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Sample records for adds time dimension

  1. Stealing time. Time management techniques add hours to each day.

    PubMed

    Davis, Nadinia

    2003-06-01

    Time not only flies when we're having fun, but also when we're filing paperwork, checking e-mail, and looking for our car keys. But you can add hours to your day by managing yourself rather than time. Here's how.

  2. How to Add Philosophy Dimensions in Your Basic International Business Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanopoulos, John

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to assist professors in introducing concepts of self, philosophy, religions, the universe, existential dilemmas, etc., in their basic international business classes. Using active learning and five-member student teams, a student organized and administered conference adds a very useful dimension of knowledge sacrificing only one…

  3. Next-Generation AUC Adds a Spectral Dimension: Development of Multiwavelength Detectors for the Analytical Ultracentrifuge.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Joseph Z; Krause, Frank; Haffke, Dirk; Demeler, Borries; Schilling, Kristian; Cölfen, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We describe important advances in analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) hardware, which add new information to the hydrodynamic information observed in traditional AUC instruments. In contrast to the Beckman-Coulter XLA UV/visible detector, multiwavelength (MWL) detection is able to collect sedimentation data not just for one wavelength, but for a large wavelength range in a single experiment. The additional dimension increases the data density by orders of magnitude, significantly improving the statistics of the measurement and adding important information to the experiment since an additional dimension of spectral characterization is now available to complement the hydrodynamic information. The new detector avoids tedious repeats of experiments at different wavelengths and opens up new avenues for the solution-based investigation of complex mixtures. In this chapter, we describe the capabilities, characteristics, and applications of the new detector design with biopolymers as the focus of study. We show data from two different MWL detectors and discuss strengths and weaknesses of differences in the hardware and different data acquisition modes. Also, difficulties with fiber optic applications in the UV are discussed. Data quality is compared across platforms. PMID:26412645

  4. Biomedical engineering - A means to add new dimension to medicine and research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, D. F.

    1992-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is an evolving science that seeks to insert technically oriented and trained personnel to assist medical professionals in solving technological problems in the pursuit of innovations in the delivery of health care. Consequently, engineering solutions are brought to bear on problems that previously were outside the training of physicians and beyond the understanding or appreciation of the conventionally educated electrical or mechanical engineers. This physician/scientist/engineer team has a capability to extend medicine and research far beyond the capability of a single entity operating alone. How biomedical engineering has added a new dimension to medical science at the Kennedy Space Center is described.

  5. Push Is on to Add Time to School Day, Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2011-01-01

    Policymakers are promoting expanded learning time to help low-performing students, but the know-how and resources for implementation are lacking. Providence's expanded-school-day pilot is a partnership between the school district and the Providence After School Alliance, a nonprofit that manages after-school programs for low-income students in…

  6. Kinetics of Reactive Modules Adds Discriminative Dimensions for Selective Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Quérard, Jérôme; Le Saux, Thomas; Gautier, Arnaud; Alcor, Damien; Croquette, Vincent; Lemarchand, Annie; Gosse, Charlie; Jullien, Ludovic

    2016-05-18

    Living cells are chemical mixtures of exceptional interest and significance, whose investigation requires the development of powerful analytical tools fulfilling the demanding constraints resulting from their singular features. In particular, multiplexed observation of a large number of molecular targets with high spatiotemporal resolution appears highly desirable. One attractive road to address this analytical challenge relies on engaging the targets in reactions and exploiting the rich kinetic signature of the resulting reactive module, which originates from its topology and its rate constants. This review explores the various facets of this promising strategy. We first emphasize the singularity of the content of a living cell as a chemical mixture and suggest that its multiplexed observation is significant and timely. Then, we show that exploiting the kinetics of analytical processes is relevant to selectively detect a given analyte: upon perturbing the system, the kinetic window associated to response read-out has to be matched with that of the targeted reactive module. Eventually, we introduce the state-of-the-art of cell imaging exploiting protocols based on reaction kinetics and draw some promising perspectives. PMID:26833808

  7. Kinetics of Reactive Modules Adds Discriminative Dimensions for Selective Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Quérard, Jérôme; Le Saux, Thomas; Gautier, Arnaud; Alcor, Damien; Croquette, Vincent; Lemarchand, Annie; Gosse, Charlie; Jullien, Ludovic

    2016-05-18

    Living cells are chemical mixtures of exceptional interest and significance, whose investigation requires the development of powerful analytical tools fulfilling the demanding constraints resulting from their singular features. In particular, multiplexed observation of a large number of molecular targets with high spatiotemporal resolution appears highly desirable. One attractive road to address this analytical challenge relies on engaging the targets in reactions and exploiting the rich kinetic signature of the resulting reactive module, which originates from its topology and its rate constants. This review explores the various facets of this promising strategy. We first emphasize the singularity of the content of a living cell as a chemical mixture and suggest that its multiplexed observation is significant and timely. Then, we show that exploiting the kinetics of analytical processes is relevant to selectively detect a given analyte: upon perturbing the system, the kinetic window associated to response read-out has to be matched with that of the targeted reactive module. Eventually, we introduce the state-of-the-art of cell imaging exploiting protocols based on reaction kinetics and draw some promising perspectives.

  8. Real-Time Access to Meteosat Data Using the ADDE Server Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, M.; Gaertner, V. K.

    2006-05-01

    The McIDAS ADDE technology is used by EUMETSAT to provide access to real-time Meteosat-8 image data to globally foster training activities within and outside classroom courses. (McIDAS - Man computer Interactive Data Access System, ADDE - Abstract Data Distribution Environment). The advanced imaging capabilities of Meteosat-8 - a satellite of the Meteosat Second Generation series - provides full disk Earth coverage in 11 spectral channels every 15 minutes. A further 12th channel covers the land surfaces in a 1 km spatial resolution in a solar wavelength. Real-time operational services use the EUMETCast dissemination mechanism for timely access to the image data. EUMETCast covers the geographic area of Europe, Africa, South America and parts of North America and Asia. Details of the EUMETCast system are given in a separate presentation by Gaertner and Koenig in this conference. In addition to EUMETCast, however, for training purposes, access is also made available in near real-time on the basis of the ADDE technology. This is an internet based data access, i.e. it is globally available. ADDE offers the possibility to retrieve only the area of interest, e.g. a special geographic area and only selected channels. This implies that the actual data transfer is small so that the internet is used very efficiently. ADDE was developed as part of the McIDAS software, and is now also freely available in the OpenADDE package (http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/mcidas/software/openadde). Other than McIDAS itself, there is a variety of application packages that are ADDE enabled, as e.g. McIDAS-Lite, the Unidata Integrated Data Viewer, Hydra, IDL, or Matlab. These tools also offer further analysis concepts. Examples will be shown during the presentation. The user community of the ADDE access also needs to be licensed according to the EUMETSAT data policy. After the successful commissioning of Meteosat-9, the data of this satellite will of course be incorporated into the ADDE data provision.

  9. Meeting the food, energy, and water demands of nine billion people: Will climate change add a new dimension?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change will add a new stress to our ability to produce food and supply water and energy for the expanding population. There is an emerging gap between the current production trends in food commodities around the world and the projected needs to meet the demands for the world population. This...

  10. Design and simulation of microring resonators for time-domain optical add-drop multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jianxun; Li, Chengjun; Zhou, Jianxin; Chen, Shuiping; Zhou, Limin; Chen, Wei

    2008-11-01

    A time-domain optical add-drop multiplexing (OADM) technology using microring resonators is reported. Design and simulation are presented. The microring resonator is predicted to be fabricated by using Pockler electro-optic materials. The microring resonators possess a multistage-cascaded structure to satisfy the requirement to generate switching windows. Cascaded coupled microring resonator can expand the single resonant point into a box-like resonant region and reduce the wings of resonant curve. While multistage resonators are used and a certain shift of the resonant region is arranged between the stages, the total resonant region can be expanded further. We achieve the shift of the resonant region between the two stages by selecting different ring radii. The resulted microring resonators possess a box-like characteristic with shape wings. The OADM includes two microring resonators (MMRs) driven by sine wave voltages, one is used to accomplish the add function the other is used to accomplish the drop function. The only operation differences between the two MMRs are the bias voltage and the phase of the driving signal. The OADM only requires electrical control signal and simple structure instead of high-quality optical control pulse and interferometer structure. FDTD simulation results show that the resonators can stratify the requirements to generate complementary switching windows for OADM operation.

  11. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake.

  12. What can neuromorphic event-driven precise timing add to spike-based pattern recognition?

    PubMed

    Akolkar, Himanshu; Meyer, Cedric; Clady, Zavier; Marre, Olivier; Bartolozzi, Chiara; Panzeri, Stefano; Benosman, Ryad

    2015-03-01

    This letter introduces a study to precisely measure what an increase in spike timing precision can add to spike-driven pattern recognition algorithms. The concept of generating spikes from images by converting gray levels into spike timings is currently at the basis of almost every spike-based modeling of biological visual systems. The use of images naturally leads to generating incorrect artificial and redundant spike timings and, more important, also contradicts biological findings indicating that visual processing is massively parallel, asynchronous with high temporal resolution. A new concept for acquiring visual information through pixel-individual asynchronous level-crossing sampling has been proposed in a recent generation of asynchronous neuromorphic visual sensors. Unlike conventional cameras, these sensors acquire data not at fixed points in time for the entire array but at fixed amplitude changes of their input, resulting optimally sparse in space and time-pixel individually and precisely timed only if new, (previously unknown) information is available (event based). This letter uses the high temporal resolution spiking output of neuromorphic event-based visual sensors to show that lowering time precision degrades performance on several recognition tasks specifically when reaching the conventional range of machine vision acquisition frequencies (30-60 Hz). The use of information theory to characterize separability between classes for each temporal resolution shows that high temporal acquisition provides up to 70% more information that conventional spikes generated from frame-based acquisition as used in standard artificial vision, thus drastically increasing the separability between classes of objects. Experiments on real data show that the amount of information loss is correlated with temporal precision. Our information-theoretic study highlights the potentials of neuromorphic asynchronous visual sensors for both practical applications and theoretical

  13. What can neuromorphic event-driven precise timing add to spike-based pattern recognition?

    PubMed

    Akolkar, Himanshu; Meyer, Cedric; Clady, Zavier; Marre, Olivier; Bartolozzi, Chiara; Panzeri, Stefano; Benosman, Ryad

    2015-03-01

    This letter introduces a study to precisely measure what an increase in spike timing precision can add to spike-driven pattern recognition algorithms. The concept of generating spikes from images by converting gray levels into spike timings is currently at the basis of almost every spike-based modeling of biological visual systems. The use of images naturally leads to generating incorrect artificial and redundant spike timings and, more important, also contradicts biological findings indicating that visual processing is massively parallel, asynchronous with high temporal resolution. A new concept for acquiring visual information through pixel-individual asynchronous level-crossing sampling has been proposed in a recent generation of asynchronous neuromorphic visual sensors. Unlike conventional cameras, these sensors acquire data not at fixed points in time for the entire array but at fixed amplitude changes of their input, resulting optimally sparse in space and time-pixel individually and precisely timed only if new, (previously unknown) information is available (event based). This letter uses the high temporal resolution spiking output of neuromorphic event-based visual sensors to show that lowering time precision degrades performance on several recognition tasks specifically when reaching the conventional range of machine vision acquisition frequencies (30-60 Hz). The use of information theory to characterize separability between classes for each temporal resolution shows that high temporal acquisition provides up to 70% more information that conventional spikes generated from frame-based acquisition as used in standard artificial vision, thus drastically increasing the separability between classes of objects. Experiments on real data show that the amount of information loss is correlated with temporal precision. Our information-theoretic study highlights the potentials of neuromorphic asynchronous visual sensors for both practical applications and theoretical

  14. On the time-dependent extra spatial dimensions in six dimensional space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Phan Hong; Hai, Do Thi Hong

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze the time-dependent extra spatial dimensions in six dimensional (6D) space-time. The 4-brane is assumed to be a de Sitter space. Based on the form of the brane-world energy-momentum tensor proposed by Shiromizu et al. and the five dimensions by Peter K. F. Kuhfittic, we extended the theory to the 2-codimension embedded in higher dimensions. The inflation scenario in 6D is investigated in two cases of cosmological constant: Ʌ > 0 and Ʌ < 0. The energy of two extra dimensions is calculated too.

  15. Effects of the time dimension and presentation on incidental memory.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    Undergraduates were presented targets on two occasions, and each time they were asked to choose one of two alternatives (past or future) associated with the targets in the orienting task, followed by an unexpected free recall. For the pleasant targets, the spaced presentation led to a better recall than the massed presentation for both past and future time. However, for unpleasant targets, the spacing effect was found in recall of targets associated with the past but the effect was not observed in recall of targets associated with the future. These results were interpreted as indicating that the quantity and the quality of the episodes associated with the targets were processed differently as a function of emotional attribute and time dimension.

  16. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Charmaine B.; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n = 7024) were included in the analysis. Parents/guardians reported the presence of a bedroom TV and average weekday TV screen time. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models assessed the effects of a bedroom on screen time. Results Youth with ADD/ADHD engaged in screen time with an average of 149.1 min/weekday and 59% had a TV in their bedroom. Adjusting for child and family characteristics, having a TV in the bedroom was associated with 25 minute higher daily screen time (95% CI: 12.8–37.4 min/day). A bedroom TV was associated with 32% higher odds of engaging in screen time for over 2 h/day (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0–1.7). Conclusion Future research should explore whether removing TVs from bedrooms reduces screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. PMID:25599016

  17. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-10

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

  18. Discontinuous attractor dimension at the synchronization transition of time-delayed chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeb, Steffen; Dahms, Thomas; Flunkert, Valentin; Schöll, Eckehard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The attractor dimension at the transition to complete synchronization in a network of chaotic units with time-delayed couplings is investigated. In particular, we determine the Kaplan-Yorke dimension from the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents for iterated maps and for two coupled semiconductor lasers. We argue that the Kaplan-Yorke dimension must be discontinuous at the transition and compare it to the correlation dimension. For a system of Bernoulli maps, we indeed find a jump in the correlation dimension. The magnitude of the discontinuity in the Kaplan-Yorke dimension is calculated for networks of Bernoulli units as a function of the network size. Furthermore, the scaling of the Kaplan-Yorke dimension as well as of the Kolmogorov entropy with system size and time delay is investigated.

  19. Extra dimensions: 3D and time in PDF documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  20. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

    2012-04-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  1. Run-time Ink Stability in Pneumatic Aerosol Jet Printing Using a Split Stream Solvent Add Back System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwa, Arjun

    Aerosol Jet printing is a non-contact process capable of printing nano-ink patterns on conformal and flexible surfaces. Aqueous or solvent nano-inks are pneumatically atomized by the flow of nitrogen gas. The flow of atomizing gas into and out of the cup leads to evaporation and removal of volatile solvent(s). As the solid loading fraction of the ink increases, the rheological changes eventually lead to instabilities in print output. A potential solution to this problem is to moisten the atomizing ink by running it through a bubbler. In this study, neat co-solvent solutions of ethanol and ethylene glycol at 85: 15 and 30:70 mixing ratios were atomized using nitrogen flow rates ranging from 600 to 1000 ccm. It was observed that ethanol, being the more volatile solvent, was depleted from the neat solution. When using a bubbler solvent add-back system, an excessive amount of ethanol was returned to the neat solution. The rate of solvent loss from an ethanol rich neat solution (80%) was higher compared to an ethylene glycol rich neat solution. A mixture of dry and wet (ethanol moistened) nitrogen gas was used to equalize the rate of ethanol evaporation. Ethanol equilibrium in neat solutions with higher ethylene glycol loading (70%) was achieved with a 40-60% wet nitrogen component while neat solutions with higher ethanol loading (85%) were stable with 85 -90% wet nitrogen gas. The results were validated with copper nano ink with similar co-solvent ratios. The solid content of the ink remained constant over four hours of printing when the optimal dry: wet nitrogen gas ratios were used. Copper ink with 85% ethanol being atomized at 1000 ccm exhibited increase in copper loading (3%) despite the dry: wet solvent add back system.

  2. Improving Reports Turnaround Time: An Essential Healthcare Quality Dimension.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mustafa; Khalid, Parwaiz; Al-Said, Youssef; Cupler, Edward; Almorsy, Lamia; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Turnaround time is one of the most important healthcare performance indicators. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia worked on reducing the reports turnaround time of the neurophysiology lab from more than two weeks to only five working days for 90% of cases. The main quality improvement methodology used was the FOCUS PDCA. Using root cause analysis, Pareto analysis and qualitative survey methods, the main factors contributing to the delay of turnaround time and the suggested improvement strategies were identified and implemented, through restructuring transcriptionists daily tasks, rescheduling physicians time and alerting for new reports, engaging consultants, consistent coordination and prioritizing critical reports. After implementation; 92% of reports are verified within 5 days compared to only 6% before implementation. 7% of reports were verified in 5 days to 2 weeks and only 1% of reports needed more than 2 weeks compared to 76% before implementation. PMID:27350505

  3. MIXING TIME OF A + B‑ > 0 IN ONE DIMENSION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Christophe P.

    2016-04-01

    A mixing time density of A + B → 0 on a finite one-dimensional domain is defined for general initial and boundary conditions in which A and B diffuse at the same rate. The density is a measure of the number of A and B particles that mix through the center of the reaction zone. It also corresponds to the reaction density for the special case in which A and B annihilate upon contact. An exact expression is found for the generating function of the mixing time. The analysis is extended to multiple reaction fronts and finitely ramified fractals. The method involves using the kernel of the Laplace transform integral operator to map and analyze a moving homogeneous Dirichlet interior point condition.

  4. Time, the forgotten dimension of ligand binding teaching.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Javier

    2006-11-01

    Ligand binding is generally explained in terms of the equilibrium constant K(d) for the protein-ligand complex dissociation. However, both theoretical considerations and experimental data point to the life span of the protein-ligand complex as an important, but generally overlooked, aspect of ligand binding by macromolecules. Short-lived protein-ligand complexes may be unable to trigger further biological processes as signal transduction or internalization if such processes are relatively slow with respect to dissociation of the complex that initiated them. Protein-ligand complex life span depends on the first-order rate constant for the dissociation of the complex, K(off) , but this constant and its implications are generally not treated in textbooks. This report presents a brief discussion and some examples useful for teaching the importance of time in ligand binding by macromolecules in the context of a general biochemistry course.

  5. Real time classification of viruses in 12 dimensions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chenglong; Hernandez, Troy; Zheng, Hui; Yau, Shek-Chung; Huang, Hsin-Hsiung; He, Rong Lucy; Yang, Jie; Yau, Stephen S-T

    2013-01-01

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of viruses. Thus far, the detailed classifications for all viruses are neither complete nor free from dispute. For example, the current missing label rates in GenBank are 12.1% for family label and 30.0% for genus label. Using the proposed Natural Vector representation, all 2,044 single-segment referenced viral genomes in GenBank can be embedded in [Formula: see text]. Unlike other approaches, this allows us to determine phylogenetic relations for all viruses at any level (e.g., Baltimore class, family, subfamily, genus, and species) in real time. Additionally, the proposed graphical representation for virus phylogeny provides a visualization of the distribution of viruses in [Formula: see text]. Unlike the commonly used tree visualization methods which suffer from uniqueness and existence problems, our representation always exists and is unique. This approach is successfully used to predict and correct viral classification information, as well as to identify viral origins; e.g. a recent public health threat, the West Nile virus, is closer to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex based on our visualization. Based on cross-validation results, the accuracy rates of our predictions are as high as 98.2% for Baltimore class labels, 96.6% for family labels, 99.7% for subfamily labels and 97.2% for genus labels.

  6. Time cells in the hippocampus: a new dimension for mapping memories.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies have revealed the existence of hippocampal neurons that fire at successive moments in temporally structured experiences. Several studies have shown that such temporal coding is not attributable to external events, specific behaviours or spatial dimensions of an experience. Instead, these cells represent the flow of time in specific memories and have therefore been dubbed 'time cells'. The firing properties of time cells parallel those of hippocampal place cells; time cells thus provide an additional dimension that is integrated with spatial mapping. The robust representation of both time and space in the hippocampus suggests a fundamental mechanism for organizing the elements of experience into coherent memories.

  7. Time cells in the hippocampus: a new dimension for mapping memories

    PubMed Central

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the existence of hippocampal neurons that fire at successive moments in temporally structured experiences. Several studies have shown that such temporal coding is not attributable to external events, specific behaviours or spatial dimensions of an experience. Instead, these cells represent the flow of time in specific memories and have therefore been dubbed ‘time cells’. The firing properties of time cells parallel those of hippocampal place cells; time cells thus provide an additional dimension that is integrated with spatial mapping. The robust representation of both time and space in the hippocampus suggests a fundamental mechanism for organizing the elements of experience into coherent memories. PMID:25269553

  8. Time changes in the body dimensions of male Australian Army personnel between 1977 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Tomkinson, Grant R; Daniell, Nathan; Fulton, Ashley; Furnell, Alistair

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify time changes in the body dimensions of male Australian Army personnel. Following a systematic review, two studies were identified and matched for occupation and age (n = 669) with time changes in 12 absolute and 11 proportional body dimensions assessed between 1977 and 2010-12. Changes in means were expressed as absolute, percent and standardised changes, with changes in variability assessed visually and as the ratio of coefficients of variation (CVs). Time changes in absolute dimensions were typically positive (increases) and moderate in magnitude (median standardised change ± 95%CI: 0.53 ± 0.23), and while changes in proportional dimensions were typically negligible (median standardised change ± 95%CI: 0.16 ± 0.33), substantial changes (standardised changes ≥0.2 or ≤-0.2) were observed in several dimensions. Variability in body dimensions has also typically increased (median ratio of CVs ± 95%CI: 1.10 ± 0.07) and become more right-skewed. These findings have important implications for the design and acquisition of new military vehicles, body equipment and clothing. PMID:27633194

  9. Assessment of disintegrant efficacy with fractal dimensions from real-time MRI.

    PubMed

    Quodbach, Julian; Moussavi, Amir; Tammer, Roland; Frahm, Jens; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-11-20

    An efficient disintegrant is capable of breaking up a tablet in the smallest possible particles in the shortest time. Until now, comparative data on the efficacy of different disintegrants is based on dissolution studies or the disintegration time. Extending these approaches, this study introduces a method, which defines the evolution of fractal dimensions of tablets as surrogate parameter for the available surface area. Fractal dimensions are a measure for the tortuosity of a line, in this case the upper surface of a disintegrating tablet. High-resolution real-time MRI was used to record videos of disintegrating tablets. The acquired video images were processed to depict the upper surface of the tablets and a box-counting algorithm was used to estimate the fractal dimensions. The influence of six different disintegrants, of different relative tablet density, and increasing disintegrant concentration was investigated to evaluate the performance of the novel method. Changing relative densities hardly affect the progression of fractal dimensions, whereas an increase in disintegrant concentration causes increasing fractal dimensions during disintegration, which are also reached quicker. Different disintegrants display only minor differences in the maximal fractal dimension, yet the kinetic in which the maximum is reached allows a differentiation and classification of disintegrants.

  10. Modified box dimension and average weighted receiving time on the weighted fractal networks

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meifeng; Sun, Yanqiu; Shao, Shuxiang; Xi, Lifeng; Su, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a family of weighted fractal networks, in which the weights of edges have been assigned to different values with certain scale, are studied. For the case of the weighted fractal networks the definition of modified box dimension is introduced, and a rigorous proof for its existence is given. Then, the modified box dimension depending on the weighted factor and the number of copies is deduced. Assuming that the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves uniformly to any of its nearest neighbors. The weighted time for two adjacency nodes is the weight connecting the two nodes. Then the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) is a corresponding definition. The obtained remarkable result displays that in the large network, when the weight factor is larger than the number of copies, the AWRT grows as a power law function of the network order with the exponent, being the reciprocal of modified box dimension. This result shows that the efficiency of the trapping process depends on the modified box dimension: the larger the value of modified box dimension, the more efficient the trapping process is. PMID:26666355

  11. Modified box dimension and average weighted receiving time on the weighted fractal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Sun, Yanqiu; Shao, Shuxiang; Xi, Lifeng; Su, Weiyi

    2015-12-01

    In this paper a family of weighted fractal networks, in which the weights of edges have been assigned to different values with certain scale, are studied. For the case of the weighted fractal networks the definition of modified box dimension is introduced, and a rigorous proof for its existence is given. Then, the modified box dimension depending on the weighted factor and the number of copies is deduced. Assuming that the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves uniformly to any of its nearest neighbors. The weighted time for two adjacency nodes is the weight connecting the two nodes. Then the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) is a corresponding definition. The obtained remarkable result displays that in the large network, when the weight factor is larger than the number of copies, the AWRT grows as a power law function of the network order with the exponent, being the reciprocal of modified box dimension. This result shows that the efficiency of the trapping process depends on the modified box dimension: the larger the value of modified box dimension, the more efficient the trapping process is.

  12. On the Reliability and Validity of a Numerical Reasoning Speed Dimension Derived from Response Times Collected in Computerized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Mark L.; Semmes, Robert; Huang, Lan; Close, Catherine N.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 181 college students were used to assess whether math reasoning item response times in computerized testing can provide valid and reliable measures of a speed dimension. The alternate forms reliability of the speed dimension was .85. A two-dimensional structural equation model suggests that the speed dimension is related to the accuracy…

  13. Oscillations in the evaluation of fractal dimension of RR intervals time series.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Diosdado, A; Gálvez Coyt, G; Pérez Uribe, B M

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we have reported the presence of oscillations in the graphs we have used to evaluate the Higuchi's fractal dimension in RR intervals time series of congestive heart failure (CHF) patients in the sleep phase but these oscillations hardly appear in all the six hours of the awake phase. In this paper we report the same analysis for heart rate time series for different groups of healthy subjects; we are looking for the presence of this kind of oscillations in other situations. We analyzed all the time series in the Exaggerated Heart Rate Oscillations database of Physionet during two meditation techniques: volunteers with spontaneous breathing, subjects in meditation, volunteers in a metronomic breathing group and elite athletes. We have found oscillations in the graphs of the Higuchi's fractal dimension in the heart rate time series of subjects in meditation and metronomic breathing and this fact coincides with previous reported results.

  14. Fractal dimension of time-resolved autofluorescence discriminates tumour from healthy tissues in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Jan; Gerich, Carola E; Gröbe, Alexander; Opitz, Jörg; Schreiber, Jürgen; Hanken, Henning; Salomon, Georg; Heiland, Max; Kluwe, Lan; Blessmann, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Early detection and complete resection of oral carcinomas is of crucial importance for patient survival. This could be significantly improved by developing a non-invasive, sensitive and real-time detection technique. Time-resolved autofluorescence measurement is state-of-the-art technology originally developed for non-destructive inspection of material. In this study, we measured time-resolved autofluorescence in tumours and healthy tissues of the oral cavity ex vivo and calculated the corresponding fractal dimension which was significantly higher in tumours than in healthy tissues (1.8 vs. 1.6, P < 0.001, unpaired t-test) with non-overlapping 95% confidential intervals 1.88-1.84 and 1.57-1.69, respectively. Very high specificity (86%) could be reached at 100% sensitivity. The area under the curve was 99%, further suggesting the superior prediction potential of fractal dimension based on time-resolved autofluorescence spectra.

  15. Estimating the level of dynamical noise in time series by using fractal dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sase, Takumi; Ramírez, Jonatán Peña; Kitajo, Keiichi; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    2016-03-01

    We present a method for estimating the dynamical noise level of a 'short' time series even if the dynamical system is unknown. The proposed method estimates the level of dynamical noise by calculating the fractal dimensions of the time series. Additionally, the method is applied to EEG data to demonstrate its possible effectiveness as an indicator of temporal changes in the level of dynamical noise.

  16. On the embedding-dimension analysis of AE and AL time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Lin-Hua; Goertz, Christoph; Smith, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Several authors have employed the embedding-dimension method to analyze time series of geomagnetic indices, with differing results for the value of the correlation dimension nu. It is argued that these differences may arise from corresponding differences in the length and construction of the various data sets used. Practical application of the method to sets of discretized data requires use of a delay time scale set by the autocorrelation time of the data set. It is found that a particular data set containing 35 days of AE exhibits an autocorrelation time tau(c) longer by an order of magnitude than that of a short-duration (less than 5 days) set, raising the possibility that extant analyses of long-duration sets may have employed delay times shorter than tau(c). In addition, the power spectrum of AE reveals modulation at a period of 24 hr. A numerical experiment on the logistic map shows that such modulation introduces an extra degree of freedom in the data, resulting in an augmented correlation dimension.

  17. Conductance fluctuations in disordered superconductors with broken time-reversal symmetry near two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, S.; Furusaki, A.; Ludwig, A. W. W.; Mudry, C.

    2007-10-01

    We extend the analysis of the conductance fluctuations in disordered metals by Altshuler, Kravtsov, and Lerner (AKL) to disordered superconductors with broken time-reversal symmetry in d=(2+ɛ) dimensions (symmetry classes C and D of Altland and Zirnbauer). Using a perturbative renormalization group analysis of the corresponding non-linear sigma model (NL σM) we compute the anomalous scaling dimensions of the dominant scalar operators with 2 s gradients to one-loop order. We show that, in analogy with the result of AKL for ordinary, metallic systems (Wigner-Dyson classes), an infinite number of high-gradient operators would become relevant (in the renormalization group sense) near two dimensions if contributions beyond one-loop order are ignored. We explore the possibility to compare, in symmetry class D, the ɛ=(2-d) expansion in d<2 with exact results in one dimension. The method we use to perform the one-loop renormalization analysis is valid for general symmetric spaces of Kähler type, and suggests that this is a generic property of the perturbative treatment of NL σMs defined on Riemannian symmetric target spaces.

  18. Finite Time Singularity of the Nematic Liquid Crystal Flow in Dimension Three

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Lin, Fanghua; Liu, Chun; Wang, Changyou

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the initial and boundary value problem of a simplified nematic liquid crystal flow in dimension three and construct two examples of finite time singularity. The first example is constructed within the class of axisymmetric solutions, while the second example is constructed for any generic initial data {(u_0,d_0)} that has sufficiently small energy, and {d_0} has a nontrivial topology.

  19. The effective chiral Lagrangian from dimension-six parity and time-reversal violation

    SciTech Connect

    Vries, J. de; Mereghetti, E.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Kolck, U. van

    2013-11-15

    We classify the parity- and time-reversal-violating operators involving quark and gluon fields that have effective dimension six: the quark electric dipole moment, the quark and gluon chromo-electric dipole moments, and four four-quark operators. We construct the effective chiral Lagrangian with hadronic and electromagnetic interactions that originate from them, which serves as the basis for calculations of low-energy observables. The form of the effective interactions depends on the chiral properties of these operators. We develop a power-counting scheme and calculate within this scheme, as an example, the parity- and time-reversal-violating pion–nucleon form factor. We also discuss the electric dipole moments of the nucleon and light nuclei. -- Highlights: •Classification of T-odd dimension-six sources based on impact on observables. •Building of the chiral Lagrangian for each dimension-six source. •Calculation of the PT-odd pion–nucleon form factor for each source. •Discussion of hadronic EDMs for each source and comparison with the theta term.

  20. Phase unwrapping in three dimensions with application to InSAR time series.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Andrew; Zebker, Howard A

    2007-09-01

    The problem of phase unwrapping in two dimensions has been studied extensively in the past two decades, but the three-dimensional (3D) problem has so far received relatively little attention. We develop here a theoretical framework for 3D phase unwrapping and also describe two algorithms for implementation, both of which can be applied to synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) time series. We test the algorithms on simulated data and find both give more accurate results than a two-dimensional algorithm. When applied to actual InSAR time series, we find good agreement both between the algorithms and with ground truth. PMID:17767243

  1. Time-varying spatial data integration and visualization: 4 Dimensions Environmental Observations Platform (4-DEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciello, Rossana; Coviello, Irina; Filizzola, Carolina; Genzano, Nicola; Lisi, Mariano; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Pergola, Nicola; Sileo, Giancanio; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2014-05-01

    In environmental studies the integration of heterogeneous and time-varying data, is a very common requirement for investigating and possibly visualize correlations among physical parameters underlying the dynamics of complex phenomena. Datasets used in such kind of applications has often different spatial and temporal resolutions. In some case superimposition of asynchronous layers is required. Traditionally the platforms used to perform spatio-temporal visual data analyses allow to overlay spatial data, managing the time using 'snapshot' data model, each stack of layers being labeled with different time. But this kind of architecture does not incorporate the temporal indexing neither the third spatial dimension which is usually given as an independent additional layer. Conversely, the full representation of a generic environmental parameter P(x,y,z,t) in the 4D space-time domain could allow to handle asynchronous datasets as well as less traditional data-products (e.g. vertical sections, punctual time-series, etc.) . In this paper we present the 4 Dimensions Environmental Observation Platform (4-DEOS), a system based on a web services architecture Client-Broker-Server. This platform is a new open source solution for both a timely access and an easy integration and visualization of heterogeneous (maps, vertical profiles or sections, punctual time series, etc.) asynchronous, geospatial products. The innovative aspect of the 4-DEOS system is that users can analyze data/products individually moving through time, having also the possibility to stop the display of some data/products and focus on other parameters for better studying their temporal evolution. This platform gives the opportunity to choose between two distinct display modes for time interval or for single instant. Users can choose to visualize data/products in two ways: i) showing each parameter in a dedicated window or ii) visualize all parameters overlapped in a single window. A sliding time bar, allows

  2. [Fractal dimension and histogram method: algorithm and some preliminary results of noise-like time series analysis].

    PubMed

    Pancheliuga, V A; Pancheliuga, M S

    2013-01-01

    In the present work a methodological background for the histogram method of time series analysis is developed. Connection between shapes of smoothed histograms constructed on the basis of short segments of time series of fluctuations and the fractal dimension of the segments is studied. It is shown that the fractal dimension possesses all main properties of the histogram method. Based on it a further development of fractal dimension determination algorithm is proposed. This algorithm allows more precision determination of the fractal dimension by using the "all possible combination" method. The application of the method to noise-like time series analysis leads to results, which could be obtained earlier only by means of the histogram method based on human expert comparisons of histograms shapes. PMID:23755565

  3. Time-reversal symmetric Kitaev model and topological superconductor in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, R.; Ryu, S.; Furusaki, A.

    2012-04-01

    A time-reversal invariant Kitaev-type model is introduced in which spins (Dirac matrices) on the square lattice interact via anisotropic nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions. The model is exactly solved by mapping it onto a tight-binding model of free Majorana fermions coupled with static Z2 gauge fields. The Majorana fermion model can be viewed as a model of time-reversal-invariant superconductor and is classified as a member of symmetry class DIII in the Altland-Zirnbauer classification. The ground-state phase diagram has two topologically distinct gapped phases which are distinguished by a Z2 topological invariant. The topologically nontrivial phase supports both a Kramers’ pair of gapless Majorana edge modes at the boundary and a Kramers’ pair of zero-energy Majorana states bound to a 0-flux vortex in the π-flux background. Power-law decaying correlation functions of spins along the edge are obtained by taking the gapless Majorana edge modes into account. The model is also defined on the one-dimension ladder, in which case again the ground-state phase diagram has Z2 trivial and nontrivial phases.

  4. Size and shape of Brain may be such as to take advantage of two Dimensions of Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriske, Richard

    2014-03-01

    This author had previously Theorized that there are two non-commuting Dimensions of time. One is Clock Time and the other is Information Time (which we generally refer to as Information, like Spin Up or Spin Down). When time does not commute with another Dimension of Time, one takes the Clock Time at one point in space and the Information time is not known; that is different than if one takes the Information time at that point and the Clock time is not known--This is not explicitly about time but rather space. An example of this non-commutation is that if one knows the Spin at one point and the Time at one point of space then simultaneosly, one knows the Spin at another point of Space and the Time there (It is the same time), it is a restatement of the EPR paradox. As a matter of fact two Dimensions of Time would prove the EPR paradox. It is obvious from that argument that if one needed to take advantage of Information, then a fairly large space needs to be used, a large amount of Energy needs to be Generated and a symmetry needs to be established in Space-like the lobes of a Brain in order to detect the fact that the Tclock and Tinfo are not Commuting. This Non-Commuting deposits a large amount of Information simultaneously in that space, and synchronizes the time there.

  5. Time-Delay Neural Network for Continuous Emotional Dimension Prediction From Facial Expression Sequences.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hongying; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; Deng, Yangdong; Cheng, Jinkuang; Cosmas, John P

    2016-04-01

    Automatic continuous affective state prediction from naturalistic facial expression is a very challenging research topic but very important in human-computer interaction. One of the main challenges is modeling the dynamics that characterize naturalistic expressions. In this paper, a novel two-stage automatic system is proposed to continuously predict affective dimension values from facial expression videos. In the first stage, traditional regression methods are used to classify each individual video frame, while in the second stage, a time-delay neural network (TDNN) is proposed to model the temporal relationships between consecutive predictions. The two-stage approach separates the emotional state dynamics modeling from an individual emotional state prediction step based on input features. In doing so, the temporal information used by the TDNN is not biased by the high variability between features of consecutive frames and allows the network to more easily exploit the slow changing dynamics between emotional states. The system was fully tested and evaluated on three different facial expression video datasets. Our experimental results demonstrate that the use of a two-stage approach combined with the TDNN to take into account previously classified frames significantly improves the overall performance of continuous emotional state estimation in naturalistic facial expressions. The proposed approach has won the affect recognition sub-challenge of the Third International Audio/Visual Emotion Recognition Challenge. PMID:25910269

  6. Should sulfonylureas remain an acceptable first-line add-on to metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes? No, it's time to move on!

    PubMed

    Genuth, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Since their introduction to clinical practice in the 1950s, sulfonylureas have been widely prescribed for use in patients with type 2 diabetes. Of all the other medications currently available for clinical use, only metformin has been used more frequently. However, several new drug classes have emerged that are reported to have equal glucose-lowering efficacy and greater safety when added to treatment of patients in whom metformin monotherapy is no longer sufficient. Moreover, current arguments also suggest that the alternative drugs may be superior to sulfonylureas with regard to the risk of cardiovascular complications. Thus, while there is universal agreement that metformin should remain the first-line pharmacologic therapy for those in whom lifestyle modification is insufficient to control hyperglycemia, there is no consensus as to which drug should be added to metformin. Therefore, given the current controversy, we provide a Point-Counterpoint on this issue. In the preceding point narrative, Dr. Abrahamson provides his argument suggesting that avoiding use of sulfonylureas as a class of medication as an add-on to metformin is not appropriate as there are many patients whose glycemic control would improve with use of these drugs with minimal risk of adverse events. In the counterpoint narrative below, Dr. Genuth suggests there is no longer a need for sulfonylureas to remain a first-line addition to metformin for those patients whose clinical characteristics are appropriate and whose health insurance and/or financial resources make an alternative drug affordable.

  7. A Robust Algorithm for Optimisation and Customisation of Fractal Dimensions of Time Series Modified by Nonlinearly Scaling Their Time Derivatives: Mathematical Theory and Practical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Standard methods for computing the fractal dimensions of time series are usually tested with continuous nowhere differentiable functions, but not benchmarked with actual signals. Therefore they can produce opposite results in extreme signals. These methods also use different scaling methods, that is, different amplitude multipliers, which makes it difficult to compare fractal dimensions obtained from different methods. The purpose of this research was to develop an optimisation method that computes the fractal dimension of a normalised (dimensionless) and modified time series signal with a robust algorithm and a running average method, and that maximises the difference between two fractal dimensions, for example, a minimum and a maximum one. The signal is modified by transforming its amplitude by a multiplier, which has a non-linear effect on the signal's time derivative. The optimisation method identifies the optimal multiplier of the normalised amplitude for targeted decision making based on fractal dimensions. The optimisation method provides an additional filter effect and makes the fractal dimensions less noisy. The method is exemplified by, and explained with, different signals, such as human movement, EEG, and acoustic signals. PMID:24151522

  8. A robust algorithm for optimisation and customisation of fractal dimensions of time series modified by nonlinearly scaling their time derivatives: mathematical theory and practical applications.

    PubMed

    Fuss, Franz Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Standard methods for computing the fractal dimensions of time series are usually tested with continuous nowhere differentiable functions, but not benchmarked with actual signals. Therefore they can produce opposite results in extreme signals. These methods also use different scaling methods, that is, different amplitude multipliers, which makes it difficult to compare fractal dimensions obtained from different methods. The purpose of this research was to develop an optimisation method that computes the fractal dimension of a normalised (dimensionless) and modified time series signal with a robust algorithm and a running average method, and that maximises the difference between two fractal dimensions, for example, a minimum and a maximum one. The signal is modified by transforming its amplitude by a multiplier, which has a non-linear effect on the signal's time derivative. The optimisation method identifies the optimal multiplier of the normalised amplitude for targeted decision making based on fractal dimensions. The optimisation method provides an additional filter effect and makes the fractal dimensions less noisy. The method is exemplified by, and explained with, different signals, such as human movement, EEG, and acoustic signals. PMID:24151522

  9. Perturbative calculations in space-time having extra dimensions: The 6D single axial box anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, M. V. S.; Dallabona, G.; Battistel, O. A.

