols-Rabasa, Marc; Piculell, Lennart

    2015-06-16

    Hydrated, but water-insoluble, "complex salts" (CS) composed of alkyltrimethylammonium surfactant ions with polyacrylate counterions are known to exhibit a rich phase behavior in bulk mixtures with water and have recently been shown to act as water-responsive surface coatings. Here it is shown, by SAXS measurements, that surface coatings of CS also respond to various added solutes in a surrounding aqueous solution, by altering their liquid crystalline structure. The obtained results provide new information on the phase behavior of CS in contact with water and aqueous solutions. Solutes such as acids, salts, excess ionic surfactant, or water-soluble polymers act on the CS by altering the polyion charge density, screening the electrostatic interaction, changing the curvature of the surfactant aggregate, or increasing the osmotic pressuring in the surrounding solution, all of which may result in a phase transition in the film. In water, all studied CS surface coatings had a micellar cubic structure, which could change to 2D hexagonal, HCP, or disordered micellar structure, depending on the identity of the CS and the identity and concentration of the added solute. For some systems, even dissolved CO2 from the ambient air was sufficient to induce a structural change in the film. Especially the films containing the long polyions remained intact even for large concentrations of solutes in the contacting solutions, and extensive washing in water resulted, in most cases, in films with the "original" structure found in water. PMID:26017683

  18. An Insoluble Copper(II) Acetylacetonate-Chiral Bipyridine Complex that Catalyzes Asymmetric Silyl Conjugate Addition in Water.

    PubMed

    Kitanosono, Taku; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Chang; Xu, Pengyu; Kobayashi, Shū

    2015-12-16

    Acicular purplish crystals were obtained from Cu(acac)2 and a chiral bipyridine ligand. Although the crystals were not soluble, they nevertheless catalyzed asymmetric silyl conjugate addition of lipophilic substrates in water. Indeed, the reactions proceeded efficiently only in water; they did not proceed well either in organic solvents or in mixed water/organic solvents in which the catalyst/substrates were soluble. This is in pronounced contrast to conventional organic reactions wherein the catalyst/substrates tend to be in solution. Several advantages of the chiral Cu(II) catalysis in water over previously reported catalyst systems have been demonstrated. Water is expected to play a prominent role in constructing and stabilizing sterically confined transition states and accelerating subsequent protonation to achieve high yields and enantioselectivities. PMID:26646601

  19. Next-Generation AUC Adds a Spectral Dimension: Development of Multiwavelength Detectors for the Analytical Ultracentrifuge.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Joseph Z; Krause, Frank; Haffke, Dirk; Demeler, Borries; Schilling, Kristian; Cölfen, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We describe important advances in analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) hardware, which add new information to the hydrodynamic information observed in traditional AUC instruments. In contrast to the Beckman-Coulter XLA UV/visible detector, multiwavelength (MWL) detection is able to collect sedimentation data not just for one wavelength, but for a large wavelength range in a single experiment. The additional dimension increases the data density by orders of magnitude, significantly improving the statistics of the measurement and adding important information to the experiment since an additional dimension of spectral characterization is now available to complement the hydrodynamic information. The new detector avoids tedious repeats of experiments at different wavelengths and opens up new avenues for the solution-based investigation of complex mixtures. In this chapter, we describe the capabilities, characteristics, and applications of the new detector design with biopolymers as the focus of study. We show data from two different MWL detectors and discuss strengths and weaknesses of differences in the hardware and different data acquisition modes. Also, difficulties with fiber optic applications in the UV are discussed. Data quality is compared across platforms. PMID:26412645

  20. 78 FR 38265 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds Two New Discussion Topics to Connect America Cost Model Virtual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Model Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Wireline Competition Bureau adds two new virtual workshop discussion topics.../ecfs2/ . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the...

  1. 78 FR 23192 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds New Discussion Topic to Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Wireline Competition Bureau adds a new virtual workshop discussion topic, entitled... for submitting comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the usual methods for filing...

  2. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling foods Salt, to preserve meats "Indirect" ... this list are: guar gum, sugar, salt, and vinegar. The list is reviewed regularly. Some substances that ...

  3. Evolution of the additive genetic variance-covariance matrix under continuous directional selection on a complex behavioural phenotype.

    PubMed

    Careau, Vincent; Wolak, Matthew E; Carter, Patrick A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-11-22

    Given the pace at which human-induced environmental changes occur, a pressing challenge is to determine the speed with which selection can drive evolutionary change. A key determinant of adaptive response to multivariate phenotypic selection is the additive genetic variance-covariance matrix ( G: ). Yet knowledge of G: in a population experiencing new or altered selection is not sufficient to predict selection response because G: itself evolves in ways that are poorly understood. We experimentally evaluated changes in G: when closely related behavioural traits experience continuous directional selection. We applied the genetic covariance tensor approach to a large dataset (n = 17 328 individuals) from a replicated, 31-generation artificial selection experiment that bred mice for voluntary wheel running on days 5 and 6 of a 6-day test. Selection on this subset of G: induced proportional changes across the matrix for all 6 days of running behaviour within the first four generations. The changes in G: induced by selection resulted in a fourfold slower-than-predicted rate of response to selection. Thus, selection exacerbated constraints within G: and limited future adaptive response, a phenomenon that could have profound consequences for populations facing rapid environmental change.

  4. Evolution of the additive genetic variance-covariance matrix under continuous directional selection on a complex behavioural phenotype.

    PubMed

    Careau, Vincent; Wolak, Matthew E; Carter, Patrick A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-11-22

    Given the pace at which human-induced environmental changes occur, a pressing challenge is to determine the speed with which selection can drive evolutionary change. A key determinant of adaptive response to multivariate phenotypic selection is the additive genetic variance-covariance matrix ( G: ). Yet knowledge of G: in a population experiencing new or altered selection is not sufficient to predict selection response because G: itself evolves in ways that are poorly understood. We experimentally evaluated changes in G: when closely related behavioural traits experience continuous directional selection. We applied the genetic covariance tensor approach to a large dataset (n = 17 328 individuals) from a replicated, 31-generation artificial selection experiment that bred mice for voluntary wheel running on days 5 and 6 of a 6-day test. Selection on this subset of G: induced proportional changes across the matrix for all 6 days of running behaviour within the first four generations. The changes in G: induced by selection resulted in a fourfold slower-than-predicted rate of response to selection. Thus, selection exacerbated constraints within G: and limited future adaptive response, a phenomenon that could have profound consequences for populations facing rapid environmental change. PMID:26582016

  5. Catalytic asymmetric Michael addition of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to Ni(II) complexes of the Schiff base of glycine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoyan; Jin, Zhichao; Li, Pengfei; Gao, Jiabin; Yue, Weimin; Liang, Xinmiao; Ye, Jinxing

    2011-02-01

    The conjugate addition of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff base to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes catalyzed by (S)-2-(diphenyl(trimethylsilyloxy)methyl)pyrrolidine afforded adducts in excellent yields with up to 49:1 dr and 95% ee. This method enables the construction of two adjacent chiral centers in one step, and offers an alternative route to chiral α-amino acid derivatives. PMID:21103550

  6. Effects of additional iron-chelators on Fe(2+)-initiated lipid peroxidation: evidence to support the Fe2+ ... Fe3+ complex as the initiator.

    PubMed

    Tang, L X; Yang, J L; Shen, X

    1997-12-01

    The addition of chelated Fe2+ ions in a liposomal system often results in a short lag period before peroxidation starts. The addition of a second chelator at the end of the lag period results in an inhibition of the lipid peroxidation. The degree of inhibition depends on the stability constants of the chelator in ligating Fe2+ and/or Fe3+. A more striking inhibitory effect was observed for the chelators with higher stability constant for either or both Fe(2+)- and Fe(3+)-complex, but much less inhibition was found for those with lower stability constants for both complexes. Assuming that the "initiator" for iron-dependent lipid peroxidation is formed through the redox process of iron ion and finally emerged at the end of the latent period, the inhibitory effect of the second chelator may be explained as the abstraction of either Fe2+ or Fe3+ from the initiator by an additional free chelator, which results in the decomposition of the initiator. This study supports the hypothesis that a Fe2+ ... Fe3+ complex is responsible for iron-initiated lipid peroxidation. PMID:9397574

  7. "Bunched Black Swans" in Complex Geosystems: Cross-Disciplinary Approaches to the Additive and Multiplicative Modelling of Correlated Extreme Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, N. W.; Rypdal, M.; Lovsletten, O.

    2012-12-01

    -stationarity explicitly built in. In record breaking statistics, a record is defined in the sense used in everyday language, to be the largest value yet recorded in a time series, for example, the 2004 Sumatran Boxing Day earthquake was at the time the largest to be digitally recorded. The third group of approaches (e.g. avalanches) are explicitly spatiotemporal and so also include spatial structure. This presentation will discuss two examples of our recent work on the burst problem. We will show numerical results extending the preliminary results presented in [Watkins et al, PRE, 2009] using a standard additive model, linear fractional stable motion (LFSM). LFSM explicitly includes both heavy tails and long range dependence, allowing us to study how these 2 effects compete in determining the burst duration and size exponent probability distributions. We will contrast these simulations with new analytical studies of bursts in a multiplicative process, the multifractal random walk (MRW). We will present an analytical derivation for the scaling of the burst durations and make a preliminary comparison with data from the AE index from solar-terrestrial physics. We believe our result is more generally applicable than the MRW model, and that it applies to a broad class of multifractal processes.

  8. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  9. Social Capital: Does It Add to the Health Inequalities Debate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Funk, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relationship between advantage, social capital and health status to assess (a) whether social capital adds explanatory power to what we already know about the relationship between advantage and health and (b) whether social capital adds anything beyond its component parts, namely social participation and trust.…

  10. Acid-base properties and copper(II) complexes of dipeptides containing histidine and additional chelating bis(imidazol-2-yl) residues.

    PubMed

    Osz, Katalin; Várnagy, Katalin; Süli-Vargha, Helga; Csámpay, Antal; Sanna, Daniele; Micera, Giovanni; Sóvágó, Imre

    2004-01-01

    Copper(II) complexes of dipeptides of histidine containing additional chelating bis(imidazol-2-yl) agent at the C-termini (PheHis-BIMA [N-phenylalanyl-histidyl-bis(imidazol-2-yl)methylamine] and HisPhe-BIMA [N-histidyl-phenylalanyl-bis(imidazol-2-yl)methylamine]) were studied by potentiometric, UV-Visible and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) techniques. The imidazole nitrogen donor atoms of the bis(imidazol-2-yl)methyl group are described as the primary metal binding sites forming stable mono- and bis(ligand) complexes at acidic pH. The formation of a ligand-bridged dinuclear complex [Cu2L2]4+ is detected in equimolar solutions of copper(II) and HisPhe-BIMA. The coordination isomers of the dinuclear complex are described via the metal binding of the bis(imidazol-2-yl)methyl, amino-carbonyl and amino-imidazole(His) functions. In the case of the copper(II)-PheHis-BIMA system the [NH2, N-(amide), N(Im)] tridentate coordination of the ligand is favoured and results in the formation of di- and trinuclear complexes [Cu2H(-1)L]3+ and [Cu3H(-2)L2]4+ in equimolar solutions. The presence of these coordination modes shifts the formation of "tripeptide-like" ([NH2, N-, N-, N(Im)]-coordinated) [CuH(-2)L] complexes into alkaline pH range as compared to other dipeptide derivatives of bis(imidazol-2-yl) ligands. Although there are different types of imidazoles in these ligands, the deprotonation and coordination of the pyrrole-type N(1)H groups does not occur below pH 10. PMID:14659629

  11. Real-Time Access to Meteosat Data Using the ADDE Server Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, M.; Gaertner, V. K.

    2006-05-01

    The McIDAS ADDE technology is used by EUMETSAT to provide access to real-time Meteosat-8 image data to globally foster training activities within and outside classroom courses. (McIDAS - Man computer Interactive Data Access System, ADDE - Abstract Data Distribution Environment). The advanced imaging capabilities of Meteosat-8 - a satellite of the Meteosat Second Generation series - provides full disk Earth coverage in 11 spectral channels every 15 minutes. A further 12th channel covers the land surfaces in a 1 km spatial resolution in a solar wavelength. Real-time operational services use the EUMETCast dissemination mechanism for timely access to the image data. EUMETCast covers the geographic area of Europe, Africa, South America and parts of North America and Asia. Details of the EUMETCast system are given in a separate presentation by Gaertner and Koenig in this conference. In addition to EUMETCast, however, for training purposes, access is also made available in near real-time on the basis of the ADDE technology. This is an internet based data access, i.e. it is globally available. ADDE offers the possibility to retrieve only the area of interest, e.g. a special geographic area and only selected channels. This implies that the actual data transfer is small so that the internet is used very efficiently. ADDE was developed as part of the McIDAS software, and is now also freely available in the OpenADDE package (http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/mcidas/software/openadde). Other than McIDAS itself, there is a variety of application packages that are ADDE enabled, as e.g. McIDAS-Lite, the Unidata Integrated Data Viewer, Hydra, IDL, or Matlab. These tools also offer further analysis concepts. Examples will be shown during the presentation. The user community of the ADDE access also needs to be licensed according to the EUMETSAT data policy. After the successful commissioning of Meteosat-9, the data of this satellite will of course be incorporated into the ADDE data provision.

  12. H-atom addition and abstraction reactions in mixed CO, H2CO and CH3OH ices - an extended view on complex organic molecule formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, K.-J.; Fedoseev, G.; Ioppolo, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2016-01-01

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) have been observed not only in the hot cores surrounding low- and high-mass protostars, but also in cold dark clouds. Therefore, it is interesting to understand how such species can be formed without the presence of embedded energy sources. We present new laboratory experiments on the low-temperature solid state formation of three complex molecules - methyl formate (HC(O)OCH3), glycolaldehyde (HC(O)CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (H2C(OH)CH2OH) - through recombination of free radicals formed via H-atom addition and abstraction reactions at different stages in the CO→H2CO→CH3OH hydrogenation network at 15 K. The experiments extend previous CO hydrogenation studies and aim at resembling the physical-chemical conditions typical of the CO freeze-out stage in dark molecular clouds, when H2CO and CH3OH form by recombination of accreting CO molecules and H-atoms on ice grains. We confirm that H2CO, once formed through CO hydrogenation, not only yields CH3OH through ongoing H-atom addition reactions, but is also subject to H-atom-induced abstraction reactions, yielding CO again. In a similar way, H2CO is also formed in abstraction reactions involving CH3OH. The dominant methanol H-atom abstraction product is expected to be CH2OH, while H-atom additions to H2CO should at least partially proceed through CH3O intermediate radicals. The occurrence of H-atom abstraction reactions in ice mantles leads to more reactive intermediates (HCO, CH3O and CH2OH) than previously thought, when assuming sequential H-atom addition reactions only. This enhances the probability to form COMs through radical-radical recombination without the need of UV photolysis or cosmic rays as external triggers.

  13. Synthesis of Silver(I) and Gold(I) Complexes Containing Enantiopure Pybox Ligands. First Assays on the Silver(I)-Catalyzed Asymmetric Addition of Alkynes to Imines.

    PubMed

    Borrajo-Calleja, Gustavo M; de Julián, Eire; Bayón, Esther; Díez, Josefina; Lastra, Elena; Merino, Isabel; Gamasa, M Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Dinuclear complexes [Ag2(CF3SO3){(S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox}2][CF3SO3] (1), [Ag2(R-pybox)2][X]2 [R-pybox = 2,6-bis[4-(S)-isopropyloxazolin-2-yl]pyridine (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox and X = PF6 (2) and BF4 (3); R-pybox = 2,6-bis[(3aS,8aR)-8,8a-dihydro-3aH-indeno[1,2-d]oxazol-2-yl]pyridine (3aS,3a'S,8aR,8a'R)-indane-pybox and X = CF3SO3 (4)], [Ag2{(S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox}{(3aS,3a'S,8aR,8a'R)-indane-pybox}][CF3SO3]2 (5), and [Ag2(R-pybox)3][X]2 [R-pybox = (3aS,3a'S,8aR,8a'R)-indane-pybox and X = CF3SO3 (10), SF6 (11), and PF6 (12)] as well as mononuclear complexes [Ag(R-pybox)2][X] [R-pybox = (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox and X = SbF6 (6), PF6 (7), and BF4 (8); R-pybox = (3aS,3a'S,8aR,8a'R)-indane-pybox) and X = BF4 (9)] have been prepared by the reaction of the corresponding silver salts and pybox ligands using the appropriate molar ratio conditions. The first gold(I)/pybox complex [Au6Cl4{(S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox}4][AuCl2]2 (13) has been synthesized by the reaction of [AuCl{S(CH3)2}] and (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox (1:1 molar ratio) in acetonitrile. The structures of the dinuclear (1, 4, 5, 10, and 11) and mononuclear (6 and 9) silver complexes and the hexanuclear gold complex 13 have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. These studies have been complemented with a solution-state study by NMR spectroscopy, which included structure elucidation, variable-temperature measurements, and diffusion studies using diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY; for complexes 1, 4, 10, and 12). Complexes 1, 2, 4, and 10 have been assayed as catalysts in the asymmetric addition of phenylacetylene to N-benzylideneaniline.

  14. Synthesis of Silver(I) and Gold(I) Complexes Containing Enantiopure Pybox Ligands. First Assays on the Silver(I)-Catalyzed Asymmetric Addition of Alkynes to Imines.

    PubMed

    Borrajo-Calleja, Gustavo M; de Julián, Eire; Bayón, Esther; Díez, Josefina; Lastra, Elena; Merino, Isabel; Gamasa, M Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Dinuclear complexes [Ag2(CF3SO3){(S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox}2][CF3SO3] (1), [Ag2(R-pybox)2][X]2 [R-pybox = 2,6-bis[4-(S)-isopropyloxazolin-2-yl]pyridine (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox and X = PF6 (2) and BF4 (3); R-pybox = 2,6-bis[(3aS,8aR)-8,8a-dihydro-3aH-indeno[1,2-d]oxazol-2-yl]pyridine (3aS,3a'S,8aR,8a'R)-indane-pybox and X = CF3SO3 (4)], [Ag2{(S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox}{(3aS,3a'S,8aR,8a'R)-indane-pybox}][CF3SO3]2 (5), and [Ag2(R-pybox)3][X]2 [R-pybox = (3aS,3a'S,8aR,8a'R)-indane-pybox and X = CF3SO3 (10), SF6 (11), and PF6 (12)] as well as mononuclear complexes [Ag(R-pybox)2][X] [R-pybox = (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox and X = SbF6 (6), PF6 (7), and BF4 (8); R-pybox = (3aS,3a'S,8aR,8a'R)-indane-pybox) and X = BF4 (9)] have been prepared by the reaction of the corresponding silver salts and pybox ligands using the appropriate molar ratio conditions. The first gold(I)/pybox complex [Au6Cl4{(S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox}4][AuCl2]2 (13) has been synthesized by the reaction of [AuCl{S(CH3)2}] and (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox (1:1 molar ratio) in acetonitrile. The structures of the dinuclear (1, 4, 5, 10, and 11) and mononuclear (6 and 9) silver complexes and the hexanuclear gold complex 13 have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. These studies have been complemented with a solution-state study by NMR spectroscopy, which included structure elucidation, variable-temperature measurements, and diffusion studies using diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY; for complexes 1, 4, 10, and 12). Complexes 1, 2, 4, and 10 have been assayed as catalysts in the asymmetric addition of phenylacetylene to N-benzylideneaniline. PMID:27500504

  15. Top 5 Ways to Help Students with ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests five ways to help students with ADD/ADHD. These are: (1) Integrate the primitive reflexes; (2) Diet; (3) Visual attention; (4) Help for auditory attention; and (5) Cognitive training.

  16. TDRS-K to Add to Vital Space Network

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA officials discuss the launch of the TDRS-K spacecraft to add to the space network that enables communications between the International Space Station and Earth-orbiting satellites and ground c...

  17. Enantioseparation of mandelic acid derivatives by high performance liquid chromatography with substituted β-cyclodextrin as chiral mobile phase additive and evaluation of inclusion complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shengqiang; Zhang, Hu; Shen, Mangmang

    2014-01-01

    The enantioseparation of ten mandelic acid derivatives was performed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) or sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as chiral mobile phase additives, in which inclusion complex formations between cyclodextrins and enantiomers were evaluated. The effects of various factors such as the composition of mobile phase, concentration of cyclodextrins and column temperature on retention and enantioselectivity were studied. The peak resolutions and retention time of the enantiomers were strongly affected by the pH, the organic modifier and the type of β-cyclodextrin in the mobile phase, while the concentration of buffer solution and temperature had a relatively low effect on resolutions. Enantioseparations were successfully achieved on a Shimpack CLC-ODS column (150×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm). The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.10 mol L-1 of phosphate buffer at pH 2.68 containing 20 mmol L-1 of HP-β-CD or SBE-β-CD. Semi-preparative enantioseparation of about 10 mg of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid and α-cyclopentylmandelic acid were established individually. Cyclodextrin-enantiomer complex stoichiometries as well as binding constants were investigated. Results showed that stoichiomertries for all the inclusion complex of cyclodextrin-enantiomers were 1:1. PMID:24893270

  18. Addition of Fractions--The Unrecognized Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Arthur C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is why students have the tendency to apply an "add the numerators and add the denominators" approach to adding fractions. Suggested is providing examples exemplifying this intuitive approach from ratio, concentration, and distance problems to demonstrate under what conditions it is applicable in contrast to the addition algorithm. (MDH)

  19. Proposed helmet PET geometries with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-10-01

    For dedicated brain PET, we can significantly improve sensitivity for the cerebrum region by arranging detectors in a compact hemisphere. The geometrical sensitivity for the top region of the hemisphere is increased compared with conventional cylindrical PET consisting of the same number of detectors. However, the geometrical sensitivity at the center region of the hemisphere is still low because the bottom edge of the field-of-view is open, the same as for the cylindrical PET. In this paper, we proposed a helmet PET with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain PET imaging for both center and top regions. The key point is the add-on detectors covering some portion of the spherical surface in addition to the hemisphere. As the location of the add-on detectors, we proposed three choices: a chin detector, ear detectors, and a neck detector. For example, the geometrical sensitivity for the region-of-interest at the center was increased by 200% by adding the chin detector which increased the size by 12% of the size of the hemisphere detector. The other add-on detectors gave almost the same increased sensitivity effect as the chin detector did. Compared with standard whole-body-cylindrical PET, the proposed geometries can achieve 2.6 times higher sensitivity for brain region even with less than 1/4 detectors. In addition, we conducted imaging simulations for geometries with a diameter of 250 mm and with high resolution depth-of-interaction detectors. The simulation results showed that the proposed geometries increased image quality, and all of the add-on detectors were equivalently effective. In conclusion, the proposed geometries have high potential for widespread applications in high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and low-cost brain PET imaging.

  20. Discovery of a Plains Caldera Complex and Extinct Lava Lake in Arabia Terra, Mars: Implications for the Discovery of Additional Highland Volcanic Source Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, Jacob; Michalski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped topographic depressions occur near the dichotomy boundary in northern Arabia Terra, Mars. The geomorphology of these features suggests that they formed by collapse, opposed to meteor impact. At least one depression (approx.55 by 85 km) displays geologic features indicating a complex, multi-stage collapse history. Features within and around the collapse structure indicate volcanic processes. The complex occurs within Hesperian ridged plains of likely volcanic origin and displays no crater rim or evidence for ejecta. Instead the depression consists of a series of circumferential graben and down-dropped blocks which also display upper surfaces similar to ridged plain lavas. Large blocks within the depression are tilted towards the crater center, and display graben that appear to have originally been linked with circumferential graben outside of the complex related to earlier collapse events. A nearly 700 m high mound exists along a graben within the complex that might be a vent. The deepest depression displays two sets of nearly continuous terraces, which we interpret as high-stands of a drained lava lake. These features appear similar to the black ledge described during the Kilauea Iki eruption in 1959. A lacustrine origin for the terraces seems unlikely because of the paucity of channels found in or around the depression that could be linked to aqueous surface processes. In addition, there is no obvious evidence for lacustrine sediments within the basin. Together with the presence of significant faulting that is indicative of collapse we conclude that this crater complex represents a large caldera formed in the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian. Other linear and irregular depressions in the region also might be linked to ancient volcanism. If that hypothesis is correct, it suggests that northern Arabia Terra could contain a large, previously unrecognized highland igneous province. Evacuation of magma via explosive and effusive activity

  1. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  2. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging. PMID:26721993

  3. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Zak C.; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Schaedler, Tobias A.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  4. Cerebriform variant type of T cell prolymphocytic leukemia with complex karyotype including an additional segment at 1p36.1.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Senji; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Shibata, Yuhei; Matsumoto, Takuro; Nakamura, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Nobuhiro; Goto, Naoe; Hara, Takeshi; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2012-11-01

    We describe two patients with T cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) who exhibited the same complex karyotype, including an additional segment at 1p36.1. One presented with secondary progression following an initial stable clinical course, and the other with typically progressive disease. Features of the cerebriform variant were identified in the peripheral blood of both patients. Aggressive symptoms, such as lymphocytosis, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, cutaneous involvement and hepatosplenomegaly, developed during the progressive phases. Levels of serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor increased when symptoms worsened. These patients did not have the karyotypic 14q11 abnormality and trisomy 8q that are features of non-Japanese patients. The prognoses of these patients were poor; one survived for 2 months and the other survived for 10 months after progression. A chromosomal abnormality may occur in other types of aggressive T-PLL, particularly when extramedullary infiltration is a feature.

  5. Non-ionic surfactant modified ligand exchange chromatography using copper (II) complex of N,N-dimethyl-L-phenylalanine as the chiral additive for enantioselective amino acids separation.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Pepa; Bart, Hans-Jörg

    2010-03-17

    The influence of non-ionic surfactants on the selectivity and retention in the ligand exchange chromatography for the enantioselective separation of racemic mixtures of the amino acids dl-methionine, dl-leucine, dl-valine and dl-tyrosine applying chiral mobile phases was investigated, whereas five different surfactants were tested as modifiers. The experiments were carried out using a commercially available non-chiral RP-C8 column and the copper (II) complex of N,N-dimethyl-l-phenylalanine as the chiral additive. Varying the surfactant concentrations the retention factors and the selectivity could be controlled and in general no negative influence on the separation (due to surfactant adsorption on the non-chiral stationary phase) occurred. Changing the temperature the van't Hoff plots were obtained and the thermodynamic parameters calculated. Temperature had influence on the selectivity for each surfactant and lowered the retention times as expected.

  6. Easy oxidative addition of the carbon-halogen bond by dimethylplatinum(II) complexes containing a related series of diimine ligands: Synthesis, spectral characterization and crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Badri Z.; Fathi, Nastaran; Mohagheghi, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Dimethylplatinum(II) complexes [PtMe2(NN)] {NN = 4,4‧-Me2bpy (4,4‧-dimethyl-2,2‧-bipyridine); 5,5‧-Me2bpy (5,5‧-dimethyl-2,2‧-bipyridine)} were reacted with alkyl halides (RX = EtI, EtBr) to yield the organoplatinum(IV) complexes [PtMe2RX(NN)]. On the basis of NMR data, the platinum(IV) product of each reaction contains almost exclusively the trans isomer but small traces of the cis isomers are also observed. On the other hand, the reaction of [PtMe2(NN)] {NN = bu2bpy (4,4‧-di-tert-butyl-2,2‧-bipyridine); 4,4‧-Me2bpy; 5,5‧-Me2bpy} with CH2Br2 gave a mixture of cis and trans-[PtMe2(CH2Br)Br(NN)] formed by the oxidative addition of one of the C-Br bonds. The formation of the cis isomer increases in the order of 5,5‧-Me2bpy > bu2bpy > 4,4‧-Me2bpy. The reaction of [PtMe2(NN)] {NN = bpy (2,2‧-bipyridine), phen (1,10-phenanthroline)} with 1,8-dibromooctane or 1,9-dibromononane afforded the mononuclear complexes [PtMe2{(CH2)nBr}Br(NN)] (n = 8-9). The products were fully characterized by elemental analysis, 1H, 13C, HH COSY, HMQC, DEPT and DEPTQ-135 NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of [PtMe2EtI(4,4‧-Me2bpy)] reveals that Pt(IV) atom is six-coordinated in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry with the ethyl group trans to iodide.

  7. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  8. Additive effects of mitochondrion-targeted cytochrome CYP2E1 and alcohol toxicity on cytochrome c oxidase function and stability of respirosome complexes.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Seema; Srinivasan, Satish; Anandasadagopan, Sureshkumar; Chowdhury, Anindya Roy; Selvaraj, Venkatesh; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Joseph, Joy; Avadhani, Narayan G

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol treatment induces oxidative stress by a combination of increased production of partially reduced oxygen species and decreased cellular antioxidant pool, including GSH. Recently, we showed that mitochondrion-targeted CYP2E1 augments alcohol-mediated toxicity, causing an increase in reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress. Here, we show that cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal oxidase of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is a critical target of CYP2E1-mediated alcohol toxicity. COS-7 and Hep G2 cell lines expressing predominantly mitochondrion-targeted (Mt(++)) CYP2E1 and livers from alcohol-treated rats showed loss of CcO activity and increased protein carbonylation, which was accompanied by a decline in the steady state levels of subunits I, IVI1, and Vb of the CcO complex. This was also accompanied by reduced mitochondrial DNA content and reduced mitochondrial mRNA. These changes were more prominent in Mt(++) cells in comparison with wild type (WT) CYP2E1-expressing or ER(+) (mostly microsome-targeted) cells. In addition, mitochondrion-specific antioxidants, ubiquinol conjugated to triphenyl phosphonium, triphenylphosphonium conjugated carboxyl proxyl, and the CYP2E1 inhibitor diallyl sulfide prevented the loss of CcO activity and the CcO subunits, most likely through reduced oxidative damage to the enzyme complex. Our results suggest that damage to CcO and dissociation of respirosome complexes are critical factors in alcohol-induced toxicity, which is augmented by mitochondrion-targeted CYP2E1. We propose that CcO is one of the direct and immediate targets of alcohol-induced toxicity causing respiratory dysfunction.