    2014-11-01

    A detailed investigation about the 6D single axial box anomalous amplitude is presented. The superficial degree of divergence involved, in the one-loop perturbative calculations, is quadratic and the corresponding theory is nonrenormalizable. In spite of this, we show that the phenomenon of anomaly can be clearly characterized in a completely analogous way as that of 4D single axial triangle anomaly. The required calculations are made within the context of a novel calculational strategy where the amplitudes are not modified in intermediary steps. Divergent integrals are, in fact, not really solved. Adequate representations for the internal propagators are adopted according to the degree of divergence involved, so that when the last Feynman rule is taken (integration over the loop momentum) all the dependence on the internal (arbitrary) momenta are placed only in finite integrals. In the divergent structures emerging, no physical parameter is present and such objects are not really integrated. Only very general properties are assumed for such quantities which are universal (all space-time dimensions). The consistency of the perturbative calculations fixes some relations among the divergent integrals so that all the potentially ambiguous terms can be automatically removed. In spite of the absence of ambiguities, the emerging results allow us to give a clear and transparent description of the anomaly. The present investigation confirms the point of view stated by the same prescription for the well-known 2D axial-vector (AV) two-point and 4D single (AVV) and triple (AAA) axial-vector anomalies: the anomalous amplitudes need not be assumed as ambiguous quantities to allow an adequate description of the anomalies. We show also that a surprising, but natural, connection between the coupling of fermions with a pseudoscalar tensor field is found. In addition, we show that the crucial mathematical aspects of the problem are deeply related to a recently arisen controversy

  10. Real-time visualization of cross-sectional data in three dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayes, Terrence J.; Foley, Theodore T.; Hamilton, Joseph A.; Duncavage, Tom C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for viewing and interacting with 2-D medical data in three dimensions. The approach requires little pre-processing, runs on personal computers, and has a wide range of application. Implementation details are discussed, examples are presented, and results are summarized.

  11. Digital Distinction: Badges Add a New Dimension to Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ady, Kellie; Kinsella, Keli; Paynter, Amber

    2015-01-01

    As a part of a professional learning team, educators are constantly looking for new approaches and designs that promote deeper adult learning. This article describes how educators at Cherry Creek School District in Colorado developed a digital badge system that recognizes the work teachers are doing, supports a culture and climate of celebration,…

  12. Time as the Fourth Dimension in the Globalization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This paper calls for an analysis of time to be integrated into the theories on the globalization of higher education. Specifically, the author argues that academic capitalism, fuelled by globalization, has led to changes in the university visible in time/space compression, time acceleration, the reification of time and our internalization of the…

  13. Add grace to psychiatric practice

    PubMed Central

    Patkar, Shobha V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The uniqueness of mindset of an individual makes psychiatric practice interesting, sensitive, and at times subjective. The practice in setup of an organization makes the situation more complex in view of administrative regulations, existing work culture, and issues like confidentiality, etc., Dilemmas are often faced while balancing loyalty between an organization and the patients, values of the therapist and the patient, and different dimension of justice coming from different cultural backgrounds of the patients and the treating doctors. A lot of mental work needs to be put in by the practitioner to consistently adhere to medical ethics and professional approach for taking key decisions despite of contradictory external forces from within and without. Aims: I thought of sharing my experiences especially in setup of an organization with my colleagues so that the decision-taking process becomes somewhat easy and balancing for them. Settings and Design: I have to try to interpret my clinical experiences gathered while working with my patients from the Department of Atomic Energy as well as from my private practice. Conclusion: The need of psycho education to self and others from time to time never ceases simply to make the practice more objective, justified, and graceful. PMID:23825861

  14. Moral-up first, immoral-down last: the time course of moral metaphors on a vertical dimension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han Lin; Lu, Ya Qiao; Lu, Zhong Yi

    2016-03-01

    Many abstract bipolar concepts are usually represented by metaphors on vertical dimensions (e.g. positive-up, negative-down). However, several studies have found an asymmetry in the way in which individuals process bipolar dimensions, with +polarities being stronger than -polarities. The current research focused on moral metaphors on a vertical dimension (e.g. moral-up and immoral-down) and examined the asymmetric representation of moral and immoral concepts. The first experiment showed a distinct metaphorical association between morality and vertical space, consistent with earlier research. The second experiment showed that moral and immoral words are processed differently depending on whether they are used as metaphorically congruent or incongruent vertical cues. 'Moral-up' association modulated the amplitudes of the N1, P2, and late positive-going potential during the processing of moral words, whereas the 'immoral-down' association only modulated the amplitudes of the late positive-going potential induced during the processing of immoral words. These results suggest that asymmetry in the processing of vertically represented morality metaphors is reflected in the time course of the representation of these bipolar concepts, with the 'moral-up' association having an earlier effect than the 'immoral-down' association.

  15. The use of non-linearity techniques (correlation dimension) to analyze western Mediterranean rainfall time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Lluch, María. Carmen; Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean climate patterns are characterized by the great rain variability between years combined whit recurrent drought periods and highly intense rain events. These last becomes critical in this area because incise, usually, immediately after the summer dry period, when the vegetation cover is less capable to protect the soil against rainfall aggressiveness and the wildfire period is finishing. These circumstances favour the intensification of erosion processes and the incidence of landslides, floods, etc. Within the scope of the Valencia Community (Western Mediterranean Region), rain displays a high variability as a result of the Mediterranean sea influence and certain local factors, which favour that great part of the precipitations, take place at micro-scale level, assuming a random behaviour of precipitations. In order to have a better knowledge on rain dynamics and to detect the possible differences caused by the regionalization, four temporal series (40 years) have been selected pertaining to climate stations (Castellón, Valencia, Sueca and Alicante) located in the coastal zone of the study area (Valencia Community, Spain). They are characterized by three concrete climatic regions, and are analysed under the deterministic chaos perspective. A non-linear technique, correlation dimension, is used to carry out this analysis. This technique allows calculating the necessary variables to explain the rain behaviour and to establish suitable models that assume their complexity. The results suggest a possible chaotic behaviour in the four series analysed, obtaining a great variability in the zones of Sueca and Castellón. Statistically, the comparison of the results with the coefficient of variation shows coincidences in almost all the series considered. The only exception was the station of Sueca, where an inverse relation is obtained. Similarly, from a geographic perspective, the obtained results are related favourably to the particular characteristics of

  16. Time-Dependent Neutral Particle Transport Benchmarks in Two and Three Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Barry D. Ganapol

    2007-10-12

    The main objective of NEER grant was to generate highly accurate 2D and 3D time-dependent neutral particle intensity maps from 3D pulsed wire sources through integration of the analytical representation of a time-dependent point source.

  17. Time-lapse imaging of neural development: Zebrafish lead the way into the fourth dimension

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Sandra; Wang, Fang; Sagasti, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is often the only way to appreciate fully the many dynamic cell movements critical to neural development. Zebrafish possess many advantages that make them the best vertebrate model organism for live imaging of dynamic development events. This review will discuss technical considerations of time-lapse imaging experiments in zebrafish, describe selected examples of imaging studies in zebrafish that revealed new features or principles of neural development, and consider the promise and challenges of future time-lapse studies of neural development in zebrafish embryos and adults. PMID:21305690

  18. On time discretizations for the simulation of the batch settling-compression process in one dimension.

    PubMed

    Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Mejías, Camilo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the recently introduced Bürger-Diehl simulation model for secondary settling tanks was to resolve spatial discretization problems when both hindered settling and the phenomena of compression and dispersion are included. Straightforward time integration unfortunately means long computational times. The next step in the development is to introduce and investigate time-integration methods for more efficient simulations, but where other aspects such as implementation complexity and robustness are equally considered. This is done for batch settling simulations. The key findings are partly a new time-discretization method and partly its comparison with other specially tailored and standard methods. Several advantages and disadvantages for each method are given. One conclusion is that the new linearly implicit method is easier to implement than another one (semi-implicit method), but less efficient based on two types of batch sedimentation tests.

  19. On time discretizations for the simulation of the batch settling-compression process in one dimension.

    PubMed

    Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Mejías, Camilo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the recently introduced Bürger-Diehl simulation model for secondary settling tanks was to resolve spatial discretization problems when both hindered settling and the phenomena of compression and dispersion are included. Straightforward time integration unfortunately means long computational times. The next step in the development is to introduce and investigate time-integration methods for more efficient simulations, but where other aspects such as implementation complexity and robustness are equally considered. This is done for batch settling simulations. The key findings are partly a new time-discretization method and partly its comparison with other specially tailored and standard methods. Several advantages and disadvantages for each method are given. One conclusion is that the new linearly implicit method is easier to implement than another one (semi-implicit method), but less efficient based on two types of batch sedimentation tests. PMID:26942521

  20. Fractal dimension analysis of the magnetic time series associated with the volcanic activity of Popocatépetl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Marquez, E. L.; Galvez-Coyt, G.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.

    2012-12-01

    Fractal analysis of the total magnetic field (TMF) time series from 1997 to 2003 at Popocatépetl Volcano is performed and compared with the TMF-series of the Teoloyucan Magnetic Observatory, 100 km away. Using Higuchi's fractal dimension method (D). The D changes over time for both series were computed. It was observed, when the time windows used to compute D increase in length, both series show nearly the same behavior. Some criteria of comparison were employed to discriminate the local effects inherent to volcano-magnetism. The simultaneous maximum in D (1.8) of the TMF series at Popocatépetl Volcano and the recovered volcanic activity indicates a scaling relation of the TMF at Popocatépetl Volcano and demonstrates a link between the magnetic field and volcanic activity.

  1. Dimensions of Part-Time Faculty Job Satisfaction: Development and Factor Analysis of a Survey Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Jeff E.; Howell, Scott L.; Eggett, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to develop a reliable and valid survey instrument for assessing the satisfaction of part-time faculty teaching in continuing higher education at Brigham Young University (BYU). This article describes the reliability and validity of the instrument that may be used by other administrators and researchers…

  2. DIVERSITY SURFACES AND SPECIES WAVE FRONTS IN A SOIL MICROARTHROPOD ASSEMBLAGE: ADDING THE DIMENSION OF TIME

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a general rule, animal species of intermediate size within a given taxonomic group are most abundant in nature. It is not known if these patterns occur in small-bodied taxa, such as soil microarthropods, or how these patterns change through time. Here I show that Oribatida (Ac...

  3. Pitch and Time, Tonality and Meter: How Do Musical Dimensions Combine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Jon B.; Thompson, William F.; Schmuckler, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how the structural attributes of tonality and meter influence musical pitch-time relations. Listeners heard a musical context followed by probe events that varied in pitch class and temporal position. Tonal and metric hierarchies contributed additively to the goodness-of-fit of probes, with pitch class exerting a stronger…

  4. Long time existence for the semi-linear beam equation on irrational tori of dimension two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imekraz, Rafik

    2016-10-01

    We prove a long time existence result for the semi-linear beam equation with small and smooth initial data. We use a regularizing effect of the structure of beam equations and a very weak separation property of the spectrum of an irrational torus under a Diophantine assumption on the radius. Our approach is inspired from a paper by Zhang about the Klein-Gordon equation with a quadratic potential.

  5. New conserved currents for vacuum space-times in dimension four with a Killing vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Lobo, Alfonso García-Parrado

    2016-10-01

    A new family of conserved currents for vacuum space-times with a Killing vector is presented. The currents are constructed from the superenergy tensor of the Mars-Simon tensor and using the positivity properties of the former we find that the conserved charges associated to the currents have natural positivity properties in certain cases. Given the role played by the Mars-Simon tensor in local and semi-local characterisations of the Kerr solution, the currents presented in this work are useful to construct non-negative scalar quantities characterising Kerr initial data (known in the literature as non-Kerrness) which in addition are conserved charges.

  6. Skeleton series and multivaluedness of the self-energy functional in zero space-time dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Riccardo; Werner, Félix

    2015-12-01

    Recently, Kozik, Ferrero and Georges discovered numerically that for a family of fundamental models of interacting fermions, the self-energy {{Σ }}[G] is a multi-valued functional of the fully dressed single-particle propagator G, and that the skeleton diagrammatic series {{{Σ }}}{{bold}}[G] converges to the wrong branch above a critical interaction strength. We consider the zero space-time dimensional case, where the same mathematical phenomena appear from elementary algebra. We also find a similar phenomenology for the fully bold formalism built on the fully dressed single-particle propagator and pair propagator.

  7. Effects of Leisure-Time Physical Activity on Vertebral Dimensions in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    PubMed Central

    Oura, Petteri; Paananen, Markus; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Tammelin, Tuija; Herrala, Sauli; Auvinen, Juha; Korpelainen, Raija; Junno, Juho-Antti; Karppinen, Jaro

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are a common burden amongst elderly and late middle aged people. Vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) is a major determinant of vertebral strength and thus associated with vertebral fracture risk. Previous studies suggest that physical activity affects vertebral CSA. We aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) from adolescence to middle age and vertebral dimensions in adulthood. We utilized the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 1188 subjects had records of LTPA at 14, 31 and 46 years, and had undergone lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the mean age of 47 years. Using MRI data, we measured eight dimensions of the L4 vertebra. Socioeconomic status, smoking habits, height and weight were also recorded at 14, 31 and 46 years. We obtained lifetime LTPA (14–46 years of age) trajectories using latent class analysis, which resulted in three categories (active, moderately active, inactive) in both genders. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the association between LTPA and vertebral CSA with adjustments for vertebral height, BMI, socioeconomic status and smoking. High lifetime LTPA was associated with larger vertebral CSA in women but not men. Further research is needed to investigate the factors behind the observed gender-related differences. PMID:27282350

  8. Effects of Leisure-Time Physical Activity on Vertebral Dimensions in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    PubMed

    Oura, Petteri; Paananen, Markus; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Tammelin, Tuija; Herrala, Sauli; Auvinen, Juha; Korpelainen, Raija; Junno, Juho-Antti; Karppinen, Jaro

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are a common burden amongst elderly and late middle aged people. Vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) is a major determinant of vertebral strength and thus associated with vertebral fracture risk. Previous studies suggest that physical activity affects vertebral CSA. We aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) from adolescence to middle age and vertebral dimensions in adulthood. We utilized the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 1188 subjects had records of LTPA at 14, 31 and 46 years, and had undergone lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the mean age of 47 years. Using MRI data, we measured eight dimensions of the L4 vertebra. Socioeconomic status, smoking habits, height and weight were also recorded at 14, 31 and 46 years. We obtained lifetime LTPA (14-46 years of age) trajectories using latent class analysis, which resulted in three categories (active, moderately active, inactive) in both genders. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the association between LTPA and vertebral CSA with adjustments for vertebral height, BMI, socioeconomic status and smoking. High lifetime LTPA was associated with larger vertebral CSA in women but not men. Further research is needed to investigate the factors behind the observed gender-related differences. PMID:27282350

  9. Stiffness Indices and Fractal Dimension relationship in Arterial Pressure and Diameter Time Series in-Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cymberknop, L.; Legnani, W.; Pessana, F.; Bia, D.; Zócalo, Y.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The advent of vascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis, is associated to significant alterations in the physical properties of arterial vessels. Evaluation of arterial biomechanical behaviour is related to the assessment of three representative indices: arterial compliance, arterial distensibility and arterial stiffness index. Elasticity is the most important mechanical property of the arterial wall, whose natures is strictly non-linear. Intervention of elastin and collagen fibres, passive constituent elements of the arterial wall, is related to the applied wall stress level. Concerning this, appropriate tools are required to analyse the temporal dynamics of the signals involved, in order to characterize the whole phenomenon. Fractal geometry can be mentioned as one of those techniques. The aim of this study consisted on arterial pressure and diameter signals processing, by means of nonlinear techniques based on fractal geometry. Time series morphology was related to different arterial stiffness states, generated by means of blood flow variations, during experiences performed in vitro.

  10. Determination of structure tilting in magnetized plasmas—Time delay estimation in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Guszejnov, Dávid; Bencze, Attila; Zoletnik, Sándor; Krämer-Flecken, Andreas

    2013-06-15

    Time delay estimation (TDE) is a well-known technique to investigate poloidal flows in fusion plasmas. The present work is an extension of the earlier works of Bencze and Zoletnik [Phys. Plasmas 12, 052323 (2005)] and Tal et al.[Phys. Plasmas 18, 122304 (2011)]. From the prospective of the comparison of theory and experiment, it seems to be important to estimate the statistical properties of the TDE based on solid mathematical groundings. This paper provides analytic derivation of the variance of the TDE using a two-dimensional model for coherent turbulent structures in the plasma edge and also gives an explicit method for determination of the tilt angle of structures. As a demonstration, this method is then applied to the results of a quasi-2D Beam Emission Spectroscopy measurement performed at the TEXTOR tokamak.

  11. Visualizing Hyporheic Flow Paths in Three Dimensions Using Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, B.; Hall, R. O., Jr.; Carr, B.

    2015-12-01

    The hyporheic zone, the region underneath/surrounding a stream where surface and subsurface waters - and subsequently solutes - are exchanged and interact, is important for many biogeochemical, hydrological, and ecological processes. However, it has remained difficult for researchers to sufficiently describe solute transport within the hyporheic zone, due, in part, to the great degree of heterogeneity of the subsurface. Thus, more direct and invasive sampling techniques are limited in their usefulness. We used an indirect approach for measuring the hyporheic zone, employing 3D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), with a pole-dipole configuration, downstream of a constant-rate addition of an electrically conductive salt tracer (Cl-) as a solution via a high-precision peristaltic pump. This method allowed us to measure the extent of subsurface dynamics of streams in Wyoming's Laramie and Snowy Range mountains, as it yields a three-dimensional view of solute transport and exchange within the hyporheic zone. We found that the physical size of the hyporheic zone and the rate of exchange between the hyporheic and surface waters, as estimated from 3D ERT, are largely related to sediment properties (i.e. grain size distribution) and the extent of tailing of the solute's breakthrough curve (length of time for the solute to flush from the subsurface post cessation of the pump upstream). Coarser sediments with a relatively large porosity, such as gravels and sands, allowed for more subsurface exchange, and larger flow paths, than finer sediments with tighter packing structures, such as clays. Stream reaches that showed a higher degree of tailing in the breakthrough curve, traditionally implying a large transient storage zone, had larger and more active hyporheic zones as measured by 3D ERT. We therefore believe further investigations with 3D ERT will better our understanding of hyporheic exchange and stream solute transport.

  12. A relativistically interacting exactly solvable multi-time model for two massless Dirac particles in 1 + 1 dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Lienert, Matthias

    2015-04-15

    The question how to Lorentz transform an N-particle wave function naturally leads to the concept of a so-called multi-time wave function, i.e., a map from (space-time){sup N} to a spin space. This concept was originally proposed by Dirac as the basis of relativistic quantum mechanics. In such a view, interaction potentials are mathematically inconsistent. This fact motivates the search for new mechanisms for relativistic interactions. In this paper, we explore the idea that relativistic interaction can be described by boundary conditions on the set of coincidence points of two particles in space-time. This extends ideas from zero-range physics to a relativistic setting. We illustrate the idea at the simplest model which still possesses essential physical properties like Lorentz invariance and a positive definite density: two-time equations for massless Dirac particles in 1 + 1 dimensions. In order to deal with a spatio-temporally non-trivial domain, a necessity in the multi-time picture, we develop a new method to prove existence and uniqueness of classical solutions: a generalized version of the method of characteristics. Both mathematical and physical considerations are combined to precisely formulate and answer the questions of probability conservation, Lorentz invariance, interaction, and antisymmetry.

  13. A relativistic one-particle Time of Arrival operator for a free spin- 1 / 2 particle in (1 + 1) dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunao, Joseph; Galapon, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    As a follow-up to a recent study in the spin-0 case (Bunao and Galapon, 2015), we construct a one-particle Time of Arrival (TOA) operator conjugate to a Hamiltonian describing a free relativistic spin- 1 / 2 particle in one spatial dimension. Upon transformation in a representation where the Hamiltonian is diagonal, it turns out that the constructed operator consists of an operator term T ˆ whose action is the same as in the spin-0 case, and another operator term Tˆ0 which commutes with the Hamiltonian but breaks invariance under parity inversion. If we must impose this symmetry on our TOA operator, then we can throw away Tˆ0 so that the TOA operator is just T ˆ .

  14. NMR-based estimates of the molecular dimensions in wildfire charcoal: Implications for predictions of biochar residence time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockaday, William; Kane, Evan; Huang, Rixiang; Von Bargen, Justin; Davis, Rebecca; Ohlson, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    The thermochemical conversion of biomass to energy and fuels generates charcoal as a co-product. Charcoals derived from sustainable biomass sources—biochars—are an inherently stable form of carbon, relatively long residence times in the environment. Biochars can have potentially beneficial properties as soil fertility amendments, which has further stimulated research on the use of biochars for soil carbon sequestration as a climate change mitigation strategy. However, it is challenging to assess the long-term stability of biochar carbon using laboratory or field incubations because these are comprised of short-term observations. In this study, we make use of ancient charcoals from the boreal forests of Alaska and Scandanavia. We have deliberately selected charcoals from organic soil horizons, as to investigate the inherent biological and chemical stability of charcoal C without the protective influence of soil minerals. We use 14C radiocarbon dating to determine the age of the charcoals, differential scanning calorimetry to assess thermal stability, and solid-state 13C NMR to assess the chemical structure. Specifically, we employ C-H dipolar-dephasing NMR experiments to estimate the relative abundance and molecular dimensions of condensed aromatic domains and aliphatic structures. We test the hypothesis that the environmental stability, as determined by apparent 14C age and thermal stability, is related to the extent of ring condensation in the charcoal structure. Preliminary results suggest that the dimension of the condensed aromatic ring clusters may be an important molecular parameter to include in algorithms used to model/predict the residence time of charcoal and biochar C in soil.

  15. How Long Was the Coast of Ireland? Investigating the Variation of the Fractal Dimension of Maps over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, M.; Myers, D.; Sun, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The divider dimensions of a range of maps of Ireland dating from 1567 to 1893 are evaluated, and it is shown that for maps produced before 1650 the fractal dimension of the map can be correlated to its date of publication. Various classroom uses and extensions are discussed. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Minimum length, extra dimensions, modified gravity and black hole remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Maziashvili, Michael

    2013-03-01

    We construct a Hilbert space representation of minimum-length deformed uncertainty relation in presence of extra dimensions. Following this construction, we study corrections to the gravitational potential (back reaction on gravity) with the use of correspondingly modified propagator in presence of two (spatial) extra dimensions. Interestingly enough, for r→0 the gravitational force approaches zero and the horizon for modified Schwarzschild-Tangherlini space-time disappears when the mass approaches quantum-gravity energy scale. This result points out to the existence of zero-temperature black hole remnants in ADD brane-world model.

  17. Multiple Counseling in Open and Closed Time-Extended Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, W. M.

    The open time-extended group, run by multiple counselors, adds a facilitating dimension to the counseling function--a dimension that exemplifies the concepts of self-growth and self-actualization by first providing the atmosphere for the client and then by allowing him to progress at his own rate and to a depth which he determines. An open group…

  18. ADDE: Application Development for the Distributed Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franckson, Marcel; Hall, John; Helmerich, Alfred; Canadas, Rafael; Dehn, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Application Development for the Distributed Enterprise (ADDE) project, a methodological set that supports the design of distributed business processes and information and communication technologies. Discusses principles behind ADDE, guidance on definition and planning of application development, guidance on distributed application…

  19. Inviting Calm Within: ADD, Neurology, and Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riner, Phillip S.; Tanase, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM IV") describes ADD as behaviorally observed impairments in attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Officially known as AD/HD, we use ADD here because we are dealing primarily with attention, organizational, and impulsivity issues. A more…

  20. ADD Teacher Inservice Project. Final Grant Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Mark C.; Schulz, Eldon G.

    The report describes activities and achievements of the Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) Teacher Inservice Project. The inservice program was developed using a formal process to identify the critical issues related to ADD awareness, assessment, and intervention. Program content was designed to address critical issues identified in the research…

  1. A regression model for calculating the second dimension retention index in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Shen, Hao; Fang, Aiqin; Huang, De-Shuang; Jiang, Changjun; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Peng

    2016-06-17

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS) system has become a key analytical technology in high-throughput analysis. Retention index has been approved to be helpful for compound identification in one-dimensional gas chromatography, which is also true for two-dimensional gas chromatography. In this work, a novel regression model was proposed for calculating the second dimension retention index of target components where n-alkanes were used as reference compounds. This model was developed to depict the relationship among adjusted second dimension retention time, temperature of the second dimension column and carbon number of n-alkanes by an exponential nonlinear function with only five parameters. Three different criteria were introduced to find the optimal values of parameters. The performance of this model was evaluated using experimental data of n-alkanes (C7-C31) at 24 temperatures which can cover all 0-6s adjusted retention time area. The experimental results show that the mean relative error between predicted adjusted retention time and experimental data of n-alkanes was only 2%. Furthermore, our proposed model demonstrates a good extrapolation capability for predicting adjusted retention time of target compounds which located out of the range of the reference compounds in the second dimension adjusted retention time space. Our work shows the deviation was less than 9 retention index units (iu) while the number of alkanes were added up to 5. The performance of our proposed model has also been demonstrated by analyzing a mixture of compounds in temperature programmed experiments. PMID:27208985

  2. Review of 99 self-report measures for assessing well-being in adults: exploring dimensions of well-being and developments over time

    PubMed Central

    Dieppe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Investigators within many disciplines are using measures of well-being, but it is not always clear what they are measuring, or which instruments may best meet their objectives. The aims of this review were to: systematically identify well-being instruments, explore the variety of well-being dimensions within instruments and describe how the production of instruments has developed over time. Design Systematic searches, thematic analysis and narrative synthesis were undertaken. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, EconLit, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and CINAHL from 1993 to 2014 complemented by web searches and expert consultations through 2015. Eligibility criteria Instruments were selected for review if they were designed for adults (≥18 years old), generic (ie, non-disease or context specific) and available in an English version. Results A total of 99 measures of well-being were included, and 196 dimensions of well-being were identified within them. Dimensions clustered around 6 key thematic domains: mental well-being, social well-being, physical well-being, spiritual well-being, activities and functioning, and personal circumstances. Authors were rarely explicit about how existing theories had influenced the design of their tools; however, the 2 most referenced theories were Diener's model of subjective well-being and the WHO definition of health. The period between 1990 and 1999 produced the greatest number of newly developed well-being instruments (n=27). An illustration of the dimensions identified and the instruments that measure them is provided within a thematic framework of well-being. Conclusions This review provides researchers with an organised toolkit of instruments, dimensions and an accompanying glossary. The striking variability between instruments supports the need to pay close attention to what is being assessed under the umbrella of ‘well-being’ measurement. PMID:27388349

  3. Nonreciprocal photonic crystal add-drop filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Keyu; Xiao, Jun-Jun; Yin, Xiaobo

    2014-11-01

    We present a versatile add-drop integrated photonic filter (ADF) consisting of nonreciprocal waveguides in which the propagation of light is restricted in one predetermined direction. With the bus and add/drop waveguides symmetrically coupled through a cavity, the four-port device allows each individual port to add and/or drop a signal of the same frequency. The scheme is general and we demonstrate the nonreciprocal ADF with magneto-optical photonic crystals. The filter is immune to waveguide defects, allowing straightforward implementation of multi-channel ADFs by cascading the four-port designs. The results should find applications in wavelength-division multiplexing and related integrated photonic techniques.

  4. Nonreciprocal photonic crystal add-drop filter

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Keyu; Xiao, Jun-Jun; Yin, Xiaobo

    2014-11-24

    We present a versatile add-drop integrated photonic filter (ADF) consisting of nonreciprocal waveguides in which the propagation of light is restricted in one predetermined direction. With the bus and add/drop waveguides symmetrically coupled through a cavity, the four-port device allows each individual port to add and/or drop a signal of the same frequency. The scheme is general and we demonstrate the nonreciprocal ADF with magneto-optical photonic crystals. The filter is immune to waveguide defects, allowing straightforward implementation of multi-channel ADFs by cascading the four-port designs. The results should find applications in wavelength-division multiplexing and related integrated photonic techniques.

  5. Massive gravity with mass term in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasone, Masashi; Oda, Ichiro

    2009-05-15

    We analyze the effect of the Pauli-Fierz mass term on a recently established, new massive gravity theory in three space-time dimensions. We show that the Pauli-Fierz mass term makes the new massive gravity theory nonunitary. Moreover, although we add the gravitational Chern-Simons term to this model, the situation remains unchanged and the theory stays nonunitary despite that the structure of the graviton propagator is greatly changed. Thus, the Pauli-Fierz mass term is not allowed to coexist with mass-generating higher-derivative terms in the new massive gravity.

  6. Shift-and-add for astronomical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribak, Erez; Hege, E. Keith; Strobel, Nicolas V.; Christou, Julian C.

    1989-01-01

    Diffraction-limited astronomical images have been obtained utilizing a variant of the shift-and-add method. It is shown that the matched filter approach for extending the weighted shift-and-add method reduces specklegrams from extended objects and from an object dominated by photon noise. The method is aberration-insensitive and yields very high dynamic range results. The iterative method for arriving at the matched filter does not automatically converge in the case of photon-noisy specklegrams for objects with more than one maximum.

  7. Comparing range data across the slow-time dimension to correct motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.; Heard, Freddie E.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    2010-08-17

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  8. Dimension stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2003-01-01

    Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

  9. 76 FR 49508 - ``Add Us In'' Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Register on August 4, 2011 at 76 FR 150. Specifically, we are correcting the Funding Opportunity... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Disability Employment Program ``Add Us In'' Initiative AGENCY: Office of Disability...

  10. Effects of the voltage and time of anodization on modulation of the pore dimensions of AAO films for nanomaterials synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahrour, Khaled M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hashim, M. R.; Elfadill, Nezar G.; Maryam, W.; Ahmad, M. A.; Bououdina, M.

    2015-12-01

    Highly-ordered and hexagonal-shaped nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) of 1 μm thickness of Al pre-deposited onto Si substrate using two-step anodization was successfully fabricated. The growth mechanism of the porous AAO film was investigated by anodization current-time behavior for different anodizing voltages and by visualizing the microstructural procedure of the fabrication of AAO film by two-step anodization using cross-sectional and top view of FESEM imaging. Optimum conditions of the process variables such as annealing time of the as-deposited Al thin film and pore widening time of porous AAO film were experimentally determined to obtain AAO films with uniformly distributed and vertically aligned porous microstructure. Pores with diameter ranging from 50 nm to 110 nm and thicknesses between 250 nm and 1400 nm, were obtained by controlling two main influential anodization parameters: the anodizing voltage and time of the second-step anodization. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation after annealing at temperatures above 800 °C. AFM images show optimum ordering of the porous AAO film anodized under low voltage condition. AAO films may be exploited as templates with desired size distribution for the fabrication of CuO nanorod arrays. Such nanostructured materials exhibit unique properties and hold high potential for nanotechnology devices.

  11. An alternative interpretation for a hyper-runaway star based on the 5-dimension space-time projection theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kai Wai; Curatolo, Susana; Dreschhoff, Gisela

    The distribution of masses in the galaxy have been investigated within the frame of the 5D space-time field theory [1,2; also see www.google groups/group/5Duniverse/]. Here we will focus on one of the results which is related to the exponentially time increasing outward spiral speed of stars in the galaxy. The solution of the centripetal force equation leading to this result also indicates that this hypervelocity may be present only during the early stage after the galaxy's creation. However, it can also be shown, that, as the outward spiral rate of this star depends on the motion of all the galactic masses within the galaxy, the star must slow down with aging as the other masses spiral outward. For this reason it is suggested that the 5D space-time field theory may be applicable to the recent findings of some runaway stars, such as HD 271791, seemingly escaping from the galaxy [3]. [1] K.W. Wong, Nova Sciences, in press [2] K.W. Wong, Nova science, in press [3] N. Przybilla et al., Ap. J., 684, L103-l106, 2008

  12. International Dimensions in Community College Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innovation Abstracts, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A cooperative project between community colleges in the Northeast and the Universities Field Staff International (UFSI) which sought to add an international dimension to existing community college curricula is described. Two objectives of the project are listed: to broaden faculty and administrative interest and skills in international studies;…

  13. Method and apparatus for nuclear kymography providing a motion versus time display of the outer transverse dimensions of an organ

    SciTech Connect

    Groch, M.W.; Lewis, G.K.

    1980-12-23

    A system and method for obtaining a nuclear kymogram of regional wall motion of an organ under study such as a human heart includes injecting a radioisotope into the blood stream which accumulates in the cardiac blood pool or myocardium. A scintillation camera having a reduced generally elongated area of data recordation is positioned overlying a selected portion of the heart and positional ''events'' occurring along the major axis of the area of recordation are swept across a crt in synchronism with the ecg signal. Successive real-time displays each in synchronism with the ecg signal are accumulated to provide a nuclear kymogram.

  14. Time and Demand are Two Critical Dimensions of Immunometabolism: The Process of Macrophage Activation and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Csörsz; Haschemi, Arvand

    2015-01-01

    A process is a function of time; in immunometabolism, this is reflected by the stepwise adaptation of metabolism to sustain the bio-energetic demand of an immune-response in its various states and shades. This perspective article starts by presenting an early attempt to investigate the physiology of inflammation, in order to illustrate one of the basic concepts of immunometabolism, wherein an adapted metabolism of infiltrating immune cells affects tissue function and inflammation. We then focus on the process of macrophage activation and aim to delineate the factor time within the current molecular context of metabolic-rewiring important for adapting primary carbohydrate metabolism. In the last section, we will provide information on how the pentose phosphate pathway may be of importance to provide both nucleotide precursors and redox-equivalents, and speculate how carbon-scrambling events in the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway might be regulated within cells by demand. We conclude that the adapted metabolism of inflammation is specific in respect to the effector-function and appears as a well-orchestrated event, dynamic by nature, and based on a functional interplay of signaling- and metabolic-pathways.

  15. Experimental investigation of the effect of stiffness, exposure time and scan direction on the dimension of ultrasound histotripsy lesions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Bigelow, Timothy A

    2011-11-01

    Histotripsy uses high-intensity focused ultrasound to create energetic bubble clouds inside tissue to liquefy a region and has the advantages of higher contrast B-mode monitoring and sharp borders. This study experimentally investigated the effects of stiffness, exposure time and scan direction on the size of histotripsy-induced lesions in agar samples. A targeted region 0.45 cm wide (lateral) and 0.6 cm deep (axial) was scanned with the step sizes of 0.075 cm and 0.3 cm, respectively. The single-element spherically focused source (1.1 MHz, 6.34 cm focal length, f/1) had the peak compressional and rarefactional pressures of approximately 102 and 17 MPa. Pulses consisted of 20-cycle sine wave tone bursts with a burst period of 3 ms and exposure time of 15, 30 or 60 s. Also, both inward and outward scan direction were tested along the beam axis. The liquefied lesions generally had a larger size than the initially targeted region with larger sizes corresponding to softer agar and longer exposure. There was not a statistically significant difference in the lesion size with scan direction.

  16. Long Time, Large Scale Limit of the Wigner Transform for a System of Linear Oscillators in One Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komorowski, Tomasz; Stȩpień, Łukasz

    2012-07-01

    We consider the long time, large scale behavior of the Wigner transform W ɛ ( t, x, k) of the wave function corresponding to a discrete wave equation on a 1-d integer lattice, with a weak multiplicative noise. This model has been introduced in Basile et al. in Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) to describe a system of interacting linear oscillators with a weak noise that conserves locally the kinetic energy and the momentum. The kinetic limit for the Wigner transform has been shown in Basile et al. in Arch. Rat. Mech. 195(1):171-203 (2009). In the present paper we prove that in the unpinned case there exists γ 0>0 such that for any γ∈(0, γ 0] the weak limit of W ɛ ( t/ ɛ 3/2 γ , x/ ɛ γ , k), as ɛ≪1, satisfies a one dimensional fractional heat equation partialt W(t,x)=-hat{c}(-partialx2)^{3/4}W(t,x) with hat{c}>0. In the pinned case an analogous result can be claimed for W ɛ ( t/ ɛ 2 γ , x/ ɛ γ , k) but the limit satisfies then the usual heat equation.

  17. Investigating the dimension of time: findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of temporality or time within music therapy.

    PubMed

    Daveson, Barbara; O'Callaghan, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Many references to time or temporality are located within music therapy literature, however little research has been completed regarding this phenomenon. Findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of time within the context of music therapy are presented here. The study was informed by the constructivist-interpretive paradigm and a grounded-descriptive statement finding resulted. A 2-staged research methodology was used, comprising a deductive-inductive content analysis of information from the public domain, followed by data-mining of information from a minimum of 160 clients and analysis of data from at least 43 of these 160 clients. Information regarding memory experiences, the duration of music therapy effects, recall and retrieval, and experiences of time are identified. Implications for practice are emphasized, in particular the following is stressed (a) the importance of time orientation and temporal connectedness in relation to identity development, (b) temporal strategies within music experience to assist integration, recall, and retrieval of information, and (c) the importance of and the elements involved in time modification. New explanations for music therapy phenomena are shared, and areas for research highlighted. Benefits of using time dynamically to aid therapeutic process are proposed, and it is concluded that temporal experience within the context of music therapy is important in relation to both practice and research.

  18. Johannes Kepler and Extra Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2004-02-01

    How many dimensions are there? The answer used to be four — three spatial and one time dimension. Maybe it still is, though nowadays we hear that the answer may be more, perhaps many more. Many of our students have heard about this on television or read about it. They want to know more. Why do physicists think we need more than three spatial dimensions? What's the point of it all?

  19. Symmetry of the gradient profile as second experimental dimension in the short-time expansion of the apparent diffusion coefficient as measured with NMR diffusometry.

    PubMed

    Laun, Frederik Bernd; Kuder, Tristan Anselm; Zong, Fangrong; Hertel, Stefan; Galvosas, Petrik

    2015-10-01

    The time-dependent apparent diffusion coefficient as measured by pulsed gradient NMR can be used to estimate parameters of porous structures including the surface-to-volume ratio and the mean curvature of pores. In this work, the short-time diffusion limit and in particular the influence of the temporal profile of diffusion gradients on the expansion as proposed by Mitra et al. (1993) is investigated. It is shown that flow-compensated waveforms, i.e. those whose first moment is zero, are blind to the term linear in observation time, which is the term that is proportional to mean curvature and surface permeability. A gradient waveform that smoothly interpolates between flow-compensated and bipolar waveform is proposed and the degree of flow-compensation is used as a second experimental dimension. This two-dimensional ansatz is shown to yield an improved precision when characterizing the confining domain. This technique is demonstrated with simulations and in experiments performed with cylindrical capillaries of 100 μm radius.

  20. An Extra Dimension to Decision-Making in Animals: The Three-way Trade-off between Speed, Effort per-Unit-Time and Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    de Froment, Adrian J.; Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Levin, Simon A.

    2014-01-01

    The standard view in biology is that all animals, from bumblebees to human beings, face a trade-off between speed and accuracy as they search for resources and mates, and attempt to avoid predators. For example, the more time a forager spends out of cover gathering information about potential food sources the more likely it is to make accurate decisions about which sources are most rewarding. However, when the cost of time spent out of cover rises (e.g. in the presence of a predator) the optimal strategy is for the forager to spend less time gathering information and to accept a corresponding decline in the accuracy of its decisions. We suggest that this familiar picture is missing a crucial dimension: the amount of effort an animal expends on gathering information in each unit of time. This is important because an animal that can respond to changing time costs by modulating its level of effort per-unit-time does not have to accept the same decrease in accuracy that an animal limited to a simple speed-accuracy trade-off must bear in the same situation. Instead, it can direct additional effort towards (i) reducing the frequency of perceptual errors in the samples it gathers or (ii) increasing the number of samples it gathers per-unit-time. Both of these have the effect of allowing it to gather more accurate information within a given period of time. We use a modified version of a canonical model of decision-making (the sequential probability ratio test) to show that this ability to substitute effort for time confers a fitness advantage in the face of changing time costs. We predict that the ability to modulate effort levels will therefore be widespread in nature, and we lay out testable predictions that could be used to detect adaptive modulation of effort levels in laboratory and field studies. Our understanding of decision-making in all species, including our own, will be improved by this more ecologically-complete picture of the three-way tradeoff between time

  1. An extra dimension to decision-making in animals: the three-way trade-off between speed, effort per-unit-time and accuracy.