  9. Localization of eight additional genes in the human major histocompatibility complex, including the gene encoding the casein kinase II {beta} subunit (CSNK2B)

    SciTech Connect

    Albertella, M.R.; Jones, H.; Thomson, W.

    1996-09-01

    A wide range of autoimmune and other diseases are known to be associated with the major histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility antigens in the class I and class II regions, but some appear to be more strongly associated with genes in the central 1100-kb class III region, making it important to characterize this region fully for the presence of novel genes. An {approximately}220-kb segment of DNA in the class III region separating the Hsp70 (HSPA1L) and BAT1 (D6S8IE) genes, which was previously known to contain 14 genes. Genomic DNA fragments spanning the gaps between the known genes were used as probes to isolate cDNAs corresponding to five new genes within this region. Evidence from Northern blot analysis and exon trapping experiments that suggested the presence of at least two more new genes was also obtained. Partial cDNA and complete exonic genomic sequencing of one of the new genes has identified it as the casein kinase II{beta} subunit (CSNK2B). Two of the other novel genes lie within a region syntenic to that implicated in susceptibility to experimental allergic orchitis in the mouse, an autoimmune disease of the testis, and represent additional candidates for the Orch-1 locus associated with this disease. In addition, characterization of the 13-kb intergenic gap separating the RD (D6545) and G11 (D6S60E) genes has revealed the presence of a gene encoding a 1246-amino-acid polypeptide that shows significant sequence similarity to the yeast anti-viral Ski2p gene product. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  10. P2 addition to terminal phosphide M[triple bond]P triple bonds: a rational synthesis of cyclo-P3 complexes.

    PubMed

    Piro, Nicholas A; Cummins, Christopher C

    2008-07-23

    The diphosphaazide complex (Mes*NPP)Nb(N[Np]Ar)3 (Mes* = 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl, Np = neopentyl, Ar = 3,5-Me2C6H3), 1, has previously been reported to lose the P2 unit upon gentle heating, to form (Mes*N)Nb(N[Np]Ar)3, 2. The first-order activation parameters for this process have been estimated here using an Eyring analysis to have the values Delta H(double dagger) = 19.6(2) kcal/mol and Delta S(double dagger) = -14.2(5) eu. The eliminated P2 unit can be transferred to the terminal phosphide complexes P[triple bond]M(N[(i)Pr]Ar)3, 3-M (M = Mo, W), and [P[triple bond]Nb(N[Np]Ar)3](-), 3-Nb, to give the cyclo-P3 complexes (P3)M(N[(i)Pr]Ar)3 and [(P3)Nb(N[Np]Ar)3](-). These reactions represent the formal addition of a P[triple bond]P triple bond across a M[triple bond]P triple bond and are the first efficient transfers of the P2 unit to substrates present in stoichiometric quantities. The related complex (OC)5W(Mes*NPP)Nb(N[Np]Ar)3, 1-W(CO)5, was used to transfer the (P2)W(CO)5 unit in an analogous manner to the substrates 3-M (M = Mo, W, Nb) as well as to [(OC)5WP[triple bond]Nb(N[Np]Ar)3](-). The rate constants for the fragmentation of 1 and 1-W(CO)5 were unchanged in the presence of the terminal phosphide 3-Mo, supporting the hypothesis that molecular P2 and (P2)W(CO)5, respectively, are reactive intermediates. In a reaction related to the combination of P[triple bond]P and M[triple bond]P triple bonds, the phosphaalkyne AdC[triple bond]P (Ad = 1-adamantyl) was observed to react with 3-Mo to generate the cyclo-CP2 complex (AdCP2)Mo(N[(i)Pr]Ar)3. Reactions of the electrophiles Ph3SnCl, Mes*NPCl, and AdC(O)Cl with the anionic, nucleophilic complexes [(OC)5W(P3)Nb(N[Np]Ar)3](-) and [{(OC)5W}2(P3)Nb(N[Np]Ar)3](-) yielded coordinated eta(2)-triphosphirene ligands. The Mes*NPW(CO)5 group of one such product engages in a fluxional ring-migration process, according to NMR spectroscopic data. The structures of (OC)5W(P3)W(N[(i)Pr]Ar)3, [(Et2O)Na][{(OC)5W}2(P3)Nb

  11. Structural analysis of the varicella-zoster virus gp98-gp62 complex: posttranslational addition of N-linked and O-linked oligosaccharide moieties.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, E A; Parmley, R T; Grose, C

    1985-03-01

    Varicella-zoster virus specifies the formation of several glycoproteins, including the preponderant gp98-gp62 glycoprotein complex in the outer membranes of virus-infected cells. These viral glycoproteins are recognized and precipitated by a previously described monoclonal antibody designated monoclone 3B3. When an immunoblot analysis was performed, only gp98 was reactive with monoclone 3B3 antibody; likewise, titration in the presence of increased concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate during antigen-antibody incubations caused selective precipitation of gp98 but not gp62. Further structural analyses of gp98 were performed by using the glycosidases endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H (endoglycosidase H) and neuraminidase and two inhibitors of glycosylation (tunicamycin and monensin). In addition to gp98, antibody 3B3 reacted with several intermediate products, including gp90, gp88, gp81, and a nonglycosylated polypeptide, p73. Since gp98 was completely resistant to digestion with endoglycosidase H, it contained only complex carbohydrate moieties; conversely, gp81 contained mainly high-mannose residues. Polypeptide p73 was immunodetected in the presence of tunicamycin and designated as a nascent recipient of N-linked sugars, whereas gp88 was considered to contain O-linked oligosaccharides because its synthesis was not affected by tunicamycin. The ionophore monensin inhibited production of mature gp98, but other intermediate forms, including gp90, were detected. Since the latter product was similar in molecular weight to the desialated form of gp98, one effect of monensin treatment of varicella-zoster virus-infected cells was to block the addition of N-acetylneuraminic acid. Monensin also blocked insertion of gp98 into the plasma membrane and, as determined by electron microscopy, inhibited envelopment of the nucleocapsid and its transport within the cytoplasm. On the basis of this study, we reached the following conclusions: the primary antibody 3B3-binding

  12. Stealing time. Time management techniques add hours to each day.

    PubMed

    Davis, Nadinia

    2003-06-01

    Time not only flies when we're having fun, but also when we're filing paperwork, checking e-mail, and looking for our car keys. But you can add hours to your day by managing yourself rather than time. Here's how.

  13. Enhancing Teaching using MATLAB Add-Ins for Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I will illustrate how to extend the capabilities of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with add-ins created by MATLAB. Excel provides a broad array of fundamental tools but often comes up short when more sophisticated scenarios are involved. To overcome this short-coming of Excel while retaining its ease of use, I will describe how…

  14. Mode-routed fiber-optic add-drop filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Shaw, Herbert John (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    New elements mode-converting two-mode grating and mode-filtering two-mode coupler are disclosed and used as elements in a system for communications, add-drop filtering, and strain sensing. Methods of fabrication for these new two-mode gratings and mode-filtering two-mode couplers are also disclosed.

  15. Medicalised Pupils: The Case of ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2009-01-01

    Recent decades have seen an increasing number of life's problems conceptualised and interpreted through the prism of disease; among them are those affecting pupils at school. Witness the cases of hyperactivity and deficient attention, so often diagnosed as ADD/ADHD. Research indicates that there is at least some tendency towards overdiagnosis of…

  16. Reading Disabled and ADD Children: Similarities and Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykman, Roscoe A.; And Others

    This paper covers selected findings from three studies that compared different diagnostic groups: boys with attention deficit disorder (ADD) with or without hyperactivity (HY) but normal reading ability; boys with reading disability (RD) but not HY; and boys with both RD and HY. Studies examined an adapted task to assess frontal and temporal lobe…

  17. The Care Tradition: Beyond "Add Women and Stir."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2001-01-01

    Examines problems of curricular inclusion, emphasizing ways of including the interests and contributions of women in social studies curricula. After describing the inadequacy of the "add women and stir" approach to inclusion, the paper discusses the tradition of care long identified with female life, then explores ways to preserve and extend this…

  18. Oxidative addition of allylic halides to ruthenium(II) compounds. Preparation, reactions, and X-ray crystallographic structure of ruthenium(IV)-allyl complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Nagashima, Hideo; Mukai, Katsunori; Shiota, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Keitaro; Ara, Kenichi; Fukahori, Takahiko; Itoh, Kenji ); Suzuki, Hiroharu; Akita, Munetaka; Moro-oka, Yoshihiko )

    1990-03-01

    The oxidative addition of allylic halides to (C{sub 5}R{sub 5})RuL{sub 2}X (R = H, Me; L = CO, PPh{sub 3}) gave new Ru(IV)-{eta}{sup 3}-allyl complexes, (C{sub 5}R{sub 5})RuX{sub 2}({eta}{sup 3}-allyl). An X-ray structure determination was carried out on (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})RuBr{sub 2}({eta}{sup 3}-C{sub 3}H{sub 5}), indicating a pseudo-piano-stool structure having two Br atoms and two terminal carbons of the endo-{eta}{sup 3}-allyl ligand located at the basal positions. There is a crystal mirror plane bisecting the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl and the {pi}-allyl ligands. Crystal data: orthorhombic, space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, a = 22.738 (1) {angstrom}, b = 13.367 (7) {angstrom}, c = 9.383 (1) {angstrom}, Z = 4., data refined to R = 0.0695. Its {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed symmetric allyl signals, supporting that the above-described piano-stool structure is maintained even in solution.

  19. [Role of an educational-and-methodological complex in the optimization of teaching at the stage of additional professional education of physicians in the specialty "anesthesiology and reanimatology"].

    PubMed

    Buniatian, A A; Sizova, Zh M; Vyzhigina, M A; Shikh, E V

    2010-01-01

    An educational-and-methodological complex (EMC) in the specialty 'Anesthesiology and Reanimatology", which promotes manageability, flexibility, and dynamism of an educational process, is of great importance in solving the problem in the systematization of knowledge and its best learning by physicians at a stage of additional professional education (APE). EMC is a set of educational-and-methodological materials required to organize and hold an educational process for the advanced training of anesthesiologists and resuscitation specialists at the stage of APE. EMC includes a syllabus for training in the area "Anesthesiology and Reanimatology" by the appropriate training pattern (certification cycles, topical advanced training cycles); a work program for training in the specialty "Anesthesiology and Reanimatology"; a work curriculums for training in allied specialties (surgery, traumatology and orthopedics, obstetrics and gynecology, and pediatrics); work programs on basic disciplines (pharmacology, normal and pathological physiology, normal anatomy, chemistry and biology); working programs on the area "Public health care and health care service", guidelines for the teacher; educational-and-methodological materials for the student; and quiz programs. The main point of EMC in the specialty "Anesthesiology and Reanimatology" is a work program. Thus, educational-and-methodological and teaching materials included into the EMC in the specialty 'Anesthesiology and Reanimatology" should envisage the logically successive exposition of a teaching material, the use of currently available methods and educational facilities, which facilitates the optimization of training of anesthesiologists and resuscitation specialists at the stage of APE.

  20. The effects of superoxide dismutase addition to the transport medium on cumulus-oocyte complex apoptosis and IVF outcome in cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Cocchia, Natascia; Corteggio, Annunziata; Altamura, Gennaro; Tafuri, Simona; Rea, Silviana; Rosapane, Isabella; Sica, Alessandro; Landolfi, Francesco; Ciani, Francesca

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) addition to the ovary transport medium (4°C, 3-72 h) on ovarian cell viability and apoptosis and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in domestic cats. The ovaries collected from 76 mixed-breed domestic queens were randomly assigned to the control or SOD-treated groups and incubated for 3, 24, 48 or 72 h. The ovaries were then subjected to the following: (1) fixed in formalin to assess the incidence of apoptosis (fragmented DNA in situ detection kit), (2) stored at -196°C in liquid nitrogen to evaluate the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bax gene and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene (RT-PCR), and (3) used to obtain the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in order to test the cell viability (carboxyfluorescein or trypan blue staining) and IVEP. The incidence of apoptosis appeared to be higher in the control compared with the SOD-treated ovaries. The ovarian expression of Bax was lower and the Bcl-2 expression was higher in the SOD-treated group compared with the control group. The presence of SOD in the transport medium increased the viability of COCs and IVEP compared with the control medium. In summary, the supplementation of the ovary transport medium with SOD reduced cellular apoptosis and enhanced COC survival and IVEP in domestic cats. PMID:25726378

  1. [Chiral separation of five beta-blockers using di-n-hexyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex as mobile phase additive by reversed-phase liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Wang, Lijuan; Guo, Qiaoling; Yang, Gengliang

    2012-03-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method using the di-n-hexyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex as a chiral mobile phase additive was developed for the enantioseparation of five beta-blockers including propranolol, esmolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol and sotalol. In order to obtain a better enantioseparation, the influences of concentrations of di-n-butyl L-tartrate and boric acid, the type, concentration and pH of the buffer, methanol content as well as the molecular structure of analytes were extensively investigated. The separation of the analytes was performed on a Venusil MP-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). The mobile phase was 15 mmol/L ammonium acetate-methanol containing 60 mmol/L boric acid, 70 mmol/L di-n-hexyl L-tartrate (pH 6.00). The volume ratios of 15 mmol/L ammonium acetate to methanol were 20: 80 for propranolol, esmolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol and 30: 70 for sotalol. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and the detection wavelength was set at 214 nm. Under the optimized conditions, baseline enantioseparation was obtained separately for the five pairs of analytes.

  2. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  3. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  4. Clinical and biochemical outcomes for additive mesenteric and lower body perfusion during hypothermic circulatory arrest for complex total aortic arch replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; Cleland, A; Adams, C; Chu, M W A

    2012-11-01

    protection strategy for complex aortic arch surgery. This additive perfusion strategy may attenuate visceral and lower body ischemia that normally develops during periods of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

  5. To add or not to add LH: comments on recent commentaries.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Franco

    2006-04-01

    Human reproductive evolution, involving a complex interaction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, the release of pulsatile and threshold concentrations of gonadotrophins and positive and negative feedback systems, has ensured the release of a single viable egg and functioning corpora lutea in the natural menstrual cycle. The use of follicular stimulation regimens to obtain multiple eggs has resulted in a compromise - in terms of the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation, cost, multiple pregnancies, wastage of or the need for cryopreservation of surplus embryos. Even some women with apparently normal menstrual cycles might become 'poor responders' when administered with follicular stimulants, and we still do not know if the incidence of oocyte aneuploidy is artificially raised after stimulation. After the advent of recombinant FSH and LH, the precise roles of these hormones individually needs to be elucidated to understand the physiological requirements for successful ovarian stimulation in each woman undergoing IVF, to maximize her chance and minimise attendant risks. One of the key debates is the role of LH, which in the natural cycle is significant, but may be redundant during ovarian stimulation for IVF. Current outcome indicators are crude when attempting to understand the physiology, and more basic research and randomized, focused clinical trials are needed.

  6. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimation of the "risk region" during acute anterior or inferior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Vervaat, F E; Bouwmeester, S; van Hellemond, I E G; Wagner, G S; Gorgels, A P M

    2014-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) is an important aspect in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It represents the myocardium at the onset of the STEMI that is ischemic and could become infarcted if no reperfusion occurs. The MaR, therefore, has clinical value because it gives an indication of the amount of myocardium that could potentially be salvaged by rapid reperfusion therapy. The most validated method for measuring the MaR is (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT, but this technique is not easily applied in the clinical setting. Another method that can be used for measuring the MaR is the standard ECG-based scoring system, Aldrich ST score, which is more easily applied. This ECG-based scoring system can be used to estimate the extent of acute ischemia for anterior or inferior left ventricular locations, by considering quantitative changes in the ST-segment. Deviations in the ST-segment baseline that occur following an acute coronary occlusion represent the ischemic changes in the transmurally ischemic myocardium. In most instances however, the ECG is not available at the very first moments of STEMI and as times passes the ischemic myocardium becomes necrotic with regression of the ST-segment deviation along with progressive changes of the QRS complex. Thus over the time course of the acute event, the Aldrich ST score would be expected to progressively underestimate the MaR, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard; anterior STEMI (r=0.21, p=0.32) and inferior STEMI (r=0.17, p=0.36). Another standard ECG-based scoring system is the Selvester QRS score, which can be used to estimate the final infarct size by considering the quantitative changes in the QRS complex. Therefore, additional consideration of the Selvester QRS score in the acute phase could potentially provide the "component" of infarcted myocardium that is missing when the Aldrich ST score alone is used to determine the MaR in the acute phase, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold

  7. Dual mode of cell death upon the photo-irradiation of a RuII polypyridyl complex in interphase or mitosis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc00387g Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Pierroz, Vanessa; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Gentili, Christian; Patra, Malay; Mari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive, complementary medical technique to chemotherapy. Among the different photosensitizers (PSs) employed, Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes were found to be valid substitutes to porphyrin-based or phthalocyanine-based PSs. Here, we confirm that one such complex, namely [Ru(bipy)2-dppz-7-methoxy][PF6]2 (Ru65), which localizes in the nucleus of various cancer and normal cells, displays cytotoxicity only upon UV-A irradiation. Importantly, we disclose the molecular mechanism of the UV-A mediated cytotoxic action of Ru65. We demonstrate that Ru65 intercalates in DNA and, upon light irradiation, promotes guanine oxidation, resulting in nicks in the double helix. We confirm this mechanism of action in living cells, showing that the UV-A irradiation of cells loaded with Ru65 results in a transient DNA damage response and cell death. Strikingly, the photo-irradiation of Ru65 triggered distinct mechanisms of cell death in interphase or mitotic cells. The former underwent cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and massive cytoplasmic vacuolation, which was paralleled by an unfolded-protein stress response, resulting in a reduction of viability and cell death through a paraptosis-like mechanism. On the other hand, the UV-A irradiation of Ru65 in cells synchronized by G2/M block-release with a selective CDK1 inhibitor led to blocking mitotic entry and rapid cell death through classic apoptotic pathways. Importantly, targeting mitotic cells with Ru65 allowed increasing its photo-toxicity by a factor of 3.6. Overall, our findings show that the use of a combination of a cell cycle inhibitor and a PS targeting the nucleus could open up new avenues in PDT. PMID:27708751

  8. Dual mode of cell death upon the photo-irradiation of a RuII polypyridyl complex in interphase or mitosis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc00387g Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Pierroz, Vanessa; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Gentili, Christian; Patra, Malay; Mari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive, complementary medical technique to chemotherapy. Among the different photosensitizers (PSs) employed, Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes were found to be valid substitutes to porphyrin-based or phthalocyanine-based PSs. Here, we confirm that one such complex, namely [Ru(bipy)2-dppz-7-methoxy][PF6]2 (Ru65), which localizes in the nucleus of various cancer and normal cells, displays cytotoxicity only upon UV-A irradiation. Importantly, we disclose the molecular mechanism of the UV-A mediated cytotoxic action of Ru65. We demonstrate that Ru65 intercalates in DNA and, upon light irradiation, promotes guanine oxidation, resulting in nicks in the double helix. We confirm this mechanism of action in living cells, showing that the UV-A irradiation of cells loaded with Ru65 results in a transient DNA damage response and cell death. Strikingly, the photo-irradiation of Ru65 triggered distinct mechanisms of cell death in interphase or mitotic cells. The former underwent cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and massive cytoplasmic vacuolation, which was paralleled by an unfolded-protein stress response, resulting in a reduction of viability and cell death through a paraptosis-like mechanism. On the other hand, the UV-A irradiation of Ru65 in cells synchronized by G2/M block-release with a selective CDK1 inhibitor led to blocking mitotic entry and rapid cell death through classic apoptotic pathways. Importantly, targeting mitotic cells with Ru65 allowed increasing its photo-toxicity by a factor of 3.6. Overall, our findings show that the use of a combination of a cell cycle inhibitor and a PS targeting the nucleus could open up new avenues in PDT.

  9. Frequency-Domain Chromatic Dispersion Equalization Using Overlap-Add Methods in Coherent Optical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T.; Jacobsen, G.; Popov, S.; Forzati, M.; Mårtensson, J.; Mussolin, M.; Li, J.; Wang, K.; Zhang, Y.; Friberg, A. T.

    2011-06-01

    The frequency domain equalizers (FDEs) employing two types of overlap-add zero-padding (OLA-ZP) methods are applied to compensate the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (NRZ-PDM-QPSK) coherent optical transmission system. Simulation results demonstrate that the OLA-ZP methods can achieve the same acceptable performance as the overlapsave method. The required minimum overlap (or zero-padding) in the FDE is derived, and the optimum fast Fourier transform length to minimize the computational complexity is also analyzed.

  10. A role for dZIP89B in Drosophila dietary zinc uptake reveals additional complexity in the zinc absorption process.

    PubMed

    Richards, Christopher D; Warr, Coral G; Burke, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Dietary zinc is the principal source of zinc in eukaryotes, with its uptake and distribution controlled by a complex network of numerous membrane-spanning transport proteins. Dietary absorption is achieved by members of the SLC39A (ZIP) gene family, which encode proteins that are generally responsible for the movement of zinc into the cytosol. ZIP4 is thought to be the primary mammalian zinc uptake gene in the small intestine, with mutations in this gene causing the zinc deficiency disease Acrodermatitis enteropathica. In Drosophila, dual knockdown of the major dietary zinc uptake genes dZIP42C.1 (dZIP1) and dZIP42C.2 (dZIP2) results in a severe sensitivity to zinc-deficient media. However, the symptoms associated with ZIP4 loss can be reversed by zinc supplementation and dZIP42C.1 and 2 knockdown has minimal effect under normal dietary conditions, suggesting that additional pathways for zinc absorption exist in both mammals and flies. This study provides evidence that dZIP89B is an ideal candidate for this role in Drosophila, encoding a low-affinity zinc uptake transporter active in the posterior midgut. Flies lacking dZIP89B, while viable and apparently healthy, show indications of low midgut zinc levels, including reduced metallothionein B expression and compensatory up-regulation of dZIP42C.1 and 2. Furthermore dZIP89B mutants display a dramatic resistance to toxic dietary zinc levels which is abrogated by midgut-specific restoration of dZIP89B activity. We postulate that dZIP89B works in concert with the closely related dZIP42C.1 and 2 to ensure optimal zinc absorption under a range of dietary conditions.

  11. Stereovision Imaging in Smart Mobile Phone Using Add on Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Magen Numhauser, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present the use of a prism-based add on component installed on top of a smart phone to achieve stereovision capabilities using iPhone mobile operating system. Through these components and the combination of the appropriate application programming interface and mathematical algorithms the obtained results will permit the analysis of possible enhancements for new uses to such system, in a variety of areas including medicine and communications.

  12. Randomized Controlled Trials of Add-On Antidepressants in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Grigori; Stenberg, Jan-Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite adequate treatment with antipsychotics, a substantial number of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate only suboptimal clinical outcome. To overcome this challenge, various psychopharmacological combination strategies have been used, including antidepressants added to antipsychotics. Methods: To analyze the efficacy of add-on antidepressants for the treatment of negative, positive, cognitive, depressive, and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia, published randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of adjunctive antidepressants in schizophrenia were reviewed using the following parameters: baseline clinical characteristics and number of patients, their on-going antipsychotic treatment, dosage of the add-on antidepressants, duration of the trial, efficacy measures, and outcomes. Results: There were 36 randomized controlled trials reported in 41 journal publications (n=1582). The antidepressants used were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, duloxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nefazodone, reboxetin, trazodone, and bupropion. Mirtazapine and mianserin showed somewhat consistent efficacy for negative symptoms and both seemed to enhance neurocognition. Trazodone and nefazodone appeared to improve the antipsychotics-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. Imipramine and duloxetine tended to improve depressive symptoms. No clear evidence supporting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors’ efficacy on any clinical domain of schizophrenia was found. Add-on antidepressants did not worsen psychosis. Conclusions: Despite a substantial number of randomized controlled trials, the overall efficacy of add-on antidepressants in schizophrenia remains uncertain mainly due to methodological issues. Some differences in efficacy on several schizophrenia domains seem, however, to exist and to vary by the antidepressant subgroups—plausibly due to differences in the mechanisms of action. Antidepressants may not worsen

  13. Chi hotspots trigger a conformational change in the helicase-like domain of AddAB to activate homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Gilhooly, Neville S.; Carrasco, Carolina; Gollnick, Benjamin; Wilkinson, Martin; Wigley, Dale B.; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Dillingham, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks is modulated by Chi sequences. These are recognised by helicase-nuclease complexes that process DNA ends for homologous recombination. Chi activates recombination by changing the biochemical properties of the helicase-nuclease, transforming it from a destructive exonuclease into a recombination-promoting repair enzyme. This transition is thought to be controlled by the Chi-dependent opening of a molecular latch, which enables part of the DNA substrate to evade degradation beyond Chi. Here, we show that disruption of the latch improves Chi recognition efficiency and stabilizes the interaction of AddAB with Chi, even in mutants that are impaired for Chi binding. Chi recognition elicits a structural change in AddAB that maps to a region of AddB which resembles a helicase domain, and which harbours both the Chi recognition locus and the latch. Mutation of the latch potentiates the change and moderately reduces the duration of a translocation pause at Chi. However, this mutant displays properties of Chi-modified AddAB even in the complete absence of bona fide hotspot sequences. The results are used to develop a model for AddAB regulation in which allosteric communication between Chi binding and latch opening ensures quality control during recombination hotspot recognition. PMID:26762979

  14. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  15. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called "stress bandage", the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  16. Optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; Strand, Oliver T.; Garrett, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    An optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems and construction methods are disclosed. The add/drop filter includes a first ferrule having a first pre-formed opening for receiving a first optical fiber; an interference filter oriented to pass a first set of wavelengths along the first optical fiber and reflect a second set of wavelengths; and, a second ferrule having a second pre-formed opening for receiving the second optical fiber, and the reflected second set of wavelengths. A method for constructing the optical add/drop filter consists of the steps of forming a first set of openings in a first ferrule; inserting a first set of optical fibers into the first set of openings; forming a first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule; dividing the first ferrule into a first ferrule portion and a second ferrule portion; forming an interference filter on the first ferrule portion; inserting guide pins through the first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule portion and second ferrule portion to passively align the first set of optical fibers; removing material such that light reflected from the interference filter from the first set of optical fibers is accessible; forming a second set of openings in a second ferrule; inserting a second set of optical fibers into the second set of openings; and positioning the second ferrule with respect to the first ferrule such that the second set of optical fibers receive the light reflected from the interference filter.

  17. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-02-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.

  18. radEq Add-On Module for CFD Solver Loci-CHEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Loci-CHEM to be applied to flow velocities where surface radiation due to heating from compression and friction becomes significant. The module adds a radiation equilibrium boundary condition to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to produce accurate results. The module expanded the upper limit for accurate CFD solutions of Loci-CHEM from Mach 4 to Mach 10 based on Space Shuttle Orbiter Re-Entry trajectories. Loci-CHEM already has a very promising architecture and performance, but absence of radiation equilibrium boundary condition limited the application of Loci-CHEM to below Mach 4. The immediate advantage of the add-on module is that it allows Loci-CHEM to work with supersonic flows up to Mach 10. This transformed Loci-CHEM from a rocket engine- heritage CFD code with general subsonic and low-supersonic applications, to an aeroheating code with hypersonic applications. The follow-on advantage of the module is that it is a building block for additional add-on modules that will solve for the heating generated at Mach numbers higher than 10.

  19. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  20. Sr-isotopic composition of marbles from the Puerto Galera area (Mindoro, Philippines): additional evidence for a Paleozoic age of a metamorphic complex in the Philippine island arc

    SciTech Connect

    Knittel, U.; Daniels, U.

    1987-02-01

    The Sr-isotopic composition of marbles from the Puerto Galera area (Mindoro, Philippines) is compatible with either a Tertiary or a Paleozoic age. The former is considered as unlikely because nonmetamorphic sediments of that age overlie the metamorphic complex. This implies that the metamorphic complex does not represent the basement of the Philippine arc but is an accreted terrane.