    PubMed

    de Froment, Adrian J; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Levin, Simon A

    2014-12-01

    The standard view in biology is that all animals, from bumblebees to human beings, face a trade-off between speed and accuracy as they search for resources and mates, and attempt to avoid predators. For example, the more time a forager spends out of cover gathering information about potential food sources the more likely it is to make accurate decisions about which sources are most rewarding. However, when the cost of time spent out of cover rises (e.g. in the presence of a predator) the optimal strategy is for the forager to spend less time gathering information and to accept a corresponding decline in the accuracy of its decisions. We suggest that this familiar picture is missing a crucial dimension: the amount of effort an animal expends on gathering information in each unit of time. This is important because an animal that can respond to changing time costs by modulating its level of effort per-unit-time does not have to accept the same decrease in accuracy that an animal limited to a simple speed-accuracy trade-off must bear in the same situation. Instead, it can direct additional effort towards (i) reducing the frequency of perceptual errors in the samples it gathers or (ii) increasing the number of samples it gathers per-unit-time. Both of these have the effect of allowing it to gather more accurate information within a given period of time. We use a modified version of a canonical model of decision-making (the sequential probability ratio test) to show that this ability to substitute effort for time confers a fitness advantage in the face of changing time costs. We predict that the ability to modulate effort levels will therefore be widespread in nature, and we lay out testable predictions that could be used to detect adaptive modulation of effort levels in laboratory and field studies. Our understanding of decision-making in all species, including our own, will be improved by this more ecologically-complete picture of the three-way tradeoff between time

  2. Within-Subject Associations between Mood Dimensions and Non-exercise Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Approach Using Repeated Real-Time and Objective Data.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Markus; Tost, Heike; Reinhard, Iris; Zipf, Alexander; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W

    2016-01-01

    A physically active lifestyle has been related to positive health outcomes and high life expectancy, but the underlying psychological mechanisms maintaining physical activity are rarely investigated. Tremendous technological progress yielding sophisticated methodological approaches, i.e., ambulatory assessment, have recently enabled the study of these mechanisms in everyday life. In practice, accelerometers allow to continuously and objectively monitor physical activity. The combination with e-diaries makes it feasible to repeatedly assess mood states in real-time and real life and to relate them to physical activity. This state-of-the-art methodology comes with several advantages, like bypassing systematic distortions of retrospective methods, avoiding distortions seen in laboratory settings, and revealing an objective physical activity assessment. Most importantly, ambulatory assessment studies enable to analyze how physical activity and mood wax and wane within persons over time in contrast to existing studies on physical activity and mood which mostly investigated between-person associations. However, there are very few studies on how mood dimensions (i.e., feeling well, energetic and calm) drive non-exercise activity (NEA; such as climbing stairs) within persons. Recent reviews argued that some of these studies have methodological limitations, e.g., scarcely representative samples, short study periods, physical activity assessment via self-reports, and low sampling frequencies. To overcome these limitations, we conducted an ambulatory assessment study in a community-based sample of 106 adults over 1 week. Participants were asked to report mood ratings on e-diaries and to wear an accelerometer in daily life. We conducted multilevel analyses to investigate whether mood predicted NEA, which was defined as the mean acceleration within the 10-min interval directly following an e-diary assessment. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of NEA on different time frames

  3. Within-Subject Associations between Mood Dimensions and Non-exercise Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Approach Using Repeated Real-Time and Objective Data

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Markus; Tost, Heike; Reinhard, Iris; Zipf, Alexander; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2016-01-01

    A physically active lifestyle has been related to positive health outcomes and high life expectancy, but the underlying psychological mechanisms maintaining physical activity are rarely investigated. Tremendous technological progress yielding sophisticated methodological approaches, i.e., ambulatory assessment, have recently enabled the study of these mechanisms in everyday life. In practice, accelerometers allow to continuously and objectively monitor physical activity. The combination with e-diaries makes it feasible to repeatedly assess mood states in real-time and real life and to relate them to physical activity. This state-of-the-art methodology comes with several advantages, like bypassing systematic distortions of retrospective methods, avoiding distortions seen in laboratory settings, and revealing an objective physical activity assessment. Most importantly, ambulatory assessment studies enable to analyze how physical activity and mood wax and wane within persons over time in contrast to existing studies on physical activity and mood which mostly investigated between-person associations. However, there are very few studies on how mood dimensions (i.e., feeling well, energetic and calm) drive non-exercise activity (NEA; such as climbing stairs) within persons. Recent reviews argued that some of these studies have methodological limitations, e.g., scarcely representative samples, short study periods, physical activity assessment via self-reports, and low sampling frequencies. To overcome these limitations, we conducted an ambulatory assessment study in a community-based sample of 106 adults over 1 week. Participants were asked to report mood ratings on e-diaries and to wear an accelerometer in daily life. We conducted multilevel analyses to investigate whether mood predicted NEA, which was defined as the mean acceleration within the 10-min interval directly following an e-diary assessment. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of NEA on different time frames

  4. Drell-Yan, , production in SM & ADD model to NLOPS accuracy at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederix, R.; Mandal, M. K.; Mathews, P.; Ravindran, V.; Seth, S.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present the next-to-leading order QCD corrections for di-lepton, di-electroweak boson (, ) production in both the SM and the ADD model, matched to the HERWIG parton shower using the aMC@NLO framework. A selection of results at the 8 TeV LHC, which exhibit deviations from the SM as a result of the large extra-dimension scenario, are presented.

  5. User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 1: General ADD code description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the AXISYMMETRIC DIFFUSER DUCT code or ADD code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

  6. Dimensions of Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill in the General Population Stability and Change over Time at Urban and Rural Sites

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Items measuring attitudes toward the mentally ill can be limited in relevance to a particular period or place. The main objective of the study was to provide evidence toward a questionnaire that was short and psychometrically stable over time and geography, and that could be used within comprehensive mental health surveys of general populations. Four rural samples, Lofoten 1983 (n = 470), 1990 (n = 947), 2000 (n = 864), and Valdres 2010 (n = 772), and two urban samples, Oslo 1990 (n = 948) and 2000 (n = 467), were used to test this. The questionnaire was self-administered with fixed questions and response alternatives. Using the three Lofoten and the two Oslo samples, the stability of the factor analytic structure of 19 attitude items was established. In all analyses, there was a clear leveling off after three factors. The 13 highest loading items on these three factors were used in a new rural region, Valdres, in 2010. The three established factors/dimensions, named Distance, Demands, and Positive, seemed to be reasonably stable within a variety of Norwegian samples. On the other hand, the analyses were different enough to recommend researchers and politicians to be careful when comparing absolute levels of the suggested indexes across different locations and at different points in time. PMID:24236278

  7. Independents add gas reserves, forego romance

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, D.

    1981-08-01

    Incentive pricing for low-permeability reservoirs and tax advantages for drilling them are 2 big reasons why more independents may start making a special effort to add gas reserves to their inventories. If so, it will be a change from past practices, which saw independents build up big gas positions by circumstance rather than by intention. There are always major refiners ready and willing to buy whole crude oil reservoirs from small producers, but purchasers willing to take gas fields in a single investment are few and far between. Lower-than-normal return on equity during the first 20 years, plus the heavy front-end cost of a frac necessary to produce the tight gas might dissuade independents from drilling tight gas sands, but those liabilities are offset by the higher price tight gas gets and the peculiar tax advantages of exploring for it that make a nice fit with the small operator's way of doing business.

  8. Using Joint Interviews to Add Analytic Value.

    PubMed

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2016-10-01

    Joint interviewing has been frequently used in health research, and is the subject of a growing methodological literature. We review this literature, and build on it by drawing on a case study of how people make decisions about taking statins. This highlights two ways in which a dyadic approach to joint interviewing can add analytic value compared with individual interviewing. First, the analysis of interaction within joint interviews can help to explicate tacit knowledge and to illuminate the range of often hard-to-access resources that are drawn upon in making decisions. Second, joint interviews mitigate some of the weaknesses of interviewing as a method for studying practices; we offer a cautious defense of the often-tacit assumption that the "naturalness" of joint interviews strengthens their credibility as the basis for analytic inferences. We suggest that joint interviews are a particularly appropriate method for studying complex shared practices such as making health decisions. PMID:25850721

  9. Modern Material Analysis Instruments Add a New Dimension to Materials Characterization and Failure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Binayak

    2009-01-01

    Modern analytical tools can yield invaluable results during materials characterization and failure analysis. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) provide significant analytical capabilities, including angstrom-level resolution. These systems can be equipped with a silicon drift detector (SDD) for very fast yet precise analytical mapping of phases, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) units to map grain orientations, chambers that admit large samples, variable pressure for wet samples, and quantitative analysis software to examine phases. Advanced solid-state electronics have also improved surface and bulk analysis instruments: Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) can quantitatively determine and map light elements such as hydrogen, lithium, and boron - with their isotopes. Its high sensitivity detects impurities at parts per billion (ppb) levels. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) can determine oxidation states of elements, as well as identifying polymers and measuring film thicknesses on coated composites. This technique is also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAM) combines surface sensitivity, spatial lateral resolution (10 nm), and depth profiling capabilities to describe elemental compositions of near and below surface regions down to the chemical state of an atom.

  10. Digital Age Adds New Dimension to Incidents of Staff-Student Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how the current must-have tools of adolescent social networks--cell phone text messaging, Web sites such as MySpace and Facebook, and e-mail--are being used by teachers and other school employees who prey on students to foster inappropriate relationships and perpetrate abuse. When the sexual abuse of students by educators…

  11. Assessment of scale-dependent foraging behaviour in southern elephant seals incorporating the vertical dimension: a development of the First Passage Time method.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Frederic; Pinaud, David; Hindell, Mark; Charrassin, Jean-Benoît; Guinet, Christophe

    2008-09-01

    1. Identifying the spatial scales at which top marine predators forage is important for understanding oceanic ecosystems. Several methods quantify how individuals concentrate their search effort along a given path. Among these, First-Passage Time (FPT) analysis is particularly useful to identify transitions in movement patterns (e.g. between searching and feeding). This method has mainly been applied to terrestrial animals or flying seabirds that have little or no vertical component to their foraging, so we examined the differences between classic FPT and a modification of this approach using the time spent at the bottom of a dive for characterizing the foraging activity of a diving predator: the southern elephant seal. 2. Satellite relayed data loggers were deployed on 20 individuals during three successive summers at the Kerguelen Islands, providing a total of 72 978 dives from eight juvenile males and nine adult females. 3. Spatial scales identified using the time spent at the bottom of a dive ( = 68.2 +/- 42.1 km) were smaller than those obtained by the classic FPT analysis ( = 104.7 +/- 67.3 km). Moreover, foraging areas identified using the new approach clearly overlapped areas where individuals increased their body condition, indicating that it accurately reflected the foraging activity of the seals. 4. These results suggest that incorporating the vertical dimension into FPT provides a different result to the surface path alone. Close to the Antarctic continent, within the pack-ice, sinuosity of the path could be explained by a high sea-ice concentration (restricting elephant seal movements), and was not necessarily related to foraging activity. 5. Our approach distinguished between actual foraging activity and changes in behaviour induced by the physical environment like sea ice, and could be applied to other diving predators. Inclusion of diving parameters appears to be essential to identify the spatial scale of foraging areas of diving animals. PMID

  12. Origin of Everything and the 21 Dimensions of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loev, Mark

    2009-03-01

    The Dimensions of the Universe correspond with the Dimensions of the human body. The emotion that is a positive for every dimension is Love. The negative emotion that effects each dimension are listed. All seven negative emotions effect Peace, Love and Happiness. 21st Dimension: Happiness Groin & Heart 20th Dimension: Love Groin & Heart 19th Dimension: Peace Groin & heart 18th Dimension: Imagination Wave Eyes Anger 17th Dimension: Z Wave / Closed Birth 16th Dimension: Electromagnetic Wave Ears Anger 15th Dimension: Universal Wave Skin Worry 14th Dimension: Lover Wave Blood Hate 13th Dimension: Disposal Wave Buttocks Fear 12th Dimension: Builder Wave Hands Hate 11th Dimension: Energy Wave Arms Fear 10th Dimension: Time Wave Brain Pessimism 9th Dimension: Gravity Wave Legs Fear 8th Dimension: Sweet Wave Pancreas Fear 7th Dimension: File Wave Left Lung Fear 6th Dimension: Breathing Wave Right Lung Fear 5th Dimension: Digestive Wave Stomach Fear 4th Dimension: Swab Wave Liver Guilt 3rd Dimension: Space Wave Face Sadness 2nd Dimension: Line Wave Mouth Revenge 1st Dimension: Dot Wave Nose Sadness The seven deadly sins correspond: Anger Hate Sadness Fear Worry Pessimism Revenge Note: Guilt is fear

  13. Heuristic optimization methods for run-time intensive models (Dynamically Dimensioned Search, Particle Swarm Optimization, GA) - a comparison of performance and parallel implementation using R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, Till; Bronster, Axel; Shoemaker, Christine A.

    2010-05-01

    Calibrating complex hydrological models faces two major challenges: firstly, extended models, especially when spatially distributed, encompass a large number of parameters with different (and possibly a-priori unknown) sensitivity. Due to the usually rough surface of the objective function, this aggravates the risk of an algorithm to converge in a local optimum. Thus, gradient-based optimization methods are often bound to fail without a very good prior estimate. Secondly, despite growing computational power, it is not uncommon that models of large extent in space or time take several minutes to run, which severely restricts the total number of model evaluations under given computational and time resources. While various heuristic methods successfully address the first challenge, they tend to conflict with the second challenge due to the increased number of evaluations necessary. In that context we analyzed three methods (Dynamically Dimensioned Search / DDS, Particle Swarm Optimization / PSO, Genetic Algorithms /GA). We performed tests with common "synthetic" objective functions and a calibration of the hydrological model WASA-SED with different number of parameters. When looking at the reduction of the objective function within few (i.e.< 1000) evaluations, the methods generally perform in the order (best to worst) DDS-PSO-GA. Only at a larger number, GA can excel. To speed up optimization, we executed DDS and PSO as parallel applications, i.e. using multiple CPUs and/or computers. The parallelisation has been implemented in the ppso-package for the free computation environment R. Special focus has been laid onto the options to resume interrupted optimization runs and visualize progress.

  14. Novel fiber bottle microresonator add-drop filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Murugan, Ganapathy; Wilkinson, James S.; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2010-02-01

    Novel bottle microresonators fabricated from standard telecommunications optical fiber were recently shown to support helical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) extending along the bottle length between the bottle necks. Intensity maxima were observed around the turning points on both sides close to the bottle necks where the WGMs are effectively reflected. Selective excitation on one side of the bottle microresonator leads to strong power localization at a symmetrically located turning point for the WGMs and can potentially be exploited to form effective add-drop filters. Channel dropping characteristics have been studied experimentally for the first time in this novel type of microresonator. A tapered optical fiber (drawn down to 2-3 microns in diameter with effective index of approximately 1.2) was placed on one side of the bottle to excite the bottle WGMs. A similar tapered fiber placed symmetrically on the other side of the bottle acted as a probe to extract the excited modes. We have successfully extracted power from all the resonance wavelengths using the probe placed at appropriate positions along the bottle, leading to the potential to construct efficient all fiber add-drop filters.

  15. Mothers whose children have ADD/ADHD discuss their children's medication use: an investigation of blogs.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Juanne N; Lang, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a frame and discourse analysis of Internet blog sites where parents (usually mothers) discuss their concerns about medication use by their children with attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). This is a particularly important topic in an era characterized by powerful circulating discourses around the contentious medicalization of, and prevalent pharmaceutical treatments for, ADD/ADHD, as well as the mother blame associated with having a child diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. The findings document that the mothers see ADD/ADHD as legitimate medical diagnoses and view themselves as caretakers of children with brain and neuro-chemical anomalies affecting the behavior of their children. They favor pharmaceutical use and describe themselves as experts in the difficult and complex issues related to pharmaceuticalized parenting. At the same time their adoption of medicalization is contingent as they express specific critiques of some doctors, some types of doctors, and critically evaluate science.

  16. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  17. Social Capital: Does It Add to the Health Inequalities Debate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Funk, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relationship between advantage, social capital and health status to assess (a) whether social capital adds explanatory power to what we already know about the relationship between advantage and health and (b) whether social capital adds anything beyond its component parts, namely social participation and trust.…

  18. Photothermally tunable silicon-microring-based optical add-drop filter through integrated light absorber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Shi, Yuechun; Lou, Fei; Chen, Yiting; Yan, Min; Wosinski, Lech; Qiu, Min

    2014-10-20

    An optically pumped thermo-optic (TO) silicon ring add-drop filter with fast thermal response is experimentally demonstrated. We propose that metal-insulator-metal (MIM) light absorber can be integrated into silicon TO devices, acting as a localized heat source which can be activated remotely by a pump beam. The MIM absorber design introduces less thermal capacity to the device, compared to conventional electrically-driven approaches. Experimentally, the absorber-integrated add-drop filter shows an optical response time of 13.7 μs following the 10%-90% rule (equivalent to a exponential time constant of 5 μs) and a wavelength shift over pump power of 60 pm/mW. The photothermally tunable add-drop filter may provide new perspectives for all-optical routing and switching in integrated Si photonic circuits. PMID:25401557

  19. Condensate polishers add operating reliability and flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Layman, C.M.; Bennett, L.L.

    2008-08-15

    Many of today's advanced steam generators favour either an all-volatile treatment or oxygenated treatment chemistry programme, both of which require strict maintenance of an ultra-pure boiler fedwater ro condensate system. Those requirements are many times at odds with the lower-quality water sources, such as greywater, available for plant makeup and cooling water. Adding a condensate polisher can be a simple, cost-effective solution. 4 figs.

  20. Dimension of chaotic attractors

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.D.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    Dimension is perhaps the most basic property of an attractor. In this paper we discuss a variety of different definitions of dimension, compute their values for a typical example, and review previous work on the dimension of chaotic attractors. The relevant definitions of dimension are of two general types, those that depend only on metric properties, and those that depend on probabilistic properties (that is, they depend on the frequency with which a typical trajectory visits different regions of the attractor). Both our example and the previous work that we review support the conclusion that all of the probabilistic dimensions take on the same value, which we call the dimension of the natural measure, and all of the metric dimensions take on a common value, which we call the fractal dimension. Furthermore, the dimension of the natural measure is typically equal to the Lyapunov dimension, which is defined in terms of Lyapunov numbers, and thus is usually far easier to calculate than any other definition. Because it is computable and more physically relevant, we feel that the dimension of the natural measure is more important than the fractal dimension.

  1. Apaches in Three Dimensions: Anthropology, History and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Leo E.

    As many disciplines as possible should be used in the teaching of Indian Studies. In particular, creative literature adds another dimension to the understanding of Indian culture and the history of Indian-white relations when it is used in conjunction with historical and anthropological material. The serious student should read historical novels…

  2. Project DyAdd: Implicit Learning in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Väre, Jenni; Oksanen-Hennah, Henna; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Pothos, Emmanuel; Cleeremans, Axel

    2014-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, implicit learning was investigated through two paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n?=?36) or with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n?=?22) and in controls (n?=?35). In the serial reaction time (SRT) task, there were no group differences in learning. However, those with ADHD exhibited…

  3. Top 5 Ways to Help Students with ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests five ways to help students with ADD/ADHD. These are: (1) Integrate the primitive reflexes; (2) Diet; (3) Visual attention; (4) Help for auditory attention; and (5) Cognitive training.

  4. TDRS-K to Add to Vital Space Network

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA officials discuss the launch of the TDRS-K spacecraft to add to the space network that enables communications between the International Space Station and Earth-orbiting satellites and ground c...

  5. What Do Molecular Tests Add to Prognostic Stratification in MF: Is It Time to Add These to Our Clinical Practice?

    PubMed

    Guglielmelli, Paola; Rotunno, Giada; Pacilli, Annalisa; Vannucchi, Alessandro Maria

    2015-12-01

    The molecular landscape of patients with myelofibrosis (MF) includes "phenotypic driver" and "subclonal" mutations. The three driver (JAK2, MPL and CALR)-mutated genes currently represent major diagnostic criteria, unlike subclonal mutations that are not specific for the disease and occur in other myeloid neoplasms. Recent data indicate that selected mutations deserve prognostic significance allowing to identify categories of patients with different survival and risk of leukemia. This review focuses on current knowledge regarding genotype-prognostic correlates in MF, however, with the understanding that this is a rapid moving field and no definite recommendations for the clinicians can be done yet.

  6. Changes in fractal dimension during aggregation.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Rajat K; Gardner, Kevin H; Atkinson, Joseph F; Van Benschoten, John E

    2003-02-01

    Experiments were performed to evaluate temporal changes in the fractal dimension of aggregates formed during flocculation of an initially monodisperse suspension of latex microspheres. Particle size distributions and aggregate geometrical information at different mixing times were obtained using a non-intrusive optical sampling and digital image analysis technique, under variable conditions of mixing speed, coagulant (alum) dose and particle concentration. Pixel resolution required to determine aggregate size and geometric measures including the fractal dimension is discussed and a quantitative measure of accuracy is developed. The two-dimensional fractal dimension was found to range from 1.94 to 1.48, corresponding to aggregates that are either relatively compact or loosely structured, respectively. Changes in fractal dimension are explained using a conceptual model, which describes changes in fractal dimension associated with aggregate growth and changes in aggregate structure. For aggregation of an initially monodisperse suspension, the fractal dimension was found to decrease over time in the initial stages of floc formation.

  7. Eleventh-order calculation of Ising-limit Green's functions for scalar quantum field theory in arbitrary space-time dimension [ital D

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, C.M. ); Boettcher, S. )

    1995-02-15

    This paper extends an earlier high-temperature lattice calculation of the renormalized Green's function of a [ital D]-dimensional Euclidean scalar quantum field theory in the Ising limit. The previous calculation included all graphs through sixth order. Here, we present the results of an eleventh-order calculation. The extrapolation to the continuum limit in the previous calculation was rather clumsy and did not appear to converge when [ital D][gt]2. Here, we present an improved extrapolation which gives uniformly good results for all real values of the dimension between [ital D]=0 and [ital D]=4. We find that the four-point Green's function has the value 0.620[plus minus]0.007 when [ital D]=2 and 0.98[plus minus]0.01 when [ital D]=3 and that the six-point Green's function has the value 0.96[plus minus]0.03 when [ital D]=2 and 1.2[plus minus]0.2 when [ital D]=3.

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Defining Dimensions and Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Cermak, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with the presence of social-communication deficits and restricted and repetitive behaviors. In the latest conceptualization of ASD, these two behavioral dimensions represent the core defining features of ASD, whereas associated dimensions, such as intellectual and language ability, provide a means for describing the ASD heterogeneity. In addition, the characterization of ASD subgroups, defined by the presence of known medical, genetic, or other psychiatric disorders, furthers our understanding of ASD heterogeneity. This paper reviews the history of autism, describes its core defining features, and provides an overview of the clinically and etiologically relevant subgroups that add to the complexity of this condition. PMID:25072016

  9. Navigating between the Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleron, Julian F.; Ecke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Generations have been inspired by Edwin A. Abbott's profound tour of the dimensions in his novella "Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions" (1884). This well-known satire is the story of a flat land inhabited by geometric shapes trying to navigate the subtleties of their geometric, social, and political positions. In this article, the authors…

  10. Four Essential Dimensions of Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This conceptual paper aims to argue that times, spaces, bodies and things constitute four essential dimensions of workplace learning. It examines how practices relate or hang together, taking Gherardi's texture of practices or connectedness in action as the foundation for making visible essential but often overlooked dimensions of…

  11. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children.

    PubMed

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  12. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children

    PubMed Central

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10–40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89–98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  13. Characterization of the startup transient electrokinetic flow in rectangular channels of arbitrary dimensions, zeta potential distribution, and time-varying pressure gradient.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Villegas, Arturo; Diez, F Javier

    2015-03-01

    The solution to the startup transient EOF in an arbitrary rectangular microchannel is derived analytically and validated experimentally. This full 2D transient solution describes the evolution of the flow through five distinct periods until reaching a final steady state. The derived analytical velocity solution is validated experimentally for different channel sizes and aspect ratios under time-varying pressure gradients. The experiments used a time resolved micro particle image velocimetry technique to calculate the startup transient velocity profiles. The measurements captured the effect of time-varying pressure gradient fields derived in the analytical solutions. This is tested by using small reservoirs at both ends of the channel which allowed a time-varying pressure gradient to develop with a time scale on the order of the transient EOF. Results showed that under these common conditions, the effect of the pressure build up in the reservoirs on the temporal development of the transient startup EOF in the channels cannot be neglected. The measurements also captured the analytical predictions for channel walls made of different materials (i.e., zeta potentials). This was tested in channels that had three PDMS and one quartz wall, resulting in a flow with an asymmetric velocity profile due to variations in the zeta potential between the walls. PMID:25502599

  14. Dimension control of Superradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Tyler; Hui Deng Collaboration; Barry C. Sanders Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We develop a theory for quantum dipole-dipole coupling when the electromagnetic fields are confined to an open line, open plane, or open space, commensurate with experimental capability for collective atomic effects subject to dimensional confinement. Our mathematical model naturally interpolates for all real dimension between one dimension for the line to three dimensions for open space. We show how superradiant emission can be controlled by dimensional confinement, including near-field and dipole-orientation effects, and we propose a two-dimensional confinement experiment to test our theory's efficacy. University of Michigan.

  15. Enhancing Teaching using MATLAB Add-Ins for Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I will illustrate how to extend the capabilities of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with add-ins created by MATLAB. Excel provides a broad array of fundamental tools but often comes up short when more sophisticated scenarios are involved. To overcome this short-coming of Excel while retaining its ease of use, I will describe how…

  16. Mode-routed fiber-optic add-drop filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Shaw, Herbert John (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    New elements mode-converting two-mode grating and mode-filtering two-mode coupler are disclosed and used as elements in a system for communications, add-drop filtering, and strain sensing. Methods of fabrication for these new two-mode gratings and mode-filtering two-mode couplers are also disclosed.

  17. Medicalised Pupils: The Case of ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2009-01-01

    Recent decades have seen an increasing number of life's problems conceptualised and interpreted through the prism of disease; among them are those affecting pupils at school. Witness the cases of hyperactivity and deficient attention, so often diagnosed as ADD/ADHD. Research indicates that there is at least some tendency towards overdiagnosis of…

  18. Reading Disabled and ADD Children: Similarities and Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykman, Roscoe A.; And Others

    This paper covers selected findings from three studies that compared different diagnostic groups: boys with attention deficit disorder (ADD) with or without hyperactivity (HY) but normal reading ability; boys with reading disability (RD) but not HY; and boys with both RD and HY. Studies examined an adapted task to assess frontal and temporal lobe…

  19. The Care Tradition: Beyond "Add Women and Stir."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2001-01-01

    Examines problems of curricular inclusion, emphasizing ways of including the interests and contributions of women in social studies curricula. After describing the inadequacy of the "add women and stir" approach to inclusion, the paper discusses the tradition of care long identified with female life, then explores ways to preserve and extend this…

  20. Dimensions of Aesthetic Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biaggio, Mary Kay; Supplee, Katherine A.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the validity of three dimensions of aesthetic perception: hedonic value, arousal, and uncertainty. Hedonic interest and arousal factors were found to differ from factors previously reported, while the uncertainty factor paralleled that previously reported. (Author/RH)

  1. Proposed helmet PET geometries with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-10-01

    For dedicated brain PET, we can significantly improve sensitivity for the cerebrum region by arranging detectors in a compact hemisphere. The geometrical sensitivity for the top region of the hemisphere is increased compared with conventional cylindrical PET consisting of the same number of detectors. However, the geometrical sensitivity at the center region of the hemisphere is still low because the bottom edge of the field-of-view is open, the same as for the cylindrical PET. In this paper, we proposed a helmet PET with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain PET imaging for both center and top regions. The key point is the add-on detectors covering some portion of the spherical surface in addition to the hemisphere. As the location of the add-on detectors, we proposed three choices: a chin detector, ear detectors, and a neck detector. For example, the geometrical sensitivity for the region-of-interest at the center was increased by 200% by adding the chin detector which increased the size by 12% of the size of the hemisphere detector. The other add-on detectors gave almost the same increased sensitivity effect as the chin detector did. Compared with standard whole-body-cylindrical PET, the proposed geometries can achieve 2.6 times higher sensitivity for brain region even with less than 1/4 detectors. In addition, we conducted imaging simulations for geometries with a diameter of 250 mm and with high resolution depth-of-interaction detectors. The simulation results showed that the proposed geometries increased image quality, and all of the add-on detectors were equivalently effective. In conclusion, the proposed geometries have high potential for widespread applications in high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and low-cost brain PET imaging.

  2. Time-dependent wave-packet method for the complete determination of S-matrix elements for reactive molecular collisions in three dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judson, Richard S.; Kouri, Donald J.; Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Michael

    1990-01-01

    An alternative time-dependent wave-packet method for treating three-dimensional gas phase reactive atom-diatom collisions is presented. The method employs a nonreactive body-frame wave packet propagation procedure, made possible by judicious use of absorbing optical potentials, a novel scheme for interpolating the wave function from coordinates in one arrangement to those in another and the fact that the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is an initial-value problem. The last feature makes possible a computationally viable and accurate procedure for changing from one arrangement's coordinates to another. In addition, the method allows the determination of S-matrix elements over a wide range of energies from a single wave-packet propagation. The method is illustrated by carrying out detailed calculations of inelastic and reactive scattering in the H + H2 system using the Liu-Siegbahn-Truhlar-Horowitz potential surface.

  3. Conformal gauge-Yukawa theories away from four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codello, Alessandro; Langæble, Kasper; Litim, Daniel F.; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    We present the phase diagram and associated fixed points for a wide class of Gauge-Yukawa theories in d = 4 + ɛ dimensions. The theories we investigate involve non-abelian gauge fields, fermions and scalars in the Veneziano-Witten limit. The analysis is performed in steps, we start with QCD d and then we add Yukawa interactions and scalars which we study at next-to- and next-to-next-to-leading order. Interacting infrared fixed points naturally emerge in dimensions lower than four while ultraviolet ones appear above four. We also analyse the stability of the scalar potential for the discovered fixed points. We argue for a very rich phase diagram in three dimensions while in dimensions higher than four certain Gauge-Yukawa theories are ultraviolet complete because of the emergence of an asymptotically safe fixed point.

  4. A space-time neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Shelton, Robert O.

    1991-01-01

    Introduced here is a novel technique which adds the dimension of time to the well known back propagation neural network algorithm. Cited here are several reasons why the inclusion of automated spatial and temporal associations are crucial to effective systems modeling. An overview of other works which also model spatiotemporal dynamics is furnished. A detailed description is given of the processes necessary to implement the space-time network algorithm. Several demonstrations that illustrate the capabilities and performance of this new architecture are given.

  5. EEG signal features extraction based on fractal dimension.

    PubMed

    Finotello, Francesca; Scarpa, Fabio; Zanon, Mattia

    2015-08-01

    The spread of electroencephalography (EEG) in countless applications has fostered the development of new techniques for extracting synthetic and informative features from EEG signals. However, the definition of an effective feature set depends on the specific problem to be addressed and is currently an active field of research. In this work, we investigated the application of features based on fractal dimension to a problem of sleep identification from EEG data. We demonstrated that features based on fractal dimension, including two novel indices defined in this work, add valuable information to standard EEG features and significantly improve sleep identification performance. PMID:26737209

  6. Extra Dimensions in Photon or Jet plus Missing Transverse Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cardaci, Marco

    2010-02-10

    Recent studies of the CMS collaboration are presented on the sensitivity to searches for large (ADD) extra dimensions in channels with missing transverse energy (MET), i.e. the channels jets plus MET and photon plus MET. These studies are based on detailed detector simulation, including all Standard Model backgrounds. Particular emphasis is given to possible early discoveries, i.e. with 100 pb{sup -1} or less. Projected 95% CL exclusion limits as function of luminosity are presented as well.

  7. Add Control: plant virtualization for control solutions in WWTP.

    PubMed

    Maiza, M; Bengoechea, A; Grau, P; De Keyser, W; Nopens, I; Brockmann, D; Steyer, J P; Claeys, F; Urchegui, G; Fernández, O; Ayesa, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of the research work carried out in the Add Control project, which proposes an extension of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models and modelling architectures used in traditional WWTP simulation tools, addressing, in addition to the classical mass transformations (transport, physico-chemical phenomena, biological reactions), all the instrumentation, actuation and automation & control components (sensors, actuators, controllers), considering their real behaviour (signal delays, noise, failures and power consumption of actuators). Its ultimate objective is to allow a rapid transition from the simulation of the control strategy to its implementation at full-scale plants. Thus, this paper presents the application of the Add Control simulation platform for the design and implementation of new control strategies at the WWTP of Mekolalde. PMID:23863420

  8. Expressing n dimensions as n-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubenstein, John

    2009-03-01

    The IWPD Scale Metrics team has explored a different conceptualization of multiple dimensions through a model expressing n dimensions as n -- 1. This is achieved by aligning time and a spatial dimension along the same orientation. We have shown that time and distance along the same axis in combination with a scalar is equivalent to two orthogonal dimensions. Scale Metrics is simply a different conceptualization of multi-dimensions; however, it requires a change in the modeling of gravitation since time is no longer considered to be orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions. A model for Scale Metrics gravity has been developed and in the process a quantum theory of gravitation emerges. Why entertain IWPD Scale Metrics? Because the Standard Model has not been successful in the unification of GR with QT. A new model of gravitation built on a foundation of quantum concepts (as opposed to a quantum fix to an inherently classical geometric theory) may be of benefit in the ultimate search for the unification of gravitation with quantum theory. Further, since Scale Metrics provides nothing more than a different way to conceptualize multiple dimensions in a manner that is equivalent to 4 vectors -- it replaces nothing, but rather serves only to complement past and current achievements while providing a new view of quantum gravitation.

  9. Stereovision Imaging in Smart Mobile Phone Using Add on Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Magen Numhauser, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present the use of a prism-based add on component installed on top of a smart phone to achieve stereovision capabilities using iPhone mobile operating system. Through these components and the combination of the appropriate application programming interface and mathematical algorithms the obtained results will permit the analysis of possible enhancements for new uses to such system, in a variety of areas including medicine and communications.

  10. Randomized Controlled Trials of Add-On Antidepressants in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Grigori; Stenberg, Jan-Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite adequate treatment with antipsychotics, a substantial number of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate only suboptimal clinical outcome. To overcome this challenge, various psychopharmacological combination strategies have been used, including antidepressants added to antipsychotics. Methods: To analyze the efficacy of add-on antidepressants for the treatment of negative, positive, cognitive, depressive, and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia, published randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of adjunctive antidepressants in schizophrenia were reviewed using the following parameters: baseline clinical characteristics and number of patients, their on-going antipsychotic treatment, dosage of the add-on antidepressants, duration of the trial, efficacy measures, and outcomes. Results: There were 36 randomized controlled trials reported in 41 journal publications (n=1582). The antidepressants used were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, duloxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nefazodone, reboxetin, trazodone, and bupropion. Mirtazapine and mianserin showed somewhat consistent efficacy for negative symptoms and both seemed to enhance neurocognition. Trazodone and nefazodone appeared to improve the antipsychotics-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. Imipramine and duloxetine tended to improve depressive symptoms. No clear evidence supporting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors’ efficacy on any clinical domain of schizophrenia was found. Add-on antidepressants did not worsen psychosis. Conclusions: Despite a substantial number of randomized controlled trials, the overall efficacy of add-on antidepressants in schizophrenia remains uncertain mainly due to methodological issues. Some differences in efficacy on several schizophrenia domains seem, however, to exist and to vary by the antidepressant subgroups—plausibly due to differences in the mechanisms of action. Antidepressants may not worsen

  11. Family nurse practitioners: "value add" in outpatient chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Lynn

    2012-12-01

    Nurse practitioners are capable leaders in primary care design as practices nationwide move to consider and adopt the patient-centered medical home. The chronic care model provides a structure to enhance the care of chronic illness. Nurse practitioners are instrumental in many areas of this model as both leaders and caregivers. Safety and quality are basic medical home goals; nurse practitioners enhance both. The addition of a nurse practitioner to a practice is an effective "value add" in every way.

  12. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  13. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called "stress bandage", the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  14. Optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; Strand, Oliver T.; Garrett, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    An optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems and construction methods are disclosed. The add/drop filter includes a first ferrule having a first pre-formed opening for receiving a first optical fiber; an interference filter oriented to pass a first set of wavelengths along the first optical fiber and reflect a second set of wavelengths; and, a second ferrule having a second pre-formed opening for receiving the second optical fiber, and the reflected second set of wavelengths. A method for constructing the optical add/drop filter consists of the steps of forming a first set of openings in a first ferrule; inserting a first set of optical fibers into the first set of openings; forming a first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule; dividing the first ferrule into a first ferrule portion and a second ferrule portion; forming an interference filter on the first ferrule portion; inserting guide pins through the first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule portion and second ferrule portion to passively align the first set of optical fibers; removing material such that light reflected from the interference filter from the first set of optical fibers is accessible; forming a second set of openings in a second ferrule; inserting a second set of optical fibers into the second set of openings; and positioning the second ferrule with respect to the first ferrule such that the second set of optical fibers receive the light reflected from the interference filter.

  15. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-02-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.

  16. Selective Attention to Perceptual Dimensions and Switching between Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi

    2013-01-01

    In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…

  17. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  18. Extra Dimensions of Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-01-01

    They say that there is no such thing as a stupid question. In a pedagogically pure sense, that's probably true. But some questions do seem to flirt dangerously close to being really quite ridiculous. One such question might well be, "How many dimensions of space are there?" I mean, it's pretty obvious that there are three:…

  19. Dimensions of Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wunderlich, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    In response to research questioning the utility of the Jesness Inventory in predicting and differentiating delinquency, this study isolated the personality dimensions of 422 adjudicated, noninstitutionalized adolescents by item level factor analysis. The resulting three factors--Mistrust, Social Pessimism, and Hypersensitivity--were compared with…

  20. Moving between Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The first word of this item is "imagine". This instruction has the potential to signal a journey through a world of geometry that might leave you spellbound. On the other hand, it could be the start of a roller-coaster ride through three dimensions that will tax both your imagination, and your powers of visualisation. It is likely that you will…

  1. Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-06-10

    The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.

  2. Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overmier, Mary; And Others

    After a brief description of the dimensions of nonverbal communication, this booklet presents 21 activities that deal with nonverbal communication. Activities in the booklet involve body movements (kinesics), facial expressions, eye movements, perception and use of space (proxemics), haptics (touch), paralinguistics (vocal elements that accompany…

  3. Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.

  4. Physics in One Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertel, Erminald

    2013-01-01

    Due to progress in nanotechnology high-quality quantum wires can nowadays be fabricated. The behavior of particles in one dimension differs significantly from that in three-dimensional (3D) systems, yet the physics of such low-dimensional systems is generally not very well represented in standard undergraduate or graduate curricula. For instance,…

  5. Shape invariant potentials in higher dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhya, R.; Sree Ranjani, S.; Kapoor, A.K.

    2015-08-15

    In this paper we investigate the shape invariance property of a potential in one dimension. We show that a simple ansatz allows us to reconstruct all the known shape invariant potentials in one dimension. This ansatz can be easily extended to arrive at a large class of new shape invariant potentials in arbitrary dimensions. A reformulation of the shape invariance property and possible generalizations are proposed. These may lead to an important extension of the shape invariance property to Hamiltonians that are related to standard potential problems via space time transformations, which are found useful in path integral formulation of quantum mechanics.

  6. Dark energy, inflation, and extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhardt, Paul J.; Wesley, Daniel

    2009-05-15

    We consider how accelerated expansion, whether due to inflation or dark energy, imposes strong constraints on fundamental theories obtained by compactification from higher dimensions. For theories that obey the null energy condition (NEC), we find that inflationary cosmology is impossible for a wide range of compactifications; and a dark energy phase consistent with observations is only possible if both Newton's gravitational constant and the dark energy equation of state vary with time. If the theory violates the NEC, inflation and dark energy are only possible if the NEC-violating elements are inhomogeneously distributed in the compact dimensions and vary with time in precise synchrony with the matter and energy density in the noncompact dimensions. Although our proofs are derived assuming general relativity applies in both four and higher dimensions and certain forms of metrics, we argue that similar constraints must apply for more general compactifications.

  7. The dubious assessment of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents of add health.

    PubMed

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Joyner, Kara

    2014-04-01

    In this essay, we argue that researchers who base their investigations of nonheterosexuality derived from reports of romantic attractions of adolescent participants from Wave 1 of Add Health must account for their disappearance in future waves of data collection. The high prevalence of Wave 1 youth with either both-sex or same-sex romantic attractions was initially striking and unexpected. Subsequent data from Add Health indicated that this prevalence sharply declined over time such that over 70 % of these Wave 1 adolescents identified as exclusively heterosexual as Wave 4 young adults. Three explanations are proposed to account for the high prevalence rate and the temporal inconsistency: (1) gay adolescents going into the closet during their young adult years; (2) confusion regarding the use and meaning of romantic attraction as a proxy for sexual orientation; and (3) the existence of mischievous adolescents who played a "jokester" role by reporting same-sex attraction when none was present. Relying on Add Health data, we dismissed the first explanation as highly unlikely and found support for the other two. Importantly, these "dubious" gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents may have led researchers to erroneously conclude from the data that sexual-minority youth are more problematic than heterosexual youth in terms of physical, mental, and social health.

  8. Image restoration by the shift-and-add algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bagnuolo, W G

    1985-05-01

    A new method for image restoration based on the shift-and-add (SAA) algorithm is presented, the main advantages of which appear to be speed and simplicity. The SAA pattern produced by an object is given by the object correlated by a nonlinear replica of itself whose intensity distribution is strongly weighted toward the brighter pixels. A method of successive substitutions analogous to Fienup's algorithm can then be used to decorrelate the SAA pattern and recover the object. The method is applied to the case of the extended chromosphere of Betelgeuse. PMID:19724393

  9. Add/Compare/Select Circuit For Rapid Decoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Becker, Neal D.; Johnson, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype decoding system operates at 200 Mb/s. ACS (add/compare/select) gate array is highly integrated emitter-coupled-logic circuit implementing arithmetic operations essential to Viterbi decoding of convolutionally encoded data signals. Principal advantage of circuit is speed. Operates as single unit performing eight additions and finds minimum of eight sums, or operates as two independent units, each performing four additions and finding minimum of four sums. Flexibility enables application to variety of different codes. Includes built-in self-testing circuitry, enabling unit to be tested at full speed with help of only simple test fixture.