  1. "Additive" cooperativity of hydrogen bonds in complexes of catechol with proton acceptors in the gas phase: FTIR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A; Klimovitskii, Alexander E; Abaidullina, Dilyara I; Madzhidov, Timur I; Solomonov, Boris N

    2012-06-01

    Experimental study of hydrogen bond cooperativity in hetero-complexes in the gas phase was carried out by IR-spectroscopy method. Stretching vibration frequencies of O-H groups in phenol and catechol molecules as well as of their complexes with nitriles and ethers were determined in the gas phase using a specially designed cell. O-H groups experimental frequency shifts in the complexes of catechol induced by the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds are significantly higher than in the complexes of phenol due to the hydrogen bond cooperativity. It was shown that the cooperativity factors of hydrogen bonds in the complexes of catechol with nitriles and ethers in the gas phase are approximately the same. Quantum chemical calculations of the studied systems have been performed using density functional theory (DFT) methods. It was shown, that theoretically obtained cooperativity factors of hydrogen bonds in the complexes of catechol with proton acceptors are in good agreement with experimental values. Cooperative effects lead to a strengthening of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the complexes of catechol on about 30%, despite the significant difference in the proton acceptor ability of the bases. The analysis within quantum theory of atoms in molecules was carried out for the explanation of this fact.

  2. Image restoration by the shift-and-add algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bagnuolo, W G

    1985-05-01

    A new method for image restoration based on the shift-and-add (SAA) algorithm is presented, the main advantages of which appear to be speed and simplicity. The SAA pattern produced by an object is given by the object correlated by a nonlinear replica of itself whose intensity distribution is strongly weighted toward the brighter pixels. A method of successive substitutions analogous to Fienup's algorithm can then be used to decorrelate the SAA pattern and recover the object. The method is applied to the case of the extended chromosphere of Betelgeuse. PMID:19724393

  3. New sterically-hindered o-quinones annelated with metal-dithiolates: regiospecificity in oxidative addition reactions of a bifacial ligand to the Pd and Pt complexes.

    PubMed

    Martyanov, K A; Cherkasov, V K; Abakumov, G A; Samsonov, M A; Khrizanforova, V V; Budnikova, Y H; Kuropatov, V A

    2016-04-25

    An unusual reactivity of sterically hindered o-quinones with an annelated dithiete ring towards coordination at a dithiolene site has been discovered. New Pd and Pt dithiolate complexes have been synthesized. The reaction proceeds regioselectively, and the quinone site of the parent ligand is not affected even while using an excess of the metal complex. Both Pt and Pd complexes display a square planar surrounding for the metal ion and have very similar NMR, IR and UV/Vis spectra. Surprisingly, being coordinated at the dithiolene site to the metal, the ligand exhibits activity like an o-quinone, it could be reduced with different metals resulting in the corresponding o-semiquinonates which were confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. It was shown that an unpaired electron exhibits HFC with the phosphorus nuclei of phosphine ligands coordinated to the metal ions at the dithiolene site of the molecule.

  4. Novel fiber bottle microresonator add-drop filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Murugan, Ganapathy; Wilkinson, James S.; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2010-02-01

    Novel bottle microresonators fabricated from standard telecommunications optical fiber were recently shown to support helical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) extending along the bottle length between the bottle necks. Intensity maxima were observed around the turning points on both sides close to the bottle necks where the WGMs are effectively reflected. Selective excitation on one side of the bottle microresonator leads to strong power localization at a symmetrically located turning point for the WGMs and can potentially be exploited to form effective add-drop filters. Channel dropping characteristics have been studied experimentally for the first time in this novel type of microresonator. A tapered optical fiber (drawn down to 2-3 microns in diameter with effective index of approximately 1.2) was placed on one side of the bottle to excite the bottle WGMs. A similar tapered fiber placed symmetrically on the other side of the bottle acted as a probe to extract the excited modes. We have successfully extracted power from all the resonance wavelengths using the probe placed at appropriate positions along the bottle, leading to the potential to construct efficient all fiber add-drop filters.

  5. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  6. Reactions of vinyl amido ligands in Tp`(CO){sub 2}W[N(R`)CH=CHR] complexes prepared from addition of primary amines to coordinated alkynes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S.G.; White, P.S.; Templeton, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    Reaction of the ytterbium-benzophenone dianion complex (1), which was formed by reaction of Yb metal with benzophenone in THF/HMPA, with 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, yielded the ytterbium(II) aryloxide complex Yb(OAr){sub 2}(HMPA){sub 2} (2, Ar= C{sub 6}H{sub 2} -{sup t}Bu{sub 2}-2,6-Me-4) as a major product (80%) and the ytterbium(III) enolate complex (3) as a minor one (ca. 5% yield). The mechanisms of these reactions are discussed. X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that 3, 4a, and 7b are isostructural, and so are 5a and 6. The central metal ions in these complexes are all five-coordinated in a trigonal bipyramid form (highly distorted in the case of 5a and 6) with two HMPA ligands at the apical and three anionic oxygen ligands at the equatorial positions. 20 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Copper- and Silver-Catalyzed Diastereo- and Enantioselective Conjugate Addition Reaction of 1-Pyrroline Esters to Nitroalkenes: Diastereoselectivity Switch by Chiral Metal Complexes.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Akihiro; Kimura, Midori; Arai, Yuri; Tokoro, Yuichiro; Fukuzawa, Shin-ichi

    2015-11-01

    syn-Diastereoselective conjugate addition of 1-pyrroline esters to nitroalkenes in good yields with an excellent enantioselectivity by using CuOAc/Me-FcPHOX catalyst in the presence of pyridine. In contrast, AgOAc/tBu-ThioClickFerrophos catalyzed the anti diastereoselective conjugate addition with a high enantioselectivity without additional base. Thus, the preparation of chiral 1-pyrroline derivatives bearing diverse stereochemistry could be achieved. The diastereoselective reduction of the imine group in the conjugate adduct could afford the 2,5-cis-proline ester derivative. PMID:26426827

  8. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) II: a new species from the northern Philippines.

    PubMed

    Siler, Cameron D; Davis, Drew R; Freitas, Elyse S; Huron, Nicholas A; Geheber, Aaron D; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Papeș, Monica; Amrein, Andrew; Anwar, Alyssa; Cooper, Dontae; Hein, Tucker; Manning, Annalisa; Patel, Neeral; Pinaroc, Lauren; Diesmos, Arvin C; Diesmos, Mae L; Oliveros, Carl H; Brown, Rafe M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new digitless scincid lizard of the genus Brachymeles from northern Luzon and Camiguin Norte islands in the Philippines. This species belongs to the Brachymeles bonitae Complex, and both molecular and morphological data confirm that this species is distinct from all other congeners. Formerly considered to be a single widespread species, this group of species has been the focus of recent systematic reviews. Here we describe a new species in the B. bonitae Complex, recognized currently to constitute five species. Brachymeles ilocandia sp. nov. is the second digitless and the seventeenth non-pentadactyl species in genus. The description of this species brings the total number of species in the genus to 40, and provides new insight into unique distribution patterns of species of the northern Philippines. PMID:27395649

  9. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) II: a new species from the northern Philippines.

    PubMed

    Siler, Cameron D; Davis, Drew R; Freitas, Elyse S; Huron, Nicholas A; Geheber, Aaron D; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Papeș, Monica; Amrein, Andrew; Anwar, Alyssa; Cooper, Dontae; Hein, Tucker; Manning, Annalisa; Patel, Neeral; Pinaroc, Lauren; Diesmos, Arvin C; Diesmos, Mae L; Oliveros, Carl H; Brown, Rafe M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new digitless scincid lizard of the genus Brachymeles from northern Luzon and Camiguin Norte islands in the Philippines. This species belongs to the Brachymeles bonitae Complex, and both molecular and morphological data confirm that this species is distinct from all other congeners. Formerly considered to be a single widespread species, this group of species has been the focus of recent systematic reviews. Here we describe a new species in the B. bonitae Complex, recognized currently to constitute five species. Brachymeles ilocandia sp. nov. is the second digitless and the seventeenth non-pentadactyl species in genus. The description of this species brings the total number of species in the genus to 40, and provides new insight into unique distribution patterns of species of the northern Philippines.

  10. Add-on laser reading device for a camera phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Niemelä, Karri; Vasama, Hannu; Mattila, Rauno; Aikio, Mika; Aikio, Sanna; Aikio, Janne

    2005-09-01

    A novel add-on device to a mobile camera phone has been developed. The prototype system contains both laser and LED illumination as well as imaging optics. Main idea behind the device is to have a small printable diffractive ROM (Read Only Memory) element, which can be read by illuminating it with a laser-beam and recording the resulting datamatrix pattern with a camera phone. The element contains information in the same manner as a traditional bar-code, but due to the 2D-pattern and diffractive nature of the tag, a much larger amount of information can be packed on a smaller area. Optical and mechanical designs of the prototype device have been made in such a way that the system can be used in three different modes: as a laser reader, as a telescope and as a microscope.

  11. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Verbiest, G J; van der Zalm, D J; Oosterkamp, T H; Rost, M J

    2015-03-01

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  12. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, G. J.; Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J.

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  13. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  14. Highly Diastereo- and Enantioselective Michael Addition of Nitroalkanes to 2-Enoyl-Pyridine N-Oxides Catalyzed by Scandium(III)/Copper(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijun; Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Yanbin; Li, Yanan; Li, Chong; Zha, Zhenggen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-09-01

    A C2 -symmetric Schiff-base ligand, derived from tridentate-Schiff-base, was developed and successfully applied to the asymmetric Michael addition of nitroalkanes to 2-enoyl-pyridine N-oxides. With this newly catalytic system, an unprecedented diastereoselectivity was obtained in the asymmetric Michael addition of nitroalkanes to 2-enoyl-pyridine N-oxides. In addition, a switch in enantioselectivity was achieved by using this newly catalytic system and our previous catalyst. After a facile reduction, the optically active adduct was converted to a biologically active dihydro-2H-pyrrol 4 a. Furthermore, a connection of two tridentate-Schiff-base subunits proved to be an effective strategy in ligand design. PMID:26202331

  15. Highly Diastereo- and Enantioselective Michael Addition of Nitroalkanes to 2-Enoyl-Pyridine N-Oxides Catalyzed by Scandium(III)/Copper(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijun; Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Yanbin; Li, Yanan; Li, Chong; Zha, Zhenggen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-09-01

    A C2 -symmetric Schiff-base ligand, derived from tridentate-Schiff-base, was developed and successfully applied to the asymmetric Michael addition of nitroalkanes to 2-enoyl-pyridine N-oxides. With this newly catalytic system, an unprecedented diastereoselectivity was obtained in the asymmetric Michael addition of nitroalkanes to 2-enoyl-pyridine N-oxides. In addition, a switch in enantioselectivity was achieved by using this newly catalytic system and our previous catalyst. After a facile reduction, the optically active adduct was converted to a biologically active dihydro-2H-pyrrol 4 a. Furthermore, a connection of two tridentate-Schiff-base subunits proved to be an effective strategy in ligand design.

  16. 77 FR 56813 - Procurement List, Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a product and services to the Procurement List that will...

  17. 77 FR 49784 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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    2012-08-17

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee... Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be... connection with the services proposed for addition to the Procurement List. Comments on this...

  18. 77 FR 62220 - Procurement List; Additions

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    2012-10-12

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit...

  19. 77 FR 77038 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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    2012-12-31

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and a service to the Procurement List that will...

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    2012-05-11

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  1. 75 FR 4783 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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    2010-01-29

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add to the Procurement List products and services to be...

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    2012-11-27

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be furnished...

  3. 75 FR 3714 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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    2010-01-22

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the procurement list. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add to the Procurement List a product and a service to be...

  4. 76 FR 38641 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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    2011-07-01

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the Procurement List that will...

  5. 76 FR 41767 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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    2011-07-15

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a product and services to the Procurement List that will...

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    2011-09-23

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the Procurement List that will...

  7. 78 FR 40727 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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    2013-07-08

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and a service to the Procurement List that will...

  8. 75 FR 69639 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be provided by...

  9. 78 FR 52512 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

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    2013-08-23

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and a service to the Procurement List that will...

  10. 76 FR 75536 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

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    2011-12-02

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be provided by...

  11. 75 FR 34701 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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    2010-06-18

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the Procurement List that will...

  12. 78 FR 53734 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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  13. 76 FR 26279 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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    2011-05-06

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  14. 77 FR 69598 - Procurement List Proposed Addition

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    2012-11-20

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  15. 76 FR 72908 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

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    2011-11-28

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  16. 75 FR 2510 - Procurement List: Proposed Additions

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    2010-01-15

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  17. 75 FR 60739 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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    2010-10-01

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the procurement list. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be provided...

  18. 76 FR 14943 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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  19. 75 FR 62370 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

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  20. 78 FR 50040 - Procurement List, Proposed Additions

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  1. 77 FR 41377 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

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    2012-07-13

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be furnished by...

  2. 77 FR 67343 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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    2012-11-09

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a product and services to the Procurement List that will...

  3. 78 FR 7412 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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  4. 76 FR 47565 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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    2011-08-05

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be provided...

  5. 76 FR 32146 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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    2011-06-03

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and a service to the Procurement List that will...

  6. 76 FR 40341 - Procurement List; Additions

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    2011-07-08

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit...

  7. 78 FR 23542 - Procurement List Additions

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    2013-04-19

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit...

  8. 77 FR 77037 - Procurement List; Additions

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    2012-12-31

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit...

  9. 75 FR 14575 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

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    2010-03-26

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add to the Procurement List products and a service to be...

  10. Radio Telescopes Will Add to Cassini-Huygens Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-12-01

    When the European Space Agency's Huygens spacecraft makes its plunge into the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan on January 14, radio telescopes of the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) will help international teams of scientists extract the maximum possible amount of irreplaceable information from an experiment unique in human history. Huygens is the 700-pound probe that has accompanied the larger Cassini spacecraft on a mission to thoroughly explore Saturn, its rings and its numerous moons. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia and eight of the ten telescopes of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), located at Pie Town and Los Alamos, NM, Fort Davis, TX, North Liberty, IA, Kitt Peak, AZ, Brewster, WA, Owens Valley, CA, and Mauna Kea, HI, will directly receive the faint signal from Huygens during its descent. Along with other radio telescopes in Australia, Japan, and China, the NRAO facilities will add significantly to the information about Titan and its atmosphere that will be gained from the Huygens mission. A European-led team will use the radio telescopes to make extremely precise measurements of the probe's position during its descent, while a U.S.-led team will concentrate on gathering measurements of the probe's descent speed and the direction of its motion. The radio-telescope measurements will provide data vital to gaining a full understanding of the winds that Huygens encounters in Titan's atmosphere. Currently, scientists know little about Titan's winds. Data from the Voyager I spacecraft's 1980 flyby indicated that east-west winds may reach 225 mph or more. North-south winds and possible vertical winds, while probably much weaker, may still be significant. There are competing theoretical models of Titan's winds, and the overall picture is best summarized as

  11. From enantiopure hydroxyaldehydes to complex heterocyclic scaffolds: development of domino Petasis/Diels-Alder and cross-metathesis/Michael addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Cannillo, Alexandre; Norsikian, Stéphanie; Tran Huu Dau, Marie-Elise; Retailleau, Pascal; Iorga, Bogdan I; Beau, Jean-Marie

    2014-09-15

    One-step assembly of hexahydroisoindole scaffolds by a sequence that combines the Petasis (borono-Mannich) and Diels-Alder reactions is described. The unique selectivity observed experimentally was confirmed by quantum calculations. The current method is applicable to a broad range of substrates, including free sugars, and holds significant potential to efficiently and stereoselectively build new heterocyclic structures. This easy and fast entry to functionalized polycyclic compounds can be pursued by further transformations, for example, additional ring closure by a cross-metathesis/Michael addition domino sequence.

  12. Lessons learned during the training exercise for the entry into force of the U.S. additional protocol in the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 in anticipation of the United States bringing into force the Additional Protocol in early 2009 DOE/NNSA planned and executed training exercises in the conduct of Additional Protocol complementary access activities. Brookhaven National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory together produced the exercises designed to prepare the following types of DOE laboratories for complementary access - weapons laboratories, nuclear engineering laboratories, and science laboratories. This panel provides a forum to discuss and summarize the results and lessons learned from the 2008 exercise.

  13. Add-on simple adaptive control improves performance of classical control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Haim; Rusnak, Ilan

    2014-12-01

    The Simple Adaptive Control (SAC) controls an augmented plant that comprises the true plant with parallel feed-forward. The Almost Strictly Positive Real (ASPR) property of the augmented plant leads to asymptotic following. Prior publications have shown that, based only on the prior knowledge on stabilizability properties of systems (usually available), the parallel feed-forward configuration (PFC) allows adaptive control of realistic systems, even if they are both unstable and non-minimum phase. However, it was commonly thought that the PFC addition requires a price when compared with good linear time invariant (LTI) designs that do not use any addition to the plant. The paper shows that the use of SAC with PFC as Add-On to LTI system design improves the performance. Although SAC directly controls the augmented error, it always gives improved performance, i.e., smaller tracking error and reduced sensitivity to plant disturbance, with respect to the best LTI controller.

  14. Determination of the Regiochemistry of Disubstituted Arenes Generated by Addition of a Carbanion to the (h6-Anisole)Cr(CO)3 Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengali, Ashfaq A.; Samet, Cindy; Charlton, Samantha B.

    2001-01-01

    It has become increasingly important to demonstrate to undergraduates that chemistry is not many separate subfields, but rather a set of interconnected concepts. We describe a laboratory activity that integrates fundamental concepts of organic and organometallic chemistry and then employs standard instrumental techniques (GC) and molecular modeling to justify the results. Students synthesize the (h6-anisole)Cr(CO)3 complex and react it with the -:CH2CN anion to generate methoxyphenylacetonitrile. They then determine the relative amounts of the three possible regioisomers of the disubstituted arene using GC. We have shown this synthesis to be straightforward for students to accomplish, with results that are reproducible.

  15. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  16. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  17. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  18. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  19. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  20. Gantry and isocenter displacements of a linear accelerator caused by an add-on micromultileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, Hans L.; Zimmermann, Sune J.; Hjelm-Hansen, Mogens

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The delivery of high quality stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments to the patient requires knowledge of the position of the isocenter to submillimeter accuracy. To meet the requirements the deviation between the radiation and mechanical isocenters must be less than 1 mm. The use of add-on micromultileaf collimators ({mu}MLCs) in SRS and SRT is an additional challenge to the anticipated high-level geometric and dosimetric accuracy of the treatment. The aim of this work was to quantify the gantry excursions during rotation with and without an add-on {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. In addition, the shift in the position of the isocenter and its correlation to the kV beam center of the cone-beam CT system was included in the study. Methods: The quantification of the gantry rotational performance was done using a pointer supported by an in-house made rigid holder attached to the gantry head of the accelerator. The pointer positions were measured using a digital theodolite. To quantify the effect of an {mu}MLC of 50 kg, the measurements were repeated with the {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. The displacement of the isocenter due to an add-on {mu}MLC of 50 kg was also investigated. In case of the pointer measurement the {mu}MLC was simulated by weights attached to the gantry head. A method of least squares was applied to determine the position and displacement of the mechanical isocenter. Additionally, the displacement of the radiation isocenter was measured using a ball-bearing phantom and the electronic portal image device system. These measurements were based on 8 MV photon beams irradiated onto the ball from the four cardinal angles and two opposed collimator angles. The measurements and analysis of the data were carried out automatically using software delivered by the manufacturer. Results: The displacement of the mechanical isocenter caused by a 50 kg heavy {mu}MLC was found to be (-0.01 {+-} 0.05, -0

  1. Full-optical tunable add/drop filter based on nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali; Tavousi, Alireza; Ghadrdan, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Here, we propose a full-optical tunable Add/Drop filter based on single (SR) and double-vertically (DR) aligned Kerr-like nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRRs). Silicon (Si) nano-crystal is used as the nonlinear material inside and outside of PCRRs. The minimum optical power required to turn-on/turn-off the SR and DR filters are 2000 mW/μm2, and 150 mW/μm2, respectively. We believe since the DR filter has a higher Q-factor rather than SR and also since the optical power reads more nonlinear rods with a longer time to pass the structure, thus the optical power required is much lower (10 folds). In addition, the minimum power required to 1 nm redshift the center operating wavelength of SR filter is 125 mW/μm2 (i.e. ΔnNL = 0.005) and for DR is as low as 8 mW/μm2. Performance of the Add/Drop filter structure is simulated by means of finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, in which the simulations showed an ultra-compact size structure with promising ultrafast tune-ability speeds.

  2. Knowledge Theories Can Inform Evaluation Practice: What Can a Complexity Lens Add?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawe, Penelope; Bond, Lyndal; Butler, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Programs and policies invariably contain new knowledge. Theories about knowledge utilization, diffusion, implementation, transfer, and knowledge translation theories illuminate some mechanisms of change processes. But more often than not, when it comes to understanding patterns about change processes, "the foreground" is privileged more than "the…

  3. Some additional considerations in modelling the dynamic traits and genome-wide association studies. Comments on "Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system" by L. Sun and R. Wu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kiranmoy

    2015-06-01

    The revolution in the genetic research in our time is mainly due to (i) the successful completion of human genome project (2003) and its derivative hapmap project (2005), (ii) advanced statistical methodologies for analyzing ultrahigh dimensional data and (iii) the availability of statistical softwares (R, SAS etc.) to analyze large datasets. When complex traits are to be modeled as dynamic systems, the statistical issues regarding the complexity in the model, predictive power of the model, computational cost etc. are to be addressed adequately for powerful inferences. I will mention two additional considerations (statistical) which make dynamic models more meaningful and the results from GWAS more reliable.

  4. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  5. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed Central

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H.; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Gren, Åsa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A.; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H.; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture’s reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  6. The IRBIT domain adds new functions to the AHCY family.

    PubMed

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Sammels, Eva; De Smedt, Humbert

    2008-07-01

    During the past few years, the IRBIT domain has emerged as an important add-on of S-adenosyl-L-homocystein hydrolase (AHCY), thereby creating the new family of AHCY-like proteins. In this review, we discuss the currently available data on this new family of proteins. We describe the IRBIT domain as a unique part of these proteins and give an overview of its regulation via (de)phosphorylation and proteolysis. The second part of this review is focused on the potential functions of the AHCY-like proteins. We propose that the IRBIT domain serves as an anchor for targeting AHCY-like proteins towards cytoplasmic targets. This leads to regulation of (i) intracellular Ca2+ via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), (ii) intracellular pH via the Na+/HCO3 - cotransporters (NBCs); whereas inactivation of the IRBIT domain induces (iii) nuclear translocation and regulation of AHCY activity. Dysfunction of AHCY-like proteins will disturb these three important functions, with various biological implications. PMID:18536033

  7. The IRBIT domain adds new functions to the AHCY family.

    PubMed

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Sammels, Eva; De Smedt, Humbert

    2008-07-01

    During the past few years, the IRBIT domain has emerged as an important add-on of S-adenosyl-L-homocystein hydrolase (AHCY), thereby creating the new family of AHCY-like proteins. In this review, we discuss the currently available data on this new family of proteins. We describe the IRBIT domain as a unique part of these proteins and give an overview of its regulation via (de)phosphorylation and proteolysis. The second part of this review is focused on the potential functions of the AHCY-like proteins. We propose that the IRBIT domain serves as an anchor for targeting AHCY-like proteins towards cytoplasmic targets. This leads to regulation of (i) intracellular Ca2+ via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), (ii) intracellular pH via the Na+/HCO3 - cotransporters (NBCs); whereas inactivation of the IRBIT domain induces (iii) nuclear translocation and regulation of AHCY activity. Dysfunction of AHCY-like proteins will disturb these three important functions, with various biological implications.

  8. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  9. A Cobalt(I) Pincer Complex with an η(2) -C(aryl)-H Agostic Bond: Facile C-H Bond Cleavage through Deprotonation, Radical Abstraction, and Oxidative Addition.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Sathiyamoorthy; Stöger, Berthold; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Veiros, Luis F; Kirchner, Karl

    2016-02-24

    The synthesis and reactivity of a Co(I) pincer complex [Co(ϰ(3) P,CH,P-P(CH)P(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2](+) featuring an η(2)-C(aryl)-H agostic bond is described. This complex was obtained by protonation of the Co(I) complex [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2]. The Co(III) hydride complex [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CNtBu)2(H)](+) was obtained upon protonation of [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CNtBu)2]. Three ways to cleave the agostic C-H bond are presented. First, owing to the acidity of the agostic proton, treatment with pyridine results in facile deprotonation (C-H bond cleavage) and reformation of [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2]. Second, C-H bond cleavage is achieved upon exposure of [Co(ϰ(3)P,CH,P-P(CH)P(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2](+) to oxygen or TEMPO to yield the paramagnetic Co(II) PCP complex [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2](+). Finally, replacement of one CO ligand in [Co(ϰ(3) P,CH,P-P(CH)P(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2](+) by CNtBu promotes the rapid oxidative addition of the agostic η(2) -C(aryl)-H bond to give two isomeric hydride complexes of the type [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CNtBu)(CO)(H)](+).

  10. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  11. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  12. Effect of “add-on” interventions on exercise training in individuals with COPD: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Camillo, Carlos A.; van Remoortel, Hans; Burtin, Chris; Janssens, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify the effectiveness of therapies added on to conventional exercise training to maximise exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Electronic databases were searched, identifying trials comparing exercise training with exercise training plus “add-on” therapy. Outcomes included peak oxygen uptake (V′O2peak), work rate and incremental/endurance cycle and field walking tests. Individual trial effects on exercise capacity were extracted and collated into eight subgroups and pooled for meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the stability of effect estimates across studies employing patient-centred designs and those deemed to be of “high” quality (PEDro score >5 out of 10). 74 studies (2506 subjects) met review inclusion criteria. Interventions spanned a broad scope of clinical practice and were most commonly evaluated via the 6-min walking distance and V′O2peak. Meta-analysis revealed few clinically relevant and statistically significant benefits of “add-on” therapies on exercise performance compared with exercise training. Benefits favouring “add-on” therapies were observed across six different interventions (additional exercise training, noninvasive ventilation, bronchodilator therapy, growth hormone, vitamin D and nutritional supplementation). The sensitivity analyses included considerably fewer studies, but revealed minimal differences to the primary analysis. The lack of systematic benefits of “add-on” interventions is a probable reflection of methodological limitations, such as “one size fits all” eligibility criteria, that are inherent in many of the included studies of “add-on” therapies. Future clarification regarding the exact value of such therapies may only arise from adequately powered, multicentre clinical trials of tailored interventions for carefully selected COPD patient subgroups defined according to distinct clinical

  13. Addition Reactions of Me3 SiCN with Aldehydes Catalyzed by Aluminum Complexes Containing in their Coordination Sphere O, S, and N Ligands.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Yi, Yafei; Zhong, Mingdong; De, Sriman; Mondal, Totan; Koley, Debasis; Ma, Xiaoli; Zhang, Dongxiang; Roesky, Herbert W

    2016-05-10

    The reaction of one equivalent of LAlH2 (1; L=HC(CMeNAr)2 , Ar=2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 , β-diketiminate ligand) with two equivalents of 2-mercapto-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine hydrate resulted in LAl[(μ-S)(m-C4 N2 H)(CH2 )2 ]2 (2) in good yield. Similarly, when N-2-pyridylsalicylideneamine, N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)salicylaldimine, and ethyl 3-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxylate were used as starting materials, the corresponding products LAl[(μ-O)(o-C6 H4 )CN(C5 NH4 )]2 (3), LAlH[(μ-O)(o-C4 H4 )CN(2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 )] (4), and LAl[(μ-NH)(o-C8 SH8 )(COOC2 H5 )]2 (5) were isolated. Compounds 2-5 were characterized by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy as well as by single-crystal X-ray structural analysis. Surprisingly, compounds 2-5 exhibit good catalytic activity in addition reactions of aldehydes with trimethylsilyl cyanide (TMSCN).