  10. Tensor sufficient dimension reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wenxuan; Xing, Xin; Suslick, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Tensor is a multiway array. With the rapid development of science and technology in the past decades, large amount of tensor observations are routinely collected, processed, and stored in many scientific researches and commercial activities nowadays. The colorimetric sensor array (CSA) data is such an example. Driven by the need to address data analysis challenges that arise in CSA data, we propose a tensor dimension reduction model, a model assuming the nonlinear dependence between a response and a projection of all the tensor predictors. The tensor dimension reduction models are estimated in a sequential iterative fashion. The proposed method is applied to a CSA data collected for 150 pathogenic bacteria coming from 10 bacterial species and 14 bacteria from one control species. Empirical performance demonstrates that our proposed method can greatly improve the sensitivity and specificity of the CSA technique. PMID:26594304

  11. Cultural dimensions of learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyford, Glen A.

    1990-06-01

    How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.

  12. Infinitely Large New Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia; Kaloper, Nemanja

    1999-07-29

    We construct intersecting brane configurations in Anti-de-Sitter space localizing gravity to the intersection region, with any number n of extra dimensions. This allows us to construct two kinds of theories with infinitely large new dimensions, TeV scale quantum gravity and sub-millimeter deviations from Newton's Law. The effective 4D Planck scale M{sub Pl} is determined in terms of the fundamental Planck scale M{sub *} and the AdS radius of curvature L via the familiar relation M{sub Pl}{sup 2} {approx} M{sub *}{sup 2+n} L{sup n}; L acts as an effective radius of compactification for gravity on the intersection. Taking M{sub *} {approx} TeV and L {approx} sub-mm reproduces the phenomenology of theories with large extra dimensions. Alternately, taking M{sub *} {approx} L{sup -1} {approx} M{sub Pl}, and placing our 3-brane a distance {approx} 100M{sub Pl}{sup -1} away from the intersection gives us a theory with an exponential determination of the Weak/Planck hierarchy.

  13. Using Patient Lists to Add Value to Integrated Data Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Ted D.; Zelarney, Pearlanne T.; Hum, Richard C.; McGee, Sylvia; Batson, Deborah H.

    2014-01-01

    Patient lists are project-specific sets of patients that can be queried in integrated data repositories (IDR’s). By allowing a set of patients to be an addition to the qualifying conditions of a query, returned results will refer to, and only to, that set of patients. We report a variety of use cases for such lists, including: restricting retrospective chart review to a defined set of patients; following a set of patients for practice management purposes; distributing “honest-brokered” (deidentified) data; adding phenotypes to biosamples; and enhancing the content of study or registry data. Among the capabilities needed to implement patient lists in an IDR are: capture of patient identifiers from a query and feedback of these into the IDR; the existence of a permanent internal identifier in the IDR that is mappable to external identifiers; the ability to add queryable attributes to the IDR; the ability to merge data from multiple queries; and suitable control over user access and de-identification of results. We implemented patient lists in a custom IDR of our own design. We reviewed capabilities of other published IDRs for focusing on sets of patients. The widely used i2b2 IDR platform has various ways to address patient sets, and it could be modified to add the low-overhead version of patient lists that we describe. PMID:24534444

  14. Time and Causation in Discourse: Temporal Proximity, Implicit Causality, and Re-mention Biases.

    PubMed

    Dery, Jeruen E; Bittner, Dagmar

    2016-08-01

    Using referential processing in discourse featuring implicit causality verbs as a test case, we demonstrate how a discourse's causal and temporal dimensions interact. We show that referential processing is affected by multiple discourse biases, and that these biases do not have uniform effects. In three discourse continuation experiments, we show that the bias to re-mention a particular referent in discourse involving implicit causality verbs is not only affected by the verb's implicit causality bias, but also by the discourse's temporal structure, which at times, can even override the implicit causality bias. Our results add to the growing number of studies that show how various discourse dimensions interact in discourse processing.

  15. Can metabolomics in addition to genomics add to prognostic and predictive information in breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Howell, Anthony

    2010-11-16

    Genomic data from breast cancers provide additional prognostic and predictive information that is beginning to be used for patient management. The question arises whether additional information derived from other 'omic' approaches such as metabolomics can provide additional information. In an article published this month in BMC Cancer, Borgan et al. add metabolomic information to genomic measures in breast tumours and demonstrate, for the first time, that it may be possible to further define subgroups of patients which could be of value clinically. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/10/628.

  16. Add-on laser reading device for a camera phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Niemelä, Karri; Vasama, Hannu; Mattila, Rauno; Aikio, Mika; Aikio, Sanna; Aikio, Janne

    2005-09-01

    A novel add-on device to a mobile camera phone has been developed. The prototype system contains both laser and LED illumination as well as imaging optics. Main idea behind the device is to have a small printable diffractive ROM (Read Only Memory) element, which can be read by illuminating it with a laser-beam and recording the resulting datamatrix pattern with a camera phone. The element contains information in the same manner as a traditional bar-code, but due to the 2D-pattern and diffractive nature of the tag, a much larger amount of information can be packed on a smaller area. Optical and mechanical designs of the prototype device have been made in such a way that the system can be used in three different modes: as a laser reader, as a telescope and as a microscope.

  17. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Verbiest, G J; van der Zalm, D J; Oosterkamp, T H; Rost, M J

    2015-03-01

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  18. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, G. J.; Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J.

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  19. Bond percolation in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Eric I.; Stinchcombe, Robin; Thorpe, M. F.

    2013-07-01

    We collect results for bond percolation on various lattices from two to fourteen dimensions that, in the limit of large dimension d or number of neighbors z, smoothly approach a randomly diluted Erdős-Rényi graph. We include results on bond-diluted hypersphere packs in up to nine dimensions, which show the mean coordination, excess kurtosis, and skewness evolving smoothly with dimension towards the Erdős-Rényi limit.

  20. Dimensions of E-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Badrul H.

    2002-01-01

    Considers factors that must be weighed in creating effective electronic learning environments and presents a basic framework for Web-based or electronic learning. Highlights include the institutional dimension; the pedagogical dimension; technological dimension; interface design; evaluation; management; resource support; and ethical…

  1. Flying in Two Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Manu; Bardon, Thibaut

    2012-11-01

    It has long been proposed that insect flight might have evolved on a fluid interface. Surface of a pond provides an ecological niche which is exploited by a large number of species capable of locomotion on a fluid interface. Here we describe the discovery of constrained flight in two dimensions as a novel mode of locomotion used by water lily beetles (genus Galerucella). Because water lily beetles are also capable of three-dimensional free flight, this novel two-dimensional locomotion provides us with a unique model system to explore both the transition between two and three dimensional flight and the associated energetics. Here we present a comparative analysis of this transition in terms of wing stroke angles associated with two and three dimensional flight, as well as modeling surface tension forces on both the horizontal and vertical axes. Special attention is paid to the dynamics and energetics of flight in two-dimensions, focusing on the interaction of the wing strokes with the fluid interface and the capillary-gravity wave drag associated with two-dimensional propulsion. Current Address: Ecole Polytechnique, France.

  2. Supergravity in twelve dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kang-Sin

    2015-09-01

    We consider supergravity in twelve dimension, whose dimensional reduction yields eleven-dimensional, IIA, and IIB supergravities. This also provides the effective field theory of F-theory. We must take one direction as a compact circle, so that the Poincaré symmetry and the zero-mode field contents are identical to those of eleven-dimensional supergravity. We also have a tower of massive Kaluza-Klein states to be viewed as the wrapping modes of M2-branes. The twelfth dimension decompactifies only if other two directions are compactified on a torus, restoring different ten dimensional Poincaré symmetry of IIB supergravity, whose missing graviton is provided by components of the rank three tensor field. This condition prevents us from violating the condition on the maximal number of real supercharges, which should be thirty-two. The self-duality condition of the IIB four-form fields is understood from twelve-dimensional Hodge duality. In this framework T-duality is re-interpreted as taking different compactification routes.

  3. Infinitely Large New Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia; Kaloper, Nemanja

    2000-01-24

    We construct intersecting brane configurations in anitde Sitter (AdS) space which localize gravity to the intersection region, generalizing the trapping of gravity to any number n of infinite extra dimensions. Since the 4D Planck scale M{sub Pl} is determined by the fundamental Planck scale M{sub *} and the AdS radius L via the familiar relation M{sup 2}{sub Pl}{approx}M{sup 2+n}{sub *}L{sup n} , we get two kinds of theories with TeV scale quantum gravity and submillimeter deviations from Newton's law. With M{sub *}{approx}TeV and L{approx}submillimeter , we recover the phenomenology of theories with large extra dimensions. Alternatively, if M{sub *}{approx}L{sup -1}{approx}M{sub Pl} , and our 3-brane is at a distance of {approx}100M{sup -1}{sub Pl} from the intersection, we obtain a theory with an exponential determination of the weak/Planck hierarchy. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  4. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  5. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  6. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  7. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  8. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  9. Full-optical tunable add/drop filter based on nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali; Tavousi, Alireza; Ghadrdan, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Here, we propose a full-optical tunable Add/Drop filter based on single (SR) and double-vertically (DR) aligned Kerr-like nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRRs). Silicon (Si) nano-crystal is used as the nonlinear material inside and outside of PCRRs. The minimum optical power required to turn-on/turn-off the SR and DR filters are 2000 mW/μm2, and 150 mW/μm2, respectively. We believe since the DR filter has a higher Q-factor rather than SR and also since the optical power reads more nonlinear rods with a longer time to pass the structure, thus the optical power required is much lower (10 folds). In addition, the minimum power required to 1 nm redshift the center operating wavelength of SR filter is 125 mW/μm2 (i.e. ΔnNL = 0.005) and for DR is as low as 8 mW/μm2. Performance of the Add/Drop filter structure is simulated by means of finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, in which the simulations showed an ultra-compact size structure with promising ultrafast tune-ability speeds.

  10. Resolving statistical uncertainty in correlation dimension estimation.

    PubMed

    Borovkova, Svetlana; Rosa, Rodolfo; Sardonini, Laura

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method for obtaining standard errors and confidence intervals for the correlation dimension estimated on an observed chaotic time series. This method is based on the U-Statistics theory and an ingenious combination of the moving block and parametric bootstrap procedures. We test the method on the basis of computer simulations for both clean and noisy series. We show that the distribution of the correlation dimension estimate obtained by our method agrees very well with the "true" distribution obtained by the Monte Carlo simulation. One of the main advantage of our method is the ability to estimate the distribution (and hence, the standard error) of the correlation dimension estimate using only one observed time series. PMID:21721766

  11. Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, J.L.; /SLAC

    2006-11-07

    If the structure of spacetime is different than that readily observed, gravitational physics, particle physics and cosmology are all immediately affected. The physics of extra dimensions offers new insights and solutions to fundamental questions arising in these fields. Novel ideas and frameworks are continuously born and evolved. They make use of string theoretical features and tools and they may reveal if and how the 11-dimensional string theory is relevant to our four-dimensional world. We have outlined some of the experimental observations in particle and gravitational physics as well as astrophysical and cosmological considerations that can constrain or confirm these scenarios. These developing ideas and the wide interdisciplinary experimental program that is charted out to investigate them mark a renewed effort to describe the dynamics behind spacetime. We look forward to the discovery of a higher dimensional spacetime.

  12. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  13. Optoacoustic imaging in five dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deán-Ben, X. L.; Gottschalk, Sven; Fehm, Thomas F.; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    We report on an optoacoustic imaging system capable of acquiring volumetric multispectral optoacoustic data in real time. The system is based on simultaneous acquisition of optoacoustic signals from 256 different tomographic projections by means of a spherical matrix array. Thereby, volumetric reconstructions can be done at high frame rate, only limited by the pulse repetition rate of the laser. The developed tomographic approach presents important advantages over previously reported systems that use scanning for attaining volumetric optoacoustic data. First, dynamic processes, such as the biodistribution of optical biomarkers, can be monitored in the entire volume of interest. Second, out-of-plane and motion artifacts that could degrade the image quality when imaging living specimens can be avoided. Finally, real-time 3D performance can obviously save time required for experimental and clinical observations. The feasibility of optoacoustic imaging in five dimensions, i.e. real time acquisition of volumetric datasets at multiple wavelengths, is reported. In this way, volumetric images of spectrally resolved chromophores are rendered in real time, thus offering an unparallel imaging performance among the current bio-imaging modalities. This performance is subsequently showcased by video-rate visualization of in vivo hemodynamic changes in mouse brain and handheld visualization of blood oxygenation in deep human vessels. The newly discovered capacities open new prospects for translating the optoacoustic technology into highly performing imaging modality for biomedical research and clinical practice with multiple applications envisioned, from cardiovascular and cancer diagnostics to neuroimaging and ophthalmology.

  14. Radio Telescopes Will Add to Cassini-Huygens Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-12-01

    When the European Space Agency's Huygens spacecraft makes its plunge into the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan on January 14, radio telescopes of the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) will help international teams of scientists extract the maximum possible amount of irreplaceable information from an experiment unique in human history. Huygens is the 700-pound probe that has accompanied the larger Cassini spacecraft on a mission to thoroughly explore Saturn, its rings and its numerous moons. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia and eight of the ten telescopes of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), located at Pie Town and Los Alamos, NM, Fort Davis, TX, North Liberty, IA, Kitt Peak, AZ, Brewster, WA, Owens Valley, CA, and Mauna Kea, HI, will directly receive the faint signal from Huygens during its descent. Along with other radio telescopes in Australia, Japan, and China, the NRAO facilities will add significantly to the information about Titan and its atmosphere that will be gained from the Huygens mission. A European-led team will use the radio telescopes to make extremely precise measurements of the probe's position during its descent, while a U.S.-led team will concentrate on gathering measurements of the probe's descent speed and the direction of its motion. The radio-telescope measurements will provide data vital to gaining a full understanding of the winds that Huygens encounters in Titan's atmosphere. Currently, scientists know little about Titan's winds. Data from the Voyager I spacecraft's 1980 flyby indicated that east-west winds may reach 225 mph or more. North-south winds and possible vertical winds, while probably much weaker, may still be significant. There are competing theoretical models of Titan's winds, and the overall picture is best summarized as

  15. Kolmogorov Flow in Three Dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.; Woodruff, Stephen L.

    1996-01-01

    A numerical study of the long-time evolution of incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence forced at a single long-wavelength Fourier mode, i.e., a Kolmogorov flow, has been completed. The boundary conditions are periodic in three dimensions and the forcing is effected by imposing a steady, two-dimensional, sinusoidal shear velocity which is directed along the x-direction and varies along the z-direction. A comparison with experimental data shows agreement with measured cross-correlations of the turbulent velocity components which lie in the mean-flow plane. A statistical analysis reveals that the shear-driven turbulence studied here has significant spectral anisotropy which increases with wave number.

  16. Ethical Dimensions and Filial Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Ellen F.; Hendricks, Constance S.; Hendricks, Denisha L.; McCarty, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    The elderly are growing rapidly today as life expectancy increases. As this longevity has increased, so has the need for filial caregivers. While much has been written about caregiving stress, little has been written regarding the ethical dimensions of filial responsibility and daughter and son caregivers’ perceptions of responsibility and moral demands. This paper will address the concept of family caregiving and contextual family characteristics. Family characteristics will expand awareness of the interrelationship value between the nature of the prior filial relationship, image of caregiving, and ethical views that underscore acceptance of the filial obligation. An explanation of both the interview process and selected measurements that speak to ethical perspective, sense of caregiving image, and expectations of filial caregiving will also be addressed. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to elucidate how adult children may be helped in an anticipatory and proactive manner as more and more adult children take on parent care for longer durations of time. PMID:23459516

  17. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  18. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed Central

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H.; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Gren, Åsa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A.; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H.; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture’s reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  19. The IRBIT domain adds new functions to the AHCY family.

    PubMed

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Sammels, Eva; De Smedt, Humbert

    2008-07-01

    During the past few years, the IRBIT domain has emerged as an important add-on of S-adenosyl-L-homocystein hydrolase (AHCY), thereby creating the new family of AHCY-like proteins. In this review, we discuss the currently available data on this new family of proteins. We describe the IRBIT domain as a unique part of these proteins and give an overview of its regulation via (de)phosphorylation and proteolysis. The second part of this review is focused on the potential functions of the AHCY-like proteins. We propose that the IRBIT domain serves as an anchor for targeting AHCY-like proteins towards cytoplasmic targets. This leads to regulation of (i) intracellular Ca2+ via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), (ii) intracellular pH via the Na+/HCO3 - cotransporters (NBCs); whereas inactivation of the IRBIT domain induces (iii) nuclear translocation and regulation of AHCY activity. Dysfunction of AHCY-like proteins will disturb these three important functions, with various biological implications. PMID:18536033

  20. The IRBIT domain adds new functions to the AHCY family.

    PubMed

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Sammels, Eva; De Smedt, Humbert

    2008-07-01

    During the past few years, the IRBIT domain has emerged as an important add-on of S-adenosyl-L-homocystein hydrolase (AHCY), thereby creating the new family of AHCY-like proteins. In this review, we discuss the currently available data on this new family of proteins. We describe the IRBIT domain as a unique part of these proteins and give an overview of its regulation via (de)phosphorylation and proteolysis. The second part of this review is focused on the potential functions of the AHCY-like proteins. We propose that the IRBIT domain serves as an anchor for targeting AHCY-like proteins towards cytoplasmic targets. This leads to regulation of (i) intracellular Ca2+ via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), (ii) intracellular pH via the Na+/HCO3 - cotransporters (NBCs); whereas inactivation of the IRBIT domain induces (iii) nuclear translocation and regulation of AHCY activity. Dysfunction of AHCY-like proteins will disturb these three important functions, with various biological implications.

  1. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  2. Tracking single particle rotation: Probing dynamics in four dimensions

    DOE PAGES

    Anthony, Stephen Michael; Yu, Yan

    2015-04-29

    Direct visualization and tracking of small particles at high spatial and temporal resolution provides a powerful approach to probing complex dynamics and interactions in chemical and biological processes. Analysis of the rotational dynamics of particles adds a new dimension of information that is otherwise impossible to obtain with conventional 3-D particle tracking. In this review, we survey recent advances in single-particle rotational tracking, with highlights on the rotational tracking of optically anisotropic Janus particles. Furthermore, strengths and weaknesses of the various particle tracking methods, and their applications are discussed.

  3. Fossils, rocks, and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Lucy E.; Pojeta, John

    1993-01-01

    We study out Earth for many reasons: to find water to drink or oil to run our cars or coal to heat our homes, to know where to expect earthquakes or landslides or floods, and to try to understand our natural surroundings. Earth is constantly changing--nothing on its surface is truly permanent. Rocks that are not on top of a mountain may once have been on the bottom of the sea. Thus, to understand the world we live on, we must add the dimension of time. We must study Earth's history. When we talk about recorded history, time is measured in years, centuries, and tens of centuries. When we talk about Earth history, time is measured in millions and billions of years. Time is an everyday part of our lives. We keep track of time with a marvelous invention, the calendar, which is based on the movements of the Earth in space. One spin of Earth on its axis is a day, and one trip around the sun is a year. The modern calendar is a great achievement, developed over many thousands of years as theory and technology improved. People who study Earth's history also use a type of calendar, called the geologic time scale. It looks very different from the familiar calendar. In some ways, it is more like a book, and the rocks are its pages. Some of the pages are torn or missing, and the pages are not numbered, but geology gives us the tools to help us read this book.

  4. Fossils, rocks, and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Lucy E.; Pojeta, John

    1999-01-01

    We study our Earth for many reasons: to find water to drink or oil to run our cars or coal to heat our homes, to know where to expect earthquakes or landslides or floods, and to try to understand our natural surroundings. Earth is constantly changing--nothing on its surface is truly permanent. Rocks that are now on top of a mountain may once have been at the bottom of the sea. Thus, to understand the world we live on, we must add the dimension of time. We must study Earth's history. When we talk about recorded history, time is measured in years, centuries, and tens of centuries. When we talk about Earth history, time is measured in millions and billions of years. Time is an everyday part of our lives. We keep track of time with a marvelous invention, the calendar, which is based on the movements of Earth in space. One spin of Earth on its axis is a day, and one trip around the Sun is a year. The modern calendar is a great achievement, developed over many thousands of years as theory and technology improved. People who study Earth's history also use a type of calendar, called the geologic time scale. It looks very different from the familiar calendar. In some ways, it is more like a book, and the rocks are its pages. Some of the pages are torn or missing, and the pages are not numbered, but geology gives us the tools to help us read this book.

  5. Dimensions of systems biology.

    PubMed

    Huang, S; Wikswo, J

    2006-01-01

    Systems biology, possibly the latest sub-discipline of biology, has arisen as a result of the shockwave of genomic and proteomic data that has appeared in the past few years. However, despite ubiquitous initiatives that carry this label, there is no precise definition of systems biology other than the implication of a new, all-encompassing, multidisciplinary endeavor. Here we propose that systems biology is more than the integration of biology with methods of the physical and computational sciences, and also more than the expansion of the single-pathway approach to embracing genome-scale networks. It is the discipline that specifically addresses the fundamental properties of the complexity that living systems represent. To facilitate the discussion, we dissect and project the multifaceted systems complexity of living organisms into five dimensions: (1) molecular complexity; (2) structural complexity; (3) temporal complexity; (4) abstraction and emergence; and (5) algorithmic complexity. This "five-dimensional space" may provide a framework for comparing, classifying, and complementing the vast diversity of existing systems biology programs and their goals, and will also give a glimpse of the magnitude of the scientific problems associated with unraveling the ultimate mysteries of life.

  6. Physics in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houselt, A.; Schäfer, J.; Zandvliet, H. J. W.; Claessen, R.

    2013-01-01

    With modern microelectronics moving towards smaller and smaller length scales on the (sub-) nm scale, quantum effects (apart from band structure and band gaps) have begun to play an increasingly important role. This especially concerns dimensional confinement to 2D (high electron mobility transistors and integer/fractional quantum Hall effect physics, graphene and topological insulators) and 1D (with electrical connections eventually reaching the quantum limit). Recent developments in the above-mentioned areas have revealed that the properties of electron systems become increasingly exotic as one progresses from the 3D case into lower dimensions. As compared to 2D electron systems, much less experimental progress has been achieved in the field of 1D electron systems. The main reason for the lack of experimental results in this field is related to the difficulty of realizing 1D electron systems. Atom chains created in quantum mechanical break junction set-ups are too short to exhibit the typically 1D signatures. As an alternative, atomic chains can be produced on crystal surfaces, either via assembling them one-by-one using a scanning tunnelling microscope or via self-assembly. The drawback of the latter systems is that the atomic chains are not truly 1D since they are coupled to the underlying crystal and sometimes even to the neighbouring chains. In retrospect, this coupling turns out to be an absolute necessity in the experiment since true 1D systems are disordered at any non-zero temperature [1]. The coupling to the crystal and/or neighbouring chains shifts the phase transition, for example, a Peierls instability, to a non-zero temperature and thus allows experiments to be performed in the ordered state. Here, we want to emphasize that the electronic properties of the 1D electron system are fundamentally different from its 2D and 3D counterparts. The Fermi liquid theory, which is applicable to 2D and 3D electron systems, breaks down spectacularly in the 1D case

  7. Physics in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houselt, A.; Schäfer, J.; Zandvliet, H. J. W.; Claessen, R.

    2013-01-01

    With modern microelectronics moving towards smaller and smaller length scales on the (sub-) nm scale, quantum effects (apart from band structure and band gaps) have begun to play an increasingly important role. This especially concerns dimensional confinement to 2D (high electron mobility transistors and integer/fractional quantum Hall effect physics, graphene and topological insulators) and 1D (with electrical connections eventually reaching the quantum limit). Recent developments in the above-mentioned areas have revealed that the properties of electron systems become increasingly exotic as one progresses from the 3D case into lower dimensions. As compared to 2D electron systems, much less experimental progress has been achieved in the field of 1D electron systems. The main reason for the lack of experimental results in this field is related to the difficulty of realizing 1D electron systems. Atom chains created in quantum mechanical break junction set-ups are too short to exhibit the typically 1D signatures. As an alternative, atomic chains can be produced on crystal surfaces, either via assembling them one-by-one using a scanning tunnelling microscope or via self-assembly. The drawback of the latter systems is that the atomic chains are not truly 1D since they are coupled to the underlying crystal and sometimes even to the neighbouring chains. In retrospect, this coupling turns out to be an absolute necessity in the experiment since true 1D systems are disordered at any non-zero temperature [1]. The coupling to the crystal and/or neighbouring chains shifts the phase transition, for example, a Peierls instability, to a non-zero temperature and thus allows experiments to be performed in the ordered state. Here, we want to emphasize that the electronic properties of the 1D electron system are fundamentally different from its 2D and 3D counterparts. The Fermi liquid theory, which is applicable to 2D and 3D electron systems, breaks down spectacularly in the 1D case

  8. Anomalous dimensions of conformal baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three-color theory as functions of the number of massless flavors within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within the δ expansion, for a wide range of number of flavors. We also find that this is always smaller than the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass operator. These findings challenge the partial compositeness paradigm.

  9. Exterior dimension of fat fractals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.

  10. Fractal dimension of mesospheric radar backscatter at 2. 75 MHz

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.; Armstrong, R.J.; La Hoz, C. )

    1991-04-01

    The authors identified the fractal dimension of radar returns from the mesopause region at 2.75 MHz. The input dataset was a time series of echo amplitude at a discrete height obtained from a partial reflection radar operating at Ramfjordmoen in northern Norway. Two different algorithms both of which yield approximations to the fractal dimension have been employed and give almost identical results. The radar echo dataset in question exhibits a dimension of between 7 and 8.

  11. Dimensional reduction without continuous extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Froehlich, J.; Schubnel, B.; Wyler, D.

    2013-01-15

    We describe a novel approach to dimensional reduction in classical field theory. Inspired by ideas from noncommutative geometry, we introduce extended algebras of differential forms over space-time, generalized exterior derivatives, and generalized connections associated with the 'geometry' of space-times with discrete extra dimensions. We apply our formalism to theories of gauge- and gravitational fields and find natural geometrical origins for an axion- and a dilaton field, as well as a Higgs field.

  12. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  13. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  14. Dimensioning, Tolerancing, and Machine Finishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, George C.

    Intended for use with the vocational education student interested in technical drawing, this guide provides answers to questions relating to dimensioning and tolerancing machine drawings. It also gives examples of standard dimensioning practices, tolerancing applications, and finish applications. The problems and examples presented are based on…

  15. Dimensions of Organizational Task Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dess, Gregory G.; Beard, Donald W.

    1984-01-01

    Reducing Aldrich's codification of organizational task environments from six to three dimensions--munificence (capacity), complexity (homogeneity-heterogeneity, concentration-dispersion), and dynamism (stability-instability, turbulence), the authors use interim and factor analytical techniques to explore each dimension's viability and draw…

  16. Dimensions of temperament: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Lorr, M; Stefic, E C

    1976-01-01

    The TDOT recast into a single stimulus format was administered to 150 college Ss. A factor analysis of the items followed by an analysis of item clusters that define each factor indicated the presence of 14 dimensions. Of the 10 bipolar scales of the TDOT, 3 were confirmed as independent dimensions, and 5 were confirmed in part or split into unipolar factors.

  17. The Lyapunov dimension and its estimation via the Leonov method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, N. V.

    2016-06-01

    Along with widely used numerical methods for estimating and computing the Lyapunov dimension there is an effective analytical approach, proposed by G.A. Leonov in 1991. The Leonov method is based on the direct Lyapunov method with special Lyapunov-like functions. The advantage of the method is that it allows one to estimate the Lyapunov dimension of invariant sets without localization of the set in the phase space and, in many cases, to get effectively an exact Lyapunov dimension formula. In this work the invariance of the Lyapunov dimension with respect to diffeomorphisms and its connection with the Leonov method are discussed. For discrete-time dynamical systems an analog of Leonov method is suggested. In a simple but rigorous way, here it is presented the connection between the Leonov method and the key related works: Kaplan and Yorke (the concept of the Lyapunov dimension, 1979), Douady and Oesterlé (upper bounds of the Hausdorff dimension via the Lyapunov dimension of maps, 1980), Constantin, Eden, Foiaş, and Temam (upper bounds of the Hausdorff dimension via the Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimension of dynamical systems, 1985-90), and the numerical calculation of the Lyapunov exponents and dimension.

  18. Add-on simple adaptive control improves performance of classical control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Haim; Rusnak, Ilan

    2014-12-01

    The Simple Adaptive Control (SAC) controls an augmented plant that comprises the true plant with parallel feed-forward. The Almost Strictly Positive Real (ASPR) property of the augmented plant leads to asymptotic following. Prior publications have shown that, based only on the prior knowledge on stabilizability properties of systems (usually available), the parallel feed-forward configuration (PFC) allows adaptive control of realistic systems, even if they are both unstable and non-minimum phase. However, it was commonly thought that the PFC addition requires a price when compared with good linear time invariant (LTI) designs that do not use any addition to the plant. The paper shows that the use of SAC with PFC as Add-On to LTI system design improves the performance. Although SAC directly controls the augmented error, it always gives improved performance, i.e., smaller tracking error and reduced sensitivity to plant disturbance, with respect to the best LTI controller.

  19. Design of a reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer based on tunable Fabry-Perot array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jiansen; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhuo; Yang, Yang; Xu, Rui; Shi, Rui

    2015-08-01

    With the development of optical fiber communication, dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is important for the rapid management of multi-wavelength in the core node of the optical transmission network. In this paper, a reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) based on the tunable Fabry-Perot (F-P) array is proposed. An optical switch with high isolation and low crosstalk is designed by using the characteristics of filtering and tuning for the F-P array. The principle, structure, and function of the tunable F-P array are introduced. The characteristics of filtering and tuning for the F-P filter are also calculated, and the factor for the isolation, crosstalk, response time and insertion loss are analyzed. A single physical channel ROADM with 16 signal channels, which operates in C-band, is designed and optimized by simulation.

  20. Logical-rules and the classification of integral dimensions: individual differences in the processing of arbitrary dimensions.

    PubMed

    Blunden, Anthea G; Wang, Tony; Griffiths, David W; Little, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    A variety of converging operations demonstrate key differences between separable dimensions, which can be analyzed independently, and integral dimensions, which are processed in a non-analytic fashion. A recent investigation of response time distributions, applying a set of logical rule-based models, demonstrated that integral dimensions are pooled into a single coactive processing channel, in contrast to separable dimensions, which are processed in multiple, independent processing channels. This paper examines the claim that arbitrary dimensions created by factorially morphing four faces are processed in an integral manner. In two experiments, 16 participants completed a categorization task in which either upright or inverted morph stimuli were classified in a speeded fashion. Analyses focused on contrasting different assumptions about the psychological representation of the stimuli, perceptual and decisional separability, and the processing architecture. We report consistent individual differences which demonstrate a mixture of some observers who demonstrate coactive processing with other observers who process the dimensions in a parallel self-terminating manner.

  1. Go Figure: Computer Database Adds the Personal Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jean; Crawford, Pat

    1992-01-01

    A database for recordkeeping for a summer reading club was developed for a public library system using an IBM PC and Microsoft Works. Use of the database resulted in more efficient program management, giving librarians more time to spend with patrons and enabling timely awarding of incentives. (LAE)

  2. Strings in four dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Bachas, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    We review the construction and properties of four dimensional string models, using free fermions on the world-sheet. We prove that as opposed to gauge symmetries, broken space-time supersymmetry can only be restored continuously by decompactification. 40 refs.

  3. An Improved Equation for TBS and ADD: Establishing a Reliable Postmortem Interval Framework for Casework and Experimental Studies.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal; Lynch-Aird, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Megyesi et al.'s (J Forensic Sci, 2005, 50, 618) paper was important to forensic anthropology as it introduced a quantitative framework for estimating time since death in human cadavers, based upon physical appearance by way of scoring on a novel scale. However, errors concerning rounding, temperature scale, and incorrect use of a statistical regression model render their predictive formula unusable. Based upon only their more reliable data, a more appropriate regression model to predict accumulated degree days (ADD) from total body score (TBS) is presented. The new model is also a superior fit (r(2)  = 0.91) and produces markedly narrower confidence intervals than the original, which also allowed impossible, negative ADD values. Explanations of the shortcomings in the original analysis and calculations are presented, which it is hoped will help forensic scientists avoid making similar mistakes.

  4. The international dimensions of neuroethics.

    PubMed

    Lombera, Sofia; Illes, Judy

    2009-08-01

    Neuroethics, in its modern form, investigates the impact of brain science in four basic dimensions: the self, social policy, practice and discourse. In this study, we analyzed a set of 461 peer-reviewed articles with neuroethics content, published by authors from 32 countries. We analyzed the data for: (1) trends in the development of international neuroethics over time, and (2) how challenges at the intersection of ethics and neuroscience are viewed in countries that are considered developed by International Monetary Fund (IMF) standards, and in those that are developing. Our results demonstrate a steady increase in global participation in neuroethics from 1989 to 2005, characterized by an increase in numbers of articles published specifically on neuroethics, journals publishing these articles, and countries contributing to the literature. The focus from all countries was on the practice of brain science and the amelioration of neurological disease. Indicators of technology creation and diffusion in developing countries were specifically correlated with increases in publications concerning policy implications of brain science. Neuroethics is an international endeavor and, as such, should be sensitive to the impact that context has on acceptance and use of technological innovation.

  5. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  6. Add Java extensions to your wiki: Java applets can bring dynamic functionality to your wiki pages

    SciTech Connect

    Scarberry, Randall E.

    2008-08-12

    Virtually everyone familiar with today’s world wide web has encountered the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia many times. What you may not know is that Wikipedia is driven by an excellent open-source product called MediaWiki which is available to anyone for free. This has led to a proliferation of wiki sites devoted to just about any topic one can imagine. Users of a wiki can add content -- all that is required of them is that they type in their additions into their web browsers using the simple markup language called wikitext. Even better, the developers of wikitext made it extensible. With a little server-side development of your own, you can add your own custom syntax. Users aware of your extensions can then utilize them on their wiki pages with a few simple keystrokes. These extensions can be custom decorations, formatting, web applications, and even instances of the venerable old Java applet. One example of a Java applet extension is the Jmol extension (REF), used to embed a 3-D molecular viewer. This article will walk you through the deployment of a fairly elaborate applet via a MediaWiki extension. By no means exhaustive -- an entire book would be required for that -- it will demonstrate how to give the applet resize handles using using a little Javascript and CSS coding and some popular Javascript libraries. It even describes how a user may customize the extension somewhat using a wiki template. Finally, it explains a rudimentary persistence mechanism which allows applets to save data directly to the wiki pages on which they reside.

  7. A study of high repetition rate pulse generation and all-optical add/drop multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongmin

    Ultra high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed (OTDM) transmission technologies are essential for the construction of ultra high-speed all-optical networks needed in the information era. In this Ph. D thesis dissertation, essential mechanisms associated with ultra high speed OTDM transmission systems, such as, high speed ultra short pulse generation, all optical demultiplexing and all optical add/drop multiplexing, have been studied. Both experimental demonstrations and numerical simulations have been performed. In order to realize high-speed optical TDM systems, high repetition rate, ultra short pulses are needed. A rational harmonic mode-locked ring fiber laser has been used to produce ultrashort pulses, the pulse jitter will be eliminated using a Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL), and the self-pulsation has been suppressed using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Sub pico-second pulses are very important for all optical sampling in the ultrahigh-speed OTDM transmission system. In this thesis, a two stage compression scheme utilizing the nonlinearity and dispersion of the optical fibers has been constructed and used to compress the gain switched DFB laser pulses. Also a nonlinear optical loop mirror has been constructed to suppress the wings associated with nonlinear compression. Pedestal free, transform-limited pulses with pulse widths in range of 0.2 to 0.4 ps have been generated. LiNbO3 modulators play a very important role in fiber optical communication systems. In this thesis, LiNbO3 modulators have been used to perform high repetition rate pulse generation, all optical demultiplexing and all optical add/drop for the TDM transmission system.

  8. Biological transport processes and space dimension.

    PubMed

    Nadler, W; Stein, D L

    1991-08-01

    We discuss the generic time behavior of reaction-diffusion processes capable of modeling various types of biological transport processes, such as ligand migration in proteins and gating fluctuations in ion channel proteins. The main observable in these two cases, the fraction of unbound ligands and the probability of finding the channel in the closed state, respectively, exhibits an algebraic t-1/2 decay at intermediate times, followed by an exponential cutoff. We provide a simple framework for understanding these observations and explain their ubiquity by showing that these qualitative results are independent of space dimension. We also derive an experimental criterion to distinguish between a one-dimensional process and one whose effective dimension is higher.

  9. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  10. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  11. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  12. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  13. 75 FR 73075 - Notice of Motion To Add Exhibit to Petition for Declaratory Order and Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Motion To Add Exhibit to Petition for Declaratory Order and... of Pella, Iowa (Complainant) filed a motion to add a document as Exhibit P-28 to its July 2, 2010... wishing to become a party must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene, as appropriate....

  14. Measuring Narcissism within Add Health: The Development and Validation of a New Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mark S.; Brunell, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the development of a measure of narcissism within the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. In Study 1, items were selected from Wave III to form the Add Health Narcissism Scale (AHNS). These were factor analyzed, yielding a single factor comprised of five subscales. We correlated the AHNS and…

  15. Prevalence of Aggression and Defiance in Children with ADD/ADHD Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Janella

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) appear to have become more prevalent in the past few years. Many children who display ADD/ADHD tendencies also display behaviors which cause problems in a classroom setting. Considering the fact that these behaviors could be displayed by the student population as…

  16. Cognitive Control and Attentional Selection in Adolescents with ADHD versus ADD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Laurie; Henderson, John; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    An important research question is whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is related to early- or late-stage attentional control mechanisms and whether this differentiates a nonhyperactive subtype (ADD). This question was addressed in a sample of 145 ADD/ADHD and typically developing comparison adolescents (aged 13-17). Attentional…

  17. Timbre Dimensions for Musical Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, Gregory Roy

    This dissertation addresses the folowing question: Given the technologies to develop and implement any kind of sound generating and controlling device, what will the instrument designer, the composer, and the performer need to know in order to more fully utilize the dimensions of timbre in music and musical performance? This question is approached from the standpoint of music theory. Definitions of timbre and a few examples of related physical and perceptual research are reviewed. Included is a discussion of the essential elements of musical control and of intelligent organization of sound in music. This discussion raises more questions than can be answered simply. It is an attempt to unravel the nature of sound clues and sound qualities as they convey sound identities and musical gesture. A theoretical simplification of sound dimensions for musical use is proposed. Sounds which can be sustained indefinitely consist of steady-state acoustical dimensions. These dimensions rely upon the perceptual phenomenon of simultaneous fusion (synance). Sounds which can not be sustained indefinitely consist of transitions. Transitions may cause successive fusion (sonance). The discussion of steady-state and transition dimensions includes a review of a few informal experiments. This work reveals problems that will influence the musical use of timbre dimensions. It also leads to a theory for the organization and control of timbre dimensions in music. Among the timbre dimensions discussed are: spectral envelope, harmonic content, brightness, phase, inharmonicity, aperiodicity, and temporal transitions. Questions are raised regarding the perception of harmonic content. The effect of register on perception of tones consisting of from two to nine partials is explored and discussed. The size of interval between partials determines a unique quality. This is most apparent with tones consisting of only two or three partials (dions or trions).

  18. Increasing the dimensions of metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Wilhelm; Blaesing-Bangert, Carola; Paul, Hans-Helmut

    1990-06-01

    In any process that generates or measures pattern-placement (overlay), these parameters need to be regarded at least as two-dimensional. We show this on our procedure bringing a mask repeater under statistical process control SPC). In order to increase the accuracy of the overlay measurement process itself, plate bending has to be included as a third dimension. By taking the third dimension into account, the LMS 2000 Metrology System significantly reduces the maximum uncertainity of measurement results.

  19. Spherical gravitational collapse in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2007-10-15

    We investigate here spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in a space-time with an arbitrary number of dimensions and with a general type I matter field, which is a broad class that includes most of the physically reasonable matter forms. We show that given the initial data for matter in terms of the initial density and pressure profiles at an initial surface t=t{sub i} from which the collapse evolves, there exist the rest of the initial data functions and classes of solutions of Einstein equations which we construct here, such that the space-time evolution goes to a final state which is either a black hole or a naked singularity, depending on the nature of initial data and evolutions chosen, and subject to validity of the weak energy condition. The results are discussed and analyzed in the light of the cosmic censorship hypothesis in black hole physics. The formalism here combines the earlier results on gravitational collapse in four dimensions in a unified treatment. Also the earlier work is generalized to higher-dimensional space-times to allow a study of the effect of the number of dimensions on the possible final outcome of the collapse in terms of either a black hole or naked singularity. No restriction is adopted on the number of dimensions, and other limiting assumptions such as self-similarity of space-time are avoided, in order to keep the treatment general. Our methodology allows us to consider to an extent the genericity and stability aspects related to the occurrence of naked singularities in gravitational collapse.

  20. Spherical gravitational collapse in N dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2007-10-01

    We investigate here spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in a space-time with an arbitrary number of dimensions and with a general type I matter field, which is a broad class that includes most of the physically reasonable matter forms. We show that given the initial data for matter in terms of the initial density and pressure profiles at an initial surface t=ti from which the collapse evolves, there exist the rest of the initial data functions and classes of solutions of Einstein equations which we construct here, such that the space-time evolution goes to a final state which is either a black hole or a naked singularity, depending on the nature of initial data and evolutions chosen, and subject to validity of the weak energy condition. The results are discussed and analyzed in the light of the cosmic censorship hypothesis in black hole physics. The formalism here combines the earlier results on gravitational collapse in four dimensions in a unified treatment. Also the earlier work is generalized to higher-dimensional space-times to allow a study of the effect of the number of dimensions on the possible final outcome of the collapse in terms of either a black hole or naked singularity. No restriction is adopted on the number of dimensions, and other limiting assumptions such as self-similarity of space-time are avoided, in order to keep the treatment general. Our methodology allows us to consider to an extent the genericity and stability aspects related to the occurrence of naked singularities in gravitational collapse.