  14. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-09-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand-receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  15. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand–receptor design

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand–receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand–receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:26350224

  16. Characterization of the Punta Toro species complex (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae)

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Michael R.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Guzman, Hilda; Quiroz, Evelia; Savji, Nazir; Carrera, Jean-Paul; Bussetti, Ana Valeria; Ladner, Jason T.; Ian Lipkin, W.; Tesh, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Punta Toro virus (PTV), a member of the PTV complex, is a relatively common causative agent of febrile illness in Panama that is often misdiagnosed as ‘dengue’ or ‘influenza’. Currently, only two named members make up this species complex, PTV and Buenaventura virus (BUEV). Genomic and antigenic characterization of 17 members of the PTV complex, nine of which were isolated from human acute febrile illness cases, reveals that this species complex is composed of six distant viruses. We propose to add four additional new viruses, designated Leticia virus, Cocle virus, Campana virus and Capira virus. PMID:25934793

  17. 76 FR 22680 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee... Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be...: (703) 603-7740, Fax: (703) 603-0655, or e-mail CMTEFedReg@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  18. A review of modafinil and armodafinil as add-on therapy in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Arends, Johannes; Timmerman, Leo; Lancel, Marike

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by reality distortion, psychomotor poverty and cognitive disturbances. These characteristics contribute to a lesser social functioning and lower quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. It has been suggested that modafinil and its isomer armodafinil as an add-on strategy to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia may improve cognitive functioning, attenuate fatigue, inactiveness and other negative functions as well as weight gain. In this paper we review the literature relevant to the question of whether modafinil and armodafinil are beneficial as add-on therapy in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia. A total of 15 articles were included in this review; of the 15 articles, 10 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Evidence for the use of modafinil or armodafinil as add-on therapy to antipsychotic drugs to alleviate fatigue, sleepiness and inactivity is inconclusive. One cohort study and one out of two single-dose crossover RCTs in which modafinil addition was studied could demonstrate a positive effect. All five RCTs of modafinil (three RCTs) and armodafinil (two RCTs) addition with a longer study duration could not demonstrate a positive effect. With respect to cognitive disturbances, animal models of cognitive deficits show clear improvements with modafinil. In RCTs with a treatment duration of 4 weeks or more, however, no positive effect could be demonstrated on cognitive functioning with modafinil and armodafinil addition. Yet, four single-dose crossover RCTs of modafinil addition show significant positive effects on executive functioning, verbal memory span, visual memory, working memory, spatial planning, slowing in latency, impulse control and recognition of faces expressing sadness and sadness misattribution in the context of disgust recognition. The addition of modafinil or armodafinil to an antipsychotic regime, despite theoretical and preclinical considerations, has not been proved to

  19. A review of modafinil and armodafinil as add-on therapy in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wittkampf, Laura Christina; Arends, Johannes; Timmerman, Leo; Lancel, Marike

    2012-06-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by reality distortion, psychomotor poverty and cognitive disturbances. These characteristics contribute to a lesser social functioning and lower quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. It has been suggested that modafinil and its isomer armodafinil as an add-on strategy to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia may improve cognitive functioning, attenuate fatigue, inactiveness and other negative functions as well as weight gain. In this paper we review the literature relevant to the question of whether modafinil and armodafinil are beneficial as add-on therapy in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia. A total of 15 articles were included in this review; of the 15 articles, 10 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Evidence for the use of modafinil or armodafinil as add-on therapy to antipsychotic drugs to alleviate fatigue, sleepiness and inactivity is inconclusive. One cohort study and one out of two single-dose crossover RCTs in which modafinil addition was studied could demonstrate a positive effect. All five RCTs of modafinil (three RCTs) and armodafinil (two RCTs) addition with a longer study duration could not demonstrate a positive effect. With respect to cognitive disturbances, animal models of cognitive deficits show clear improvements with modafinil. In RCTs with a treatment duration of 4 weeks or more, however, no positive effect could be demonstrated on cognitive functioning with modafinil and armodafinil addition. Yet, four single-dose crossover RCTs of modafinil addition show significant positive effects on executive functioning, verbal memory span, visual memory, working memory, spatial planning, slowing in latency, impulse control and recognition of faces expressing sadness and sadness misattribution in the context of disgust recognition. The addition of modafinil or armodafinil to an antipsychotic regime, despite theoretical and preclinical considerations, has not been proved to

  20. Add Java extensions to your wiki: Java applets can bring dynamic functionality to your wiki pages

    SciTech Connect

    Scarberry, Randall E.

    2008-08-12

    Virtually everyone familiar with today’s world wide web has encountered the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia many times. What you may not know is that Wikipedia is driven by an excellent open-source product called MediaWiki which is available to anyone for free. This has led to a proliferation of wiki sites devoted to just about any topic one can imagine. Users of a wiki can add content -- all that is required of them is that they type in their additions into their web browsers using the simple markup language called wikitext. Even better, the developers of wikitext made it extensible. With a little server-side development of your own, you can add your own custom syntax. Users aware of your extensions can then utilize them on their wiki pages with a few simple keystrokes. These extensions can be custom decorations, formatting, web applications, and even instances of the venerable old Java applet. One example of a Java applet extension is the Jmol extension (REF), used to embed a 3-D molecular viewer. This article will walk you through the deployment of a fairly elaborate applet via a MediaWiki extension. By no means exhaustive -- an entire book would be required for that -- it will demonstrate how to give the applet resize handles using using a little Javascript and CSS coding and some popular Javascript libraries. It even describes how a user may customize the extension somewhat using a wiki template. Finally, it explains a rudimentary persistence mechanism which allows applets to save data directly to the wiki pages on which they reside.

  1. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 2: aldol, Mannich addition reactions, deracemization and (S) to (R) interconversion of α-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2013-11-01

    This review provides a comprehensive treatment of literature data dealing with asymmetric synthesis of α-amino-β-hydroxy and α,β-diamino acids via homologation of chiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases using aldol and Mannich-type reactions. These reactions proceed with synthetically useful chemical yields and thermodynamically controlled stereoselectivity and allow direct introduction of two stereogenic centers in a single operation with predictable stereochemical outcome. Furthermore, new application of Ni(II) complexes of α-amino acids Schiff bases for deracemization of racemic α-amino acids and (S) to (R) interconversion providing additional synthetic opportunities for preparation of enantiomerically pure α-amino acids, is also reviewed. Origin of observed diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the aldol, Mannich-type and deracemization reactions, generality and limitations of these methodologies are critically discussed.

  2. Add-on conservation benefits of marine territorial user rights fishery policies in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Godoy, Natalio; Prado, Luis; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    To combine the rational use of marine benthic resources and economic development of small-scale fishers, Chile passed legislation in 1991 establishing a comanagement policy that grants exclusive territorial user rights for fisheries (TURFs) to artisanal fisher organizations in well-defined inshore coastal areas, known as Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABRs). In general the policy has been proclaimed a management and economic success because benthic resource abundances have increased inside MEABRs in comparison with open-access areas. However, there is a lack of studies assessing the impact of this management policy on nontargeted subtidal species and community assemblages and the policy's implications for biodiversity and conservation. This study starts to fill this gap and links the allocation of TURFs for benthic resources with add-on conservation benefits for species that are not directly linked with the fishery policy. Comparative subtidal surveys inside vs. outside MEABRs were used to assess the effects of three MEABRs on managed targeted benthic species, biodiversity (species richness), and community assemblages in central Chile. Surveys focused exclusively on subtidal kelp forest habitats dominated by Lessonia trabeculata, spanning 4-12 m in depth and with similar levels of habitat complexity. The study comprised: (1) quantification of kelp forest complexity, (2) understory survey of sessile species, (3) quantification of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates, including those under management, and (4) quantification of reef-fish species inside the kelp habitat. Results showed population enhancement of target-managed invertebrates inside MEABRs. Moreover, reef-fish species were significantly more diverse and abundant inside MEABRs, and community assemblages of nontarget benthic invertebrates and reef fish were significantly different inside vs. outside MEABRs. The comanagement of inshore benthic resources in Chile, through MEABRs

  3. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) Sibling Pairs Genome-Wide Data

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, Matthew B.; Boardman, Jason D.; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Smolen, Andrew; Tabor, Joyce; Killeya-Jones, Ley; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Whitsel, Eric A.; MullanHarris, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Here we provide a detailed description of the genome-wide information available on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) sibling pair subsample (Harris et al., 2012). A total of 2020 samples were genotyped (including duplicates) arising from 1946 Add Health individuals from the sibling pairs subsample. After various steps for quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA), we have high quality genome-wide data available on 1,888 individuals. In this report, we first highlight theQC and QA steps that were taken to prune the data of poorly performing samples and genetic markers. We further estimate the pairwise biological relationships using genome-wide data and compare those estimates to the assumed relationships in Add Health. Additionally, using genome-wide data from knownregional reference populations from Europe, West Africa, North and South America, Japan and China, weestimate the relative genetic ancestry of the respondents. Finally, rather than conducting a traditional cross-sectional genome-wide association study (GWAS) of body mass index (BMI), we opted to utilize the extensivepublicly available genome-wide information to conduct a weighted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of longitudinal BMI while accounting for both family and ethnic variation. PMID:25378290

  4. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) sibling pairs genome-wide data.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Matthew B; Boardman, Jason D; Domingue, Benjamin W; Smolen, Andrew; Tabor, Joyce; Killeya-Jones, Ley; Halpern, Carolyn T; Whitsel, Eric A; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-01-01

    Here we provide a detailed description of the genome-wide information available on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) sibling pair subsample (Harris et al. in Twin Res Hum Genet 16:391-398, 2013). A total of 2,020 samples were genotyped (including duplicates) arising from 1946 Add Health individuals from the sibling pairs subsample. After various steps for quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA), we have high quality genome-wide data available on 1,888 individuals. In this report, we first highlight the QC and QA steps that were taken to prune the data of poorly performing samples and genetic markers. We further estimate the pairwise biological relationships using genome-wide data and compare those estimates to the assumed relationships in Add Health. Additionally, using genome-wide data from known regional reference populations from Europe, West Africa, North and South America, Japan and China, we estimate the relative genetic ancestry of the respondents. Finally, rather than conducting a traditional cross-sectional genome-wide association study (GWAS) of body mass index (BMI), we opted to utilize the extensive publicly available genome-wide information to conduct a weighted GWAS of longitudinal BMI while accounting for both family and ethnic variation.

  5. Lithium as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with acute mania: a 6-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel S; Severus, Emanuel; Schronen, Juan P; Gass, Peter; Szamosi, Johan; Eriksson, Hans; Chandrashekar, Hongally

    2014-01-01

    Quetiapine extended release (XR) and lithium are treatments with proven efficacy in acute mania. This randomized study evaluated the efficacy and safety of lithium or placebo as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with manic or mixed symptoms of bipolar I disorder. In this 6-week, double-blind study (Trial D144AC00003), adult patients with DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed bipolar I disorder (current episode manic or mixed), a Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score ≥20, and score ≥4 on two of four core YMRS items were administered quetiapine XR (400 to 800 mg/day) and randomly assigned to receive add-on lithium (600 to 1,800 mg/day) or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was change in the YMRS total score from baseline to day 43, analyzed using a mixed-model for repeated measures (MMRM) approach. Secondary efficacy and safety end points were also measured. Rating scales were administered by trained staff. Three hundred fifty-six patients treated with quetiapine XR were randomized to add-on lithium (n = 173) or placebo (n = 183). Two hundred ninety-one patients (81.7%) completed the study. At day 43, least squares mean change in YMRS total score was -22.8 for add-on lithium and -20.1 for add-on placebo, a statistically significant treatment group difference of -2.69 (p < 0.001). On secondary measures, add-on lithium was associated with significant improvements in response, remission, illness severity, and overall illness versus add-on placebo (p < 0.05). The number needed to treat was 9.1 for response and 7.9 for remission for add-on lithium compared with add-on placebo. Lithium in combination with quetiapine XR was generally well tolerated, with a similar profile to quetiapine XR in combination with placebo. The addition of lithium to quetiapine XR therapy was associated with significantly greater efficacy than placebo as add-on and was generally well tolerated in patients with acute bipolar I mania. This study was registered under Clinicaltrials

  6. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  7. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  8. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  9. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  10. 75 FR 73075 - Notice of Motion To Add Exhibit to Petition for Declaratory Order and Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Motion To Add Exhibit to Petition for Declaratory Order and... of Pella, Iowa (Complainant) filed a motion to add a document as Exhibit P-28 to its July 2, 2010... wishing to become a party must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene, as appropriate....

  11. Measuring Narcissism within Add Health: The Development and Validation of a New Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mark S.; Brunell, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the development of a measure of narcissism within the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. In Study 1, items were selected from Wave III to form the Add Health Narcissism Scale (AHNS). These were factor analyzed, yielding a single factor comprised of five subscales. We correlated the AHNS and…

  12. Prevalence of Aggression and Defiance in Children with ADD/ADHD Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Janella

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) appear to have become more prevalent in the past few years. Many children who display ADD/ADHD tendencies also display behaviors which cause problems in a classroom setting. Considering the fact that these behaviors could be displayed by the student population as…

  13. Cognitive Control and Attentional Selection in Adolescents with ADHD versus ADD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Laurie; Henderson, John; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    An important research question is whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is related to early- or late-stage attentional control mechanisms and whether this differentiates a nonhyperactive subtype (ADD). This question was addressed in a sample of 145 ADD/ADHD and typically developing comparison adolescents (aged 13-17). Attentional…

  14. Template Catalysis by Metal-Ligand Cooperation. C-C Bond Formation via Conjugate Addition of Non-activated Nitriles under Mild, Base-free Conditions Catalyzed by a Manganese Pincer Complex.

    PubMed

    Nerush, Alexander; Vogt, Matthias; Gellrich, Urs; Leitus, Gregory; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2016-06-01

    The first example of a catalytic Michael addition reaction of non-activated aliphatic nitriles to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds under mild, neutral conditions is reported. A new de-aromatized pyridine-based PNP pincer complex of the Earth-abundant, first-row transition metal manganese serves as the catalyst. The reaction tolerates a variety of nitriles and Michael acceptors with different steric features and acceptor strengths. Mechanistic investigations including temperature-dependent NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations reveal that the cooperative activation of alkyl nitriles, which leads to the generation of metalated nitrile nucleophile species (α-cyano carbanion analogues), is a key step of the mechanism. The metal center is not directly involved in the catalytic bond formation but rather serves, cooperatively with the ligand, as a template for the substrate activation. This approach of "template catalysis" expands the scope of potential donors for conjugate addition reactions. PMID:27164437

  15. Floodlights illuminate view of Skylab 3 vehicle at Pad B, Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Floodlights illuminate this nighttime view of the Skylab 3/Saturn 1B space vehicle at Pad B, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during prelaunch preparations. The reflection in the water adds to the scene. In addition to the Command/Service Module and its launch escape system, the Skylab 3 space vehicle consists of the Saturn 1B first (S-1B) stage and the Saturn 1B second (S-1VB) stage.

  16. Non-sunscreen photoprotection: antioxidants add value to a sunscreen.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Mary S; Hsia, Andrew; Miller, Janine D; Hanneman, Kaija; Scull, Heather; Cooper, Kevin D; Baron, Elma

    2009-08-01

    The association between ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and both skin cancer and photo-aging is well documented. In addition to the conventional organic-chemical and physical-mineral type sunscreens, other non-sunscreen protective strategies have been developed. These include topically applied botanical extracts and other antioxidants as well as topical DNA repair enzymes. Standard terms of photoprotection such as sun protection factor (SPF) do not accurately reflect the photoprotection benefits of these materials. For example, in spite of minimal SPF, tea extract containing polyphenols such as (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to protect against UV-induced DNA damage and immune suppression, in part through its ability to reduce oxidative stress and inhibit NF-kB. The addition of botanical antioxidants and vitamins C and E to a broad-spectrum sunscreen may further decrease UV-induced damage compared with sunscreen alone. These agents have been shown to enhance protection against UV-induced epidermal thickening, overexpression of MMP-1and MMP-9, and depletion of CD1a(+) Langerhans cells. Non-sunscreen materials such as botanical extracts, antioxidants, and DNA repair enzymes can contribute value when applied topically to human skin in vivo.Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings (2009) 14, 56-59; doi:10.1038/jidsymp.2009.14.

  17. Atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) catalyzed by copper complexes with tris[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]amine (Me6TREN) ligand in the presence of free-radical diazo initiator AIBN.

    PubMed

    Eckenhoff, William T; Pintauer, Tomislav

    2011-05-14

    In this article, we focus on the evaluation of tris[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]amine (Me(6)TREN) ligand in copper catalyzed ATRA in the presence of free-radical diazo initiator AIBN (2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile)). The addition of carbon tetrachloride to 1-hexene, 1-octene and cis-cyclooctene proceeded efficiently to yield 89, 85 and 85% of monoadduct, respectively, using the catalyst to alkene ratio of 1 : 2500. For alkenes that readily undergo free radical polymerization, such as methyl acrylate, catalyst loadings as high as 0.4 mol-% were required. Furthermore, modest yields of the monoadduct were obtained with less active alkyl halides (chloroform and bromoform) using 250 : 1 and 500 : 1 ratios of alkene to copper(II). Interestingly, the addition of carbon tetrachloride to cis-cyclooctene produced only 1-chloro-4-(trichloromethyl)-cyclooctene, while carbon tetrabromide yielded 1,2 and 1,4-regioisomers in 75 : 25 ratio. The activity of [Cu(II)(Me(6)TREN)X][X] (X = Br(-) and Cl(-)) complexes in ATRA in the presence of AIBN was additionally probed by adding excess free ligand, source of halide anions and triphenylphosphine. The results indicated that disproportionation is a likely cause for lower activity of Me(6)TREN as compared to TPMA (tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine).

  18. Weld repair adds life to power plant turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Corbit, R.B.; French, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    During a scheduled outage at GPU Genco`s Titus Station Unit No. 1 in the fall of 1993, station personnel found numerous cracks in the steam chest weld heat-affected zone of the HP turbine shell. The steam chest is specified as a cast steel and horizontally split shell with the steam chest cast as an integral part of the shell, made from a GE proprietary alloy, No. B50A122, a 1Mo-1/4V steel. After station personnel located the cracks during the 1993 scheduled outage, System Materials Laboratory o GPU Nuclear Corp., Reading, PA, was asked to perform surface replication (SR-NDE) to determine the mode of crack propagation along the surface. An additional boat sample was removed to observe the crack path into the steam chest as well as check the chemistry of the metal for weldability. Because the material was a GE proprietary alloy, General Electric was contacted to aid in developing a remedial action for the steam chest cracks. The testing and repair are discussed in this article.

  19. Health information: what can mobile phone assessments add?

    PubMed

    Stomberg, Margareta Warrén; Platon, Birgitta; Widén, Annette; Wallner, Ingegerd; Karlsson, Ove

    2012-01-01

    In healthcare, pain assessment is a key factor in effectively treating postoperative pain and reducing the risk of developing chronic pain. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether a mobile phone support system can be used as a basis to continuously document patients' health information in real time and provide conditions for optimal, individual pain management after cholecystectomy and hysterectomy procedures.In this pilot study, two randomly selected groups of patients provided information about their pain for one week postoperatively. One group responded via cell phones, and the other, a control group, responded using paper-based questionnaires.The mobile phone system was found to provide a fast and safe basis for reporting pain postoperatively in real time. The results indicate that on days 3 and 4 the mobile phone group reported significantly higher levels of pain than the control group, and the cholecystectomy patients reported significantly more pain at movement on days 3 and 4 than the hysterectomy patients.The mobile phone approach is an adaptation to modern technology and the mobility of individuals. This technology is user friendly and requires minimal support. However, as the sample size was small (n = 37), further studies are needed before additional conclusions can be drawn.

  20. Health information: what can mobile phone assessments add?

    PubMed

    Stomberg, Margareta Warrén; Platon, Birgitta; Widén, Annette; Wallner, Ingegerd; Karlsson, Ove

    2012-01-01

    In healthcare, pain assessment is a key factor in effectively treating postoperative pain and reducing the risk of developing chronic pain. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether a mobile phone support system can be used as a basis to continuously document patients' health information in real time and provide conditions for optimal, individual pain management after cholecystectomy and hysterectomy procedures.In this pilot study, two randomly selected groups of patients provided information about their pain for one week postoperatively. One group responded via cell phones, and the other, a control group, responded using paper-based questionnaires.The mobile phone system was found to provide a fast and safe basis for reporting pain postoperatively in real time. The results indicate that on days 3 and 4 the mobile phone group reported significantly higher levels of pain than the control group, and the cholecystectomy patients reported significantly more pain at movement on days 3 and 4 than the hysterectomy patients.The mobile phone approach is an adaptation to modern technology and the mobility of individuals. This technology is user friendly and requires minimal support. However, as the sample size was small (n = 37), further studies are needed before additional conclusions can be drawn. PMID:23209453

  1. Acoustic add-drop filters based on phononic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami-Dogolsara, Babak; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem; Nazari, Fakhroddin

    2016-01-01

    We report the design procedure for an acoustic add-drop filter (ADF) composed of two line-defect waveguides coupled through a ring resonator cavity (RRC) all based on a phononic crystal (PnC) platform. Using finite difference time domain and plane wave expansion methods, we study the propagation of acoustic waves through the PnC based ADF structures. Numerical results show that the quality factor for the ADF with a quasisquare ring resonator with a frequency band of 95 Hz centered about 75.21 kHz is Q ˜ 800. We show that the addition of an appropriate scatterer at each RRC corner can reduce the scattering loss, enhancing the quality factor and the transmission efficiency. Moreover, it is also shown that by increasing the coupling gaps between the RRC and waveguides the quality factor can be increased by ˜25 times, at the expense of a significant reduction in the transmission efficiency this is attributed to the enhanced selectivity in expense of weakened coupling. Finally, by varying the effective path length of the acoustic wave in the RRC, via selectively varying the inclusions physical and geometrical properties, we show how one can ultra-fine and fine-tune the resonant frequency of the ADF.

  2. PKSolver: An add-in program for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis in Microsoft Excel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Huo, Meirong; Zhou, Jianping; Xie, Shaofei

    2010-09-01

    This study presents PKSolver, a freely available menu-driven add-in program for Microsoft Excel written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), for solving basic problems in pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data analysis. The program provides a range of modules for PK and PD analysis including noncompartmental analysis (NCA), compartmental analysis (CA), and pharmacodynamic modeling. Two special built-in modules, multiple absorption sites (MAS) and enterohepatic circulation (EHC), were developed for fitting the double-peak concentration-time profile based on the classical one-compartment model. In addition, twenty frequently used pharmacokinetic functions were encoded as a macro and can be directly accessed in an Excel spreadsheet. To evaluate the program, a detailed comparison of modeling PK data using PKSolver and professional PK/PD software package WinNonlin and Scientist was performed. The results showed that the parameters estimated with PKSolver were satisfactory. In conclusion, the PKSolver simplified the PK and PD data analysis process and its output could be generated in Microsoft Word in the form of an integrated report. The program provides pharmacokinetic researchers with a fast and easy-to-use tool for routine and basic PK and PD data analysis with a more user-friendly interface.

  3. Oxidative addition of disulfides to the complex W(CO){sub 3}(phen)(EtCN). Synthesis, structure, and reactivity of W(CO){sub 2}(phen)(SR){sub 2}(R = Ph, Me, CH{sub 2}Ph, {sup t}Bu; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) coordinatively unsaturated complexes of tungsten(II) that reversibly bind CO and other ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.F.; Ju, T.D.; Kiss, G. |

    1994-08-31

    The complex W(CO){sub 3}(phen)(EtCN) undergoes oxidative addition with disulfides forming the formally 16-electron complexes W(CO){sub 2}(phen)(SR){sub 2}(R=Ph, {sup t}Bu, Me, benzyl). The reactions proceed through intermediates identified spectroscopically as the coordinated disulfide complexes. The rate of oxidative addition of coordinated disulfides is in the order {sup t}BuSSBu{sup t}<complexes W(CO){sub 2}(phen)(SR){sub 2} undergo ligand addition, ligand substitution, and thiol/thiolate exchange reactions. Variable-temperature equilibrium studies yielded thermodynamic parameters for binding of CO to W(CO){sub 2}(phen)(SR){sub 2}: R=Ph, {Delta}H =-7.2{plus_minus}0.5 kcal/mol, {Delta}S =-29{plus_minus}3.5 cal/(mol deg); R = {sup t}Bu, {Delta}H =-9.5{plus_minus}0.5 kcal/mol, {Delta}S =-41{plus_minus}3.5 cal/(mol deg). Reaction with trimethylphosphine yields an equilibrium mixture of the 18-electron adduct W(CO){sub 2}(phen)(PMe{sub 3})(SPh){sub 2} as well as the 16-electron monocarbonyl complex W(CO)(phen)(PMe{sub 3})(SPh){sub 2}. Addition of trimethyl phosphite yields only W(CO)(phen)(P(OMe){sub 3})(SPh){sub 2}. Pyridine, propionitrile, hydrogen, and THF do not bind to the W(II) complexes. Reaction of W(CO){sub 2}(phen)(S{sup t}Bu){sub 2} with 1 equiv of thiophenol yields W(CO){sub 2}(phen)(S{sup t}Bu)(SPh), which reacts with additional thiophenol to yield W(CO){sub 2}(phen)(SPh){sub 2}. Reaction with excess hydrogen sulfide yields W(CO){sub 2}(phen)(SPh){sub 2}. Crystal structures are reported for W(CO){sub 2}(phen)(SPh){sub 2} and W(CO)(phen)(P(OMe){sub 3})(SPh){sub 2}.

  4. Activation of aryl and heteroaryl halides by an iron(I) complex generated in the reduction of [Fe(acac)₃] by PhMgBr: electron transfer versus oxidative addition.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Guillaume; Jutand, Anny

    2014-04-14

    The mechanism of the reactions of aryl/heteroaryl halides with aryl Grignard reagents catalyzed by [Fe(III)(acac)3] (acac=acetylacetonate) has been investigated. It is shown that in the presence of excess PhMgBr, [Fe(III)(acac)3] affords two reduced complexes: [PhFe(II)(acac)(thf)n] (n=1 or 2) (characterized by (1)H NMR and cyclic voltammetry) and [PhFe(I)(acac)(thf)](-) (characterized by cyclic voltammetry, (1)H NMR, EPR and DFT). Whereas [PhFe(II)(acac)(thf)n] does not react with any of the investigated aryl or heteroaryl halides, the Fe(I) complex [PhFe(I)(acac)(thf)](-) reacts with ArX (Ar=Ph, 4-tolyl; X=I, Br) through an inner-sphere monoelectronic reduction (promoted by halogen bonding) to afford the corresponding arene ArH together with the Grignard homocoupling product PhPh. In contrast, [PhFe(I)(acac)(thf)](-) reacts with a heteroaryl chloride (2-chloropyridine) to afford the cross-coupling product (2-phenylpyridine) through an oxidative addition/reductive elimination sequence. The mechanism of the reaction of [PhFe(I)(acac)(thf)](-) with the aryl and heteroaryl halides has been explored on the basis of DFT calculations. PMID:24596072

  5. 77 FR 59610 - Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... applications to add new food uses on previously registered pesticide products containing the insecticide, flonicamide, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide... registered pesticide products containing the insecticide, flonicamid,...

  6. Antidiabetic Effects of Add-On Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract Therapy with Sulfonylureas in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huyen, V. T. T.; Phan, D. V.; Thang, P.; Ky, P. T.; Hoa, N. K.; Ostenson, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the antidiabetic effect of the traditional Vietnamese herb Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) together with sulfonylurea (SU) in 25 drug-naïve type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. After 4-week treatment with gliclazide (SU), 30 mg daily, all patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups to add on GP extract or placebo extract, 6 g daily, during eight weeks. Results. After 4-week SU treatment, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1C decreased significantly (P < 0.001). FPG was further reduced after add-on therapy with 2.9 ± 1.7 and 0.9 ± 0.6 mmol/L in the GP and placebo groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Therapy with GP extract also reduced 30- and 120-minute oral glucose tolerance test postload values. HbA1C levels decreased approximately 2% units in the GP group compared to 0.7% unit in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Conclusion. GP extract in addition to SU offers an alternative to addition of other oral medication to treat type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:23125867

  7. A delay-and-Boolean-ADD imaging algorithm for damage detection with a small number of piezoceramic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guangtao; Li, Yourong; Song, Gangbing

    2016-09-01

    The delay-and-sum (DAS) imaging algorithm usually sends an excitation signal at each piezoceramic transducer and obtains a defect image by using transmitter-sensor pair signals to draw ellipses or hyperbolas. A delay-and-Boolean-ADD (DABA) imaging algorithm is developed for defect detection of plate-like structures with a small number of piezoceramic transducers. This new method requires sending only one excitation signal for each detection, and obtains a better defect image by employing Boolean ADD operation instead of addition or multiplication operation in the DAS algorithm. A reflection coefficient is introduced in the new algorithm to attenuate the signals reflected from the boundary. The widely used envelop-detection method based on Hilbert-transformation is replaced by a new envelop-detection technique based on a local maximum value to increase the accuracy of locating. An additional time shift due to the excitation signal itself is also considered to decrease the location error. The results of the experiments conducted on an aluminum plate indicate that the proposed DABA imaging algorithm combining with the new techniques can detect a bonded mass defect accurately and efficiently.

  8. A delay-and-Boolean-ADD imaging algorithm for damage detection with a small number of piezoceramic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guangtao; Li, Yourong; Song, Gangbing

    2016-09-01

    The delay-and-sum (DAS) imaging algorithm usually sends an excitation signal at each piezoceramic transducer and obtains a defect image by using transmitter–sensor pair signals to draw ellipses or hyperbolas. A delay-and-Boolean-ADD (DABA) imaging algorithm is developed for defect detection of plate-like structures with a small number of piezoceramic transducers. This new method requires sending only one excitation signal for each detection, and obtains a better defect image by employing Boolean ADD operation instead of addition or multiplication operation in the DAS algorithm. A reflection coefficient is introduced in the new algorithm to attenuate the signals reflected from the boundary. The widely used envelop-detection method based on Hilbert-transformation is replaced by a new envelop-detection technique based on a local maximum value to increase the accuracy of locating. An additional time shift due to the excitation signal itself is also considered to decrease the location error. The results of the experiments conducted on an aluminum plate indicate that the proposed DABA imaging algorithm combining with the new techniques can detect a bonded mass defect accurately and efficiently.