  1. Exploring Warped Compactifications of Extra Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabholkar, Sujan

    In 1920s, the concept of extra dimensions was considered for the first time to unify gravity and electromagnetism. Since then there have been many developments to understand the unification of fundamental forces using extra dimensions. In this thesis, we study this idea of extra dimensions in higher dimensional gravity theories such as String Theory or Supergravity to make connections with cosmology. We construct a family of non-singular time-dependent solutions of a six-dimensional gravity with a warped geometry. The warp factor is time-dependent and breaks the translation invariance along one of the extra directions. Our solutions have the desired property of homogeneity and isotropy along the non-compact space. These geometries are supported by matter that does not violate the null energy condition. These 6D solutions do not have a closed trapped surface and hence the Hawking-Penrose singularity theorems do not apply to these solutions. These solutions are constructed from 7D locally flat solution by performing Kaluza-Klein reduction. We also study warped compactifications of string/M theory with the help of effective potentials for the construction of de Sitter vacua. The dynamics of the conformal factor of the internal metric is explored to investigate instabilities. The results works the best mainly in the case of a slowly varying warp factor. We also present interesting ideas to find AdS vacua of N=1 flux compactifications using smooth, compact toric manifolds as internal space.

  2. How to Add Life to a Saltwater Aquarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Describes how to set up an economical saltwater aquarium and where to obtain supplies and inhabitants. Discusses the characteristics of a saltwater aquarium, proper aquarium maintenance, the compatibility of diverse life forms, and the time scale necessary to develop and sustain a favorable natural environment. (nine references) (Author/JJK)

  3. A PC add-on card for Mössbauer data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittaranjan, C. M.; Jayapandian, J.; Gopinathan, K. P.

    1993-02-01

    A user friendly Mössbauer data acquisition add-on card for IBM compatible PC has been designed and fabricated. It is a firmware which acquires data and shares the CPU of the host PC to transfer the data into the PC memory. The card generates the wave form for the drive unit, generates dwell time marker pulses and counts the energy selected single channel analyzer (SCA) pulses. The significant feature of the system is that the counting of the SCA pulses is done with two counters, resulting in zero dead time. Two temporary dual port RAMs (DP RAM) on board enable real time data acquisition. The software which controls the hardware is menu driven and user friendly and works under DOS environment. An on line display of the spectrum is provided with a cursor which enables the inspection of counts in any channel during the acquisition. The current version of the spectrometer has a capacity of 2048 channels and this can be extended easily up to 8192 channels.

  4. Characterization of Disopyramide derivative ADD424042 as a non-cardiotoxic neuronal sodium channel blocker with broad-spectrum anticonvulsant activity in rodent seizure models.

    PubMed

    Król, Marek; Ufnal, Marcin; Szulczyk, Bartłomiej; Podsadni, Piotr; Drapała, Adrian; Turło, Jadwiga; Dawidowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    It was reported that antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) can be useful in controlling refractory seizures in humans or in enhancing the action of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in animal models. Disopyramide phosphate (DISO) is an AAD that blocks sodium channels in cardiac myocytes. We evaluated a DISO derivative, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)acetamide (ADD424042) for its anticonvulsant activity in a battery of rodent models of epileptic seizures. The compound displayed a broad spectrum of activity in the 'classical' models as well as in the models of pharmacoresistant seizures. Furthermore, ADD424042 showed good therapeutic indices between the anticonvulsant activity and the motor impairment. On the contrary, no anticonvulsant effects but severe lethality were observed in the primary anticonvulsant testing of the parent DISO. By performing the whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments in dispersed cortical neurons we demonstrated that ADD424042 decreased the maximal amplitude of voltage-gated sodium channels with an IC50 value in nM range. Moreover, the compound enhanced use-dependent block and decreased excitability in pyramidal neurons in the current-clamp experiments in cortical slices. Importantly, we found that ADD424042 possessed either no, or very small cardiotoxic effect. In contrast to DISO, ADD424042 did not produce any apparent changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure recordings. ADD424042 had no effect on QT and corrected QT intervals, at a dose which was 15 times higher than ED50 for the anticonvulsant effect in the MES model. Taken together, these data suggest that ADD424042 has the potential to become a lead structure for novel broadly acting AEDs with wide margin of cardiac safety.

  5. Fractal dimension of alumina aggregates grown in two dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosa, Judith L.; Cawley, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The concepts of fractal geometry are applied to the analysis of 0.4-micron alumina constrained to agglomerate in two dimensions. Particles were trapped at the bottom surface of a drop of a dilute suspension, and the agglomeration process was directly observed, using an inverted optical microscope. Photographs were digitized and analyzed, using three distinct approaches. The results indicate that the agglomerates are fractal, having a dimension of approximately 1.5, which agrees well with the predictions of the diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation model.

  6. Dimension of fractal basin boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.

  7. Add-ons in IVF programme – Hype or Hope?

    PubMed Central

    Datta, AK; Campbell, S; Deval, B; Nargund, G

    2015-01-01

    A series of new technologies and adjuvant therapies have been advocated in order to improve the success of IVF treatment. Dehydro-epiandrostenedione, growth hormones, Coenzyme Q 10, calcium ionosphores, immune therapy, heparin, low-dose aspirin, and vasodilators are among commonly prescribed pharmacological adjuvants. New technologies that are proposed to improve IVF outcomes include advanced sperm selection procedures, time- lapse embryo monitoring, preimplantation genetic screening, assisted hatching endometrial injury or embryo-glue. This review looked into current evidence to justify the use of these co-interventions and whether some of them can still be offered while awaiting more robust evidence to con rm or refute their role. PMID:27729969

  8. What is the dimension of citation space?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, James R.; Evans, Tim S.

    2016-04-01

    Citation networks represent the flow of information between agents. They are constrained in time and so form directed acyclic graphs which have a causal structure. Here we provide novel quantitative methods to characterise that structure by adapting methods used in the causal set approach to quantum gravity by considering the networks to be embedded in a Minkowski spacetime and measuring its dimension using Myrheim-Meyer and Midpoint-scaling estimates. We illustrate these methods on citation networks from the arXiv, supreme court judgements from the USA, and patents and find that otherwise similar citation networks have measurably different dimensions. We suggest that these differences can be interpreted in terms of the level of diversity or narrowness in citation behaviour.

  9. Avatar body dimensions and men's body image.

    PubMed

    Cacioli, Jon-Paul; Mussap, Alexander J

    2014-03-01

    Two online surveys examined the significance of the visual analogues, or 'avatars', men (total N=266) create and use online. Two-dimensional (adiposity×muscle) somatomorphic matrices revealed that avatars are generally thinner than their creator's actual body and similar to their ideal, but more muscular than either their actual or ideal. Men's ratings of the importance of their avatar's appearance correlated with their actual weight and muscle concerns, and disparity between their avatar and actual body dimensions predicted their offline context body change concerns additional to that accounted for by disparity between their ideal and actual bodies. Together with the observation that men also reported higher self-esteem, less social interaction anxiety and less social phobia while online (which correlated with the time they spent online), these results suggest that the physical dimensions of avatars used in social interactions online may serve a compensatory function.

  10. Avatar body dimensions and men's body image.

    PubMed

    Cacioli, Jon-Paul; Mussap, Alexander J

    2014-03-01

    Two online surveys examined the significance of the visual analogues, or 'avatars', men (total N=266) create and use online. Two-dimensional (adiposity×muscle) somatomorphic matrices revealed that avatars are generally thinner than their creator's actual body and similar to their ideal, but more muscular than either their actual or ideal. Men's ratings of the importance of their avatar's appearance correlated with their actual weight and muscle concerns, and disparity between their avatar and actual body dimensions predicted their offline context body change concerns additional to that accounted for by disparity between their ideal and actual bodies. Together with the observation that men also reported higher self-esteem, less social interaction anxiety and less social phobia while online (which correlated with the time they spent online), these results suggest that the physical dimensions of avatars used in social interactions online may serve a compensatory function. PMID:24394638

  11. Health information: what can mobile phone assessments add?

    PubMed

    Stomberg, Margareta Warrén; Platon, Birgitta; Widén, Annette; Wallner, Ingegerd; Karlsson, Ove

    2012-01-01

    In healthcare, pain assessment is a key factor in effectively treating postoperative pain and reducing the risk of developing chronic pain. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether a mobile phone support system can be used as a basis to continuously document patients' health information in real time and provide conditions for optimal, individual pain management after cholecystectomy and hysterectomy procedures.In this pilot study, two randomly selected groups of patients provided information about their pain for one week postoperatively. One group responded via cell phones, and the other, a control group, responded using paper-based questionnaires.The mobile phone system was found to provide a fast and safe basis for reporting pain postoperatively in real time. The results indicate that on days 3 and 4 the mobile phone group reported significantly higher levels of pain than the control group, and the cholecystectomy patients reported significantly more pain at movement on days 3 and 4 than the hysterectomy patients.The mobile phone approach is an adaptation to modern technology and the mobility of individuals. This technology is user friendly and requires minimal support. However, as the sample size was small (n = 37), further studies are needed before additional conclusions can be drawn.

  12. Health information: what can mobile phone assessments add?

    PubMed

    Stomberg, Margareta Warrén; Platon, Birgitta; Widén, Annette; Wallner, Ingegerd; Karlsson, Ove

    2012-01-01

    In healthcare, pain assessment is a key factor in effectively treating postoperative pain and reducing the risk of developing chronic pain. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether a mobile phone support system can be used as a basis to continuously document patients' health information in real time and provide conditions for optimal, individual pain management after cholecystectomy and hysterectomy procedures.In this pilot study, two randomly selected groups of patients provided information about their pain for one week postoperatively. One group responded via cell phones, and the other, a control group, responded using paper-based questionnaires.The mobile phone system was found to provide a fast and safe basis for reporting pain postoperatively in real time. The results indicate that on days 3 and 4 the mobile phone group reported significantly higher levels of pain than the control group, and the cholecystectomy patients reported significantly more pain at movement on days 3 and 4 than the hysterectomy patients.The mobile phone approach is an adaptation to modern technology and the mobility of individuals. This technology is user friendly and requires minimal support. However, as the sample size was small (n = 37), further studies are needed before additional conclusions can be drawn. PMID:23209453

  13. Acoustic add-drop filters based on phononic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami-Dogolsara, Babak; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem; Nazari, Fakhroddin

    2016-01-01

    We report the design procedure for an acoustic add-drop filter (ADF) composed of two line-defect waveguides coupled through a ring resonator cavity (RRC) all based on a phononic crystal (PnC) platform. Using finite difference time domain and plane wave expansion methods, we study the propagation of acoustic waves through the PnC based ADF structures. Numerical results show that the quality factor for the ADF with a quasisquare ring resonator with a frequency band of 95 Hz centered about 75.21 kHz is Q ˜ 800. We show that the addition of an appropriate scatterer at each RRC corner can reduce the scattering loss, enhancing the quality factor and the transmission efficiency. Moreover, it is also shown that by increasing the coupling gaps between the RRC and waveguides the quality factor can be increased by ˜25 times, at the expense of a significant reduction in the transmission efficiency this is attributed to the enhanced selectivity in expense of weakened coupling. Finally, by varying the effective path length of the acoustic wave in the RRC, via selectively varying the inclusions physical and geometrical properties, we show how one can ultra-fine and fine-tune the resonant frequency of the ADF.

  14. Classical Liquids in Fractal Dimension.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Marco; Schnyder, Simon K; Brady, John F; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-08-28

    We introduce fractal liquids by generalizing classical liquids of integer dimensions d=1,2,3 to a noninteger dimension dl. The particles composing the liquid are fractal objects and their configuration space is also fractal, with the same dimension. Realizations of our generic model system include microphase separated binary liquids in porous media, and highly branched liquid droplets confined to a fractal polymer backbone in a gel. Here, we study the thermodynamics and pair correlations of fractal liquids by computer simulation and semianalytical statistical mechanics. Our results are based on a model where fractal hard spheres move on a near-critical percolating lattice cluster. The predictions of the fractal Percus-Yevick liquid integral equation compare well with our simulation results.

  15. Personality dimensions of opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Vukov, M; Baba-Milkic, N; Lecic, D; Mijalkovic, S; Marinkovic, J

    1995-02-01

    A survey of 80 opiate addicts included in a detoxification program was conducted at the Institute on Addictions in Belgrade. In addition to a dependence diagnosis and mental disorders based on DSM-III-R, we applied a Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) that measures the 3 major personality dimensions: novelty-seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence (RD). When compared with a control group (a sample of Yugoslav undergraduate students), the opiate addicts demonstrate significantly high NS dimension as well as significant divergences of HA and RD subscales. The surveyed opiate addicts demonstrate a high percentage of personality disorders specifically in cluster B. The personality dimensions of opiate addicts showed certain temperament traits, such as: impulsiveness, shyness with strangers, fear of uncertainty and dependence. NS, HA and RD determined by temperament specifics may be an etiological factor in forming of a personality disorder, an affective disorder as well as of a drug choice.

  16. Collider searches for extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberg, Greg; /Brown U.

    2004-12-01

    Searches for extra spatial dimensions remain among the most popular new directions in our quest for physics beyond the Standard Model. High-energy collider experiments of the current decade should be able to find an ultimate answer to the question of their existence in a variety of models. Until the start of the LHC in a few years, the Tevatron will remain the key player in this quest. In this paper, we review the most recent results from the Tevatron on searches for large, TeV{sup -1}-size, and Randall-Sundrum extra spatial dimensions, which have reached a new level of sensitivity and currently probe the parameter space beyond the existing constraints. While no evidence for the existence of extra dimensions has been found so far, an exciting discovery might be just steps away.

  17. Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E

    2015-01-31

    This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.

  18. Math at home adds up to achievement in school.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Talia; Schaeffer, Marjorie W; Maloney, Erin A; Peterson, Lori; Gregor, Courtney; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-10-01

    With a randomized field experiment of 587 first-graders, we tested an educational intervention designed to promote interactions between children and parents relating to math. We predicted that increasing math activities at home would increase children's math achievement at school. We tested this prediction by having children engage in math story time with their parents. The intervention, short numerical story problems delivered through an iPad app, significantly increased children's math achievement across the school year compared to a reading (control) group, especially for children whose parents are habitually anxious about math. Brief, high-quality parent-child interactions about math at home help break the intergenerational cycle of low math achievement.

  19. Math at home adds up to achievement in school.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Talia; Schaeffer, Marjorie W; Maloney, Erin A; Peterson, Lori; Gregor, Courtney; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-10-01

    With a randomized field experiment of 587 first-graders, we tested an educational intervention designed to promote interactions between children and parents relating to math. We predicted that increasing math activities at home would increase children's math achievement at school. We tested this prediction by having children engage in math story time with their parents. The intervention, short numerical story problems delivered through an iPad app, significantly increased children's math achievement across the school year compared to a reading (control) group, especially for children whose parents are habitually anxious about math. Brief, high-quality parent-child interactions about math at home help break the intergenerational cycle of low math achievement. PMID:26450209

  20. G&T adds versatile load management system

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, J.R.; Baker, E.D.; Holt, J.W.; Chan, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    Wolverine`s load management system was designed in response to the need to reduce peak demand. The Energy Management System (EMS) prepares short term (seven day) load forecasts, based on a daily peak demand forecst, augmented by a similar day profile based on weather conditions. The software combines the similar day profile with the daily peak demand forecast to yield an hourly load forecast for an entire week. The software uses the accepted load forecast case in many application functions, including interchange scheduling, unit commitment, and transaction evaluation. In real time, the computer updates the accepted forecast hourly, based in actual changes in the weather and load. The load management program executes hourly. The program uses impact curves to calculate a load management strategy that reduces the load forecast below a desired load threshold.

  1. Logical rules and the classification of integral-dimension stimuli.

    PubMed

    Little, Daniel R; Nosofsky, Robert M; Donkin, Christopher; Denton, Stephen E

    2013-05-01

    A classic distinction in perceptual information processing is whether stimuli are composed of separable dimensions, which are highly analyzable, or integral dimensions, which are processed holistically. Previous tests of a set of logical-rule models of classification have shown that separable-dimension stimuli are processed serially if the dimensions are spatially separated and as a mixture of serial and parallel processes if the dimensions are spatially overlapping (Fifić, Little, & Nosofsky, 2010; Little, Nosofsky, & Denton, 2011). In the current research, the logical-rule models are applied to predict response-time (RT) data from participants trained to classify integral-dimension color stimuli into rule-based categories. In dramatic contrast to the previous results for separable-dimension stimuli, analysis of the current data indicated that processing was best captured by a single-channel coactive model. The results converge with previous operations that suggest holistic processing of integral-dimension stimuli and demonstrate considerable generality for the application of the logical-rule models to predicting RT data from rule-based classification experiments.

  2. Critical dimension: MEMS road map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulingue, Marc; Knutrud, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology in mechanical, biotechnology, optical, communications, and ink jet is growing. Critical dimensions in MEMS devices are getting smaller and processes are constantly facing new metrology challenges. This paper will examine some critical dimension metrology needs and challenges for MEMS using resist-on-silicon structures. It is shown that the use of automated optical CD metrology can meet emerging measurement requirements while bringing the advantages of a non-destructive, high throughput and precise methodology.

  3. 77 FR 59610 - Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... applications to add new food uses on previously registered pesticide products containing the insecticide, flonicamide, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide... registered pesticide products containing the insecticide, flonicamid,...

  4. Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R.; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices.

  5. Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Sloas, David C; Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B; Sen, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices.

  6. Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R.; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices. PMID:27622211

  7. Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Sloas, David C; Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B; Sen, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices. PMID:27622211

  8. Optoelectronic Tool Adds Scale Marks to Photographic Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charlie; Rivera, Jorge; Youngquist, Robert; Cox, Robert; Haskell, William

    2003-01-01

    A simple, easy-to-use optoelectronic tool projects scale marks that become incorporated into photographic images (including film and electronic images). The sizes of objects depicted in the images can readily be measured by reference to the scale marks. The role played by the scale marks projected by this tool is the same as that of the scale marks on a ruler placed in a scene for the purpose of establishing a length scale. However, this tool offers the advantage that it can put scale marks quickly and safely in any visible location, including a location in which placement of a ruler would be difficult, unsafe, or time-consuming. The tool (see Figure 1) includes an aluminum housing, within which are mounted four laser diodes that operate at a wavelength of 670 nm. The laser diodes are spaced 1 in. (2.54 cm) apart along a baseline. The laser diodes are mounted with setscrews, which are used to adjust their beams to make them all parallel to each other and perpendicular to the baseline. During the adjustment process, the effect of the adjustments is observed by measuring the positions of the laser-beam spots on a target 80 ft (approx.24 m) away. Once the adjustments have been completed, the laser beams define three 1-in. (2.54-cm) intervals and the location of each beam is defined to within 1/16 in. (approx.1.6 mm) at any target distance out to about 80 ft (approx.24 m). The distance between the laser-beam spots as seen in an image is strictly defined only along an axis parallel to the baseline and perpendicular to the laser beam (also perpendicular to the line of sight of the camera, assuming that the camera-to-target distance is much greater than the distance between the tool and the camera lens). If a flat target surface illuminated by the laser beams is tilted with respect to the aforesaid axis, then the distance along the target surface between scale marks is proportional to the secant of the tilt angle. If one knows the tilt angle, one can correct for it. Even

  9. Trainlets: Dictionary Learning in High Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulam, Jeremias; Ophir, Boaz; Zibulevsky, Michael; Elad, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Sparse representations has shown to be a very powerful model for real world signals, and has enabled the development of applications with notable performance. Combined with the ability to learn a dictionary from signal examples, sparsity-inspired algorithms are often achieving state-of-the-art results in a wide variety of tasks. Yet, these methods have traditionally been restricted to small dimensions mainly due to the computational constraints that the dictionary learning problem entails. In the context of image processing, this implies handling small image patches. In this work we show how to efficiently handle bigger dimensions and go beyond the small patches in sparsity-based signal and image processing methods. We build our approach based on a new cropped wavelet decomposition, which enables a multi-scale analysis with virtually no border effects. We then employ this as the base dictionary within a double sparsity model to enable the training of adaptive dictionaries. To cope with the increase of training data, while at the same time improving the training performance, we present an Online Sparse Dictionary Learning (OSDL) algorithm to train this model effectively, enabling it to handle millions of examples. This work shows that dictionary learning can be up-scaled to tackle a new level of signal dimensions, obtaining large adaptable atoms that we call trainlets.

  10. Vlasov simulation in multiple spatial dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Harvey A.; Daughton, William

    2011-12-15

    A long-standing challenge encountered in modeling plasma dynamics is achieving practical Vlasov equation simulation in multiple spatial dimensions over large length and time scales. While direct multi-dimension Vlasov simulation methods using adaptive mesh methods [M. Gutnic et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 164, 214 (2004)] have recently shown promising results in two dimensions (2D) [J. W. Banks et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 052102 (2011); B. I. Cohen et al., November 10, 2010, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2010.DPP.NP9.142], in this paper, we present an alternative, the Vlasov multi dimensional (VMD) model, that is specifically designed to take advantage of solution properties in regimes when plasma waves are confined to a narrow cone, as may be the case for stimulated Raman scatter in large optic f laser beams. Perpendicular grid spacing large compared to a Debye length is then possible without instability or loss of accuracy, enabling an order 10 decrease in required computational resources compared to standard particle in cell (PIC) methods in 2D, with another reduction of that order in 3D. Further advantage compared to PIC methods accrues in regimes where particle noise is an issue. VMD and PIC results in a 2D model of localized Langmuir waves are in qualitative agreement.

  11. Dimensions of Interpersonal Relationships Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiemann, John M.; Krueger, Dorothy Lenk

    The ways in which people described their own interpersonal relationships were examined along the universally acknowledged relational dimensions control and affiliation. A total of 216 undergraduate communication students wrote about one of three types of relationships they had: best liked friend of the opposite sex, (60), best liked friend of the…

  12. Dimension independence in exterior algebra.

    PubMed Central

    Hawrylycz, M

    1995-01-01

    The identities between homogeneous expressions in rank 1 vectors and rank n - 1 covectors in a Grassmann-Cayley algebra of rank n, in which one set occurs multilinearly, are shown to represent a set of dimension-independent identities. The theorem yields an infinite set of nontrivial geometric identities from a given identity. PMID:11607520

  13. The Visuospatial Dimension of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Thierry; Passerault, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The authors suggest that writing should be conceived of not only as a verbal activity but also as a visuospatial activity, in which writers process and construct visuospatial mental representations. After briefly describing research on visuospatial cognition, they look at how cognitive researchers have investigated the visuospatial dimension of…

  14. The European Dimension in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the European…

  15. Heat conduction in three dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danza, T. M.; Fesler, L. W.; Mongan, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Multidimensional heat conduction program computes transient temperature history and steady state temperatures of complex body geometries in three dimensions. Emphasis is placed on type of problems associated with Space Shuttle thermal protection system, but program could be used in thermal analysis of most three dimensional systems.

  16. A role for α-adducin (ADD-1) in nematode and human memory

    PubMed Central

    Vukojevic, Vanja; Gschwind, Leo; Vogler, Christian; Demougin, Philippe; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stetak, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Identifying molecular mechanisms that underlie learning and memory is one of the major challenges in neuroscience. Taken the advantages of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we investigated α-adducin (add-1) in aversive olfactory associative learning and memory. Loss of add-1 function selectively impaired short- and long-term memory without causing acquisition, sensory, or motor deficits. We showed that α-adducin is required for consolidation of synaptic plasticity, for sustained synaptic increase of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GLR-1) content and altered GLR-1 turnover dynamics. ADD-1, in a splice-form- and tissue-specific manner, controlled the storage of memories presumably through actin-capping activity. In support of the C. elegans results, genetic variability of the human ADD1 gene was significantly associated with episodic memory performance in healthy young subjects. Finally, human ADD1 expression in nematodes restored loss of C. elegans add-1 gene function. Taken together, our findings support a role for α-adducin in memory from nematodes to humans. Studying the molecular and genetic underpinnings of memory across distinct species may be helpful in the development of novel strategies to treat memory-related diseases. PMID:22307086

  17. Broadband gold nanoantennas arrays with transverse dimension effects.

    PubMed

    Su, Chen-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Broadband resonance in gold paired-rods nanoantennas and paired-strips gratings is investigated when the nanostructure's transverse (non-polarization) dimension is changed from paired-rods to paired-strips. Increasing the transverse dimension blue shifts the resonance wavelength and widens its bandwidth due to cancellation of the magnetic field between nanoantennas. A derived resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) equivalent circuit model verifies the nanostructures' resonance when elongating the transverse dimensions. Paired-strips gratings have a bandwidth 2.04 times that of paired-rods nanoantennas. PMID:27505744

  18. PKSolver: An add-in program for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis in Microsoft Excel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Huo, Meirong; Zhou, Jianping; Xie, Shaofei

    2010-09-01

    This study presents PKSolver, a freely available menu-driven add-in program for Microsoft Excel written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), for solving basic problems in pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data analysis. The program provides a range of modules for PK and PD analysis including noncompartmental analysis (NCA), compartmental analysis (CA), and pharmacodynamic modeling. Two special built-in modules, multiple absorption sites (MAS) and enterohepatic circulation (EHC), were developed for fitting the double-peak concentration-time profile based on the classical one-compartment model. In addition, twenty frequently used pharmacokinetic functions were encoded as a macro and can be directly accessed in an Excel spreadsheet. To evaluate the program, a detailed comparison of modeling PK data using PKSolver and professional PK/PD software package WinNonlin and Scientist was performed. The results showed that the parameters estimated with PKSolver were satisfactory. In conclusion, the PKSolver simplified the PK and PD data analysis process and its output could be generated in Microsoft Word in the form of an integrated report. The program provides pharmacokinetic researchers with a fast and easy-to-use tool for routine and basic PK and PD data analysis with a more user-friendly interface.

  19. High-order central Hermite WENO schemes: Dimension-by-dimension moment-based reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhanjing; Li, Fengyan; Qiu, Jianxian

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a class of high-order central finite volume schemes is proposed for solving one- and two-dimensional hyperbolic conservation laws. Formulated on staggered meshes, the methods involve Hermite WENO (HWENO) spatial reconstructions, and Lax-Wendroff type discretizations or the natural continuous extension of Runge-Kutta methods in time. Differently from the central Hermite WENO methods we developed previously in Tao et al. (2015) [34], the spatial reconstructions, a core ingredient of the methods, are based on the zeroth-order and the first-order moments of the solution, and are implemented through a dimension-by-dimension strategy when the spatial dimension is higher than one. This leads to much simpler implementation of the methods in higher dimension and better cost efficiency. Meanwhile, the proposed methods have the attractive features of the general central Hermite WENO methods such as being compact in reconstruction and requiring neither flux splitting nor numerical fluxes, while being accurate and essentially non-oscillatory. A collection of one- and two-dimensional numerical examples is presented to demonstrate high resolution and robustness of the methods in capturing smooth and non-smooth solutions.

  20. Embedding in higher dimensions causes ambiguity in determining equations from data. Embedding in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, P. G.; Majumder, S.

    2008-12-01

    A linear system of dimension D can be embedded by D time-delay vectors. However, a nonlinear system often requires more vectors, almost always not more than 2D+1. This paper is regarding the consequence of such an embedding. We encountered this problem in an attempt to obtain a set of equations from the observed data. Our goal was to generate a system which is topologically conjugate to the original system. We found that many a times our efforts led to highly unstable systems. Now, we have an explanation. Embedding in higher dimensions causes a topological foliation and this foliation has a D-dimensional “leaf”. All the data were on this leaf and therefore we were unable to distinguish this foliated system from those where the foliation had collapsed. We illustrate the phenomenon by examples from numerically generated data and suggest possible remedies.

  1. Determination of Sex from Footprint Dimensions in a Ghanaian Population.

    PubMed

    Abledu, Jubilant Kwame; Abledu, Godfred Kwame; Offei, Eric Bekoe; Antwi, Emmanuel Mensah

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to verify the utility and reliability of footprint dimensions in sex determination in a Ghanaian population. Bilateral footprints were obtained from 126 Ghanaian students (66 males and 60 females) aged 18-30 years at Koforidua Polytechnic using an ink pad and white papers. Seven dimensions-length of each toe (designated T1-T5) from the most anterior point of the toe to the mid-rear heel point, breadth at ball (BAB) and breadth at heel (BAH)--and the heel-ball (HB) index were obtained from each footprint. Some footprint dimensions (i.e. T2, T3, T4 and T5) showed statistically significant bilateral asymmetry in males only. All the footprint dimensions, except HB index, were significantly greater in males than females (p<0.001). Applied singly in discriminant function analysis, the footprint dimensions allowed 69.8%-80.3% of cases to be correctly classified into their sex groups; the accuracy of sex classification was higher using left footprints than right footprints. With all dimensions subjected to stepwise discriminant function analysis 80.3% and 77% of cases could be correctly classified, combining both T5 and BAH for left footprints and T1, BAB and BAH for left footprints respectively. The present study has demonstrated, for the first time among Ghanaian subjects, the utility and reliability of sex determination standards developed from footprint dimensions. The results thus provide the baseline for elaborated studies in the future.

  2. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... to add this to the total dose estimate. For monitoring periods where external dosimetry data...

  3. Critical gravity in four dimensions.

    PubMed

    Lü, H; Pope, C N

    2011-05-01

    We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This "critical" theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical "new massive gravity" with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions. PMID:21635082

  4. Critical Gravity in Four Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, H.; Pope, C. N.

    2011-05-06

    We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This ''critical'' theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical 'new massive gravity' with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions.

  5. Critical gravity in four dimensions.

    PubMed

    Lü, H; Pope, C N

    2011-05-01

    We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This "critical" theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical "new massive gravity" with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions.

  6. Double Semions in Arbitrary Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Michael H.; Hastings, Matthew B.

    2016-10-01

    We present a generalization of the double semion topological quantum field theory to higher dimensions, as a theory of {d-1} dimensional surfaces in a d dimensional ambient space. We construct a local Hamiltonian that is a sum of commuting projectors and analyze the excitations and the ground state degeneracy. Defining a consistent set of local rules requires the sign structure of the ground state wavefunction to depend not just on the number of disconnected surfaces, but also upon their higher Betti numbers through the semicharacteristic. For odd d the theory is related to the toric code by a local unitary transformation, but for even d the dimension of the space of zero energy ground states is in general different from the toric code and for even {d > 2} it is also in general different from that of the twisted {Z_2} Dijkgraaf-Witten model.

  7. Turing patterns in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Hiroto; Yamada, Kohtaro; Ueyama, Daishin; Ohta, Takao

    2007-04-01

    We investigate three-dimensional Turing patterns in two-component reaction diffusion systems. The FitzHugh-Nagumo equation, the Brusselator, and the Gray-Scott model are solved numerically in three dimensions. Several interconnected structures of domains as well as lamellar, hexagonal, and spherical domains are obtained as stable motionless equilibrium patterns. The relative stability of these structures is studied analytically based on the reduction approximation. The relation with the microphase-separated structures in block copolymers is also discussed.

  8. BMS modules in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campoleoni, A.; Gonzalez, H. A.; Oblak, B.; Riegler, M.

    2016-04-01

    We build unitary representations of the BMS algebra and its higher-spin extensions in three dimensions, using induced representations as a guide. Our prescription naturally emerges from an ultrarelativistic limit of highest-weight representations of Virasoro and 𝒲 algebras, which is to be contrasted with nonrelativistic limits that typically give nonunitary representations. To support this dichotomy, we also point out that the ultrarelativistic and nonrelativistic limits of generic 𝒲 algebras differ in the structure of their nonlinear terms.

  9. Supergravity Theory from Ten Dimensions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romans, Larry James

    1985-12-01

    This work is concerned with the study of several ten-dimensional field theories intimately associated with superstring theories, and possibilities for obtaining realistic four-dimensional theories from them. Three chapters follow the N = 2b supergravity from ten to five, then to four dimensions. First of all, compactifications to five dimensions on various manifolds are studied. Then the entire mass spectrum for the compactification on S('5) is derived using techniques of harmonic analysis on spheres. A particular set of modes corresponds to a gauged maximal supergravity theory in five dimensions; this theory, with Yang-Mills group SO(6), is constructed in detail. By a process similar to analytic continuation, noncompact versions of this theory are also obtained, gauging all the semisimple real forms of SO(6). One particular form, with gauge group SO*(6) (DBLTURN) SU(3,1), compactifies to flat four-dimensional spacetime and offers attractive phenomenological possibilities. The final chapter is concerned with candidates for effective low-energy theories for N = 1 superstrings with gauge group SO(32) or E(,8) x E(,8). These effective theories contain curvature squared terms, and require unusual gravitational interactions to cancel anomalies. The field equations are derived and found to admit compactifications to flat four dimensional spacetime, with the possibility of accommodating many phenomenological considerations.

  10. Turbulent supersonic convection in three dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malagoli, Andrea; Cattaneo, Fausto; Brummell, Nicholas H.

    1990-01-01

    Previous numerical calculations of two-dimensional, compressible convection are extended to three dimensions, using a higher order Godunov scheme. The results show that the flow readily becomes supersonic in the upper boundary layer, where shock structures form intermittently in the vicinity of the strong downflow lanes. The convection as a whole is strongly time-dependent and evolves on a time scale comparable to the sound crossing time. The motions in the upper layers are characterized by the rapid expansion of the upward-moving fluid elements. In the interior, most of the heat is carried by a small fraction of the fluid residing in strong, highly coherent downflows. The remaining fluid is dominated by small-scale, disorganized turbulent motions.

  11. VASP- VARIABLE DIMENSION AUTOMATIC SYNTHESIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    VASP is a variable dimension Fortran version of the Automatic Synthesis Program, ASP. The program is used to implement Kalman filtering and control theory. Basically, it consists of 31 subprograms for solving most modern control problems in linear, time-variant (or time-invariant) control systems. These subprograms include operations of matrix algebra, computation of the exponential of a matrix and its convolution integral, and the solution of the matrix Riccati equation. The user calls these subprograms by means of a FORTRAN main program, and so can easily obtain solutions to most general problems of extremization of a quadratic functional of the state of the linear dynamical system. Particularly, these problems include the synthesis of the Kalman filter gains and the optimal feedback gains for minimization of a quadratic performance index. VASP, as an outgrowth of the Automatic Synthesis Program, has the following improvements: more versatile programming language; more convenient input/output format; some new subprograms which consolidate certain groups of statements that are often repeated; and variable dimensioning. The pertinent difference between the two programs is that VASP has variable dimensioning and more efficient storage. The documentation for the VASP program contains a VASP dictionary and example problems. The dictionary contains a description of each subroutine and instructions on its use. The example problems include dynamic response, optimal control gain, solution of the sampled data matrix Riccati equation, matrix decomposition, and a pseudo-inverse of a matrix. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on the IBM 360. The VASP program was developed in 1971.

  12. The Integration of the Neurosciences, Child Public Health, and Education Practice: Hemisphere-Specific Remediation Strategies as a Discipline Partnered Rehabilitation Tool in ADD/ADHD.

    PubMed

    Leisman, Gerry; Mualem, Raed; Machado, Calixto

    2013-01-01

    displayed a significant improvement in behavior with a reduction in Brown scale behavioral scores. Non-treated control participants did not exhibit significant differences during the same 12 week period in academic measurements. Controls were significantly different from treatment participants in all domains after a 12-week period. The non-treatment group also demonstrated an increase in behavioral scores and increased symptoms of ADD/ADHD over the same time period when compared to the treated group. Results are discussed in the context of the concept of functional disconnectivity in ADD/ADHD children. PMID:24350191

  13. The dimensions of life quality in a community.

    PubMed

    Zautra, A; Beier, E; Cappel, L

    1977-03-01

    In this study the dimensions of the quality of life construct were investigated; 454 residents of a large suburban community were asked questions on life changes, psychiatric distress, happiness, and effective participation in life concerns. Selected variables from this survey were factor-analyzed in order to define the dimensions of life quality and six demographic variables; age, sex, marital status, education, income, and religious participation were studied to see how they influenced those dimensions. The results of the analysis revealed that life quality is measurable in terms of a person's happiness, his community participation, and his preferences, answering three major questions that person may pose for himself: (1) How well do I like the life I lead? (2) In what meaningful ways do I spend my time? (3) Why? Each of the six demographic variables influenced these dimensions. Marital status and age, two life-cycle statistics, had the most powerful effects on quality-of-life ratings.

  14. One universal extra dimension in PYTHIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElKacimi, M.; Goujdami, D.; Przysiezniak, H.; Skands, P.

    2010-01-01

    : The Universal Extra Dimensions model has been implemented in the PYTHIA generator from version 6.4.18 onwards, in its minimal formulation with one TeV -1-sized extra dimension. The additional possibility of gravity-mediated decays, through a variable number of eV -1-sized extra dimensions into which only gravity extends, is also available. The implementation covers the lowest lying Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of Standard Model particles, except for the excitations of the Higgs fields, with the mass spectrum calculated at one loop. 2→2 tree-level production cross sections and unpolarized KK number conserving 2-body decays are included. Mixing between iso-doublet and -singlet KK excitations is neglected thus far, and is expected to be negligible for all but the top sector. Running time: 10-1000 events per second, depending on the process studied.

  15. Patients' preferences for treatment outcomes of add-on antiepileptic drugs: a conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Ranjani; Yang, Jui-Chen; Ettinger, Alan B

    2012-08-01

    To understand the relative importance of the outcomes of add-on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the willingness of patients with epilepsy to accept therapeutic trade-offs between seizure control and tolerability, we administered a Web-enabled, choice-format conjoint survey to patients with a self-reported physician diagnosis of epilepsy and symptoms of partial seizures. Patients answered nine choice questions to evaluate treatment outcomes of two different hypothetical add-on AEDs. Patients were first asked to choose the better of the two medicines and then asked a follow-up question about whether or not they would add the selected AED to their current treatment regimen. Our study demonstrated that patients with epilepsy consider seizure reduction to be the top priority when ranking it against the reduction or elimination of side effects. This study aids in better understanding of patients' AED treatment preferences and may aid in management of epilepsy.

  16. Four-channel optical add-drop multiplexer based on dual racetrack micro-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Danning; Wu, Yuanda; Wang, Yue; An, Junming; Hu, Xiongwei

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we report on a four-channel optical add-drop multiplexer based on dual racetrack micro-ring resonators in submicron SOI rib waveguides. The free spectral range (FSR) is about 18.6 nm. The device can add/drop four optical channels in half C-band. When the device acts as an optical drop multiplexer, the channel spacing is about 1.5 nm, maximum extinction ratio is 23.75 dB, the minimum insertion loss 9.94 dB and the maximum adjacent channels crosstalk is -12.12 dB. When the device acts as an optical add multiplexer, the maximum extinction ratio is 28.72 dB and the minimum insertion loss 7.35 dB. The fabricated device has effectively and perfectly realized the signals upload and download.

  17. Sensitivity analysis of add-on price estimate for select silicon wafering technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The cost of producing wafers from silicon ingots is a major component of the add-on price of silicon sheet. Economic analyses of the add-on price estimates and their sensitivity internal-diameter (ID) sawing, multiblade slurry (MBS) sawing and fixed-abrasive slicing technique (FAST) are presented. Interim price estimation guidelines (IPEG) are used for estimating a process add-on price. Sensitivity analysis of price is performed with respect to cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials (blade life) and utilities, and the production parameters such as slicing rate, slices per centimeter and process yield, using a computer program specifically developed to do sensitivity analysis with IPEG. The results aid in identifying the important cost parameters and assist in deciding the direction of technology development efforts.

  18. Multichannel optical add-drop processes in symmetrical waveguide-resonator systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Chen, Ray T

    2003-11-21

    Multichannel optical add-drop processes are studied in a class of symmetric waveguide-resonator systems. With insight gained from group theory, we analyze these systems and show that they can add or drop multiple wavelengths simultaneously, with 100% efficiency. A new mechanism is presented to reduce the remnant light at the dropped wavelengths in the pass-through port. High-order Butterworth filters can also be achieved in these systems. Built upon conventional or photonic-crystal based structures, these systems can be used in optical communication applications.

  19. Project DyAdd: classical eyeblink conditioning in adults with dyslexia and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Laasonen, Marja; Kauppinen, Jenni; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Wikgren, Jan

    2012-11-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd (Adult Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Disorder in Finland), classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) was investigated in both delay and trace paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n = 37), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 21), their comorbid combination (n = 8), and healthy controls (n = 35). In addition, the profiles of three participants with a rare autosomal dominant cerebellar disease were assessed (episodic ataxia type 2, EA-2). We found that participants with dyslexia were overall slower learners than controls in eyeblink conditioning. Further, they were the only group that had a reduced number of CRs in mediotemporal-dependent trace paradigm compared to the more cerebellum-dependent delay paradigm. Second, ADHD was found to be related to larger CR amplitude. Third, those with a comorbid condition learned faster and manifested CRs that were not well timed. Fourth, the cerebellar patients showed nearly no conditioning at all. Correlations between EBC and various neuropsychological domains (phonological processing, reading, spelling, arithmetic, executive functions, attention, and fine motor control) over all participants resulted in significant relations only for the delay paradigm: Increased amount of reading errors related with later peak latency and increased amount of self-corrections in fine motor control related with larger response magnitude. Within those who conditioned, relations emerged only for the trace paradigm: better spelling was related to larger response magnitude. These results do not lend support to the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia. On the contrary, dyslexia in its pure form seems to be related to a relative dysfunction of a larger hippocampal-cerebellar network. Further, larger responses in the ADHD group are suggested to result from their lowered responding threshold.