  9. Using the PhenX Toolkit to Add Standard Measures to a Study.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, Tabitha; Pan, Huaqin; Haines, Jonathan; Harlan, William R; Marazita, Mary L; McCarty, Catherine A; Ramos, Erin M; Hamilton, Carol M

    2015-07-01

    The PhenX (consensus measures for Phenotypes and eXposures) Toolkit (https://www.phenxtoolkit.org/) offers high-quality, well-established measures of phenotypes and exposures for use by the scientific community. The goal is to promote the use of standard measures, enhance data interoperability, and help investigators identify opportunities for collaborative and translational research. The Toolkit contains 395 measures drawn from 22 research domains (fields of research), along with additional collections of measures for Substance Abuse and Addiction (SAA) research, Mental Health Research (MHR), and Tobacco Regulatory Research (TRR). Additional measures for TRR that are expected to be released in 2015 include Obesity, Eating Disorders, and Sickle Cell Disease. Measures are selected by working groups of domain experts using a consensus process that includes input from the scientific community. The Toolkit provides a description of each PhenX measure, the rationale for including it in the Toolkit, protocol(s) for collecting the measure, and supporting documentation. Users can browse measures in the Toolkit or can search the Toolkit using the Smart Query Tool or a full text search. PhenX Toolkit users select measures of interest to add to their Toolkit. Registered Toolkit users can save their Toolkit and return to it later to revise or complete. They then have options to download a customized Data Collection Worksheet that specifies the data to be collected, and a Data Dictionary that describes each variable included in the Data Collection Worksheet. The Toolkit also has a Register Your Study feature that facilitates cross-study collaboration by allowing users to find other investigators using the same PhenX measures.

  10. A role for α-adducin (ADD-1) in nematode and human memory

    PubMed Central

    Vukojevic, Vanja; Gschwind, Leo; Vogler, Christian; Demougin, Philippe; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stetak, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Identifying molecular mechanisms that underlie learning and memory is one of the major challenges in neuroscience. Taken the advantages of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we investigated α-adducin (add-1) in aversive olfactory associative learning and memory. Loss of add-1 function selectively impaired short- and long-term memory without causing acquisition, sensory, or motor deficits. We showed that α-adducin is required for consolidation of synaptic plasticity, for sustained synaptic increase of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GLR-1) content and altered GLR-1 turnover dynamics. ADD-1, in a splice-form- and tissue-specific manner, controlled the storage of memories presumably through actin-capping activity. In support of the C. elegans results, genetic variability of the human ADD1 gene was significantly associated with episodic memory performance in healthy young subjects. Finally, human ADD1 expression in nematodes restored loss of C. elegans add-1 gene function. Taken together, our findings support a role for α-adducin in memory from nematodes to humans. Studying the molecular and genetic underpinnings of memory across distinct species may be helpful in the development of novel strategies to treat memory-related diseases. PMID:22307086

  11. Using stereoscopy to teach complex biological concepts.

    PubMed

    Ferdig, Richard; Blank, James; Kratcoski, Annette; Clements, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Used effectively, stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) technologies can engage students with complex disciplinary content as they are presented with informative representations of abstract concepts. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that stereoscopy may enhance learning and retention in some educational settings. Biological concepts particularly benefit from this type of presentation since complex spatially oriented structures frequently define function within these systems. Viewing biological phenomena in 3D as they are in real life allows the user to relate these spatial relationships and easily grasp concepts making the key connection between structure and function. In addition, viewing these concepts interactively in 3D and in a manner that leads to increased engagement for young prospective scientists can further increase the impact. We conducted two studies evaluating the use of this technology as an instructional tool to teach high school students complex biological concepts. The first study tested the use of stereoscopic materials for teaching brain function and human anatomy to four classes. The second study evaluated stereoscopic images to support the learning of cell structure and DNA in four different high school classes. Most important, students who used stereoscopic 3D had significantly higher test scores than those who did not. In addition, students reported enjoying 3D presentations, and it was among their top choices for learning about these complex concepts. In summary, our evidence adds further support for the benefits of 3D images to students' learning of science concepts. PMID:26330039

  12. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  13. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  14. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  15. 75 FR 43153 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletions AGENCY... Deletions From the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement... proposed for addition to the Procurement List. Comments on this certification are invited....

  16. 76 FR 2673 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletions AGENCY... deletions from the procurement list. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement... addition to the Procurement List. Comments on this certification are invited. Commenters should...

  17. 75 FR 7451 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List products and services to be furnished by nonprofit...

  18. 5 CFR 532.315 - Additional survey jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional survey jobs. 532.315 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Determining Rates for Principal Types of Positions § 532.315 Additional survey jobs. (a... add to the required survey jobs the specialized survey jobs listed below opposite the industry...

  19. 5 CFR 532.315 - Additional survey jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional survey jobs. 532.315 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Determining Rates for Principal Types of Positions § 532.315 Additional survey jobs. (a... add to the required survey jobs the specialized survey jobs listed below opposite the industry...

  20. 5 CFR 532.315 - Additional survey jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional survey jobs. 532.315 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Determining Rates for Principal Types of Positions § 532.315 Additional survey jobs. (a... add to the required survey jobs the specialized survey jobs listed below opposite the industry...

  1. 5 CFR 532.315 - Additional survey jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional survey jobs. 532.315 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Determining Rates for Principal Types of Positions § 532.315 Additional survey jobs. (a... add to the required survey jobs the specialized survey jobs listed below opposite the industry...

  2. Modifications made to ModelMuse to add support for the Saturated-Unsaturated Transport model (SUTRA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winston, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    This report (1) describes modifications to ModelMuse,as described in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Techniques and Methods (TM) 6–A29 (Winston, 2009), to add support for the Saturated-Unsaturated Transport model (SUTRA) (Voss and Provost, 2002; version of September 22, 2010) and (2) supplements USGS TM 6–A29. Modifications include changes to the main ModelMuse window where the model is designed, addition of methods for generating a finite-element mesh suitable for SUTRA, defining how some functions shouldapply when using a finite-element mesh rather than a finite-difference grid (as originally programmed in ModelMuse), and applying spatial interpolation to angles. In addition, the report describes ways of handling objects on the front view of the model and displaying data. A tabulation contains a summary of the new or modified dialog boxes.

  3. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... to add this to the total dose estimate. For monitoring periods where external dosimetry data...

  4. 27 CFR 19.303 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. 19.303 Section 19.303 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. A proprietor may add caramel that has no material... oak chips that have not been treated with any chemical to packages of spirits prior to or after...

  5. Flexible Filter Bank Based on an Improved Weighted Overlap-Add Algorithm for Processing Wide Bandwidth Radio Astronomy Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianhai; Meng, Qiao; Han, J. L.; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jianwei

    2015-12-01

    Wideband signals from a radio telescope have to be channelized for spectral observations or for dedispersion for pulsar observations. A polyphase filter bank is designed based on the improved weighted overlap-add (IWOLA) algorithm to achieve channelization. The IWOLA algorithm involves applying an equivalent Hilbert transform to the normal WOLA filter bank by shifting the center frequency of every sub-band by a half of the frequency bin, so that the IWOLA filter bank provides K independently output complex subbands instead of the usual K + 1 sub-bands, reducing the subsequent processing units by one set. Performance of the proposed IWOLA filter bank is analyzed by means of MATLAB simulations. We show how the IWOLA filter bank can be used for a two-stage, high-resolution spectrometer, with a much reduced consumption of FPGA on-chip block RAM.

  6. Project DyAdd: classical eyeblink conditioning in adults with dyslexia and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Laasonen, Marja; Kauppinen, Jenni; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Wikgren, Jan

    2012-11-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd (Adult Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Disorder in Finland), classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) was investigated in both delay and trace paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n = 37), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 21), their comorbid combination (n = 8), and healthy controls (n = 35). In addition, the profiles of three participants with a rare autosomal dominant cerebellar disease were assessed (episodic ataxia type 2, EA-2). We found that participants with dyslexia were overall slower learners than controls in eyeblink conditioning. Further, they were the only group that had a reduced number of CRs in mediotemporal-dependent trace paradigm compared to the more cerebellum-dependent delay paradigm. Second, ADHD was found to be related to larger CR amplitude. Third, those with a comorbid condition learned faster and manifested CRs that were not well timed. Fourth, the cerebellar patients showed nearly no conditioning at all. Correlations between EBC and various neuropsychological domains (phonological processing, reading, spelling, arithmetic, executive functions, attention, and fine motor control) over all participants resulted in significant relations only for the delay paradigm: Increased amount of reading errors related with later peak latency and increased amount of self-corrections in fine motor control related with larger response magnitude. Within those who conditioned, relations emerged only for the trace paradigm: better spelling was related to larger response magnitude. These results do not lend support to the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia. On the contrary, dyslexia in its pure form seems to be related to a relative dysfunction of a larger hippocampal-cerebellar network. Further, larger responses in the ADHD group are suggested to result from their lowered responding threshold.

  7. Insights from a national survey into why substance abuse treatment units add prevention and outreach services

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Rebecca; Lemak, Christy Harris; D'Aunno, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found that even limited prevention-related interventions can affect health behaviors such as substance use and risky sex. Substance abuse treatment providers are ideal candidates to provide these services, but typically have little or no financial incentive to do so. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore why some substance abuse treatment units have added new prevention and outreach services. Based on an ecological framework of organizational strategy, three categories of predictors were tested: (1) environmental, (2) unit-level, and (3) unit leadership. Results A lagged cross-sectional logistic model of 450 outpatient substance abuse treatment units revealed that local per capita income, mental health center affiliation, and clinical supervisors' graduate degrees were positively associated with likelihood of adding prevention-related education and outreach services. Managed care contracts and methadone treatment were negatively associated with addition of these services. No hospital-affiliated agencies added prevention and outreach services during the study period. Conclusion Findings supported the study's ecological perspective on organizational strategy, with factors at environmental, unit, and unit leadership levels associated with additions of prevention and outreach services. Among the significant predictors, ties to managed care payers and unit leadership graduate education emerge as potential leverage points for public policy. In the current sample, units with managed care contracts were less likely to add prevention and outreach services. This is not surprising, given managed care's emphasis on cost control. However, the association with this payment source suggests that public managed care programs might affects prevention and outreach differently through revised incentives. Specifically, government payers could explicitly compensate substance abuse treatment units in managed care contracts for prevention and

  8. The reaction of an iridium PNP complex with parahydrogen facilitates polarisation transfer without chemical change† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sample preparation, signal enhancements and raw data. CCDC 1026865. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4dt03088e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Arthur J.; Rayner, Peter J.; Cowley, Michael J.; Green, Gary G. R.; Whitwood, Adrian C.

    2015-01-01

    The short lived pincer complex [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(py)]BF4 is shown to be active for signal amplification by reversible exchange. This catalyst formulation enables the efficient transfer of polarization from parahydrogen to be placed into just a single molecule of the hyperpolarisation target, pyridine. When the catalysts 1H nuclei are replaced by 2H, increased levels of substrate hyperpolarization result and when the reverse situation is examined the catalyst itself is clearly visible through hyperpolarised signals. The ligand exchange pathways of [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(py)]BF4 that are associated with this process are shown to involve the formation of 16-electron [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2]BF4 and the 18-electron H2 addition product [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(H2)]BF4. PMID:25410259

  9. Patients' preferences for treatment outcomes of add-on antiepileptic drugs: a conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Ranjani; Yang, Jui-Chen; Ettinger, Alan B

    2012-08-01

    To understand the relative importance of the outcomes of add-on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the willingness of patients with epilepsy to accept therapeutic trade-offs between seizure control and tolerability, we administered a Web-enabled, choice-format conjoint survey to patients with a self-reported physician diagnosis of epilepsy and symptoms of partial seizures. Patients answered nine choice questions to evaluate treatment outcomes of two different hypothetical add-on AEDs. Patients were first asked to choose the better of the two medicines and then asked a follow-up question about whether or not they would add the selected AED to their current treatment regimen. Our study demonstrated that patients with epilepsy consider seizure reduction to be the top priority when ranking it against the reduction or elimination of side effects. This study aids in better understanding of patients' AED treatment preferences and may aid in management of epilepsy.

  10. Four-channel optical add-drop multiplexer based on dual racetrack micro-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Danning; Wu, Yuanda; Wang, Yue; An, Junming; Hu, Xiongwei

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we report on a four-channel optical add-drop multiplexer based on dual racetrack micro-ring resonators in submicron SOI rib waveguides. The free spectral range (FSR) is about 18.6 nm. The device can add/drop four optical channels in half C-band. When the device acts as an optical drop multiplexer, the channel spacing is about 1.5 nm, maximum extinction ratio is 23.75 dB, the minimum insertion loss 9.94 dB and the maximum adjacent channels crosstalk is -12.12 dB. When the device acts as an optical add multiplexer, the maximum extinction ratio is 28.72 dB and the minimum insertion loss 7.35 dB. The fabricated device has effectively and perfectly realized the signals upload and download.

  11. Photothermally tunable silicon-microring-based optical add-drop filter through integrated light absorber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Shi, Yuechun; Lou, Fei; Chen, Yiting; Yan, Min; Wosinski, Lech; Qiu, Min

    2014-10-20

    An optically pumped thermo-optic (TO) silicon ring add-drop filter with fast thermal response is experimentally demonstrated. We propose that metal-insulator-metal (MIM) light absorber can be integrated into silicon TO devices, acting as a localized heat source which can be activated remotely by a pump beam. The MIM absorber design introduces less thermal capacity to the device, compared to conventional electrically-driven approaches. Experimentally, the absorber-integrated add-drop filter shows an optical response time of 13.7 μs following the 10%-90% rule (equivalent to a exponential time constant of 5 μs) and a wavelength shift over pump power of 60 pm/mW. The photothermally tunable add-drop filter may provide new perspectives for all-optical routing and switching in integrated Si photonic circuits. PMID:25401557

  12. Sensitivity analysis of add-on price estimate for select silicon wafering technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The cost of producing wafers from silicon ingots is a major component of the add-on price of silicon sheet. Economic analyses of the add-on price estimates and their sensitivity internal-diameter (ID) sawing, multiblade slurry (MBS) sawing and fixed-abrasive slicing technique (FAST) are presented. Interim price estimation guidelines (IPEG) are used for estimating a process add-on price. Sensitivity analysis of price is performed with respect to cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials (blade life) and utilities, and the production parameters such as slicing rate, slices per centimeter and process yield, using a computer program specifically developed to do sensitivity analysis with IPEG. The results aid in identifying the important cost parameters and assist in deciding the direction of technology development efforts.

  13. Multichannel optical add-drop processes in symmetrical waveguide-resonator systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Chen, Ray T

    2003-11-21

    Multichannel optical add-drop processes are studied in a class of symmetric waveguide-resonator systems. With insight gained from group theory, we analyze these systems and show that they can add or drop multiple wavelengths simultaneously, with 100% efficiency. A new mechanism is presented to reduce the remnant light at the dropped wavelengths in the pass-through port. High-order Butterworth filters can also be achieved in these systems. Built upon conventional or photonic-crystal based structures, these systems can be used in optical communication applications.

  14. How acidic is the lidocaine we are injecting, and how much bicarbonate should we add?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Simon G; Lalonde, Donald H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The infiltration of local anesthetics can be painful, which is likely due, in part, to their acidity. In spite of a Cochrane study that recommended neutralizing lidocaine with bicarbonate to decrease the pain of injection, not many surgeons have adopted the practice, and there are many ‘recipes’ for how much bicarbonate one should add. OBJECTIVE: To determine the acidity of lidocaine and the correct ratio of bicarbonate that should be added to neutralize lidocaine to achieve body pH. METHODS: Fifty samples each of commonly used anesthetics (lidocaine 1% and 2%, with and without epinephrine 1:100,000) were obtained and tested for pH. Data were also analyzed according to whether the vials had been previously opened. Ten additional samples of lidocaine 1% with 1:100,000 epinephrine were titrated against sodium bicarbonate 8.4% and tested for pH and the presence of precipitate. RESULTS: A solution of 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine had a mean (± SD) pH of 4.24±0.42, and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine had a mean pH of 3.93±0.43. Plain 1% lidocaine had a pH of 6.09±0.16, and plain 2% lidocaine had a pH of 6.00±0.27. Epinephrine-containing solutions were more acidic when they had been previously opened. One per cent lidocaine with epinephrine required 8.4% sodium bicarbonate at a ratio of 1.1 mL:10 mL to 1.8 mL:10 mL to achieve the target tissue pH of 7.38 to 7.62. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine with epinephrine was approximately 1000 times more acidic than subcutaneous tissue. The addition of bicarbonate to the local anesthetic solution is simple to perform and is inexpensive. The proper volume ratio of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate to 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine is approximately 1 mL:10 mL. Surgeons should be more aware of the simplicity and value of buffering with bicarbonate to decrease the pain of injection. PMID:23730153

  15. Laboratory tests on an aircraft fuselage to determine the insertion loss of various acoustic add-on treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K. E.; Mixson, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory study of add-on acoustic treatments for a propeller-driven light aircraft fuselage. The treatments included: no treatment (i.e., baseline fuselage); a production-type double-wall interior; and various amounts of high density fiberglass added to the baseline fuselage. The sound source was a pneumatic-driver with attached exponential horn, supplied with a broadband signal. Data were acquired at the approximate head positions of the six passenger seats. The results were analyzed on space-averaged narrowband, one-third octave band and overall insertion loss basis. In addition, insertion loss results for the different configurations at specific frequencies representing propeller tone spectra are presented. The propeller tone data includes not only the space-averaged insertion loss, but also the variation of insertion loss at these particular frequencies across the six microphone positions.

  16. A novel optical path routing network that combines coarse granularity optical multicast with fine granularity add/drop and block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Mauro M.; Mori, Yojiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel optical path routing mechanism that combines coarse-granularity optical multicast with fine-granularity add/drop and block. We implement the proposal in an optical cross-connect node with broadcast-and-select functionality that offers high cost-effectiveness since no addition equipment from conventional ROADMs is needed. The proposed method, called branching, enhances the routing capabilities over the original grouped routing networks by enabling wavelength paths to be established through different GRE pipes. We also present a novel path/GRE routing and wavelength/GRE index assignment algorithm that supports the new routing function. Numerical experiments using real network topologies verify the improved routing performance and the superior efficiency of the proposed control algorithm over original GRE-based networks.

  17. Formation of bis(μ-tetrazolato)dinickel(II) complexes with N,N,O-donor Schiff bases via in situ 1,3-dipolar cyclo-additions: isolation of a novel bi-cyclic trinuclear nickel(II)-sodium(I)-nickel(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Das, Mithun; Chatterjee, Sudipta; Harms, Klaus; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Shouvik

    2014-02-21

    A dinuclear and a novel bi-cyclic hetero trinuclear bis(μ-tetrazolato) bridged nickel(II) Schiff base complexes [Ni2(L(1))2(PTZ)2] (1) and [Ni2(L(2))2(PTZ)2Na(H2O)]ClO4·H2O (2) {where HL(1) = 2-((2-(dimethylamino)ethylimino)methyl)-6-methoxyphenol, HL(2) = 2-((2-(methylamino)ethylimino)methyl)-6-methoxyphenol and HPTZ = 5-(2-pyridyl)tetrazole} have been synthesized by in situ 1,3-dipolar cyclo-addition and characterized by spectral analysis, X-ray crystallography, and variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements. Both the complexes crystallize in monoclinic space group P2(1)/c. Both the complexes feature double μ-NN'-tetrazolato bridged dinickel(II) structures, in which each nickel(II) is coordinated meridionally by a depronated terdentate Schiff base [(L(1))(-) for 1 and (L(2))(-) for 2] and two nitrogen atoms of the (PTZ)(-). A nitrogen atom from a symmetry related bridging (PTZ)(-) coordinates to complete the distorted octahedral geometry of nickel(II). The phenoxo and methoxo oxygen atoms from two [NiL(2)] units and a water molecule coordinate to a sodium(I) to form the unique bi-cyclic trinuclear nickel(II)-sodium(I)-nickel(II) core in complex 2. Very strong π···π stacking is observed in complex 2 to form a supramolecular chain. The variable-temperature (1.8-300 K) magnetic susceptibility measurements show the presence of anti-ferromagnetic coupling between two nickel(II) centers for both complexes with J = -2.14(1) cm(-1) (for 1) and J = -1.20(2) cm(-1) (for 2). To obtain a better understanding of the magnetic exchange mechanism, quantum mechanical (DFT) calculations have been performed. The calculated J values [J(theo) = -4.53 cm(-1) (for 1) and J(theo) = -2.48 cm(-1) (for 2)] are in agreement with the values obtained experimentally.

  18. Replicative phenotyping adds value to genotypic resistance testing in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected individuals - the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Replicative phenotypic HIV resistance testing (rPRT) uses recombinant infectious virus to measure viral replication in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. Due to its high sensitivity of detection of viral minorities and its dissecting power for complex viral resistance patterns and mixed virus populations rPRT might help to improve HIV resistance diagnostics, particularly for patients with multiple drug failures. The aim was to investigate whether the addition of rPRT to genotypic resistance testing (GRT) compared to GRT alone is beneficial for obtaining a virological response in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected patients. Methods Patients with resistance tests between 2002 and 2006 were followed within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). We assessed patients' virological success after their antiretroviral therapy was switched following resistance testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with SHCS centre as a random effect were used to investigate the association between the type of resistance test and virological response (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL or ≥1.5log reduction). Results Of 1158 individuals with resistance tests 221 with GRT+rPRT and 937 with GRT were eligible for analysis. Overall virological response rates were 85.1% for GRT+rPRT and 81.4% for GRT. In the subgroup of patients with >2 previous failures, the odds ratio (OR) for virological response of GRT+rPRT compared to GRT was 1.45 (95% CI 1.00-2.09). Multivariate analyses indicate a significant improvement with GRT+rPRT compared to GRT alone (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.31-2.15). Conclusions In heavily pre-treated patients rPRT-based resistance information adds benefit, contributing to a higher rate of treatment success. PMID:21255386

  19. Conducting Automated Test Assembly Using the Premium Solver Platform Version 7.0 with Microsoft Excel and the Large-Scale LP/QP Solver Engine Add-In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cor, Ken; Alves, Cecilia; Gierl, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    This review describes and evaluates a software add-in created by Frontline Systems, Inc., that can be used with Microsoft Excel 2007 to solve large, complex test assembly problems. The combination of Microsoft Excel 2007 with the Frontline Systems Premium Solver Platform is significant because Microsoft Excel is the most commonly used spreadsheet…

  20. Psychometric Properties and Norms of the German ABC-Community and PAS-ADD Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeilinger, Elisabeth L.; Weber, Germain; Haveman, Meindert J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to standardize and generate psychometric evidence of the German language versions of two well-established English language mental health instruments: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community" (ABC-C) and the "Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities" (PAS-ADD) Checklist. New…

  1. 47 CFR 73.9006 - Add-in covered demodulator products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 73.9006 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73.9006 Add-in covered...) Using a robust method; or (2) Protected by an authorized digital output protection technology...

  2. Break out of the box: how to add value to the security function.

    PubMed

    Jones, Russell F

    2007-01-01

    Opportunities to create programs that enhance the value of the security function are present now and will be in the future, according to the author, who illustrates a number of ways the resourceful security practitioner can add to his department's reputation and his organization's bottom line.

  3. Project DyAdd: Visual Attention in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Salomaa, Jonna; Cousineau, Denis; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura; Dye, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, three aspects of visual attention were investigated in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n = 35) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 22), and in healthy controls (n = 35). Temporal characteristics of visual attention were assessed with Attentional Blink (AB), capacity of visual attention…

  4. How to Add Philosophy Dimensions in Your Basic International Business Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanopoulos, John

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to assist professors in introducing concepts of self, philosophy, religions, the universe, existential dilemmas, etc., in their basic international business classes. Using active learning and five-member student teams, a student organized and administered conference adds a very useful dimension of knowledge sacrificing only one…

  5. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  6. TEST DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF ADD-ON NOX CONTROL UTILIZING OZONE INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the test design for environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-0n nitrogen oxides (NOx) control utilizing ozone injection. (NOTE: ETV is an EPA-established program to enhance domestic and international market acceptance of new or improved commercially...

  7. Strategies for Successfully Teaching Students with ADD or ADHD in Instrumental Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melago, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers can easily encounter students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the instrumental lesson setting. Applicable to instrumental lesson settings in the public or private schools, private studios, or college studios, this article focuses on specific strategies ranging from the…

  8. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children.

    PubMed

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  9. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children

    PubMed Central

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10–40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89–98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  10. Family Numeracy Adds on: The Follow-Up Study of the Basic Skills Agency's Pilot Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Greg; Hutchison, Dougal

    2002-01-01

    In 1998 the authors published research with NFER (National Foundation for Educational Research) "Family Numeracy Adds Up" showing how parents and children had gained from fourteen pilot family numeracy programmes. It showed strong evidence of the double benefits of work with families. Children have an early boost in their learning and parents, who…

  11. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls. 75.34 Section 75.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Missing Data Substitution Procedures § 75.34 Units...

  12. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls. 75.34 Section 75.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Missing Data Substitution Procedures § 75.34 Units...

  13. Civic Engagement and Global Citizenship in a University Context: Core Business or Desirable Add-On?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munck, Ronaldo

    2010-01-01

    Can civic engagement become a "core business" of the contemporary university, or is it an attractive "add-on" that is not affordable in the current economic climate? Contemporary universities often play an important role in local community development and, as such, have the opportunity to develop civic engagement strategies to sit alongside…

  14. Project DyAdd: Implicit Learning in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Väre, Jenni; Oksanen-Hennah, Henna; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Pothos, Emmanuel; Cleeremans, Axel

    2014-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, implicit learning was investigated through two paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n?=?36) or with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n?=?22) and in controls (n?=?35). In the serial reaction time (SRT) task, there were no group differences in learning. However, those with ADHD exhibited…

  15. Add+VantageMR® Assessments: A Case Study of Teacher and Student Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briand, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This case study analyzes the effect of the Add+VantageMRRTM (AVMR) program on a teacher's pedagogy and on her students' progress in mathematics. AVMR, a professional development program in early mathematics, trains teachers to assess their students' progress and apply those insights to their teaching pedagogy. The AVMR assessment uses a…

  16. ATRX ADD domain links an atypical histone methylation recognition mechanism to human mental-retardation syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, Shigeki; Xiang, Bin; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Ren, Ting; Lewis, Peter W.; Cochrane, Jesse C.; Allis, C. David; Picketts, David J.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Li, Haitao; Shi, Yang

    2011-07-19

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  17. 24 CFR 990.190 - Other formula expenses (add-ons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other formula expenses (add-ons). 990.190 Section 990.190 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC...

  18. In Building a Script for an Emotion, Do Preschoolers Add Its Cause before Its Behavior Consequence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2011-01-01

    An emotion concept is a script in which an emotion event is an ordered sequence of subevents from situational cause through bodily changes to behavioral consequence. As children build a script for each emotion, in what order do they add each subevent? Preschoolers (N = 108, three to five years), were asked to name the protagonist's emotion in…

  19. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

  20. ATRX ADD Domain Links an Atypical Histone Methylation Recognition Mechanism to Human Mental-Retardation Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    S Iwase; B Xiang; S Ghosh; T Ren; P Lewis; J Cochrane; C Allis; D Picketts; D Patel; et al.

    2011-12-31

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  1. Octacoordinated Dioxo-Molybdenum Complex via Formal Oxidative Addition of Molecular Oxygen. Studies of Chemical Reactions Between M(CO)6 (M = Cr, Mo) and 2,4-Di-tert-butyl-6-(pyridin-2-ylazo)-phenol.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ipsita; Saha Chowdhury, Nabanita; Ghosh, Pradip; Goswami, Sreebrata

    2015-06-01

    Reactions of M(CO)6 (M = Mo, Cr) and 2 mol of 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(pyridin-2-ylazo)-phenol ligand (HL) in air yielded [Mo(VI)O2(L(1)¯)2], 1, and [Cr(III)(L(1)¯)(L(•2)¯)], 2, respectively, in high yields. Formation of the Cr-complex is a substitution reaction, which is associated with electron transfer, while that of Mo is an example of molecular oxygen activation. Isolated monoradical chromium complex 2 is susceptible to oxidation. Accordingly the reaction of 2 with the oxidant, I2 produces a cationic nonradical complex of chemical composition [Cr(III)(L(1)¯)2]I3, [2]I3 in almost quantitative yield. All the isolated complexes are primarily characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and magnetic measurements. While the molybdenum complex is diamagnetic, the two chromium complexes behave as simple paramagnets: μeff (295 K), 2.81 μB and 3.79 μB for 2 and [2]I3, respectively. Single-crystal three-dimensional X-ray structures of 1, 2, [2]I3 are reported. The geometry of the Mo-complex is square antiprism (octacoordination), and that of the Cr-complexes is distorted octahedral. Redox properties of the complexes are studied by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential coulometry. The data are analyzed based on density functional theoretical calculations of molecular orbitals of redox isomers of the Cr complexes. The results indicated that the redox events in the complexes occur at the ligand center. The oxidation state of Cr in 2 is further assessed by XPS measurements and compared with the reported systems.