  20. Quantum cosmology near two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Teresa; Dabholkar, Atish

    2016-08-01

    We consider a Weyl-invariant formulation of gravity with a cosmological constant in d -dimensional spacetime and show that near two dimensions the classical action reduces to the timelike Liouville action. We show that the renormalized cosmological term leads to a nonlocal quantum momentum tensor which satisfies the Ward identities in a nontrivial way. The resulting evolution equations for an isotropic, homogeneous universe lead to slowly decaying vacuum energy and power-law expansion. We outline the implications for the cosmological constant problem, inflation, and dark energy.

  1. Turing patterns in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Hiroto; Yamada, Kohtaro; Ueyama, Daishin; Ohta, Takao

    2007-04-01

    We investigate three-dimensional Turing patterns in two-component reaction diffusion systems. The FitzHugh-Nagumo equation, the Brusselator, and the Gray-Scott model are solved numerically in three dimensions. Several interconnected structures of domains as well as lamellar, hexagonal, and spherical domains are obtained as stable motionless equilibrium patterns. The relative stability of these structures is studied analytically based on the reduction approximation. The relation with the microphase-separated structures in block copolymers is also discussed. PMID:17500983

  2. Equientangled bases in arbitrary dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Karimipour, V.; Memarzadeh, L.

    2006-01-15

    For the space of two identical systems of arbitrary dimensions, we introduce a continuous family of bases with the following properties: (i) the bases are orthonormal (ii) in each basis, all the states have the same values of entanglement, and (iii) they continuously interpolate between the product basis and the maximally entangled basis. The states thus constructed may find applications in many areas related to the quantum information science including quantum cryptography, optimal Bell tests, and the investigation of the enhancement of channel capacity due to entanglement.

  3. Correlation dimension of complex networks.

    PubMed

    Lacasa, Lucas; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2013-04-19

    We propose a new measure to characterize the dimension of complex networks based on the ergodic theory of dynamical systems. This measure is derived from the correlation sum of a trajectory generated by a random walker navigating the network, and extends the classical Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm to the context of complex networks. The method is validated with reliable results for both synthetic networks and real-world networks such as the world air-transportation network or urban networks, and provides a computationally fast way for estimating the dimensionality of networks which only relies on the local information provided by the walkers.

  4. Fractal dimension of bioconvection patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Shallow cultures of the motile algal strain, Euglena gracilis, were concentrated to 2 x 10 to the 6th organisms per ml and placed in constant temperature water baths at 24 and 38 C. Bioconvective patterns formed an open two-dimensional structure with random branches, similar to clusters encountered in the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model. When averaged over several example cultures, the pattern was found to have no natural length scale, self-similar branching, and a fractal dimension (d about 1.7). These agree well with the two-dimensional DLA.

  5. Localized instanton in four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'brien, G. M.; Tchrakian, D. H.

    1987-02-01

    A family of generalized Yang-Mills- (GYM) Higgs (H) systems is proposed as phenomenological models giving rise to localized instantons in four dimensions. An argument in favor of the (qualified) uniqueness of this system, which features a fundamental-representation Higgs field, is given. Two ``radial'' Ansa$auml-tze are made, and the compatibility of one of them with the field equation is analyzed in detail. It is suggested that such GYMH systems can be used in the computation of the confining potential.

  6. Extracellular-vesicle type of volume transmission and tunnelling-nanotube type of wiring transmission add a new dimension to brain neuro-glial networks.

    PubMed

    Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-09-26

    Two major types of intercellular communication are found in the central nervous system (CNS), namely wiring transmission (WT; point-to-point communication via private channels, e.g. synaptic transmission) and volume transmission (VT; communication in the extracellular fluid and in the cerebrospinal fluid). Volume and synaptic transmission become integrated because their chemical signals activate different types of interacting receptors in heteroreceptor complexes located synaptically and extrasynaptically in the plasma membrane. In VT, we focus on the role of the extracellular-vesicle type of VT, and in WT, on the potential role of the tunnelling-nanotube (TNT) type of WT. The so-called exosomes appear to be the major vesicular carrier for intercellular communication but the larger microvesicles also participate. Extracellular vesicles are released from cultured cortical neurons and different types of glial cells and modulate the signalling of the neuronal-glial networks of the CNS. This type of VT has pathological relevance, and epigenetic mechanisms may participate in the modulation of extracellular-vesicle-mediated VT. Gerdes and co-workers proposed the existence of a novel type of WT based on TNTs, which are straight transcellular channels leading to the formation in vitro of syncytial cellular networks found also in neuronal and glial cultures. PMID:25135966

  7. A delay-and-Boolean-ADD imaging algorithm for damage detection with a small number of piezoceramic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guangtao; Li, Yourong; Song, Gangbing

    2016-09-01

    The delay-and-sum (DAS) imaging algorithm usually sends an excitation signal at each piezoceramic transducer and obtains a defect image by using transmitter-sensor pair signals to draw ellipses or hyperbolas. A delay-and-Boolean-ADD (DABA) imaging algorithm is developed for defect detection of plate-like structures with a small number of piezoceramic transducers. This new method requires sending only one excitation signal for each detection, and obtains a better defect image by employing Boolean ADD operation instead of addition or multiplication operation in the DAS algorithm. A reflection coefficient is introduced in the new algorithm to attenuate the signals reflected from the boundary. The widely used envelop-detection method based on Hilbert-transformation is replaced by a new envelop-detection technique based on a local maximum value to increase the accuracy of locating. An additional time shift due to the excitation signal itself is also considered to decrease the location error. The results of the experiments conducted on an aluminum plate indicate that the proposed DABA imaging algorithm combining with the new techniques can detect a bonded mass defect accurately and efficiently.

  8. A delay-and-Boolean-ADD imaging algorithm for damage detection with a small number of piezoceramic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guangtao; Li, Yourong; Song, Gangbing

    2016-09-01

    The delay-and-sum (DAS) imaging algorithm usually sends an excitation signal at each piezoceramic transducer and obtains a defect image by using transmitter–sensor pair signals to draw ellipses or hyperbolas. A delay-and-Boolean-ADD (DABA) imaging algorithm is developed for defect detection of plate-like structures with a small number of piezoceramic transducers. This new method requires sending only one excitation signal for each detection, and obtains a better defect image by employing Boolean ADD operation instead of addition or multiplication operation in the DAS algorithm. A reflection coefficient is introduced in the new algorithm to attenuate the signals reflected from the boundary. The widely used envelop-detection method based on Hilbert-transformation is replaced by a new envelop-detection technique based on a local maximum value to increase the accuracy of locating. An additional time shift due to the excitation signal itself is also considered to decrease the location error. The results of the experiments conducted on an aluminum plate indicate that the proposed DABA imaging algorithm combining with the new techniques can detect a bonded mass defect accurately and efficiently.

  9. Rotating black lens solution in five dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yu; Teo, Edward

    2008-09-15

    It has recently been shown that a stationary, asymptotically flat vacuum black hole in five space-time dimensions with two commuting axial symmetries must have an event horizon with either a spherical, ring or lens-space topology. In this paper, we study the third possibility, a so-called black lens with L(n,1) horizon topology. Using the inverse scattering method, we construct a black-lens solution with the simplest possible rod structure, and possessing a single asymptotic angular momentum. Its properties are then analyzed; in particular, it is shown that there must either be a conical singularity or a naked curvature singularity present in the space-time.

  10. Fracture dimensions in frac&pack stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.; Economides, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A model is introduced to predict dynamic fracture dimensions in frac&pack stimulation. Design aspects of the two-in-one step treatment techniques, required by soft and high-permeability reservoirs are discussed. A pressure-dependent leakoff model, based on the transient flow of a non-Newtonian fluid displacing a reservoir fluid has been developed and incorporated with fracture mechanics concepts to simulate the entire process of frac&pack treatments including fracture propagation, inflation, proppant packing and closure. Results obtained in this study indicate the considerable difference between traditional fracturing and frac&pack treatments. In the latter, fracture length is much less important than fracture conductivity. This work shows how to terminate the fracture growth at the appropriate time, and how to design frac&packs resulting in fracture widths several times larger than those for traditional fracturing.

  11. Random flights through spaces of different dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimberg, Paulo H. F.; Abramo, L. Raul

    2015-01-01

    We shall study random flights that start in a space of one given dimension and, after performing a definite number of steps, continue to develop in a space of higher dimension. We show that if the difference of the dimension of spaces is even, then the probability density describing the composite flight can be expressed as marginalizations of the probability density associated to a random flight in the space of less dimensions. This dimensional reduction is a consequence of Gegenbauer addition theorem.

  12. 16 CFR 1508.3 - Dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dimensions. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Commercial... FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.3 Dimensions. Full-size baby cribs shall have dimensions as follows: (a) Interior. The interior dimensions shall be 71±1.6 centimeters (28±5/8 inches) wide as measured between...

  13. 16 CFR 1508.3 - Dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dimensions. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Commercial... FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.3 Dimensions. Full-size baby cribs shall have dimensions as follows: (a) Interior. The interior dimensions shall be 71±1.6 centimeters (28±5/8 inches) wide as measured between...

  14. Quantum Dimension and Quantum Projective Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matassa, Marco

    2014-09-01

    We show that the family of spectral triples for quantum projective spaces introduced by D'Andrea and Dąbrowski, which have spectral dimension equal to zero, can be reconsidered as modular spectral triples by taking into account the action of the element K_{2rho} or its inverse. The spectral dimension computed in this sense coincides with the dimension of the classical projective spaces. The connection with the well known notion of quantum dimension of quantum group theory is pointed out.

  15. Universal instability of hairy black holes in Lovelock-Galileon theories in D dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kazufumi; Suyama, Teruaki; Kobayashi, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    We analyze spherically symmetric black hole solutions with time-dependent scalar hair in a class of Lovelock-Galileon theories, which are the scalar-tensor theories with second-order field equations in arbitrary dimensions. We first show that known black hole solutions in five dimensions are always plagued by the ghost/gradient instability in the vicinity of the horizon. We then generalize such black hole solutions to higher dimensions and show that the same instability found in five dimensions appears universally in any number of dimensions.

  16. NEW DIMENSIONS IN JUNIOR COLLEGE PLANNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOYCE, R. DUDLEY; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF DISCUSSIONS BY MANY AUTHORS IN FOUR BROAD DIMENSIONS RELATIVE TO JUNIOR COLLEGES. THE FIRST DIMENSION IS PURPOSES AND DEALS WITH THE UNIQUE ROLE OF THE COMMUNITY JUNIOR COLLEGE, PROVISIONS FOR FACILITIES, PROBLEMS, AND POTENTIALITIES. THE SECOND DIMENSION FOCUSES ON PLANNING AND REPORTS ON STUDIES IN PLANNING…

  17. 15 CFR 241.5 - Standard dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard dimensions. 241.5 Section 241..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.5 Standard dimensions. Whenever in the rules and regulations in this part the error on a dimension is mentioned, this error shall be determined...

  18. 15 CFR 241.5 - Standard dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard dimensions. 241.5 Section 241..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.5 Standard dimensions. Whenever in the rules and regulations in this part the error on a dimension is mentioned, this error shall be determined...

  19. Reflections from the fourth dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefranc, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The knot-theoretic characterization of three-dimensional strange attractors has proved an invaluable tool for comparing models to experiments, understanding the structure of bifurcation diagrams, constructing symbolic encodings or obtaining signatures of chaos. In four dimensions and above, however, all closed curves can be deformed into each other without crossing themselves. Therefore, the fundamental idea of topological analysis, namely that the topological structure of a strange attractor provides signatures of the stretching and folding mechanisms which organize it, must be translated into a different formalism. Here, we discuss two modest attempts to make progress in this direction. First, we illustrate the relevance of catastrophe theory in the analysis of higher-dimensional systems by describing experimental signatures of cusps in weakly coupled chaotic systems. Second, we note that determinism not only precludes intersection of two trajectories but also orientation reversal of phase space volume elements. Enforcing this principle on dynamical triangulations of periodic points advected by the flow leads to higher-dimensional analogues of braids, which in three dimensions appear to provide the same information as usual approaches.

  20. Fractal Dimensions of Macromolecular Structures

    PubMed Central

    Todoroff, Nickolay; Kunze, Jens; Schreuder, Herman; Hessler, Gerhard; Baringhaus, Karl-Heinz; Schneider, Gisbert

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the properties of macromolecules is a prerequisite for understanding their roles in biochemical processes. One of the less-explored geometric features of macromolecules is molecular surface irregularity, or ‘roughness’, which can be measured in terms of fractal dimension (D). In this study, we demonstrate that surface roughness correlates with ligand binding potential. We quantified the surface roughnesses of biological macromolecules in a large-scale survey that revealed D values between 2.0 and 2.4. The results of our study imply that surface patches involved in molecular interactions, such as ligand-binding pockets and protein-protein interfaces, exhibit greater local fluctuations in their fractal dimensions than ‘inert’ surface areas. We expect approximately 22 % of a protein’s surface outside of the crystallographically known ligand binding sites to be ligandable. These findings provide a fresh perspective on macromolecular structure and have considerable implications for drug design as well as chemical and systems biology. PMID:26213587

  1. Tan relations in one dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, Marcus Zwerger, Wilhelm

    2011-10-15

    We derive exact relations that connect the universal C/k{sup 4}-decay of the momentum distribution at large k with both thermodynamic properties and correlation functions of two-component Fermi gases in one dimension with contact interactions. The relations are analogous to those obtained by Tan in the three-dimensional case and are derived from an operator product expansion of the one- and two-particle density matrix. They extend earlier results by Olshanii and Dunjko (2003) for the bosonic Lieb-Liniger gas. As an application, we calculate the pair distribution function at short distances and the dimensionless contact in the limit of infinite repulsion. The ground state energy approaches a universal constant in this limit, a behavior that also holds in the three-dimensional case. In both one and three dimensions, a Stoner instability to a saturated ferromagnet for repulsive fermions with zero range interactions is ruled out at any finite coupling. - Highlights: > We derive universal relations for the two-component, contact-interacting 1D Fermi gas. > These relations connect the tail of the momentum distribution to thermodynamic properties. > There is no saturated ferromagnetism at finite, repulsive couplings for the 3D model.

  2. Determination of Sex from Footprint Dimensions in a Ghanaian Population

    PubMed Central

    Abledu, Jubilant Kwame; Abledu, Godfred Kwame; Offei, Eric Bekoe; Antwi, Emmanuel Mensah

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to verify the utility and reliability of footprint dimensions in sex determination in a Ghanaian population. Bilateral footprints were obtained from 126 Ghanaian students (66 males and 60 females) aged 18–30 years at Koforidua Polytechnic using an ink pad and white papers. Seven dimensions–length of each toe (designated T1-T5) from the most anterior point of the toe to the mid-rear heel point, breadth at ball (BAB) and breadth at heel (BAH)–and the heel-ball (HB) index were obtained from each footprint. Some footprint dimensions (i.e. T2, T3, T4 and T5) showed statistically significant bilateral asymmetry in males only. All the footprint dimensions, except HB index, were significantly greater in males than females (p<0.001). Applied singly in discriminant function analysis, the footprint dimensions allowed 69.8%-80.3% of cases to be correctly classified into their sex groups; the accuracy of sex classification was higher using left footprints than right footprints. With all dimensions subjected to stepwise discriminant function analysis 80.3% and 77% of cases could be correctly classified, combining both T5 and BAH for left footprints and T1, BAB and BAH for left footprints respectively. The present study has demonstrated, for the first time among Ghanaian subjects, the utility and reliability of sex determination standards developed from footprint dimensions. The results thus provide the baseline for elaborated studies in the future. PMID:26445236

  3. Quantum critical metals in 4 -ɛ dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torroba, Gonzalo; Wang, Huajia

    2014-10-01

    We study the quantum theory of a Fermi surface coupled to a gapless boson scalar in D =4 -ɛ space-time dimensions as a simple model for non-Fermi liquids (NFL) near a quantum phase transition. Our analysis takes into account the full backreaction from Landau damping of the boson, and obtains an RG flow that proceeds through three distinct stages. Above the scale of Landau damping, the Fermi velocity flows to zero, while the coupling evolves according to its classical dimension. Once damping becomes important, its backreaction leads to a crossover regime where dynamic and static damping effects compete and the fermion self-energy does not respect scaling. Below this crossover and having tuned the boson to criticality, the theory flows to a z =3 scalar interacting with an NFL. We finally analyze the IR phases of the theory with arbitrary number of flavors Nc. When Nc is small, the superconducting dome covers the NFL behavior; strikingly, for moderately large Nc, we find that NFL effects become important first, before the onset of superconductivity. A generic prediction of the theory is that the Fermi velocity and quasiparticle residue vanish with a power law ωɛ as the fixed point is approached. These features may be useful for understanding some of the phenomenology of high-Tc materials in a systematic ɛ expansion.

  4. Dynamic glass transition in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Bayer, M; Brader, J M; Ebert, F; Fuchs, M; Lange, E; Maret, G; Schilling, R; Sperl, M; Wittmer, J P

    2007-07-01

    The question of the existence of a structural glass transition in two dimensions is studied using mode coupling theory (MCT). We determine the explicit d dependence of the memory functional of mode coupling for one-component systems. Applied to two dimensions we solve the MCT equations numerically for monodisperse hard disks. A dynamic glass transition is found at a critical packing fraction phi(c)d=2 approximately equal 0.697 which is above phi(c)d=3 approximately equal 0.516 by about 35%. Phi(c)d scales approximately with phi(rcp)d, the value for random close packing, at least for d=2, 3. Quantities characterizing the local, cooperative "cage motion" do not differ much for d=2 and d=3, and we, e.g., find the Lindemann criterion for the localization length at the glass transition. The final relaxation obeys the superposition principle, collapsing remarkably well onto a Kohlrausch law. The d=2 MCT results are in qualitative agreement with existing results from Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. The mean-squared displacements measured experimentally for a quasi-two-dimensional binary system of dipolar hard spheres can be described satisfactorily by MCT for monodisperse hard disks over four decades in time provided the experimental control parameter Gamma (which measures the strength of dipolar interactions) and the packing fraction phi are properly related to each other.

  5. Geographical dimensions and correlates of trust

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, M.R. ); Williams, B. )

    1999-04-01

    A sample of 323 residents of New Jersey stratified by neighborhood quality (excellent, good, fair, poor) was gathered to determine if trust in science and technology to protect public health and environment at the societal scale was associated with trust of the local officials, such as the mayor, health officer, developers, mass media, and legislators who are guardians of the local environment. Societal (trust of science and technology) and neighborhood (mayor, health officer) dimensions of trust were found. These societal and neighborhood trust dimensions were weakly correlated. Respondents were divided into fur trust-of-authority groups: high societal-high neighborhood, low societal-low neighborhood, high societal-low neighborhood, and low societal-high neighborhood. High societal-high neighborhood trust respondents were older, had lived in the neighborhoods for many years, were not troubled much by neighborhood or societal environmental threats, and had a strong sense of control over their environment. In strong contrast, low societal-low neighborhood trust respondents were relatively young, typically had lived in their present neighborhood for a short time, were troubled by numerous neighborhood and societal environmental threats, did not practice many personal public health practices, and felt little control over their environment.

  6. Clustering of time-evolving scaling dynamics in a complex signal.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Hamidreza; Chau, Tom; Kushki, Azadeh

    2016-07-01

    Complex time series are widespread in physics and physiology. Multifractal analysis provides a tool to study the scaling dynamics of such time series. However, the temporal evolution of scaling dynamics has been ignored by traditional tools such as the multifractal spectrum. We present scaling maps that add the time dimension to the study of scaling dynamics. This is particularly important in cases in which the dynamics of the underlying processes change in time or in applications that necessitate real-time detection of scaling dynamics. In addition, we present a methodology for automatic clustering of existing scaling regimes in a signal. We demonstrate the methodology on time-evolving correlated and uncorrelated noise and the output of a physiological control system (i.e., cardiac interbeat intervals) in healthy and pathological states. PMID:27575136

  7. Clustering of time-evolving scaling dynamics in a complex signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghir, Hamidreza; Chau, Tom; Kushki, Azadeh

    2016-07-01

    Complex time series are widespread in physics and physiology. Multifractal analysis provides a tool to study the scaling dynamics of such time series. However, the temporal evolution of scaling dynamics has been ignored by traditional tools such as the multifractal spectrum. We present scaling maps that add the time dimension to the study of scaling dynamics. This is particularly important in cases in which the dynamics of the underlying processes change in time or in applications that necessitate real-time detection of scaling dynamics. In addition, we present a methodology for automatic clustering of existing scaling regimes in a signal. We demonstrate the methodology on time-evolving correlated and uncorrelated noise and the output of a physiological control system (i.e., cardiac interbeat intervals) in healthy and pathological states.

  8. Psychometric Properties and Norms of the German ABC-Community and PAS-ADD Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeilinger, Elisabeth L.; Weber, Germain; Haveman, Meindert J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to standardize and generate psychometric evidence of the German language versions of two well-established English language mental health instruments: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community" (ABC-C) and the "Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities" (PAS-ADD) Checklist. New…

  9. 47 CFR 73.9006 - Add-in covered demodulator products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 73.9006 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73.9006 Add-in covered...) Using a robust method; or (2) Protected by an authorized digital output protection technology...

  10. Break out of the box: how to add value to the security function.

    PubMed

    Jones, Russell F

    2007-01-01

    Opportunities to create programs that enhance the value of the security function are present now and will be in the future, according to the author, who illustrates a number of ways the resourceful security practitioner can add to his department's reputation and his organization's bottom line.

  11. Project DyAdd: Visual Attention in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Salomaa, Jonna; Cousineau, Denis; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura; Dye, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, three aspects of visual attention were investigated in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n = 35) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 22), and in healthy controls (n = 35). Temporal characteristics of visual attention were assessed with Attentional Blink (AB), capacity of visual attention…

  12. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  13. TEST DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF ADD-ON NOX CONTROL UTILIZING OZONE INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the test design for environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-0n nitrogen oxides (NOx) control utilizing ozone injection. (NOTE: ETV is an EPA-established program to enhance domestic and international market acceptance of new or improved commercially...

  14. Strategies for Successfully Teaching Students with ADD or ADHD in Instrumental Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melago, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers can easily encounter students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the instrumental lesson setting. Applicable to instrumental lesson settings in the public or private schools, private studios, or college studios, this article focuses on specific strategies ranging from the…

  15. Family Numeracy Adds on: The Follow-Up Study of the Basic Skills Agency's Pilot Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Greg; Hutchison, Dougal

    2002-01-01

    In 1998 the authors published research with NFER (National Foundation for Educational Research) "Family Numeracy Adds Up" showing how parents and children had gained from fourteen pilot family numeracy programmes. It showed strong evidence of the double benefits of work with families. Children have an early boost in their learning and parents, who…

  16. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls. 75.34 Section 75.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Missing Data Substitution Procedures § 75.34 Units...

  17. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls. 75.34 Section 75.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Missing Data Substitution Procedures § 75.34 Units...

  18. Civic Engagement and Global Citizenship in a University Context: Core Business or Desirable Add-On?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munck, Ronaldo

    2010-01-01

    Can civic engagement become a "core business" of the contemporary university, or is it an attractive "add-on" that is not affordable in the current economic climate? Contemporary universities often play an important role in local community development and, as such, have the opportunity to develop civic engagement strategies to sit alongside…

  19. Add+VantageMR® Assessments: A Case Study of Teacher and Student Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briand, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This case study analyzes the effect of the Add+VantageMRRTM (AVMR) program on a teacher's pedagogy and on her students' progress in mathematics. AVMR, a professional development program in early mathematics, trains teachers to assess their students' progress and apply those insights to their teaching pedagogy. The AVMR assessment uses a…

  20. ATRX ADD domain links an atypical histone methylation recognition mechanism to human mental-retardation syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, Shigeki; Xiang, Bin; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Ren, Ting; Lewis, Peter W.; Cochrane, Jesse C.; Allis, C. David; Picketts, David J.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Li, Haitao; Shi, Yang

    2011-07-19

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  1. 24 CFR 990.190 - Other formula expenses (add-ons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other formula expenses (add-ons). 990.190 Section 990.190 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC...

  2. In Building a Script for an Emotion, Do Preschoolers Add Its Cause before Its Behavior Consequence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2011-01-01

    An emotion concept is a script in which an emotion event is an ordered sequence of subevents from situational cause through bodily changes to behavioral consequence. As children build a script for each emotion, in what order do they add each subevent? Preschoolers (N = 108, three to five years), were asked to name the protagonist's emotion in…

  3. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

  4. ATRX ADD Domain Links an Atypical Histone Methylation Recognition Mechanism to Human Mental-Retardation Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    S Iwase; B Xiang; S Ghosh; T Ren; P Lewis; J Cochrane; C Allis; D Picketts; D Patel; et al.

    2011-12-31

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  5. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... new PBV request for proposals is not required. The anniversary and expiration dates of the HAP contract for the additional units must be the same as the anniversary and expiration dates of the HAP... execution date of the HAP contract to add additional PBV contract units in the same building. An...

  6. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... new PBV request for proposals is not required. The anniversary and expiration dates of the HAP contract for the additional units must be the same as the anniversary and expiration dates of the HAP... execution date of the HAP contract to add additional PBV contract units in the same building. An...

  7. Classroom response systems: What do they add to an active learning environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fies, Carmen Hedwig

    This study investigated the impact of completely anonymous Classroom Response System (CRS) use on learning outcomes and student attitudes in a large university physical science course for pre-service teachers. As students were expected to have read the textbook prior to class, class time was devoted primarily to conceptual introductions followed by small group discussions of qualitative questions. In the treatment condition, each group provided a single response anonymously using the CRS. The control group responded individually and publicly by show of hands. Responses formed the basis for further discussion in both cases. Anonymity of responses in the control condition was expected to enhance participation and to provide more reliable formative assessment for the instructor, thus enhancing subsequent instruction and learning. The overwhelmingly female study population comprised two course sections with the same instructor. The sections reversed treatment and control group roles for units on Newtonian mechanics and thermodynamics. Students took pre- and posttests for each unit, completed Response System Surveys once and the VASS twice, and submitted weekly mini-reflections and one metareflection. These were analyzed for evidence of attitudes toward science and learning. Whole-class discussions were video-recorded and analyzed for evidence of participation and use of student responses for "just-in-time" teaching. Although CRS use did not improve learning outcomes over the control as measured by pre and posttests, it improved participation, as reflected in the video record and as self-reported by students in reflections, while it was in use. When they were using the CRS, students also indicated greater interest in learning for understanding, as opposed to preferring authoritarian delivery of information by the instructor and opportunities for procedural drills. A framework for classroom interactions emerged. This "C3" framework comprised three dimensions interacting

  8. International dimensions of Colombian violence.

    PubMed

    Franco, S

    2000-01-01

    Violence is the main public health problem in Colombia, as demonstrated by current homicide rates (the highest in the world), the strong effect of violence on the health care sector, and the forceful displacement of citizens, among other factors. This violence has international dimensions and consequences: inequity resulting from the political-economic system and increased by the neoliberal adjustments; the international traffic of drugs and weapons; exile and forceful displacement of persons into bordering countries; and frequent violations of human rights and humanitarian international rights. The international community can play a role in the search for a solution to this problem, as the author discusses in terms of contributions made in the past and those that could be made in the near future. Colombian violence can be viewed as a problem, a message, and a challenge for international public health, and the author suggests specific areas in which international public health could contribute to the study and solution of this complex situation.

  9. Ambitwistor Strings in Four Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Yvonne; Lipstein, Arthur E.; Mason, Lionel

    2014-08-01

    We develop ambitwistor string theories for four dimensions to obtain new formulas for tree-level gauge and gravity amplitudes with arbitrary amounts of supersymmetry. Ambitwistor space is the space of complex null geodesics in complexified Minkowski space, and in contrast to earlier ambitwistor strings, we use twistors rather than vectors to represent this space. Although superficially similar to the original twistor string theories of Witten, Berkovits, and Skinner, these theories differ in the assignment of world sheet spins of the fields, rely on both twistor and dual twistor representatives for the vertex operators, and use the ambitwistor procedure for calculating correlation functions. Our models are much more flexible, no longer requiring maximal supersymmetry, and the resulting formulas for amplitudes are simpler, having substantially reduced moduli. These are supported on the solutions to the scattering equations refined according to helicity and can be checked by comparison with corresponding formulas of Witten and of Cachazo and Skinner.

  10. The limits of chemosensation vary across dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicknell, Brendan A.; Dayan, Peter; Goodhill, Geoffrey J.

    2015-06-01

    Many biological processes rely on the ability of cells to measure local ligand concentration. However, such measurements are constrained by noise arising from diffusion and the stochastic nature of receptor-ligand interactions. It is thus critical to understand how accurately, in principle, concentration measurements can be made. Previous theoretical work has mostly investigated this in 3D under the simplifying assumption of an unbounded domain of diffusion, but many biological problems involve 2D concentration measurement in bounded domains, for which diffusion behaves quite differently. Here we present a theory of the precision of chemosensation that covers bounded domains of any dimensionality. We find that the quality of chemosensation in lower dimensions is controlled by domain size, suggesting a general principle applicable to many biological systems. Applying the theory to biological problems in 2D shows that diffusion-limited signalling is an efficient mechanism on time scales consistent with behaviour.

  11. The limits of chemosensation vary across dimensions.

    PubMed

    Bicknell, Brendan A; Dayan, Peter; Goodhill, Geoffrey J

    2015-01-01

    Many biological processes rely on the ability of cells to measure local ligand concentration. However, such measurements are constrained by noise arising from diffusion and the stochastic nature of receptor-ligand interactions. It is thus critical to understand how accurately, in principle, concentration measurements can be made. Previous theoretical work has mostly investigated this in 3D under the simplifying assumption of an unbounded domain of diffusion, but many biological problems involve 2D concentration measurement in bounded domains, for which diffusion behaves quite differently. Here we present a theory of the precision of chemosensation that covers bounded domains of any dimensionality. We find that the quality of chemosensation in lower dimensions is controlled by domain size, suggesting a general principle applicable to many biological systems. Applying the theory to biological problems in 2D shows that diffusion-limited signalling is an efficient mechanism on time scales consistent with behaviour. PMID:26088726

  12. How to track protists in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Knut; Leptos, Kyriacos C.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2009-01-01

    We present an apparatus optimized for tracking swimming micro-organisms in the size range of 10-1000 μm, in three dimensions (3Ds), far from surfaces, and with negligible background convective fluid motion. Charge coupled device cameras attached to two long working distance microscopes synchronously image the sample from two perpendicular directions, with narrow band dark-field or bright-field illumination chosen to avoid triggering a phototactic response. The images from the two cameras can be combined to yield 3D tracks of the organism. Using additional, highly directional broad-spectrum illumination with millisecond timing control the phototactic trajectories in 3D of organisms ranging from Chlamydomonas to Volvox can be studied in detail. Surface-mediated hydrodynamic interactions can also be investigated without convective interference. Minimal modifications to the apparatus allow for studies of chemotaxis and other taxes.

  13. How to track protists in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Knut; Leptos, Kyriacos C; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    We present an apparatus optimized for tracking swimming micro-organisms in the size range of 10-1000 microm, in three dimensions (3Ds), far from surfaces, and with negligible background convective fluid motion. Charge coupled device cameras attached to two long working distance microscopes synchronously image the sample from two perpendicular directions, with narrow band dark-field or bright-field illumination chosen to avoid triggering a phototactic response. The images from the two cameras can be combined to yield 3D tracks of the organism. Using additional, highly directional broad-spectrum illumination with millisecond timing control the phototactic trajectories in 3D of organisms ranging from Chlamydomonas to Volvox can be studied in detail. Surface-mediated hydrodynamic interactions can also be investigated without convective interference. Minimal modifications to the apparatus allow for studies of chemotaxis and other taxes.

  14. The Effects of Pycnogenol® as Add-on Drug to Metformin Therapy in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Jankyova, Stanislava; Rubintova, Dominika; Janosikova, Lenka; Panek, Peter; Foltanova, Tatiana; Kralova, Eva

    2016-08-01

    The progression of diabetes mellitus leads in time to the development of serious cardiovascular complications. Pycnogenol® (PYC) belongs to strong antioxidants that may interfere with different pathways playing an important role in diseases associated with oxidative stress. Metformin (MET), commonly used antidiabetic drug, has cardio-protective effects via activation of AMP kinase (AMPK). In our study, we examined the effects of PYC as add-on drug to metformin therapy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our results revealed that both used agents, PYC and MET, showed improvement of blood glucose levels, vascular reactivity, left ventricular hypertrophy, expression of AMPK, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in left ventricle of the hearts. However, the combination of these interventions has failed to possess higher efficacy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27170051

  15. How acidic is the lidocaine we are injecting, and how much bicarbonate should we add?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Simon G; Lalonde, Donald H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The infiltration of local anesthetics can be painful, which is likely due, in part, to their acidity. In spite of a Cochrane study that recommended neutralizing lidocaine with bicarbonate to decrease the pain of injection, not many surgeons have adopted the practice, and there are many ‘recipes’ for how much bicarbonate one should add. OBJECTIVE: To determine the acidity of lidocaine and the correct ratio of bicarbonate that should be added to neutralize lidocaine to achieve body pH. METHODS: Fifty samples each of commonly used anesthetics (lidocaine 1% and 2%, with and without epinephrine 1:100,000) were obtained and tested for pH. Data were also analyzed according to whether the vials had been previously opened. Ten additional samples of lidocaine 1% with 1:100,000 epinephrine were titrated against sodium bicarbonate 8.4% and tested for pH and the presence of precipitate. RESULTS: A solution of 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine had a mean (± SD) pH of 4.24±0.42, and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine had a mean pH of 3.93±0.43. Plain 1% lidocaine had a pH of 6.09±0.16, and plain 2% lidocaine had a pH of 6.00±0.27. Epinephrine-containing solutions were more acidic when they had been previously opened. One per cent lidocaine with epinephrine required 8.4% sodium bicarbonate at a ratio of 1.1 mL:10 mL to 1.8 mL:10 mL to achieve the target tissue pH of 7.38 to 7.62. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine with epinephrine was approximately 1000 times more acidic than subcutaneous tissue. The addition of bicarbonate to the local anesthetic solution is simple to perform and is inexpensive. The proper volume ratio of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate to 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine is approximately 1 mL:10 mL. Surgeons should be more aware of the simplicity and value of buffering with bicarbonate to decrease the pain of injection. PMID:23730153

  16. An image retrieval system based on fractal dimension.

    PubMed

    Yao, Min; Yi, Wen-Sheng; Shen, Bin; Dai, Hong-Hua

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new kind of image retrieval system which obtains the feature vectors of images by estimating their fractal dimension; and at the same time establishes a tree-structure image database. After preprocessing and feature extracting, a given image is matched with the standard images in the image database using a hierarchical method of image indexing.

  17. Neocortical Maturation during Adolescence: Change in Neuronal Soma Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowicz, Theodore; Petetot, Jean MacDonald-Comber; Khoury, Jane C.; de Courten-Myers, Gabrielle M.

    2009-01-01

    During adolescence, cognitive abilities increase robustly. To search for possible related structural alterations of the cerebral cortex, we measured neuronal soma dimension (NSD = width times height), cortical thickness and neuronal densities in different types of neocortex in post-mortem brains of five 12-16 and five 17-24 year-olds (each 2F,…

  18. Analysis of reconfigurable multi-channel wavelength add drop multiplexer for intelligent optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponmalar, S.; Sundaravadivelu, S.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents design of an electro-optically tunable polymer multi-channel wavelength add drop multiplexer (WADM). The proposed WADM with trapezoidal waveguide geometry and poled electro-optical polymer material in the waveguide cores enables the wavelength tuning speed of WADM as 7.5 ps at the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm and coupling length of 1.5 mm. The device can be electro-optically tuned to add/drop multiple channels. Transmission spectra of the device with varying device parameters are simulated. The proposed WADM with high speed, small size and varying tuning capability makes this device, an important element in faster provisioning and routing of light paths in intelligent optical network.

  19. Cosmology in one dimension: A two-component model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozawa, Yui; Miller, Bruce N.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate structure formation in a one dimensional model of a matter-dominated universe using a quasi-newtonian formulation. In addition to dark matter, luminous matter is introduced to examine the potential bias in the distributions. We use multifractal analysis techniques to identify structures, including clusters and voids. Both dark matter and luminous matter exhibit fractal geometry as the universe evolves over a finite range. We present the results for the generalized dimensions computed on various scales for each matter distribution. We compare and contrast the fractal dimensions of two types of matter for the first time and show how dynamical considerations cause them to differ.

  20. On some trees having partition dimension four

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida Bagus Kade Puja Arimbawa, K.; Baskoro, Edy Tri

    2016-02-01

    In 1998, G. Chartrand, E. Salehi and P. Zhang introduced the notion of partition dimension of a graph. Since then, the study of this graph parameter has received much attention. A number of results have been obtained to know the values of partition dimensions of various classes of graphs. However, for some particular classes of graphs, finding of their partition dimensions is still not completely solved, for instances a class of general tree. In this paper, we study the properties of trees having partition dimension 4. In particular, we show that, for olive trees O(n), its partition dimension is equal to 4 if and only if 8 ≤ n ≤ 17. We also characterize all centipede trees having partition dimension 4.

  1. Space: The Hunt for Hidden Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, JoAnne

    2006-04-25

    Extra dimensions of space may be present in our universe. Their discovery would dramatically change our view of the cosmos and would prompt many questions. How do they hide? What is their shape? How many are there? How big are they? Do particles and forces feel their presence? This lecture will explain the concept of dimensions and show that current theoretical models predict the existence of extra spatial dimensions which could be in the discovery reach of present and near-term experiments. The manner by which these additional dimensions reveal their existence will be described. Searches for modifications of the gravitational force, astrophysical effects, and collider signatures already constrain the size of extra dimensions and will be summarized. Once new dimensions are discovered, the technology by which the above questions can be answered will be discussed.

  2. Globes from global data: Charting international research networks with the GRASS GIS r.out.polycones add-on module.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Many Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) tools have been created for the various application fields within geoscience. While FOSS allows re-implementation of functionalities in new environments by access to the original codebase, the easiest approach to build new software solutions for new problems is the combination or merging of existing software tools. Such mash-ups are implemented by embedding and encapsulating FOSS tools within each another, effectively focusing the use of the embedded software to the specific role it needs to perform in the given scenario, while ignoring all its other capabilities. GRASS GIS is a powerful and established FOSS GIS for raster, vector and volume data processing while the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) are a suite of powerful Open Source mapping tools, which exceed the mapping capabilities of GRASS GIS. This poster reports on the new GRASS GIS add-on module r.out.polycones. It enables users to utilize non-continuous projections for map production within the GRASS production environment. This is implemented on the software level by encapsulating a subset of GMT mapping capabilities into a GRASS GIS (Version 6.x) add-on module. The module was developed at the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) to provide custom global maps of scientific collaboration networks, such as the DataCite consortium, the registration agency for Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for research data. The GRASS GIS add-on module can be used for global mapping of raster data into a variety of non continuous sinosoidal projections, allowing the creation of printable biangles (gores) to be used for globe making. Due to the well structured modular nature of GRASS modules, technical follow-up work will focus on API-level Python-based integration in GRASS 7 [1]. Based on this, GMT based mapping capabilities in GRASS will be extended beyond non-continuous sinosoidal maps and advanced from raster-layers to content GRASS display monitors. References

  3. Processing Speed Weakness in Children and Adolescents with Non-Hyperactive but Inattentive ADHD (ADD)

    PubMed Central

    Goth-Owens, Timothy L.; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Martel, Michelle M.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    DSM-IV-TR defines ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive as allowing up to five symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity, while theories of the inattentive type usually assume a group that is hypoactive and characterized by processing speed and cognitive interference deficits. In a community-recruited sample of 572 children and adolescents, a pure inattentive subtype of ADHD (ADD) was defined as those who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD-PI but had two or fewer hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Processing and output speeds of those with ADD were compared to those identified with DSM-IV-TR ADHD combined type and non-ADHD controls. These results were then contrasted with those found when DSM-IV-TR defined ADHD-PI was compared with ADHD-C and controls. Processing and output speed were assessed with the Trailmaking A and B and the Stroop Naming Tests. Cognitive interference control was assessed with the interference score from the Stroop Task. Slower cognitive interference speed was found in the ADD vs. ADHD-C and controls comparisons, but not the ADHD-PI versus ADHD-C and controls comparisons. On output speed measures, ADD exhibited the slowest performance, significantly different from controls and the effect size for the set-shifting speed contrast (Trailmaking B) contrast was double that of the ADHD-PI vs. control comparison. ADHD-Inattentive type as defined by the DSM-IV-TR is a heterogeneous condition with a meaningful proportion of those affected exhibiting virtually no hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. This subgroup may represent a distinct inattentive condition characterized by poor cognitive interference control and slow processing or output speed. PMID:20560083

  4. Add on testosterone therapy in negative symptoms of schizophrenia with gonadal trauma: Hitting the bull's eye.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shailesh; Garg, Amit

    2016-06-30

    The coincidence or causal incidence of hormonal dysregulation leading to psychotic manifestation had been a point of debate. The interplay of these hormones in pathogenesis of psychotic symptom domains is still inconclusive along with some symptom domains which worsen with antipsychotics. Early detection and treatment with liaison approach is of great help to such patients. We report a case of schizophrenia with primary hypogonadism that responded dramatically to add on testosterone supplement. PMID:27138816

  5. Invariant imbedding in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V.; Seth, D.L.; Wing, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    J. Corones has noted that the doubling and addition formulas of invariant imbedding can be extended conceptually to very general situations. All that is needed is a black box ''process'' with n ''ports.'' The /ital i/th port has vector input I/sub i/ and vector output J/sub i/. Addition formulas result when two or more of these processes are joined together to form a new process in some regular way. For example, four congruent squares can be juxtaposed to form a larger square. At each join, the output of one process becomes the input of the other and vice versa. (We always suppose the join to occur at one or more ports.) Addition formulas result from the combination of these shared quantities. Corones has thus pointed out that invariant imbedding is not, as is sometimes asserted, an inherently one-dimensional (1-D) method, but works conceptually in any number of dimensions; some previous work that is conceptually along these lines, with references to other such works, can be found in Refs. 2-4. The details can, of course, become very complicated. We shall show that the method is computationally feasible for certain two-dimensional (2-D) problems. To conform to the thrust of these proceedings, we shall usually phrase our discussions in terms of transport theory rather than speaking of more abstract processes. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Higgs bosons in extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiros, Mariano

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, motivated by the recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with a mass mH≃125 GeV, we review different models where the hierarchy problem is solved by means of a warped extra dimension. In the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model electroweak observables provide very strong bounds on the mass of KK modes which motivates extensions to overcome this problem. Two extensions are briefly discussed. One particular extension is based on the deformation of the metric such that it strongly departs from the AdS5 structure in the IR region while it goes asymptotically to AdS5 in the UV brane. This model has the IR brane close to a naked metric singularity (which is outside the physical interval) characteristic of soft-walls constructions. The proximity of the singularity provides a strong wave function renormalization for the Higgs field which suppresses the T and S parameters. The second class of considered extensions are based on the introduction of an extra gauge group in the bulk such that the custodial SU(2)R symmetry is gauged and protects the T parameter. By further enlarging the bulk gauge symmetry one can find models where the Higgs is identified with the fifth component of gauge fields and for which the Higgs potential along with the Higgs mass can be dynamically determined by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism.