  2. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  3. Plasma Renin Activity Predicts Blood Pressure Responses to β-Blocker and Thiazide Diuretic as Monotherapy and Add-On Therapy for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Stephen T.; Schwartz, Gary L.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Gums, John G.; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Johnson, Julie A.; Bailey, Kent R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Age and race categories or renin profiling have been recommended to predict blood pressure responses to monotherapy with a β-blocker or thiazide diuretic. Whether these or other characteristics predict blood pressure responses when the drugs are administered as add-on therapy is uncertain. METHODS We evaluated predictors of blood pressure response in 363 men and women ≤65 years of age with primary hypertension (152 blacks, 211 whites), 86 of whom (24%) were untreated and 277 of whom (76%) were withdrawn from previous antihypertensive drugs before randomization to either atenolol followed by addition of hydrochlorothiazide (N = 180) or hydrochlorothiazide followed by addition of atenolol (N = 183). Responses were determined by home blood pressure averages before and after each drug administration. Race, age, plasma renin activity, and other characteristics including pretreatment blood pressure levels were incorporated into linear regression models to quantify their contributions to prediction of blood pressure responses. RESULTS Plasma renin activity and pretreatment blood pressure level consistently contributed to prediction of systolic and diastolic responses to each drug administered as mono- and as add-on therapy. Higher plasma renin activity was consistently associated with greater blood pressure responses to atenolol and lesser responses to hydrochlorothiazide. The predictive effects of plasma renin activity were statistically independent of race, age, and other characteristics. CONCLUSIONS Plasma renin activity and pretreatment blood pressure level predict blood pressure responses to atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide administered as mono- and as add-on therapy in men and women ≤65 years of age. PMID:20725057

  4. Loxapine Add-on for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Irritability

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Gregory; Cain, Sharon E.; Zhou, Xinghua; Barth, Francis X.; Aman, Michael G.; Palaguachi, Gladys I.; Mikhnev, Dmytro; Teng, Rujia; Andridge, Rebecca; Logan, Marilyn; Butler, Merlin G.; Han, Joan C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Our clinical experience with low dose loxapine (5–15 mg/day) suggests promising efficacy and safety for irritability in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We studied low dose loxapine prospectively in adolescents and adults with ASD and irritability. Additionally, we measured loxapine and metabolite concentrations, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a biomarker of neuromodulation. Methods: We performed a 12 week open trial of add-on loxapine in subjects, ages 13–65 years, diagnosed with ASD, and Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale scores >14. Loxapine was dosed flexibly up to 15 mg daily, starting with 5 mg on alternate days. From weeks 1 to 6, other psychoactive medications were tapered if possible; from weeks 6 to 12, all medication doses were held stable. The primary outcome was the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement subscale (CGI-I), ratings of Much Improved or Very Much Improved. Secondary outcomes were the ABC-I, Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, and Schalock Quality of Life scale. Serum BDNF and loxapine and metabolite concentrations were assayed. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped. Results: Sixteen subjects were enrolled; 12 completed all visits. Median age was 18 years (range 13–39). Median final loxapine dose was 7.5 mg/day (2.5–15). All 14 subjects (100%) with data at week 12 were rated as Much Improved on CGI-I at 12 weeks. Mean change on ABC-I at 12 weeks was −31%, p=0.01. Mean body mass index (BMI)-Z decreased between weeks 6 and 12, p=0.03. Side effects were minimal, and prolactin elevation occurred in only one subject. BDNF concentrations measured in 11 subjects increased significantly (p=0.04). Subjects with AG genotype for BDNF rs6265 required a lower dose of loxapine at study end, but had similar behavioral and BDNF concentration changes as the GG genotype. Conclusions: Low dose loxapine shows promise as a repurposed drug for irritability in ASD. Loxapine effects on BDNF warrant

  5. 76 FR 63905 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion AGENCY... Deletion from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a product and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind...

  6. 75 FR 1355 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List services to be furnished by nonprofit... Procurement List products and services previously furnished by such agencies. DATES: Effective Date:...

  7. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions AGENCY... Deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have...

  8. 40 CFR 141.624 - Additional requirements for consecutive systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements for consecutive systems. 141.624 Section 141.624 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... system that does not add a disinfectant but delivers water that has been treated with a primary...

  9. 40 CFR 141.624 - Additional requirements for consecutive systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional requirements for consecutive systems. 141.624 Section 141.624 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... system that does not add a disinfectant but delivers water that has been treated with a primary...

  10. 40 CFR 141.624 - Additional requirements for consecutive systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional requirements for consecutive systems. 141.624 Section 141.624 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... system that does not add a disinfectant but delivers water that has been treated with a primary...

  11. 40 CFR 141.624 - Additional requirements for consecutive systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements for consecutive systems. 141.624 Section 141.624 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... system that does not add a disinfectant but delivers water that has been treated with a primary...

  12. 40 CFR 141.624 - Additional requirements for consecutive systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional requirements for consecutive systems. 141.624 Section 141.624 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... system that does not add a disinfectant but delivers water that has been treated with a primary...

  13. 75 FR 78977 - Procurement List Proposed Addition and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Addition and Deletions AGENCY... deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement...) 603-0655, or e-mail CMTEFedReg@AbilityOne.gov . Due to Federal holidays occurring on Friday,...

  14. 75 FR 66741 - Procurement List, Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be... deletes products from the Procurement List previously furnished by such agencies. DATES: Effective...

  15. 75 FR 16755 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List a product and services to be furnished by... Procurement List products previously furnished by such agencies. DATES: Effective Date: May 3, 2010....

  16. 76 FR 21335 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for... procurement list. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be... deletes products and services from the Procurement List previously furnished by such agencies....

  17. 75 FR 78976 - Procurement List Proposed Addition and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Addition and Deletions AGENCY... deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement...) 603-0655, or e-mail CMTEFedReg@AbilityOne.gov . Due to Federal holidays occurring on Friday,...

  18. 76 FR 40342 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions AGENCY... Deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and a service to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind...

  19. 75 FR 56995 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletion AGENCY... Deletion From the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement...-0655, or e-mail: CMTEFedReg@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This notice is...

  20. 75 FR 56996 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a product and a service to the Procurement List that will be... deletes products and services from the Procurement List previously furnished by such agencies....

  1. 76 FR 21336 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions AGENCY... Deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have...

  2. Study protocol for the randomised controlled trial: Antiglucocorticoid augmentation of anti-Depressants in Depression (The ADD Study)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some patients with depression do not respond to first and second line conventional antidepressants and are therefore characterised as suffering from treatment refractory depression (TRD). On-going psychosocial stress and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are both associated with an attenuated clinical response to antidepressants. Preclinical data shows that co-administration of corticosteroids leads to a reduction in the ability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to increase forebrain 5-hydroxytryptamine, while co-administration of antiglucocorticoids has the opposite effect. A Cochrane review suggests that antiglucocorticoid augmentation of antidepressants may be effective in treating TRD and includes a pilot study of the cortisol synthesis inhibitor, metyrapone. The Antiglucocorticoid augmentation of anti-Depressants in Depression (The ADD Study) is a multicentre randomised placebo controlled trial of metyrapone augmentation of serotonergic antidepressants in a large population of patients with TRD in the UK National Health Service. Methods/design Patients with moderate to severe treatment refractory Major Depression aged 18 to 65 will be randomised to metyrapone 500 mg twice daily or placebo for three weeks, in addition to on-going conventional serotonergic antidepressants. The primary outcome will be improvement in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score five weeks after randomisation (i.e. two weeks after trial medication discontinuation). Secondary outcomes will include the degree of persistence of treatment effect for up to 6 months, improvements in quality of life and also safety and tolerability of metyrapone. The ADD Study will also include a range of sub-studies investigating the potential mechanism of action of metyrapone. Discussion Strengths of the ADD study include broad inclusion criteria meaning that the sample will be representative of patients with TRD treated within the UK National Health

  3. A method to add richness to the National Landslide Database of Great Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith; Freeborough, Katy; Malamud, Bruce; Demeritt, David

    2014-05-01

    2012, 72 of these resulted in additions to the BGS NLD and 4 in amendments to previously collected information. This raises the total number of landslides reported in 2012 from 186 to 258. Using the increased presence of landslides in the news and social media, 2012 had already resulted in the largest number of landslides for a given year being recorded by BGS in the NLD. With the additions from this current study to the NLD, we estimate that the annual total number of landslides was around six times higher in 2012 than the average annual total between 2006 and 2011. Years prior to 2012 plan to be revisited using this method, and more broadly, this method of searching newspaper archives could be applied to many other natural hazards to add richness to databases of historical events and improve our understanding of hazard occurrence and impact.

  4. 27 CFR 19.303 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits Rules for Production of Spirits § 19.303 Addition of caramel to... sweetening properties to rum or brandy in packages or tanks prior to production gauge. A proprietor may add... production gauge. The proprietor must note the use of oak chips on all transaction records. (26 U.S.C. 5201)...

  5. Effects of minocycline add-on treatment on brain morphometry and cerebral perfusion in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Cristiano; Marque, Cristiane R; Maia-de-Oliveira, João P; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Ferrari, Thiago B; Santos, Antonio C; Araújo, David; Machado-de-Sousa, João P; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Elkis, Helio; Crippa, José A; Guimarães, Francisco S; Zuardi, Antônio W; Baker, Glen B; Dursun, Serdar M; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2015-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the tetracycline antibiotic minocycline has neuroprotective effects and is a potential treatment for schizophrenia. However, the mechanisms of action of minocycline in the CNS remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of minocycline on brain morphology and cerebral perfusion in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia after 12months of a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of minocycline add-on treatment. This study included 24 outpatients with recent-onset schizophrenia randomized for 12months of adjuvant treatment with minocycline (200mg/d) or placebo. MRI (1.5T) and [(99m)Tc]-ECD SPECT brain scans were performed at the end of the 12-month of trial. Between-condition comparisons of SPECT and MRI brain images were performed using statistical parametric mapping and analyzed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Minocycline adjuvant treatment significantly reduced positive and negative symptoms when compared with placebo. The VBM analysis of MRI scans showed that the patients in the placebo group had significant lower gray matter volumes in the midposterior cingulate cortex and in the precentral gyrus in comparison with the patients in the minocycline group. In addition, a decreased ECD uptake in the minocycline condition was observed in fronto-temporal areas. These results suggest that minocycline may protect against gray matter loss and modulate fronto-temporal areas involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, minocycline add-on treatment may be a potential treatment in the early stages of schizophrenia and may ameliorate clinical deterioration and brain alterations observed in this period.

  6. Solubilised bright blue-emitting iridium complexes for solution processed OLEDs† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis CIF of the crystal structures. CCDC 1440897–1440899. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6tc00151c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Adam F.; Bansal, Ashu K.; Cordes, David B.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Combining a sterically bulky, electron-deficient 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-4-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)pyridine (dFMesppy) cyclometalating C∧N ligand with an electron rich, highly rigidified 1,1′-(α,α′-o-xylylene)-2,2′-biimidazole (o-xylbiim) N∧N ligand gives an iridium complex, [Ir(dFMesppy)2(o-xylbiim)](PF6), that achieves extraordinarily bright blue emission (Φ PL = 90%; λ max = 459 nm in MeCN) for a cationic iridium complex. This complex is compared with two reference complexes bearing 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridine, and solution-processed organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been fabricated from these materials. PMID:27398216

  7. Analysis of reconfigurable multi-channel wavelength add drop multiplexer for intelligent optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponmalar, S.; Sundaravadivelu, S.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents design of an electro-optically tunable polymer multi-channel wavelength add drop multiplexer (WADM). The proposed WADM with trapezoidal waveguide geometry and poled electro-optical polymer material in the waveguide cores enables the wavelength tuning speed of WADM as 7.5 ps at the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm and coupling length of 1.5 mm. The device can be electro-optically tuned to add/drop multiple channels. Transmission spectra of the device with varying device parameters are simulated. The proposed WADM with high speed, small size and varying tuning capability makes this device, an important element in faster provisioning and routing of light paths in intelligent optical network.

  8. Processing Speed Weakness in Children and Adolescents with Non-Hyperactive but Inattentive ADHD (ADD)

    PubMed Central

    Goth-Owens, Timothy L.; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Martel, Michelle M.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    DSM-IV-TR defines ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive as allowing up to five symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity, while theories of the inattentive type usually assume a group that is hypoactive and characterized by processing speed and cognitive interference deficits. In a community-recruited sample of 572 children and adolescents, a pure inattentive subtype of ADHD (ADD) was defined as those who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD-PI but had two or fewer hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Processing and output speeds of those with ADD were compared to those identified with DSM-IV-TR ADHD combined type and non-ADHD controls. These results were then contrasted with those found when DSM-IV-TR defined ADHD-PI was compared with ADHD-C and controls. Processing and output speed were assessed with the Trailmaking A and B and the Stroop Naming Tests. Cognitive interference control was assessed with the interference score from the Stroop Task. Slower cognitive interference speed was found in the ADD vs. ADHD-C and controls comparisons, but not the ADHD-PI versus ADHD-C and controls comparisons. On output speed measures, ADD exhibited the slowest performance, significantly different from controls and the effect size for the set-shifting speed contrast (Trailmaking B) contrast was double that of the ADHD-PI vs. control comparison. ADHD-Inattentive type as defined by the DSM-IV-TR is a heterogeneous condition with a meaningful proportion of those affected exhibiting virtually no hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. This subgroup may represent a distinct inattentive condition characterized by poor cognitive interference control and slow processing or output speed. PMID:20560083

  9. Drell-Yan, , production in SM & ADD model to NLOPS accuracy at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederix, R.; Mandal, M. K.; Mathews, P.; Ravindran, V.; Seth, S.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present the next-to-leading order QCD corrections for di-lepton, di-electroweak boson (, ) production in both the SM and the ADD model, matched to the HERWIG parton shower using the aMC@NLO framework. A selection of results at the 8 TeV LHC, which exhibit deviations from the SM as a result of the large extra-dimension scenario, are presented.

  10. Add on testosterone therapy in negative symptoms of schizophrenia with gonadal trauma: Hitting the bull's eye.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shailesh; Garg, Amit

    2016-06-30

    The coincidence or causal incidence of hormonal dysregulation leading to psychotic manifestation had been a point of debate. The interplay of these hormones in pathogenesis of psychotic symptom domains is still inconclusive along with some symptom domains which worsen with antipsychotics. Early detection and treatment with liaison approach is of great help to such patients. We report a case of schizophrenia with primary hypogonadism that responded dramatically to add on testosterone supplement. PMID:27138816

  11. THERIAK_D: An add-on to implement equilibrium computations in geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duesterhoeft, Erik; Capitani, Christian

    2013-11-01

    This study presents the theory, applicability, and merits of the new THERIAK_D add-on for the open source Theriak/Domino software package. The add-on works as an interface between Theriak and user-generated scripts, providing the opportunity to process phase equilibrium computation parameters in a programming environment (e.g., C or MATLAB®). THERIAK_D supports a wide range of features such as calculating the solid rock density or testing the stability of mineral phases along any pressure-temperature (P-T) path and P-T grid. To demonstrate applicability, an example is given in which the solid rock density of a 2-D-temperature-pressure field is calculated, portraying a simplified subduction zone. Consequently, the add-on effectively combines thermodynamics and geodynamic modeling. The carefully documented examples could be easily adapted for a broad range of applications. THERIAK_D is free, and the program, user manual, and source codes may be downloaded from http://www.min.uni-kiel.de/˜ed/theriakd/.

  12. The dubious assessment of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents of add health.

    PubMed

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Joyner, Kara

    2014-04-01

    In this essay, we argue that researchers who base their investigations of nonheterosexuality derived from reports of romantic attractions of adolescent participants from Wave 1 of Add Health must account for their disappearance in future waves of data collection. The high prevalence of Wave 1 youth with either both-sex or same-sex romantic attractions was initially striking and unexpected. Subsequent data from Add Health indicated that this prevalence sharply declined over time such that over 70 % of these Wave 1 adolescents identified as exclusively heterosexual as Wave 4 young adults. Three explanations are proposed to account for the high prevalence rate and the temporal inconsistency: (1) gay adolescents going into the closet during their young adult years; (2) confusion regarding the use and meaning of romantic attraction as a proxy for sexual orientation; and (3) the existence of mischievous adolescents who played a "jokester" role by reporting same-sex attraction when none was present. Relying on Add Health data, we dismissed the first explanation as highly unlikely and found support for the other two. Importantly, these "dubious" gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents may have led researchers to erroneously conclude from the data that sexual-minority youth are more problematic than heterosexual youth in terms of physical, mental, and social health.

  13. 76 FR 37114 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Dow Chemical Company in Madison, Illinois, to the...

  14. The MMPI-168(L) and ADD in Assessing Psychopathology in Individuals with Mental Retardation: Between and within Instrument Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, William F.; Passmore, Corie E.; Sewell, Hollie M.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 58 adults with mental retardation and mental disorders found few correlations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis (ADD). The major exception was the Mania scale of the MMPI, which correlated moderately well with the ADD Schizophrenia and Dementia scales. (Contains…

  15. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative costs on Treasury debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9, on... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will Treasury entities add... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  16. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  17. 78 FR 98 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the United...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart SSSS of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with operating limits...

  20. 36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks... § 1011.5 What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a...

  1. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative costs on Treasury debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9, on... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How will Treasury entities add... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  2. 77 FR 76490 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Weldon Spring...

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System 2 Table 2 to Subpart OOOO of Part 63 Protection of Environment... OOOO of Part 63—Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System If you are...

  4. 78 FR 18351 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Hanford site...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart SSSS of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with operating limits...

  6. 77 FR 58383 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Titanium...

  7. 76 FR 65763 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Add...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...-65259 (September 2, 2011), 76 FR 55984 (September 9, 2011). In its filing with the Commission, ICC... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Add.... Description This rule change will amend Chapter 26 of ICC's rules to add Sections 26D and 26E to provide...

  8. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... administrative costs on Commerce debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  9. 77 FR 76490 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Mound Plant...

  10. 76 FR 70148 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Norton Co. (or a subsequent owner), Worcester, Massachusetts,...

  11. 78 FR 64502 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Pantex Plant...

  12. 76 FR 70147 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Piqua Organic Moderated Reactor, Piqua, Ohio, to the...

  13. 78 FR 64501 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Baker Brothers,...

  14. 78 FR 36550 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special...

  15. Progress in the Analysis of Complex Atmospheric Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup

    2016-06-01

    This article presents an overview of recent advances in field and laboratory studies of atmospheric particles formed in processes of environmental air-surface interactions. The overarching goal of these studies is to advance predictive understanding of atmospheric particle composition, particle chemistry during aging, and their environmental impacts. The diversity between chemical constituents and lateral heterogeneity within individual particles adds to the chemical complexity of particles and their surfaces. Once emitted, particles undergo transformation via atmospheric aging processes that further modify their complex composition. We highlight a range of modern analytical approaches that enable multimodal chemical characterization of particles with both molecular and lateral specificity. When combined, these approaches provide a comprehensive arsenal of tools for understanding the nature of particles at air-surface interactions and their reactivity and transformations with atmospheric aging. We discuss applications of these novel approaches in recent studies and highlight additional research areas to explore the environmental effects of air-surface interactions.

  16. The increasing genomic complexity of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Jacob M

    2014-01-01

    Therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is impacted by the increasing genomic complexity of the disease. Multiple targets as expressed by genetics and mutations and the relationships between them add another layer of intricacy to the prognosis and treatment of the disease. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the interactions between mutations are of utmost importance, particularly from a prognostic standpoint. For example, inv(16) or 6(16; 16) AML frequently involves a second genetic lesion that significantly impacts prognosis. In addition, epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, are becoming increasingly integrated into the genetic landscape and may also have prognostic impact. Despite increased understanding of the genetic and epigenetic aspects of AML, the outcome for AML patients has not changed significantly. Until it does, further inquiry into the genomic complexity of the disease and advances in drug development are needed.

  17. Progress in the Analysis of Complex Atmospheric Particles.

    PubMed

    Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K; Knopf, Daniel A; Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup

    2016-06-12

    This article presents an overview of recent advances in field and laboratory studies of atmospheric particles formed in processes of environmental air-surface interactions. The overarching goal of these studies is to advance predictive understanding of atmospheric particle composition, particle chemistry during aging, and their environmental impacts. The diversity between chemical constituents and lateral heterogeneity within individual particles adds to the chemical complexity of particles and their surfaces. Once emitted, particles undergo transformation via atmospheric aging processes that further modify their complex composition. We highlight a range of modern analytical approaches that enable multimodal chemical characterization of particles with both molecular and lateral specificity. When combined, these approaches provide a comprehensive arsenal of tools for understanding the nature of particles at air-surface interactions and their reactivity and transformations with atmospheric aging. We discuss applications of these novel approaches in recent studies and highlight additional research areas to explore the environmental effects of air-surface interactions. PMID:27306308

  18. Microwave gallium-68 radiochemistry for kinetically stable bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes: structural investigations and cellular uptake under hypoxia† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1001632–1001634. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5dt02537k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Israt S.; Arrowsmith, Rory L.; Cortezon-Tamarit, Fernando; Twyman, Frazer; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Botchway, Stanley W.; Dilworth, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the microwave synthesis of several bis(thiosemicarbazones) and the rapid gallium-68 incorporation to give the corresponding metal complexes. These proved kinetically stable under ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ biological assays and were investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and radioactive cell retention studies under normoxia and hypoxia. 68Ga complex retention was found to be 34% higher in hypoxic cells than in normoxic cells over 30 min, further increasing to 53% at 120 min. Our data suggests that this class of gallium complexes show hypoxia selectivity suitable for imaging in living cells and in vivo tests by microPET in nude athymic mice showed that they are excreted within 1 h of their administration. PMID:26583314

  19. Enzyme classification using complex dynamic hemithioacetal systems† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR spectra, linear discriminant analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc01823h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Jayawardena, H. Surangi N.

    2016-01-01

    A complex dynamic hemithioacetal system was generated for the evaluation of lipase reactivities in organic media. In combination with pattern recognition methodology, twelve different lipases were successfully classified into four distinct groups following their reaction selectivities and reactivities. A probe lipase was further categorized using the training matrix with predicted reactivity. PMID:26987550

  20. Use of a Microsoft Excel based add-in program to calculate plasma sinistrin clearance by a two-compartment model analysis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Sarah M L; Sturgess, Christopher P; Dunning, Mark D; Neiger, Reto

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of renal function by means of plasma clearance of a suitable marker has become standard procedure for estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Sinistrin, a polyfructan solely cleared by the kidney, is often used for this purpose. Pharmacokinetic modeling using adequate software is necessary to calculate disappearance rate and half-life of sinistrin. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of a Microsoft excel based add-in program to calculate plasma sinistrin clearance, as well as additional pharmacokinetic parameters such as transfer rates (k), half-life (t1/2) and volume of distribution (Vss) for sinistrin in dogs with varying degrees of renal function.

  1. Genotype variant associated with add-on memantine in bipolar II disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsieh; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Chen-Lin; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2014-02-01

    Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with a mood-stabilizing effect. We investigated whether using valproic acid (VPA) plus add-on memantine to treat bipolar II disorder (BP-II) is more effective than using VPA alone (VPA + Pbo). We also evaluated, in BP-II patients, the association between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with treatment response to VPA + add-on memantine and to VPA + Pbo. In this randomized, double-blind, controlled 12 wk study, BP-II patients undergoing regular VPA treatments were randomly assigned to a group: VPA + Memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 115) or VPA + Pbo (n = 117). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were used to evaluate clinical response during week 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12. The genotypes of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. To adjust within-subject dependence over repeated assessments, multiple linear regression with generalized estimating equation methods was used to analyze the effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on the clinical performance of memantine. Both groups showed significantly decreased YMRS and HDRS scores after 12 wk of treatment; the differences between groups were non-significant. When stratified by the BDNF Val66Met genotypes, significantly greater decreases in HDRS scores were found in the VPA + memantine group in patients with the Val Met genotype (p = 0.004). We conclude that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influenced responses to add-on memantine by decreasing depressive symptoms in patients with BP-II.

  2. What’s next after metformin? focus on sulphonylurea: add-on or combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Phei C.; Chong, Chee P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) mainly focused on insulin resistance and insulin deficiency over the past decades. Currently, the pathophysiologies expanded to ominous octet and guidelines were updated with newer generation of antidiabetic drug classes. However, many patients had yet to achieve their target glycaemic control. Although all the guidelines suggested metformin as first line, there was no definite consensus on the second line drug agents as variety of drug classes were recommended. Objectives: The aim of this review was to evaluate the drug class after metformin especially sulphonylurea and issues around add-on or fixed dose combination therapy. Methods: Extensive literature search for English language articles, clinical practice guidelines and references was performed using electronic databases. Results: Adding sulphonylurea to metformin targeted both insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. Sulphonylurea was efficacious and cheaper than thiazolidinedione, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue and insulin. The main side effect of sulphonylurea was hypoglycaemia but there was no effect on the body weight when combining with metformin. Fixed dose sulphonylurea/metformin was more efficacious at lower dose and reported to have fewer side effects with better adherence. Furthermore, fixed dose combination was cheaper than add-on therapy. In conclusion, sulphonylurea was feasible as the second line agent after metformin as the combination targeted on two pathways, efficacious, cost-effective and had long safety history. Fixed dose combination tablet could improve patient’s adherence and offered an inexpensive and more efficacious option regardless of original or generic product as compared to add-on therapy. PMID:26445623

  3. Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on thermally tunable micro-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Danning; Wu, Yuanda; Wang, Yue; An, Junming; Hu, Xiongwei

    2016-05-01

    We report on an eight-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) based on micro-ring resonators (MRRs). The effective footprint of the device is about 1000×760 μm2. The free spectral range (FSR) is about 18 nm. The adjacent channel crosstalk ranges from -19.02 dB to -8.29 dB. With the help of the multi-wire structure heaters, compact footprint and high tuning efficiency are achieved simultaneously. Therefore, the minimum average tuning efficiency is 2.723 mW/nm.

  4. Remote PCF-based sensors multiplexing by using optical add-drop multiplexers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Mikel; Candiani, Alessandro; Cucinotta, Annamaria; Selleri, Stefano; Lopez-Amo, Manuel; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay

    2014-04-01

    A 100 km remote PCF micro-displacement sensor multiplexing system based on optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs) has been experimentally demonstrated. The PCF sensors are placed in an OADM bus structure which is illuminated by a home-made tunable fiber optic ring laser. Four micro-displacement photonic crystal fiber (PCF) sensors based on a suspended core fiber inserted into a Sagnac loop filter are multiplexed. Furthermore, being the first proposal to solve this issue in PCF sensor multiplexing structures, these sensors can be referenced with an extra wavelength.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of the add-on price estimate for the silicon web growth process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The web growth process, a silicon-sheet technology option, developed for the flat plate solar array (FSA) project, was examined. Base case data for the technical and cost parameters for the technical and commercial readiness phase of the FSA project are projected. The process add on price, using the base case data for cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials and utilities, and the production parameters such as growth rate and run length, using a computer program developed specifically to do the sensitivity analysis with improved price estimation are analyzed. Silicon price, sheet thickness and cell efficiency are also discussed.

  6. A structurally rigid bis(amido) ligand framework in low-coordinate Ni(I), Ni(II), and Ni(III) analogues provides access to a Ni(III) methyl complex via oxidative addition.

    PubMed

    Lipschutz, Michael I; Yang, Xinzheng; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Tilley, T Don

    2013-10-16

    A structurally persistent bis-amido ligand framework capable of supporting nickel compounds in three different oxidation states has been identified. A highly unusual, isolable Ni(III) alkyl species has been prepared and characterized via a rare example of a two-electron oxidative addition of MeI to Ni(I).

  7. Add-drop filters based on asymmetric high-order microring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Huang, Yongqing; Ren, Xiaomin; Duan, Xiaofeng; Shen, Bing; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xia; Cai, Shiwei

    2012-11-01

    Add/drop filters are key components of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) communication systems. Free spectral range(FSR) is a key parameter for Add/drop filters, the FSR should operate within the entire C-band (1530-1562nm).And flat-top drop-port response with a sharp rolloff is also import, Flatness of the passband, sharp roll-off from passband to stop band are necessary to minimize the pulse broadening and the packing efficiency of wavelength channels. In this paper, we proposed an asymmetric approach to design high-order microring filters, The aim is to achieve large extension ratios and adequate suppression of the spurious interstitial mode, meanwhile, flat-top and steep-side response in filter could be obtained by this approach. Our simulation results showed an extended FSR of 40nm, reducing the interstitial peak suppression from 5dB to 35dB and a boxlike filter response with sharpe factor(SF) of 0.68. And a quality-factor of 2961 and a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.52nm is achieved.

  8. Design and simulation of microring resonators for time-domain optical add-drop multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jianxun; Li, Chengjun; Zhou, Jianxin; Chen, Shuiping; Zhou, Limin; Chen, Wei

    2008-11-01

    A time-domain optical add-drop multiplexing (OADM) technology using microring resonators is reported. Design and simulation are presented. The microring resonator is predicted to be fabricated by using Pockler electro-optic materials. The microring resonators possess a multistage-cascaded structure to satisfy the requirement to generate switching windows. Cascaded coupled microring resonator can expand the single resonant point into a box-like resonant region and reduce the wings of resonant curve. While multistage resonators are used and a certain shift of the resonant region is arranged between the stages, the total resonant region can be expanded further. We achieve the shift of the resonant region between the two stages by selecting different ring radii. The resulted microring resonators possess a box-like characteristic with shape wings. The OADM includes two microring resonators (MMRs) driven by sine wave voltages, one is used to accomplish the add function the other is used to accomplish the drop function. The only operation differences between the two MMRs are the bias voltage and the phase of the driving signal. The OADM only requires electrical control signal and simple structure instead of high-quality optical control pulse and interferometer structure. FDTD simulation results show that the resonators can stratify the requirements to generate complementary switching windows for OADM operation.