  7. Contagion Shocks in One Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Rosado, Jesus; Short, Martin B.; Wang, Li

    2015-02-01

    We consider an agent-based model of emotional contagion coupled with motion in one dimension that has recently been studied in the computer science community. The model involves movement with a speed proportional to a "fear" variable that undergoes a temporal consensus averaging based on distance to other agents. We study the effect of Riemann initial data for this problem, leading to shock dynamics that are studied both within the agent-based model as well as in a continuum limit. We examine the behavior of the model under distinguished limits as the characteristic contagion interaction distance and the interaction timescale both approach zero. The limiting behavior is related to a classical model for pressureless gas dynamics with "sticky" particles. In comparison, we observe a threshold for the interaction distance vs. interaction timescale that produce qualitatively different behavior for the system - in one case particle paths do not cross and there is a natural Eulerian limit involving nonlocal interactions and in the other case particle paths can cross and one may consider only a kinetic model in the continuum limit.

  8. What dimensions underlie cluster B personality disorders?

    PubMed

    Looper, K J; Paris, J

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual model of the relationships between personality dimensions and the four personality disorders listed in the B cluster on axis II. The hypothesis will be developed that while impulsivity is the common dimension underlying all four disorders, differences between the categories reflect the severity of impulsive traits, interactions with other personality dimensions, the effects of gender, and the influence of culture. Clinical and research implications of the model are then described.

  9. THERIAK_D: An add-on to implement equilibrium computations in geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duesterhoeft, Erik; Capitani, Christian

    2013-11-01

    This study presents the theory, applicability, and merits of the new THERIAK_D add-on for the open source Theriak/Domino software package. The add-on works as an interface between Theriak and user-generated scripts, providing the opportunity to process phase equilibrium computation parameters in a programming environment (e.g., C or MATLAB®). THERIAK_D supports a wide range of features such as calculating the solid rock density or testing the stability of mineral phases along any pressure-temperature (P-T) path and P-T grid. To demonstrate applicability, an example is given in which the solid rock density of a 2-D-temperature-pressure field is calculated, portraying a simplified subduction zone. Consequently, the add-on effectively combines thermodynamics and geodynamic modeling. The carefully documented examples could be easily adapted for a broad range of applications. THERIAK_D is free, and the program, user manual, and source codes may be downloaded from http://www.min.uni-kiel.de/˜ed/theriakd/.

  10. radEq Add-On Module for CFD Solver Loci-CHEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Loci-CHEM to be applied to flow velocities where surface radiation due to heating from compression and friction becomes significant. The module adds a radiation equilibrium boundary condition to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to produce accurate results. The module expanded the upper limit for accurate CFD solutions of Loci-CHEM from Mach 4 to Mach 10 based on Space Shuttle Orbiter Re-Entry trajectories. Loci-CHEM already has a very promising architecture and performance, but absence of radiation equilibrium boundary condition limited the application of Loci-CHEM to below Mach 4. The immediate advantage of the add-on module is that it allows Loci-CHEM to work with supersonic flows up to Mach 10. This transformed Loci-CHEM from a rocket engine- heritage CFD code with general subsonic and low-supersonic applications, to an aeroheating code with hypersonic applications. The follow-on advantage of the module is that it is a building block for additional add-on modules that will solve for the heating generated at Mach numbers higher than 10.

  11. Lower bound on the spectral dimension near a black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Carlip, S.; Grumiller, D.

    2011-10-15

    We consider an evaporating Schwarzschild black hole in a framework in which the spectral dimension of spacetime varies continuously from four at large distances to a number smaller than three at small distances, as suggested by various approaches to quantum gravity. We demonstrate that the evaporation stops when the horizon radius reaches a scale at which spacetime becomes effectively three-dimensional, and argue that an observer remaining outside the horizon cannot probe the properties of the black hole at smaller scales. This result is universal in the sense that it does not depend on the details of the effective dimension as a function of the diffusion time. Observers falling into the black hole can resolve smaller scales, as can external observers in the presence of a cosmological constant. Even in these cases, though, we obtain an absolute bound D{>=}2 on the effective dimension that can be seen in any such attempt to measure the properties of the black hole.

  12. Identification of some perceptual dimensions underlying loudspeaker dissimilarities.

    PubMed

    Lavandier, Mathieu; Meunier, Sabine; Herzog, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the dimensions underlying perceived differences between loudspeakers. Listeners compared the sound reproduction of 12 loudspeakers in a room, using three musical excerpts. For the loudspeakers to be compared one just after the other in exactly the same conditions, the sounds radiated by the loudspeakers were recorded in a listening room, and the recorded sounds were submitted to paired comparisons using headphones. The resulting perceptual dissimilarities were analyzed by using a multidimensional scaling technique, revealing two main perceptual dimensions used by listeners to discriminate the loudspeakers. These dimensions were identical for the three musical excerpts. As the signals heard by listeners were directly accessible, they were used to define acoustical attributes describing the perceptual dimensions. Instead of arbitrarily choosing one acoustical analysis to define these attributes, several analyses were compared. The temporal, spectral, and time-frequency domains were investigated, and different auditory models were tested. These auditory models allowed the best description of the differences perceived by listeners, and were used to define two acoustical attributes describing our perceptual dimensions: the bass/treble balance and the medium emergence.

  13. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in quasi one dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Satpathi, Urbashi Deo, P. Singha

    2015-06-24

    Electronic charge and spin separation leading to charge density wave and spin density wave is well established in one dimension in the presence and absence of Coulomb interaction. We start from quasi one dimension and show the possibility of such a transition in quasi one dimension as well as in two dimensions by going to a regime where it can be shown for electrons that just interact via Fermi statistics. Such density waves arise due to internal symmetry breaking in a many fermion quantum system. We can extend this result to very wide rings with infinitely many electrons including Coulomb interaction.

  14. Space, time, and the third dimension ( model error).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Network Analyses for Regional Information technique shows that model improvement is a viable and sometimes necessary means of improving regional data collection systems. Model improvement provides an immediate increase in the accuracy of regional parameter estimation and also increases the information potential of future data collection. Model improvement, which can only be measured in a statistical sense, cannot be quantitatively estimated prior to its achievement; thus an attempt to upgrade a particular model entails a certain degree of risk on the part of the hydrologist.- from Author

  15. Time--the emerging dimension of plant virus studies.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, A J; Fargette, D; García-Arenal, F; Gibbs, M J

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that some plant viruses, like many animal viruses, have measurably evolving populations. Most of these viruses have single-stranded positive-sense RNA genomes, but a few have single-stranded DNA genomes. The studies show that extant populations of these viral species are only decades to centuries old. The genera in which they are placed have diverged since agriculture was invented and spread around the world during the Holocene period. We suggest that this is not mere coincidence but evidence that the conditions generated by agriculture during this era have favoured particular viruses. There is also evidence, albeit less certain, that some plant viruses, including a few shown to have measurably evolving populations, have much more ancient origins. We discuss the possible reasons for this clear discordance between short- and long-term evolutionary rate estimates and how it might result from a large timescale dependence of the evolutionary rates. We also discuss briefly why it is useful to know the rates of evolution of plant viruses. PMID:19889925

  16. Time, the Forgotten Dimension of Ligand Binding Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corzo, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Ligand binding is generally explained in terms of the equilibrium constant K[subscript d] for the protein-ligand complex dissociation. However, both theoretical considerations and experimental data point to the life span of the protein-ligand complex as an important, but generally overlooked, aspect of ligand binding by macromolecules. Short-lived…

  17. Insight dimensions and cognitive function in psychosis: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Manuel J; Peralta, Victor; Zarzuela, Amalia; Zandio, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background It has been reported that lack of insight is significantly associated with cognitive disturbance in schizophrenia. This study examines the longitudinal relationships between insight dimensions and cognitive performance in psychosis. Methods Participants were 75 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia, affective disorder with psychotic symptoms or schizoaffective disorder. Assessments were conducted at two time points during the study: at the time of hospital discharge after an acute psychotic episode and at a follow-up time that occurred more than 6 months after discharge. A multidimensional approach of insight was chosen and three instruments for its assessment were used: the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), three items concerning insight on the Assessment and Documentation in Psychopathology (AMDP) system and the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire. The neuropsychological battery included a wide range of tests that assessed global cognitive function, attention, memory, and executive functions. Results After conducting adequate statistical correction to avoid Type I bias, insight dimensions and cognitive performance were not found to be significantly associated at cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments. In addition, baseline cognitive performance did not explain changes in insight dimensions at follow-up. Similar results were found in the subset of patients with schizophrenia (n = 37). The possibility of a Type II error might have increased due to sample attrition at follow-up. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of insight dimensions and cognitive functioning may be unrelated phenomena in psychosis. PMID:16737523

  18. 76 FR 37114 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Dow Chemical Company in Madison, Illinois, to the...

  19. The MMPI-168(L) and ADD in Assessing Psychopathology in Individuals with Mental Retardation: Between and within Instrument Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, William F.; Passmore, Corie E.; Sewell, Hollie M.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 58 adults with mental retardation and mental disorders found few correlations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis (ADD). The major exception was the Mania scale of the MMPI, which correlated moderately well with the ADD Schizophrenia and Dementia scales. (Contains…

  20. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative costs on Treasury debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9, on... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will Treasury entities add... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  1. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  2. 78 FR 98 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the United...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart SSSS of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with operating limits...

  5. 36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks... § 1011.5 What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a...

  6. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative costs on Treasury debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9, on... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How will Treasury entities add... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  7. 77 FR 76490 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Weldon Spring...

  8. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System 2 Table 2 to Subpart OOOO of Part 63 Protection of Environment... OOOO of Part 63—Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System If you are...

  9. 78 FR 18351 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Hanford site...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart SSSS of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with operating limits...

  11. 77 FR 58383 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Titanium...

  12. 76 FR 65763 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Add...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...-65259 (September 2, 2011), 76 FR 55984 (September 9, 2011). In its filing with the Commission, ICC... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Add.... Description This rule change will amend Chapter 26 of ICC's rules to add Sections 26D and 26E to provide...

  13. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... administrative costs on Commerce debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  14. 77 FR 76490 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Mound Plant...

  15. 76 FR 70148 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Norton Co. (or a subsequent owner), Worcester, Massachusetts,...

  16. 78 FR 64502 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Pantex Plant...

  17. 76 FR 70147 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Piqua Organic Moderated Reactor, Piqua, Ohio, to the...

  18. 78 FR 64501 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Baker Brothers,...

  19. 78 FR 36550 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special...

  20. Micromagnetics at submicron dimensions (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonczewski, J. C.

    1997-04-01

    We represent the state of a circa 10-nm thick submicron dimensioned magnetic film with a superposition of two-dimensional (2D) magnetic pseudovortices. The effective intervortex exchange-stiffness potential and local magnetization angle at a complex distance z=x+iy from the kth vortex center are given by the real and imaginary parts respectively, of the function -wklnz. Each of the four corners of the rectangle has a stationary quarter vortex with negative winding (wk=-1). Two mobile semivortices with winding wk=+1 and N and S magnetic poles lie at general positions X1 and X2, respectively, along edges of the rectangle. The approximate boundary condition of vanishing M-component normal to each edge is satisfied by repeated reflections which generate a periodic extension of this vortex array to a lattice filling all of a 2D space. The internal energy V(X1,X2) is principally composed of the inter vortex exchange stiffness. Given this function, numerical evaluation of the integrated moment m=m(X1,X2) provides the functional dependence of V on m as parametrized by (X1,X2). The function V(X1,X2) has four equal minima representing states with the N and S vortices located at diagonally opposite corners, in agreement with direct numerical simulations. Therefore, the predicted hysteresis behavior of our vortex model has significantly more complex transitions than those of a uniaxial single-domain particle having only two minima. Our employment of but two variables, rather than the continuum of straightforward micromagnetics, makes possible a more insightful analysis of the smallscale structures used in storage and memory.

  1. Random sequential addition of hard spheres in high Euclidean dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, S.; Uche, O. U.; Stillinger, F. H.

    2006-12-01

    Sphere packings in high dimensions have been the subject of recent theoretical interest. Employing numerical and theoretical methods, we investigate the structural characteristics of random sequential addition (RSA) of congruent spheres in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd in the infinite-time or saturation limit for the first six space dimensions (1≤d≤6) . Specifically, we determine the saturation density, pair correlation function, cumulative coordination number and the structure factor in each of these dimensions. We find that for 2≤d≤6 , the saturation density ϕs scales with dimension as ϕs=c1/2d+c2d/2d , where c1=0.202048 and c2=0.973872 . We also show analytically that the same density scaling is expected to persist in the high-dimensional limit, albeit with different coefficients. A byproduct of this high-dimensional analysis is a relatively sharp lower bound on the saturation density for any d given by ϕs≥(d+2)(1-S0)/2d+1 , where S0ɛ[0,1] is the structure factor at k=0 (i.e., infinite-wavelength number variance) in the high-dimensional limit. We demonstrate that a Palàsti-type conjecture (the saturation density in Rd is equal to that of the one-dimensional problem raised to the d th power) cannot be true for RSA hyperspheres. We show that the structure factor S(k) must be analytic at k=0 and that RSA packings for 1≤d≤6 are nearly “hyperuniform.” Consistent with the recent “decorrelation principle,” we find that pair correlations markedly diminish as the space dimension increases up to six. We also obtain kissing (contact) number statistics for saturated RSA configurations on the surface of a d -dimensional sphere for dimensions 2≤d≤5 and compare to the maximal kissing numbers in these dimensions. We determine the structure factor exactly for the related “ghost” RSA packing in Rd and demonstrate that its distance from “hyperuniformity” increases as the space dimension increases, approaching a constant asymptotic value

  2. A method to add richness to the National Landslide Database of Great Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith; Freeborough, Katy; Malamud, Bruce; Demeritt, David

    2014-05-01

    2012, 72 of these resulted in additions to the BGS NLD and 4 in amendments to previously collected information. This raises the total number of landslides reported in 2012 from 186 to 258. Using the increased presence of landslides in the news and social media, 2012 had already resulted in the largest number of landslides for a given year being recorded by BGS in the NLD. With the additions from this current study to the NLD, we estimate that the annual total number of landslides was around six times higher in 2012 than the average annual total between 2006 and 2011. Years prior to 2012 plan to be revisited using this method, and more broadly, this method of searching newspaper archives could be applied to many other natural hazards to add richness to databases of historical events and improve our understanding of hazard occurrence and impact.

  3. Quality Dimensions of Internet Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, M.; Wang, H.; Goh, T. N.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews commonly used search engines (AltaVista, Excite, infoseek, Lycos, HotBot, WebCrawler), focusing on existing comparative studies; considers quality dimensions from the customer's point of view based on a SERVQUAL framework; and groups these quality expectations in five dimensions: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and…

  4. Unconscious Evaluation of Faces on Social Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lorna H.; Ajina, Sara; Getov, Spas; Bahrami, Bahador; Todorov, Alexander; Rees, Geraint

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that two major axes, dominance and trustworthiness, characterize the social dimensions of face evaluation. Whether evaluation of faces on these social dimensions is restricted to conscious appraisal or happens at a preconscious level is unknown. Here we provide behavioral evidence that such preconscious evaluations exist and…

  5. Mathematics Teachers' Criteria of Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ural, Alattin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine mathematics teachers' decisions about dimensions of the geometric figures, criteria of dimension and consistency of decision-criteria. The research is a qualitative research and the model applied in the study is descriptive method on the basis of general scanning model. 15 mathematics teachers attended the…

  6. An Inventory of Listening Competency Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolvin, Andrew D.; Cohen, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a one-page listening inventory sheet that helps students explore five dimensions of listening competency: cognitive, affective, behavioral, contextual, and ethical. After crafting their own responses, students will have the opportunity to engage in a class discussion about the impact of various dimensions of…

  7. 49 CFR 178.360-3 - Dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dimensions. 178.360-3 Section 178.360-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-3 Dimensions. (a) The inside diameter of the...

  8. 49 CFR 178.360-3 - Dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dimensions. 178.360-3 Section 178.360-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-3 Dimensions. (a) The inside...

  9. Understanding Dimensions of Organizational Evaluation Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Isabelle; Cousins, J. Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Organizational evaluation capacity building has been a topic of increasing interest in recent years. However, the actual dimensions of evaluation capacity have not been clearly articulated through empirical research. This study sought to address this gap by identifying the key dimensions of evaluation capacity in Canadian federal government…

  10. Quantum Field Theory in (0 + 1) Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boozer, A. D.

    2007-01-01

    We show that many of the key ideas of quantum field theory can be illustrated simply and straightforwardly by using toy models in (0 + 1) dimensions. Because quantum field theory in (0 + 1) dimensions is equivalent to quantum mechanics, these models allow us to use techniques from quantum mechanics to gain insight into quantum field theory. In…

  11. Physics of Extra Dimensions Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Csaba Csaki

    2007-12-19

    We provide the final report for Csaba Csaki's OJI project on "Physics of extra dimensions". It includes the summary of results of higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking, gauge-higgs unification, AdS/QCD and holographic technicolor, and chiral lattice theories from warped extra dimensions.

  12. [Vertical dimension in the Begg technic].

    PubMed

    Demange, C; Dion, J G

    1989-01-01

    This data of 25 treated cases in BEGG technic show, with RICKETTS analysis, a small augmentation of vertical dimensions during treatment. During retention, four of five factors improved. No correlation have been found between increase rate of vertical dimensions, treatment duration, and initial typology.

  13. Greedy Hypervolume Subset Selection in Low Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Andreia P; Fonseca, Carlos M; Paquete, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Given a nondominated point set [Formula: see text] of size [Formula: see text] and a suitable reference point [Formula: see text], the Hypervolume Subset Selection Problem (HSSP) consists of finding a subset of size [Formula: see text] that maximizes the hypervolume indicator. It arises in connection with multiobjective selection and archiving strategies, as well as Pareto-front approximation postprocessing for visualization and/or interaction with a decision maker. Efficient algorithms to solve the HSSP are available only for the 2-dimensional case, achieving a time complexity of [Formula: see text]. In contrast, the best upper bound available for [Formula: see text] is [Formula: see text]. Since the hypervolume indicator is a monotone submodular function, the HSSP can be approximated to a factor of [Formula: see text] using a greedy strategy. In this article, greedy [Formula: see text]-time algorithms for the HSSP in 2 and 3 dimensions are proposed, matching the complexity of current exact algorithms for the 2-dimensional case, and considerably improving upon recent complexity results for this approximation problem.

  14. Sufficient dimension reduction for longitudinally measured predictors.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Forzani, Liliana; Bura, Efstathia

    2012-09-28

    We propose a method to combine several predictors (markers) that are measured repeatedly over time into a composite marker score without assuming a model and only requiring a mild condition on the predictor distribution. Assuming that the first and second moments of the predictors can be decomposed into a time and a marker component via a Kronecker product structure that accommodates the longitudinal nature of the predictors, we develop first-moment sufficient dimension reduction techniques to replace the original markers with linear transformations that contain sufficient information for the regression of the predictors on the outcome. These linear combinations can then be combined into a score that has better predictive performance than a score built under a general model that ignores the longitudinal structure of the data. Our methods can be applied to either continuous or categorical outcome measures. In simulations, we focus on binary outcomes and show that our method outperforms existing alternatives by using the AUC, the area under the receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) curve, as a summary measure of the discriminatory ability of a single continuous diagnostic marker for binary disease outcomes.

  15. Anomalous dimensions and non-gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo; Silverstein, Eva; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2013-10-01

    We analyze the signatures of inflationary models that are coupled to interacting field theories, a basic class of multifield models also motivated by their role in providing dynamically small scales. Near the squeezed limit of the bispectrum, we find a simple scaling behavior determined by operator dimensions, which are constrained by the appropriate unitarity bounds. Specifically, we analyze two simple and calculable classes of examples: conformal field theories (CFTs), and large-N CFTs deformed by relevant time-dependent double-trace operators. Together these two classes of examples exhibit a wide range of scalings and shapes of the bispectrum, including nearly equilateral, orthogonal and local non-Gaussianity in different regimes. Along the way, we compare and contrast the shape and amplitude with previous results on weakly coupled fields coupled to inflation. This signature provides a precision test for strongly coupled sectors coupled to inflation via irrelevant operators suppressed by a high mass scale up to ~ 103 times the inflationary Hubble scale.

  16. Fractal dimension and nonlinear dynamical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, Robert C.; Lindley, John P.

    1993-11-01

    Mandelbrot, Falconer and others have demonstrated the existence of dimensionally invariant geometrical properties of non-linear dynamical processes known as fractals. Barnsley defines fractal geometry as an extension of classical geometry. Such an extension, however, is not mathematically trivial Of specific interest to those engaged in signal processing is the potential use of fractal geometry to facilitate the analysis of non-linear signal processes often referred to as non-linear time series. Fractal geometry has been used in the modeling of non- linear time series represented by radar signals in the presence of ground clutter or interference generated by spatially distributed reflections around the target or a radar system. It was recognized by Mandelbrot that the fractal geometries represented by man-made objects had different dimensions than the geometries of the familiar objects that abound in nature such as leaves, clouds, ferns, trees, etc. The invariant dimensional property of non-linear processes suggests that in the case of acoustic signals (active or passive) generated within a dispersive medium such as the ocean environment, there exists much rich structure that will aid in the detection and classification of various objects, man-made or natural, within the medium.

  17. Positioner with long travel in two dimensions

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, David L.; Williams, Mark E.

    1997-12-23

    A precision positioning system is provided which provides long travel in two of the linear dimensions, while using non-contact bearings for both a first subassembly which provides long travel in one of the linear dimension and a second subassembly which provides long travel in the second linear dimension. The first or upper subassembly is preferably a magnetic subassembly which, in addition to providing long travel, also compensates or positions in three rotary dimensions and in the third linear dimension. The second subassembly is preferably either an air bearing or magnetic subassembly and is normally used only to provide long travel. Angled surfaces may be provided for magnetic bearings and capacitive or other gap sensing probes may be mounted to the stage and ground flush with the bearing actuators to provide more precise gap measurements.

  18. Sample-based engine noise synthesis using an enhanced pitch-synchronous overlap-and-add method.

    PubMed

    Jagla, Jan; Maillard, Julien; Martin, Nadine

    2012-11-01

    An algorithm for the real time synthesis of internal combustion engine noise is presented. Through the analysis of a recorded engine noise signal of continuously varying engine speed, a dataset of sound samples is extracted allowing the real time synthesis of the noise induced by arbitrary evolutions of engine speed. The sound samples are extracted from a recording spanning the entire engine speed range. Each sample is delimitated such as to contain the sound emitted during one cycle of the engine plus the necessary overlap to ensure smooth transitions during the synthesis. The proposed approach, an extension of the PSOLA method introduced for speech processing, takes advantage of the specific periodicity of engine noise signals to locate the extraction instants of the sound samples. During the synthesis stage, the sound samples corresponding to the target engine speed evolution are concatenated with an overlap and add algorithm. It is shown that this method produces high quality audio restitution with a low computational load. It is therefore well suited for real time applications. PMID:23145595

  19. Sample-based engine noise synthesis using an enhanced pitch-synchronous overlap-and-add method.

    PubMed

    Jagla, Jan; Maillard, Julien; Martin, Nadine

    2012-11-01

    An algorithm for the real time synthesis of internal combustion engine noise is presented. Through the analysis of a recorded engine noise signal of continuously varying engine speed, a dataset of sound samples is extracted allowing the real time synthesis of the noise induced by arbitrary evolutions of engine speed. The sound samples are extracted from a recording spanning the entire engine speed range. Each sample is delimitated such as to contain the sound emitted during one cycle of the engine plus the necessary overlap to ensure smooth transitions during the synthesis. The proposed approach, an extension of the PSOLA method introduced for speech processing, takes advantage of the specific periodicity of engine noise signals to locate the extraction instants of the sound samples. During the synthesis stage, the sound samples corresponding to the target engine speed evolution are concatenated with an overlap and add algorithm. It is shown that this method produces high quality audio restitution with a low computational load. It is therefore well suited for real time applications.

  20. DIMENSION STABILIZED FIXED PHOTOGRAPHIC TYPE EMULSION AND A METHOD FOR PRODUCING SAME

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, F.C.

    1962-03-13

    A process is given for stabilizing the dimensions of fixed gelatin-base photographic type emulsions containing silver halide, and particularly to such emulsions containing large amounts of silver chloride for use as nuclear track emulsions, so that the dimensions of the final product are the same as or in a predetermined fixed ratio to the dimensions of the emulsions prior to exposure. The process comprises contacting an exposed, fixed emulsion with a solution of wood rosin dissolved in ethyl alcohol for times corresponding to the dimensions desired, and thereafter permitting the alcohol to evaporate. (AEC)

  1. Radiation reaction and renormalization in classical electrodynamics of a point particle in any dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, P. O.; Lyakhovich, S. L.; Sharapov, A. A.

    2002-07-01

    The effective equations of motion for a point charged particle taking into account the radiation reaction are considered in various space-time dimensions. The divergences stemming from the pointness of the particle are studied and an effective renormalization procedure is proposed encompassing uniformly the cases of all even dimensions. It is shown that in any dimension the classical electrodynamics is a renormalizable theory if not multiplicatively beyond d=4. For the cases of three and six dimensions the covariant analogues of the Lorentz-Dirac equation are explicitly derived.

  2. The relation between attachment, personality, internalizing, and externalizing dimensions in adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vera; Canta, Guilherme; de Castro, Filipa; Leal, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The relation between attachment and personality features is an important field to explore in adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD), and previous research has shown that personality features may be conceptualized within latent internalizing and externalizing dimensions. This cross-sectional study used a structural equation model to examine the association between the BPD participants' perception of attachment and personality features, mediated by the underlying internalizing/externalizing personality dimensions. Data were analyzed for 60 adolescents, ages 15 to 18 years, diagnosed with BPD who completed attachment and personality self-report measures. The authors' results showed a good fit of the model, suggesting a significant association between attachment and the internalizing/externalizing dimensions, which simultaneously congregate and influence personality traits. The perception of attachment anxiety was positively related to the internalizing dimension and at the same time negatively related to the externalizing dimension. However, the perception of attachment avoidance was not related to internalizing or externalizing personality dimensions. PMID:27583810

  3. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Transient Visual Evoked Potentials: Optimisation and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Mei Ying; Henry, Bruce Ian; Chu, Byoung Sun; Basahi, Nour; Suttle, Catherine May; Luu, Chi; Leung, Harry; Hing, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The visual evoked potential (VEP) provides a time series signal response to an external visual stimulus at the location of the visual cortex. The major VEP signal components, peak latency and amplitude, may be affected by disease processes. Additionally, the VEP contains fine detailed and non-periodic structure, of presently unclear relevance to normal function, which may be quantified using the fractal dimension. The purpose of this study is to provide a systematic investigation of the key parameters in the measurement of the fractal dimension of VEPs, to develop an optimal analysis protocol for application. Methods VEP time series were mathematically transformed using delay time, τ, and embedding dimension, m, parameters. The fractal dimension of the transformed data was obtained from a scaling analysis based on straight line fits to the numbers of pairs of points with separation less than r versus log(r) in the transformed space. Optimal τ, m, and scaling analysis were obtained by comparing the consistency of results using different sampling frequencies. The optimised method was then piloted on samples of normal and abnormal VEPs. Results Consistent fractal dimension estimates were obtained using τ = 4 ms, designating the fractal dimension = D2 of the time series based on embedding dimension m = 7 (for 3606 Hz and 5000 Hz), m = 6 (for 1803 Hz) and m = 5 (for 1000Hz), and estimating D2 for each embedding dimension as the steepest slope of the linear scaling region in the plot of log(C(r)) vs log(r) provided the scaling region occurred within the middle third of the plot. Piloting revealed that fractal dimensions were higher from the sampled abnormal than normal achromatic VEPs in adults (p = 0.02). Variances of fractal dimension were higher from the abnormal than normal chromatic VEPs in children (p = 0.01). Conclusions A useful analysis protocol to assess the fractal dimension of transformed VEPs has been developed. PMID:27598422

  4. Genotype variant associated with add-on memantine in bipolar II disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsieh; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Chen-Lin; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2014-02-01

    Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with a mood-stabilizing effect. We investigated whether using valproic acid (VPA) plus add-on memantine to treat bipolar II disorder (BP-II) is more effective than using VPA alone (VPA + Pbo). We also evaluated, in BP-II patients, the association between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with treatment response to VPA + add-on memantine and to VPA + Pbo. In this randomized, double-blind, controlled 12 wk study, BP-II patients undergoing regular VPA treatments were randomly assigned to a group: VPA + Memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 115) or VPA + Pbo (n = 117). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were used to evaluate clinical response during week 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12. The genotypes of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. To adjust within-subject dependence over repeated assessments, multiple linear regression with generalized estimating equation methods was used to analyze the effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on the clinical performance of memantine. Both groups showed significantly decreased YMRS and HDRS scores after 12 wk of treatment; the differences between groups were non-significant. When stratified by the BDNF Val66Met genotypes, significantly greater decreases in HDRS scores were found in the VPA + memantine group in patients with the Val Met genotype (p = 0.004). We conclude that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influenced responses to add-on memantine by decreasing depressive symptoms in patients with BP-II.

  5. What’s next after metformin? focus on sulphonylurea: add-on or combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Phei C.; Chong, Chee P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) mainly focused on insulin resistance and insulin deficiency over the past decades. Currently, the pathophysiologies expanded to ominous octet and guidelines were updated with newer generation of antidiabetic drug classes. However, many patients had yet to achieve their target glycaemic control. Although all the guidelines suggested metformin as first line, there was no definite consensus on the second line drug agents as variety of drug classes were recommended. Objectives: The aim of this review was to evaluate the drug class after metformin especially sulphonylurea and issues around add-on or fixed dose combination therapy. Methods: Extensive literature search for English language articles, clinical practice guidelines and references was performed using electronic databases. Results: Adding sulphonylurea to metformin targeted both insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. Sulphonylurea was efficacious and cheaper than thiazolidinedione, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue and insulin. The main side effect of sulphonylurea was hypoglycaemia but there was no effect on the body weight when combining with metformin. Fixed dose sulphonylurea/metformin was more efficacious at lower dose and reported to have fewer side effects with better adherence. Furthermore, fixed dose combination was cheaper than add-on therapy. In conclusion, sulphonylurea was feasible as the second line agent after metformin as the combination targeted on two pathways, efficacious, cost-effective and had long safety history. Fixed dose combination tablet could improve patient’s adherence and offered an inexpensive and more efficacious option regardless of original or generic product as compared to add-on therapy. PMID:26445623

  6. Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on thermally tunable micro-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Danning; Wu, Yuanda; Wang, Yue; An, Junming; Hu, Xiongwei

    2016-05-01

    We report on an eight-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) based on micro-ring resonators (MRRs). The effective footprint of the device is about 1000×760 μm2. The free spectral range (FSR) is about 18 nm. The adjacent channel crosstalk ranges from -19.02 dB to -8.29 dB. With the help of the multi-wire structure heaters, compact footprint and high tuning efficiency are achieved simultaneously. Therefore, the minimum average tuning efficiency is 2.723 mW/nm.

  7. Remote PCF-based sensors multiplexing by using optical add-drop multiplexers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Mikel; Candiani, Alessandro; Cucinotta, Annamaria; Selleri, Stefano; Lopez-Amo, Manuel; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay

    2014-04-01

    A 100 km remote PCF micro-displacement sensor multiplexing system based on optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs) has been experimentally demonstrated. The PCF sensors are placed in an OADM bus structure which is illuminated by a home-made tunable fiber optic ring laser. Four micro-displacement photonic crystal fiber (PCF) sensors based on a suspended core fiber inserted into a Sagnac loop filter are multiplexed. Furthermore, being the first proposal to solve this issue in PCF sensor multiplexing structures, these sensors can be referenced with an extra wavelength.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of the add-on price estimate for the silicon web growth process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The web growth process, a silicon-sheet technology option, developed for the flat plate solar array (FSA) project, was examined. Base case data for the technical and cost parameters for the technical and commercial readiness phase of the FSA project are projected. The process add on price, using the base case data for cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials and utilities, and the production parameters such as growth rate and run length, using a computer program developed specifically to do the sensitivity analysis with improved price estimation are analyzed. Silicon price, sheet thickness and cell efficiency are also discussed.

  9. Frequency-Domain Chromatic Dispersion Equalization Using Overlap-Add Methods in Coherent Optical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T.; Jacobsen, G.; Popov, S.; Forzati, M.; Mårtensson, J.; Mussolin, M.; Li, J.; Wang, K.; Zhang, Y.; Friberg, A. T.

    2011-06-01

    The frequency domain equalizers (FDEs) employing two types of overlap-add zero-padding (OLA-ZP) methods are applied to compensate the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (NRZ-PDM-QPSK) coherent optical transmission system. Simulation results demonstrate that the OLA-ZP methods can achieve the same acceptable performance as the overlapsave method. The required minimum overlap (or zero-padding) in the FDE is derived, and the optimum fast Fourier transform length to minimize the computational complexity is also analyzed.

  10. The Spatial Dimension of Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longman, Stanley Vincent

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the use of physical and imagined space and time in three plays. Describes how these features interact, assume dramatic force, and augment the tension, irony, and meaning of the play. The plays used are Chekhov's "The Three Sisters," Moliere's "Tartuffe," and Stoppard's "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead." (JMF)

  11. Effective dimension reduction for sparse functional data

    PubMed Central

    YAO, F.; LEI, E.; WU, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We propose a method of effective dimension reduction for functional data, emphasizing the sparse design where one observes only a few noisy and irregular measurements for some or all of the subjects. The proposed method borrows strength across the entire sample and provides a way to characterize the effective dimension reduction space, via functional cumulative slicing. Our theoretical study reveals a bias-variance trade-off associated with the regularizing truncation and decaying structures of the predictor process and the effective dimension reduction space. A simulation study and an application illustrate the superior finite-sample performance of the method. PMID:26566293

  12. Faces of root polytopes in all dimensions.

    PubMed

    Szajewska, Marzena

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the root polytopes of all finite reflection groups W with a connected Coxeter-Dynkin diagram in {\\bb R}^n are identified, their faces of dimensions 0 ≤ d ≤ n - 1 are counted, and the construction of representatives of the appropriate W-conjugacy class is described. The method consists of recursive decoration of the appropriate Coxeter-Dynkin diagram [Champagne et al. (1995). Can. J. Phys. 73, 566-584]. Each recursion step provides the essentials of faces of a specific dimension and specific symmetry. The results can be applied to crystals of any dimension and any symmetry. PMID:27357848

  13. Add-drop filters based on asymmetric high-order microring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Huang, Yongqing; Ren, Xiaomin; Duan, Xiaofeng; Shen, Bing; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xia; Cai, Shiwei

    2012-11-01

    Add/drop filters are key components of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) communication systems. Free spectral range(FSR) is a key parameter for Add/drop filters, the FSR should operate within the entire C-band (1530-1562nm).And flat-top drop-port response with a sharp rolloff is also import, Flatness of the passband, sharp roll-off from passband to stop band are necessary to minimize the pulse broadening and the packing efficiency of wavelength channels. In this paper, we proposed an asymmetric approach to design high-order microring filters, The aim is to achieve large extension ratios and adequate suppression of the spurious interstitial mode, meanwhile, flat-top and steep-side response in filter could be obtained by this approach. Our simulation results showed an extended FSR of 40nm, reducing the interstitial peak suppression from 5dB to 35dB and a boxlike filter response with sharpe factor(SF) of 0.68. And a quality-factor of 2961 and a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.52nm is achieved.

  14. Gantry and isocenter displacements of a linear accelerator caused by an add-on micromultileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, Hans L.; Zimmermann, Sune J.; Hjelm-Hansen, Mogens

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The delivery of high quality stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments to the patient requires knowledge of the position of the isocenter to submillimeter accuracy. To meet the requirements the deviation between the radiation and mechanical isocenters must be less than 1 mm. The use of add-on micromultileaf collimators ({mu}MLCs) in SRS and SRT is an additional challenge to the anticipated high-level geometric and dosimetric accuracy of the treatment. The aim of this work was to quantify the gantry excursions during rotation with and without an add-on {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. In addition, the shift in the position of the isocenter and its correlation to the kV beam center of the cone-beam CT system was included in the study. Methods: The quantification of the gantry rotational performance was done using a pointer supported by an in-house made rigid holder attached to the gantry head of the accelerator. The pointer positions were measured using a digital theodolite. To quantify the effect of an {mu}MLC of 50 kg, the measurements were repeated with the {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. The displacement of the isocenter due to an add-on {mu}MLC of 50 kg was also investigated. In case of the pointer measurement the {mu}MLC was simulated by weights attached to the gantry head. A method of least squares was applied to determine the position and displacement of the mechanical isocenter. Additionally, the displacement of the radiation isocenter was measured using a ball-bearing phantom and the electronic portal image device system. These measurements were based on 8 MV photon beams irradiated onto the ball from the four cardinal angles and two opposed collimator angles. The measurements and analysis of the data were carried out automatically using software delivered by the manufacturer. Results: The displacement of the mechanical isocenter caused by a 50 kg heavy {mu}MLC was found to be (-0.01 {+-} 0.05, -0

  15. Collaborative Sharing of Multidimensional Space-time Data Using HydroShare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, T.; Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Dash, P. K.; Idaszak, R.; Yi, H.; Blanton, B.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a collaborative environment being developed for sharing hydrological data and models. It includes capability to upload data in many formats as resources that can be shared. The HydroShare data model for resources uses a specific format for the representation of each type of data and specifies metadata common to all resource types as well as metadata unique to specific resource types. The Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) was chosen as the format for multidimensional space-time data in HydroShare. NetCDF is widely used in hydrological and other geoscience modeling because it contains self-describing metadata and supports the creation of array-oriented datasets that may include three spatial dimensions, a time dimension and other user defined dimensions. For example, NetCDF may be used to represent precipitation or surface air temperature fields that have two dimensions in space and one dimension in time. This presentation will illustrate how NetCDF files are used in HydroShare. When a NetCDF file is loaded into HydroShare, header information is extracted using the "ncdump" utility. Python functions developed for the Django web framework on which HydroShare is based, extract science metadata present in the NetCDF file, saving the user from having to enter it. Where the file follows Climate Forecast (CF) convention and Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery (ACDD) standards, metadata is thus automatically populated. Users also have the ability to add metadata to the resource that may not have been present in the original NetCDF file. HydroShare's metadata editing functionality then writes this science metadata back into the NetCDF file to maintain consistency between the science metadata in HydroShare and the metadata in the NetCDF file. This further helps researchers easily add metadata information following the CF and ACDD conventions. Additional data inspection and subsetting functions were developed, taking advantage of Python and command line

  16. Stepping into the third dimension.

    PubMed

    Feng, David; Marshburn, David; Jen, Dennis; Weinberg, Richard J; Taylor, Russell M; Burette, Alain

    2007-11-21

    Recent advances in optical-sectioning microscopy, along with novel fluorescent proteins and probes, give us the tools to image molecules and their interactions in space and time. Investigators using these tools routinely collect multichannel three-dimensional (3D) images and time series, but analyzing such complex datasets requires sophisticated visualization techniques. We here provide an overview of the principles and practices of 3D visualization of multichannel microscopic data. We also describe ImageSurfer, a new software package for volume visualization and data analysis. ImageSurfer is freely available (www.imagesurfer.org) and provides powerful interactive tools to explore and analyze complex multichannel 3D datasets. Although ImageSurfer is designed with fluorescent microscopy in mind, it is also effective for other types of data, including 3D datasets acquired by functional magnetic resonance imaging and EM tomography. PMID:18032646

  17. Three-dimension imaging lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    This invention is directed to a 3-dimensional imaging lidar, which utilizes modest power kHz rate lasers, array detectors, photon-counting multi-channel timing receivers, and dual wedge optical scanners with transmitter point-ahead correction to provide contiguous high spatial resolution mapping of surface features including ground, water, man-made objects, vegetation and submerged surfaces from an aircraft or a spacecraft.