  9. Confirmation of Down syndrome critical region by FISH analysis in a patient with add(21)(p11)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Naomichi; Niikawa, Norio; Mikawa, Makoto

    1995-12-04

    We have studied a patient with clinical Down syndrome (DS) who has a mosaic 46, XX/46, XX, 21p+ karyotype. The patient was born at 39 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 3,025 g to healthy parents. At age 2 months, she was diagnosed clinically to have DS; she had flat facies, upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, telecanthus, flat nasal bridge, abnormal dentition, malformed ears, short neck, short fingers, clinodactyly with single flexion crease of the fifth fingers, hyperextension of joints, pes planus, distal axial triradii, and bilateral tibial arch patterns. Chromosome analysis showed mosaicism consisting of a normal 46,XX cell line and a line with a 21p+ chromosome, the final karyotype being mos46,XX[57]/46,XX,add(21)(p11)[43]. Although the origin of an additional segment on chromosome 21 was not identified with conventional banding analyses, it was suspected to represent partial trisomy 21 on the basis of clinical manifestations. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Can intermittent theta burst stimulation as add-on to psychotherapy improve nicotine abstinence? Results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dieler, Alica C; Dresler, Thomas; Joachim, Kathrin; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Discontinuing smoking can increase life expectancy to the presmoking level. Unaided attempts are often ineffective, strengthening the necessity of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), nicotine replacement or pharmacotherapy. Still, relapse rates are high. Recently, a modulation of nicotine craving, which predicts relapse, through transcranial magnetic stimulation to the prefrontal cortex was shown. In a pilot study, we investigated whether 4 sessions of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as add-on treatment to CBT reduces nicotine craving and improves long-term abstinence (at 3, 6 and 12 months). Smokers were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 38) or a sham group (n = 36). Although we did not find reduced craving, we could show higher abstinence rates in the treatment group at 3 months. At 6 and 12 months abstinence rates did not differ significantly. Results at 12 months, however, have to be interpreted cautiously due to significant differences in the dropout rates between the two groups at this time point. We provide first evidence for a beneficial effect of additional iTBS on intermediate nicotine abstinence; however, the low number of iTBS sessions might have prevented longer effects. More lasting effects might be achieved by iTBS maintenance sessions in analogy to the treatment of depression. PMID:24924851

  11. Synthesis of MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 nanocomposite powder by polymeric complex method as a novel sintering additive of AlN ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwa-Jun; Cho, Woo-Seok; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Pan, Wei; Shahid, Mohammad; Ryu, Sung-Soo

    2016-09-01

    A MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (MCAS) nanocomposite powder with a particle size of 50 nm and a specific surface area of 40.6 m2/g was successfully synthesized via heat-treatment of polymeric precursors containing Mg, Ca, Al and Si in air at 700 °C for 5 h. It was characterized as a novel sintering additive for the densification AlN ceramics at a low temperature below 1600 °C. It was found that the nanosized MCAS powder was suitable for the densification of AlN ceramics. In particular, full densification could be achieved when only 1.0 wt% MCAS additive-doped AlN powder compact was sintered for 1 h at 1600 °C, and a thermal conductivity of 84 W/m·K was attained.

  12. Switching specific biomolecular interactions on surfaces under complex biological conditions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4an01225a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Lashkor, Minhaj; Rawson, Frankie J.; Preece, Jon A.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, electrically switchable mixed self-assembled monolayers based on oligopeptides have been developed and investigated for their suitability in achieving control over biomolecular interactions in the presence of complex biological conditions. Our model system, a biotinylated oligopeptide tethered to gold within a background of tri(ethylene glycol) undecanethiol, is ubiquitous in both switching specific protein interactions in highly fouling media while still offering the non-specific protein-resistance to the surface. Furthermore, the work demonstrated that the performance of the switching on the electro-switchable oligopeptide is sensitive to the characteristics of the media, and in particular, its protein concentration and buffer composition, and thus such aspects should be considered and addressed to assure maximum switching performance. This study lays the foundation for developing more realistic dynamic extracellular matrix models and is certainly applicable in a wide variety of biological and medical applications. PMID:25180245

  13. 76 FR 37115 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... to add a class of employees from the Wah Chang facility in Albany, Oregon, to the Special Exposure... Atomic Weapons Employees who worked in any building at the Wah Chang facility in Albany, Oregon, for...

  14. [Should we add antiplatelet therapy to oral anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation and vascular disease? Review of available evidence].

    PubMed

    Andreu, José Manuel; Roldán, Vanessa; García-Navarro, Miguel; Ruipérez, Juan Antonio; Valdés, Mariano; Marín, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Current recommendation is to add antiplatelet drug to oral anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and vascular disease. However, it is debatable to join both antithrombotic drugs in stable vascular disease.

  15. 76 FR 37114 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... to add a class of employees from the Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, to the Special... Department of Energy employees and Atomic Weapons Employees who worked at the Linde Ceramics Plant...

  16. 76 FR 37115 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... to add a class of employees from the Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company (i.e., Building 23 and Dean... Commission work at the Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company (i.e., Building 23 and Dean Street facility)...

  17. 77 FR 32642 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Hangar 481 at Kirtland... authorized under EEOICPA: All employees who worked at Hangar 481, Kirtland Air Force Base, from March 1,...

  18. 78 FR 18351 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from General Steel Industries... Steel Industries site, located at 1417 State Street, Granite City, Illinois, from January 1,...

  19. Light-driven biocatalytic reduction of α,β-unsaturated compounds by ene reductases employing transition metal complexes as photosensitizers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental sections, tables, figures and discussion. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cy01642h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Peers, Martyn K.; Toogood, Helen S.; Heyes, Derren J.; Mansell, David; Coe, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and cost effective nicotinamide cofactor regeneration is essential for industrial-scale bio-hydrogenations employing flavin-containing biocatalysts such as the Old Yellow Enzymes. A direct flavin regeneration system using visible light to initiate a photoredox cycle and drive biocatalysis is described, and shown to be effective in driving biocatalytic activated alkene reduction. Using Ru(ii) or Ir(iii) complexes as photosensitizers, coupled with an electron transfer mediator (methyl viologen) and sacrificial electron donor (triethanolamine) drives catalytic turnover of two Old Yellow Enzymes with multiple oxidative substrates. Therefore, there is great potential in the development of light-driven biocatalytic systems, providing an alternative to the reliance on enzyme-based cofactor regeneration systems. PMID:27019691

  20. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... both the inlet and outlet measurements. (1) Use Method 25 of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites...

  1. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  3. Addition, cycloaddition, and metathesis reactions of the cationic carbyne complexes [Cp(CO)[sub 2]Mn[triple bond]CCH[sub 2]R][sup +] and neutral vinylidene complexes Cp(CO)[sub 2]M=C=C(H)R (M = Mn, Re)

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, M.R.; Mercando, L.A.; Kelley, C.; Geoffroy, G.L. ); Nombel, P.; Lugan, N.; Mathieu, R. ); Ostrander, R.L.; Owens-Waltermire, B.E.; Rheingold, A.L. )

    1994-03-01

    The cationic alkylidyne complexes [Cp(CO)[sub 2]M=VCCH[sub 2]R][sup +] (M = Re, R = H; M = Mn, R = H, Me, Ph) undergo facile deprotonation to give the corresponding neutral vinylidene complexes Cp(CO)[sub 2]M=C=C(H)R. For [Cp(CO)[sub 2]Re=VCCH[sub 3

  4. Advanced methods for modeling water-levels and estimating drawdowns with SeriesSEE, an Excel add-in

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith; Garcia, C. Amanda; Fenelon, Joe; Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2012-01-01

    Water-level modeling is used for multiple-well aquifer tests to reliably differentiate pumping responses from natural water-level changes in wells, or “environmental fluctuations.” Synthetic water levels are created during water-level modeling and represent the summation of multiple component fluctuations, including those caused by environmental forcing and pumping. Pumping signals are modeled by transforming step-wise pumping records into water-level changes by using superimposed Theis functions. Water-levels can be modeled robustly with this Theis-transform approach because environmental fluctuations and pumping signals are simulated simultaneously. Water-level modeling with Theis transforms has been implemented in the program SeriesSEE, which is a Microsoft® Excel add-in. Moving average, Theis, pneumatic-lag, and gamma functions transform time series of measured values into water-level model components in SeriesSEE. Earth tides and step transforms are additional computed water-level model components. Water-level models are calibrated by minimizing a sum-of-squares objective function where singular value decomposition and Tikhonov regularization stabilize results. Drawdown estimates from a water-level model are the summation of all Theis transforms minus residual differences between synthetic and measured water levels. The accuracy of drawdown estimates is limited primarily by noise in the data sets, not the Theis-transform approach. Drawdowns much smaller than environmental fluctuations have been detected across major fault structures, at distances of more than 1 mile from the pumping well, and with limited pre-pumping and recovery data at sites across the United States. In addition to water-level modeling, utilities exist in SeriesSEE for viewing, cleaning, manipulating, and analyzing time-series data.

  5. Advanced methods for modeling water-levels and estimating drawdowns with SeriesSEE, an Excel add-in

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith; Garcia, C. Amanda; Fenelon, Joe; Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2012-12-21

    Water-level modeling is used for multiple-well aquifer tests to reliably differentiate pumping responses from natural water-level changes in wells, or “environmental fluctuations.” Synthetic water levels are created during water-level modeling and represent the summation of multiple component fluctuations, including those caused by environmental forcing and pumping. Pumping signals are modeled by transforming step-wise pumping records into water-level changes by using superimposed Theis functions. Water-levels can be modeled robustly with this Theis-transform approach because environmental fluctuations and pumping signals are simulated simultaneously. Water-level modeling with Theis transforms has been implemented in the program SeriesSEE, which is a Microsoft® Excel add-in. Moving average, Theis, pneumatic-lag, and gamma functions transform time series of measured values into water-level model components in SeriesSEE. Earth tides and step transforms are additional computed water-level model components. Water-level models are calibrated by minimizing a sum-of-squares objective function where singular value decomposition and Tikhonov regularization stabilize results. Drawdown estimates from a water-level model are the summation of all Theis transforms minus residual differences between synthetic and measured water levels. The accuracy of drawdown estimates is limited primarily by noise in the data sets, not the Theis-transform approach. Drawdowns much smaller than environmental fluctuations have been detected across major fault structures, at distances of more than 1 mile from the pumping well, and with limited pre-pumping and recovery data at sites across the United States. In addition to water-level modeling, utilities exist in SeriesSEE for viewing, cleaning, manipulating, and analyzing time-series data.

  6. Weighted complex network analysis of travel routes on the Singapore public transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Harold; Lim, Sonja; Zhang, Tianyou; Fu, Xiuju; Lee, Gary Kee Khoon; Hung, Terence Gih Guang; Di, Pan; Prakasam, Silvester; Wong, Limsoon

    2010-12-01

    The structure and properties of public transportation networks have great implications for urban planning, public policies and infectious disease control. We contribute a complex weighted network analysis of travel routes on the Singapore rail and bus transportation systems. We study the two networks using both topological and dynamical analyses. Our results provide additional evidence that a dynamical study adds to the information gained by traditional topological analysis, providing a richer view of complex weighted networks. For example, while initial topological measures showed that the rail network is almost fully connected, dynamical measures highlighted hub nodes that experience disproportionately large traffic. The dynamical assortativity of the bus networks also differed from its topological counterpart. In addition, inspection of the weighted eigenvector centralities highlighted a significant difference in traffic flows for both networks during weekdays and weekends, suggesting the importance of adding a temporal perspective missing from many previous studies.

  7. A single competency-based education and training and competency-based career framework for the Australian health workforce: discussing the potential value add

    PubMed Central

    Brownie, Sharon Mary; Thomas, Janelle

    2014-01-01

    This brief discusses the policy implications of a research study commissioned by Health Workforce Australia (HWA) within its health workforce innovation and reform work program. The project explored conceptually complex and operationally problematic concepts related to developing a whole-of-workforce competency-based education and training and competency-based career framework for the Australian health workforce and culminated with the production of three reports published by HWA. The project raised important queries as to whether such a concept is desirable, feasible or implementable – in short what is the potential value add and is it achievable? In setting the scene for discussion, the foundation of the project’s genesis and focus of the study are highlighted. A summary of key definitions related to competency-based education and training frameworks and competency-based career frameworks are provided to further readers’ commonality of understanding. The nature of the problem to be solved is explored and the potential value-add for the Australian health workforce and its key constituents proposed. The paper concludes by discussing relevance and feasibility issues within Australia’s current and changing healthcare context along with the essential steps and implementation realities that would need to be considered and actioned if whole-of-workforce frameworks were to be developed and implemented. PMID:25279384

  8. A single competency-based education and training and competency-based career framework for the Australian health workforce: discussing the potential value add.

    PubMed

    Brownie, Sharon Mary; Thomas, Janelle

    2014-09-01

    This brief discusses the policy implications of a research study commissioned by Health Workforce Australia (HWA) within its health workforce innovation and reform work program. The project explored conceptually complex and operationally problematic concepts related to developing a whole-of-workforce competency-based education and training and competency-based career framework for the Australian health workforce and culminated with the production of three reports published by HWA. The project raised important queries as to whether such a concept is desirable, feasible or implementable - in short what is the potential value add and is it achievable? In setting the scene for discussion, the foundation of the project's genesis and focus of the study are highlighted. A summary of key definitions related to competency-based education and training frameworks and competency-based career frameworks are provided to further readers' commonality of understanding. The nature of the problem to be solved is explored and the potential value-add for the Australian health workforce and its key constituents proposed. The paper concludes by discussing relevance and feasibility issues within Australia's current and changing healthcare context along with the essential steps and implementation realities that would need to be considered and actioned if whole-of-workforce frameworks were to be developed and implemented.

  9. SAPling: a Scan-Add-Print barcoding database system to label and track asexual organisms

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Michael A.; Schötz, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY We have developed a ‘Scan-Add-Print’ database system, SAPling, to track and monitor asexually reproducing organisms. Using barcodes to uniquely identify each animal, we can record information on the life of the individual in a computerized database containing its entire family tree. SAPling has enabled us to carry out large-scale population dynamics experiments with thousands of planarians and keep track of each individual. The database stores information such as family connections, birth date, division date and generation. We show that SAPling can be easily adapted to other asexually reproducing organisms and has a strong potential for use in large-scale and/or long-term population and senescence studies as well as studies of clonal diversity. The software is platform-independent, designed for reliability and ease of use, and provided open source from our webpage to allow project-specific customization. PMID:21993779

  10. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials.

    PubMed

    Marini, Stefano; De Berardis, Domenico; Vellante, Federica; Santacroce, Rita; Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Girinelli, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Gambi, Francesco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. PMID:27524864

  11. Passive neutron assay of heterogeneous waste drums using the segmented Add-a-Source method

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.

    1995-07-01

    We have developed passive neutron detectors that include the Add-a-Source (AS) technique to improve the accuracy of the nondestructive assay of plutonium in large waste containers. We have improved the AS by incorporating multiple positions for the {sup 252}Cf source on the exterior of a 200-L drum. The multiple positions give a better coverage of the drum and have the effect of segmenting the matrix as a function of fill height. We have applied the multiposition AS to the assay of drums with heterogeneous matrix combinations of concrete, polyethylene, wood, paper, and metal. The measurement errors caused by the matrix significantly reduced by the AS technique and anomalous shielding material in the drum can be flagged for more detailed investigation.

  12. Design of a reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer based on tunable Fabry-Perot array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jiansen; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhuo; Yang, Yang; Xu, Rui; Shi, Rui

    2015-08-01

    With the development of optical fiber communication, dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is important for the rapid management of multi-wavelength in the core node of the optical transmission network. In this paper, a reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) based on the tunable Fabry-Perot (F-P) array is proposed. An optical switch with high isolation and low crosstalk is designed by using the characteristics of filtering and tuning for the F-P array. The principle, structure, and function of the tunable F-P array are introduced. The characteristics of filtering and tuning for the F-P filter are also calculated, and the factor for the isolation, crosstalk, response time and insertion loss are analyzed. A single physical channel ROADM with 16 signal channels, which operates in C-band, is designed and optimized by simulation.

  13. Nanophotonic graphene-based racetrack-resonator add/drop filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth L., A.; da Silva, M. G.; Neves, D. M. C.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2016-05-01

    We are presenting and analyzing a graphene-based nanophotonic device to operate as a resonator-add/drop filter, whose control is obtained by varying the graphene chemical potential. That device consists of graphene-based waveguides, two directional couplers and a racetrack resonator with 90° bends. Since the graphene chemical potential provides the achievement of the necessary parameters, the resonance and filtering of the signals are obtained by applying the correct value of the graphene chemical potential in the graphene nanoribbons. The results of this study should help in the development of new graphene-based nanophotonic devices operating in the terahertz and infrared range (including in the C-band of the International Telecommunication Union - ITU), for use in future communications networks.

  14. Benefits and risks of add-on therapies for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Magierski, Radoslaw; Sobow, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Despite three decades of intensive research, the efforts of scientific society and industry and the expenditures, numerous attempts to develop effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease have failed. Currently, approved and widely used medications to treat cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease are symptomatic only and show at best modest efficacy. In this context, the need to develop a successful, disease-modifying treatment is loudly expressed. One way to achieve this goal is the use of add-on therapies or various combinations of existing 'conventional' drugs. Results of several clinical studies and post hoc analyses of combination therapy with all cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are published. Moreover, there is a need for studies on long-term efficacy of combination therapy in Alzheimer's.

  15. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials

    PubMed Central

    De Berardis, Domenico; Vellante, Federica; Santacroce, Rita; Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Girinelli, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Gambi, Francesco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. PMID:27524864

  16. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The current Space Station Systems Technology Study add on task was an outgrowth of the Advanced Platform Systems Technology Study (APSTS) that was completed in April 1983 and the subsequent Space Station System Technology Study completed in April 1984. The first APSTS proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of five for detailed trade studies. During the advanced platform study, the technical issues and options were evaluated through detailed trade processes, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement, and advancement plans were developed. An approach similar to that was used in the subsequent study, with emphasis on system definition in four specific technology areas to facilitate a more in depth analysis of technology issues.

  17. Wavelength tunable integrated add-drop filter with 10.6 nm bandwidth adjustability.

    PubMed

    Boroojerdi, M T; Ménard, M; Kirk, A G

    2016-09-19

    We present the design and characterization of a silicon-on-insulator based bandwidth and wavelength-tunable add-drop filter. The tunability of the device is achieved by independently controlling the central wavelength of two cascaded contra-directional grating assisted couplers. The device was fabricated using e-beam lithography and the tuning is demonstrated using the thermo-optic effect, which was obtained with metal heaters fabricated by a lift-off process. It is experimentally demonstrated that within the wavelength range of 1555 nm to 1573 nm the transmission bandwidth of the device can be tuned from 1.1 nm to 11.7 nm. Moreover, more than 4 nm of central wavelength tuning is demonstrated. The tunability of the central wavelength is limited by the breakdown current of the metal heaters. PMID:27661939

  18. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus.

  19. SCEW: a Microsoft Excel add-in for easy creation of survival curves.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2006-07-01

    Survival curves are frequently used for reporting survival or mortality outcomes of experimental pharmacological/toxicological studies and of clinical trials. Microsoft Excel is a simple and widely used tool for creation of numerous types of graphic presentations however it is difficult to create step-wise survival curves in Excel. Considering the familiarity of clinicians and biomedical scientists with Excel, an algorithm survival curves in Excel worksheet (SCEW) has been developed for easy creation of survival curves directly in Excel worksheets. The algorithm has been integrated in the form of Excel add-in for easy installation and usage. The program is based on modification of frequency data for binary break-up using the spreadsheet formula functions whereas a macro subroutine automates the creation of survival curves. The advantages of this program are simple data input, minimal procedural steps and the creation of survival curves in the familiar confines of Excel.

  20. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in Add Health.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; Deleone, Felicia Yang

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early marriage (before age 26), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are used to examine the health effects of early marriage and cohabitation accounting for potential health selection into unions. Our results indicate that early marriage by young adults does not have protective effects for African Americans, and finds more negative effects for African American men than women. There are mixed results for whites with some protective effects of marriage for binge drinking. Early marriage for both African Americans and whites is associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI). Cohabitation is uniformly associated with negative health outcomes for all race and sex groups.

  1. The CONVEX Liner Add-On to the DIAMOND-FORTUNE event

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.; Swift, R.P.; Hill, L.R.; Barrett, W.H.

    1993-11-15

    This report describes the execution of the CONVEX Liner Add-On to the DIAMOND FORTUNE low-yield cavity test of the Defense Nuclear Agency. CONVEX stands for COntained Nuclear Vessel EXperiment. It concerns the design of underground chambers where repeated low-yield nuclear explosions could be conducted. The approach proposed by the first author in the early 1980`s was to engineer a steel-lined rock cavern where the steel liner would be prestressed against the rock by tendons and/or bolts. These would daylight in tunnels surrounding the main cavity. From there, they could be initially tensioned and retensioned, if needed, after each test. The CONVEX Liner Add-On to DIAMOND FORTUNE consisted of anchoring a 1.4-m square, 2.5-cm thick steel plate to the wall of the cavity, using a 5-cm diameter center bolt, and four 2.5-cm diameter comer bolts. The bolts daylighted in a drift surrounding the gallery, and separated from it by a 9-m thick rock pillar. The liner plate, the bolts, and the rock pillar were equipped with 23 gages to describe the thermal and mechanical response of the system during pretensioning, during the dynamic loading phase, and post-test. Particular emphasis was given to obtaining the response both upon loading and during the rebound of the system, in order to determine whether the plate ever separated from the rock. So, the main operational objectives of this project were to acquire response data of the system under nuclear loading and to ascertain the status of contact between the steel plate and the rock, as shown by toadstool data and bolt tension data. The instrumentation and data acquisition system performed extremely well. Data were recorded during the dynamic phase; plate temperature was monitored for several hours after the test; and the remaining tension was obtained for several bolts more than three months after the test, upon re-entry in the runaround drift.

  2. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake.

  3. A study of high repetition rate pulse generation and all-optical add/drop multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongmin

    Ultra high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed (OTDM) transmission technologies are essential for the construction of ultra high-speed all-optical networks needed in the information era. In this Ph. D thesis dissertation, essential mechanisms associated with ultra high speed OTDM transmission systems, such as, high speed ultra short pulse generation, all optical demultiplexing and all optical add/drop multiplexing, have been studied. Both experimental demonstrations and numerical simulations have been performed. In order to realize high-speed optical TDM systems, high repetition rate, ultra short pulses are needed. A rational harmonic mode-locked ring fiber laser has been used to produce ultrashort pulses, the pulse jitter will be eliminated using a Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL), and the self-pulsation has been suppressed using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Sub pico-second pulses are very important for all optical sampling in the ultrahigh-speed OTDM transmission system. In this thesis, a two stage compression scheme utilizing the nonlinearity and dispersion of the optical fibers has been constructed and used to compress the gain switched DFB laser pulses. Also a nonlinear optical loop mirror has been constructed to suppress the wings associated with nonlinear compression. Pedestal free, transform-limited pulses with pulse widths in range of 0.2 to 0.4 ps have been generated. LiNbO3 modulators play a very important role in fiber optical communication systems. In this thesis, LiNbO3 modulators have been used to perform high repetition rate pulse generation, all optical demultiplexing and all optical add/drop for the TDM transmission system.

  4. Six Questions on Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, John F.; Sanayei, Ali

    2011-09-01

    This paper includes an interview with John F. Symons regarding some important questions in "complex systems" and "complexity". In addition, he has stated some important open problems concerning complex systems in his research area from a philosophical point of view.

  5. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the... Electrodeposition Primer Emission Limitations § 63.3174 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on... limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4363 - How do I establish the add-on control device operating limits during the performance test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the add-on control... § 63.4363 How do I establish the add-on control device operating limits during the performance test... specified in § 63.4292. (a) Thermal oxidizers. If your add-on control device is a thermal...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the... Electrodeposition Primer Emission Limitations § 63.3174 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on... limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4767 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on...) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish the operating...

  9. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4966 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control... to § 63.4965. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish...

  10. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3546 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... the emission stream for leakage. (d) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4966 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... to § 63.4965. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish...

  12. 75 FR 44966 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ..., as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness... employees as an addition to the SEC: All Atomic Weapons Employer employees who worked at BWX Technologies... class to the SEC or the result of any provision by Congress regarding the decision by HHS to add...

  13. Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Integrated Network Architecture Definition Document (ADD). Volume 1; Executive Summary; Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younes, Badri A.; Schier, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The SCaN Program has defined an integrated network architecture that fully meets the Administrator s mandate to the Program, and will result in a NASA infrastructure capable of providing the needed and enabling communications services to future space missions. The integrated network architecture will increase SCaN operational efficiency and interoperability through standardization, commonality and technology infusion. It will enable NASA missions requiring advanced communication and tracking capabilities such as: a. Optical communication b. Antenna arraying c. Lunar and Mars Relays d. Integrated network management (service management and network control) and integrated service execution e. Enhanced tracking for navigation f. Space internetworking with DTN and IP g. End-to-end security h. Enhanced security services Moreover, the SCaN Program has created an Integrated Network Roadmap that depicts an orchestrated and coherent evolution path toward the target architecture, encompassing all aspects that concern network assets (i.e., operations and maintenance, sustaining engineering, upgrade efforts, and major development). This roadmap identifies major NASA ADPs, and shows dependencies and drivers among the various planned undertakings and timelines. The roadmap is scalable to accommodate timely adjustments in response to Agency needs, goals, objectives and funding. Future challenges to implementing this architecture include balancing user mission needs, technology development, and the availability of funding within NASA s priorities. Strategies for addressing these challenges are to: define a flexible architecture, update the architecture periodically, use ADPs to evaluate options and determine when to make decisions, and to engage the stakeholders in these evaluations. In addition, the SCaN Program will evaluate and respond to mission need dates for technical and operational capabilities to be provided by the SCaN integrated network. In that regard, the architecture

  14. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  15. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  16. US adolescents’ friendship networks and health risk behaviors: a systematic review of studies using social network analysis and Add Health data

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents’ risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA) can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents’ engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies’ methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents’ risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample). Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO). Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS). Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1–9). Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale’s mid-point. PMID:26157622

  17. US adolescents' friendship networks and health risk behaviors: a systematic review of studies using social network analysis and Add Health data.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Kwon Chan; Goodson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents' risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA) can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents' engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies' methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents' risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample). Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO). Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS). Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1-9). Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale's mid-point.

  18. Theory of atomic additivity in molecular hyperpolizabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Hyperpolarizability is a function of frequency. This is called dispersion. Because of the Kramers-Kronig relations, researchers expect that a material that is dispersing light is also absorbing it. Where there is both dispersion and absorption, the molecular polarizabilities are complex functions of the frequency. This led researchers to consider atomic additivity in both the real and imaginary parts of the ordinary and hyperpolarizabilities. This effort is desirable not only from a theoretical point of view, but also because of the existence of a large body of complex refractive index data, which may be used to test the additivity principle with the complex valued ordinary dipole polarizability.

  19. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  20. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  1. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  2. Complex leadership competency in health care: towards framing a theory of practice.

    PubMed

    Ford, Randal

    2009-08-01

    Many analysts characterize the health-care industry and health-care systems as complex adaptive organizations. New hybrid organizational forms are emerging that exhibit diverse relational-structural alliances between physicians, hospitals and/or insurers, over which administrators have limited control and restricted ability to predict or direct. Meeting the challenges in leading and managing health-care systems as complex adaptive organizations calls for additional competency in what theorists determine as 'complex leadership'. This research study presents findings on complex leadership principles that augment those competencies that health-care administration education scholars recognize and recommend as necessary for future leaders in health care to master. The findings from this study make two contributions: first, they ground complex leader theory, derived from complexity science, in empirical data; and second, the findings add to a growing body of literature investigating the underlying logics of the complex adaptive organization and the innovative ways complex leaders are developing practices and principles in leading and managing these new, emerging organizations.

  3. The decision to add a second hospital-based EMS helicopter.

    PubMed

    Friedman, R; Leicht, M J; Brotman, S

    1989-11-01

    An analysis of the first seven years of performance of our hospital-based emergency medical services (EMS) helicopter was conducted to evaluate the possible need for a second aircraft. A survey of seven hospitals currently operating two or more helicopters resulted in a consensus that one helicopter can effectively perform only 70 to 90 flights per month. The number of requests for our helicopter service has increased 148% from 610 to 1,512 in seven years while the number of completed missions has increased only 92% from 486 (40.5/month) to 935 (78/month). Requests denied due to inclement weather (265 in 1988) cannot be captured with a second visual-flight-rated (VFR) EMS helicopter; however, those missed due to maintenance requirements of the helicopter and overlapping requests (232 in 1988) can be captured. The need for a second aircraft exists when the number of requests for the service grows while the number of captured flights plateaus. Our data and industry survey suggests this will occur at 75 captured flights per month. Affordability and continued overall growth of trauma and other critical care referrals to the base hospital(s) is mandatory. This study provides a model for hospital-based EMS helicopter operators to apply to the decision whether to add a second aircraft. PMID:10296622

  4. Predictors of life satisfaction among Asian American adolescents- analysis of add health data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Yen; Wang, Kuan-Yuan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction correlates with adolescent risk taking behavior and their outcomes in adulthood. Despite the fast rise in numbers of Asian adolescents in the U.S., the predictors of their life satisfaction are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between several demographic and contextual factors and global life satisfaction among this population. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative probability sample of US adolescents. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to evaluate hypothesized predictors of global life satisfaction of Asian American adolescents. All analyses were conducted using STATA version 11. After exclusion of cases with missing values, 1021 Asian American adolescents were studied. Self- rated health, self-esteem, perceived neighborhood quality, parental support and peer support were significantly and positively related to better global life satisfaction. However, after controlling for other factors, only self-esteem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86-8.33) and perceived peer support (aOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.33-5.76) significantly predicted higher life satisfaction. Peer support and adolescents' self-concept are strongly correlated with Asian American adolescents' subjective well-being. To promote the wellness of this population, culturally sensitive strategies in developing peer relationship and healthy self-concept may be effective. More studies are needed for subgroup comparison of various ethnicities among Asian American adolescents. PMID:25992312

  5. A PC add-on card for Mössbauer data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittaranjan, C. M.; Jayapandian, J.; Gopinathan, K. P.

    1993-02-01

    A user friendly Mössbauer data acquisition add-on card for IBM compatible PC has been designed and fabricated. It is a firmware which acquires data and shares the CPU of the host PC to transfer the data into the PC memory. The card generates the wave form for the drive unit, generates dwell time marker pulses and counts the energy selected single channel analyzer (SCA) pulses. The significant feature of the system is that the counting of the SCA pulses is done with two counters, resulting in zero dead time. Two temporary dual port RAMs (DP RAM) on board enable real time data acquisition. The software which controls the hardware is menu driven and user friendly and works under DOS environment. An on line display of the spectrum is provided with a cursor which enables the inspection of counts in any channel during the acquisition. The current version of the spectrometer has a capacity of 2048 channels and this can be extended easily up to 8192 channels.

  6. CosmoCalc: An Excel add-in for cosmogenic nuclide calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2007-08-01

    As dating methods using Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclides (TCN) become more popular, the need arises for a general-purpose and easy-to-use data reduction software. The CosmoCalc Excel add-in calculates TCN production rate scaling factors (using Lal, Stone, Dunai, and Desilets methods); topographic, snow, and self-shielding factors; and exposure ages, erosion rates, and burial ages and visualizes the results on banana-style plots. It uses an internally consistent TCN production equation that is based on the quadruple exponential approach of Granger and Smith (2000). CosmoCalc was designed to be as user-friendly as possible. Although the user interface is extremely simple, the program is also very flexible, and nearly all default parameter values can be changed. To facilitate the comparison of different scaling factors, a set of converter tools is provided, allowing the user to easily convert cut-off rigidities to magnetic inclinations, elevations to atmospheric depths, and so forth. Because it is important to use a consistent set of scaling factors for the sample measurements and the production rate calibration sites, CosmoCalc defines the production rates implicitly, as a function of the original TCN concentrations of the calibration site. The program is best suited for 10Be, 26Al, 3He, and 21Ne calculations, although basic functionality for 36Cl and 14C is also provided. CosmoCalc can be downloaded along with a set of test data from http://cosmocalc.googlepages.com.

  7. Predictors of life satisfaction among Asian American adolescents- analysis of add health data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Yen; Wang, Kuan-Yuan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction correlates with adolescent risk taking behavior and their outcomes in adulthood. Despite the fast rise in numbers of Asian adolescents in the U.S., the predictors of their life satisfaction are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between several demographic and contextual factors and global life satisfaction among this population. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative probability sample of US adolescents. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to evaluate hypothesized predictors of global life satisfaction of Asian American adolescents. All analyses were conducted using STATA version 11. After exclusion of cases with missing values, 1021 Asian American adolescents were studied. Self- rated health, self-esteem, perceived neighborhood quality, parental support and peer support were significantly and positively related to better global life satisfaction. However, after controlling for other factors, only self-esteem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86-8.33) and perceived peer support (aOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.33-5.76) significantly predicted higher life satisfaction. Peer support and adolescents' self-concept are strongly correlated with Asian American adolescents' subjective well-being. To promote the wellness of this population, culturally sensitive strategies in developing peer relationship and healthy self-concept may be effective. More studies are needed for subgroup comparison of various ethnicities among Asian American adolescents.

  8. Assessing psychological flexibility: what does it add above and beyond existing constructs?

    PubMed

    Gloster, Andrew T; Klotsche, Jens; Chaker, Samia; Hummel, Katrin V; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2011-12-01

    The construct of psychological flexibility (PF) is a central concept in acceptance and commitment therapy. It is defined as the process of contacting the present moment fully as a conscious human being and persisting in or changing behavior in the service of chosen values. PF is hypothesized to be an important aspect of healthy psychological functioning. Despite its potential importance, the distinctness of PF from other constructs has not been adequately demonstrated, and psychometric evaluations of measures designed to assess it are limited. This study aimed at extending current knowledge about PF by examining the construct in 2 help-seeking samples, including panic disorder with agoraphobia (n = 368), clinically relevant social phobia (n = 209), and 2 nonclinical samples including students (n = 495) and individuals visiting an employment office (n = 95). Results across all samples indicate that PF, as measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (2nd version; AAQ-II), is a unitary construct with a 1 factor model. PF correlated with other variables largely consistent with predictions, differentiated patients from healthy controls, and showed preliminary indications of treatment sensitivity. Incremental validity was partially demonstrated, especially for indices of functioning. Surprisingly, PF also explained unique variance above more established measures for some indices of symptomatology. Results suggest that PF adds some incremental clinical validity, yet further and more stringent tests are required to fully elucidate its strengths and limitations.

  9. Experimental Study of Additives on Viscosity biodiesel at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, Berkah; Sukarno

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to find out the viscosity of additive and biodiesel fuel mixture in the temperature range from 283 K to 318 K. Solutions to reduce the viscosity of biodiesel is to add the biodiesel with some additive. The viscosity was measured using a Brookfield Rheometer DV-II. The additives were the generic additive (Diethyl Ether/DDE) and the commercial additive Viscoplex 10-330 CFI. Each biodiesel blends had a concentration of the mixture: 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; and 1.25% vol. Temperature of biodiesel was controlled from 40°C to 0°C. The viscosity of biodiesel and additive mixture at a constant temperature can be approximated by a polynomial equation and at a constant concentration by exponential equation. The optimum mixture is at 0.75% for diethyl ether and 0.5% for viscoplex.

  10. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a full-scale tractor-trailer combination with several add-on devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Steers, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Aerodynamic drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor with a 45-foot trailer and five commercially available or potentially available add-on devices using the coast-down method. The tests ranged in velocity from approximately 30 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour and included some flow visualization. A smooth, level runway at Edwards Air Force Base was used for the tests, and deceleration measurements were taken with both accelerometers and stopwatches. An evaluation of the drag reduction results obtained with each of the five add-on devices is presented.

  11. Liquid-crystal-on-silicon-based optical add/drop multiplexer for orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed optical links.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Yue, Yang; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Ren, Yongxiong; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2013-12-01

    We designed an optical add/drop multiplexer for orbital-angular-momentum (OAM)-multiplexed data links by taking advantage of the ring-shaped intensity profile of OAM beams. We demonstrated adding/dropping a single OAM beam from three multiplexed OAM beams using liquid-crystal-on-silicon-based diffraction optical elements. For multiplexed OAM beams carrying 100 Gbit/s quadrature phase-shift-keying data, a power penalty of <2 dB is observed to achieve a bit-error rate of 2.0×10(-3) for each channel of the add/drop multiplexer.

  12. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  13. Electron transfer dissociation of dipositive uranyl and plutonyl coordination complexes.

    PubMed

    Rios, Daniel; Rutkowski, Philip X; Shuh, David K; Bray, Travis H; Gibson, John K; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Reported here is a comparison of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) of solvent-coordinated dipositive uranyl and plutonyl ions generated by electrospray ionization. Fundamental differences between the ETD and CID processes are apparent, as are differences between the intrinsic chemistries of uranyl and plutonyl. Reduction of both charge and oxidation state, which is inherent in ETD activation of [An(VI) O(2) (CH(3) COCH(3) )(4) ](2+) , [An(VI) O(2) (CH(3) CN)(4) ](2) , [U(VI) O(2) (CH(3) COCH(3) )(5) ](2+) and [U(VI) O(2) (CH(3) CN)(5) ](2+) (An = U or Pu), is accompanied by ligand loss. Resulting low-coordinate uranyl(V) complexes add O(2) , whereas plutonyl(V) complexes do not. In contrast, CID of the same complexes generates predominantly doubly-charged products through loss of coordinating ligands. Singly-charged CID products of [U(VI) O(2) (CH(3) COCH(3) )(4,5) ](2+) , [U(VI) O(2) (CH(3) CN)(4,5) ](2+) and [Pu(VI) O(2) (CH(3) CN)(4) ](2+) retain the hexavalent metal oxidation state with the addition of hydroxide or acetone enolate anion ligands. However, CID of [Pu(VI) O(2) (CH(3) COCH(3) )(4) ](2+) generates monopositive plutonyl(V) complexes, reflecting relatively more facile reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(V). PMID:22223415

  14. An Inventory of Methods for the Assessment of Additive Increased Addictiveness of Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Kienhuis, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarettes and other forms of tobacco contain the addictive drug nicotine. Other components, either naturally occurring in tobacco or additives that are intentionally added during the manufacturing process, may add to the addictiveness of tobacco products. As such, these components can make cigarette smokers more easily and heavily dependent. Efforts to regulate tobacco product dependence are emerging globally. Additives that increase tobacco dependence will be prohibited under the new European Tobacco Product Directive. Objective: This article provides guidelines and recommendations for developing a regulatory strategy for assessment of increase in tobacco dependence due to additives. Relevant scientific literature is summarized and criteria and experimental studies that can define increased dependence of tobacco products are described. Conclusions: Natural tobacco smoke is a very complex matrix of components, therefore analysis of the contribution of an additive or a combination of additives to the level of dependence on this product is challenging. We propose to combine different type of studies analyzing overall tobacco product dependence potential and the functioning of additives in relation to nicotine. By using a combination of techniques, changes associated with nicotine dependence such as behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations can be examined to provide sufficient information. Research needs and knowledge gaps will be discussed and recommendations will be made to translate current knowledge into legislation. As such, this article aids in implementation of the Tobacco Product Directive, as well as help enable regulators and researchers worldwide to develop standards to reduce dependence on tobacco products. Implications: This article provides an overall view on how to assess tobacco product constituents for their potential contribution to use and dependence. It provides guidelines that help enable regulators worldwide to

  15. Additional potential for older, Antrim Shale wells

    SciTech Connect

    Frantz, J.H. Jr.; Hopkins, C.W.; Hill, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been performing evaluations to estimate the recompletion and restimulation potential in older, Antrim Shale wells. The recompletion potential is two-fold: (1) wells that can be deepened to the productive Norwood interval, and (2) wells with Upper Antrim potential. There are also numerous restimulation candidates due to sand flowback and/or other problems. The Antrim Shale is an organic-rich naturally fractured formation which produces both gas and water. Operators today typically complete the Lachine and Norwood intervals but many older wells were not drilled deep enough to encounter to Norwood. We performed an evaluation to determine the optimal deepening method using actual and simulated data. We estimate there are over 500 deepening candidates with total potential reserve additions of 50 Bscf. The Upper antrim formation can be added in approximately 1,500 existing wells throughout several counties. This interval is uphole from the Lachine and Norwood. In this phase of the project, we collected production and reservoir data from several Upper Antrim tests across the basin. We estimate the Upper Antrim could add total new reserves of 100 to 200 Bscf from al the recompletion candidates across the basin. In the restimulation evaluation, we developed a novel injection test unit to help operators identify the best restimulation candidates in a cost effective manner. The injection test determines if an effective hydraulic fracture is connected to the wellbore. Based on 60 test wells, we estimate the restimulations could add 50 to 200 Bscf of future reserves from the 500 to 1,000 candidate wells.

  16. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  17. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  18. Innovation versus complexity: what is too much of a good thing?

    PubMed

    Gottfredson, Mark; Aspinall, Keith

    2005-11-01

    What's the number of product or service offerings that would optimize both your revenues and your profits? For most firms, it's considerably lower than the number they offer today. The fact is, companies have strong incentives to be overly innovative in new product development. But continual launches of new products and line extensions add complexity throughout a company's operations, and as the costs of managing that complexity multiply, margins shrink. To maximize profit potential, a company needs to identify its innovation fulcrum, the point at which an additional offering destroys more value than it creates. The usual antidotes to complexity miss their mark because they treat the problem on the factory floor rather than at its source: in the product line. Mark Gottfredson and Keith Aspinall of Bain & Company present an approach that goes beyond the typical Six Sigma or lean-operations program to root out complexity hidden in the value chain. The first step is to ask, What would our company look like if it made and sold only a single product or service? In other words, you identify your company's equivalent of Henry Ford's one-size-fits-all Model T-for Starbucks, it might be a medium-size cup of coffee; for a bank, a simple checking account-and then determine the cost of producing that baseline offering. Next, you add variety back into the business system, product by product, and carefully forecast the resulting impact on sales as well as the cost implications across the value chain. When the analysis shows the costs beginning to overwhelm the added revenues, you've found your innovation fulcrum. By deconstructing their companies to a zero-complexity baseline, managers can break through organizational resistance and deeply entrenched ways of thinking to find the right balance between innovation and complexity. PMID:16299961

  19. Innovation versus complexity: what is too much of a good thing?

    PubMed

    Gottfredson, Mark; Aspinall, Keith

    2005-11-01

    What's the number of product or service offerings that would optimize both your revenues and your profits? For most firms, it's considerably lower than the number they offer today. The fact is, companies have strong incentives to be overly innovative in new product development. But continual launches of new products and line extensions add complexity throughout a company's operations, and as the costs of managing that complexity multiply, margins shrink. To maximize profit potential, a company needs to identify its innovation fulcrum, the point at which an additional offering destroys more value than it creates. The usual antidotes to complexity miss their mark because they treat the problem on the factory floor rather than at its source: in the product line. Mark Gottfredson and Keith Aspinall of Bain & Company present an approach that goes beyond the typical Six Sigma or lean-operations program to root out complexity hidden in the value chain. The first step is to ask, What would our company look like if it made and sold only a single product or service? In other words, you identify your company's equivalent of Henry Ford's one-size-fits-all Model T-for Starbucks, it might be a medium-size cup of coffee; for a bank, a simple checking account-and then determine the cost of producing that baseline offering. Next, you add variety back into the business system, product by product, and carefully forecast the resulting impact on sales as well as the cost implications across the value chain. When the analysis shows the costs beginning to overwhelm the added revenues, you've found your innovation fulcrum. By deconstructing their companies to a zero-complexity baseline, managers can break through organizational resistance and deeply entrenched ways of thinking to find the right balance between innovation and complexity.

  20. Add-on prednisolone in the management of cervical lymph node tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bunkar, Moti Lal; Agnihotri, Shashi Prakash; Gupta, Prahlad Ral; Arya, Savita

    2016-04-01

    Studies defining role of systemic steroids in routine management of cervical lymph node tuberculosis (CLNTB) are too few and inconclusive. The present study was carried out to define the role of add-on prednisolone in the management of CLNTB. Patients of CLNTB were randomized into two groups. Group I patients received DOTS Category I treatment along with prednisolone 1mg/kg for first 4 weeks and then tapered down. Group II patients received DOTS Category I treatment along with placebo. Patients were kept under close follow up for 6 months. Response to therapy and adverse drug reactions, if any, were recorded. A total of 120 patients completed the study protocol. The two groups were similar with respect to age, sex, smoking, alcoholism, and clinical profile (p>0.5). At 2 months, 54 out of 60 patients in Group I showed symptom relief when compared with 44 out of 60 patients in Group II (p<0.001). Abscess, sinus, and/or appearance of new lymph node/s were noted in 3 and 13 patients in Group I and Group II, respectively (p<0.001). Complete resolution was seen in 57 patients in Group I when compared with only 40 patients of Group II and sequel in form of residual LN was noted in three patients of Group I when compared with 20 in Group II (p<0.001). Gastrointestinal side effects were reported by higher number of patients in Group I but skin rashes and joint pain were fewer when compared with Group II (p>0.05). All the adverse reactions were transient and amenable to symptomatic treatment. PMID:27451818

  1. What can neuromorphic event-driven precise timing add to spike-based pattern recognition?

    PubMed

    Akolkar, Himanshu; Meyer, Cedric; Clady, Zavier; Marre, Olivier; Bartolozzi, Chiara; Panzeri, Stefano; Benosman, Ryad

    2015-03-01

    This letter introduces a study to precisely measure what an increase in spike timing precision can add to spike-driven pattern recognition algorithms. The concept of generating spikes from images by converting gray levels into spike timings is currently at the basis of almost every spike-based modeling of biological visual systems. The use of images naturally leads to generating incorrect artificial and redundant spike timings and, more important, also contradicts biological findings indicating that visual processing is massively parallel, asynchronous with high temporal resolution. A new concept for acquiring visual information through pixel-individual asynchronous level-crossing sampling has been proposed in a recent generation of asynchronous neuromorphic visual sensors. Unlike conventional cameras, these sensors acquire data not at fixed points in time for the entire array but at fixed amplitude changes of their input, resulting optimally sparse in space and time-pixel individually and precisely timed only if new, (previously unknown) information is available (event based). This letter uses the high temporal resolution spiking output of neuromorphic event-based visual sensors to show that lowering time precision degrades performance on several recognition tasks specifically when reaching the conventional range of machine vision acquisition frequencies (30-60 Hz). The use of information theory to characterize separability between classes for each temporal resolution shows that high temporal acquisition provides up to 70% more information that conventional spikes generated from frame-based acquisition as used in standard artificial vision, thus drastically increasing the separability between classes of objects. Experiments on real data show that the amount of information loss is correlated with temporal precision. Our information-theoretic study highlights the potentials of neuromorphic asynchronous visual sensors for both practical applications and theoretical

  2. Establishing a Near Term Lunar Farside Gravity Model via Inexpensive Add-on Navigation Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Mesarch, Michael; Miller, Ronald; Bell, David; Jedrey, Tom; Butman, Stanley; Asmar, Sami

    2007-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation, Constellation Integration Project (SCIP) is tasked with defining, developing, deploying and operating an evolving multi-decade communications and navigation (C/N) infrastructure including services and subsystems that will support both robotic and human exploration activities at the Moon. This paper discusses an early far side gravitational mapping service and related telecom subsystem that uses an existing spacecraft (WIND) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to collect data that would address several needs of the SCIP. An important aspect of such an endeavor is to vastly improve the current lunar gravity model while demonstrating the navigation and stationkeeping of a relay spacecraft. We describe a gravity data acquisition activity and the trajectory design of the relay orbit in an Earth-Moon L2 co-linear libration orbit. Several phases of the transfer from an Earth-Sun to the Earth-Moon region are discussed along with transfers within the Earth-Moon system. We describe a proposed, but not integrated, add-on to LRO scheduled to be launched in October of 2008. LRO provided a real host spacecraft against which we designed the science payload and mission activities. From a strategic standpoint, LRO was a very exciting first flight opportunity for gravity science data collection. Gravity Science data collection requires the use of one or more low altitude lunar polar orbiters. Variations in the lunar gravity field will cause measurable variations in the orbit of a low altitude lunar orbiter. The primary means to capture these induced motions is to monitor the Doppler shift of a radio signal to or from the low altitude spacecraft, given that the signal is referenced to a stable frequency reference. For the lunar far side, a secondary orbiting radio signal platform is required. We provide an in-depth look at link margins, trajectory design, and hardware implications. Our approach posed minimum risk to a host mission while

  3. Mozart K.448 acts as a potential add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Wei-Te; Wang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Lin; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Weng, Chia-Fen; Lee, Mei-Wen; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major, K.448 (Mozart K.448), has been shown to improve mental function, leading to what is known as the Mozart effect. Our previous work revealed that epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy decreased during and immediately after listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of Mozart K.448 on children with refractory epilepsy. Eleven children with refractory epilepsy were enrolled. All of the patients were diagnosed as having had refractory epilepsy for more than 1 year (range =1 year to 6 years 4 months, mean =3 years 11 months) and had been receiving at least two antiepileptic drugs (AED). During the study period, they listened to Mozart K.448 once a day before bedtime for 6 months. Seizure frequencies were recorded 6 months before they started listening to this music and monthly during the study period. All of the patients remained on the same AEDs during the 6-month study period. Frequencies of seizures were compared before and after listening to Mozart K.448. Eight of eleven patients were seizure free (N=2) or had very good responses (N=6) after 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448. The remaining three (27.3%) showed minimal or no effect (effectiveness <50%; unmodified or worsened seizure frequency). The average seizure reduction was 53.6 ± 62.0%. There were no significant differences in seizure reduction with IQ, etiology, or gender. We conclude that Mozart K.448 should be further studied as a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of children with refractory epilepsy.

  4. What can neuromorphic event-driven precise timing add to spike-based pattern recognition?

    PubMed

    Akolkar, Himanshu; Meyer, Cedric; Clady, Zavier; Marre, Olivier; Bartolozzi, Chiara; Panzeri, Stefano; Benosman, Ryad

    2015-03-01

    This letter introduces a study to precisely measure what an increase in spike timing precision can add to spike-driven pattern recognition algorithms. The concept of generating spikes from images by converting gray levels into spike timings is currently at the basis of almost every spike-based modeling of biological visual systems. The use of images naturally leads to generating incorrect artificial and redundant spike timings and, more important, also contradicts biological findings indicating that visual processing is massively parallel, asynchronous with high temporal resolution. A new concept for acquiring visual information through pixel-individual asynchronous level-crossing sampling has been proposed in a recent generation of asynchronous neuromorphic visual sensors. Unlike conventional cameras, these sensors acquire data not at fixed points in time for the entire array but at fixed amplitude changes of their input, resulting optimally sparse in space and time-pixel individually and precisely timed only if new, (previously unknown) information is available (event based). This letter uses the high temporal resolution spiking output of neuromorphic event-based visual sensors to show that lowering time precision degrades performance on several recognition tasks specifically when reaching the conventional range of machine vision acquisition frequencies (30-60 Hz). The use of information theory to characterize separability between classes for each temporal resolution shows that high temporal acquisition provides up to 70% more information that conventional spikes generated from frame-based acquisition as used in standard artificial vision, thus drastically increasing the separability between classes of objects. Experiments on real data show that the amount of information loss is correlated with temporal precision. Our information-theoretic study highlights the potentials of neuromorphic asynchronous visual sensors for both practical applications and theoretical

  5. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  6. Identification of an Additional Minor Pilin Essential for Piliation in the Archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Divya B.; Chung, Daniel K. C.; Schneider, James; Uchida, Kaoru; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Jarrell, Ken F.

    2013-01-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis is an archaeon with two studied surface appendages, archaella and type IV-like pili. Previously, the major structural pilin was identified as MMP1685 and three additional proteins were designated as minor pilins (EpdA, EpdB and EpdC). All of the proteins are likely processed by the pilin-specific prepilin peptidase EppA. Six other genes were identified earlier as likely encoding pilin proteins processed also by EppA. In this study, each of the six genes (mmp0528, mmp0600, mmp0601, mmp0709, mmp0903 and mmp1283) was deleted and the mutants examined by electron microscopy to determine their essentiality for pili formation. While mRNA transcripts of all genes were detected by RT-PCR, only the deletion of mmp1283 led to nonpiliated cells. This strain could be complemented back to a piliated state by supplying a wildtype copy of the mmp1283 gene in trans. This study adds to the complexity of the type IV pili system in M. maripaludis and raises questions about the functions of the remaining five pilin-like genes and whether M. maripaludis under other growth conditions may be able to assemble additional pili-like structures. PMID:24386316

  7. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  8. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  9. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  10. Steering S-H and N-H bond activation by a stable n-heterocyclic silylene: different addition of H(2)S, NH(3), and organoamines on a silicon(II) ligand versus its Si(II)-->Ni(CO)(3) complex.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Antje; Inoue, Shigeyoshi; Präsang, Carsten; Driess, Matthias

    2010-03-10

    The strikingly different behavior of the ylide-like, N-heterocyclic silylene LSi: (5: L = CH[(C horizontal lineCH(2))CMe(NAr)(2)]; Ar = 2,6-(i)PrC(6)H(3)) versus its LSi-->Ni(CO)(3) complex 13 to activate E-H bonds (E = S, N) of small molecules is reported. Remarkably, conversion of 5 with hydrogen sulfide leads exclusively to the first isolable silathioformamide, L'Si( horizontal lineS)H (16: L' = CH[C(Me)NAr](2); Ar = 2,6-(i)PrC(6)H(3)) with a donor-supported Si horizontal lineS double bond and four-coordinate silicon. The latter result demonstrates the unusual ambivalent reactivity of 5 by combining two modes of reactivity involving S-H bond activation and subsequent 1,4- and 1,1-addition, respectively. In addition, 5 can serve as a ligand with well-balanced sigma-donor and pi-acceptor capabilities toward transition metals. This has been demonstrated by the isolable [Ni(0)(arene)] complexes 12a-e (arene = Me(n)C(6)H(6-n), n = 0-3), which are ideal precursors for the formation of the corresponding Ni(CO)(3) complex 13. The latter activates a S-H bond in hydrogen sulfide, too, but the presence of the Ni(CO)(3) moiety governs the formation of the complex 17, bearing an unprecedented beta-diketiminate silicon(II) thiol ligand: L'Si(SH): (L' = CH[C(Me)NAr](2); Ar = 2,6-(i)PrC(6)H(3)). Likewise, the Si(II)-->Ni(CO)(3) coordination in 13 steers exclusively 1,4-addition of ammonia, isopropylamine, and phenylhydrazine onto the silylene ligand 5, leading to the corresponding beta-diketiminate silicon(II) amide or hydrazide complexes L'Si(NHR)-->Ni(CO)(3) (23a-c: R = H, (i)Pr, N(H)Ph). IR measurements reveal that the carbonyl stretching frequencies of the Ni(CO)(3) moiety in 23a-c are shifted to even lower wavenumbers in comparison to those of NHCs or phosphines. In other words, the beta-diketiminate silicon(II) amide ligands in 23a-c represent the strongest donors in the series of N-heterocyclic silylenes reported as yet. PMID:20148586

  11. The Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adult with Developmental Disability (PAS-ADD) Checklist: Reliability and Validity of French Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, F.; Carminati, G. Galli

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lack of psychometric measures of psychopathology especially in intellectual disabilities (ID) population was addressed by creation of the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adult with Developmental Disability (PAS-ADD-10) in Moss et?al. This schedule is a structured interview designed for professionals in psychopathology. The…

  12. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…

  13. Meeting the food, energy, and water demands of nine billion people: Will climate change add a new dimension?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change will add a new stress to our ability to produce food and supply water and energy for the expanding population. There is an emerging gap between the current production trends in food commodities around the world and the projected needs to meet the demands for the world population. This...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organic compounds as carbon in the vent gas, as determined by Method 25 or Method 25A, ppmv, dry basis... gaseous organic emissions mass flow rate at the outlet(s) of the add-on control device, using Equation 1... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 to subtract methane emissions from measured total gaseous organic mass... = Concentration of organic compounds as carbon in the vent gas, as determined by Method 25 or Method 25A, ppmvd... gaseous organic emissions mass flow rate at the inlet(s) to the add-on control device, using Equation 1...

  16. The Ethics of Researching Those Who Are Close to You: The Case of the Abandoned ADD Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel D.; Smith, Louis M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the ethical issues involved when researchers attempt to study participants who are personally close to them. It describes a case in which two researchers decided to study the experiences respectively of their son and grandson, both with ADD. They had barely initiated the study when ethical concerns led them to abandon the…

  17. General Classroom Structural Interventions for Teaching Students with Attention Deficit Disorder-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD-HD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Chris

    This paper examines structural antecedent classroom interventions to assist general classroom teachers in educating children with Attention Deficit Disorder-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD-HD). The effectiveness of early classroom intervention models is explored. Modifications to physical classroom arrangements are evaluated, including open…

  18. How to Combine Objectives and Methods of Evaluation in Iterative ILE Design: Lessons Learned from Designing Ambre-Add

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogry, S.; Jean-Daubias, S.; Guin, N.

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with evaluating an interactive learning environment (ILE) during the iterative-design process. Various aspects of the system must be assessed and a number of evaluation methods are available. In designing the ILE Ambre-add, several techniques were combined to test and refine the system. In particular, we point out the merits of…

  19. Helping Students with Disabilities Transition to College: 21 Tips for Students with LD and/or ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Making the transition from high school to college poses challenges for most students. Moving from a secure, regulated world of secondary education into an unfamiliar environment requiring greater independence can be a destabilizing experience. For students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), managing this…

  20. Multi-mode fiber coarse WDM grating router using broadband add/drop filters for wavelength re-use

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R R; Bond, S W; Larson, M C; Pocha, M D; Lowry, M E; Deri, R J

    1999-06-01

    We demonstrate a grating-router with 37nm channel spacing and 6nm FWHM in the 800-900nm range for WDM over multimode fiber. Broadband thin-film add/drop filters provide wavelength re-use enabling NxN fully non-blocking interconnection with N wavelengths.