  18. Chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhonen, P. M.; Linna, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer translocation through a nanometer-scale pore assisted by chaperones binding to the polymer is a process encountered in vivo for proteins. Studying the relevant models by computer simulations is computationally demanding. Accordingly, previous studies are either for stiff polymers in three dimensions or flexible polymers in two dimensions. Here, we study chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions using Langevin dynamics. We show that differences in binding mechanisms, more specifically, whether a chaperone can bind to a single site or multiple sites on the polymer, lead to substantial differences in translocation dynamics in three dimensions. We show that the single-binding mode leads to dynamics that is very much like that in the constant-force driven translocation and accordingly mainly determined by tension propagation on the cis side. We obtain β ≈1.26 for the exponent for the scaling of the translocation time with polymer length. This fairly low value can be explained by the additional friction due to binding particles. The multiple-site binding leads to translocation the dynamics of which is mainly determined by the trans side. For this process we obtain β ≈1.36 . This value can be explained by our derivation of β =4 /3 for constant-bias translocation, where translocated polymer segments form a globule on the trans side. Our results pave the way for understanding and utilizing chaperone-assisted translocation where variations in microscopic details lead to rich variations in the emerging dynamics.

  19. Chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Suhonen, P M; Linna, R P

    2016-01-01

    Polymer translocation through a nanometer-scale pore assisted by chaperones binding to the polymer is a process encountered in vivo for proteins. Studying the relevant models by computer simulations is computationally demanding. Accordingly, previous studies are either for stiff polymers in three dimensions or flexible polymers in two dimensions. Here, we study chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions using Langevin dynamics. We show that differences in binding mechanisms, more specifically, whether a chaperone can bind to a single site or multiple sites on the polymer, lead to substantial differences in translocation dynamics in three dimensions. We show that the single-binding mode leads to dynamics that is very much like that in the constant-force driven translocation and accordingly mainly determined by tension propagation on the cis side. We obtain β≈1.26 for the exponent for the scaling of the translocation time with polymer length. This fairly low value can be explained by the additional friction due to binding particles. The multiple-site binding leads to translocation the dynamics of which is mainly determined by the trans side. For this process we obtain β≈1.36. This value can be explained by our derivation of β=4/3 for constant-bias translocation, where translocated polymer segments form a globule on the trans side. Our results pave the way for understanding and utilizing chaperone-assisted translocation where variations in microscopic details lead to rich variations in the emerging dynamics.

  20. Separate neural processing of timbre dimensions in auditory sensory memory.

    PubMed

    Caclin, Anne; Brattico, Elvira; Tervaniemi, Mari; Näätänen, Risto; Morlet, Dominique; Giard, Marie-Hélène; McAdams, Stephen

    2006-12-01

    Timbre is a multidimensional perceptual attribute of complex tones that characterizes the identity of a sound source. Our study explores the representation in auditory sensory memory of three timbre dimensions (acoustically related to attack time, spectral centroid, and spectrum fine structure), using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential. MMN is elicited by a discriminable change in a sound sequence and reflects the detection of the discrepancy between the current stimulus and traces in auditory sensory memory. The stimuli used in the present study were carefully controlled synthetic tones. MMNs were recorded after changes along each of the three timbre dimensions and their combinations. Additivity of unidimensional MMNs and dipole modeling results suggest partially separate MMN generators for different timbre dimensions, reflecting their mainly separate processing in auditory sensory memory. The results expand to timbre dimensions a property of separation of the representation in sensory memory that has already been reported between basic perceptual attributes (pitch, loudness, duration, and location) of sound sources.

  1. Relationship between Fractal Dimension and Agreeability of Facial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Miao, Tiejun; Ito, Tasuo

    2007-11-01

    Why do people feel happy and good or equivalently empathize more, with smiling face imageries than with ones of expressionless face? To understand what the essential factors are underlying imageries in relating to the feelings, we conducted an experiment by 84 subjects asked to estimate the degree of agreeability about expressionless and smiling facial images taken from 23 young persons to whom the subjects were no any pre-acquired knowledge. Images were presented one at a time to each subject who was asked to rank agreeability on a scale from 1 to 10. Fractal dimensions of facial images were obtained in order to characterize the complexity of the imageries by using of two types of fractal analysis methods, i.e., planar and cubic analysis methods, respectively. The results show a significant difference in the fractal dimension values between expressionless faces and smiling ones. Furthermore, we found a well correlation between the degree of agreeability and fractal dimensions, implying that the fractal dimension optically obtained in relation to complexity in imagery information is useful to characterize the psychological processes of cognition and awareness.

  2. Neutrinos with Lorentz-violating operators of arbitrary dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostelecký, V. Alan; Mewes, Matthew

    2012-05-01

    The behavior of fermions in the presence of Lorentz and CPT violation is studied. Allowing for operators of any mass dimension, we classify all Lorentz-violating terms in the quadratic Lagrange density for free fermions. The result is adapted to obtain the effective Hamiltonian describing the propagation and mixing of three flavors of left-handed neutrinos in the presence of Lorentz violation involving operators of arbitrary mass dimension. A characterization of the neutrino coefficients for Lorentz violation is provided via a decomposition using spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The restriction of the general theory to various special cases is discussed, including among others the renormalizable limit, the massless scenario, flavor-blind and oscillation-free models, the diagonalizable case, and several isotropic limits. The formalism is combined with existing data on neutrino oscillations and kinematics to extract a variety of measures of coefficients for Lorentz and CPT violation. For oscillations, we use results from the short-baseline experiments LSND and MiniBooNE to obtain explicit sensitivities to effects from flavor-mixing Lorentz-violating operators up to mass dimension 10, and we present methods to analyze data from long-baseline experiments. For propagation, we use time-of-flight measurements from the supernova SN1987A and from a variety of experiments including MINOS and OPERA to constrain oscillation-free Lorentz-violating operators up to mass dimension 10, and we discuss constraints from threshold effects in meson decays and Čerenkov emission.

  3. Lessons: Math. It's Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krech, Bob

    2000-01-01

    Describes how to use a one-handed clock for teaching time telling: make a one-handed clock (hour hand only); discuss clock history; have students use approximate language to describe where the hour hand is; have students practice with their own clocks; introduce the minute hand; have students compare the clocks; and have students add minute hands…

  4. Calculating climate attractor dimension from delta O-18 records by the Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maasch, Kirk A.

    1989-01-01

    The Grassberger-Procaccia method of calculating dimension from a time series is applied to 14 late Pleistocene delta O-18 records. A step-by-step sequence leading from data to the Grassberger-Procaccia dimension is outlined, and the problems encountered when dealing with observed (as opposed to theoretical) data are discussed; for the climatic proxy data these problems include situations where the time series is not very long, is noisy and/or smoothed, and is not sampled at a constant time interval. The delta O-18 records to be used are described, and the results are presented and compared with previously published dimension calculations. New dimension interpretations are assessed, and an example using a synthetic time series that illustrates the possible error due to inconsistencies in the time scale is analyzed.

  5. [The diabetic and his psychological dimension].

    PubMed

    Harter, M; Couadau, A; Issa Sayegh, M; Albrengues, P; Fenichel, P; Irondelle, G; Strulo, S; Kozlowski, J M; Viard, R

    1984-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes is the most poorly accepted chronic illness for the following reasons: the customary suddenness and young age at onset of diabetes, the obligatory nature of insulin injections, the incurability of the disease, the need to regulate the diet, and the need for continued surveillance. Among persisting problems of diabetics are frustration at dietary constraints, ambivalence toward insulin, anxiety due to the malfunctioning pancreas, and fear of blindness, amputations, or other complications. The adjustment of a patient to diabetes depends greatly on the age at onset. The disease and its constraints may heighten the usual difficulties of adolescence. The family plays an essential role in adaptation of the diabetic to his condition. The mother of a diabetic child faces 10 principal problems: injections, diet, hypoglycemia, control of diabetic equilibrium, expense, psychological support, time requirements, the need for independence of the child, the feeling that the illness is a punishment, and fears about the future. Renal insufficiency requiring dialysis is another aspect of degraded bodily image for the diabetic. Concerning reproduction, number of pregnancies must be limited because of their potentially unfavorable effects on microangiopathy; maternal health must be monitored even prior to fertilization to avoid fetal malformations. Complications such as these accentuate in the diabetic the usual ambivalence of women toward contraception. Combined oral contraceptives with their vasular risk and IUDs with their risks of infection are not ideal contraceptive methods for diabetics. Tact is needed in couseling diabetics on contraception to avoid stressing once their differences from other women. Tubal ligation, still too frequently practiced, should be avoided so as not to add a further highly sumbolic mutilation. The emotional demands of pregnancy for a diabetic woman are greater than usual, but the desire for pregnancy sometimes increases

  6. 49 CFR 178.360-3 - Dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-3 Dimensions. (a) The inside diameter of the vessel... wall thickness and length in accordance with the following: Inside diameter maximum Inches Cm...

  7. Thinking in Two Dimensions: Simple Multiplicative Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, Barbara A.; Clark, Richard M.

    1976-01-01

    In order to study developmental and task-related factors in ability to coordinate two dimensions, a simple multiplicative relations matrix task was presented to 51 children in kindergarten and grades 1 and 2. (MS)

  8. Cardiac Dimensions in Elite Young Track Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Gerald D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The study compared young sprint and distance runners for changes in cardiac dimensions with increased age or increased body surface area. Results, which run counter to generalizations stated for adult athletes, are detailed. (Author/MT)

  9. 76 FR 37115 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... to add a class of employees from the Wah Chang facility in Albany, Oregon, to the Special Exposure... Atomic Weapons Employees who worked in any building at the Wah Chang facility in Albany, Oregon, for...

  10. [Should we add antiplatelet therapy to oral anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation and vascular disease? Review of available evidence].

    PubMed

    Andreu, José Manuel; Roldán, Vanessa; García-Navarro, Miguel; Ruipérez, Juan Antonio; Valdés, Mariano; Marín, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Current recommendation is to add antiplatelet drug to oral anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and vascular disease. However, it is debatable to join both antithrombotic drugs in stable vascular disease.

  11. 76 FR 37114 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... to add a class of employees from the Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, to the Special... Department of Energy employees and Atomic Weapons Employees who worked at the Linde Ceramics Plant...

  12. 76 FR 37115 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... to add a class of employees from the Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company (i.e., Building 23 and Dean... Commission work at the Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company (i.e., Building 23 and Dean Street facility)...

  13. 77 FR 32642 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Hangar 481 at Kirtland... authorized under EEOICPA: All employees who worked at Hangar 481, Kirtland Air Force Base, from March 1,...

  14. 78 FR 18351 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from General Steel Industries... Steel Industries site, located at 1417 State Street, Granite City, Illinois, from January 1,...

  15. 78 FR 38265 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds Two New Discussion Topics to Connect America Cost Model Virtual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Model Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Wireline Competition Bureau adds two new virtual workshop discussion topics.../ecfs2/ . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the...

  16. 78 FR 23192 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds New Discussion Topic to Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Wireline Competition Bureau adds a new virtual workshop discussion topic, entitled... for submitting comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the usual methods for filing...

  17. BOX DIMENSIONS OF α-FRACTAL FUNCTIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Md. Nasim; Prasad, M. Guru Prem; Navascués, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The box dimension of the graph of non-affine, continuous, nowhere differentiable function fα which is a fractal analogue of a continuous function f corresponding to a certain iterated function system (IFS), is investigated in the present paper. The estimates for box dimension of the graph of α-fractal function fα for equally spaced as well as arbitrary data sets are found.

  18. Loop quantum cosmology in 2 +1 dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong

    2014-12-01

    As a first step to generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with the spacetime dimension other than four, the isotropic model of loop quantum cosmology in 2 +1 dimension is studied in this paper. We find that the classical big bang singularity is again replaced by a quantum bounce in the model. The similarities and differences between the (2 +1 )-dimensional model and the (3 +1 )-dimensional one are also discussed.

  19. Bar dimensions and bar shapes in estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuven, Jasper; Kleinhans, Maarten; Weisscher, Steven; van der Vegt, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries cause fascinating patterns of dynamic channels and shoals. Intertidal sandbars are valuable habitats, whilst channels provide access to harbors. We still lack a full explanation and classification scheme for the shapes and dimensions of bar patterns in natural estuaries, in contrast with bars in rivers. Analytical physics-based models suggest that bar length in estuaries increases with flow velocity, tidal excursion length or estuary width, depending on which model. However, these hypotheses were never validated for lack of data and experiments. We present a large dataset and determine the controls on bar shape and dimensions in estuaries, spanning bar lengths from centimeters (experiments) to 10s of kilometers length. First, we visually identified and classified 190 bars, measured their dimensions (width, length, height) and local braiding index. Data on estuarine geometry and tidal characteristics were obtained from governmental databases and literature on case studies. We found that many complex bars can be seen as simple elongated bars partly cut by mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels. Data analysis shows that bar dimensions scale with estuary dimensions, in particular estuary width. Breaking up the complex bars in simple bars greatly reduced scatter. Analytical bar theory overpredicts bar dimensions by an order of magnitude in case of small estuarine systems. Likewise, braiding index depends on local width-to-depth ratio, as was previously found for river systems. Our results suggest that estuary dimensions determine the order of magnitude of bar dimensions, while tidal characteristics modify this. We will continue to model bars numerically and experimentally. Our dataset on tidal bars enables future studies on the sedimentary architecture of geologically complex tidal deposits and enables studying effects of man-induced perturbations such as dredging and dumping on bar and channel patterns and habitats.

  20. Rotating Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco

    2008-03-01

    The properties of higher-dimensional black holes can differ significantly from those of black holes in four dimensions, since neither the uniqueness theorem, nor the staticity theorem or the topological censorship theorem generalize to higher dimensions. We first discuss black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory and Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with spherical horizon topology. Here new types of stationary black holes are encountered. We then discuss nonuniform black strings and present evidence for a horizon topology changing transition.

  1. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images.

  2. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024 ×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images.

  3. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images. PMID:27475069

  4. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... both the inlet and outlet measurements. (1) Use Method 25 of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites...

  5. [Personality dimensions and cerebral evoked potential].

    PubMed

    Camposano, S; Alvarez, C; Lolas, F

    1994-12-01

    Eysenck's personality theory postulates 3 orthogonal dimensions of personality: extraversion (E), neuroticism (N) and psychoticism (P), predicting conductual and physiological predispositions to suffer mental illness. Biological bases of Eysenck's personality traits have been documented electrophysiologically. Psychoticism, the latest described dimension, is controverted, since there is some evidence of common factors with the other two. In order to assess the relation between Eysenck's dimensions and sensorial reactivity and information encoding processes we studied 20 healthy young subjects (mean age 28.5 years) with flash visual cortical evoked potentials (VEP, 3 intensities, peak to peak amplitude of III, IV-V-VI, VII components), and auditory cognitive evoked potentials (odd ball paradigm, P300 latency). There was a positive correlation between N and P dimensions (Spearman, r = 0.52), between N and VEP amplitude at high intensity (r = 0.58) and a negative correlation between E and P300 latency (r = 0.58). In short we found that P is not an independent dimension, but is related to sensorial reactivity. E dimension was related to encoding processes supporting Eysenck's observations about memory and learning differences.

  6. Ultrafast Physics in One Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dexheimer, Susan L.

    2000-05-01

    Low dimensional materials, and in particular, quasi-one-dimensional systems have attracted considerable interest owing to their unusual electronic properties. In many of these systems, strong electron-phonon couplings can lead to the formation of nonlinear excitations such as self-trapped excitons, in which an electronic excitation is localized as a result of lattice distortions that occur in response to the excitation. I will discuss femtosecond time-resolved experiments in which we have studied the electronic and vibrational dynamics associated with the formation and evolution of the self-trapped exciton in a series of linear chain (MX) complexes, in which the electron-phonon coupling can be systematically tuned. The measurements of the dynamics are carried out using femtosecond impulsive excitation techniques, which allow the lattice dynamics to be directly observed as a time-dependent coherent modulation of the optical response. This work was supported by the donors of The Petroleum Research Fund, administered by the American Chemical Society, by the National Science Foundation, and by Washington State University.

  7. No guard-band wavelength translation of Nyquist OTDM-WDM signal for spectral defragmentation in an elastic add-drop node.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hung Nguyen; Tanizawa, Ken; Inoue, Takashi; Kurosu, Takayuki; Namiki, Shu

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a seamless spectral defragmentation in an elastic all-optical add-drop node based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) channels of Nyquist optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) signal. A 172 Gbaud Nyquist OTDM signal occupying a 215 GHz range is elastically shifted adjacent to its neighboring channel, completely filling a variable spectral gap caused by the dropped channel. The frequency shift is done in a dual-stage polarization-diversity four wave mixing-based converter using polarization-maintaining highly nonlinear fiber. The spectrally defragmented signals are successfully transmitted over a 80 km fiber link with BER<10(-9).

  8. Analysis of the correlation dimension for inertial particles

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsson, Kristian; Mehlig, Bernhard; Wilkinson, Michael

    2015-07-15

    We obtain an implicit equation for the correlation dimension which describes clustering of inertial particles in a complex flow onto a fractal measure. Our general equation involves a propagator of a nonlinear stochastic process in which the velocity gradient of the fluid appears as additive noise. When the long-time limit of the propagator is considered our equation reduces to an existing large-deviation formalism from which it is difficult to extract concrete results. In the short-time limit, however, our equation reduces to a solvability condition on a partial differential equation. In the case where the inertial particles are much denser than the fluid, we show how this approach leads to a perturbative expansion of the correlation dimension, for which the coefficients can be obtained exactly and in principle to any order. We derive the perturbation series for the correlation dimension of inertial particles suspended in three-dimensional spatially smooth random flows with white-noise time correlations, obtaining the first 33 non-zero coefficients exactly.

  9. Love in the fourth dimension.

    PubMed

    Berscheid, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Psychologists' efforts to understand love began in the mid-twentieth century. The fact that they continue apace in the twenty-first century reflects increased awareness of the importance of love to understanding relationship phenomena and acknowledgment that an understanding of love has yet to be achieved. This article (a) describes one source of increased recognition that the present confusions surrounding love must be transcended if progress is to be made in understanding many relationship phenomena; (b) discusses the failure to explicate the love construct, which constitutes the major obstacle to the study of love phenomena; (c) discusses the need for a temporal model of love in relationships; and (d) suggests that it is important to consider the presence or absence of four types of love, each of which appears to be associated with different causal conditions and thus is likely to have a different temporal course as an adult relationship moves through time.

  10. Consensus on Learning Time Builds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Under enormous pressure to prepare students for a successful future--and fearful that standard school hours do not offer enough time to do so--educators, policymakers, and community activists are adding more learning time to children's lives. Twenty-five years ago, the still-resonant report "A Nation at Risk" urged schools to add more time--an…

  11. Prospective open-label study of add-on and monotherapy topiramate in civilians with chronic nonhallucinatory posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Berlant, Jeffrey L

    2004-01-01

    Background In order to confirm therapeutic effects of topiramate on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) observed in a prior study, a new prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine acute responses in chronic, nonhallucinatory PTSD. Methods Thirty-three consecutive newly recruited civilian adult outpatients (mean age 46 years, 85% female) with DSM-IV-diagnosed chronic PTSD, excluding those with concurrent auditory or visual hallucinations, received topiramate either as monotherapy (n = 5) or augmentation (n = 28). The primary measure was a change in the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) score from baseline to 4 weeks, with response defined as a ≥ 30% reduction of PTSD symptoms. Results For those taking the PCL-C at both baseline and week 4 (n = 30), total symptoms declined by 49% at week 4 (paired t-test, P < 0.001) with similar subscale reductions for reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal symptoms. The response rate at week 4 was 77%. Age, sex, bipolar comorbidity, age at onset of PTSD, duration of symptoms, severity of baseline PCL-C score, and monotherapy versus add-on medication administration did not predict reduction in PTSD symptoms. Median time to full response was 9 days and median dosage was 50 mg/day. Conclusions Promising open-label findings in a new sample converge with findings of a previous study. The use of topiramate for treatment of chronic PTSD, at least in civilians, warrants controlled clinical trials. PMID:15315714

  12. Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Bone Loss and Adds Extra Bone to Immobilized Distal Femoral Metaphysis in Female Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akamine, T.; Jee, W. S. S.; Ke, H. Z.; Li, X. J.; Lin, B. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can prevent disuse (underloading)-induced cancellous bone loss. Thirteen-month-old retired female Sprague-Dawley breeders served as controls or were subjected to right hindlimb immobilization by bandaging and simultaneously treated subcutaneously daily with 0, 1, 3, or 6 mg PGE2/kg/d for two and six weeks. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on the cancellous bone using double-fluorescent labeled, 20 micron thick, undecalcified distal femoral metaphysis sections. We found that PGE2 administration not only prevented disuse-induced bone loss, but also added extra bone to disuse cancellous bone in a dose-response manner. PGE2 prevented the disuse-induced osteopenia by stimulating more bone formation than and shortening the period of bone remodeling. It activated woven bone formation, stimulated lamellar bone formation, and increased the eroded bone surface above that caused by disuse alone. While underloading increased the remodeling period (sigma), PGE2 treatment of underloaded bone shortened the time for osteoclastic bone resorption and bone remodeling, and thus reduced the remodeling space. The study shows that PGE2 is a powerful anabolic agent that prevents disuse-induced osteopenia and adds extra bone to these same bones.

  13. Can intermittent theta burst stimulation as add-on to psychotherapy improve nicotine abstinence? Results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dieler, Alica C; Dresler, Thomas; Joachim, Kathrin; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Discontinuing smoking can increase life expectancy to the presmoking level. Unaided attempts are often ineffective, strengthening the necessity of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), nicotine replacement or pharmacotherapy. Still, relapse rates are high. Recently, a modulation of nicotine craving, which predicts relapse, through transcranial magnetic stimulation to the prefrontal cortex was shown. In a pilot study, we investigated whether 4 sessions of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as add-on treatment to CBT reduces nicotine craving and improves long-term abstinence (at 3, 6 and 12 months). Smokers were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 38) or a sham group (n = 36). Although we did not find reduced craving, we could show higher abstinence rates in the treatment group at 3 months. At 6 and 12 months abstinence rates did not differ significantly. Results at 12 months, however, have to be interpreted cautiously due to significant differences in the dropout rates between the two groups at this time point. We provide first evidence for a beneficial effect of additional iTBS on intermediate nicotine abstinence; however, the low number of iTBS sessions might have prevented longer effects. More lasting effects might be achieved by iTBS maintenance sessions in analogy to the treatment of depression. PMID:24924851

  14. SAPling: a Scan-Add-Print barcoding database system to label and track asexual organisms

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Michael A.; Schötz, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY We have developed a ‘Scan-Add-Print’ database system, SAPling, to track and monitor asexually reproducing organisms. Using barcodes to uniquely identify each animal, we can record information on the life of the individual in a computerized database containing its entire family tree. SAPling has enabled us to carry out large-scale population dynamics experiments with thousands of planarians and keep track of each individual. The database stores information such as family connections, birth date, division date and generation. We show that SAPling can be easily adapted to other asexually reproducing organisms and has a strong potential for use in large-scale and/or long-term population and senescence studies as well as studies of clonal diversity. The software is platform-independent, designed for reliability and ease of use, and provided open source from our webpage to allow project-specific customization. PMID:21993779

  15. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials.

    PubMed

    Marini, Stefano; De Berardis, Domenico; Vellante, Federica; Santacroce, Rita; Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Girinelli, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Gambi, Francesco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. PMID:27524864

  16. Passive neutron assay of heterogeneous waste drums using the segmented Add-a-Source method

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.

    1995-07-01

    We have developed passive neutron detectors that include the Add-a-Source (AS) technique to improve the accuracy of the nondestructive assay of plutonium in large waste containers. We have improved the AS by incorporating multiple positions for the {sup 252}Cf source on the exterior of a 200-L drum. The multiple positions give a better coverage of the drum and have the effect of segmenting the matrix as a function of fill height. We have applied the multiposition AS to the assay of drums with heterogeneous matrix combinations of concrete, polyethylene, wood, paper, and metal. The measurement errors caused by the matrix significantly reduced by the AS technique and anomalous shielding material in the drum can be flagged for more detailed investigation.

  17. Nanophotonic graphene-based racetrack-resonator add/drop filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth L., A.; da Silva, M. G.; Neves, D. M. C.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2016-05-01

    We are presenting and analyzing a graphene-based nanophotonic device to operate as a resonator-add/drop filter, whose control is obtained by varying the graphene chemical potential. That device consists of graphene-based waveguides, two directional couplers and a racetrack resonator with 90° bends. Since the graphene chemical potential provides the achievement of the necessary parameters, the resonance and filtering of the signals are obtained by applying the correct value of the graphene chemical potential in the graphene nanoribbons. The results of this study should help in the development of new graphene-based nanophotonic devices operating in the terahertz and infrared range (including in the C-band of the International Telecommunication Union - ITU), for use in future communications networks.

  18. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-09-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand-receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  19. Benefits and risks of add-on therapies for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Magierski, Radoslaw; Sobow, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Despite three decades of intensive research, the efforts of scientific society and industry and the expenditures, numerous attempts to develop effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease have failed. Currently, approved and widely used medications to treat cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease are symptomatic only and show at best modest efficacy. In this context, the need to develop a successful, disease-modifying treatment is loudly expressed. One way to achieve this goal is the use of add-on therapies or various combinations of existing 'conventional' drugs. Results of several clinical studies and post hoc analyses of combination therapy with all cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are published. Moreover, there is a need for studies on long-term efficacy of combination therapy in Alzheimer's.

  20. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials

    PubMed Central

    De Berardis, Domenico; Vellante, Federica; Santacroce, Rita; Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Girinelli, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Gambi, Francesco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. PMID:27524864

  1. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The current Space Station Systems Technology Study add on task was an outgrowth of the Advanced Platform Systems Technology Study (APSTS) that was completed in April 1983 and the subsequent Space Station System Technology Study completed in April 1984. The first APSTS proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of five for detailed trade studies. During the advanced platform study, the technical issues and options were evaluated through detailed trade processes, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement, and advancement plans were developed. An approach similar to that was used in the subsequent study, with emphasis on system definition in four specific technology areas to facilitate a more in depth analysis of technology issues.

  2. Wavelength tunable integrated add-drop filter with 10.6 nm bandwidth adjustability.

    PubMed

    Boroojerdi, M T; Ménard, M; Kirk, A G

    2016-09-19

    We present the design and characterization of a silicon-on-insulator based bandwidth and wavelength-tunable add-drop filter. The tunability of the device is achieved by independently controlling the central wavelength of two cascaded contra-directional grating assisted couplers. The device was fabricated using e-beam lithography and the tuning is demonstrated using the thermo-optic effect, which was obtained with metal heaters fabricated by a lift-off process. It is experimentally demonstrated that within the wavelength range of 1555 nm to 1573 nm the transmission bandwidth of the device can be tuned from 1.1 nm to 11.7 nm. Moreover, more than 4 nm of central wavelength tuning is demonstrated. The tunability of the central wavelength is limited by the breakdown current of the metal heaters. PMID:27661939

  3. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus.

  4. SCEW: a Microsoft Excel add-in for easy creation of survival curves.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2006-07-01

    Survival curves are frequently used for reporting survival or mortality outcomes of experimental pharmacological/toxicological studies and of clinical trials. Microsoft Excel is a simple and widely used tool for creation of numerous types of graphic presentations however it is difficult to create step-wise survival curves in Excel. Considering the familiarity of clinicians and biomedical scientists with Excel, an algorithm survival curves in Excel worksheet (SCEW) has been developed for easy creation of survival curves directly in Excel worksheets. The algorithm has been integrated in the form of Excel add-in for easy installation and usage. The program is based on modification of frequency data for binary break-up using the spreadsheet formula functions whereas a macro subroutine automates the creation of survival curves. The advantages of this program are simple data input, minimal procedural steps and the creation of survival curves in the familiar confines of Excel.

  5. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in Add Health.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; Deleone, Felicia Yang

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early marriage (before age 26), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are used to examine the health effects of early marriage and cohabitation accounting for potential health selection into unions. Our results indicate that early marriage by young adults does not have protective effects for African Americans, and finds more negative effects for African American men than women. There are mixed results for whites with some protective effects of marriage for binge drinking. Early marriage for both African Americans and whites is associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI). Cohabitation is uniformly associated with negative health outcomes for all race and sex groups.

  6. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand–receptor design

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand–receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand–receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:26350224

  7. The CONVEX Liner Add-On to the DIAMOND-FORTUNE event

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.; Swift, R.P.; Hill, L.R.; Barrett, W.H.

    1993-11-15

    This report describes the execution of the CONVEX Liner Add-On to the DIAMOND FORTUNE low-yield cavity test of the Defense Nuclear Agency. CONVEX stands for COntained Nuclear Vessel EXperiment. It concerns the design of underground chambers where repeated low-yield nuclear explosions could be conducted. The approach proposed by the first author in the early 1980`s was to engineer a steel-lined rock cavern where the steel liner would be prestressed against the rock by tendons and/or bolts. These would daylight in tunnels surrounding the main cavity. From there, they could be initially tensioned and retensioned, if needed, after each test. The CONVEX Liner Add-On to DIAMOND FORTUNE consisted of anchoring a 1.4-m square, 2.5-cm thick steel plate to the wall of the cavity, using a 5-cm diameter center bolt, and four 2.5-cm diameter comer bolts. The bolts daylighted in a drift surrounding the gallery, and separated from it by a 9-m thick rock pillar. The liner plate, the bolts, and the rock pillar were equipped with 23 gages to describe the thermal and mechanical response of the system during pretensioning, during the dynamic loading phase, and post-test. Particular emphasis was given to obtaining the response both upon loading and during the rebound of the system, in order to determine whether the plate ever separated from the rock. So, the main operational objectives of this project were to acquire response data of the system under nuclear loading and to ascertain the status of contact between the steel plate and the rock, as shown by toadstool data and bolt tension data. The instrumentation and data acquisition system performed extremely well. Data were recorded during the dynamic phase; plate temperature was monitored for several hours after the test; and the remaining tension was obtained for several bolts more than three months after the test, upon re-entry in the runaround drift.

  8. Chimera states in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maistrenko, Yuri; Sudakov, Oleksandr; Osiv, Oleksiy; Maistrenko, Volodymyr

    2015-07-01

    The chimera state is a recently discovered dynamical phenomenon in arrays of nonlocally coupled oscillators, that displays a self-organized spatial pattern of coexisting coherence and incoherence. In this paper, the first evidence of three-dimensional chimera states is reported for the Kuramoto model of phase oscillators in 3D grid topology with periodic boundary conditions. Systematic analysis of the dependence of the spatiotemporal dynamics on the range and strength of coupling shows that there are two principal classes of the chimera patterns which exist in large domains of the parameter space: (I) oscillating and (II) spirally rotating. Characteristic examples from the first class include coherent as well as incoherent balls, tubes, crosses, and layers in incoherent or coherent surrounding; the second class includes scroll waves with incoherent, randomized rolls of different modality and dynamics. Numerical simulations started from various initial conditions indicate that the states are stable over the integration time. Videos of the dynamics of the chimera states are presented in supplementary material. It is concluded that three-dimensional chimera states, which are novel spatiotemporal patterns involving the coexistence of coherent and incoherent domains, can represent one of the inherent features of nature.

  9. Behavioral dimensions of food security.

    PubMed

    Timmer, C Peter

    2012-07-31

    The empirical regularities of behavioral economics, especially loss aversion, time inconsistency, other-regarding preferences, herd behavior, and framing of decisions, present significant challenges to traditional approaches to food security. The formation of price expectations, hoarding behavior, and welfare losses from highly unstable food prices all depends on these behavioral regularities. At least when they are driven by speculative bubbles, market prices for food staples (and especially for rice, the staple food of over 2 billion people) often lose their efficiency properties and the normative implications assigned by trade theory. Theoretical objections to government efforts to stabilize food prices, thus, have reduced saliency, although operational, financing, and implementation problems remain important, even critical. The experience of many Asian governments in stabilizing their rice prices over the past half century is drawn on in this paper to illuminate both the political mandates stemming from behavioral responses of citizens and operational problems facing efforts to stabilize food prices. Despite the theoretical problems with free markets, the institutional role of markets in economic development remains. All policy instruments must operate compatibly with prices in markets. During policy design, especially for policies designed to alter market prices, incentive structures need to be compatible with respect to both government capacity (bureaucratic and budgetary) and empirical behavior on the part of market participants who will respond to planned policy changes. A new theoretical underpinning to political economy analysis is needed that incorporates this behavioral perspective, with psychology, sociology, and anthropology all likely to make significant contributions.

  10. Molecular Photovoltaics in Nanoscale Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Burtman, Vladimir; Zelichonok, Alexander; Pakoulev, Andrei V.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the intrinsic charge transport in organic photovoltaic (PVC) devices and field-effect transistors (SAM-OFETs) fabricated by vapor phase molecular self-assembly (VP-SAM) method. The dynamics of charge transport are determined and used to clarify a transport mechanism. The 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic diphenylimide (NTCDI) SAM devices provide a useful tool to study the fundamentals of polaronic transport at organic surfaces and to discuss the performance of organic photovoltaic devices in nanoscale. Time-resolved photovoltaic studies allow us to separate the charge annihilation kinetics in the conductive NTCDI channel from the overall charge kinetic in a SAM-OFET device. It has been demonstrated that tuning of the type of conductivity in NTCDI SAM-OFET devices is possible by changing Si substrate doping. Our study of the polaron charge transfer in organic materials proposes that a cation-radical exchange (redox) mechanism is the major transport mechanism in the studied SAM-PVC devices. The role and contribution of the transport through delocalized states of redox active surface molecular aggregates of NTCDI are exposed and investigated. This example of technological development is used to highlight the significance of future technological development of nanotechnologies and to appreciate a structure-property paradigm in organic nanostructures. PMID:21339983

  11. Molecular photovoltaics in nanoscale dimension.

    PubMed

    Burtman, Vladimir; Zelichonok, Alexander; Pakoulev, Andrei V

    2011-01-05

    This review focuses on the intrinsic charge transport in organic photovoltaic (PVC) devices and field-effect transistors (SAM-OFETs) fabricated by vapor phase molecular self-assembly (VP-SAM) method. The dynamics of charge transport are determined and used to clarify a transport mechanism. The 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic diphenylimide (NTCDI) SAM devices provide a useful tool to study the fundamentals of polaronic transport at organic surfaces and to discuss the performance of organic photovoltaic devices in nanoscale. Time-resolved photovoltaic studies allow us to separate the charge annihilation kinetics in the conductive NTCDI channel from the overall charge kinetic in a SAM-OFET device. It has been demonstrated that tuning of the type of conductivity in NTCDI SAM-OFET devices is possible by changing Si substrate doping. Our study of the polaron charge transfer in organic materials proposes that a cation-radical exchange (redox) mechanism is the major transport mechanism in the studied SAM-PVC devices. The role and contribution of the transport through delocalized states of redox active surface molecular aggregates of NTCDI are exposed and investigated. This example of technological development is used to highlight the significance of future technological development of nanotechnologies and to appreciate a structure-property paradigm in organic nanostructures.

  12. Behavioral dimensions of food security

    PubMed Central

    Timmer, C. Peter

    2012-01-01

    The empirical regularities of behavioral economics, especially loss aversion, time inconsistency, other-regarding preferences, herd behavior, and framing of decisions, present significant challenges to traditional approaches to food security. The formation of price expectations, hoarding behavior, and welfare losses from highly unstable food prices all depends on these behavioral regularities. At least when they are driven by speculative bubbles, market prices for food staples (and especially for rice, the staple food of over 2 billion people) often lose their efficiency properties and the normative implications assigned by trade theory. Theoretical objections to government efforts to stabilize food prices, thus, have reduced saliency, although operational, financing, and implementation problems remain important, even critical. The experience of many Asian governments in stabilizing their rice prices over the past half century is drawn on in this paper to illuminate both the political mandates stemming from behavioral responses of citizens and operational problems facing efforts to stabilize food prices. Despite the theoretical problems with free markets, the institutional role of markets in economic development remains. All policy instruments must operate compatibly with prices in markets. During policy design, especially for policies designed to alter market prices, incentive structures need to be compatible with respect to both government capacity (bureaucratic and budgetary) and empirical behavior on the part of market participants who will respond to planned policy changes. A new theoretical underpinning to political economy analysis is needed that incorporates this behavioral perspective, with psychology, sociology, and anthropology all likely to make significant contributions. PMID:20855628

  13. Segmentation of magnetic resonance image using fractal dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Joseph K. K.; Wong, Sau-hoi; Chan, Kwok-Leung

    1997-04-01

    In recent years, much research has been conducted in the three-dimensional visualization of medical image. This requires a good segmentation technique. Many early works use first-order and second-order statistics. First-order statistical parameters can be calculated quickly but their effectiveness is influenced by many factors such as illumination, contrast and random noise of the image. Second-order statistical parameters, such as spatial gray level co-occurrence matrices statistics, take longer time to compute but can extract the textural information. In this investigating, two different parameters, namely the entropy and the fractal dimension, are employed to perform segmentation of the magnetic resonance images of the head of a male cadaver. The entropy is calculated from the spatial gray level co-occurrence matrices. The fractal dimension is calculated by the reticular cell counting method. Several regions of the human head are chosen for analysis. They are the bone, gyrus and lobe. Results show that the parameters are able to segment different types of tissue. The entropy gives very good result but it requires very long computation time and large amount of memory. The performance of the fractal dimension is comparable with the entropy. It is simple to estimate and demands lesser memory space.

  14. Spectral Dimension of a Percolation Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudra, Jayanta

    2005-03-01

    While the fractal dimension df describes the self-similar static nature of the lattice, the spectral dimension ds dictates the dynamic properties on it. Alexander and Orbach^1 conjectured that the spectral dimension might be exactly 4/3 for percolation networks with embedding euclidian dimension de >= 2. Recent numerical simulations^2, however, could not decisively prove or disprove this conjecture, although there are other indirect evidences that it is true. We believe that the failure of the simulations to decisively check the validity of the conjecture is due to the non-stochastic nature of the methods. Most of these simulations are Monte Carlo Methods based on a random-walk model and, in spite of very large number of walks on huge lattices, the results do not reach the satisfactory level. In this work we apply a stochastic approach^3 to determine the spectral dimension of percolation network for de >= 2 and check the validity of the Alexander-Orbach-conjecture. Due to its stochastic nature this method is numerically superior and more accurate than the conventional Monte Carlo simulations. References: 1. S. Alexander and R. Orbach, J. Phys. Lett. (Paris) 43 (1982) L625. 2. N. Pitsianis, G. Bleris and P. Argyrakis, Phys. Rev. B 39 (1989) 7097. 3. J. Rudra and J. Kozak, Phys. Lett A 151 (1990) 429.

  15. The Many Dimensions of Program Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1992-01-01

    For the purposes of this paper, program refers to a collection of activities or projects which must be performed according to a plan or schedule. The Space Exploration Initiative within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an example. Dimensionality refers to both the various perspectives of a program and to the components within that perspective. It is, thus, appropriate to think of dimensions of dimensionality. For example, one dimension or perspective of a program is the projects which perform the program. Within the project dimension, the individual projects are the components of that dimensionality. The number of projects defines the spatial dimensionality of the project dimension. Thus, each perspective or dimension has a dimensionality of its own. The structure and associated values of all the various perspectives of a program define the program. A project refers to the collection of activities required to conceive, sell, design, develop, evaluate, produce, operate, support, evolve, and retire a given system. A project thus effects the life cycle of given system. A project is, thus, the system to conceive, sell, design, develop, evaluate, produce, operate, support, evolve, and retire a system. A program, thus, effects the life cycle of the collection of projects required to effect the collection of systems required to implement the program.

  16. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the... Electrodeposition Primer Emission Limitations § 63.3174 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on... limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into...

  17. 40 CFR 63.4363 - How do I establish the add-on control device operating limits during the performance test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the add-on control... § 63.4363 How do I establish the add-on control device operating limits during the performance test... specified in § 63.4292. (a) Thermal oxidizers. If your add-on control device is a thermal...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the... Electrodeposition Primer Emission Limitations § 63.3174 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on... limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4767 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on...) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish the operating...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4966 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control... to § 63.4965. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish...