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Sample records for adductor longus muscles

  1. Responses of Electromyogram Activity in Adductor Longus Muscle of Rats to the Altered Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Takashi; Wang, Xiao Dong; Terada, Masahiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Higo, Yoko; Nakai, Naoya; Ochiai, Toshimasa; Gyotoku, Jyunichirou; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Ogura, Akihiko; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2008-06-01

    Responses of electromyogram (EMG) activities in the rostral and caudal regions of adductor longus (AL) muscle to altered gravity levels during parabolic flight of a jet airplane, as well as hindlimb suspension, were investigated in adult rats. Tonic EMGs in both regions were noted when the rats were exposed to hyper-G, as well as 1-G. The hip joints were adducted and the sedental quadrupedal position was maintained at these G levels. However, the EMG activities in these regions decreased and became phasic, when the hip joints were abducted and extended backward in μ-G environment. Such changes of joint angles caused passive shortening of sarcomeres only in the caudal region of AL. Atrophy and shift toward fast-twitch type were noted in fibers of the caudal region after 16-day unloading. Although fiber transformation was also induced in the rostral region, no atrophy was seen in fast-twitch fibers. The data may suggest that the atrophy and shift of phenotype caused by gravitational unloading in fibers of the caudal region may be related to the decrease in the neural and mechanical activities. Fiber type transformation toward fast-twitch type may be also related to the change of muscle activity from tonic to phasic patterns, which are the typical characteristics of fast-twitch muscle. However, the responses to unloading in fibers of rostral region were not related to the reduction of mechanical load.

  2. Five myofibrillar lesion types in eccentrically challenged, unloaded rat adductor longus muscle--a test model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. L.; Balog, E. M.; Fitts, R. H.; Riley, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Sarcomere disruptions are observed in the adductor longus (AL) muscles following voluntary reloading of spaceflown and hindlimb suspension unloaded (HSU) rat, which resemble lesions in eccentrically challenged muscle. We devised and tested an eccentric contraction (ECCON) test system for the 14-day HSU rat AL. Six to 7 hours following ECCON, ALs were fixed to allow immunostaining and electron microscopy (EM). Toluidine blue-stained histology semithin sections were screened for lesion density (#/mm2). Serial semithin sections from the ECCON group were characterized for myosin immunointensity of lesions. Five myofibrillar lesion types were identified in histological semithin sections: focal contractions; wide A-bands; opaque areas; missing A-bands; and hyperstretched sarcomeres. Lesion density by type was greater for ECCON than NonECCON ALs (P< or =0.05; focal contractions and opaque regions). Lesion density (#-of-all-five-types/mm2) was significantly different (ECCON: 23.91+/-10.58 vs. NonECCON: 5.48+/-1.28, P< or =0.05; ECCON vs. SHAM: 0.00+/-0.00; P< or = 0.025). PostECCON optimal tension decreased (Poi-drop, 17.84+/-4.22%) and was correlated to lesion density (R2=0.596), but prestretch tension demonstrated the highest correlation with lesion density (R2=0.994). In lesions, the darkly staining A-band lost the normally organized thick filament alignment to differing degrees across the different lesion types. Ranking the five lesion types by a measure of lesion length deformation (hypercontracted to hyperstretched) at the light microscopy level, related to the severity of thick filament registry loss across the lesion types at the electron microscopic level. This ranking suggested that the five lesion types seen in semithin sections at the light level represented a lesion progression sequence and paralleled myosin immunostaining loss as the distorted A-band filaments spread across the hyperlengthening lesion types. Lesion ultrastructure indicated damage involved

  3. Surgical technique for treatment of recalcitrant adductor longus tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gill, Thomas J; Carroll, Kaitlin M; Makani, Amun; Wall, Andrew J; Dumont, Guillaume D; Cohn, Randy M

    2014-04-01

    Chronic groin pain in the athlete can be a difficult problem to manage. Adductor dysfunction is the most common cause of groin pain in athletes, with the adductor longus being the tendon most commonly involved. The most reproducible finding for adductor longus tendinopathy is tenderness along the tendon with passive abduction and resisted hip adduction in extension. Magnetic resonance imaging and injection of a corticosteroid and anesthetic into the proximal muscle-tendon junction are both helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Nonoperative treatment may consist of protected weight bearing, ice application, ultrasonography, electrical stimulation, and gentle stretching with progressive strengthening. However, nonoperative management is not always successful. In these instances, surgical treatment can be quite effective. We present the indications, surgical technique, and rehabilitation protocol of adductor tenotomy for chronic tendinopathy. This can prove a useful tool for the treatment of recalcitrant groin pain attributable to the adductor longus. PMID:24904780

  4. Surgical technique for treatment of recalcitrant adductor longus tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gill, Thomas J; Carroll, Kaitlin M; Makani, Amun; Wall, Andrew J; Dumont, Guillaume D; Cohn, Randy M

    2014-04-01

    Chronic groin pain in the athlete can be a difficult problem to manage. Adductor dysfunction is the most common cause of groin pain in athletes, with the adductor longus being the tendon most commonly involved. The most reproducible finding for adductor longus tendinopathy is tenderness along the tendon with passive abduction and resisted hip adduction in extension. Magnetic resonance imaging and injection of a corticosteroid and anesthetic into the proximal muscle-tendon junction are both helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Nonoperative treatment may consist of protected weight bearing, ice application, ultrasonography, electrical stimulation, and gentle stretching with progressive strengthening. However, nonoperative management is not always successful. In these instances, surgical treatment can be quite effective. We present the indications, surgical technique, and rehabilitation protocol of adductor tenotomy for chronic tendinopathy. This can prove a useful tool for the treatment of recalcitrant groin pain attributable to the adductor longus.

  5. Rupture of adductor longus tendon due to ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Mouzopoulos, George; Stamatakos, Mihalis; Vasiliadis, George; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2005-12-01

    We present a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the adductor longus tendon induced by ciprofloxacin. A 35-year-old man was diagnosed with pneumonia and was recommended ciprofloxacin 500 mg iv twice a day for 7 days. Three days after receiving the initial dose, he developed discomfort in his left medial thigh, and pain and swelling in the same area followed ten days later. He consulted us when he noted a palpable mass on the medial side of his left thigh, and MRI study revealed adductor longus tendon rupture. There was no obvious underlying disease or other factor causing fragility of his adductor longus tendon. We review the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to fluoroquinolone-related tendon rupture as well as the risk factors and discuss proper management.

  6. Adductor muscle strains in sport.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Stephen J; Tyler, Timothy F

    2002-01-01

    An in-season adductor muscle strain may be debilitating for the athlete. Furthermore, an adductor strain that is treated improperly could become chronic and career threatening. Any one of the six muscles of the adductor group could be involved. The degree of injury can range from a minor strain (Grade I), where minimal playing time is lost, to a severe strain (Grade III) in which there is complete loss of muscle function. Ice hockey and soccer players seem particularly susceptible to adductor muscle strains. In professional ice hockey players throughout the world, approximately 10% of all injuries are groin strains. These injuries, which have been linked to hip muscle weakness, previous injuries to that area, preseason practice sessions and level of experience, may be preventable if such risk factors can be addressed before each season. Hip-strengthening exercises were shown to be an effective method of reducing the incidence of adductor strains in one closely followed National Hockey League ice hockey team. Despite the identification of risk factors and strengthening intervention for ice hockey players, adductor strains continue to occur throughout sport. Clinicians feel an active training programme, along with completely restoring the strength of the adductor muscle group, is the key to successful rehabilitation. Surgical intervention is available if nonoperative treatment fails for 6 months or longer. Adductor release and tenotomy was reported to have limited success in athletes. PMID:11929360

  7. Diagnosing adductor muscle avulsion at the symphysis pubis with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, David J; Caldera, Franklin E; Kim, Woojin

    2014-04-01

    A 58-yr-old woman presented after experiencing left hip and groin pain for 1 mo. She denies any history of trauma, falls or any bruising, or history of sports injury or extreme physical exertion before her symptoms. On ultrasonography, she was found to have an avulsion tear at the origin of the adductor muscles, predominantly involving the adductor longus and brevis muscles. The treatment course was conservative: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain control and physical therapy for muscle strengthening and balance improvement. Upon follow-up, she demonstrated significant improvement and resolution of her pain. PMID:24196970

  8. Diagnosing adductor muscle avulsion at the symphysis pubis with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, David J; Caldera, Franklin E; Kim, Woojin

    2014-04-01

    A 58-yr-old woman presented after experiencing left hip and groin pain for 1 mo. She denies any history of trauma, falls or any bruising, or history of sports injury or extreme physical exertion before her symptoms. On ultrasonography, she was found to have an avulsion tear at the origin of the adductor muscles, predominantly involving the adductor longus and brevis muscles. The treatment course was conservative: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain control and physical therapy for muscle strengthening and balance improvement. Upon follow-up, she demonstrated significant improvement and resolution of her pain.

  9. Effects of spaceflight in the adductor longus muscle of rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. A study employing neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and conventional morphological techniques (light and electron microscopy)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Daunton, N. G.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the "slow" muscle adductor longus were examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leukocytes and mononuclear cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity (N-CAM-IR) was seen on the myofiber surface and in regenerating myofibers. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with apparent preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles replaced by microtubules and neurofilaments, degeneration of axon terminals, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. The present observations suggest that alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  10. Adductor pollicis longus strain in a professional baseball player: case report and review of thenar pain.

    PubMed

    Pinkowsky, Gregory J; Roberts, John; Allred, Jeff; Pujalte, George G; Gallo, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    Thenar pain can represent a significant morbidity for a baseball player who relies on manual dexterity for gripping a bat and precise and accurate throws. While osseous, ligamentous, and neurovascular pathologies are commonly considered, musculotendinous injuries are often neglected in the differential diagnosis of thenar pain. We present a case of adductor pollicis longus strain as a cause of acute thenar pain in a baseball player. Adductor pollicis longus strains should be considered in any baseball player sustaining a hyperabduction force to the thumb.

  11. Influence of electrical stimulation on hip joint adductor muscle activity during maximum effort

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Sota; Wada, Chikamune

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether hip adductor activity was influenced by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata muscle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 nondisabled males. Each subject was asked to adduct the hip joint with maximum effort. The electromyogram of the adductor longus was recorded under two experimental conditions, with and without electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. [Results] In the presence of electrical stimulation, muscle activity decreased to 72.9% (57.8–89.3%) of that without stimulation. [Conclusion] These results suggested that inactivation of the adductor group was promoted by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. PMID:27313387

  12. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 1; A Study Employing Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules (N-CAM) Immunocytochemistry and Conventional Morphological Techniques (Light and Electron Microscopy)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, N. G.; DAmelio, F.; Wu, L.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Krasnov, I. B.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the 'slow' muscle adductor longus was examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. Three groups - synchronous, vivarium and basal served as controls. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, N-CAM immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy, contraction bands and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leucocytes and mononuclear cells. N-CAM immunoreactivity was seen (N-CAM-IR) on the myofiber surface, satellite cells and in regenerating myofibers reminiscent of myotubes. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments that displayed varied distributive patterns. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions consisted of a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degeneration of axon terminals, increased number of microtubules, vacant axonal spaces and axonal sprouting. The present observations indicate that major alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  13. Isokinetic imbalance of adductor-abductor hip muscles in professional soccer players with chronic adductor-related groin pain.

    PubMed

    Belhaj, K; Meftah, S; Mahir, L; Lmidmani, F; Elfatimi, A

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to compare the isokinetic profile of hip abductor and adductor muscle groups between soccer players suffering from chronic adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), soccer players without ARGP and healthy volunteers from general population. Study included 36 male professional soccer players, who were randomly selected and followed-up over two years. Of the 21 soccer players eligible to participate in the study, 9 players went on to develop chronic ARGP and 12 players did not. Ten healthy male volunteers were randomly selected from the general population as a control group. Comparison between the abductor and adductor muscle peak torques for players with and without chronic ARGP found a statistically significant difference on the dominant and non-dominant sides (p < .005), with the abductor muscle significantly stronger than the adductor muscle. In the group of healthy volunteers, the adductor muscle groups were significantly stronger than the abductor muscle groups on both dominant and non-dominant sides (p < .05). For the group of players who had developed chronic ARGP, abductor-adductor torque ratios were significantly higher on the affected side (p = .008). The adductor muscle strength was also significantly decreased on the affected side. This imbalance appears to be a risk factor for adductor-related groin injury. Therefore, restoring the correct relationship between these two agonist and antagonist hip muscles may be an important preventative measure that should be a primary concern of training and rehabilitation programmes. PMID:27017973

  14. Preferential denervation of the adductor muscles of the equine larynx. I: Muscle pathology.

    PubMed

    Duncan, I D; Amundson, J; Cuddon, P A; Sufit, R; Jackson, K F; Lindsay, W A

    1991-03-01

    The laryngeal muscles of 18 horses were examined histologically. The neurogenic changes found in each muscle were scored by four reviewers and the results evaluated statistically. Fifteen of these horses had endoscopic evidence of abnormal laryngeal function, three of which were defined as having adductor paralysis. Measurement of muscle fibre area in two horses with idiopathic laryngeal hemiplegia (ILH) was performed. In the quantitative study of neurogenic change, the adductor muscles were more significantly affected than the abductor muscle. This was also true in the clinical cases of ILH where measurement of muscle fibre area demonstrated that the lateral cricoarytenoid (adductor) muscles showed a wider range of pathological changes than the dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle (abductor). Those horses with the most severe muscle pathology also had the most abnormal endoscopic findings. The propensity for denervation of the adductor muscles should provide clues as to the pathogenesis and natural history of horses with sub-clinical laryngeal disease and ILH.

  15. Hypertrophy of palmaris longus muscle, a rare anatomic aberration.

    PubMed

    Barkáts, N

    2015-01-01

    The palmaris longus muscle (PLM) is considered to be a phylogenetically degenerate muscle. For many authors, this may be the cause of its great variability. The loss of function in the PLM makes it an important muscle in plastic and reconstructive surgery. During a study of PLM agenesis rate in the Hungarian population, a 22-year-old female showed an unusual pattern of muscles in her left forearm, which was found to be a hypertrophied PLM. The hypertrophied muscle was causing symptoms of median and ulnar nerve compression.

  16. Heat treatment of scallop adductor muscle using superheated steam.

    PubMed

    Abe, T; Miyashita, K

    2007-08-01

    Scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) adductor muscles were heated using superheated steam (150 and 200 degrees C), boiling (98 degrees C), and normal steaming (95 degrees C). The amounts of amino acids, water-soluble peptides, and nucleotides, expressed as extractive nitrogen in scallop products, are very important elements of quality and taste. After 15-min heating of scallop muscles with normal steaming and boiling, respective losses of 50% and 64% of the extractive nitrogen were observed. However, most extractive nitrogen (> 86%) remained in the scallop muscles treated with superheated steam at 150 and 200 degrees C. Protective effects of superheated steam against elution loss of nitrogen compounds were also observed in amino acid analyses of the heated products. The scallop-muscle surface temperature during treatment with superheated steam increased more quickly than that with normal steaming and boiling. The rapid water loss and the surface protein denaturation engendered formation of a 30-mum-thick film covering the surface, which prevented extractive nitrogen loss from internal tissues. Superheated steam treatment at 200 degrees C caused browning, surface shrinkage, and 47% weight loss. In marked contrast, the appearance and the weight loss of sample treated at 150 degrees C were almost the same as those of normal steaming and boiling-treated samples. These results suggested that superheated steaming at 150 degrees C is an optimal heat treatment of scallop adductor muscles.

  17. Heat treatment of scallop adductor muscle using superheated steam.

    PubMed

    Abe, T; Miyashita, K

    2007-08-01

    Scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) adductor muscles were heated using superheated steam (150 and 200 degrees C), boiling (98 degrees C), and normal steaming (95 degrees C). The amounts of amino acids, water-soluble peptides, and nucleotides, expressed as extractive nitrogen in scallop products, are very important elements of quality and taste. After 15-min heating of scallop muscles with normal steaming and boiling, respective losses of 50% and 64% of the extractive nitrogen were observed. However, most extractive nitrogen (> 86%) remained in the scallop muscles treated with superheated steam at 150 and 200 degrees C. Protective effects of superheated steam against elution loss of nitrogen compounds were also observed in amino acid analyses of the heated products. The scallop-muscle surface temperature during treatment with superheated steam increased more quickly than that with normal steaming and boiling. The rapid water loss and the surface protein denaturation engendered formation of a 30-mum-thick film covering the surface, which prevented extractive nitrogen loss from internal tissues. Superheated steam treatment at 200 degrees C caused browning, surface shrinkage, and 47% weight loss. In marked contrast, the appearance and the weight loss of sample treated at 150 degrees C were almost the same as those of normal steaming and boiling-treated samples. These results suggested that superheated steaming at 150 degrees C is an optimal heat treatment of scallop adductor muscles. PMID:17995678

  18. Myofascial force transmission between transferred rat flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and former synergistic palmaris longus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Huub; Huijing, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We investigated the extent of mechanical interaction between rat flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and palmaris longus (PL) muscles following transfer of FCU to the distal tendons of extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus (ECRB/L) muscles. Five weeks after recovery from surgery, isometric forces exerted at the distal tendons of FCU and PL were quantified at various FCU lengths. PL was kept at a constant length. Changing the muscle-tendon complex length of transferred FCU (by maximally 3.5 mm) decreased PL force significantly (by 7%). A linear relationship was found between changes in FCU muscle belly length, being a measure of muscle relative positions, and PL force. These results indicate that despite transfer of FCU muscle to the extensor side of the forearm, changing FCU length still affects force transmission of its, now, antagonistic PL muscle. We conclude that a transferred muscle may still be mechanically linked to its former synergistic muscles. PMID:23738260

  19. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352. PMID:27374014

  20. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352.

  1. The hip adductor muscle group in caviomorph rodents: anatomy and homology.

    PubMed

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M

    2015-06-01

    Anatomical comparative studies including myological data of caviomorph rodents are relatively scarce, leading to a lack of use of muscular features in cladistic and morphofunctional analyses. In rodents, the hip adductor muscles constitute an important group of the hindlimb musculature, having an important function during the beginning of the stance phase. These muscles are subdivided in several distinct ways in the different clades of rodents, making the identification of their homologies hard to establish. In this contribution we provide a detailed description of the anatomical variation of the hip adductor muscle group of different genera of caviomorph rodents and identify the homologies of these muscles in the context of Rodentia. On this basis, we identify the characteristic pattern of the hip adductor muscles in Caviomorpha. Our results indicate that caviomorphs present a singular pattern of the hip adductor musculature that distinguishes them from other groups of rodents. They are characterized by having a single m. adductor brevis that includes solely its genicular part. This muscle, together with the m. gracilis, composes a muscular sheet that is medial to all other muscles of the hip adductor group. Both muscles probably have a synergistic action during locomotion, where the m. adductor brevis reinforces the multiple functions of the m. gracilis in caviomorphs. Mapping of analyzed myological characters in the context of Rodentia indicates that several features are recovered as potential synapomorphies of caviomorphs. Thus, analysis of the myological data described here adds to the current knowledge of caviomorph rodents from anatomical and functional points of view, indicating that this group has features that clearly differentiate them from other rodents. PMID:25911542

  2. The prevalence of absence of the palmaris longus muscle in the Bahraini population.

    PubMed

    Sater, Mai S; Dharap, Amol S; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan F

    2010-11-01

    Absence of the palmaris longus muscle has been well documented in several populations at a prevalence rate ranging between 2.2 and 63.9% which varies according to race, sex, and side of the body. There is little documentation of the prevalence of absence of this muscle from populations in the Arabian Gulf region. We examined 1,043 subjects, 3-85 years old, from the Kingdom of Bahrain for the presence or absence of the palmaris longus muscle using the conventional test for the presence of this muscle. Statistical analyses investigated the association of muscle absence with sex, hand dominance, and laterality. The palmaris longus muscle was absent in 36.8% of subjects. Bilateral absence (19%) was more common than unilateral absence (17.9%) with preponderance in female subjects. The muscle was absent more often on the left side than the right (P = 0.003). In the right upper limbs the muscle was absent in female subjects more than male subjects (P = 0.031). This study reaffirms that there is population variation in the frequency of absence of the palmaris longus muscle. The tendon of the palmaris longus bifurcated at the wrist in 7.1% of subjects, with male subjects showing this feature more frequently than female subjects in the right hand (P = 0.037) and the left hand (P = 0.030). This has not been reported before. The clinical significance of our findings is discussed.

  3. Thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle in nutritional assessment of surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Katarina Papera; Silva, Naira Marceli Fraga; Faioli, Amanda Barcelos; Barreto, Marina Abelha; de Moraes, Rafael Araújo Guedes; Guandalini, Valdete Regina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the correlation between thickness of the muscle adductor pollicis and anthropometric measurements, body mass index and Subjective Global Assessment in the nutritional assessment of surgical patients. Methods The study population comprised patients admitted to the general and reconstructive surgery unit of a university hospital in the city of Vitória (ES), Brazil. The inclusion criteria were patients evaluated in the first 48 hours of admission, aged ≥20 years, hemodynamically stable, with no edema or ascites. Data analysis was performed using the software Statistical Package for Social Science 21.0, significance level of 5%. Results The sample consisted of 150 patients that were candidates to surgery, mean age of 42.7±12.0 years. The most common reasons for hospitalization were surgical procedures, gastrintestinal diseases and neoplasm. Significant association was observed between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and Subjective Global Assessment (p=0.021) and body mass index (p=0.008) for nutritional risk. Significant correlation was found between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and arm muscle circumference, corrected arm muscle area, calf circumference and body mass index. There were no significant correlations between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and triceps skinfold and age. Conclusion The use of thickness of adductor pollicis muscle proved to be an efficient method to detect malnutrition in surgical patients and it should be added to the screening process of hospitalized patients, since it is easy to perform, inexpensive and noninvasive. PMID:27074229

  4. Radiographic and ultrasonographic diagnosis of stenosing tenosynovitis of the abductor pollicis longus muscle in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hittmair, Katharina M; Groessl, Veronika; Mayrhofer, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stenosing tenosynovitis of the abductor pollicis longus muscle causes chronic front limb lameness in dogs. The lesion, similar to de Quervain's tenosynovitis in people, is caused by repetitive movements of the carpus. Thirty dogs with front limb lameness, painful carpal flexion, and a firm soft tissue swelling medial to the carpus were examined prospectively. Seven dogs had bilateral abductor pollicis longus tenosynovitis. Radiographs of the carpus were characterized by a deeper radiolucent medial radial sulcus and bony proliferations medial and slightly cranial to the distal radius, resulting in stenosis of the tendon sheath and subsequent tendinitis. Ultrasonographic examination of the firm soft tissue swelling medial to the carpus was characterized by an irregular hypoechoic abductor pollicis longus tendon or tendinitis in 22 of 37 dogs. Nineteen of 37 abductor pollicis longus tendon sheaths were fluid-filled and all tendon sheaths were thickened, more hyperechoic, with small hyperechoic mineralizations embedded in the connective tissue of the abductor pollicis longus tendon sheath in 25 dogs. Enthesopathy of the abductor pollicis longus tendon was identified in seven dogs. While radiographs of stenosing tenosynovitis of the abductor pollicis longus are helpful in visualizing the deep radial sulcus and osteophytes medial to the distal radius, ultrasonography is useful to distinguish between lesions of the tendon or tendon sheath and to determine thickness and fluid content of the abductor pollicis longus tendon sheath. PMID:22118578

  5. A Study on the Accessory Head of the Flexor Pollicis Longus Muscle (Gantzer’s Muscle)

    PubMed Central

    S.A., Gunnal; A.U., Siddiqui; S.R., Daimi; M.S., Farooqui; R.N., Wabale

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was planned to analyze the Accessory Head of the Flexor Pollicis Longus muscle’ (AHFPL) or Gantzer’s muscle and its incidence. It is an additional muscle in the forearm which might cause pressure symptoms to the underlying structures, especially to the anterior interosseus nerve. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 180 upper limbs (90 right and 90 left). The morphology and the morphometry of AHFPL was done. In this investigation, we observed the various shapes, origins, insertions, nerve supplies and relations of the muscle. Observations and Results: The incidence of the accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle was seen in 92 cases (51.11%). It was found bilaterally in 66 (71.73%) cases and unilaterally in 26 cases (28.26%), among which, in 16, it was seen on the right side and in 10 on the left side. With the increasing incidence of the Gantzer’s muscle, one can call it as an evolutionary muscle. Conclusion: The present study supplements the knowledge on the morphology of AHFPL muscle and its relationship with the anterior interosseus nerve. An increased incidence of this muscle may be the causative factor for the complete anterior interosseous nerve syndrome. PMID:23634387

  6. Preferential denervation of the adductor muscles of the equine larynx. II: Nerve pathology.

    PubMed

    Duncan, I D; Reifenrath, P; Jackson, K F; Clayton, M

    1991-03-01

    The terminal branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) of three normal ponies and six horses with sub-clinical laryngeal disease were examined qualitatively and quantitatively in an attempt to explain the preferential denervation of the laryngeal adductor muscles in the neuropathy of idiopathic laryngeal hemiplegia (ILH). The myelinated fibre spectra of all the motor nerve fibres in the left and right abductor and adductor branches of the RLN in three normal ponies were measured. The density of myelinated fibres was also calculated. There was no significant difference between the larger group of myelinated fibres in the adductor or abductor branches. In the six horses with laryngeal hemiparesis, however, there was a marked preferential loss of the medium/large size myelinated fibres in the left adductor branch, although nerve fibre densities were not significantly different. While no simple morphometrical feature was found to explain the selective muscle denervation, the greater loss of large diameter myelinated fibres in the adductor branches confirms the earlier observation of adductor muscle susceptibility in the neuropathy of ILH.

  7. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in adductor pollicis muscle: case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Yee-Suk; Chung, Ung-Seo

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the adductor pollicis that was confirmed by measuring elevated compartment pressure. Specific finding of magnetic resonance imaging, increased T2 signal intensity in the involved compartment, was also useful for the diagnosis. Pain was relieved by fasciotomy through a volar approach. PMID:23040640

  8. The Jaw Adductor Muscle Complex in Teleostean Fishes: Evolution, Homologies and Revised Nomenclature (Osteichthyes: Actinopterygii)

    PubMed Central

    Datovo, Aléssio; Vari, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The infraclass Teleostei is a highly diversified group of bony fishes that encompasses 96% of all species of living fishes and almost half of extant vertebrates. Evolution of various morphological complexes in teleosts, particularly those involving soft anatomy, remains poorly understood. Notable among these problematic complexes is the adductor mandibulae, the muscle that provides the primary force for jaw adduction and mouth closure and whose architecture varies from a simple arrangement of two segments to an intricate complex of up to ten discrete subdivisions. The present study analyzed multiple morphological attributes of the adductor mandibulae in representatives of 53 of the 55 extant teleostean orders, as well as significant information from the literature in order to elucidate the homologies of the main subdivisions of this muscle. The traditional alphanumeric terminology applied to the four main divisions of the adductor mandibulae – A1, A2, A3, and Aω – patently fails to reflect homologous components of that muscle across the expanse of the Teleostei. Some features traditionally used as landmarks for identification of some divisions of the adductor mandibulae proved highly variable across the Teleostei; notably the insertion on the maxilla and the position of muscle components relative to the path of the ramus mandibularis trigeminus nerve. The evolutionary model of gain and loss of sections of the adductor mandibulae most commonly adopted under the alphanumeric system additionally proved ontogenetically incongruent and less parsimonious than a model of subdivision and coalescence of facial muscle sections. Results of the analysis demonstrate the impossibility of adapting the alphanumeric terminology so as to reflect homologous entities across the spectrum of teleosts. A new nomenclatural scheme is proposed in order to achieve congruence between homology and nomenclature of the adductor mandibulae components across the entire Teleostei. PMID

  9. Acute Compartment Syndrome after Non-Contact Peroneus Longus Muscle Rupture.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Jarrad; Villacis, Diego; Kephart, Curtis; Yi, Anthony; Romano, Russ; Hatch, George F Rick

    2015-12-01

    This case demonstrates a rare variation in the pattern of injury and the presentation of acute lateral compartment syndrome of the leg. Although uncommon, lateral compartment syndrome of the leg after an ankle inversion leading to peroneus longus muscle rupture has been previously documented. This case was unusual because there was no overt ankle injury and the patient was able to continue physical activity, in spite of a significant rupture of the peroneus longus muscle that was determined later. This case highlights the necessary vigilance clinicians must maintain when assessing non-contact injuries in patients with possible compartment syndrome.

  10. Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of painful adductor muscle contracture after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Santamato, Andrea; Ranieri, Maurizio; Panza, Francesco; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Frisardi, Vincenza; Lapenna, Luisa Maria; Moretti, Biagio; Fiore, Pietro

    2009-10-01

    Painful adductor muscle contracture is an important cause of failure during rehabilitation following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Adductor muscle contracture may be caused by postoperative muscle retractions, adhesive capsulitis, postoperative leg-length inequalities caused by implant failure, or preexisting hip pathologies. A 34-year-old woman experienced a persistent painful contracture into the left adductor magnus muscle after THA. She had no leg-length inequalities and, according to the Medical Research Council scale (grades 0-5), muscle strength of the quadriceps was 5/5 for the right side and 3/5 for the left. The degree of functionality according to the Harris hip score (HHS) was 16/100 in the left hip. The pain level, measured with the visual analog scale (VAS), was 7/10. The patient was unable to fully adhere to the rehabilitation program and walked with a limp during the stance phase of gait. After 7 days of treatment with injections of botulinum toxin type A into the left adductor magnus muscle (dose, 150 UM) and subsequent rehabilitation, a great reduction of painful contracture was observed (VAS score, 2/10). The procedure was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted. After 20 days, hip articular range of motion and gait had improved (HHS score, 75/100). The clinical effects of botulinum toxin type A were present at 2-month follow-up. This treatment may be a viable alternative for the management of painful adductor muscle contracture after THA, without significant side effects. PMID:19824593

  11. Morphometric and Statistical Analysis of the Palmaris Longus Muscle in Human and Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A. G. M. F.; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Maior, Rafael Souto; Davaasuren, Munkhzul; Paraguassú-Chaves, Carlos Alberto; Nishijo, Hisao; Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The palmaris longus is considered a phylogenetic degenerate metacarpophalangeal joint flexor muscle in humans, a small vestigial forearm muscle; it is the most variable muscle in humans, showing variation in position, duplication, slips and could be reverted. It is frequently studied in papers about human anatomical variations in cadavers and in vivo, its variation has importance in medical clinic, surgery, radiological analysis, in studies about high-performance athletes, in genetics and anthropologic studies. Most studies about palmaris longus in humans are associated to frequency or case studies, but comparative anatomy in primates and comparative morphometry were not found in scientific literature. Comparative anatomy associated to morphometry of palmaris longus could explain the degeneration observed in this muscle in two of three of the great apes. Hypothetically, the comparison of the relative length of tendons and belly could indicate the pathway of the degeneration of this muscle, that is, the degeneration could be associated to increased tendon length and decreased belly from more primitive primates to those most derivate, that is, great apes to modern humans. In conclusion, in primates, the tendon of the palmaris longus increase from Lemuriformes to modern humans, that is, from arboreal to terrestrial primates and the muscle became weaker and tending to be missing. PMID:24860810

  12. [Traumatic muscle and tendon ruptures of the lower extremities in sport: adductor muscles, M. rectus femoris and M. biceps femoris].

    PubMed

    Krüger-Franke, M

    2010-12-01

    Ruptures of the adductor muscles, the M. rectus femoris or the M. biceps femoris are sports injuries which need quick and reliable diagnostic management. Treatment of muscle injuries is mostly conservative; complete tendon ruptures or avulsion fractures of the tendons are treated operatively according to the dislocation and the functional loss.

  13. Myostatin dysfunction impairs force generation in extensor digitorum longus muscle and increases exercise-induced protein efflux from extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles.

    PubMed

    Baltusnikas, Juozas; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Fokin, Andrej; Bünger, Lutz; Lionikas, Arimantas; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    2015-08-01

    Myostatin dysfunction promotes muscle hypertrophy, which can complicate assessment of muscle properties. We examined force generating capacity and creatine kinase (CK) efflux from skeletal muscles of young mice before they reach adult body and muscle size. Isolated soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of Berlin high (BEH) mice with dysfunctional myostatin, i.e., homozygous for inactivating myostatin mutation, and with a wild-type myostatin (BEH+/+) were studied. The muscles of BEH mice showed faster (P < 0.01) twitch and tetanus contraction times compared with BEH+/+ mice, but only EDL displayed lower (P < 0.05) specific force. SOL and EDL of age-matched but not younger BEH mice showed greater exercise-induced CK efflux compared with BEH+/+ mice. In summary, myostatin dysfunction leads to impairment in muscle force generating capacity in EDL and increases susceptibility of SOL and EDL to protein loss after exercise.

  14. Extraction and Identification of the Pigment in the Adductor Muscle Scar of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lei; Li, Jian; Li, Zhonghu; Wang, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, UV (ultraviolet) and IR (infrared radiation) spectral analysis were integrated to identify the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The pigment was extracted from the adductor muscle scars of cleaned oyster shells that were pulverized, hydrolyzed in hot hydrochloric acid, purified with diethyl ether, and dissolved in 0.01 mL/L NaOH. The maximum absorption of the pigment in the UV absorption spectrum within the range of 190–500 nm was observed between 210–220 nm. The UV absorbance decreased with increasing wavelength which was consistent with the UV spectral absorption characteristics of melanin. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy scanning revealed characteristic absorption peaks that emerged near 3440 cm-1 and 1630 cm-1, which was consistent with infrared scanning features of eumelanin (a type of melanin). This study has demonstrated for the first time that the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster is melanin, hinting that the adductor muscle could be another organ pigmenting the mollusc shell with melanin other than mantle. PMID:26555720

  15. Relationship between adductor pollicis muscle thickness and subjective global assessment in a cardiac intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Karst, Fernanda Pickrodt; Vieira, Renata Monteiro; Barbiero, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To verify the relationship between the adductor pollicis muscle thickness test and the subjective global assessment and to correlate it with other anthropometric methods. Methods This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in the intensive care unit of a cardiology hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The hospitalized patients underwent subjective global assessment and adductor pollicis muscle thickness tests on both hands, along with measurement of the right calf circumference. Laboratory parameters, length of stay, vital signs and electronic medical record data and tests were all collected. Results The study population included 83 patients, of whom 62% were men. The average age was 68.6 ± 12.5 years. The most common reason for hospitalization was acute myocardial infarction (34.9%), and the most common pathology was systolic blood pressure (63.9%), followed by diabetes mellitus (28.9%). According to subjective global assessment classifications, 62.7% of patients presented no nutritional risk, 20.5% were moderately malnourished and 16.9% were severely malnourished. Women had a higher nutritional risk, according to both the subjective global assessment and the adductor pollicis muscle thickness test, the cutoff for which was < 6.5mm (54.8%; p = 0.001). The pathology presenting the greatest nutritional risk was congestive heart failure (p = 0.001). Evaluation of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between adductor pollicis muscle thickness and subjective global assessment showed the accuracy of the former, with an area of 0.822. Conclusion Adductor pollicis muscle thickness proved to be a good method for evaluating nutritional risk. PMID:26761475

  16. Impact of longus colli muscle massage on the strength and endurance of the deep neck flexor muscle of adults.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wontae

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of longus colli muscle massage on the strength and endurance of the deep neck flexor muscle in adults. [Subjects] A total of 60 subjects were divided into an experimental group of 30 subjects and a control group of 30 subjects. [Methods] The experimental group received massage of the longus colli muscle, which is the deep neck flexor muscle, and the control group received superficial neck muscle massage. The strength and endurance of both the experimental group and the control group were measured before and after the intervention using a pressure biofeedback unit (PBU). [Results] After the experiment, the strength of DNF of the experimental group showed a statistically significant increase, and the endurance of DNF of the experimental group showed an increase in its average value. The independent sample t-test revealed no statistically significant differences in the groups. [Conclusion] Massage of the longus colli muscle, which is the deep neck flexor, was shown to improve its strength and endurance, which are measures of neck stabilization. Therefore, longus colli muscle massage can be performed for patients who cannot perform neck-stabilizing exercises or before performing other neck-stabilizing exercises.

  17. Effects of ankle extensor muscle afferent inputs on hip abductor and adductor activity in the decerebrate walking cat.

    PubMed

    Bolton, D A E; Misiaszek, J E

    2012-12-01

    Electrical stimulation of the lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LGS) nerve at group I afferent strength leads to adaptations in the amplitude and timing of extensor muscle activity during walking in the decerebrate cat. Such afferent feedback in the stance leg might result from a delay in stance onset of the opposite leg. Concomitant adaptations in hip abductor and adductor activity would then be expected to maintain lateral stability and balance until the opposite leg is able to support the body. As many hip abductors and adductors are also hip extensors, we hypothesized that stimulation of the LGS nerve at group I afferent strength would produce increased activation and prolonged burst duration in hip abductor and adductor muscles in the premammillary decerebrate walking cat. LGS nerve stimulation during the extensor phase of the locomotor cycle consistently increased burst amplitude of the gluteus medius and adductor femoris muscles, but not pectineus or gracilis. In addition, LGS stimulation prolonged the burst duration of both gluteus medius and adductor femoris. Unexpectedly, long-duration LGS stimulus trains resulted in two distinct outcomes on the hip abductor and adductor bursting pattern: 1) a change of burst duration and timing similar to medial gastrocnemius; or 2) to continue rhythmically bursting uninterrupted. These results indicate that activation of muscle afferents from ankle extensors contributes to the regulation of activity of some hip abductor and adductor muscles, but not all. These results have implications for understanding the neural control of stability during locomotion, as well as the organization of spinal locomotor networks. PMID:22972967

  18. Histochemical and morphometric characteristics of the normal human vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Travnik, L; Pernus, F; Erzen, I

    1995-01-01

    The histochemical and morphometric characteristics of the vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles were studied and compared with data on vastus lateralis. Cross-sections of autopsied muscles from 9 healthy men, aged 18-44 y, who had died suddenly were analysed. Data were obtained on proportions, cross-sectional diameter, and on atrophy and hypertrophy factors, of type 1, 2a, 2b, and 2c fibres. The analysis showed that the anatomical differences and the different functional demands placed on vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus are also expressed in different proportions and sizes of fibre types in the two muscles. The proportion of type 1 fibres was significantly higher (P < 0.01), and the proportion of 2b fibres was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in vastus medialis longus than in vastus medialis obliquus. The diameters of type 1 and type 2a fibres were significantly smaller (P < 0.01) in vastus medialis longus than in vastus medialis obliquus, although the differences were small. Within muscles a nonrandom arrangement of fibre types existed with the deeper portions of the muscles having more type 1 fibres than the more superficial portions. The histochemical and morphometric characteristics of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis obliquus show great similarity, reflecting the common function of both muscles which is taking part in transverse knee stability. Estimates of the limits of normality of the proportion, diameter, atrophy and hypertrophy factors of type 1, 2a, 2b, and 2c fibres might be useful in obtaining information on how different physiological and pathological conditions influence the proportion and size of different fibre types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7592003

  19. Morphological and confocal laser scanning microscopic investigations of the adductor muscle-shell interface in scallop.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Che; Ren, Luquan; Liu, Qingping; Liu, Taoran

    2015-09-01

    The challenge of joining dissimilar advanced materials has led researchers around the world to search for new and more efficient solutions. This way, we can highlight the muscle-shell attachment in mollusk, which possessed high strength and toughness. In order to make clear how this "bi-material interface" derives its superior mechanical properties, the morphological features of the adductor muscle scar in Patinopecten yessoensis was investigated by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This scar area was found to consist of a myostracum with many evenly distributed pit structures and a fracture section with a parallel arranged prism-like structure. The measured values of the distribution density, diameter, and depth of those pit structures were 24 ± 4/49,152 μm2, 7.36 ± 2.47 μm, and 1 ± 0.31 μm respectively. Profile of each pit wall was arc curve without closed angle. Furthermore, CLSM micrographs showed that considerable micro pits (0.1-0.9 μm in diameter) distribute round the pit wall and on the pit bottom. This special micromorphology is the first report on the adductor muscle scar in scallop. In addition, the mineral state and mechanical property of the scar surface was analyzed by XRD and nanoindentation test respectively. In general, the study results presented in this work elucidated that the adductor muscle of P. yessoensis was attached to the shell by insertion of collagen fibers and fibril bundles branched from themselves into pits on the myostracum. This specific connection mechanism can increase the strength of the interface without compromising its ductility and toughness. PMID:26202606

  20. Hypogravity-induced atrophy of rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ellis, S.; Slocum, G. R.; Satyanarayana, T.; Bain, J. L.; Sedlak, F. R.

    1987-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of humans to hypogravity causes weakening of their skeletal muscles. This problem was studied in rats exposed to hypogravity for 7 days aboard Spacelab 3. Hindlimb muscles were harvested 12-16 hours postflight for histochemical, biochemical, and ultrastructural analyses. The majority of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus fibers exhibited simple cell shrinkage. However, approximately 1% of the fibers in flight soleus muscles appeared necrotic. Flight muscle fibers showed increased glycogen, lower subsarcolemmal staining for mitochondrial enzymes, and fewer subsarcolemmal mitochondria. During atrophy, myofibrils were eroded by multiple focal losses of myofilaments; lysosomal autophagy was not evident. Tripeptidylaminopeptidase and calcium-activated protease activities of flight soleus fibers were significantly increased, implying a role in myofibril breakdown. Simple fiber atrophy appears to account for muscle weakening during spaceflight, but fiber necrosis is also a contributing factor.

  1. Coordination among thigh muscles including the vastus intermedius and adductor magnus at different cycling intensities.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akira; Watanabe, Kohei; Akima, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Although many studies have been focused on muscle synergies in the lower limbs, synergies of the thigh muscles during cycling have not been investigated in detail. We examined synergies of the thigh muscles including the vastus intermedius (VI) and adductor magnus (AM) while cycling. Eight healthy men pedaled at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of maximal aerobic power output at a constant cadence of 60 rpm. Surface electromyography (EMG) recorded signals from the deep VI and the three superficial quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles, the two hamstrings and the AM. The root mean square of the EMG signal was averaged every 2° of crank rotation and normalized by the peak value for each muscle. We used factor analysis to assess normalized EMG recordings while cycling and to identify thigh muscle synergies. The VI, the superficial QF muscles and the AM dominated the first muscle synergy at all power output levels. The AM also formed a second synergy with the two hamstrings at all power output levels. These results suggest that the VI coordinates with the other QF and AM muscles, and that the AM coordinates with the QF and hamstring muscles while cycling.

  2. Force depression following muscle shortening in sub-maximal voluntary contractions of human adductor pollicis.

    PubMed

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical properties of skeletal muscles are often studied for controlled, electrically induced, maximal, or supra-maximal contractions. However, many mechanical properties, such as the force-length relationship and force enhancement following active muscle stretching, are quite different for maximal and sub-maximal, or electrically induced and voluntary contractions. Force depression, the loss of force observed following active muscle shortening, has been observed and is well documented for electrically induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Since sub-maximal voluntary contractions are arguably the most important for everyday movement analysis and for biomechanical models of skeletal muscle function, it is important to study force depression properties under these conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine force depression following sub-maximal, voluntary contractions. Sets of isometric reference and isometric-shortening-isometric test contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary effort were performed with the adductor pollicis muscle. All reference and test contractions were executed by controlling force or activation using a feedback system. Test contractions included adductor pollicis shortening over 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees of thumb adduction. Force depression was assessed by comparing the steady-state isometric forces (activation control) or average electromyograms (EMGs) (force control) following active muscle shortening with those obtained in the corresponding isometric reference contractions. Force was decreased by 20% and average EMG was increased by 18% in the shortening test contractions compared to the isometric reference contractions. Furthermore, force depression was increased with increasing shortening amplitudes, and the relative magnitudes of force depression were similar to those found in electrically stimulated and maximal contractions. We conclude from these results that force depression occurs in sub

  3. Absolute reliability of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to verify the absolute reliability of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer (HHD). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 33 healthy college students. The measurements were made three times with the HHD fixed using a belt (BFHHD) or with the examiner's hand (conventional method; HFHHD). The absolute reliability of measurements was verified using Bland-Altman analysis, both in the all subjects group and a group of subjects showing measurements less than a fixed limit of 30 kgf. [Results] In the <30 kgf group, a systematic bias was not observed, and BFHHD values were greater than HFHHD values. BFHHD values in the all subjects group showed a systematic bias; the 3rd measurement value was less than the maximum value obtained during the 1st and 2nd measurements. [Conclusion] For obtaining an acceptable value during clinical measurements of horizontal adductor muscle strength, single measurements obtained using an HFHHD in the case of a <30 kgf group and the maximum value of two measurements obtained using a BFHHD are reliable. PMID:26311938

  4. Catalase-positive microperoxisomes in rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle fiber types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Danny A.; Bain, James L. W.; Ellis, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    The size, distribution, and content of catalase-reactive microperoxisomes were investigated cytochemically in three types of muscle fibers from the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of male rats. Muscle fibers were classified on the basis of the mitochondrial content and distribution, the Z-band widths, and the size and shape of myofibrils as the slow-twitch oxidative (SO), the fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG), and the fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) fibers. It was found that both the EDL and soleus SO fibers possessed the largest microperoxisomes. A comparison of microperoxisome number per muscle fiber area or the microperoxisome area per fiber area revealed following ranking, starting from the largest number and the area-ratio values: soleus SO, EDL SO, EDL FOG, and EDL FG.

  5. Hip adductor muscle strength is reduced preceding and during the onset of groin pain in elite junior Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Crow, Justin F; Pearce, Alan J; Veale, James P; VanderWesthuizen, Dan; Coburn, Paul T; Pizzari, Tania

    2010-03-01

    Groin pain is a condition with a high prevalence in young Australian football players. It is considered that early identification of this condition allows for optimal management. Eighty-six players from two elite under-age Australian football sides were screened weekly for hip adductor muscle strength, using a hand-held dynamometer and for the onset of groin pain. The maximum variation in the average hip adductor muscle strength values of the sample was a 2.6% decrease from baseline in week 7 of the study. Twelve players (14% of the sample studied) reported groin pain for two consecutive weeks and were considered to have an onset of groin injury. The mean hip adductor muscle strength of these players was decreased significantly from baseline by an average of 11.75+/-2.50% at the week of pain onset (F=264.76 (1,11), p<0.001), and 5.82+/-5.16% in the week preceding the onset of pain (F=14.03 (1,10), p=0.004). These results confirm that hip adductor muscle strength is decreased both preceding and during the onset of groin injury in elite under-age Australian footballers. PMID:19546030

  6. Heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of extensor digitorum longus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, K; Une, S; Akiyama, J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 12-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 6 per group): control (Con), heat stress (HS), diabetes mellitus (DM), and diabetes mellitus/heat stress (DM + HS). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Heat stress was induced in the HS and DM + HS groups by immersion of the lower half of the body in hot water at 42 °C for 30 min; it was initiated 7 days after injection of streptozotocin, and was performed once a day, five times a week for 3 weeks. The muscle fiber cross-sectional area of EDL muscles from diabetic and non-diabetic rats was determined; heat stress protein (HSP) 72 and HSP25 expression levels were also analyzed by western blotting. Diabetes-induced muscle fiber atrophy was attenuated upon heat stress treatment in diabetic rats. HSP72 and HSP25 expression was upregulated in the DM + HS group compared with the DM group. Our findings suggest that heat stress attenuates atrophy of the EDL muscle by upregulating HSP72 and HSP25 expression. PMID:26551745

  7. Low-intensity resistance training attenuates dexamethasone-induced atrophy in the flexor hallucis longus muscle.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Anderson G; Krug, André L O; Herrera, Naiara A; Zago, Anderson S; Rush, James W E; Amaral, Sandra L

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the potential protective effect of low-intensity resistance training (RT) against dexamethasone (DEX) treatment induced muscle atrophy. Rats underwent either an 8 week period of ladder climbing RT or remained sedentary. During the last 10 days of the exercise protocol, animals were submitted to a DEX treatment or a control saline injection. Muscle weights were assessed and levels of AKT, mTOR, FOXO3a, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 proteins were analyzed in flexor hallucis longus (FHL), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus muscles. DEX induced blood glucose increase (+46%), body weight reduction (-19%) and atrophy in FHL (-28%) and TA (-21%) muscles, which was associated with a decrease in AKT and an increase in MuRF-1 proteins levels. Low-intensity RT prevented the blood glucose increase, attenuated the FHL atrophy effects of DEX, and was associated with increased mTOR and reductions in Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in FHL. In contrast, TA muscle atrophy and signaling proteins were not affected by RT. These are the first data to demonstrate that low-intensity ladder-climbing RT specifically mitigates the FHL atrophy, which is the main muscle recruited during the training activity, while not preventing atrophy in other limb muscle not as heavily recruited. The recruitment-dependent prevention of atrophy by low intensity RT likely occurs by a combination of attenuated muscle protein degradation signals and enhanced muscle protein synthesis signals including mTOR, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1.

  8. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rodrigo César; de Oliveira, Kennedy Martinez; Léo, Jorge Alfredo; Elias, Bruno Adriano Borges; dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo; de Santiago, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans. PMID:27069895

  9. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles in large white pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiayu; Shi, Xin'e; Lu, Hongzhao; Xia, Bo; Li, Yuefeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Qiangling; Yang, Gongshe

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers are mainly categorized into red and white fiber types, and the ratio of red/white fibers within muscle mass plays a crucial role in meat quality such as tenderness and flavor. To better understand the molecular difference between the two muscle fibers, this study takes advantage of RNA-seq to compare differences in the transcriptome between extensor digitorum longus (EDL; white fiber) and soleus (Sol; red fiber) muscles of large white pigs. In total, 89,658,562 and 46,723,568 raw reads from EDL and Sol were generated, respectively. Comparison between the two transcriptomes revealed 561 differentially expressed genes, with 408 displaying higher and 153 lower levels of expression in Sol. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction validated the differential expression of nine genes. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis discovered several differentially enriched biological functions and processes of the two muscles. Moreover, transcriptome comparison between EDL and Sol identified many muscle-related genes (CSRP3, ACTN2, MYL1, and MYH6) and pathways related to myofiber formation, such as focal adhesion, tight junction formation, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor pathway, calcium signaling, and Wnt signaling. In addition, 58,362 and 58,359 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in EDL and Sol, respectively, and the sequence of 9069 genes was refined at the 5', 3' or both ends. Numerous novel transcripts and alternatively spliced RNAs were also identified. Our transcriptome analysis constitutes valuable sequence resource for uncovering important genes and pathways involved in muscle fiber type determination, and might help further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms in different types of muscle.

  10. Synaptic rearrangements and alterations in motor unit properties in neonatal rat extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Balice-Gordon, R J; Thompson, W J

    1988-01-01

    1. We have used in vitro intracellular recordings and measurements of the contractile properties of single motor units to examine the changes in muscle innervation occurring during the post-natal development of a fast-twitch muscle in the hindlimb of the rat, the extensor digitorum longus (EDL). 2. Intracellular recordings of end-plate potentials evoked in response to graded stimulation of the nerve supply to the muscle indicate that during the first day after birth, each muscle fibre receives synaptic input from at least two motoneurones and that some muscle fibres receive as many as six such inputs. With subsequent development, most of this polyneuronal innervation is eliminated: the first singly innervated fibres are encountered on day 3; by day 18 fewer than 5% of the fibres remain polyneuronally innervated. These results show that there are quantitative differences in post-natal synapse elimination in EDL compared to its well-studied counterpart, the soleus. Although the great majority of fibres in both muscles become singly innervated at about 18 days, the first singly innervated fibres appear at least a week earlier in the EDL. None the less, synapses are lost from EDL at about half the rate they are lost from soleus. 3. The number of motor units, determined by counting the number of twitch increments produced by graded stimulation of ventral root filaments teased to contain only a few EDL motor axons, remains unchanged from an average of forty-one from post-natal day 1 to day 17. In addition, the number of muscle fibres counted in muscle cross-sections stained with an anti-myosin antibody increases less than 10% from birth to adulthood. Therefore, synapse elimination in EDL occurs with a largely constant population of muscle fibres as well as motoneurones. 4. Measurements of tensions generated by single motor units indicate that the average size of a motor unit declines from 6.8% of the muscle fibres at day 1 to 2.3% at 17 days. This result indicates that

  11. Comparative anatomy and significance of the sesamoid bone of the peroneus longus muscle (os peroneum).

    PubMed Central

    Le Minor, J M

    1987-01-01

    The os peroneum is found in only a few primate families and seems to be completely absent in the non-primate pentadactyl mammals, in the Prosimii and in the Platyrrhinii (New World monkeys). In the Cercopithecidae (Catarrhinii, Old World monkeys) and the Hylobatidae, the os peroneum is a coffee bean-shaped constant, large and regular bone. The lateral surface of the bone is convex in all directions and non-articular. The medial surface is covered with hyaline cartilage and articulates by means of a synovial joint with the corresponding facet of the cuboid bone. The histological structure and the mode of ossification of the os peroneum are identical to that of other short bones of the skeleton. The os peroneum of the Cercopithecidae and Hylobatidae is an example of a new skeletal element that has appeared in a tendon subject to unusual mechanical stress. In the case of the peroneus longus tendon the stress is due to repetitive friction because of the functional importance of this muscle in the adduction and pseudo-opposability of the hallux. This osseous element is genetically fixed and hereditarily transmitted. Its mode of appearance is analogous to that accepted for the origin of the patella. In the Pongidae, the os peroneum is absent or rare. In man, this bone is relatively infrequent (approx 20% of mature individuals) and its shape is most irregular. In this case, the os peroneum appears as a regressive form of the typical bone observed in the above families, which is in the process of disappearing. Besides fundamental genetical factors, this regression is probably in relation to the disappearance of the functional importance of the peroneus longus muscle to the loss of the hallux opposability. Thus the mechanical factors cannot be dissociated from the genetic and phylogenetic factors in explaining the appearance and the regression of the os peroneum. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3654363

  12. [Bilateral reversed palmaris longus muscle--a rare cause of peripheral median nerve compression syndrome. Case report].

    PubMed

    Giunta, R; Brunner, U; Wilhelm, K

    1993-10-01

    A rare case of median nerve compression syndrome outside the carpal tunnel in the distal forearm is reported. A 21-year-old man suffered while working from symptoms of temporary median nerve compression in both forearms; this was caused by hypertrophy of reversed palmaris longus muscles. Resection of the abnormal muscle bellies relieved the symptoms immediately. Only ten similar cases have been reported in the literature, and this is the first case with bilateral symptoms.

  13. Effects of methylmercury on the motor and sensory innervation of the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, R.K.; Riley, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    The histochemical study examined the effects of chronic methylmercury (MeHg) intoxication on the motor and sensory innervation of extensor digitorum longus muscles. Light microscopic examination of silver-stained axons in the intramuscular nerve bundles of MeHg-treated rats showed Wallerian-like degeneration and a reduction in the number of nerve fibers. Disrupted axons were predominantly sensory because 22.2% of spindle afferents (I/sub a/) and 90.0% of Golgi tendon organ (I/sub b/) sensory fibers were completely degenerated whereas less than 1% of motor ending were totally destroyed. Partial disruption occurred in the cholinesterase and motor terminals of 13.7% of endplates. Their results demonstrated greater vulnerability of sensory nerves than of motor nerves to MeHg-induced degeneration. Thus, the abnormal reflexes, ataxia, and muscle weakness following MeHg poisoning appear related to reduction of proprioceptive feedback from muscles and tendons irradiation to the documented lesions in the central nervous system.

  14. Classification system for flexor digitorum accessorius longus muscle variants within the leg: clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Hur, Mi-Sun; Won, Hyung-Sun; Oh, Chang-Seok; Chung, In-Hyuk; Lee, Woo-Chun; Yoon, Young Cheol

    2014-10-01

    The flexor digitorum accessorius longus (FDAL), a variant leg muscle, can cause tarsal tunnel syndrome. This study was performed to classify the variants of the FDAL by dissection and to correlate the dissection results with clinical cases of tarsal tunnel syndrome caused by this muscle. Eighty lower limbs of embalmed Korean cadavers were dissected. MR images of two clinical cases of tarsal tunnel syndrome caused by the FDAL were correlated with the dissection results. The FDAL was observed in nine out of 80 specimens (11.3%) and it was classified into three types depending on its site of origin and its relationship to the posterior tibial neurovascular bundle (PTNV) in the leg. In Type I (6.3%), the FDAL originated in the leg and ran superficially along the PTNV, either not crossing (Type Ia, 3.8%) or crossing (Type Ib, 2.5%) the neurovascular bundle. In Type II (6.3%), it originated in the tarsal tunnel. Most FDALs followed a similar course in the tarsal tunnel and the plantar pedis. On correlating the MR images of the clinical cases with this classification, the FDAL corresponded to Types Ia and II. All three types of FDAL can compress the tibial nerve in the tarsal tunnel or the distal leg. Clarification of the topographical relationship between this muscle and the PTNV would help to improve the results of surgery for tarsal tunnel syndrome caused by the FDAL.

  15. Gene expression analyses of essential catch factors in the smooth and striated adductor muscles of larval, juvenile and adult great scallop (Pecten maximus).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Øivind; Torgersen, Jacob S; Pagander, Helene H; Magnesen, Thorolf; Johnston, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    The scallop adductor muscle consists of striated fibres responsible for the fast closure of the shells, and smooth fibres able to maintain tension in a prolonged state of contraction called catch. Formation of the force-bearing catch linkages has been demonstrated to be initiated by dephosphorylation of the key catch-regulating factor twitchin by a calcineurin-like phosphatase, while the involvement of other thick filament proteins is uncertain. Here we report on the development of catchability of the adductor smooth muscle in the great scallop (Pecten maximus) by analysing the spatio-temporal gene expression patterns of the myosin regulatory light chain (MLCr), twitchin, myorod and calcineurin using whole mount in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative PCR. The MLCr signal was identified in the retractor and adductor muscles of the pediveliger larvae, and the juvenile and adult scallop displayed abundant mRNA levels of MLCr in the smooth and striated adductor muscles. Twitchin was mainly expressed in the smooth adductor muscle during metamorphosis, whereas the adult striated adductor muscle contained seven-folds higher twitchin mRNA levels compared to the smooth portion. Calcineurin expression predominated in the gonads and in the smooth adductor, and five-folds higher mRNA levels were measured in the smooth than in the striated fibres at the adult stage. In contrast to the other genes examined, the expression of myorod was confined to the smooth adductor muscle suggesting that myorod plays a permissive role in the molluscan catch muscles, which are first required at the vulnerable settlement stage as a component of the predator defence system.

  16. The adductor pollicis muscle: a poor predictor of clinical outcome in ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Leong Shu-Fen, Claudia; Ong, Venetia; Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Ling, Teh Ai; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Henry, Jeya

    2015-01-01

    No nutrition assessment tools specifically tailored for intensive care unit (ICU) patients have been developed and validated in Singapore. Studies conducted in Brazilian populations suggest that the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle (TAPM) may be used to assess nutritional status and predict mortality of critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to determine if TAPM can be used as a predictive indicator of mortality in Singapore ICU patients. TAPM values were obtained using skinfold calipers in 229 patients admitted to the medical ICU. TAPM measured in both hands showed no significant correlation with either the primary outcome (28-day mortality) or secondary outcomes (hospital outcome and hospital length of stay). This study demonstrated that TAPM does not predict 28-day mortality and hospital outcome, and is not correlated to length of stay in Singapore ICU patients. More studies are necessary to validate the use of TAPM as an anthropometric indicator of ICU outcome in other regions of the world. PMID:26693744

  17. The colour of the adductor muscle as a predictor of pork quality in the loin.

    PubMed

    Warriss, P D; Brown, S N; Paściak, P

    2006-08-01

    The relation between measurements of colour made in the m. adductor (AD) at 45min or 20 h post mortem and the quality, assessed subjectively in terms of colour and waterholding capacity, of the m. longissimus (LD) in the loin was examined. The study used data from 100 pig carcasses exhibiting a wide range of meat quality from extreme PSE (pale, soft and exudative) to extreme DFD (dark, firm and dry). The subjective assessments were confirmed by objective measures of paleness (reflectance) and waterholding capacity (drip loss in storage) in the LD. Lightness (L(∗)) measured at 20h post mortem in the AD was the best potential predictor of loin muscle quality, explaining 59% of the variation in subjective and objective quality measures. Comparable measurements at 45min post mortem explained between 21% and 44% of the variation. The equation that described the relation between AD Lightness (L(∗)) and subjectively assessed LD quality was derived. This could be used to transpose the AD L(∗) values from a population of slaughtered pigs into nominal subjective scores for the LD, allowing the frequency of the five subjective quality groups (extremely DFD, slightly DFD, normal, slightly PSE, and extremely PSE) in the population of carcasses to be defined.

  18. Morphological and biochemical changes in soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles of rats orbited in Spacelab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Slocum, T.; Bain, J. L. W.; Sedlak, F. R.; Elis, S.; Satyanarayana, T.

    1985-01-01

    Muscle atrophy in rats exposed to hypogravity for seven days aboard Spacelab 3 is examined. Hindlimb muscles were harvested 12-16 days postflight, and prepared for enzyme studies and electron microscopy. Simple cell shrinkage was found, with a mean fiber area decrease of 35.8 percent for soleus and 24.9 percent for extensor digitorum longus (EDL) flight muscle fibers, as compared with control muscle fibers. EDL and soleus muscles showed increases in alkaline myofibrillar ATPase, alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and glycogen, and a decrease in NADH dehydrogenase staining. The 26 percent increase in calcium activated protease suggests that the focal degradation of myofibrils is the key process of myofibril breakdown. The presence in the flight soleus muscles of one percent necrotic fibers is unexplained. The observed shift towards histochemical fast-muscle type properties is consistent with previous findings.

  19. Effect of hindlimb suspension and clenbuterol treatment on polyamine levels in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abukhalaf, Imad K.; von Deutsch, Daniel A.; Wineski, Lawrence E.; Silvestrov, Natalia A.; Abera, Saare A.; Sahlu, Sinafikish W.; Potter, David E.; Thierry-Palmer, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Polyamines are unbiquitous, naturally occurring small aliphatic, polycationic, endogenous compounds. They are involved in many cellular processes and may serve as secondary or tertiary messengers to hormonal regulation. The relationship of polyamines and skeletal muscle mass of adductor longus, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius under unloading (hindlimb suspension) conditions was investigated. Unloading significantly affected skeletal muscle polyamine levels in a fiber-type-specific fashion. Under loading conditions, clenbuterol treatment increased all polyamine levels, whereas under unloading conditions, only the spermidine levels were consistently increased. Unloading attenuated the anabolic effects of clenbuterol in predominately slow-twitch muscles (adductor longus), but had little impact on clenbuterol's action as a countermeasure in fast- twitch muscles such as the extensor digitorum longus. Spermidine appeared to be the primary polyamine involved in skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Mandibular corpus strain in primates: further evidence for a functional link between symphyseal fusion and jaw-adductor muscle force.

    PubMed

    Hylander, W L; Ravosa, M J; Ross, C F; Johnson, K R

    1998-11-01

    Previous work indicates that compared to adult thick-tailed galagos, adult long-tailed macaques have much more bone strain on the balancing-side mandibular corpus during unilateral isometric molar biting (Hylander [1979a] J. Morphol. 159:253-296). Recently we have confirmed in these same two species the presence of similar differences in bone-strain patterns during forceful mastication. Moreover, we have also recorded mandibular bone strain patterns in adult owl monkeys, which are slightly smaller than the galago subjects. The owl monkey data indicate the presence of a strain pattern very similar to that recorded for macaques, and quite unlike that recorded for galagos. We interpret these bone-strain pattern differences to be importantly related to differences in balancing-side jaw-adductor muscle force recruitment patterns. That is, compared to galagos, macaques and owl monkeys recruit relatively more balancing-side jaw-adductor muscle force during forceful mastication. Unlike an earlier study (Hylander [1979b] J. Morphol. 160:223-240), we are unable to estimate the actual amount of working-side muscle force relative to balancing-side muscle force (i.e., the W/B muscle force ratio) in these species because we have no reliable estimate of magnitude, direction, and precise location of the bite force during mastication. A comparison of the mastication data with the earlier data recorded during isometric molar biting, however, supports the hypothesis that the two anthropoids have a small W/B jaw-adductor muscle force ratio in comparison to thick-tailed galagos. These data also support the hypothesis that increased recruitment of balancing-side jaw-adductor muscle force in anthropoids is functionally linked to the evolution of symphyseal fusion or strengthening. Moreover, these data refute the hypothesis that the recruitment pattern differences between macaques and thick-tailed galagos are due to allometric factors. Finally, although the evolution of symphyseal fusion

  1. Cranial muscles of the anurans Leiopelma hochstetteri and Ascaphus truei and the homologies of the mandibular adductors in Lissamphibia and other gnathostomes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The frogs Ascaphus truei and Leiopelma hochstetteri are members of the most basal lineages of extant anurans. Their cranial muscles have not been previously described in full and are investigated here by dissection. Comparison of these taxa is used to review a controversy regarding the homologies of the jaw adductor muscles in Lissamphibia, to place these homologies in a wider gnathostome context, and to define features that may be useful for cladistic analysis of Anura. A new muscle is defined in Ascaphus and is designated m. levator anguli oris. The differences noted between Ascaphus and Leiopelma are in the penetration of the jaw adductor muscles by the mandibular nerve (V3). In the traditional view of this anatomy, the paths of the trigeminal nerve branches define homologous muscles. This scheme results in major differences among frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. The alternative view is that the topology of origins, insertions, and fiber directions are defining features, and the nerves penetrate the muscle mass in a variable way. The results given here support the latter view. A new model is proposed for Lissamphibia, whereby the adductor posterior (levator articularis) is a separate entity, and the rest of the adductor mass is configured around it as a folded sheet. This hypothesis is examined in other gnathostomes, including coelacanth and lungfish, and a possible sequence for the evolution of the jaw muscles is demonstrated. In this system, the main jaw adductor in teleost fish is not considered homologous with that of tetrapods. This hypothesis is consistent with available data on the domain of expression of the homeobox gene engrailed 2, which has previously not been considered indicative of homology. Terminology is discussed, and "adductor mandibulae" is preferred to "levator mandibulae" to align with usage in other gnathostomes.

  2. Cranial muscles of the anurans Leiopelma hochstetteri and Ascaphus truei and the homologies of the mandibular adductors in Lissamphibia and other gnathostomes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The frogs Ascaphus truei and Leiopelma hochstetteri are members of the most basal lineages of extant anurans. Their cranial muscles have not been previously described in full and are investigated here by dissection. Comparison of these taxa is used to review a controversy regarding the homologies of the jaw adductor muscles in Lissamphibia, to place these homologies in a wider gnathostome context, and to define features that may be useful for cladistic analysis of Anura. A new muscle is defined in Ascaphus and is designated m. levator anguli oris. The differences noted between Ascaphus and Leiopelma are in the penetration of the jaw adductor muscles by the mandibular nerve (V3). In the traditional view of this anatomy, the paths of the trigeminal nerve branches define homologous muscles. This scheme results in major differences among frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. The alternative view is that the topology of origins, insertions, and fiber directions are defining features, and the nerves penetrate the muscle mass in a variable way. The results given here support the latter view. A new model is proposed for Lissamphibia, whereby the adductor posterior (levator articularis) is a separate entity, and the rest of the adductor mass is configured around it as a folded sheet. This hypothesis is examined in other gnathostomes, including coelacanth and lungfish, and a possible sequence for the evolution of the jaw muscles is demonstrated. In this system, the main jaw adductor in teleost fish is not considered homologous with that of tetrapods. This hypothesis is consistent with available data on the domain of expression of the homeobox gene engrailed 2, which has previously not been considered indicative of homology. Terminology is discussed, and "adductor mandibulae" is preferred to "levator mandibulae" to align with usage in other gnathostomes. PMID:21845732

  3. Restoration of pinch in intrinsic muscles of the hand.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steve K; Wisser, Jamie R

    2012-02-01

    The primary intrinsic muscles responsible for key and tip pinch are the adductor pollicis, first dorsal interosseous and flexor pollicis brevis muscles. Numerous conditions can lead to their dysfunction. Non-operative treatment consists of exercises of the compensating extensor pollicis longus and flexor pollicis longus muscles and use of adaptive devices, such as larger grips. Operative treatments include tendon transfers and joint fusions. The most common tendon transfer procedures include transfering of the extensor carpi radialis brevis to the adductor pollicis muscle or transfering of the abductor pollicis longus to the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Both require use of extension tendon grafts. In cases of joint instability or arthrosis, arthrodesis of the thumb and index finger MP or IP joints, alone or in combination, may be indicated. PMID:22117923

  4. Impact of Retropubic vs. Transobturator Slings for Urinary Incontinence on Myofascial Structures of the Pelvic Floor, Adductor and Abdominal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Beilecke, K; Soeder, S; Hufenbach, E; Tunn, R

    2014-01-01

    Suburethral tension-free slings (tapes or bands) are an essential component in the operative treatment of urinary incontinence. In the present contribution the influence of the type of suburethral sling (retropubic vs. transobturator) on the myofascial structures of the abdominal, adductor and pelvic floor muscles is examined. For this purpose, 70 patients were prospectively observed clinically and physiotherapeutically. Significant differences were seen in the improvement of the pelvic floor musculature (strength, endurance, speed) after placement of a suburethral sling, irrespective of whether it was of the retropubic or the transobturator type. Thus, after surgical treatment patients should be encouraged to undertake further pelvic floor exercising or this should be prescribed for them. There were no significant changes in the abdominal and adductor muscles but there were slight increases with regard to pain level, pain on palpation, and trigger points after placement of both types of sling; thus this is not a criterion in the decision as to which type of sling to use. PMID:24741121

  5. Changes in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in extensor digitorum longus muscles of streptozotocin-diabetic rats may contribute to muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Koji; Une, S; Tatsuta, N; Ito, K; Akiyama, J

    2014-12-01

    We investigated muscle atrophy, major antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, predominantly fast fibers) and soleus (predominantly slow fibers) muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into a control (n = 5) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic group (n = 5). Eight weeks after diabetes induction the EDL and soleus muscles were removed and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels measured. The CAT activity increased in both the EDL and soleus muscles of the diabetic rats (p < 0.01), whereas the GPX and SOD activities were increased only in the EDL muscle (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). The TBARS levels were only increased in the EDL muscle of the diabetic rats (p < 0.01). Both muscles showed significant atrophy but the EDL muscle elicited the greatest atrophy. In conclusion, it appears that adaptive responses to oxidative stress were adequate in the soleus muscle, but not in the EDL muscle, of diabetic rats. Thus fast twitch muscle fibers may be more susceptible to oxidative stress than slow twitch muscle fibers and this may contribute to muscle atrophy under diabetic conditions.

  6. Intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer for geriatric and stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori; Kawaguchi, Saori; Uemura, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the appropriate number of measurements and the intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer (HHD) for geriatric and stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 inpatients, who were divided into two groups: 20 stroke patients in the stroke group (SG), and 20 geriatric patients in the no-stroke group (N-SG). Measurements were performed three times using an HHD with a belt. The reliability was verified using Bland-Altman analysis and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). [Results] ICC (1, 1) was >0.9. A systematic bias was not observed between the first and second measurement values except for the right side in N-SG. A systematic bias between the maximum value obtained during the first and second measurements and third measurement value was observed on the left side in N-SG, and on the non-paralyzed side in SG: the third measurement values were small in both cases. [Conclusion] Intrarater reliabilities were high for shoulder horizontal adductor strength measurements using an HHD with a belt for geriatric and stroke patients. Taking the systematic bias into consideration, these findings suggest that the required number of measurements is two. PMID:26957727

  7. Lower values of handgrip strength and adductor pollicis muscle thickness are associated with hepatic encephalopathy manifestations in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Augusti, L; Franzoni, L C; Santos, L A A; Lima, T B; Ietsugu, M V; Koga, K H; Moriguchi, S M; Betting, L E; Caramori, C A; Silva, G F; Romeiro, F G

    2016-08-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a late complication of liver cirrhosis and is clearly associated with poor outcomes. Chronic liver insufficiency leads to progressive muscle wasting, impairing ammonia metabolism and thus increasing the risk for HE. Given the association between lean mass and adductor pollicis muscle thickness (APMT), it has been used to predict outcome and complications in many conditions, but not yet in cirrhotic patients. Therefore, this article aimed to study the association between HE manifestations and measures related to muscle mass and strength. This cross-sectional study included 54 cirrhotic outpatients with HE varying from subclinical to grade II according to the West-Haven criteria, who were submitted to neuropsychometric tests, electroencephalogram, brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), anthropometric measurements, handgrip strength (HGS) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry exam (DXA). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between body composition measures and HE grade. Analysis of the area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) curve revealed the values related to neurological manifestations (HE grades I and II). Reductions in APMT and HGS were associated with higher HE grades, suggesting a big impact caused by the loss of muscle mass and function on HE severity. The link between HE manifestations and anthropometric measures, namely APMT and HGS, point to a significant relation concerning skeletal muscles and the neurological impairment in this population. PMID:27131802

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of the aging soleus and extensor digitorum longus rat muscles using TMT labeling and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Daniela F S; Carvalho, Paulo C; Lima, Diogo B; Nicastro, Humberto; Lorenzeti, Fábio M; Siqueira-Filho, Mário; Hirabara, Sandro M; Alves, Paulo H M; Moresco, James J; Yates, John R; Lancha, Antonio H

    2013-10-01

    Sarcopenia describes an age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function that ultimately impairs metabolism and leads to poor balance, frequent falling, limited mobility, and a reduction in quality of life. Here we investigate the pathogenesis of sarcopenia through a proteomic shotgun approach. In brief, we employed tandem mass tags to quantitate and compare the protein profiles obtained from young versus old rat slow-twitch type of muscle (soleus) and a fast-twitch type of muscle (extensor digitorum longus, EDL). Our results disclose 3452 and 1848 proteins identified from soleus and EDL muscles samples, of which 78 and 174 were found to be differentially expressed, respectively. In general, most of the proteins were structural related and involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, detoxification, or transport. Aging affected soleus and EDL muscles differently, and several proteins were regulated in opposite ways. For example, pyruvate kinase had its expression and activity different in both soleus and EDL muscles. We were able to verify with existing literature many of our differentially expressed proteins as candidate aging biomarkers and, most importantly, disclose several new candidate biomarkers such as the glioblastoma amplified sequence, zero β-globin, and prolargin. PMID:24001182

  9. Comparative proteomic profiling of soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Carberry, Steven; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Zhang, Yaxin; Winkler, Claudia K; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2013-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to genetic abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and represents one of the most frequent genetic childhood diseases. In the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse model of dystrophinopathy, different subtypes of skeletal muscles are affected to a varying degree albeit the same single base substitution within exon 23 of the dystrophin gene. Thus, to determine potential muscle subtype-specific differences in secondary alterations due to a deficiency in dystrophin, in this study, we carried out a comparative histological and proteomic survey of mdx muscles. We intentionally included the skeletal muscles that are often used for studying the pathomechanism of muscular dystrophy. Histological examinations revealed a significantly higher degree of central nucleation in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles compared with the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. Muscular hypertrophy of 20-25% was likewise only observed in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mdx mice, but not in the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. For proteomic analysis, muscle protein extracts were separated by fluorescence two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Proteins with a significant change in their expression were identified by mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling established an altered abundance of 24, 17, 19 and 5 protein species in the dystrophin-deficient soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscle, respectively. The key proteomic findings were verified by immunoblot analysis. The identified proteins are involved in the contraction-relaxation cycle, metabolite transport, muscle metabolism and the cellular stress response. Thus, histological and proteomic profiling of muscle subtypes from mdx mice indicated that distinct skeletal muscles are differentially affected by the loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Varying degrees of perturbed protein

  10. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut maneuvers in compression shorts: Implications for return to sport after groin injury

    PubMed Central

    CHAUDHARI, AJIT M. W.; JAMISON, STEVEN T.; MCNALLY, MICHAEL P.; PAN, XUELIANG; SCHMITT, LAURA C.

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut maneuvers in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all p<0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858

  11. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut manoeuvres in compression shorts: implications for return to sport after groin injury.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Jamison, Steven T; McNally, Michael P; Pan, Xueliang; Schmitt, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention of or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large, eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography (EMG) of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut manoeuvres in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all P < 0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858

  12. The prevalence and anatomical characteristics of the accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Joyeeta; Henry, Brandon M.; Pękala, Przemysław A.; Vikse, Jens; Ramakrishnan, Piravin Kumar; Walocha, Jerzy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle (AHFPL), also known as the Gantzer’s muscle, was first described in 1813. The prevalence rates of an AHFPL significantly vary between studies, and no consensus has been reached on the numerous variations reported in its origin, innervation, and relationships to the Anterior Interosseous Nerve (AIN) and the Median Nerve (MN). The aim of our study was to determine the true prevalence of AHFPL and to study its associated anatomical characteristics. Methods. A search of the major electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science was performed to identify all articles reporting data on the prevalence of AHPFL in the population. No date or language restriction was set. Additionally, an extensive search of the references of all relevant articles was performed. Data on the prevalence of the AHFPL in upper limbs and its anatomical characteristics and relationships including origin, insertion, innervation, and position was extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis using MetaXL version 2.0. Results. A total of 24 cadaveric studies (n = 2,358 upper limb) were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of an AHFPL was 44.2% (95% CI [0.347–0.540]). An AHFPL was found more commonly in men than in women (41.1% vs. 24.1%), and was slightly more prevalent on the right side than on the left side (52.8% vs. 45.2%). The most common origin of the AHFPL was from the medial epicondyle of the humerus with a pooled prevalence of 43.6% (95% CI [0.166–0.521]). In most cases, the AHFPL inserted into the flexor pollicis longus muscle (94.6%, 95% CI [0.731–1.0]) and was innervated by the AIN (97.3%, 95% CI [0.924–0.993]). Conclusion. The AHFPL should be considered as more a part of normal anatomy than an anatomical variant. The variability in its anatomical characteristics, and its potential to cause compression of the AIN and MN, must be taken into account by

  13. The prevalence and anatomical characteristics of the accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Joyeeta; Henry, Brandon M; Pękala, Przemysław A; Vikse, Jens; Ramakrishnan, Piravin Kumar; Walocha, Jerzy A; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle (AHFPL), also known as the Gantzer's muscle, was first described in 1813. The prevalence rates of an AHFPL significantly vary between studies, and no consensus has been reached on the numerous variations reported in its origin, innervation, and relationships to the Anterior Interosseous Nerve (AIN) and the Median Nerve (MN). The aim of our study was to determine the true prevalence of AHFPL and to study its associated anatomical characteristics. Methods. A search of the major electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science was performed to identify all articles reporting data on the prevalence of AHPFL in the population. No date or language restriction was set. Additionally, an extensive search of the references of all relevant articles was performed. Data on the prevalence of the AHFPL in upper limbs and its anatomical characteristics and relationships including origin, insertion, innervation, and position was extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis using MetaXL version 2.0. Results. A total of 24 cadaveric studies (n = 2,358 upper limb) were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of an AHFPL was 44.2% (95% CI [0.347-0.540]). An AHFPL was found more commonly in men than in women (41.1% vs. 24.1%), and was slightly more prevalent on the right side than on the left side (52.8% vs. 45.2%). The most common origin of the AHFPL was from the medial epicondyle of the humerus with a pooled prevalence of 43.6% (95% CI [0.166-0.521]). In most cases, the AHFPL inserted into the flexor pollicis longus muscle (94.6%, 95% CI [0.731-1.0]) and was innervated by the AIN (97.3%, 95% CI [0.924-0.993]). Conclusion. The AHFPL should be considered as more a part of normal anatomy than an anatomical variant. The variability in its anatomical characteristics, and its potential to cause compression of the AIN and MN, must be taken into account by physicians to

  14. The influence of electrical stimulation in vitro on protein synthesis and other metabolic parameters of rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pain, Virginia M.; Manchester, K. L.

    1970-01-01

    1. Apparatus is described in which rat extensor digitorum longus muscle can be incubated in buffer under conditions of light tension and be subject to contractures induced by electrical stimulation in vitro. Under these conditions the tissue retains its weight, its content of potassium and size of the extracellular space at values similar to those in vivo. 2. Though uptake of glucose was enhanced on addition of insulin, there was little increase in glucose consumption on stimulation. Breakdown of glycogen and enhancement of lactate output were found on stimulation. 3. Incorporation into protein of several labelled amino acids was diminished during stimulation. Accumulation of [14C]leucine was enhanced whereas that of glycine was decreased. 4. There were no very consistent changes in the content of free unlabelled amino acids during incubation with or without stimulation. Comparison of actual amino acid concentrations in tissue and incubation mixture with accumulation of 14C-labelled amino acid indicated that full equilibration of the cell pool of amino amino acids with the medium is slow. 5. Substantial oxidation of several 14C-labelled acids was observed. 6. The ATP content of the tissue declined a little during incubation and somewhat faster after a period of stimulation. 7. The results are discussed in relation to the way in which exercise can induce muscle hypertrophy. PMID:5484664

  15. Potential use of fatty acid profiles of the adductor muscle of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) for traceability of collection site.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Moreira, Ana S P; Rey, Felisa; Coimbra, Manuel A; Rosário Domingues, M; Domingues, Pedro; Costa Leal, Miguel; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-06-18

    Geographic traceability of seafood is key for controlling its quality and safeguarding consumers' interest. The present study assessed if the fatty acid (FA) profile of the adductor muscle (AM) of fresh cockles (Cerastoderma edule) can be used to discriminate the origin of specimens collected in different bivalve capture/production areas legally defined within a coastal lagoon. Results suggest that this biochemical approach holds the potential to trace sampling locations with a spatial resolution <10 Km, even for areas with identical classification for bivalve production. Cockles further away from the inlet, i.e. in areas exposed to a higher saline variation, exhibited lower levels of saturated fatty acids, which are key for stabilizing the bilayer structure of cell membranes, and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which enhance bilayer fluidity. Results suggest that the structural nature of the lipids present in the AM provides a stable fatty acid signature and holds potential for tracing the origin of bivalves to their capture/production areas.

  16. Aggressive Lymphoma "Sarcoma Mimicker" Originating in the Gluteus and Adductor Muscles: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Elkourashy, Sarah A; Nashwan, Abdulqadir J; Alam, Syed I; Ammar, Adham A; El Sayed, Ahmed M; Omri, Halima El; Yassin, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal lymphoma (ENL) occurs in approximately 30%-40% of all patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and has been described in almost all organs and tissues. However, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common histological subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primarily arising in the retroperitoneal region. In this article, we report a rare case of an adult male diagnosed with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the gluteal and adductor muscles with aggressive bone involvement. All appropriate radiological and histopathological studies were done for diagnosis and staging. After discussion with the lymphoma multidisciplinary team, it was agreed to start on R-CHOP protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine (Oncovin®), and prednisone) as the standard of care, which was later changed to R-CODOX-M/R-IVAC protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin®), doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate alternating with rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine) due to inadequate response. Due to the refractory aggressive nature of the disease, subsequent decision of the multidisciplinary team was salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. The aim of this case report was to describe and evaluate the clinical presentation and important radiological features of extranodal lymphoma affecting the musculoskeletal system. PMID:27398038

  17. Aggressive Lymphoma “Sarcoma Mimicker” Originating in the Gluteus and Adductor Muscles: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Elkourashy, Sarah A.; Nashwan, Abdulqadir J.; Alam, Syed I.; Ammar, Adham A.; El Sayed, Ahmed M.; Omri, Halima El; Yassin, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal lymphoma (ENL) occurs in approximately 30%–40% of all patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and has been described in almost all organs and tissues. However, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common histological subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primarily arising in the retroperitoneal region. In this article, we report a rare case of an adult male diagnosed with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the gluteal and adductor muscles with aggressive bone involvement. All appropriate radiological and histopathological studies were done for diagnosis and staging. After discussion with the lymphoma multidisciplinary team, it was agreed to start on R-CHOP protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine (Oncovin®), and prednisone) as the standard of care, which was later changed to R-CODOX-M/R-IVAC protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin®), doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate alternating with rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine) due to inadequate response. Due to the refractory aggressive nature of the disease, subsequent decision of the multidisciplinary team was salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. The aim of this case report was to describe and evaluate the clinical presentation and important radiological features of extranodal lymphoma affecting the musculoskeletal system. PMID:27398038

  18. Potential use of fatty acid profiles of the adductor muscle of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) for traceability of collection site.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Moreira, Ana S P; Rey, Felisa; Coimbra, Manuel A; Rosário Domingues, M; Domingues, Pedro; Costa Leal, Miguel; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Geographic traceability of seafood is key for controlling its quality and safeguarding consumers' interest. The present study assessed if the fatty acid (FA) profile of the adductor muscle (AM) of fresh cockles (Cerastoderma edule) can be used to discriminate the origin of specimens collected in different bivalve capture/production areas legally defined within a coastal lagoon. Results suggest that this biochemical approach holds the potential to trace sampling locations with a spatial resolution <10 Km, even for areas with identical classification for bivalve production. Cockles further away from the inlet, i.e. in areas exposed to a higher saline variation, exhibited lower levels of saturated fatty acids, which are key for stabilizing the bilayer structure of cell membranes, and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which enhance bilayer fluidity. Results suggest that the structural nature of the lipids present in the AM provides a stable fatty acid signature and holds potential for tracing the origin of bivalves to their capture/production areas. PMID:26084395

  19. Potential use of fatty acid profiles of the adductor muscle of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) for traceability of collection site

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Moreira, Ana S. P.; Rey, Felisa; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Rosário Domingues, M.; Domingues, Pedro; Costa Leal, Miguel; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Geographic traceability of seafood is key for controlling its quality and safeguarding consumers’ interest. The present study assessed if the fatty acid (FA) profile of the adductor muscle (AM) of fresh cockles (Cerastoderma edule) can be used to discriminate the origin of specimens collected in different bivalve capture/production areas legally defined within a coastal lagoon. Results suggest that this biochemical approach holds the potential to trace sampling locations with a spatial resolution <10 Km, even for areas with identical classification for bivalve production. Cockles further away from the inlet, i.e. in areas exposed to a higher saline variation, exhibited lower levels of saturated fatty acids, which are key for stabilizing the bilayer structure of cell membranes, and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which enhance bilayer fluidity. Results suggest that the structural nature of the lipids present in the AM provides a stable fatty acid signature and holds potential for tracing the origin of bivalves to their capture/production areas. PMID:26084395

  20. What are the stimulation parameters that affect the extent of twitch force potentiation in the adductor pollicis muscle?

    PubMed

    Mettler, Joni A; Griffin, Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Muscle force potentiation affects force output during electrical stimulation. Few studies have examined stimulation train parameters that influence potentiation such as pulse number, stimulation frequency, train duration, and force-time integral and peak force produced during the train. Pulse-matched trains (100 pulses) at 7.5, 15, 25, 30, 50, and 100 Hz, and trains of varying pulse number (50, 100, and 200 pulses) at 30 and 50 Hz were delivered to the ulnar nerve of 10 (5 male, 5 female; 23.4 ± 0.9 years), healthy individuals in random order. Single twitches of the adductor pollicis muscle were elicited before and after each train with a rest interval of at least 5 min between each train. No differences in potentiation occurred across the pulse-matched trains at frequencies of 15-50 Hz (38.9 ± 5.4-44.6 ± 5.5%). Twitch force potentiation following the highest (100 Hz) and lowest (7.5 Hz) frequency trains were not significantly different and were lower than the other 100 pulse-matched trains. As pulse number increased, potentiation increased for both the 30 and 50-Hz trains. There was a significant positive correlation between force potentiation and force-time integral produced by the stimulation train, r = 0.70. The results indicate that potentiation magnitude is dependent on the force-time integral produced during the test train and the number of pulses delivered, independent of stimulation frequency. PMID:20737164

  1. Unique use of botulinum toxin to decrease adductor tone and allow surgical excision of vulvar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Shin, K

    2004-01-01

    Here, we present the case of an 86-year-old woman with vulvar carcinoma requiring surgical resection and with Parkinson's disease with severe spasticity and contractures of the lower extremities. Because of the patient's severe contractures and spasticity (her knees could only be separated by 2 cm with sustained abducting force), surgical positioning and access to the vulva were impossible. The patient was admitted, intending to undergo surgery after injection with botulinum toxin (BTX) to hip adductors and intensive physical therapy. After confirmed healed hip arthroplasty, the patient underwent BTX injection (400 U) to her bilateral adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, and semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles on day 2 of her hospital stay. On day 3, a physical therapist began a twice-a-day stretching program. An adjustable abduction brace was custom-made to provide sustained stretching. On day 9, the patient underwent wide local excision of vulvar carcinoma with the abductor brace in place. The patient tolerated the surgery well and was discharged home on day 11 with continuous physical therapy. Upon discharge, the distance between the patient's knees was 14 cm. This unique case demonstrated a new indication for BTX treatment in the preoperative setting to allow surgical positioning and access.

  2. Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase and Ultrastructure Changes in Atrophied Rat Peroneus Longus Muscle Induced by Sciatic Nerve Injection Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Yang, Sheng Bo

    2016-01-01

    Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA) treatment. To investigate the mechanism underlying EA treatment improving muscular atrophy, we focused on the perspective of protein synthesis by establishing a penicillin injection-induced sciatic nerve injury model. In our model, injured rats without treatment showed decreased sciatic functional index (SFI), decreased peroneus longus muscle weight and muscle fiber cross-sectional area, aggregated mitochondria with vacuoles appearing, swollen SR, and downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of GlyRS and myosin heavy chain IIb (MHC-IIb). The injured rats with EA treatment showed significant recovery. These results indicated that EA stimulation can alleviate peroneus longus muscular atrophy induced by iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury through promoting the recovery of GlyRS and muscle ultrastructure and increasing muscle protein synthesis. PMID:27274754

  3. Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase and Ultrastructure Changes in Atrophied Rat Peroneus Longus Muscle Induced by Sciatic Nerve Injection Injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Yang, Sheng Bo

    2016-01-01

    Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA) treatment. To investigate the mechanism underlying EA treatment improving muscular atrophy, we focused on the perspective of protein synthesis by establishing a penicillin injection-induced sciatic nerve injury model. In our model, injured rats without treatment showed decreased sciatic functional index (SFI), decreased peroneus longus muscle weight and muscle fiber cross-sectional area, aggregated mitochondria with vacuoles appearing, swollen SR, and downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of GlyRS and myosin heavy chain IIb (MHC-IIb). The injured rats with EA treatment showed significant recovery. These results indicated that EA stimulation can alleviate peroneus longus muscular atrophy induced by iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury through promoting the recovery of GlyRS and muscle ultrastructure and increasing muscle protein synthesis. PMID:27274754

  4. Influence and interactions of laryngeal adductors and cricothyroid muscles on fundamental frequency and glottal posture control

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Neubauer, Juergen; Sofer, Elazar; Berry, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles (ILMs) in controlling fundamental frequency (F0) and glottal posture remain unclear. In an in vivo canine model, three sets of intrinsic laryngeal muscles—the thyroarytenoid (TA), cricothyroid (CT), and lateral cricoarytenoid plus interarytenoid (LCA/IA) muscle complex—were independently and accurately stimulated in a graded manner using distal laryngeal nerve stimulation. Graded neuromuscular stimulation was used to independently activate these paired intrinsic laryngeal muscles over a range from threshold to maximal activation, to produce 320 distinct laryngeal phonatory postures. At phonation onset these activation conditions were evaluated in terms of their vocal fold strain, glottal width at the vocal processes, fundamental frequency (F0), subglottic pressure, and airflow. F0 ranged from 69 to 772 Hz and clustered into chest-like and falsetto-like groups. CT activation was always required to raise F0, but could also lower F0 at low TA and LCA/IA activation levels. Increasing TA activation first increased then decreased F0 in all CT and LCA/IA activation conditions. Increasing TA activation also facilitated production of high F0 at a lower onset pressure. Independent control of membranous (TA) and cartilaginous (LCA/IA) glottal closure enabled multiple pathways for F0 control via changes in glottal posture. PMID:25235003

  5. NMR-based metabolomic investigations on the differential responses in adductor muscles from two pedigrees of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Cadmium and Zinc.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Yu, Junbao

    2011-01-01

    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important economic species in shellfishery in China due to its wide geographic distribution and high tolerance to environmental changes (e.g., salinity, temperature). In addition, Manila clam is a good biomonitor/bioindicator in "Mussel Watch Programs" and marine environmental toxicology. However, there are several pedigrees of R. philippinarum distributed in the marine environment in China. No attention has been paid to the biological differences between various pedigrees of Manila clams, which may introduce undesirable biological variation in toxicology studies. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to detect the biological differences in two main pedigrees (White and Zebra) of R. philippinarum and their differential responses to heavy metal exposures (Cadmium and Zinc) using adductor muscle as a target tissue to define one sensitive pedigree of R. philippinarum as biomonitor for heavy metals. Our results indicated that there were significant metabolic differences in adductor muscle tissues between White and Zebra clams, including higher levels of alanine, glutamine, hypotaurine, phosphocholine and homarine in White clam muscles and higher levels of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine), succinate and 4-aminobutyrate in Zebra clam muscles, respectively. Differential metabolic responses to heavy metals between White and Zebra clams were also found. Overall, we concluded that White pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator/biomonitor in marine toxicology studies and for marine heavy metals based on the relatively high sensitivity to heavy metals. PMID:22131959

  6. Successful return to high-level sports following early surgical repair of combined adductor complex and rectus abdominis avulsion.

    PubMed

    Tansey, R J; Benjamin-Laing, H; Jassim, S; Liekens, K; Shankar, A; Haddad, F S

    2015-11-01

    Hip and groin injuries are common in athletes who take part in high level sports. Adductor muscle tendon injuries represent a small but important number of these injuries. Avulsion of the tendons attached to the symphysis pubis has previously been described: these can be managed both operatively and non-operatively. We describe an uncommon variant of this injury, namely complete avulsion of the adductor sleeve complex: this includes adductor longus, pectineus and rectus abdominis. We go on to describe a surgical technique which promotes a full return to the pre-injury level of sporting activity. Over a period of ten years, 15 high-level athletes with an MRI-confirmed acute adductor complex avulsion injury (six to 34 days old) underwent surgical repair. The operative procedure consisted of anatomical re-attachment of the avulsed tissues in each case and mesh reinforcement of the posterior inguinal wall in seven patients. All underwent a standardised rehabilitation programme, which was then individualised to be sport-specific. One patient developed a superficial wound infection, which was successfully treated with antibiotics. Of the 15 patients, four complained of transient local numbness which resolved in all cases. All patients (including seven elite athletes) returned to their previous level of participation in sport.

  7. Hip adductors' strength, flexibility, and injury risk.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2009-08-01

    The hip adductor muscle group plays an important role in both movement and stability at the hip joint in many athletic pursuits. Injury to this muscle group has been reported in a number of sports, among them, ice hockey, soccer, Australian football, and swimming. The identification of muscle characteristics that predispose a muscle to injury is an important step in developing conditioning programs to reduce injury risk. Muscle strength and range of motion are 2 parameters that may influence injury risk. The aim of this review was to examine the relationship between hip adductors' strength, flexibility, and injury risk. Strength testing has involved isokinetic or hand-held dynamometry. Flexibility has usually been assessed by goniometry during maximal hip abduction. An association has been reported between adductor strength deficits and injury for ice hockey players. Low adductor flexibility has also been identified as a risk factor for injury in soccer players. An intervention program that strengthened the hip adductors had some success in reducing injury risk for ice hockey players. There is some low- to moderate-level evidence from cohort studies to suggest that flexibility and strength are related to injury risk in particular sports and that an intervention program may be effective in reducing injury risk. Higher level evidence from randomized controlled trials is required to firmly establish the link between hip adductor flexibility, strength, and injury. PMID:19620912

  8. Alteration of excitation-contraction coupling mechanism in extensor digitorum longus muscle fibres of dystrophic mdx mouse and potential efficacy of taurine

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Annamaria; Pierno, Sabata; Liantonio, Antonella; Cetrone, Michela; Camerino, Claudia; Simonetti, Simonetta; Papadia, Francesco; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2001-01-01

    No clear data is available about functional alterations in the calcium-dependent excitation-contraction (e-c) coupling mechanism of dystrophin-deficient muscle of mdx mice. By means of the intracellular microelectrode ‘point' voltage clamp method, we measured the voltage threshold for contraction (mechanical threshold; MT) in intact extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres of dystrophic mdx mouse of two different ages: 8–12 weeks, during the active regeneration of hind limb muscles, and 6–8 months, when regeneration is complete. The EDL muscle fibres of 8–12-week-old wildtype animals had a more negative rheobase voltage (potential of equilibrium for contraction- and relaxation-related calcium movements) with respect to control mice of 6–8 months. However, at both ages, the EDL muscle fibres of mdx mice contracted at more negative potentials with respect to age-matched controls and had markedly slower time constants to reach the rheobase. The in vitro application of 60 mM taurine, whose normally high intracellular muscle levels play a role in e-c coupling, was without effect on 6–8-month-old wildtype EDL muscle, while it significantly ameliorated the MT of mdx mouse. HPLC determination of taurine content at 6–8 months showed a significant 140% rise of plasma taurine levels and a clear trend toward a decrease in amino acid levels in hind limb muscles, brain and heart, suggesting a tissue difficulty in retaining appropriate levels of the amino acid. The data is consistent with a permanent alteration of e-c coupling in mdx EDL muscle fibres. The alteration could be related to the proposed increase in intracellular calcium, and can be ameliorated by taurine, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of the amino acid. PMID:11226135

  9. Changes in the Capillarity of the Rat Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle 4 Weeks after Nerve Injury Studied by 2D Measurement Methods.

    PubMed

    Čebašek, Vita; Ribarič, Samo

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown by 3D study that 2 weeks after nerve injury there was no change in the length of capillaries per muscle fibre length in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL). The primary goal of the present 2D study was to determine the capillarity of rat EDL 4 weeks after various modes of nerve injury. Additionally, we wished to calculate the same capillary/fibre parameters that were used in our 3D stereological study. EDL muscles derived from denervated (4 weeks after nerve injury), re-innervated (4 weeks after two successive nerve crushes) and age-matched controls from the beginning (CON-1) and the end (CON-2) of the experiment were analysed in two ways. Global indices of capillarity, such as capillary density (CD) and capillary/fibre (C/F) ratio, were determined by automatic analysis, local indices as the number (CAF) and the length of capillaries around individual muscle fibres (Lcap) in relation to muscle fibre size were estimated manually by tracing the muscle fibre outlines and the transversally and longitudinally cut segments of capillaries seen in 5-µm-thin muscle cross sections. Four weeks after both types of nerve injury, CD increased in comparison to the CON-2 group (p < 0.001) due to atrophied muscle fibres in denervated muscles and probably proliferation of capillaries in re-innervated ones. Higher C/F, CAF (both p < 0.001) and Lcap (p < 0.01) in re-innervated than denervated EDL confirmed this assumption. Calculated capillary/fibre parameters were comparable to our previous 3D study, which strengthens the practical value to the adapted 2D method used in this study.

  10. Changes in the Capillarity of the Rat Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle 4 Weeks after Nerve Injury Studied by 2D Measurement Methods.

    PubMed

    Čebašek, Vita; Ribarič, Samo

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown by 3D study that 2 weeks after nerve injury there was no change in the length of capillaries per muscle fibre length in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL). The primary goal of the present 2D study was to determine the capillarity of rat EDL 4 weeks after various modes of nerve injury. Additionally, we wished to calculate the same capillary/fibre parameters that were used in our 3D stereological study. EDL muscles derived from denervated (4 weeks after nerve injury), re-innervated (4 weeks after two successive nerve crushes) and age-matched controls from the beginning (CON-1) and the end (CON-2) of the experiment were analysed in two ways. Global indices of capillarity, such as capillary density (CD) and capillary/fibre (C/F) ratio, were determined by automatic analysis, local indices as the number (CAF) and the length of capillaries around individual muscle fibres (Lcap) in relation to muscle fibre size were estimated manually by tracing the muscle fibre outlines and the transversally and longitudinally cut segments of capillaries seen in 5-µm-thin muscle cross sections. Four weeks after both types of nerve injury, CD increased in comparison to the CON-2 group (p < 0.001) due to atrophied muscle fibres in denervated muscles and probably proliferation of capillaries in re-innervated ones. Higher C/F, CAF (both p < 0.001) and Lcap (p < 0.01) in re-innervated than denervated EDL confirmed this assumption. Calculated capillary/fibre parameters were comparable to our previous 3D study, which strengthens the practical value to the adapted 2D method used in this study. PMID:27023720

  11. Flexor digitorum longus tendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2012-01-01

    The flexor digitorum longus tendon is susceptible to injury along its entire course, and lacerations, ruptures, longitudinal tears, and stenosing tenosynovitis have all been reported. Moreover, this tendon is commonly used for reconstruction of dysfunctional posterior tibial and Achilles tendons. Traditionally, surgery involving the flexor digitorum longus tendon was performed via open incision. We describe a technique of flexor digitorum longus tendoscopy that may encourage the future development of a minimally invasive approach to flexor digitorum longus tendon procedures. PMID:22727339

  12. A SIMULATION ANALYSIS OF THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SURGICAL TENSIONING ON LATERAL PINCH FORCE FOLLOWING BRACHIORADIALIS TO FLEXOR POLLICIS LONGUS TRANSFER

    PubMed Central

    Mogk, Jeremy P.M.; Johanson, M. Elise; Hentz, Vincent R.; Saul, Katherine R.; Murray, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    Biomechanical simulations of tendon transfers performed following tetraplegia suggest that surgical tensioning influences clinical outcomes. However, previous studies have focused on the biomechanical properties of only the transferred muscle. We developed simulations of the tetraplegic upper limb following transfer of the brachioradialis (BR) to the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) to examine the influence of residual upper limb strength on predictions of post-operative transferred muscle function. Our simulations included the transfer, ECRB, ECRL, the three heads of the triceps, brachialis, and both heads of the biceps. Simulations were integrated with experimental data, including EMG and joint posture data collected from five individuals with tetraplegia and BR-FPL tendon transfers during maximal lateral pinch force exertions. Given a measured co-activation pattern for the non-paralyzed muscles in the tetraplegic upper limb, we computed the highest activation for the transferred BR for which neither the elbow nor the wrist flexor moment was larger than the respective joint extensor moment. In this context, the effects of surgical tensioning were evaluated by comparing the resulting pinch force produced at different muscle strength levels, including patient-specific scaling. Our simulations suggest that extensor muscle weakness in the tetraplegic limb limits the potential to augment total pinch force through surgical tensioning. Incorporating patient-specific muscle volume, EMG activity, joint posture, and strength measurements generated simulation results that were comparable to experimental results. Our study suggests that scaling models to the population of interest facilitates accurate simulation of post-operative outcomes, and carries utility for guiding and developing rehabilitation training protocols. PMID:21092963

  13. EMG and force production of the flexor hallucis longus muscle in isometric plantarflexion and the push-off phase of walking.

    PubMed

    Péter, Annamária; Hegyi, András; Stenroth, Lauri; Finni, Taija; Cronin, Neil J

    2015-09-18

    Large forces are generated under the big toe in the push-off phase of walking. The largest flexor muscle of the big toe is the flexor hallucis longus (FHL), which likely contributes substantially to these forces. This study examined FHL function at different levels of isometric plantarflexion torque and in the push-off phase at different speeds of walking. FHL and calf muscle activity were measured with surface EMG and plantar pressure was recorded with pressure insoles. FHL activity was compared to the activity of the calf muscles. Force and impulse values were calculated under the big toe, and were compared to the entire pressed area of the insole to determine the relative contribution of big toe flexion forces to the ground reaction force. FHL activity increased with increasing plantarflexion torque level (F=2.8, P=0.024) and with increasing walking speed (F=11.608, P<0.001). No differences were observed in the relative contribution of the force under the big toe to the entire sole between different plantarflexion torque levels (F=0.836, P=0.529). On the contrary, in the push-off phase of walking, peak force under the big toe increased at a higher rate than force under the other areas of the plantar surface (F=3.801, P=0.018), implying a greater relative contribution to total force at faster speeds. Moreover, substantial differences were found between isometric plantarflexion and walking concerning FHL activity relative to that of the calf muscles, highlighting the task-dependant behaviour of FHL.

  14. Subcutaneous administration of muscarinic antagonists and triple-immunostaining of the levator auris longus muscle in mice.

    PubMed

    Wright, Megan; Kim, Amy; Son, Young-Jin

    2011-09-08

    Hind limb muscles of rodents, such as gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, are frequently used for in vivo pharmacological studies of the signals essential for the formation and maintenance of mammalian NMJs. However, drug penetration into these muscles after subcutaneous or intramuscular administration is often incomplete or uneven and many NMJs can remain unaffected. Although systemic administration with devices such as mini-pumps can improve the spatiotemporal effects, the invasive nature of this approach can cause confounding inflammatory responses and/or direct muscle damage. Moreover, complete analysis of the NMJs in a hind limb muscle is challenging because it requires time-consuming serial sectioning and extensive immunostaining. The mouse LAL is a thin, flat sheet of muscle located superficially on the dorsum of the neck. It is a fast-twitch muscle that functions to move the pinna. It contains rostral and caudal portions that originate from the midline of the cranium and extend laterally to the cartilaginous portion of each pinna. The muscle is supplied by a branch of the facial nerve that projects caudally as it exits the stylomastoid foramen. We and others have found LAL to be a convenient preparation that offers advantages for the investigation of both short and long-term in vivo effects of drugs on NMJs and muscles. First, its superficial location facilitates multiple local applications of drugs under light anesthesia. Second, its thinness (2-3 layers of muscle fibers) permits visualization and analysis of almost all the NMJs within the muscle. Third, the ease of dissecting it with its nerve intact together with the pattern of its innervation permits supplementary electrophysiological analysis in vitro. Last, and perhaps most importantly, a small applied volume (-50 μl) easily covers the entire muscle surface, provides a uniform and prolonged exposure of all its NMJs to the drug and eliminates the need for a systemic approach.

  15. Role and expression of cry1 in the adductor muscle of the oyster Crassostrea gigas during daily and tidal valve activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    Mat, Audrey M; Perrigault, Mickael; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Tran, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are flavin- and pterin-containing photoreceptors of the cryptochrome/photolyase family. They play critical roles in organisms, among are which light-dependent and light-independent roles in biological rhythms. The present work aimed at describing a cryptochrome gene in the oyster Crassostrea gigas by (i) a characterization and phylogenetic analysis and (ii) by studying its expression in the relationship to rhythmic valve behavior in different entrainment regimes. Cryptochrome expression was focused on the adductor muscle of the oyster, the effector of the valve behavior. The results suggest involvement of Cgcry1 in oyster rhythmicity as a sensor of environmental zeitgebers, associated with circadian rhythms and potentially to tidal activity. The characterized gene belongs to type 1 cryptochrome/insect-type cry. Additionally, Cgcry1 presented a daily oscillation under L:D entrainment, which disappeared in constant darkness. Transcript expression of Cgcry1 also oscillated at tidal frequency under tidal entrainment and in constant darkness. Finally, exposure of tidally entrained oysters to saxitoxin (STX)-producing alga Alexandrium minutum induced a dose effect response in oysters by first altering Cgcry1 expression and then the behavior of oysters with increasing concentrations of toxins. This study initiates the characterization of the molecular clock in the oyster C. gigas and its interactions with environmental zeitgebers. PMID:27246263

  16. Muscle sarcomere lesions and thrombosis after spaceflight and suspension unloading

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.A.; Ellis, S.; Giometti, C.S.; Hoh, J.F.Y.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.I.; Oganov, V.S.; Slocum, G.R.; Bain, J.L.W.; Sedlak, F.R. )

    1992-08-01

    Extended exposure of humans to spaceflight produces a progressive loss of skeletal muscle strength. This process must be understood to design effective countermeasures. The present investigation examined hindlimb muscles from flight rats killed as close to landing as possible. Spaceflight and tail suspension-hindlimb unloading (unloaded) produced significant decreases in fiber cross-sectional areas of the adductor longus (AL), a slow-twitch antigravity muscle. However, the mean wet weight of the flight AL muscles was near normal, whereas that of the suspension unloaded AL muscles was significantly reduced. Interstitial edema within the flight AL, but not in the unloaded AL, appeared to account for this apparent disagreement.In both conditions, the slow-twitch oxidative fibers atrophied more than the fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibers. Microcirculation was also compromised by spaceflight, such that there was increased formation of thrombi in the postcapillary venules and capillaries.

  17. Hindfoot endoscopy for accessory flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis.

    PubMed

    Ogut, Tahir; Ayhan, Egemen

    2011-03-01

    We present a case report involving the flexor digitorum accessorius longus (FDAL) tendon which travels through a fibro-osseous tunnel together with the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon, causing a stenosing tenosynovitis. The patient was admitted with posteromedial ankle pain and diagnosed clinically as FHL tenosynovitis. We found two tendons in the tunnel during hindfoot endoscopy. The stenosis was relieved by endoscopic debridement. After the operation, we checked the MRI images and observed two tendons. We concluded that the accessory tendon was the FDAL. Two years later the patient was admitted with the same symptoms. We excised the FDAL muscle and the patient's symptoms resolved. The FDAL muscle is a cause of FHL tenosynovitis. Because of its variability and mostly asymptomatic nature, it may not be noticed it on an MRI scan. Hindfoot endoscopy is a safe tool for the diagnosis of this condition and curative treatment is afforded by excision of the FDAL muscle. PMID:21276556

  18. A simulating analysis of the effects of increased joint stiffness on muscle loading in a thumb

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The development of osteoarthritis (OA) in the hand results in increased joint stiffness, which in turn affects the grip strength. The goal of the present study is to theoretically analyze the muscle forces in a thumb in response to the increased joint stiffness. Methods The thumb was modeled as a linkage system consisting of a trapezium, a metacarpal bone, a proximal and a distal phalanx. Nine muscles were included in the model: flexor pollicis longus (FPL), extensor pollicis longus (EPL), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), abductor pollicis longus (APL), flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), abductor pollicis brevis (APB), the transverse head of the adductor pollicis (ADPt), the oblique head of the adductor pollicis (ADPo), and opponens pollicis (OPP). Numerical tests were performed using an inverse dynamic approach. The joints were prescribed to an angular motion at one degree-of-freedom (DOF) each time with all other DOFs of the joints being mechanically constrained, while the muscle forces in response to the joint motions were predicted. The normal joint stiffness was assumed to be 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 N m/rad for interphalangeal (IP), metacarpophalangeal (MCP), and carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, respectively. The joint stiffness was assumed to increase by 50% and 100%, simulating the biomechanical consequences of OA. Results Our simulations indicated that the increase in joint stiffness induced substantial increases in muscle forces, especially in the EPL and FPL muscles in response to IP, MCP, or CMC extension/flexion motions. Conclusions Because the strength of the muscles in the fingers is limited, the muscles will not be able to overcome joint resistance if joint stiffness is increased to its limit due to OA. This may contribute to the reduced range of motion typically seen in OA. PMID:20015378

  19. Skeletal muscle fiber, nerve, and blood vessel breakdown in space-flown rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J. L.; Slocum, G. R.; Sedlak, F. R.

    1990-01-01

    Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were performed postflight on hind limb skeletal muscles of rats orbited for 12.5 days aboard the unmanned Cosmos 1887 biosatellite and returned to Earth 2 days before sacrifice. The antigravity adductor longus (AL), soleus, and plantaris muscles atrophied more than the non-weight-bearing extensor digitorum longus, and slow muscle fibers were more atrophic than fast fibers. Muscle fiber segmental necrosis occurred selectively in the AL and soleus muscles; primarily, macrophages and neutrophils infiltrated and phagocytosed cellular debris. Granule-rich mast cells were diminished in flight AL muscles compared with controls, indicating the mast cell secretion contributed to interstitial tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils implicated ubiquitin in myofilament degradation. Mitochondrial content and succinic dehydrogenase activity were normal, except for subsarcolemmal decreases. Myofibrillar ATPase activity of flight AL muscle fibers shifted toward the fast type. Absence of capillaries and extravasation of red blood cells indicated failed microcirculation. Muscle fiber regeneration from activated satellite cells was detected. About 17% of the flight AL end plates exhibited total or partial denervation. Thus, skeletal muscle weakness associated with spaceflight can result from muscle fiber atrophy and segmental necrosis, partial motor denervation, and disruption of the microcirculation.

  20. Determining physiological cross-sectional area of extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis as a whole and by regions using 3D computer muscle models created from digitized fiber bundle data.

    PubMed

    Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Oliver, Michele L; Singh, Karan S; McKee, Nancy H; Agur, Anne M R

    2009-09-01

    Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and compare architectural parameters (fiber bundle length, pennation angle, and volume) and PCSA of ECRL and ECRB. Fiber bundles distributed throughout the volume of ECRL (75+/-20) and ECRB (110+/-30) were digitized in eight formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens. The digitized data was reconstructed in Autodesk Maya with computational algorithms implemented in Python. The mean PCSA and fiber bundle length were significantly different between ECRL and ECRB (p < or = 0.05). Superficial ECRL had significantly longer fiber bundle length than the deep region, whereas the PCSA of superficial ECRB was significantly larger than the deep region. The regional quantification of architectural parameters and PCSA provides a framework for the exploration of partial tendon transfers of ECRL and ECRB.

  1. Equine laryngeal hemiplegia. Part IV. Muscle pathology.

    PubMed

    Cahill, J I; Goulden, B E

    1986-11-01

    This study confirmed that neurogenic muscle pathology exists in intrinsic laryngeal muscles supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerves in horses subclinically and clinically affected with laryngeal hemiplegia. An important additional observation was the occurrence in three out of four laryngeal hemiplegic horses of neurogenic muscle changes in a hindlimb muscle, the extensor digitorum longus, a muscle supplied by another long peripheral nerve. This finding suggests that a polynenropathy exists in laryngeal hemiplegic horses, and supports the classification of this disease as a distal axonopathy. Comparison of the degree of pathology in the intrinsic laryngeal muscles and that of the recurrent laryngeal nerves innervating them, demonstrated a strong correlation between the extent of damage in the distal left recurrent laryngeal nerve and the overall degree of muscle pathology. The muscle damage in clinically affected horses is a reflection of the nerve damage present in the most distal portion of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. The more variable pathological changes found in proximal levels of the left and right recurrent laryngeal nerves probably reflects the ongoing nature of the pathological process affecting nerve fibres. The existence of a subclinically affected group of horses, the earliest involvement of an adductor, the left cricoarytenoideus lateralis muscle, and the presence of changes in the right intrinsic laryngeal muscles all confirmed the findings of previous workers.

  2. Muscle strain injuries.

    PubMed

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  3. Swimming away or clamming up: the use of phasic and tonic adductor muscles during escape responses varies with shell morphology in scallops.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Isabelle; Guderley, Helga E; Himmelman, John H

    2012-12-01

    The simple locomotor system of scallops facilitates the study of muscle use during locomotion. We compared five species of scallops with different shell morphologies to see whether shell morphology and muscle use change in parallel or whether muscle use can compensate for morphological constraints. Force recordings during escape responses revealed that the use of tonic and phasic contractions varied markedly among species. The active species, Amusium balloti, Placopecten magellanicus and Pecten fumatus, made more phasic contractions than the more sedentary species, Mimachlamys asperrima and Crassadoma gigantea. Tonic contractions varied considerably among these species, with the two more sedentary species often starting their response to the predator with a tonic contraction and the more active species using shorter tonic contractions between series of phasic contractions. Placopecten magellanicus made extensive use of short tonic contractions. Pecten fumatus mounted an intense series of phasic contractions at the start of its response, perhaps to overcome the constraints of its unfavourable shell morphology. Valve closure by the more sedentary species suggests that their shell morphology protects them against predation, whereas swimming by the more active species relies upon intense phasic contractions together with favourable shell characteristics. PMID:22972884

  4. Bone scanning in the adductor insertion avulsion syndrome ("thigh splints").

    PubMed

    Charkes, N D; Siddhivarn, N; Schneck, C D

    1987-12-01

    Shin splints is a defined clinical entity resulting from extreme tension on muscles inserting on the tibia, resulting in periosteal elevation which is detectable by bone scanning. The clinical equivalent in the thigh has been described. We found scintigraphic changes in the femurs of seven short, female, basic trainees at the Fort Dix Army base, most of whom were referred for stress fractures elsewhere in the lower extremities. The scan findings were generally noted in the upper or mid femurs, always involved the anteromedial cortex, and were bilateral in five of the seven subjects. The abnormalities were linear and suggested periosteal elevation, and did not have the typical appearance of stress fracture. Since the findings correspond to the insertion of one or more adductor muscle groups, the descriptive term "adductor insertion avulsion syndrome" or "thigh splints" is proposed for this entity.

  5. Isolated paralysis of the adductor pollicis: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Maio, F; Bisicchia, S; Farsetti, P; Ippolito, E

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of isolated paralysis of the right adductor pollicis in a 30-year-old woman. Electromyographic study showed involvement of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve. A ganglion and an anomalous muscle were both ruled out clinically and by MRI as a possible cause of the paralysis. At surgical exploration, we found a fibrous band joining the pisiform and the hook of the hamate bone that compressed the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve. The fibrous band was excised, and a neurolysis of the motor branch of the ulnar nerve was performed. At followup, eight months later, the patient had fully recovered strength of the adductor muscle. PMID:21991410

  6. Progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a muscle magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhu; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Xiao, Jiangxi; Yuan, Yun

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the degree of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of 171 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mean age, 6.09 ± 2.30 years). Fatty infiltration was assigned using a modified Mercuri's scale 0-5 (normal-severe). The gluteus maximus and adductor magnus were affected in patients less than two years old, followed by the biceps femoris. Quadriceps and semimembranosus were first affected at the age of five to six years; the sartorius, gracilis and adductor longus remained apparently unaffected until seven years of age. Fatty infiltration of all the thigh muscles developed rapidly after seven years of age. The standard deviation of the fatty infiltration scores ranged from 2.41 to 4.87 before five years old, and from 6.84 to 11.66 between six and ten years old. This study provides evidence of highly variable degrees of fatty infiltration in children of different ages with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and indicates that fatty infiltration progresses more quickly after seven years of age. These findings may be beneficial for the selection of therapeutic regimens and the analysis of future clinical trials.

  7. The abductor and adductor strength characteristics of professional baseball pitcherse.

    PubMed

    Wilk, K E; Andrews, J R; Arrigo, C A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish a data base regarding the isokinetic muscular performance characteristics of the abductor and adductor muscles of professional baseball pitchers. Eighty-three healthy professional baseball pitchers (mean age, 22.6 years; mean weight, 199 pounds) were evaluated by use of a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Isokinetic tests were performed concentrically at 180 and 300 deg/sec for both the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders. The testing protocol and test repetitions were standardized for each subject. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test. Determination of the correlation coefficient was made at the P < 0.05 level of significance. Test results for bilateral comparisons of mean peak torque for the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders demonstrated a significant difference in adductor values between the dominant and nondominant shoulders at both test speeds. There were no significant differences between extremities for the shoulder abductor muscles. The abductor-to-adductor muscle ratios between the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders were also statistically significant at both test speeds. Throwing arm values were 82.5% at 180 deg/sec and 93.8% at 300 deg/sec compared with only 66.0% and 70.3%, respectively, for the nonthrowing shoulders.

  8. The effect of isokinetic testing speed on the reliability of muscle fatigue indicators during a hip abductor-adductor fatigue protocol.

    PubMed

    Gautrey, C N; Watson, T; Mitchell, A

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of fatigue indicators calculated from peak torque and total work during isokinetic speeds of 60, 90, 120 and 180° · s-1 during a hip fatigue protocol. 10 males suffering from a history of unilateral functional ankle instability and 10 male healthy controls performed 5 maximal concentric contractions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Following a 4 min rest period subjects were instructed to perform repeated maximal concentric contractions to fatigue, which was defined as 3 consecutive repetitions below 50% of the maximum peak torque value. Each testing speed was randomised with 24 h between speeds. The subjects were asked to return to the laboratory 7 days later to repeat the 4 speeds, with 24 h between speeds. Muscle fatigue was determined for each testing speed by the fatigue index, the percent decrease in performance and the slope of the regression equation. The most reliable fatigue determination method was the slope of the regression equation, when testing at a speed of 120° · s-1. It is recommended that future investigators examine and plot their data before choosing the slope of the regression equation as their fatigue indicator, as a linear model is required. PMID:23549692

  9. Interactive effects of growth hormone and exercise on muscle mass in suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grossman, Elena J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Jiang, Bian; Pierotti, David J.; Rudolph, Ingrid

    1994-01-01

    Measures to attenuate muscle atrophy in rats in response to simulated microgravity (hindlimb suspension (HS)) have been only partially successful. In the present study, hypophysectomized rats were in HS for 7 days, and the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (GH), exercise (Ex), or GH+Ex on the weights, protein concentrations, and fiber cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of hindlimb muscles were determined. The weights of four extensor muscles, i.e., the soleus (Sol), medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius, and plantaris (Plt), and one adductor, i.e., the adductor longus (AL), were decreased by 10-22% after HS. Fiber CSAs were decreased by 34% in the Sol and by 1 17% in the MG after HS. In contrast, two flexors, i.e., the tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), did not atrophy. In HS rats, GH treatment alone maintained the weights of the fast extensors (MG, LG, Plt) and flexors (TA, EDL) at or above those of control rats. This effect was not observed in the slow extensor (Sol) or AL. Exercise had no significant effect on the weight of any muscle in HS rats. A combination of GH and Ex treatments yielded a significant increase in the weights of the fast extensors and in the CSA of both fast and slow fibers of the MG and significantly increased Sol weight and CSA of the slow fibers of the Sol. The AL was not responsive to either GH or Ex treatments. Protein concentrations of the Sol and MG were higher only in the Sol of Ex and GH+Ex rats. These results suggest that while GH treatment or intermittent high intensity exercise alone have a minimal effect in maintaining the mass of unloaded muscle, there is a strong interactive effect of these two treatments.

  10. Extensibility of hip adductors in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lespargot, A; Renaudin, E; Khouri, N; Robert, M

    1994-11-01

    The passive extension of relaxed hip adductor muscles was measured in 20 normal children and 10 children (aged nine to 13 years) with cerebral palsy (CP) by a method that could distinguish between shortening of the muscle body and tendon. No muscle-body contracture occurred in the children with CP during treatment (physiotherapy plus moderate stretching on an apparatus for six hours a day); only the tendons were short. However, four children showed signs of muscle-body contracture after interrupting treatment for six to eight weeks. It is possible that muscle-body contracture can be prevented by non-surgical methods, although tendon shortening can, at present, only be treated surgically.

  11. Experiment K-6-09. Morphological and biochemical investigation of microgravity-induced nerve and muscle breakdown. Part 1: Investigation of nerve and muscle breakdown during spaceflight; Part 2: Biochemical analysis of EDL and PLT muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J.; Sedlak, F.; Slocum, G.; Oganov, V.

    1990-01-01

    The present findings on rat hindlimb muscles suggest that skeletal muscle weakness induced by prolonged spaceflight can result from a combination of muscle fiber atrophy, muscle fiber segmental necrosis, degeneration of motor nerve terminals and destruction of microcirculatory vessels. Damage was confined to the red adductor longus (AL) and soleus muscles. The midbelly region of the AL muscle had more segmental necrosis and edema than the ends. Macrophages and neutrophils were the major mononucleated cells infiltrating and phagocytosing the cellular debris. Toluidine blue-positive mast cells were significantly decreased in Flight AL muscles compared to controls; this indicated that degranulation of mast cells contributed to tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils may have promoted myofilament degradation. Overall, mitochondria content and SDH activity were normal, except for a decrease in the subsarcolemmal region. The myofibrillar ATPase activity shifted toward the fast type in the Flight AL muscles. Some of the pathological changes may have occurred or been exacerbated during the 2 day postflight period of readaptation to terrestrial gravity. While simple atrophy should be reversible by exercise, restoration of pathological changes depends upon complex processes of regeneration by stem cells. Initial signs of muscle and nerve fiber regeneration were detected. Even though regeneration proceeds on Earth, the space environment may inhibit repair and cause progressive irreversible deterioration during long term missions. Muscles obtained from Flight rats sacrificed immediately (within a few hours) after landing are needed to distinguish inflight changes from postflight readaptation.

  12. Intrarater Reliability of the Adductor Squeeze Test in Gaelic Games Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Delahunt, Eamonn; McEntee, Barry L.; Kennelly, Colm; Green, Brian S.; Coughlan, Garrett F.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Groin pain is commonly experienced by athletes involved in field-based sports and is particularly prevalent in Gaelic Games athletes. The adductor squeeze test is commonly used in the assessment of groin pain and injuries. To date, no evidence in the literature provides the reliability of the adductor squeeze test using a sphygmomanometer in assessing the adductor muscle integrity of Gaelic Games athletes. Given the high proportion of groin pain encountered in Gaelic Games athletes, establishing the reliability of the adductor squeeze test will allow clinicians to monitor injury responses and to assess return-to-play criteria. Objective: To evaluate the intrarater reliability of a commercially available sphygmomanometer for measuring adductor squeeze values in Gaelic Games athletes and to determine if different squeeze values are associated with the 3 commonly used test positions. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: University clinical skills laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen male Gaelic Games athletes without any previous or current history of groin or pelvic pain. Intervention(s): Each participant performed the adductor squeeze test in 3 positions of hip joint flexion (0°, 45°, and 90°) on 2 test days separated by at least 1 week. Main Outcome Measure(s): Adductor squeeze test values (mm Hg) quantified by a commercially available sphygmomanometer. Results: Intrarater reliability intraclass correlation values ranged from 0.89 to 0.92 (intraclass correlation coefficients were 0°, 0.89; 45°, 0.92; and 90°, 0.90). The highest squeeze values were recorded in the 45° of hip flexion test position, and these values differed from those demonstrated in the 0° and 90° hip flexion test positions (P < .05). Conclusions: A commercially available sphygmomanometer is a reliable device for measuring adductor squeeze test values. PMID:21669092

  13. Fatty degeneration of gluteus minimus muscle as a predictor of falls.

    PubMed

    Kiyoshige, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The cause of falls is multifactorial, however, hip fractures in elderly would be prevented if accidental falls are predictable. We assessed magnetic resonance images of 38 patients with groin pain after taking a fall whose fracture could not be detected by plain X-rays, and 45 patients with no episode of falls. Their ages were over 65 years. Fatty degeneration of muscles, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, obturator externus, adductor longus, rectus femoris and iliopsoas muscles, were evaluated by Goutallier's staging. Odds ratio was calculated by a logistic regression analysis allocating dependent variable for falls and independent variables for Goutallier's stage, age and gender. The fatty degeneration of gluteus maximus muscle was generalized, while that of gluteus minimus muscle was unevenly distributed, especially in anterior area. Gluteus minimus muscle initiated its fatty degeneration earlier than gluteus medius muscle. Odds ratio of falling was 3.2 (95% confidence intervals: 1, 14, 8.94) for Goutallier' stage of the gluteus medius muscle. Fatty degeneration of gluteus medius muscle has a crucial role in providing stability of the pelvis including hip joint. Evaluating fatty streaks in the gluteus minimus muscle could help give early indication to those who have a higher risk of falling. PMID:25440137

  14. Stabilization of medial longitudinal foot arch by peroneus longus transfer.

    PubMed

    Lui, T H

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical integrity of the medial longitudinal arch depends on the dynamic support of muscles and the static support of ligaments. Although the posterior tibial tendon is the main dynamic stabilizer of the arch, the static structures provide the most support especially while the person is standing. After rupture of the posterior tibial tendon, the spring ligament may be compromised under increased stress and leads to talar derotation and peritalar subluxation. Surgical repair of the spring ligament has become an important adjunct to treating posterior tibial tendon abnormalities. A technique of peroneus longus transfer to augment the static stabilizers of the medial column is described in this article. PMID:27058034

  15. [Spasm of the adductor muscles, pre-dislocations and dislocations of the hip joints in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Clinical observations on aetiology, pathogenesis, therapy and rehabilitation. Part II. The importance of the iliopsoas tendon, its tenotomy, of the coxa valga antetorta, and correction through osteotomy turning the hip into varus (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fettweis, E

    1979-02-01

    The following factors besides spasm and contraction of the adductor muscles contribute to the occurrence of dislocations of the hip in spastic paralysis: Spasm and contraction of the iliopsoas muscle and enhanced valgus position and antetorsion. The author holds the opinion that in case of malformation of the proximal end of the femur, it is not only the indirect action of the spastic musculature via the proximal femur-epiphyseal cartilage which is responsible for this phenomen in accordance with the law on functional adaption through longitudinal growth (Pauwels), but also the direct traction of the iliopsoas tendon. A clue in this direction is the often very pronounced elongation or enlargement of the trochanter minor. The author demonstrates the pathogenetic importance of iliopsoas contracture and malpositioning of the neck of the femur by means of analyses of the course in two patients. The following principles of treatment are postulated for spastic dislocation of the hip: Elimination of the pathogenetic factors through myotenotomy of the adductor muscles and complete resection of the obturator nerve, with observation of strict aftertreatment criteria, tenotomy of the iliopsoas, repositioning and osteotomy with turning into varus. Osteotomy without previous elimination of the pathogenetically acting muscular forces does not appear useful. Likewise, permanent re-positioning by means of muscle-relaxing operation cannot be sufficiently safe-guarded without additional osteotomy once the dislocation has taken place. In twelve patients with spastic dislocation of the hip, treated in accordance with these guidelines (two without osteotomy) aged 6 6/12 and 19 5/12 years, a roentgenologically good result was obtained in half of the cases, whereas the functional result was satisfactory not only with these patients but also with part of the other patients. If surgical treatment is instituted early enough, and if the experiences described here are taken into consideration

  16. Evaluation of the thoraco-laryngeal reflex ('slap test') as an indicator of laryngeal adductor myopathy in the horse.

    PubMed

    Newton-Clarke, M J; Divers, T J; Valentine, B A

    1994-09-01

    A study was conducted over a 12 month period to assess the accuracy of the 'slap test' in the diagnosis of laryngeal adductor myopathy. The thoraco-laryngeal reflexes of 15 horses with no clinical signs of idiopathic laryngeal hemiplegia (ILH) were recorded using a video-endoscope. These 'slap test' responses were examined independently by 3 assessors. The horses were subsequently subjected to euthanasia and samples taken from the cricoarytenoideus lateralis (CAL) muscles for histopathological examination and assessment of denervation atrophy. Despite normal adductory responses, moderate to severe atrophy of the left CAL muscles was seen in 5 horses. The remaining horses had varying degrees of adductor myopathy, invariably worse in the left side of the larynx. The 'slap test' as performed in this study was therefore unable to differentiate between horses with moderate to severe muscle changes and those without, making it useless as a diagnostic test for adductor myopathy. The reason for the preservation in adductor function despite advanced histological atrophy of the muscle may lie in the degree of reinnervation found in the muscles.

  17. Three dimensional digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of the extinct marsupial giant Diprotodon optatum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The morphology and arrangement of the jaw adductor muscles in vertebrates reflects masticatory style and feeding processes, diet and ecology. However, gross muscle anatomy is rarely preserved in fossils and is, therefore, heavily dependent on reconstructions. An undeformed skull of the extinct marsupial, Diprotodon optatum, recovered from Pleistocene sediments at Bacchus Marsh in Victoria, represents the most complete and best preserved specimen of the species offering a unique opportunity to investigate functional anatomy. Computed tomography (CT) scans and digital reconstructions make it possible to visualise internal cranial anatomy and predict location and morphology of soft tissues, including muscles. This study resulted in a 3D digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of Diprotodon, revealing that the arrangement of muscles is similar to that of kangaroos and that the muscle actions were predominantly vertical. 3D digital muscle reconstructions provide considerable advantages over 2D reconstructions for the visualisation of the spatial arrangement of the individual muscles and the measurement of muscle properties (length, force vectors and volume). Such digital models can further be used to estimate muscle loads and attachment sites for biomechanical analyses. PMID:25165628

  18. Speech Intelligibility in Severe Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Brenda K.; Cannito, Michael P.; Murry, Thomas; Woodson, Gayle E.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared speech intelligibility in nondisabled speakers and speakers with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (Botox) injection. Standard speech samples were obtained from 10 speakers diagnosed with severe ADSD prior to and 1 month following Botox injection, as well as from 10 age- and gender-matched…

  19. Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus after wrist arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fortems, Y; Mawhinney, I; Lawrence, T; Trial, I A; Stanley, J K

    1995-06-01

    The first cases of impending rupture of the extensor pollicis longus after wrist arthroscopy are reported and the etiology is compared with extensor pollicis longus ruptures after nondisplaced or minimally displaced Colles fractures. Both cases were treated with extensor indices proprius to extensor pollicis longus transfer with good clinical results. PMID:7632309

  20. Evolutionary Trends in the Jaw Adductor Mechanics of Ornithischian Dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Nabavizadeh, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Jaw mechanics in ornithischian dinosaurs have been widely studied for well over a century. Most of these studies, however, use only one or few taxa within a given ornithischian clade as a model for feeding mechanics across the entire clade. In this study, mandibular mechanical advantages among 52 ornithischian genera spanning all subclades are calculated using 2D lever arm methods. These lever arm calculations estimate the effect of jaw shape and difference in adductor muscle line of action on relative bite forces along the jaw. Results show major instances of overlap between taxa in tooth positions at which there was highest mechanical advantage. A relatively low bite force is seen across the tooth row among thyreophorans (e.g., stegosaurs and ankylosaurs), with variation among taxa. A convergent transition occurs from a more evenly distributed bite force along the jaw in basal ornithopods and basal marginocephalians to a strong distal bite force in hadrosaurids and ceratopsids, respectively. Accordingly, adductor muscle vector angles show repeated trends from a mid-range caudodorsal orientation in basal ornithischians to a decrease in vector angles indicating more caudally oriented jaw movements in derived taxa (e.g., derived thyreophorans, basal ornithopods, lambeosaurines, pachycephalosaurs, and derived ceratopsids). Analyses of hypothetical jaw morphologies were also performed, indicating that both the coronoid process and lowered jaw joint increase moment arm length therefore increasing mechanical advantage of the jaw apparatus. Adaptive trends in craniomandibular anatomy show that ornithischians evolved more complex feeding apparatuses within different clades as well as morphological convergences between clades. PMID:26692539

  1. Saphenous and Infrapatellar Nerves at the Adductor Canal: Anatomy and Implications in Regional Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulou, Sofia; Anagnostis, George; Saranteas, Theodosios; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Paraskeuopoulos, Tilemachos

    2016-01-01

    Conflicting data exist regarding the anatomical relationship of the saphenous and infrapatellar nerves at the adductor canal and the location of the superior foramen of the canal. Therefore, the authors performed a cadaveric study to detail the relationship and course of the saphenous and infrapatellar nerves and the level of the superior foramen of the canal. The adductor canal and subsartorial compartment were dissected in 17 human cadavers. The distance between the superior foramen of the canal and the mid-distance (MD) between the base of the patella and the anterior superior iliac crest were measured; the course of the saphenous and infrapatellar nerves and the level of origin of the infrapatellar branch were detailed. In 13 of 17 specimens, the superior foramen of the adductor canal was distal to the MD (mean, 6.5 cm); in the remaining specimens, it was proximal to the MD. In 12 of 17 specimens, the infrapatellar branch exited the canal separately from the saphenous nerve; in the remaining specimens, it originated caudally to the canal. In all dissections, the infrapatellar branch had a constant course in close proximity to the saphenous nerve within the canal and between the sartorious muscle and femoral artery caudally to the canal. Most commonly, the superior foramen of the adductor canal is located caudally to the MD; the infrapatellar branch originates from the saphenous nerve within the canal and has a constant course in close proximity to the saphenous nerve. These observations should be considered for regional anesthesia techniques at the adductor canal.

  2. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review.

    PubMed

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  3. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review

    PubMed Central

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Summary Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  4. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Balius, Ramon; Pedret, Carles; Pacheco, Laura; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Vives, Joan; Escoda, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball. PMID:24198573

  5. Jar-opening challenges. Part 2: estimating the force-generating capacity of thumb muscles in healthy young adults during jar-opening tasks.

    PubMed

    Kuo, L C; Chang, J H; Lin, C F; Hsu, H Y; Ho, K Y; Su, F C

    2009-07-01

    This study discusses the force-generating capacity of thumb muscles during jar-opening tasks using two grip patterns: the power grip and the precision grip. This study develops a three-dimensional biomechanical model of the thumb to predict muscle forces in jar-opening activities based on external forces measured by a custom-designed jar device. Ten healthy subjects participated in the study. Each participant turned a jar lid of 66 mm diameter counterclockwise with maximal effort and preferred speed using both grip patterns. The average normal and tangential forces applied by the thumb to the jar lid show that the normal force is the primary contributive force for opening a jar. This normal force is approximately three times the tangential force. Muscular force-generating capacity measurements show that the major active muscles during a jar-opening activity for both grips include the flexor pollicis longus, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis, adductor pollicis, and opponens pollicis. The total muscle force ratios for the precision grip and power grip with respect to externally applied forces are 5.6 and 4.7 respectively. These ratios indicate that the power grip pattern produces less muscle force per unit of external applied load. The technique proposed in this study provides a proper apparatus and model for measuring three-dimensional loads and estimating the force-generating capacity of each muscle and tendon of the thumb during jar-opening tasks. PMID:19623911

  6. Activation-induced force enhancement in human adductor pollicis.

    PubMed

    Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter

    2009-10-01

    It has been known for a long time that the steady-state isometric force after muscle stretch is bigger than the corresponding force obtained in a purely isometric contraction for electrically stimulated and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Recent studies using sub-maximal voluntary contractions showed that force enhancement only occurred in a sub-group of subjects suggesting that force enhancement for sub-maximal voluntary contractions has properties different from those of electrically-induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Specifically, force enhancement for sub-maximal voluntary contractions may contain an activation-dependent component that is independent of muscle stretching. To address this hypothesis, we tested for force enhancement using (i) sub-maximal electrically-induced contractions and stretch and (ii) using various activation levels preceding an isometric reference contraction at 30% of MVC (no stretch). All tests were performed on human adductor pollicis muscles. Force enhancement following stretching was found for all subjects (n=10) and all activation levels (10%, 30%, and 60% of MVC) for electrically-induced contractions. In contrast, force enhancement at 30% of MVC, preceded by 6s of 10%, 60%, and 100% of MVC was only found in a sub-set of the subjects and only for the 60% and 100% conditions. This result suggests that there is an activation-dependent force enhancement for some subjects for sub-maximal voluntary contractions. This activation-dependent force enhancement was always smaller than the stretch-induced force enhancement obtained at the corresponding activation levels. Active muscle stretching increased the force enhancement in all subjects, independent whether they showed activation dependence or not. It appears that post-activation potentiation, and the associated phosphorylation of the myosin light chains, might account for the stretch-independent force enhancement observed here.

  7. The influence of changes in trunk and pelvic posture during single leg standing on hip and thigh muscle activation in a pain free population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thigh muscle injuries commonly occur during single leg loading tasks and patterns of muscle activation are thought to contribute to these injuries. The influence trunk and pelvis posture has on hip and thigh muscle activation during single leg stance is unknown and was investigated in a pain free population to determine if changes in body posture result in consistent patterns of changes in muscle activation. Methods Hip and thigh muscle activation patterns were compared in 22 asymptomatic, male subjects (20–45 years old) in paired functionally relevant single leg standing test postures: Anterior vs. Posterior Trunk Sway; Anterior vs. Posterior Pelvic Rotation; Left vs. Right Trunk Shift; and Pelvic Drop vs. Raise. Surface EMG was collected from eight hip and thigh muscles calculating Root Mean Square. EMG was normalized to an “upright standing” reference posture. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed along with associated F tests to determine if there were significant differences in muscle activation between paired test postures. Results In right leg stance, Anterior Trunk Sway (compared to Posterior Sway) increased activity in posterior sagittal plane muscles, with a concurrent deactivation of anterior sagittal plane muscles (p: 0.016 - <0.001). Lateral hip abductor muscles increased activation during Left Trunk Shift (compared to Right) (p :≤ 0.001). Lateral Pelvic Drop (compared to Raise) decreased activity in hip abductors and increased hamstring, adductor longus and vastus lateralis activity (p: 0.037 - <0.001). Conclusion Changes in both trunk and pelvic posture during single leg stance generally resulted in large, predictable changes in hip and thigh muscle activation in asymptomatic young males. Changes in trunk position in the sagittal plane and pelvis position in the frontal plane had the greatest effect on muscle activation. Investigation of these activation patterns in clinical populations such as hip and thigh muscle injuries may

  8. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  9. Abductor pollicis longus tendon division with swan neck thumb deformity.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, Balaji; Puthezhath, Kishore

    2012-08-01

    Swan neck thumb deformity can be caused by osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, tendon transfers and paralytic diseases. Abductor pollicis longus is one of the major stabilizing tendon of the carpometacarpal joint of thumb. To the best of our knowledge, swan neck thumb deformity owing to division of abductor pollicis longus tendon is rare. In this article, we describe a case of isolated division of abductor pollicis longus tendon presenting with swan-neck deformity of thumb and discuss the mechanism, management and outcome. The patient was treated by repair of the divided tendon using palmaris longus tendon graft. At approximately 107 weeks following treatment, the patient was having full range of thumb movement and the deformity completely disappeared. We also describe the unusual mechanism whereby an isolated division of abductor pollicis longus tendon results in swan neck thumb deformity. Level of clinical evidence IV. PMID:22825877

  10. Signal intensity of MR-images of thigh muscles following acute open- and closed chain kinetic knee extensor exercise - index of muscle use.

    PubMed

    Enocson, A G; Berg, H E; Vargas, R; Jenner, G; Tesch, P A

    2005-07-01

    Exercise-induced shifts in signal intensity (SI) of magnetic resonance (MR) images were examined to assess indirectly muscle use in closed- and open-chain knee extensor exercises. Eight men performed five sets of 8-12 repetitions in the leg press (LP) and the seated knee extension (KE) exercises at 50, 75 and 100%, respectively of the 5 x 10 repetition maximum (RM) load. Prior to exercise and after each load setting, images of the thigh were obtained. The increase in SI (Delta SI) of the quadriceps at 100% load was greater (P < 0.05) after KE (32.1 +/- 9.0%) than after LP (21.9 +/- 9.2%). Regardless of load, the four individual muscles of the quadriceps showed similar changes in SI after LP. The three vastii muscles showed comparable increases in SI after KE. M. rectus femoris showed greater (P < 0.05) Delta SI than the vastii muscles at 100%. Neither exercise produced increase in SI of mm. semimembranosus, semitendinosus, gracilis or biceps femoris. Mm. adductor magnus and longus showed increased (13.3 +/- 6.5%; P < 0.05) SI after LP, but not after KE, at 100% load. The present data also infer greater involvement of the quadriceps muscle in the open-chain knee extension than in the closed-chain leg press exercise. The results of the current investigation also indicate similar over-all use among the three vastii muscles in LP and KE, but differential m. rectus femoris use between the two exercises. This report extends the merits of the MR imaging technique as an aid to study individual muscle involvement in a particular exercise task. PMID:15918061

  11. Elbow joint adductor moment arm as an indicator of forelimb posture in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Hutchinson, John R

    2012-07-01

    Forelimb posture has been a controversial aspect of reconstructing locomotor behaviour in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods. This is partly owing to the qualitative and subjective nature of typical methods, which focus on bony articulations that are often ambiguous and unvalidated postural indicators. Here we outline a new, quantitatively based forelimb posture index that is applicable to a majority of extant tetrapods. By determining the degree of elbow joint adduction/abduction mobility in several tetrapods, the carpal flexor muscles were determined to also play a role as elbow adductors. Such adduction may play a major role during the stance phase in sprawling postures. This role is different from those of upright/sagittal and sloth-like creeping postures, which, respectively, depend more on elbow extensors and flexors. Our measurements of elbow muscle moment arms in 318 extant tetrapod skeletons (Lissamphibia, Synapsida and Reptilia: 33 major clades and 263 genera) revealed that sprawling, sagittal and creeping tetrapods, respectively, emphasize elbow adductor, extensor and flexor muscles. Furthermore, scansorial and non-scansorial taxa, respectively, emphasize flexors and extensors. Thus, forelimb postures of extinct tetrapods can be qualitatively classified based on our quantitative index. Using this method, we find that Triceratops (Ceratopsidae), Anhanguera (Pterosauria) and desmostylian mammals are categorized as upright/sagittally locomoting taxa.

  12. RESULTS OF ADDUCTORS MUSCLE TENOTOMY IN SPASTIC CEREBRAL PALSY

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmetti, Luiz Gabriel Betoni; Santos, Ruy Mesquita Maranhao; Mendonça, Rodrigo Góes Medea de; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Assumpçao, Rodrigo Montezuma César de; Fucs, Patricia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Radiographic evaluation of the evolution of hips that underwent soft-tissue release. Methods: This was a retrospective evaluation on 101 spastic cerebral palsy patients who underwent soft-tissue release between 1991 and 2006. Forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria: 23 boys and 21 girls; 34 diparetic and 10 quadriparetic. Functionally, 29 were non-walkers, five were able to walk at home and 10 were able to walk within the community. Reimers' index (RI) and the acetabular index (AI) were measured on pre and postoperative radiographs, with a minimum follow-up of three years. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.4 years. Results: The results were considered good if the RI had reduced, or had increased by less than 10%. This was found in 52% of this study. We observed a clear improvement in IR, along with worse results in patients with more than five years of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion: Soft-tissue release should be performed as early as possible, regardless of age, walking condition, clinical type, RI, AI or sex, and as soon as the patient clinically presents less than 30° abduction, because of the benefits relating to walking, prevention and treatment of subluxation, hygiene and pain relief. PMID:27022574

  13. The growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Helmi, C; Cracraft, J

    1977-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles of the chicken relative to the functional-biomechanical demands of increasing body size. The biceps femoris, a bipennate non-postural muscle, grew relatively faster in terms of wet and dry weight than did the parallel-fibred adductor superficialis or the unipennate adductor profundus, both postural muscles. All three muscles exhibited positive allometry (relative to body weight) in muscle length but only biceps femoris and adductor profundus showed positive allometry in cross sectional area adductor superficialis having isometric growth in this parameter. In biceps femoris and adductor superficialis the lengths of the longest and shortest fasciculi grew at equal rates, whereas in adductor profundus the shortest fasciculi grew faster than the longest. We conclude that muscle weight alone is an insufficient indicator of changing function in growing muscle. Hence, growth studies should include other functionally relevant parameters such as cross sectional area, which is proportional to the force-producing capabilities of the muscle, or fibre (fasciculus) length, which is indicative of the absolute amount of stretching or shortening that is possible and of the contraction velocity.

  14. The growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles in the chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Helmi, C; Cracraft, J

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles of the chicken relative to the functional-biomechanical demands of increasing body size. The biceps femoris, a bipennate non-postural muscle, grew relatively faster in terms of wet and dry weight than did the parallel-fibred adductor superficialis or the unipennate adductor profundus, both postural muscles. All three muscles exhibited positive allometry (relative to body weight) in muscle length but only biceps femoris and adductor profundus showed positive allometry in cross sectional area adductor superficialis having isometric growth in this parameter. In biceps femoris and adductor superficialis the lengths of the longest and shortest fasciculi grew at equal rates, whereas in adductor profundus the shortest fasciculi grew faster than the longest. We conclude that muscle weight alone is an insufficient indicator of changing function in growing muscle. Hence, growth studies should include other functionally relevant parameters such as cross sectional area, which is proportional to the force-producing capabilities of the muscle, or fibre (fasciculus) length, which is indicative of the absolute amount of stretching or shortening that is possible and of the contraction velocity. PMID:885779

  15. Unusual fibularis (peroneus) muscle.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Philip A

    2015-10-01

    Routine dissection has identified a previously unrecorded fibularis (peroneus) muscle in a 74-year-old male cadaver. The anomalous fibularis muscle was found lying immediately antero-medial to the fibularis longus (FL) muscle of the left leg. The anomalous muscle arose from the muscle belly of the FL in the proximal 1/2 of the leg. The muscle belly gave way to a long slender tendon that continued distally behind the lateral malleolus and inserted onto the superficial aspect of the inferior fibular retinaculum. The current finding and clinical significance are discussed.

  16. Anatomy and function of the thenar muscles.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Salil; Michelsen-Jost, Heidi

    2012-02-01

    The four thenar muscles make up the intrinsic muscles of the thumb. They include the abductor pollicis, adductor pollicis, opponens pollicis, and flexor pollicis brevis. Thumb motion is facilitated through the coordination of these intrinsic muscles. The thumb musculature dynamically allows for precision pinching ad power gripping. PMID:22117918

  17. Isolated Avulsion of Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus and Brachioradialis Origins: A Case Report and Surgical Repair Technique.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Dane; Hazel, Antony; Marra, Guido

    2015-10-01

    The mobile wad of the elbow provides a tremendous mechanical advantage with respect to elbow flexion and wrist extension. Injury to these structures causes significant upper extremity dysfunction. In this article, we report the case of a 31-year-old right hand-dominant man who sustained an isolated avulsion of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brachioradialis origins from the lateral epicondyle and lateral supracondylar ridge. We describe our diagnostic workup and present our surgical repair technique. The literature includes only 2 case reports of bony avulsion fracture of the origin of the brachioradialis and, up until now, no case reports of isolated avulsion of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brachioradialis origins. Given the biomechanics and anatomy of the dorsal mobile wad, we posit that our patient's injury occurred secondary to an overwhelming eccentric muscle contracture. The rarity of this injury led to a substantial delay in diagnosis. Because of the potential morbidity, surgical intervention is recommended.

  18. Vocal aging and adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Response to botulinum toxin injection

    PubMed Central

    Cannito, Michael P; Kahane, Joel C; Chorna, Lesya

    2008-01-01

    Aging of the larynx is characterized by involutional changes which alter its biomechanical and neural properties and create a biological environment that is different from younger counterparts. Illustrative anatomical examples are presented. This natural, non-disease process appears to set conditions which may influence the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection and our expectations for its success. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia, a type of laryngeal dystonia, is typically treated using botulinum toxin injections of the vocal folds in order to suppress adductory muscle spasms which are disruptive to production of speech and voice. A few studies have suggested diminished response to treatment in older patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This retrospective study provides a reanalysis of existing pre-to-post treatment data as function of age. Perceptual judgments of speech produced by 42 patients with ADSD were made by two panels of professional listeners with expertise in voice or fluency of speech. Results demonstrate a markedly reduced positive response to botulinum toxin treatment in the older patients. Perceptual findings are further elucidated by means of acoustic spectrography. Literature on vocal aging is reviewed to provide a specific set of biological mechanisms that best account for the observed interaction of botulinum toxin treatment with advancing age. PMID:18488884

  19. The Results of Adductor Magnus Tenodesis in Adolescents with Recurrent Patellar Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Malecki, Krzysztof; Fabis, Jaroslaw; Flont, Pawel; Niedzielski, Kryspin Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent dislocation of the patella is a common orthopaedic problem which occurs in about 44% of cases after first-time dislocation. In most cases of first-time patellar dislocation, the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) becomes damaged. Between 2010 and 2012, 33 children and adolescents (39 knees) with recurrent patellar dislocation were treated with MPFL reconstruction using the adductor magnus tendon. The aim of our study is to assess the effectiveness of this surgical procedure. The outcomes were evaluated functionally (Lysholm knee scale, the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale, and isokinetic examination) and radiographically (Caton index, sulcus angle, congruence angle, and patellofemoral angle). Four patients demonstrated redislocation with MPFL graft failure, despite the fact that patellar tracking was found to be normal before the injury, and the patients had not reported any symptoms. Statistically significant improvements in Lysholm and Kujala scales, in patellofemoral and congruence angle, were seen (P < 0.001). A statistically significant improvement in the peak torque of the quadriceps muscle and flexor was observed for 60°/sec and 180°/sec angular velocities (P = 0.01). Our results confirm the efficacy of MPFL reconstruction using the adductor magnus tendon in children and adolescents with recurrent patellar dislocation. PMID:25785271

  20. Peak torque, reaction time, and rate of torque development of hip abductors and adductors of older women.

    PubMed

    Morcelli, Mary Hellen; Rossi, Denise Martineli; Karuka, Aline Harumi; Crozara, Luciano Fernandes; Hallal, Camilla Zamfolini; Marques, Nise Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Mauro; Navega, Marcelo Tavella

    2016-01-01

    Impaired muscle function at the hip has been implicated to be a major factor related to falls in older adults. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the rate of torque development (RTD), reaction time (RT), and peak torque (PT) of hip abductors and hip adductors in young women (YW), older women nonfallers (ONF), and older women fallers (OF). Eighteen YW and 44 older women divided among OF (n = 20) and ONF (n = 24) performed maximum isometric hip abductor and adduction contractions on a dynamometer. YW had 40% greater PT and 61.5% greater RTD for hip abductors than the ONF. Compared with OF, YW had 47.5% greater PT and 68% greater RTD. OF showed less RTD at 150 ms (31%) and 200 ms (34.5%) than ONF for hip abductors. PT of hip adductors was 52% greater in YW than in the two older groups, whereas RTD was 71% greater. OF showed less RTD than ONF for hip abductors according to standardized effect sizes. No RT differences were observed between the three groups. We conclude that older women (OF and ONF) have less strength and ability to develop force rapidly than YW for hip abductors and adductors. Low hip strength and slowed force development in ONF during hip abduction may increase fall risk in older women.

  1. Disorders of the Flexor Hallucis Longus and Os Trigonum.

    PubMed

    Rungprai, Chamnanni; Tennant, Joshua N; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-10-01

    Os trigonum syndrome with disease of the flexor hallucis longus tendon, so-called stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, is a common cause of posterior ankle impingement. Conservative treatment is the recommended first line of treatment, with secondary treatment options of either open or arthroscopic os trigonum excision with flexor hallucis longus retinaculum release. The arthroscopic approaches have gained popularity in the past decade because of less scarring, less postoperative pain, minimal overall morbidity, and earlier return to activities. However, comprehensive understanding of the anatomy of the posterior ankle is crucial to warrant successful outcomes and minimizing complications. PMID:26409593

  2. Disorders of the Flexor Hallucis Longus and Os Trigonum.

    PubMed

    Rungprai, Chamnanni; Tennant, Joshua N; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-10-01

    Os trigonum syndrome with disease of the flexor hallucis longus tendon, so-called stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, is a common cause of posterior ankle impingement. Conservative treatment is the recommended first line of treatment, with secondary treatment options of either open or arthroscopic os trigonum excision with flexor hallucis longus retinaculum release. The arthroscopic approaches have gained popularity in the past decade because of less scarring, less postoperative pain, minimal overall morbidity, and earlier return to activities. However, comprehensive understanding of the anatomy of the posterior ankle is crucial to warrant successful outcomes and minimizing complications.

  3. Clinical prevalence of palmaris longus agenesis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yammine, Kaissar

    2013-09-01

    We report a systematic review and a proportion meta-analysis of prevalence studies evaluating the prevalence of palmaris longus agenesis (PLA) in the literature. The overall PLA rate was defined to be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were rates of PLA in relation to ethnicity, laterality, side, gender, age, and hand dominance. We identified 26 articles which met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses showed an overall PLA pooled rate of 20.25%, higher than the commonly reported overall rate of 15%. Our results also showed significantly lower pooled rates in Africans (11.3%) and East Asians (4.5%) when compared to Arab Middle Eastern population (41.7%). A subgroup analysis of the African group showed a pooled rate of 2.71%, the lowest, in the East and South East African population. The pooled rate was 26.3% among Caucasians, 26.16% among South and Southeast Asians and 34.13% among Turkish. In discordance with the literature, PLA was statistically more predominant on the right side. No significant differences in PLA rates were found for laterality, gender, the combination of gender and side or the combination of gender and laterality. The lowest rate of PLA found in East and South East African populations might be indicative of the subsequent phylogenetic degeneration of the palmaris longus muscle in modern humans after the "Out of Africa" migration.

  4. Treatment of Progressive First Metatarsophalangeal Hallux Valgus Deformity: A Biomechanically Based Muscle-Strengthening Approach.

    PubMed

    Glasoe, Ward M

    2016-07-01

    Synopsis Hallux valgus is a progressive deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that changes the anatomy and biomechanics of the foot. To date, surgery is the only treatment to correct this deformity, though the recurrence rate is as high as 15%. This clinical commentary provides instruction in a strengthening approach for treatment of hallux valgus deformity, by addressing the moment actions of 5 muscles identified as having the ability to counter the hallux valgus process. Unlike surgery, muscle strengthening does not correct the deformity, but, instead, reduces the pain and associated gait impairments that affect the mobility of people who live with the disorder. This review is organized in 4 parts. Part 1 defines the terms of foot motion and posture. Part 2 details the anatomy and biomechanics, and describes how the foot is changed with deformity. Part 3 details the muscles targeted for strengthening; the intrinsics being the abductor hallucis, adductor hallucis, and the flexor hallucis brevis; the extrinsics being the tibialis posterior and fibularis longus. Part 4 instructs the exercise and reviews the related literature. Instructions are given for the short-foot, the toe-spread-out, and the heel-raise exercises. The routine may be performed by almost anyone at home and may be adopted into physical therapist practice, with intent to strengthen the foot muscles as an adjunct to almost any protocol of care, but especially for the treatment of hallux valgus deformity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):596-605. Epub 6 Jun 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6704. PMID:27266887

  5. Effects of microgravity on muscle and cerebral cortex: a suggested interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Wu, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.

    The ``slow'' antigravity muscle adductor longus was studied in rats after 14 days of spaceflight (SF). The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light and electron microscopy revealed myofiber atrophy, segmental necrosis and regenerative myofibers. Regenerative myofibers were N-CAM immunoreactive (N-CAM-IR). The neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degenerative changes, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. No alterations of muscle spindles was seen either by light or electron microscopy. These observations suggest that muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight. In a separate study, GABA immunoreactivity (GABA-IR) was evaluated at the level of the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension (``simulated'' microgravity). A reduction in number of GABA-immunoreactive cells with respect to the control animals was observed in layer Va and Vb. GABA-IR terminals were also reduced in the same layers, particularly those terminals surrounding the soma and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer Vb. On the basis of previous morphological and behavioral studies of the neuromuscular system after spaceflight and hindlimb suspension it is suggested that after limb unloading there are alterations of afferent signaling and feedback information from intramuscular receptors to the cerebral cortex due to modifications in the reflex organization of hindlimb muscle groups. We propose that the changes observed in GABA immunoreactivity of cells and terminals is an expression of changes in their modulatory activity to compensate for the alterations in the afferent information.

  6. Robot-assisted removal of a lymphocyst causing severe neuralgic pain and adductor atrophy.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Giorgio; Borgfeldt, Christer; Wallengren, Nils-Olof; Persson, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Following a robot-assisted radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for early-stage cervical cancer, a 53-year-old woman was diagnosed with a 50-mm right-sided pelvic lymphocyst by the use of vaginal ultrasonography. She gradually developed intermittent increasingly severe neuralgic pain mimicking a meralgia paresthetica. A neurolysis was proposed by the neurosurgeons. Awaiting this intervention, a pelvic MRI revealed a partial atrophy of the ipsilateral adductor muscles and a probable entrapment of the obturator nerve by the lymphocyst as an alternative cause of the pain. Using a four-arm da Vinci-S-HD robot the lymphocyst, located deep in the right obturator fossa and surrounding the obturator nerve, was completely removed, sparing the partially atrophic obturator nerve. No bleeding occurred. The surgery time was 95 min. At 10 months' follow-up the patient was relieved of her pain with no signs of a new lymphocyst. PMID:27628122

  7. Historical approaches to the treatment of Adductor-Type Spasmodic Dysphonia (ADSD): review and tutorial.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Erin J; Sapienza, Christine M

    2003-01-01

    Adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) is a voice disorder of uncertain, though likely neurogenic origin. Symptoms of the disorder include mild to profound "strain and strangle" sensations during voiced speech tasks that, in the most severe form, are physically and psychologically debilitating. Over the years, treatment approaches have evolved from behavioral attempts at voice modification, to surgical and, most recently, pharmacological treatments involving partial and temporary paralysis of muscle fibers within the larynx following injection of botulinum toxin or Botox. The most current research hints at the potential benefits of a multi-faceted approach to symptom management, combining behavioral with pharmacological treatments. The following is intended as a review and tutorial of treatment approaches for ADSD. The tutorial is intended for practicing clinical professionals with an interest in the treatment of neurogenic disorders of voice and speech.

  8. Comparison of lower limb muscle activation with ballet movements (releve and demi-plie) and general movements (heel rise and squat) in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Joong-Hwi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to demonstrate therapeutic grounds for rehabilitation exercise approach by comparing and analyzing muscular activities of Ballet movements: the releve movement (RM) and the demi-plie movement (DM). [Methods] Four types of movements such as RM vs. heel rise (HM) and DM vs. squat movement (SM) were randomized and applied in 30 healthy male and female individuals while measuring 10-s lower limb muscular activities (gluteus maximus [GMa], gluteus medius [GMe], rectus femoris [RF], adductor longus [AL], medial gastrocnemius [MG], and lateral gastrocnemius [LG]) by using surface electromyography (EMG). [Results] Significant differences were found in GMa, GMe, AL and MG activities for DM and in all of the six muscles for RM, in particular when the two groups were compared (RM vs HM and DM vs SM). [Conclusion] The RM and DM have a greater effect on lower limb muscular force activities compared to HM and SM and could be recommended as clinical therapeutic exercises for lower limb muscle enhancement. PMID:26957762

  9. Electromyography of crural and pedal muscles in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella): Implications for hallucal grasping behavior and first metatarsal morphology in euprimates.

    PubMed

    Patel, Biren A; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T

    2015-04-01

    A hypertrophied peroneal process of the hallucal metatarsal, as seen in prosimians, has been linked to a powerful hallucal grasp via the contraction of the peroneus longus (PL) muscle causing adduction of the big toe. Electromyography (EMG) studies of lemurs and lorises, however, have concluded that PL is not substantially recruited during small branch locomotion when powerful hallucal grasping is needed most, and have suggested that there is no link between PL activity and peroneal process size. If this is correct, then we should also observe no change in PL activity when strong hallucal grasping is required in anthropoids because they have a relatively smaller peroneal process for PL to act on. This study addresses this hypothesis by evaluating EMG of crural and pedal muscles in capuchins (Sapajus apella) walking on substrates of different diameters. During locomotion on the narrow substrate (3.1 cm) that should elicit a strong hallucal grasp, we observed an intense increased recruitment of adductor hallucis, but only sustained, rather than markedly increased, PL activity. This indicates that PL is not involved in powerful hallucal grasping in capuchins, and confirms similar findings previously documented in prosimians. We continue to reject the hypothesis that a large peroneal process is an adaptation for powerful grasping and further argue that its morphology may not be related to PL's ability to adduct the hallux at all. In addition, the morphology of the peroneal process should not be used to assess hallucal grasping performance in fossils. PMID:25693754

  10. Comparison of lower limb muscle activation with ballet movements (releve and demi-plie) and general movements (heel rise and squat) in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Joong-Hwi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to demonstrate therapeutic grounds for rehabilitation exercise approach by comparing and analyzing muscular activities of Ballet movements: the releve movement (RM) and the demi-plie movement (DM). [Methods] Four types of movements such as RM vs. heel rise (HM) and DM vs. squat movement (SM) were randomized and applied in 30 healthy male and female individuals while measuring 10-s lower limb muscular activities (gluteus maximus [GMa], gluteus medius [GMe], rectus femoris [RF], adductor longus [AL], medial gastrocnemius [MG], and lateral gastrocnemius [LG]) by using surface electromyography (EMG). [Results] Significant differences were found in GMa, GMe, AL and MG activities for DM and in all of the six muscles for RM, in particular when the two groups were compared (RM vs HM and DM vs SM). [Conclusion] The RM and DM have a greater effect on lower limb muscular force activities compared to HM and SM and could be recommended as clinical therapeutic exercises for lower limb muscle enhancement. PMID:26957762

  11. “Target” and “Sandwich” Signs in Thigh Muscles have High Diagnostic Values for Collagen VI-related Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun; Zheng, Yi-Ming; Jin, Su-Qin; Yi, Jun-Fei; Liu, Xiu-Juan; Lyn, He; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Jiang-Xi; Yuan, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Collagen VI-related myopathies are autosomal dominant and recessive hereditary myopathies, mainly including Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and Bethlem myopathy (BM). Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to diagnosis muscular disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of thigh muscles MRI for collagen VI-related myopathies. Methods: Eleven patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies were enrolled in this study. MRI of the thigh muscles was performed in all patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies and in 361 patients with other neuromuscular disorders (disease controls). T1-weighted images were used to assess fatty infiltration of the muscles using a modified Mercuri's scale. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the MRI features of collagen VI-related myopathies. The relationship between fatty infiltration of muscles and specific collagen VI gene mutations was also investigated. Results: Eleven patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies included six UCMD patients and five BM patients. There was no significant difference between UCMD and BM patients in the fatty infiltration of each thigh muscle except sartorius (P = 0.033); therefore, we combined the UCMD and BM data. Mean fatty infiltration scores were 3.1 and 3.0 in adductor magnus and gluteus maximus, while the scores were 1.3, 1.3, and 1.5 in gracilis, adductor longus, and sartorius, respectively. A “target” sign in rectus femoris (RF) was present in seven cases, and a “sandwich” sign in vastus lateralis (VL) was present in ten cases. The “target” and “sandwich” signs had sensitivities of 63.6% and 90.9% and specificities of 97.3% and 96.9% for the diagnosis of collagen VI-related myopathies, respectively. Fatty infiltration scores were 2.0–3.0 in seven patients with mutations in the triple-helical domain, and 1.0–1.5 in three of four patients with

  12. Stenosing synovitis of the extensor pollicis longus tendon.

    PubMed

    Kardashian, George; Vara, Alexander D; Miller, Stephen J; Miki, Roberto A; Jose, Jean

    2011-06-01

    There are only a few published cases of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tenosynovitis in patients without rheumatoid arthritis. Even less common are cases of stenosing tenosynovitis of the EPL associated with triggering. This article presents 2 cases of EPL stenosing tenosynovitis with triggering of the thumb in the area of Lister's tubercle and addresses how to treat them. PMID:21636022

  13. Scapholunate stabilization with dynamic extensor carpi radialis longus tendon transfer.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Steven L; Freeland, Alan E

    2010-12-01

    Dynamic extensor carpi radialis longus tendon transfer to the distal pole of the scaphoid acts synchronously and synergistically with wrist motion to restore the slider crank mechanism of the scaphoid after scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) injury. The procedure is designed to simulate a hypothetical dorsal radioscaphoid ligament that more closely approximates the normal viscoelastic forces acting on the scaphoid throughout all phases of wrist motion than does the static checkrein effect and motion limitations of capsulodesis or tenodesis. Extensor carpi radialis longus transfer may be independently sufficient to support normal or near-normal scapholunate and midcarpal kinematics and prevent further injury propagation in patients with partial SLIL tears and dynamic scapholunate instability. Extensor carpi radialis longus transfer alone may improve carpal congruity in patients with static scapholunate instability, but SLIL and dorsal lunate ligament repair or reconstruction is essential for favorable durable outcomes. Extensor carpi radialis longus transfer offers a simple and reasonable alternative to capsulodesis or tenodesis to support these ligament repairs or reconstructions, does not require intercarpal fixation, and allows rehabilitation to proceed expeditiously at approximately 1 month after surgery. PMID:21134618

  14. Reduction-oxidation state and protein degradation in skeletal muscle of fasted and refed rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagan, Julie M.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1986-01-01

    Redox state and protein degradation were measured in isolated muscles of fasted (up to 10 d) and refed (up to 4 d) 7- to 14-wk-old rats. Protein degradation in the extensor digitorum longus muscle, but not in the soleus muscle, was greater in the fasted rats than in weight-matched muscle from fed rats. The NAD couple was more oxidized in incubated and fresh extensor digitorum longus muscles and in some incubated soleus muscles of fasted rats than in weight-matched muscle from fed rats. In the extensor digitorum longus muscle of refed or prolonged fasted rats, protein degradation was slower and the NAD couple was more reduced than in the fed state. Therefore, oxidation of the NAD couple was associated with increased muscle breakdown during fasting, whereas reduction of the NAD couple was associated with muscle conservation and deposition.

  15. Allograft reconstruction of peroneus longus and brevis tendons tears arising from a single muscular belly. Case report and surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Manuel J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-03-01

    Anatomic variants of the peroneal tendons may cause tendon disorders. Moreover, there is a lack of evidence on how to address chronic tendon pathology when a variant of the peroneal tendons is causing the patient's symptoms. We present a patient with an uncommon peroneal muscle presentation: a single muscular belly dividing into both the peroneus longus and brevis tendons. After extensive debridement of tendinopathic tissue, primary repair or tenodesis was not possible; therefore a unique solution for this problem was performed, reconstructing both peroneal tendons using a semitendinosus allograft.

  16. Differential regulation of the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes with skeletal muscle type in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kimura, Sayaka; Kitashiro, Ayana; Tsuchii, Nami; Tsuchihashi, Tatsuya; Inui, Mariko; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    The regulatory mechanisms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are known to differ among skeletal muscle types in mammals. For example, glycolytic muscles prefer glucose as an energy source, whereas oxidative muscles prefer fatty acids (FA). We herein demonstrated differences in the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the pectoralis major (a glycolytic twitch muscle), adductor superficialis (an oxidative twitch muscle), and adductor profound (a tonic muscle) of 14-day-old chicks. Under ad libitum feeding conditions, the mRNA levels of muscle type phosphofructokinase-1 were markedly lower in the adductor superficialis muscle, suggesting that basal glycolytic activity is very low in this type of muscle. In contrast, high mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36) in the adductor superficialis muscle suggest that FA uptake is high in this type of muscle. The mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) were significantly higher in the adductor profound muscle than in other muscles, suggesting that basal lipolytic activity is high in this type of muscle. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor δ and CPT1b were significantly increased in the adductor superficialis muscle, but not in other muscles, after 24h of fasting. Therefore, the availability of FA in the oxidative twitch muscles in growing chickens appears to be upregulated by fasting. Our results suggest that lipid metabolism-related genes are upregulated under both basal and fasting conditions in the adductor superficialis in growing chickens. PMID:26188321

  17. Differential regulation of the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes with skeletal muscle type in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kimura, Sayaka; Kitashiro, Ayana; Tsuchii, Nami; Tsuchihashi, Tatsuya; Inui, Mariko; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    The regulatory mechanisms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are known to differ among skeletal muscle types in mammals. For example, glycolytic muscles prefer glucose as an energy source, whereas oxidative muscles prefer fatty acids (FA). We herein demonstrated differences in the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the pectoralis major (a glycolytic twitch muscle), adductor superficialis (an oxidative twitch muscle), and adductor profound (a tonic muscle) of 14-day-old chicks. Under ad libitum feeding conditions, the mRNA levels of muscle type phosphofructokinase-1 were markedly lower in the adductor superficialis muscle, suggesting that basal glycolytic activity is very low in this type of muscle. In contrast, high mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36) in the adductor superficialis muscle suggest that FA uptake is high in this type of muscle. The mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) were significantly higher in the adductor profound muscle than in other muscles, suggesting that basal lipolytic activity is high in this type of muscle. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor δ and CPT1b were significantly increased in the adductor superficialis muscle, but not in other muscles, after 24h of fasting. Therefore, the availability of FA in the oxidative twitch muscles in growing chickens appears to be upregulated by fasting. Our results suggest that lipid metabolism-related genes are upregulated under both basal and fasting conditions in the adductor superficialis in growing chickens.

  18. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef.

    PubMed

    Nanami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing). The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight) defined as the grazing ability index (GAI). There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni). Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate) was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests the

  19. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing). The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight) defined as the grazing ability index (GAI). There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni). Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate) was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests the

  20. [Abnormal adductor movement of the vocal cords in spasmodic dysphonia].

    PubMed

    Shibusawa, M

    1993-04-01

    Adductor movement of the vocal cords in initial/ke/phonation was recorded using a laryngeal fiberscope, CCD camera, and videocassette recorder. Three patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (SD), a 53 year old male and 48 and 52 year old females, and 7 normal volunteers participated in this study. During the examination, the subject sat on a chair holding a microphone about 20 cm away from his or her lips. A laryngeal fiberscope was inserted through either side of the nostril. The tip of the fiberscope was positioned just caudal to the tip of the epiglottis to get a complete view of both sides of the vocal cords. The examiner told the subject to make the speech sound/ke/repeatedly, and to insert a sufficient inspiratory period between each phonation. The vocal cord images were recorded at 30 frames per second and printed successively from several frames ahead of the beginning of adductor movement to the frame of initial adjustment of the membranous part of the vocal cords following a time code indicator. The tips of both sides of the vocal processes and anterior commissure were marked, then, scanned and transported to a personal computer. An imaginary line connecting the vocal process and anterior commissure was drawn on the screen of the computer, which was done on both sides of the vocal cords. Then, an angle made by the two lines was measured in degrees and stored. The time and speed of adductor movement varied among subjects. Normal subjects, however, never failed to finish making the explosive sound in /ke/ before initial vocal cord adjustment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The dependence of force enhancement on activation in human adductor pollicis.

    PubMed

    Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter

    2006-09-01

    It has been well recognized that the steady-state isometric force after active muscle/fiber stretch is greater than the corresponding isometric force for electrically stimulated muscles and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). However, recent evidence obtained for sub-MVC suggests that force enhancement properties are different from those observed for electrically induced and MVC. Specifically, it appears that force enhancement is activation-dependent and that there is a subject-specific threshold for force enhancement in sub-MVC. To address these suggestions, the relationship between force enhancement and voluntary activation during stretch was investigated in 11 healthy subjects. Human adductor pollicis muscles were studied and force enhancement was measured while muscle activation during the steady-state isometric phase was controlled at a level of 30% of MVC. In order to study the effects of activation on force enhancement, subjects performed stretch contractions at 0, 10, 30, 60, and 100% of maximal voluntary effort while the steady-state isometric force after stretch, obtained at 30% of activation in all cases, was compared to the corresponding values measured in the isometric reference contractions. There was no force enhancement if muscle stretching occurred passively but all subjects showed force enhancement when muscle stretching occurred at maximal voluntary effort. When increasing the level of activation during the stretch phase, force enhancement increased, and the number of subjects who showed force enhancement increased as well. We conclude from these results that force enhancement during voluntary contractions is activation-dependent with a threshold that is subject-specific.

  2. Entrapment of the flexor hallucis longus tendon following ankle arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Keith, Troy; Robinson, Andrew H N

    2016-03-01

    Impingement following arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis has not been reported in the literature previously. We present a case report of a 68-year-old male 9 months following an uncomplicated arthroscopic ankle fusion presenting with persistent posteromedial ankle pain. Flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon impingement resulting from a prominent os trigonum was identified. This was successfully treated utilising hindfoot endoscopy with excision of the os trigonum and FHL release.

  3. Flexor Digitorum Accessorius Longus: Importance of Posterior Ankle Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Batista, Jorge Pablo; Del Vecchio, Jorge Javier; Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy for the posterior region of the ankle through two portals is becoming more widespread for the treatment of a large number of conditions which used to be treated with open surgery years ago. The tendon of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) travels along an osteofibrous tunnel between the posterolateral and posteromedial tubercles of the talus. Chronic inflammation of this tendon may lead to painful stenosing tenosynovitis. The aim of this report is to describe two cases depicting an accessory tendon which is an anatomical variation of the flexor hallucis longus in patients with posterior friction syndrome due to posterior ankle impingement and associated with a posteromedial osteochondral lesion of the talus. The anatomical variation (FDAL) described was a finding during an endoscopy of the posterior region of the ankle, and we have spared it by sectioning the superior flexor retinaculum only. The accessory flexor digitorum longus is an anatomical variation and should be taken into account when performing an arthroscopy of the posterior region of the ankle. We recommend this treatment on this type of injury although we admit this does not make a definite conclusion. PMID:26060592

  4. Flexor Digitorum Accessorius Longus: Importance of Posterior Ankle Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Jorge Pablo; del Vecchio, Jorge Javier; Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy for the posterior region of the ankle through two portals is becoming more widespread for the treatment of a large number of conditions which used to be treated with open surgery years ago. The tendon of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) travels along an osteofibrous tunnel between the posterolateral and posteromedial tubercles of the talus. Chronic inflammation of this tendon may lead to painful stenosing tenosynovitis. The aim of this report is to describe two cases depicting an accessory tendon which is an anatomical variation of the flexor hallucis longus in patients with posterior friction syndrome due to posterior ankle impingement and associated with a posteromedial osteochondral lesion of the talus. The anatomical variation (FDAL) described was a finding during an endoscopy of the posterior region of the ankle, and we have spared it by sectioning the superior flexor retinaculum only. The accessory flexor digitorum longus is an anatomical variation and should be taken into account when performing an arthroscopy of the posterior region of the ankle. We recommend this treatment on this type of injury although we admit this does not make a definite conclusion. PMID:26060592

  5. Monitoring Murine Skeletal Muscle Function for Muscle Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Chady H.; Li, Dejia; Duan, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    The primary function of skeletal muscle is to generate force. Muscle force production is compromised in various forms of acquired and/or inherited muscle diseases. An important goal of muscle gene therapy is to recover muscle strength. Genetically engineered mice and spontaneous mouse mutants are readily available for preclinical muscle gene therapy studies. In this chapter, we outlined the methods commonly used for measuring murine skeletal muscle function. These include ex vivo and in situ analysis of the contractile profile of a single intact limb muscle (the extensor digitorium longus for ex vivo assay and the tibialis anterior muscle for in situ assay), grip force analysis, and downhill treadmill exercise. Force measurement in a single muscle is extremely useful for pilot testing of new gene therapy protocols by local gene transfer. Grip force and treadmill assessments offer body-wide evaluation following systemic muscle gene therapy. PMID:21194022

  6. Bone Scanning in the Adductor Insertion Avulsion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Madhuri Shimpi

    2013-01-01

    A thigh splint (adductor insertion avulsion syndrome) is a relatively uncommon diagnosis analogous to shin splints. This article reports a 19-year-old female patient NOT a regular athlete who presented with groin pain. Physical examination was non-specific; magnetic resonance imaging pelvis did not reveal any abnormality. Patient referred for whole body bone scan, especially to locate any abnormality in the spine. This study highlights the role of whole body bone scan in the evaluation of groin pain and importance of evaluation of whole lower extremity. PMID:25126001

  7. Scallops show that muscle metabolic capacities reflect locomotor style and morphology.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Isabelle; Guderley, Helga E

    2014-01-01

    Although all scallops swim using their adductor muscle to close their valves, scallop species differ considerably in how they use their muscle during escape responses, in parallel with the striking interspecific differences in shell morphology. This provides an excellent opportunity to study links between muscle metabolic capacities and animal performance. We found that the capacity for anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic metabolism, as well as phosphoarginine levels in the phasic adductor muscle, differ with escape response strategy. Phosphoarginine contents were high in species that rely on phasic contractions (Amusium balloti, Placopecten magellanicus, and Pecten fumatus). Arginine kinase activities reflect reliance on rapid initial bursts of phasic contractions. Scallops that maintain their valves in a closed position for prolonged periods (P. fumatus, Mimachlamys asperrima, and Crassadoma gigantea) have high activities of enzymes of anaerobic glycolysis in their phasic adductor muscle. Myosin ATPase activity was lower in the nonswimming scallop, C. gigantea, than in swimming scallops. The different patterns and roles of swimming are reflected in interspecific differences in the biochemical attributes of the phasic adductor muscle. These patterns suggest coevolution of muscle metabolic capacities, patterns of adductor muscle use, and shell morphology in scallops. PMID:24642541

  8. Partial peroneus longus tendon rupture in professional basketball players: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Mitchell E; Selesnick, F Harlan; Murphy, Brian J

    2002-12-01

    Partial tears of the peroneal tendons are rare. Partial longitudinal tears of the peroneus longus tendon are even more rare. We report on 2 professional basketball players who had partial peroneus longus tendon tears beneath the cuboid. A literature review and discussion of treatment is included.

  9. Subcutaneous rupture of the flexor hallucis longus tendon: a case report.

    PubMed

    Noda, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Ichiro; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Hagio, Tomonobu; Naito, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that rupture of the flexor hallucis longus tendon can be associated with open injuries and that closed rupture of the flexor hallucis longus tendon is rare. Tendon injuries of the foot can occur secondary to direct, indirect, or repetitive injury. Repetitive tendon injuries can cause tendinitis or stenosing tenosynovitis. Tendinitis is associated with internal tendon injury that can present with tendon thickening, mucinoid degeneration, nodule development, or in situ partial tears. Stenosing tenosynovitis is the development of tendon adhesions within the tendon sheath that interfere with tendon gliding, known as trigger toe. The flexor hallucis longus tendon is susceptible to injury along its entire course. A total of 35 cases of complete or partial closed ruptures of the flexor hallucis longus tendon have been reported. We present the case of complete subcutaneous rupture of the flexor hallucis longus tendon associated with trauma at the proximal phalangeal head. PMID:22153296

  10. Absence of the flexor digitorum longus tendon: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Magra, Merzesh; Taqvi, Syed; Cooper, Robert; Blundell, Chris M; Davies, Mark B

    2012-11-01

    Flexor digitorum longus (FDL) is the primary flexor of the lateral four toes. It is a reliable source of tendon for transfer surgery. We present a case whereby a patient who required a reconstruction for adult acquired flatfoot deformity using FDL as a dynamic structure for transfer was found to have an absent FDL tendon at the time of operation, necessitating the use of flexor hallucis longus (FHL) instead. This unusual finding prompted us to investigate the frequency of absence of the FDL tendon. We reviewed our hospital MRI database of foot and ankle images specifically looking for patients with absence of this tendon. After randomization, 756 images were reviewed independently by two surgeons and a consultant musculoskeletal radiologist. No instances of an absent FDL tendon were identified. In conclusion, the frequency of absence of the FDL tendon is less than 1 in 750. Surgeons who require FDL for tendon transfer surgery need not image the foot preoperatively to anticipate the need for the use of FHL as an alternative. PMID:22334461

  11. Changes in Adductor Strength After Competition in Academy Rugby Union Players.

    PubMed

    Roe, Gregory A B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben L; Read, Dale B; Weakley, Jonathon J; Darrall-Jones, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    This study determined the magnitude of change in adductor strength after a competitive match in academy rugby union players and examined the relationship between locomotive demands of match-play and changes in postmatch adductor strength. A within-subject repeated measures design was used. Fourteen academy rugby union players (age, 17.4 ± 0.8 years; height, 182.7 ± 7.6 cm; body mass, 86.2 ± 11.6 kg) participated in the study. Each player performed 3 maximal adductor squeezes at 45° of hip flexion before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hours postmatch. Global positioning system was used to assess locomotive demands of match-play. Trivial decreases in adductor squeeze scores occurred immediately (-1.3 ± 2.5%; effect size [ES] = -0.11 ± 0.21; likely, 74%) and 24 hours after match (-0.7 ± 3%; ES = -0.06 ± 0.25; likely, 78%), whereas a small but substantial increase occurred at 48 hours (3.8 ± 1.9%; ES = 0.32 ± 0.16; likely, 89%) before reducing to trivial at 72 hours after match (3.1 ± 2.2%; ES = 0.26 ± 0.18; possibly, 72%). Large individual variation in adductor strength was observed at all time points. The relationship between changes in adductor strength and distance covered at sprinting speed (VO2max ≥ 81%) was large immediately postmatch (p = 0.056, r = -0.521), moderate at 24 hours (p = 0.094, r = -0.465), and very large at 48 hours postmatch (p = 0.005, r = -0.707). Players who cover greater distances sprinting may suffer greater adductor fatigue in the first 48 hours after competition. The assessment of adductor strength using the adductor squeeze test should be considered postmatch to identify players who may require additional rest before returning to field-based training.

  12. Assessment of muscle mass and strength in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bonetto, Andrea; Andersson, Daniel C; Waning, David L

    2015-01-01

    Muscle weakness is an important phenotype of many diseases that is linked to impaired locomotion and increased mortality. The force that a muscle can generate is determined predominantly by muscle size, fiber type and the excitation–contraction coupling process. Here we describe methods for the histological assessment of whole muscle to determine fiber cross-sectional area and fiber type, determination of changes in myocyte size using C2C12 cells, in vivo functional tests and measurement of contractility in dissected whole muscles. The extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles are ideally suited for whole-muscle contractility, and dissection of these muscles is described. PMID:26331011

  13. Anatomic study of the abductor pollicis longus: a source for grafting material of the hand.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Elena; Barco, Raul; Bullón, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    Interposition grafting material is used frequently to treat osteoarthritis of the base of the thumb or tendinous and ligamentous injuries of the hand. The observation of duplicated tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the hand prompted us to explore the possibility of using the accessory abductor pollicis longus (AAPL) tendon as grafting material. Based on dissections of 78 cadaveric upper limbs, we describe the number of tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the hand, the number of muscle bellies, their innervation, their insertion site, and the tendon dimensions to determine whether the AAPL can be considered a true tendon. The AAPL was present in 85% of the hands. Average length, width, and thickness (in millimeters) of the APL were of 69.3, 5.2, and 2.1, respectively. Average length, width, and thickness (in millimeters) of the AAPL were of 69.2, 3.3, and 1.6, respectively. No differences in dimension of the tendons were found between the APL and the AAPL. The dimensions of the tendinous portion of the AAPL are similar to those of the APL and can be considered a true tendon. When present, the AAPL is a suitable source of local grafting material.

  14. Anatomic Study of the Abductor Pollicis Longus: A Source for Grafting Material of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Barco, Raul; Bullón, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Interposition grafting material is used frequently to treat osteoarthritis of the base of the thumb or tendinous and ligamentous injuries of the hand. The observation of duplicated tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the hand prompted us to explore the possibility of using the accessory abductor pollicis longus (AAPL) tendon as grafting material. Based on dissections of 78 cadaveric upper limbs, we describe the number of tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the hand, the number of muscle bellies, their innervation, their insertion site, and the tendon dimensions to determine whether the AAPL can be considered a true tendon. The AAPL was present in 85% of the hands. Average length, width, and thickness (in millimeters) of the APL were of 69.3, 5.2, and 2.1, respectively. Average length, width, and thickness (in millimeters) of the AAPL were of 69.2, 3.3, and 1.6, respectively. No differences in dimension of the tendons were found between the APL and the AAPL. The dimensions of the tendinous portion of the AAPL are similar to those of the APL and can be considered a true tendon. When present, the AAPL is a suitable source of local grafting material. PMID:19760470

  15. Peroneus longus transfer for drop foot in Hansen disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jose Carlos; de Freitas Cabral, Elifaz

    2012-09-01

    Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium leprae. Nerve injury is a central feature of the pathogenesis of leprosy that results in autonomic, sensory and motor neuropathy. One of the most common secondary disabilities caused by Hansen's disease is the drop foot and it is found in 2% to 5% of newly-diagnosed leprosy patients. Unlike the clinical picture of traumatic injury of the common peroneal nerve where both of its branches (the deep peroneal nerve and the superficial peroneal nerve) are involved, in leprosy there is the possibility of isolated involvement of the deep peroneal nerve branch, sparing the superficial peroneal branch. The article discusses the advantages of using the peroneus longus tendon transfer to the dorsum of the foot instead of the posterior tibial tendon for the correction of dropfoot in selected cases where the peroneals tendons are intact. PMID:22938641

  16. Tear of peroneus longus in long distance runners due to enlarged peroneal tubercle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tear of the Peroneus longus in association with a prominent peroneal tubercle is rare. Case presentation Recently we treated two long distance runners who developed lateral ankle pain. Maximum tenderness was located over the lateral surface of the heel in the area of the peroneal tendons. Imaging disclosed a tear of the peroneus longus at the area of the peroneal tubercle. Conclusion Following resection of the peroneal tubercle and repair of the peroneus longus, both patients regained full activity with no pain. This report describes the clinical presentation and surgical management of this rare injury. PMID:24417809

  17. Extensor digitorum longus tenosynovitis caused by talar head impingement in an ultramarathon runner: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Sakurai, M; Kobayashi, T

    2007-08-01

    Stenosing tenosynovitis of the extensor digitorum longus tendon is an injury related to ultramarathon running. A 32-year-old male ultramarathon runner developed chronic tenosynovitis of the ankle dorsiflexors. He was diagnosed with extensor digitorum longus tenosynovitis caused by talar head impingement associated with exostosis. He failed to respond to non-operative management and decided to undergo tenosynovectomy of the extensor digitorum longus tendon. The pain was relieved without functional disturbance of the foot and ankle, and the patient returned to running 3 weeks postoperatively. At the 2-year follow-up, he was participating fully in ultramarathons. PMID:17709872

  18. [Flexor hallucis longus tendon rupture as an impingement lesion induced by os trigonum instability].

    PubMed

    Lohrer, H

    2006-03-01

    A Flexor hallucis longus tendon lesion induced by an unstable Os trigonum has not been described heretofore. A 39 years old karateka complained increasing load induced pain at the posteromedial ankle. Because of this, he was unable to take part in sports activities. Clinical, X-ray and MRI investigation assumed a Flexor hallucis longus tendon tear induced by an impingeing Os trigonum. At surgery a longitudinal and a partial transverse tendon tear was present. The Flexor hallucis longus tendon pulley was narrowed by a partially unstable Os trigonum. Tendon reconstruction, Os trigonum removal and early functional posttreatment resulted in full ability in sport, leisure-time activities and profession five months later.

  19. Anticipatory and Reactive Response to Falls: Muscle Synergy Activation of Forearm Muscles.

    PubMed

    Couzens, Greg; Kerr, Graham

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the surface electromyogram response of six forearm muscles to falls onto the outstretched hand. The extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris, abductor pollicis longus, flexor carpi radialis and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles were sampled from eight volunteers who underwent ten self-initiated falls. All muscles initiated prior to impact. Co-contraction is the most obvious surface electromyogram feature. The predominant response is in the radial deviators. The surface electromyogram timing we recorded would appear to be a complex anticipatory response to falling modified by the effect on the forearm muscles following impact. The mitigation of the force of impact is probably more importantly through shoulder abduction and extension and elbow flexion rather than action of the forearm muscles.

  20. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing). The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight) defined as the grazing ability index (GAI). There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni). Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate) was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests the

  1. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef.

    PubMed

    Nanami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing). The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight) defined as the grazing ability index (GAI). There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni). Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate) was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests the

  2. Skeletal muscle metabolism in hypokinetic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle growth, protein metabolism, and amino acid metabolism were studied in various groups of rats. Certain groups were adrenaliectomized; some rats were suspended while others (the controls) were weight bearing. Results show that: (1) metabolic changes in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of suspended rats are due primarily to increased circulating glucocorticoids; (2) metabolic changes in the soleus muscle due to higher steroid levels are probably potentiated by greater numbers of steroid receptors; and (3) not all metabolic responses of the soleus muscle to unloading are due to the elevated levels of glucocorticoids or the increased sensitivity of this muscle to these hormones.

  3. Os trigonum syndrome with flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis in a professional football referee.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M E; Wolin, P M

    1999-07-01

    The presentation of posterior ankle pain in any patient poses a diagnostic dilemma. The os trigonum syndrome and flexor hallucis longus stenosing tenosynovitis have been reported to occur in professional and amateur ballet dancers. It is important to consider these diagnoses in a patient who is not a dancer, as is shown in the case presented here. The patient in this case is a professional referee who injured his ankle while working on artificial turf. The treatment for os trigonum syndrome and flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis is initially conservative, but in refractory cases, surgical removal of the os and release of the flexor hallucis longus tendon can be successfully performed. This is the first reported case of os trigonum syndrome and flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis presenting simultaneously in a patient who is not a dancer.

  4. Differential adaptation to weightlessness of functional and structural characteristics of rat hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Stevens, L; Picquet, F; Catinot, M P; Mounier, Y

    1996-09-01

    Soleus, vastus intermedius, tibialis anterior, and extensor digitorum longus muscles were removed from rats following space flight onboard the SLS-2 mission and from control animals. Muscle tissues were studied for their calcium and strontium activated tension characteristics and for structural changes. Muscles were also examined for myosin composition using electrophoresis. Results indicate that changes occurred in structural and functional muscle characteristics in both slow and fast muscle fiber types. These results are detailed and discussed.

  5. Homology of the jaw muscles in lizards and snakes-a solution from a comparative gnathostome approach.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Homology or shared evolutionary origin of jaw adductor muscles in lizards and snakes has been difficult to establish, although snakes clearly arose within the lizard radiation. Lizards typically have temporal adductors layered lateral to medial, and in snakes the muscles are arranged in a rostral to caudal pattern. Recent work has suggested that the jaw adductor group in gnathostomes is arranged as a folded sheet; when this theory is applied to snakes, homology with lizard morphology can be seen. This conclusion revisits the work of S.B. McDowell, J Herpetol 1986; 20:353-407, who proposed that homology involves identity of m. levator anguli oris and the loss of m. adductor mandibulae externus profundus, at least in "advanced" (colubroid) snakes. Here I advance the folded sheet hypothesis across the whole snake tree using new and literature data, and provide a solution to this homology problem.

  6. Comparison of Lower Extremity Kinematics and Hip Muscle Activation During Rehabilitation Tasks Between Sexes

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Maureen K.; Boudreau, Samantha N.; Mattacola, Carl G.; Uhl, Timothy L.; Lattermann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Closed kinetic chain exercises are an integral part of rehabilitation programs after lower extremity injury. Sex differences in lower extremity kinematics have been reported during landing and cutting; however, less is known about sex differences in movement patterns and activation of the hip musculature during common lower extremity rehabilitation exercises. Objective: To determine whether lower extremity kinematics and muscle activation levels differ between sexes during closed kinetic chain rehabilitation exercises. Design: Cross-sectional with 1 between-subjects factor (sex) and 1 within-subjects factor (exercise). Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Participants included 21 women (age  =  23 ± 5.8 years, height  =  167.6 ± 5.1 cm, mass  =  63.7 ± 5.9 kg) and 21 men (age  =  23 ± 4.0 years, height  =  181.4 ± 7.4 cm, mass  =  85.6 ± 16.5 kg). Intervention(s): In 1 testing session, participants performed 3 trials each of single-leg squat, lunge, and step-up-and-over exercises. Main Outcome Measure(s): We recorded the peak joint angles (degrees) of knee flexion and valgus and hip flexion, extension, adduction, and external rotation for each exercise. We also recorded the electromyographic activity of the gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, adductor longus, and bilateral gluteus medius muscles for the concentric and eccentric phases of each exercise. Results: Peak knee flexion angles were smaller and peak hip extension angles were larger for women than for men across all tasks. Peak hip flexion angles during the single-leg squat were smaller for women than for men. Mean root-mean-square amplitudes for the gluteus maximus and rectus femoris muscles in both the concentric and eccentric phases of the 3 exercises were greater for women than for men. Conclusions: Sex differences were observed in sagittal-plane movement patterns during the rehabilitation exercises. Because of the sex differences

  7. Abnormal motor cortex excitability during linguistic tasks in adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Suppa, A; Marsili, L; Giovannelli, F; Di Stasio, F; Rocchi, L; Upadhyay, N; Ruoppolo, G; Cincotta, M; Berardelli, A

    2015-08-01

    In healthy subjects (HS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied during 'linguistic' tasks discloses excitability changes in the dominant hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). We investigated 'linguistic' task-related cortical excitability modulation in patients with adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ASD), a speech-related focal dystonia. We studied 10 ASD patients and 10 HS. Speech examination included voice cepstral analysis. We investigated the dominant/non-dominant M1 excitability at baseline, during 'linguistic' (reading aloud/silent reading/producing simple phonation) and 'non-linguistic' tasks (looking at non-letter strings/producing oral movements). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral hand muscles. We measured the cortical silent period (CSP) length and tested MEPs in HS and patients performing the 'linguistic' tasks with different voice intensities. We also examined MEPs in HS and ASD during hand-related 'action-verb' observation. Patients were studied under and not-under botulinum neurotoxin-type A (BoNT-A). In HS, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited larger MEPs during 'reading aloud' than during the other 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. Conversely, in ASD, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited increased-amplitude MEPs during 'reading aloud' and 'syllabic phonation' tasks. CSP length was shorter in ASD than in HS and remained unchanged in both groups performing 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. In HS and ASD, 'linguistic' task-related excitability changes were present regardless of the different voice intensities. During hand-related 'action-verb' observation, MEPs decreased in HS, whereas in ASD they increased. In ASD, BoNT-A improved speech, as demonstrated by cepstral analysis and restored the TMS abnormalities. ASD reflects dominant hemisphere excitability changes related to 'linguistic' tasks; BoNT-A returns these excitability changes to normal.

  8. Extensor Pollicis Longus Rupture after Mini TightRope Suspensionplasty.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman, Mani; Vitale, Mark A; Desai, Kapil; Crowe, John F

    2016-05-01

    Background Arthritis of the first carpometacarpal (CMC) joint has been surgically treated in multiple ways with varying levels of success as measured by subjective and objective measures. Trapeziectomy with numerous variations in suspensionplasty comprises one of the more commonly used surgical procedures. Recently, the Mini TightRope apparatus has been utilized as a new method for achieving suspensionplasty, and as such lacks significant review of use and safety in the literature. Case Description An extensor pollicis longus (EPL) rupture following a trapeziectomy and Mini TightRope suspensionplasty for CMC arthritis of the thumb is presented. The patient successfully underwent an extensor indicis proprius (EIP) to EPL transfer to treat this complication. Literature Review There is well-established documentation of injury to the extensor tendons from orthopedic hardware such as volar locking plates. Regarding use of the Mini TightRope apparatus, guidelines for placement of the suture button include caution to place the button away from the EPL tendon to minimize the chance of tendon irritation. Additionally, FiberWire sutures, a component of the apparatus, have been shown to demonstrate soft tissue reactions with adjacent inflammatory response. Published reports on adverse events utilizing this device have been limited to case reports including an index metacarpal fracture. Clinical Relevance The aim of this case report was to cite an occurrence of EPL rupture following its use and discuss the possibilities of its direct contribution. PMID:27104081

  9. Changes in Adductor Strength After Competition in Academy Rugby Union Players.

    PubMed

    Roe, Gregory A B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben L; Read, Dale B; Weakley, Jonathon J; Darrall-Jones, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    This study determined the magnitude of change in adductor strength after a competitive match in academy rugby union players and examined the relationship between locomotive demands of match-play and changes in postmatch adductor strength. A within-subject repeated measures design was used. Fourteen academy rugby union players (age, 17.4 ± 0.8 years; height, 182.7 ± 7.6 cm; body mass, 86.2 ± 11.6 kg) participated in the study. Each player performed 3 maximal adductor squeezes at 45° of hip flexion before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hours postmatch. Global positioning system was used to assess locomotive demands of match-play. Trivial decreases in adductor squeeze scores occurred immediately (-1.3 ± 2.5%; effect size [ES] = -0.11 ± 0.21; likely, 74%) and 24 hours after match (-0.7 ± 3%; ES = -0.06 ± 0.25; likely, 78%), whereas a small but substantial increase occurred at 48 hours (3.8 ± 1.9%; ES = 0.32 ± 0.16; likely, 89%) before reducing to trivial at 72 hours after match (3.1 ± 2.2%; ES = 0.26 ± 0.18; possibly, 72%). Large individual variation in adductor strength was observed at all time points. The relationship between changes in adductor strength and distance covered at sprinting speed (VO2max ≥ 81%) was large immediately postmatch (p = 0.056, r = -0.521), moderate at 24 hours (p = 0.094, r = -0.465), and very large at 48 hours postmatch (p = 0.005, r = -0.707). Players who cover greater distances sprinting may suffer greater adductor fatigue in the first 48 hours after competition. The assessment of adductor strength using the adductor squeeze test should be considered postmatch to identify players who may require additional rest before returning to field-based training. PMID:26815174

  10. Delayed quadriceps weakness after continuous adductor canal block for total knee arthroplasty: a case report.

    PubMed

    Veal, Christopher; Auyong, David B; Hanson, Neil A; Allen, Cindy J; Strodtbeck, Wyndam

    2014-03-01

    Adductor canal catheters have been shown to improve analgesia while maintaining quadriceps strength after total knee arthroplasty. We describe a patient who underwent total knee arthroplasty that likely had delayed quadriceps weakness as a result of a standard continuous 0.2% ropivacaine infusion at 8 ml/h within the adductor canal. On the day of surgery, the patient was able to stand and ambulate with minimal assistance. On the first post-operative day after surgery, approximately 20 h after starting the ropivacaine infusion, profound weakness of the quadriceps was noted with no ability to stand. Contrast subsequently injected through the adductor canal catheter under fluoroscopy revealed proximal spread approaching the common femoral nerve with as little as 2 ml of volume. This rare case of profound quadriceps weakness after a continuous adductor canal block reveals that local anaesthetic at the adductor canal can spread in a retrograde fashion towards the common femoral nerve, potentially resulting in quadriceps weakness. PMID:24372058

  11. The connective tissue of the adductor canal--a morphological study in fetal and adult specimens.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Flavia; de Vasconcellos Fontes, Ricardo Bragança; da Silva Baptista, Josemberg; Mayer, William Paganini; de Campos Boldrini, Silvia; Liberti, Edson Aparecido

    2009-03-01

    The adductor canal is a conical or pyramid-shaped pathway that contains the femoral vessels, saphenous nerve and a varying amount of fibrous tissue. It is involved in adductor canal syndrome, a claudication syndrome involving young individuals. Our objective was to study modifications induced by aging on the connective tissue and to correlate them to the proposed pathophysiological mechanism. The bilateral adductor canals and femoral vessels of four adult and five fetal specimens were removed en bloc and analyzed. Sections 12 microm thick were obtained and the connective tissue studied with Sirius Red, Verhoeff, Weigert and Azo stains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs of the surfaces of each adductor canal were also analyzed. Findings were homogeneous inside each group. The connective tissue of the canal was continuous with the outer layer of the vessels in both groups. The pattern of concentric, thick collagen type I bundles in fetal specimens was replaced by a diffuse network of compact collagen bundles with several transversal fibers and an impressive content of collagen III fibers. Elastic fibers in adults were not concentrated in the thick bundles but dispersed in line with the transversal fiber system. A dynamic compression mechanism with or without an evident constricting fibrous band has been proposed previously for adductor canal syndrome, possibly involving the connective tissue inside the canal. The vessels may not slide freely during movement. These age-related modifications in normal individuals may represent necessary conditions for this syndrome to develop.

  12. The connective tissue of the adductor canal – a morphological study in fetal and adult specimens

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Flavia; de Vasconcellos Fontes, Ricardo Bragança; da Silva Baptista, Josemberg; Mayer, William Paganini; de Campos Boldrini, Silvia; Liberti, Edson Aparecido

    2009-01-01

    The adductor canal is a conical or pyramid-shaped pathway that contains the femoral vessels, saphenous nerve and a varying amount of fibrous tissue. It is involved in adductor canal syndrome, a claudication syndrome involving young individuals. Our objective was to study modifications induced by aging on the connective tissue and to correlate them to the proposed pathophysiological mechanism. The bilateral adductor canals and femoral vessels of four adult and five fetal specimens were removed en bloc and analyzed. Sections 12 µm thick were obtained and the connective tissue studied with Sirius Red, Verhoeff, Weigert and Azo stains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs of the surfaces of each adductor canal were also analyzed. Findings were homogeneous inside each group. The connective tissue of the canal was continuous with the outer layer of the vessels in both groups. The pattern of concentric, thick collagen type I bundles in fetal specimens was replaced by a diffuse network of compact collagen bundles with several transversal fibers and an impressive content of collagen III fibers. Elastic fibers in adults were not concentrated in the thick bundles but dispersed in line with the transversal fiber system. A dynamic compression mechanism with or without an evident constricting fibrous band has been proposed previously for adductor canal syndrome, possibly involving the connective tissue inside the canal. The vessels may not slide freely during movement. These age-related modifications in normal individuals may represent necessary conditions for this syndrome to develop. PMID:19245505

  13. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1989-12-15

    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  14. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1989-12-15

    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  15. A retrospective comparative provider workload analysis for femoral nerve and adductor canal catheters following knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michael; Kim, Eugenia; Kim, T Edward; Howard, Steven K; Mudumbai, Seshadri; Giori, Nicholas J; Woolson, Steven; Ganaway, Toni; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-04-01

    Adductor canal catheters preserve quadriceps strength better than femoral nerve catheters and may facilitate postoperative ambulation following total knee arthroplasty. However, the effect of this newer technique on provider workload, if any, is unknown. We conducted a retrospective provider workload analysis comparing these two catheter techniques; all other aspects of the clinical pathway remained the same. The primary outcome was number of interventions recorded per patient postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included infusion duration, ambulation distance, opioid consumption, and hospital length of stay. Adductor canal patients required a median (10-90th percentiles) of 0.0 (0.0-2.6) interventions compared to 1.0 (0.3-3.0) interventions for femoral patients (p < 0.001); 18/23 adductor canal patients (78 %) compared to 2/22 femoral patients (9 %) required no interventions (p < 0.001). Adductor canal catheter infusions lasted 2.0 (1.4-2.0) days compared to 1.5 (1.0-2.7) days in the femoral group (p = 0.016). Adductor canal patients ambulated further [mean (SD)] than femoral patients on postoperative day 1 [24.5 (21.7) vs. 11.9 (14.6) meters, respectively; p = 0.030] and day 2 [44.9 (26.3) vs. 22.0 (22.2) meters, respectively; p = 0.003]. Postoperative opioid consumption and length of stay were similar between groups. We conclude that adductor canal catheters offer both patient and provider benefits when compared to femoral nerve catheters. PMID:25217117

  16. Adductor pollicis jamming injuries in the professional baseball player: 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Grant G; Ruchelsman, David E; Belsky, Mark R; Graham, Thomas; Asnis, Peter; Leibman, Matthew I

    2013-06-01

    We characterize a mechanism of injury, injury pattern, and treatment algorithm for adductor pollicis myotendinous injuries in 2 professional baseball players. Similar to myotendinous eccentric injuries in other anatomical areas, the adductor pollicis sustains a sudden forceful eccentric load during a jammed swing, resulting in intramuscular strain or tendon rupture. Based on the reported injury mechanism, and magnetic resonance imaging features of these myotendinous injuries, the thumb of the top hand during a jammed swing was suddenly and forcefully eccentrically abducted from a contracted and adducted position, resulting in injury patterns. PMID:23707017

  17. Adductor pollicis jamming injuries in the professional baseball player: 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Grant G; Ruchelsman, David E; Belsky, Mark R; Graham, Thomas; Asnis, Peter; Leibman, Matthew I

    2013-06-01

    We characterize a mechanism of injury, injury pattern, and treatment algorithm for adductor pollicis myotendinous injuries in 2 professional baseball players. Similar to myotendinous eccentric injuries in other anatomical areas, the adductor pollicis sustains a sudden forceful eccentric load during a jammed swing, resulting in intramuscular strain or tendon rupture. Based on the reported injury mechanism, and magnetic resonance imaging features of these myotendinous injuries, the thumb of the top hand during a jammed swing was suddenly and forcefully eccentrically abducted from a contracted and adducted position, resulting in injury patterns.

  18. Endoscopic Loose Body Removal From Zone 2 Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Sheath.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-06-01

    Tenosynovial chondromatosis can occur in the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. Complete synovectomy and removal of the loose bodies comprise the treatment of choice. An open procedure requires extensive soft-tissue dissection because the flexor hallucis longus tendon is a deep structure except at the hallux. A tendoscopy approach to synovectomy and removal of loose bodies has the advantage of minimally invasive surgery. This technical note outlines pearls and pitfalls and provides a step-by-step guide to performing this procedure. PMID:27656363

  19. Regional differences in elements of human peroneus longus tendons.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Norikazu; Kumai, Tsukasa; Isomoto, Shinji; Shinohara, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Azuma, Cho; Minami, Takeshi; Tohno, Yoshiyuki

    2013-08-01

    Many studies have been performed on the structure, molecular composition, and biochemical properties of tendons. However, comparatively little research has been conducted on the content of various trace elements within tendons. Six elements were analyzed in four regions of the peroneus longus tendon: the tensional part of the tendon immediately proximal to the lateral malleolus (region A), the compressive region of the tendon in contact with the lateral malleolus (region B), the compressive region of the tendon in contact with the deep surface of the cuboid (region C), and the tensional part of the tendon between the cuboid and first metatarsal, to which the tendon is attached (region D). Regions B and C are wraparound regions. The calcium content was higher in region C (2.10 ± 0.93 mg/g) than in both regions A (1.25 ± 0.51 mg/g) and D (1.43 ± 0.41 mg/g) (p < 0.05), indicating that it is likely related to regional differences in cartilage degeneration. The phosphorus content was also higher in region C, possibly because of low alkaline phosphatase activity in this region. The sulfur content was higher in the wraparound regions (region B: 0.98 ± 0.09 mg/g, region C: 1.24 ± 0.19 mg/g) than in both regions A (0.83 ± 0.11 mg/g) and D (0.83 ± 0.1 mg/g) (p < 0.01); sulfur content is thought to be influenced by tendon-bone compression. Finally, the magnesium content in the wraparound regions was also higher, which is probably related to a higher level of fibrocartilage. No significant relationships were found with regard to zinc or iron. Overall, the findings of the present study indicate that element contents are related to function and anatomical differences in tendons, and that they may even vary within the same tendon.

  20. Acoustic Variations in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia as a Function of Speech Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapienza, Christine M.; Walton, Suzanne; Murry, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic phonatory events were identified in 14 women diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), a focal laryngeal dystonia that disturbs phonatory function, and compared with those of 14 age-matched women with no vocal dysfunction. Findings indicated ADSD subjects produced more aberrant acoustic events than controls during tasks of…

  1. Attritional rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon by an osseous spur more than 30 years after wrist injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Kohji; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Moritomo, Hisao; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2014-12-01

    A 46-year-old woman sustained a rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon more than 30 years after wrist injury. She was successfully treated with palmaris longus tendon graft and excision of the osseous spur. Attrition of the extensor pollicis longus tendon by a newly formed osseous spur was the major mechanism.

  2. Neuromuscular partitioning in the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis based on intramuscular nerve distribution patterns: A three-dimensional modeling study.

    PubMed

    Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Ravichandiran, Nisanthini; Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; McKee, Nancy H; Richardson, Denyse; Oliver, Michele; Agur, Anne M

    2012-04-01

    Differential activation of specific regions within a skeletal muscle has been linked to the presence of neuromuscular compartments. However, few studies have investigated the extra- or intramuscular innervation throughout the muscle volume of extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of neuromuscular partitions in ECRL and ECRB based on the extra- and intramuscular innervation using three-dimensional modeling. The extra- and intramuscular nerve distribution was digitized and reconstructed in 3D in all the muscle volumes using Autodesk Maya in seven formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean age, 75.7 ± 15.2 years). The intramuscular nerve distribution was modeled in all the muscle volumes. ECRL was found to have two neuromuscular compartments, superficial and deep. One branch from the radial nerve proper was found to innervate ECRL. This branch was divided into anterior and posterior branches to the superficial and deep compartments, respectively. Five innervation patterns were identified in ECRB with partitioning of the muscle belly into two, three, or four compartments, in a proximal to distal direction depending on the number of nerve branches entering the muscle belly. The ECRL and ECRB both demonstrated neuromuscular compartmentalization based on intramuscular innervation. According to the partitioning hypothesis, a muscle may be differentially activated depending on the required function of the muscle, thus allowing multifunctional muscles to contribute to a variety of movements. Therefore, the increased number of neuromuscular partitions in ECRB when compared with ECRL could be due to the need for more differential recruitment in the ECRB depending on force requirements.

  3. De Quervain disease caused by abductor pollicis longus tenosynovitis: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Takahara, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Noriaki; Ito, Kazuo; Watanabe, Tadayoshi; Ogino, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    De Quervain disease is caused by a stenosing tenosynovitis in the first dorsal compartment, and the main aetiology is extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) tenosynovitis. We encountered three cases in which EPB tenosynovitis was absent and abductor pollicis longus (APL) tenosynovitis was confirmed during operation. In the treatment of de Quervain disease, APL tenosynovitis should be paid as much attention as EPB tenosynovitis. PMID:19598322

  4. Flexor Digitorum Longus Tendon Transfer and Modified Kidner Technique in Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Maskill, James T; Pomeroy, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    The modified Kidner procedure and flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer are common procedures used today when addressing posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. These techniques are often used in conjunction with a combination of osteotomies to correct flatfoot deformity, and have been proved to be reliable and predictable. PMID:26590720

  5. Chondroma within the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Brahms, M A; Fumich, R M

    1978-01-01

    Chondromas in tendon sheaths are a rare entity proviously reported in the flexor sheaths on the hand and possibly the foot. This is the first reported case of condroma of the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath at the ankle region. A literature review with regard to pathogenesis, classification, and recurrence has been presented.

  6. Measurement of muscle strength in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Edward A; Martyn, Jeevendra A; George, Edward; Frontera, Walter R; Eikermann, Matthias

    2009-10-01

    Traditional (indirect) techniques, such as electromyography and nerve conduction velocity measurement, do not reliably predict intensive care unit-acquired muscle weakness and its clinical consequences. Therefore, quantitative assessment of skeletal muscle force is important for diagnosis of intensive care unit-acquired motor dysfunction. There are a number of ways for assessing objectively muscle strength, which can be categorized as techniques that quantify maximum voluntary contraction force and those that assess evoked (stimulated) muscle force. Important factors that limit the repetitive evaluation of maximum voluntary contraction force in intensive care unit patients are learning effects, pain during muscular contraction, and alteration of consciousness.The selection of the appropriate muscle is crucial for making adequate predictions of a patient's outcome. The upper airway dilators are much more susceptible to a decrease in muscle strength than the diaphragm, and impairment of upper airway patency is a key mechanism of extubation failure in intensive care unit patients. Data suggest that the adductor pollicis muscle is an appropriate reference muscle to predict weakness of muscles that are typically affected by intensive care unit-acquired weakness, i.e., upper airway as well as extremity muscles. Stimulated (evoked) force of skeletal muscles, such as the adductor pollicis, can be assessed repetitively, independent of brain function, even in heavily sedated patients during high acuity of their disease. PMID:20046117

  7. Role of muscles in the stabilization of ligament-deficient wrists.

    PubMed

    Esplugas, Mireia; Garcia-Elias, Marc; Lluch, Alex; Llusá Pérez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a series of cadaver investigations aimed at clarifying the role of muscles in the stabilization of ligament-deficient wrists. According to these studies, isometric contraction of some forearm muscles induces midcarpal (MC) supination (ie, the abductor pollicis longus, extensor carpi radialis longus, and flexor carpi ulnaris), whereas other muscles induce MC pronation (ie, the extensor carpi ulnaris). Because MC supination implies tightening of the volar scaphoid-distal row ligaments, the MC supination muscles are likely to prevent scaphoid collapse of wrists with scapholunate ligament insufficiency. MC pronator muscles, by contrast, would be beneficial in stabilizing wrists with ulnar-sided ligament deficiencies owing to their ability to tighten the triquetrum-distal row ligaments. Should these laboratory findings be validated by additional clinical research, proprioceptive reeducation of selected muscles could become an important tool for the treatment of dynamic carpal instabilities. PMID:27264901

  8. Influence of hip external rotation on hip adductor and rectus femoris myoelectric activity during a dynamic parallel squat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Glauber Ribeiro; Leporace, Gustavo; Chagas, Daniel das Virgens; Furtado, Luis F L; Praxedes, Jomilto; Batista, Luiz A

    2010-10-01

    This study sought to compare the myoelectric activity of the hip adductors (HAs) and rectus femoris (RF) when the hip was in a neutral position or externally rotated by 30° or 50° (H0, H30, and H50, respectively) during a parallel squat. Ten healthy subjects performed 10 repetitions of squats in each of the 3 hip positions and the myoelectric activities of the HAs and RF were recorded. The signal was then divided into categories representing concentric (C) and eccentric (E) contractions in the following ranges of motion: 0-30° (C1 and E1), 30-60° (C2 and E2), and 60-90° (C3 and E3) of knee flexion. From those signals, an root mean square (RMS) value for each range of motion in each hip position was obtained. All values were normalized to those obtained during maximum voluntary isometric contraction. We found that HAs showed a significant increase in myoelectric activity during C3 and E3 in the H30 and H50 positions, as compared with H0. Meanwhile, RF activity did not significantly differ between hip positions. Both muscles showed higher activation during 60-90° (C3 and E3) of knee flexion, as compared with 0-30° (C1 and E1) and 30-60° (C2 and E2). The results suggest that if the aim is to increase HA activity despite the low percentage of muscle activation, squats should be performed with 30° of external rotation and at least 90° of knee flexion. PMID:20651607

  9. Intramuscular nerve distribution pattern in the human tibialis posterior muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Arakawa, Takamitsu; Terashima, Toshio; Miki, Akinori

    2015-03-01

    The human tibialis posterior muscle (TPM) has developed to maintain the foot arches for adopting bipedal locomotion. The insertion tendon of this muscle is U-shaped in a cross section, and the fibular part of the muscle whose muscle fibers originated from the fibula has a unique architecture. To understand the developmental history of the human TPM, distribution pattern of intramuscular nerves was investigated in ten sides of eight cadavers. Muscular branches entering the TPM could be classified into five types according to the distribution pattern in the muscle. The nerves innervating the part deeper to the insertion tendon ran transversely in the medial direction toward the tibia. Muscular branches innervating the fibular part ran medioinferiorly, and in four cases had communicating rami with the nerve innervating the other parts of this muscle. Muscular branches innervating the superficial layer whose muscle bundles originated from the tibia ran laterally toward the fibula. These results suggest that the fibular part might develop from the common primordium of the TPM, and the deeper layer of the muscle might expand laterally during the development to acquire a new attaching space on the interosseous membrane and fibula. The superficial layer might also develop laterally to acquire the additional attaching spaces on the fascia of the flexor digitorum longus muscle and flexor hallucis longus muscle, thus the insertion tendon might become U-shaped. With these measures, the TPM might be able to increase muscle volume to yield stronger power. PMID:24791909

  10. Clenbuterol, a beta(2)-agonist, retards atrophy in denervated muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Richard J.; Ludemann, Robert; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of a beta(2) agonist, clenbuterol, on the protein content as well as on the contractile strength and the muscle fiber cross-sectional area of various denervated muscles from rats were investigated. It was found that denervated soleus, anterior tibialis, and gastrocnemius muscles, but not the extensor digitorum longus, of rats treated for 2-3 weeks with clenbuterol contained 95-110 percent more protein than denervated controls. The twofold difference in the protein content of denervated solei was paralleled by similar changes in contractile strength and muscle fiber cross-sectional area.

  11. Isokinetic Testing of the Shoulder Abductors and Adductors: Windowed vs Nonwindowed Data Collection.

    PubMed

    Wilk, K E; Arrigo, C A; Andrews, J R

    1992-01-01

    Presented at the Sports Physical Therapy Section Team Concept Meeting, December 1991, New Orleans, LA The manner of acquiring strength-testing data may influence the results of an investigation. The purpose of this study was to determine if a significant difference exists between windowed and unwindowed data collection during isokinetic testing of the shoulder abductors/adductors. Fifty healthy professional baseball pitchers participated in this study. Testing was performed on a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer at 180 and 300 degrees /sec for both the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders. Testing procedures regarding testing protocol, repetitions, positioning, and stabilization followed established guidelines for each subject. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test with a p < 0.01 level of significance. Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between windowed and unwindowed mean peak torque data for both shoulders at both test speeds. The results indicated an average nonthrowing arm difference of 20.2 ft/lbs at 180 degrees /sec and 51.7 ft/lbs at 300 degrees / sec for the abductors. In each instance, the unwindowed mean peak torque values were higher than the windowed values, and significant end range torque spikes were elicited during unwindowed data collection. The nonthrowing adductors exhibited an average of 39.3 and 48.3 ft/lb differences at 180 and 300 degrees /sec, respectively. The throwing shoulder demonstrated average abductor differences of 25.6 ft/lbs at 180 degrees /sec and 47.7 ft/lbs at 300 degrees /sec. The average throwing adductor difference was 24.4 ft/lbs and 54.6 ft/lbs, respectively, at both test speeds. This investigation offers clinical relevance for those using isokinetic testing of the shoulder abductors/adductors in demonstrating the significant differences between windowed and unwindowed data, identifying torque spike data misinterpretation, and describing a clinical means of controlling aberrant torque

  12. Laryngeal Adductor Function in Experimental Models of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Paniello, Randal C.; Rich, Jason T.; Debnath, Nick L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Most patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis experience some degree of spontaneous reinnervation, which depends upon the type and severity of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury. After partial recovery, the paretic vocal fold may or may not adduct adequately to allow glottic closure, which in turn affects phonatory and swallowing outcomes. This process was studied in a series of canine laryngeal nerve injury models. Study Design Animal (canine) experiments. Methods Maximum stimulable laryngeal adductor pressure (LAP) was measured pre-treatment (baseline) and at 6 months following experimental RLN injuries (total n=59). The 9 study groups were designed to simulate a range of severities of RLN injury. Results The greatest LAP recovery, at 108% of original baseline, was seen in a 50% transection model; the least recovery was seen when the RLN underwent complete transection with repair, at 56% with precise alignment and 50% with alignment reversed. Intermediate models (partial RLN injuries) gave intermediate results. Crush models recovered 105% of LAP, while a half-transection, half-crush injury recovered 72% and cautery injuries recovered 61%. Controls (complete transection without repair) had no measurable recovery. Conclusions The injured RLN has a strong tendency to recover. Restoration of adductor strength, as determined by the LAP, was predictably related to the severity of RLN injury. The model RLN injuries studied provide a range of expected outcomes that can be used for future experiments exploring interventions that may improve post-injury adductor function. PMID:25283381

  13. Effect of diet and temperature upon muscle metabolic capacities and biochemical composition of gonad and muscle in Argopecten purpuratus Lamarck 1819.

    PubMed

    Martínez; Brokordt; Aguilera; Soto; Guderley

    2000-04-26

    Recently spawned Argopecten purpuratus broodstock were conditioned at two temperatures and fed three different diets (microalgae, microalgae mixed with lipids and microalgae mixed with carbohydrates) to examine changes in the biochemical composition of gonad and muscle as well as muscle metabolic capacities. During one experiment, scallops were fed at 3% of their dry mass per day whereas during a second experiment, they were fed at 6% of their dry mass per day. During both experiments, total gonadal levels of lipids and protein increased markedly during conditioning with the two mixed diets at 16 degrees C. These increases were less pronounced at 20 degrees C. Carbohydrate gonadal levels only increased during the second experiment at both temperatures and with the three diets. Of the major biochemical components of the adductor muscle, carbohydrate levels changed most during conditioning. Whereas muscle protein levels increased slightly with gonadal maturation, carbohydrate levels dropped considerably. Despite the marked drop in the levels of glycolytic substrates, only the activities of octopine dehydrogenase in the adductor muscle of the scallops conditioned at 16 degrees C consistently decreased. Muscle levels of glycogen phosphorylase were higher in mature than in recently spawned (control) scallops, suggesting a role in the transfer of glucose equivalents from the adductor muscle to other tissues. PMID:10727686

  14. Eccentric and Isometric Hip Adduction Strength in Male Soccer Players With and Without Adductor-Related Groin Pain

    PubMed Central

    Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Nielsen, Martin Peter; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adductor-related pain is the most common clinical finding in soccer players with groin pain and can be a long-standing problem affecting physical function and performance. Hip adductor weakness has been suggested to be associated with this clinical entity, although it has never been investigated. Purpose: To investigate whether isometric and eccentric hip strength are decreased in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer controls. The hypothesis was that players with adductor-related groin pain would have lower isometric and eccentric hip adduction strength than players without adductor-related groin pain. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Male elite and subelite players from 40 teams were contacted. In total, 28 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain and 16 soccer players without adductor-related groin pain (asymptomatic controls) were included in the study. In primary analysis, the dominant legs of 21 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain (≥4 weeks duration) were compared with the dominant legs of 16 asymptomatic controls using a cross-sectional design. The mean age of the symptomatic players was 24.5 ± 2.5 years, and the mean age of the asymptomatic controls was 22.9 ± 2.4 years. Isometric hip strength (adduction, abduction, and flexion) and eccentric hip strength (adduction) were assessed with a handheld dynamometer using reliable test procedures and a blinded assessor. Results: Eccentric hip adduction strength was lower in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain in the dominant leg (n = 21) compared with asymptomatic controls (n = 16), namely 2.47 ± 0.49 versus 3.12 ± 0.43 N·m/kg, respectively (P < .001). No other hip strength differences were observed between symptomatic players and asymptomatic controls for the dominant leg (P = .35-.84). Conclusion: Large eccentric hip adduction strength deficits were found in soccer players with adductor

  15. Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: Muscles Located at the Site of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ato Ampomah

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the location of the MTSS pain (posteromedial border of tibia) and the muscles that originate from that site. Method. The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy of the School of Medical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, and involved the use of 22 cadaveric legs (9 paired and 4 unpaired) from 11 males and 2 females. Findings. The structures that were thus observed to attach directly to the posteromedial border of the tibia were the soleus, the flexor digitorum longus, and the deep crural fascia. The soleus and flexor digitorum longus muscles were observed to attach directly to the posteromedial border of the tibia. The tibialis posterior muscle had no attachment to this site. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that if traction is the cause of MTSS then soleus and the flexor digitorum muscles and not the tibialis posterior muscle are the likely cause of MTSS. PMID:27066291

  16. Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: Muscles Located at the Site of Pain.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ato Ampomah

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the location of the MTSS pain (posteromedial border of tibia) and the muscles that originate from that site. Method. The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy of the School of Medical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, and involved the use of 22 cadaveric legs (9 paired and 4 unpaired) from 11 males and 2 females. Findings. The structures that were thus observed to attach directly to the posteromedial border of the tibia were the soleus, the flexor digitorum longus, and the deep crural fascia. The soleus and flexor digitorum longus muscles were observed to attach directly to the posteromedial border of the tibia. The tibialis posterior muscle had no attachment to this site. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that if traction is the cause of MTSS then soleus and the flexor digitorum muscles and not the tibialis posterior muscle are the likely cause of MTSS. PMID:27066291

  17. First observation of a muscle spindle in fish.

    PubMed

    Maeda, N; Miyoshi, S; Toh, H

    1983-03-01

    In many groups of vertebrates, the muscle spindle is a specialized sensory organ for the detection of muscle stretching. The structure of the spindle varies among vertebrate classes. Moreover, Barker has asserted that Amphibia are the most primitive vertebrates to possess muscle spindles. Extensive studies, made mainly on the locomotor myotome, seem to show that the muscle receptors of fish are less specialized than those of more advanced animals, and that muscle spindles are absent. However, little attention has been paid to the jaw-closing muscle. We report here our finding of a very simple muscle spindle with a single intrafusal fibre in the well-developed jaw-closing muscle, adductor mandibulae, in a primitive teleostean, Oncorhynchus masou (Brevoort).

  18. Rupture of Flexor Pollicis Longus Tendon: A Complication of Volar Locking Plating of the Distal Radius.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Aysha Sethunathan; Sreverthana, Shanaka; Harrison, John

    2010-08-01

    We report an unusual case of complete rupture of the flexor pollicis longus tendon following volar locking plating for a distal radius fracture. We believe that the prominence of a distal locking screw head predisposed to the rupture of the tendon. We highlight that correctly attaching the distal locking screws to the plate is essential for obtaining the correct biomechanics of the device and preventing flexor tendon rupture.

  19. Development of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles in the zebrafish: homologies and evolution of these muscles within bony fishes and tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Rui; Hinits, Yaniv; Hughes, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Background During vertebrate head evolution, muscle changes accompanied radical modification of the skeleton. Recent studies have suggested that muscles and their innervation evolve less rapidly than cartilage. The freshwater teleostean zebrafish (Danio rerio) is the most studied actinopterygian model organism, and is sometimes taken to represent osteichthyans as a whole, which include bony fishes and tetrapods. Most work concerning zebrafish cranial muscles has focused on larval stages. We set out to describe the later development of zebrafish head muscles and compare muscle homologies across the Osteichthyes. Results We describe one new muscle and show that the number of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles found in four day-old zebrafish larvae is similar to that found in the adult. However, the overall configuration and/or the number of divisions of these muscles change during development. For example, the undivided adductor mandibulae of early larvae gives rise to the adductor mandibulae sections A0, A1-OST, A2 and Aω, and the protractor hyoideus becomes divided into dorsal and ventral portions in adults. There is not always a correspondence between the ontogeny of these muscles in the zebrafish and their evolution within the Osteichthyes. All of the 13 mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles present in the adult zebrafish are found in at least some other living teleosts, and all except the protractor hyoideus are found in at least some extant non-teleost actinopterygians. Of these muscles, about a quarter (intermandibularis anterior, adductor mandibulae, sternohyoideus) are found in at least some living tetrapods, and a further quarter (levator arcus palatini, adductor arcus palatini, adductor operculi) in at least some extant sarcopterygian fish. Conclusion Although the zebrafish occupies a rather derived phylogenetic position within actinopterygians and even within teleosts, with respect to the mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles it

  20. Muscle protein analysis. II. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of normal and diseased human skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C.S.; Barany, M.; Danon, M.J.; Anderson, N.G.

    1980-07-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to analyze the major proteins of normal and pathological human-muscle samples. The normal human-muscle pattern contains four myosin light chains: three that co-migrate with the myosin light chains from rabbit fast muscle (extensor digitorum longus), and one that co-migrates with the light chain 2 from rabbit slow muscle (soleus). Of seven Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples, four yielded patterns with decreased amounts of actin and myosin relative to normal muscle, while three samples gave patterns comparable to that for normal muscle. Six samples from patients with myotonic dystrophy also gave normal patterns. In nemaline rod myopathy, in contrast, the pattern was deficient in two of the fast-type myosin light chains.

  1. Effect of reproduction on escape responses and muscle metabolic capacities in the scallop Chlamys islandica Müller 1776.

    PubMed

    Brokordt; Himmelman; Guderley

    2000-08-30

    In scallops, gametogenesis leads to mobilization of glycogen and proteins from the adductor muscle towards the gonad. This mobilization is likely to diminish the metabolic capacities of the adductor muscle and thereby the scallops' escape response. We examined the escape response in terms of number of valve claps until exhaustion, rate of clapping and the recovery during and after valve closure in adult scallops, Chlamys islandica, sampled at different stages in the reproductive cycle (immature, mature, before and after spawning). In parallel, we measured muscle glycogen, protein and phosphoarginine contents, the oxidative capacity of mitochondria isolated from the adductor muscle and levels of muscle enzymes which are active during exercise and recovery. The number of claps (24-26), rate of clapping ( approximately 13 clapsmin(-1)) and phosphoarginine and arginine kinase levels were similar during the different reproductive stages. All immature scallops responded to restimulation immediately after opening their valves, while only 62% of mature, 82% of prespawned and 38% of spawned scallops responded. Immature animals completely recovered their initial swimming capacity within 4 h of opening their valves, but mature, prespawned and spawned scallops needed 18, 12 and 18 h, respectively. Overall phasic adductor muscle from mature, prespawned and spawned animals showed decreased glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase (except for prespawned), octopine dehydrogenase and citrate synthase levels, a deterioration of the oxidative capacity of mitochondria and a marked decrease in glycogen content compared to immature scallops. Therefore, during gonadal maturation and spawning, C. islandica did not change its clapping capacity, but slowed its recuperation from exhausting burst exercise, both during and after valve closure, likely due to the decreased metabolic capacity of the adductor muscle. PMID:10960615

  2. Muscle RANK is a key regulator of Ca2+ storage, SERCA activity, and function of fast-twitch skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, Sébastien S; Dumont, Nicolas A; Boulanger-Piette, Antoine; Fajardo, Val A; Gamu, Daniel; Kake-Guena, Sandrine-Aurélie; David, Rares Ovidiu; Bouchard, Patrice; Lavergne, Éliane; Penninger, Josef M; Pape, Paul C; Tupling, A Russell; Frenette, Jérôme

    2016-04-15

    Receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), its ligand RANKL, and the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin are the key regulators of osteoclast differentiation and bone remodeling. Here we show that RANK is also expressed in fully differentiated myotubes and skeletal muscle. Muscle RANK deletion has inotropic effects in denervated, but not in sham, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles preventing the loss of maximum specific force while promoting muscle atrophy, fatigability, and increased proportion of fast-twitch fibers. In denervated EDL muscles, RANK deletion markedly increased stromal interaction molecule 1 content, a Ca(2+)sensor, and altered activity of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) modulating Ca(2+)storage. Muscle RANK deletion had no significant effects on the sham or denervated slow-twitch soleus muscles. These data identify a novel role for RANK as a key regulator of Ca(2+)storage and SERCA activity, ultimately affecting denervated skeletal muscle function.

  3. Toe Flexor Strength, Flexibility and Function and Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Morphology in Dancers and Non-Dancers.

    PubMed

    Rowley, K Michael; Jarvis, Danielle N; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Chang, Yu-Jen; Fietzer, Abbigail L; Kulig, Kornelia

    2015-09-01

    Tendinopathy of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL), colloquially referred to as "dancer's tendinitis," is a common condition in dancers and attributed to high demand on this muscle in positions of extreme ankle plantarflexion and metatarsophalangeal (MTP)) flexion and extension. Despite such a high prevalence, there has been little research into preventative or nonsurgical interventions. As a means to identify potential targets for prevention and intervention, this study aimed to characterize toe flexors in dancers by measuring strength, flexibility, function, and FHL tendon morphology. Dancers (n=25) were compared to non-dancers (n=25) in toe flexor isometric strength, first MTP joint range of motion, foot longitudinal arch flexibility, balance ability, endurance during modified heel raises without use of the toes, and FHL tendon thickness, cross-sectional area, and peak spatial frequency. Significant differences were found in functional first MTP joint extension (dancers 101.95°, non-dancers 91.15°, p<0.001), balance ability during single-leg stance on the toes (dancers 11.43 s, non-dancers 5.90 s, p=0.013), and during modified heel raises (dancers 22.20 reps, non-dancers 28.80 reps, p=0.001). Findings indicate that dancers rely on toe flexors more than non-dancers to complete balance and heel raise tasks. Efficacy of using this modified heel raise task with the toes off the edge of a block as a means to train larger plantarflexors and as a nonsurgical intervention should be studied in the future. Improving interventions for FHL tendinopathy will be impactful for dancers, in whom this condition is highly prevalent.

  4. On the central muscle attachment scar pattern of Suchonella Spizharsky 1939

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    The fortuitous spalling of a carapace of the nonmarine Permian Suchonella typica Spizharsky 1939 disclosed the adductor muscle attachment scar as well as two accessory scars on both the right side of the steinkern and the inside of the spalled right valve. This central muscle field is illustrated and discussed. An objective list of species described in or referred to Suchonella Spizharsky 1939 is appended.

  5. Effects of balance training by knee joint motions on muscle activity in adult men with functional ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Seung-min; Kim, Won-bok; Yun, Chang-kyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of balance training by applying knee joint movements on muscle activity in male adults with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] 28 adults with functional ankle instability, divided randomly into an experimental group, which performed balance training by applying knee joint movements for 20 minutes and ankle joint exercises for 10 minutes, and a control group, which performed ankle joint exercise for 30 minutes. Exercises were completed three times a week for 8 weeks. Electromyographic values of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscles were obtained to compare and analyze muscle activity before and after the experiments in each group. [Results] The experimental group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis increased without significance. The control group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis and lateral gastrocnemius muscles increased without significance. [Conclusion] In conclusion, balance training by applying knee joint movements can be recommended as a treatment method for patients with functional ankle instability. PMID:27313386

  6. Characteristic MRI Findings of upper Limb Muscle Involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Sugie, Kazuma; Sugie, Miho; Taoka, Toshio; Tonomura, Yasuyo; Kumazawa, Aya; Izumi, Tesseki; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Ueno, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the relation between muscle MRI findings and upper limb weakness with grip myotonia in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Seventeen patients with DM1 were evaluated by manual muscle strength testing and muscle MRI of the upper limbs. Many DM1 patients presenting with decreased grasping power frequently showed high intensity signals in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles on T1-weighted imaging. Patients presenting with upper limb weakness frequently also showed high intensity signals in the flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis muscles. Disturbances of the distal muscles of the upper limbs were predominant in all DM1 patients. Some DM1 patients with a prolonged disease duration showed involvement of not only distal muscles but also proximal muscles in the upper limbs. Muscle involvement of the upper limbs on MRI strongly correlated positively with the disease duration or the numbers of CTG repeats. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a detailed description of the distribution and severity of affected muscles of the upper limbs on MRI in patients with DM1. We conclude that muscle MRI findings are very useful for identifying affected muscles and predicting the risk of muscle weakness in the upper limbs of DM1 patients. PMID:25919300

  7. Pre-landing wrist muscle activity in hopping toads.

    PubMed

    Ekstrom, Laura J; Gillis, Gary B

    2015-08-01

    Coordinated landing requires preparation. Muscles in the limbs important for decelerating the body should be activated prior to impact so that joints may be stiffened and limbs stabilized during landing. Moreover, because landings vary in impact force and timing, muscle recruitment patterns should be modulated accordingly. In toads, which land using their forelimbs, previous work has demonstrated such modulation in muscles acting at the elbow, but not at the shoulder. In this study, we used electromyography and high-speed video to test the hypothesis that antagonistic muscles acting at the wrists of toads are activated in advance of impact, and that these activation patterns are tuned to the timing and force of impact. We recorded from two wrist extensors: extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) and extensor digitorum communis longus (EDCL), and two wrist flexors: flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and palmaris longus (PL). Each muscle was recorded in 4-5 animals (≥15 hops per animal). In all muscles, activation intensity was consistently greatest shortly before impact, suggesting the importance of these muscles during landing. Pre-landing recruitment intensity regularly increased with aerial phase duration (i.e. hop distance) in all muscles except PL. In addition, onset timing in both wrist flexors was also modulated with hop distance, with later onset times being associated with longer hops. Thus, activation patterns in major flexors and extensors of the wrist are tuned to hop distance with respect to recruitment intensity, onset timing or both.

  8. Morphological and functional relationships with ultrasound measured muscle thickness of the lower extremity: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Ultrasound is a potential method for assessing muscle size of the extremity and trunk. In a large muscle, however, a single image from portable ultrasound measures only muscle thickness (MT), not anatomical muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) or muscle volume (MV). Thus, it is important to know whether MT is related to anatomical CSA and MV in an individual muscle of the extremity and trunk. In this review, we summarize previously published articles in the lower extremity demonstrating the relationships between ultrasound MT and muscle CSA or MV as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. The relationship between MT and isometric and isokinetic joint performance is also reviewed. A linear relationship is observed between MT and muscle CSA or MV in the quadriceps, adductor, tibialis anterior, and triceps surae muscles. Intrarater correlation coefficients range from 0.90 to 0.99, except for one study. It would appear that anterior upper-thigh MT, mid-thigh MT and posterior thigh MT are the best predictors for evaluating adductor, quadriceps, and hamstrings muscle size, respectively. Despite a limited number of studies, anterior as well as posterior lower leg MT appear to reflect muscle CSA and MV of the lower leg muscles. Based on previous studies, ultrasound measured anterior thigh MT may be a valuable predictor of knee extension strength. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to clarify the relationship between lower extremity function and MT. PMID:27433253

  9. Quantification of sarcomere length distribution in whole muscle frozen sections.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Shawn M; Cheng, Elton J; Young, Kevin W; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2016-05-15

    Laser diffraction (LD) is a valuable tool for measuring sarcomere length (Ls), a major determinant of muscle function. However, this method relies on few measurements per sample that are often extrapolated to whole muscle properties. Currently it is not possible to measure Ls throughout an entire muscle and determine how Ls varies at this scale. To address this issue, we developed an actuated LD scanner for sampling large numbers of sarcomeres in thick whole muscle longitudinal sections. Sections of high optical quality and fixation were produced from tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles of Sprague-Dawley rats (N=6). Scans produced two-dimensional Ls maps, capturing >85% of the muscle area per section. Individual Ls measures generated by automatic LD and bright-field microscopy showed excellent agreement over a large Ls range (ICC>0.93). Two-dimensional maps also revealed prominent regional Ls variations across muscles. PMID:26994184

  10. Case report: the cleidocervical muscle with speculation as to its origin.

    PubMed Central

    Tomo, S; Toh, H; Hirakawa, T; Tomo, I; Kobayashi, S

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence of a cleidocervical muscle, which arose from the anterior tubercle of the transverse process of the 6th cervical vertebra and was inserted onto the superior margin of the clavicle, is described. Detailed observations on its innervation, which was derived from the 5th cervical nerve, and its topographic anatomy suggest that the muscle originated from longus colli. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8157489

  11. Influence of spaceflight on rat skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Thomas P.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a 7-day spaceflight (aboard NASA's SL-3) on the size and the metabolism of single fibers from several rat muscles was investigated along with the specificity of these responses as related to the muscle type and the size of fibers. It was found that the loss of mass after flight was varied from 36 percent in the soleus to 15 percent in the extensor digitorum longus. Results of histochemical analyses showed that the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in muscles of flight-exposed rats was maintained at the control levels, whereas the alpha-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activity was either maintained or increased. The analyses of the metabolic profiles of ATPase, SDH, and GPD indicated that, in some muscles, there was an increase in the poportion of fast oxidative-glycolytic fibers.

  12. Comparison of Adductor Canal Block and Femoral Nerve Block for Postoperative Pain in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Cui-Cui; Dong, Shu-Ling; He, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has always been associated with moderate-to-severe pain. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pain control of adductor canal block (ACB) and femoral nerve block (FNB) after TKA. Relevant literatures about the ACB and FNB after TKA for reducing pain were searched from Medline (1996-January, 2015), Embase (1980-January, 2015), PubMed (1980-January, 2015), Web of Science (1980-January, 2015), and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. High-quality RCTs and non-RCTs were picked to evaluate the visual analogue scale (VAS) and other outcome. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the PRISMA statement criteria. The software RevMan 5.30 was used for the meta-analysis. Eight literatures fitted into the inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences in VAS score with rest or mobilization at 4, 24, and 48 h between ACB group and FNB group. There were also no significant differences in the strength of quadriceps and adductor, the length of hospital stay, and complications of vomiting and nausea. Present meta-analysis indicated that ACB shows no superiority than FNB group. Both of them can reduce the pain score after TKA. As referred to which method to adopt, it is determined by the preference of the surgeons and anesthesiologists. PMID:27015172

  13. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation.

    PubMed

    Sabat, Dhananjaya; Dabas, Vineet; Dhal, Anil

    2014-07-01

    Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP). He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future.

  14. Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat-kangaroos (marsupialia: macropodoidea).

    PubMed

    Warburton, Natalie Marina

    2009-06-01

    The jaw muscles were studied in seven genera of macropodoid marsupials with diets ranging from mainly fungi in Potorous to grass in Macropus. Relative size, attachments, and lamination within the jaw adductor muscles varied between macropodoid species. Among macropodine species, the jaw adductor muscle proportions vary with feeding type. The relative mass of the masseter is roughly consistent, but grazers and mixed-feeders (Macropus and Lagostrophus) had relatively larger medial pterygoids and smaller temporalis muscles than the browsers (Dendrolagus, Dorcopsulus, and Setonix). Grazing macropods show similar jaw muscle proportions to "ungulate-grinding" type placental mammals. The internal architecture of the jaw muscles also varies between grazing and browsing macropods, most significantly, the anatomy of the medial pterygoid muscle. Potoroines have distinctly different jaw muscle proportions to macropodines. The masseter muscle group, in particular, the superficial masseter is enlarged, while the temporalis group is relatively reduced. Lagostrophus fasciatus is anatomically distinct from other macropods with respect to its masticatory muscle anatomy, including enlarged superficial medial pterygoid and deep temporalis muscles, an anteriorly inflected masseteric process, and the shape of the mandibular condyle. The enlarged triangular pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, in particular, is distinctive of Lagsotrophus.

  15. Morphofunctional responses to anaemia in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Esteva, Santiago; Panisello, Pere; Casas, Mireia; Torrella, Joan Ramon; Pagés, Teresa; Viscor, Ginés

    2008-01-01

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: control and anaemic. Anaemia was induced by periodical blood withdrawal. Extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles were excised under pentobarbital sodium total anaesthesia and processed for transmission electron microscopy, histochemical and biochemical analyses. Mitochondrial volume was determined by transmission electron microscopy in three different regions of each muscle fibre: pericapillary, sarcolemmal and sarcoplasmatic. Muscle samples sections were also stained with histochemical methods (SDH and m-ATPase) to reveal the oxidative capacity and shortening velocity of each muscle fibre. Determinations of fibre and capillary densities and fibre type composition were made from micrographs of different fixed fields selected in the equatorial region of each rat muscle. Determination of metabolites (ATP, inorganic phosphate, creatine, creatine phosphate and lactate) was done using established enzymatic methods and spectrophotometric detection. Significant differences in mitochondrial volumes were found between pericapillary, sarcolemmal and sarcoplasmic regions when data from animal groups were tested independently. Moreover, it was verified that anaemic rats had significantly lower values than control animals in all the sampled regions of both muscles. These changes were associated with a significantly higher proportion of fast fibres in anaemic rat soleus muscles (slow oxidative group = 63.8%; fast glycolytic group = 8.2%; fast oxidative glycolytic group = 27.4%) than in the controls (slow oxidative group = 79.0%; fast glycolytic group = 3.9%; fast oxidative glycolytic group = 17.1%). No significant changes were detected in the extensor digitorum longus muscle. A significant increase was found in metabolite concentration in both the extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles of the anaemic animals as compared to the control group. In conclusion, hypoxaemic hypoxia causes a reduction in

  16. Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Anil; Zywiel, Michael G; Ulrich, Slif D; McGrath, Mike S; Seyler, Thorsten M; Marker, David R; Delanois, Ronald E; Mont, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of hip adductor, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris muscle contractures following total hip arthroplasties are quite common, with some patients failing to improve despite treatment with a variety of non-operative modalities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of and patient outcomes of botulinum toxin injections as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty. Methods Ten patients (14 hips) who had hip adductor, abductor, and/or flexor muscle contractures following total arthroplasty and had been refractory to physical therapeutic efforts were treated with injection of botulinum toxin A. Eight limbs received injections into the adductor muscle, 8 limbs received injections into the tensor fascia lata muscle, and 2 limbs received injection into the rectus femoris muscle, followed by intensive physical therapy for 6 weeks. Results At a mean final follow-up of 20 months, all 14 hips had increased range in the affected arc of motion, with a mean improvement of 23 degrees (range, 10 to 45 degrees). Additionally all hips had an improvement in hip scores, with a significant increase in mean score from 74 points (range, 57 to 91 points) prior to injection to a mean of 96 points (range, 93 to 98) at final follow-up. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion Botulinum toxin A injections combined with intensive physical therapy may be considered as a potential treatment modality, especially in difficult cases of muscle tightness that are refractory to standard therapy. PMID:19709429

  17. Isokinetic imbalance of hip muscles in soccer players with osteitis pubis.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Walaa Sayed; Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa; Elhafez, Salam Mohamed; Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Nassif, Nagui Sobhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the isokinetic torques of hip flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors in soccer players suffering from osteitis pubis (OP), with normal soccer players. Twenty soccer male athletes with OP and 20 normal soccer athletes were included in this study. Peak torque/body weight (PT/BW) was recorded from hip flexor/extensor and abductor/adductor muscles during isokinetic concentric contraction modes at angular velocity of 2.1 rad · s(-1), for both groups. The results showed a significant difference between the normal and OP groups for hip flexors (P < 0.05). The normal group had significant, lower PT/BW value than the OP group for their hip flexors (P < 0.05). The hip flexor/extensor PT ratio of OP affected and non-affected limbs was significantly different from that of normal dominant and non-dominant limbs. There were no significant differences between the normal and OP groups for hip extensor, adductor and abductor muscles (P > 0.05). Regarding the hip adductor/abductor PT ratio, there was no significant difference between the normal and OP groups of athletes (P > 0.05). The OP group displayed increase in hip flexor strength that disturbed the hip flexor/extensor torque ratio of OP. Therefore, increasing the hip extensor strength should be part of rehabilitation programmes of patients with OP. PMID:24499182

  18. Muscle lengthening surgery causes differential acute mechanical effects in both targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Filiz; Özdeşlik, Rana N; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A

    2013-10-01

    Epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT) is a major determinant of muscle force exerted, as well as length range of force exertion. Therefore, EMFT is of importance in remedial surgery performed, e.g., in spastic paresis. We aimed to test the following hypotheses: (1) muscle lengthening surgery (involving preparatory dissection (PD) and subsequent proximal aponeurotomy (AT)) affects the target muscle force exerted at its distal and proximal tendons differentially, (2) forces of non-operated synergistic muscles are affected as well, (3) PD causes some of these effects. In three conditions (control, post-PD, and post-AT exclusively on m. extensor digitorum longus (EDL)), forces exerted by rat anterior crural muscles were measured simultaneously. Our results confirm hypotheses (1-2), and hypothesis (3) in part: Reduction of EDL maximal force differed by location (i.e. 26.3% when tested distally and 44.5% when tested proximally). EDL length range of active force exertion increased only distally. Force reductions were shown also for non-operated tibialis anterior (by 11.9%), as well as for extensor hallucis longus (by 8.4%) muscles. In tibialis anterior only, part of the force reduction (4.9%) is attributable to PD. Due to EMFT, remedial surgery should be considered to have differential effects for targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles.

  19. Entrapment of Extensor Pollicis Longus Tendon after Volar Plating of a Smith Type Pediatric Distal Forearm Fracture.

    PubMed

    Franz, Torsten

    2016-06-01

    Extensor pollicis longus tendon entrapment is a rare complication of volarly displaced pediatric distal radius fractures. The few pediatric case reports have described tendon entrapment associated with conservative fracture treatment, or have been recognized at subsequent revision surgery after failure to achieve closed fracture reduction. A case of extensor pollicis longus tendon entrapment after open reduction and volar plate fixation of a pediatric distal forearm fracture is reported. This complication may also occur secondarily after open reduction and volar plating of the distal radius. PMID:27454642

  20. How human gait responds to muscle impairment in total knee arthroplasty patients: Muscular compensations and articular perturbations.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Marzieh M; Moazen, Mehran

    2016-06-14

    Post-surgical muscle weakness is prevalent among patients who undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We conducted a probabilistic multi-body dynamics (MBD) to determine whether and to what extent habitual gait patterns of TKA patients may accommodate strength deficits in lower extremity muscles. We analyzed muscular and articular compensations in response to various muscle impairments, and the minimum muscle strength requirements needed to preserve TKA gait patterns in its habitual status. Muscle weakness was simulated by reducing the strength parameter of muscle models in MBD analysis. Using impaired models, muscle and joint forces were calculated and compared versus those from baseline gait i.e. TKA habitual gait before simulating muscle weakness. Comparisons were conducted using a relatively new statistical approach for the evaluation of gait waveforms, i.e. Spatial Parameter Mapping (SPM). Principal component analysis was then conducted on the MBD results to quantify the sensitivity of every joint force component to individual muscle impairment. The results of this study contain clinically important, although preliminary, suggestions. Our findings suggested that: (1) hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor muscles compensated for hip extensor weakness; (2) hip extensor, hip adductor and ankle plantar flexor muscles compensated for hip flexor weakness; (3) hip and knee flexor muscles responded to hip abductor weakness; (4) knee flexor and hip abductor balanced hip adductor impairment; and (5) knee extensor and knee flexor weakness were compensated by hip extensor and hip flexor muscles. Future clinical studies are required to validate the results of this computational study. PMID:27063251

  1. Insulin effect on amino acid uptake by unloaded rat hindlimb muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, S. R.; Tischler, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of insulin on the uptake of alpha-amino-isobutyric acid (AIB) by unloaded rat hindlimb muscles was investigated using soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from intact and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats that were tail-casted for six days. It was found that, at insulin levels above 0.00001 units/ml, the in vitro rate of AIB uptake by muscles from intact animals was stimulated more in the weight bearing muscles than in unloaded ones. In ADX animals, this differential response to insulin was abolished.

  2. The effect of repetitive ankle perturbations on muscle reaction time and muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Thain, Peter Kevin; Hughes, Gerwyn Trefor Gareth; Mitchell, Andrew Charles Stephen

    2016-10-01

    The use of a tilt platform to simulate a lateral ankle sprain and record muscle reaction time is a well-established procedure. However, a potential caveat is that repetitive ankle perturbation may cause a natural attenuation of the reflex latency and amplitude. This is an important area to investigate as many researchers examine the effect of an intervention on muscle reaction time. Muscle reaction time, peak and average amplitude of the peroneus longus and tibialis anterior in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain (combined inversion and plantar flexion movement) were calculated in twenty-two physically active participants. The 40 perturbations were divided into 4 even groups of 10 dominant limb perturbations. Within-participants repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were conducted to assess the effect of habituation over time for each variable. There was a significant reduction in the peroneus longus average amplitude between the aggregated first and last 10 consecutive ankle perturbations (F2.15,45.09=3.90, P=0.03, ɳp(2)=0.16). Authors should implement no more than a maximum of 30 consecutive ankle perturbations (inclusive of practice perturbations) in future protocols simulating a lateral ankle sprain in an effort to avoid significant attenuation of muscle activity.

  3. Femoral nerve block versus adductor canal block for postoperative pain control after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A randomized controlled double blind study

    PubMed Central

    El Ahl, Mohamed Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the postoperative pain control using adductor canal block (ACB) compared that using the femoral nerve block (FNB) in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLR). Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty-eight patients who had been scheduled to patellar graft ACLR were included in this double blind study, and were randomly allocated into two groups; group ACB and group FNB (64 patients each). All patients received general anesthesia. At the end of the surgery, patients in group FNB received a FNB and those in group ACB received an ACB. The postoperative pain (visual analog scale [VAS]) and muscle weakness were assessed in the postoperative care unit and every 6 h thereafter for 24 h. The total morphine requirements were also recorded. Results: Patients in group ACB had significantly higher VAS (at 18 h and 24 h), higher morphine consumption, but significantly less quadriceps weakness than those in group FNB. Conclusion: In patients with patellar graft ACLR, the ACB can maintain a higher quadriceps power, but with lesser analgesia compared with the FNB. PMID:26240546

  4. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles Print A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are ...

  5. Laryngeal muscle activity in giggle: a damped oscillation model.

    PubMed

    Titze, Ingo R; Finnegan, Eileen M; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Fuja, Megan; Hoffman, Henry

    2008-11-01

    The acoustic properties of giggle, a mild form of laughter, were studied. The purpose was to determine if there is some uniqueness to the frequency and number of vocalization bursts in giggle. The underlying hypothesis was that a neuromechanical oscillator serves as an activator for rhythmic vocalizations, as in vibrato, with a pair of agonist-antagonist adductor muscles alternating in a 180 degrees phase relationship. Electromyographic activity of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle was always measured, in conjunction with either lateral cricoarytenoid or thyroarytenoid muscle activity. Results indicate that muscle activations do alternate and that these activations do not diminish during successive bursts, even though the amplitude and duty ratio of the bursts decreases. It is reasoned that reduced lung pressure and lung volume limit the number of bursts and their duty ratio, while speed of intrinsic laryngeal muscle contraction dictates the burst frequency. PMID:17509825

  6. Fetal muscle-derived cells can repair dystrophic muscles in mdx mice

    SciTech Connect

    Auda-Boucher, Gwenola; Rouaud, Thierry; Lafoux, Aude; Levitsky, Dmitri; Huchet-Cadiou, Corinne; Feron, Marie; Guevel, Laetitia; Talon, Sophie; Fontaine-Perus, Josiane; Gardahaut, Marie-France . E-mail: Marie-France.Gardahaut@univ-nantes.fr

    2007-03-10

    We have previously reported that CD34{sup +} cells purified from mouse fetal muscles can differentiate into skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo when injected into muscle tissue of dystrophic mdx mice. In this study, we investigate the ability of such donor cells to restore dystrophin expression, and to improve the functional muscle capacity of the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) of mdx mice. For this purpose green fluorescent-positive fetal GFP{sup +}/CD34{sup +} cells or desmin{sup +}/{sup -}LacZ/CD34{sup +} cells were transplanted into irradiated or non-irradiated mdx EDL muscle. Donor fetal muscle-derived cells predominantly fused with existing fibers. Indeed more than 50% of the myofibers of the host EDL contained donor nuclei delivering dystrophin along 80-90% of the length of their sarcolemma. The presence of significant amounts of dystrophin (about 60-70% of that found in a control wild-type mouse muscle) was confirmed by Western blot analyses. Dystrophin expression also outcompeted that of utrophin, as revealed by a spatial shift in the distribution of utrophin. At 1 month post-transplant, the recipient muscle appeared to have greater resistance to fatigue than control mdx EDL muscle during repeated maximal contractions.

  7. Effect of unloading on muscle volume with and without resistance training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akima, Hiroshi; Ushiyama, Jun-ichi; Kubo, Junjiro; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2007-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of resistance training on the volume of four muscle groups and/or 17 individual muscles of the human lower limb during 20 days of 6∘ head-down tilt bed rest. Twelve healthy men were divided into two groups: the resistance training group: BR-Tr (n=6) and the control group: BR-Cont (n=6). The volumes of the knee extensor, knee flexor, adductor, plantar flexor, and dorsiflexor muscle groups and their individual muscles were calculated. After the bed rest, the BR-Tr subjects showed no significant change in the volume in almost all tested muscles; in contrast, the volumes of the four muscle groups significantly decreased in the BR-Cont group ( -12% to -8%). These results suggest that resistance training during bed rest can prevent the deteriorating of thigh muscles and calf muscles.

  8. Salvage Flexor Hallucis Longus Transfer for a Failed Achilles Repair: Endoscopic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Sérgio; Caetano, Rubén; Corte-Real, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Flexor hallucis longus (FHL) transfer is a well-established treatment option in failed Achilles tendon (AT) repair and has been routinely performed as an open procedure. We detail the surgical steps needed to perform an arthroscopic transfer of the FHL for a chronic AT rupture. The FHL tendon is harvested as it enters in its tunnel beneath the sustentaculum tali; a tunnel is then drilled in the calcaneus as near to the AT footprint as possible. By use of a suture-passing device, the free end of the FHL is advanced to the plantar aspect of the foot. After adequate tension is applied to the construct, the tendon is fixed in place with an interference screw in an inside-out fashion. This minimally invasive approach is a safe and valid alternative to classic open procedures with the obvious advantages of preserving the soft-tissue envelope and using a biologically intact tendon. PMID:26697296

  9. Abductor pollicis longus "hammock" ligamentoplasty for treatment of first carpometacarpal arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mathoulin, C; Moreel, P; Costa, R; Wilson, S M

    2008-06-01

    The association of trapeziectomy with ligamentoplasty is a simple treatment for osteoarthritis at the base of the thumb. Here we present the long-term results of a technique that creates a "hammock" under the first metacarpal bone using the Abductor Pollicis Longus tendon. This paper reports the results of treatment by this operation of 60 thumbs in 50 patients, including 13 men and 37 women of average age 60 (46-75) years. Thirty thumbs presented with severe pain and 30 with moderate pain. At final follow-up, 47 thumbs (78%) had experienced dramatic relief of pain following the procedure, 12 (20%) thumbs still had mild pain and one (2%) thumb had severe pain. No patients needed revision.

  10. Quantifying the aging response and nutrient composition for muscles of the beef round.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C L; Woerner, D R; Tokach, R J; Chapman, P L; Engle, T E; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P < 0.05) between individual muscle and postmortem aging period. The WBSF of all muscles except the superficial digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All

  11. Quantifying the aging response and nutrient composition for muscles of the beef round.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C L; Woerner, D R; Tokach, R J; Chapman, P L; Engle, T E; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P < 0.05) between individual muscle and postmortem aging period. The WBSF of all muscles except the superficial digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All

  12. Structural characterization of CFA/III and Longus type IVb pili from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Roos, Justin; Yuen, Alex S W; Pierce, Owen M; Craig, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    The type IV pili are helical filaments found on many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, with multiple diverse roles in pathogenesis, including microcolony formation, adhesion, and twitching motility. Many pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates express one of two type IV pili belonging to the type IVb subclass: CFA/III or Longus. Here we show a direct correlation between CFA/III expression and ETEC aggregation, suggesting that these pili, like the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), mediate microcolony formation. We report a 1.26-Å resolution crystal structure of CofA, the major pilin subunit from CFA/III. CofA is very similar in structure to V. cholerae TcpA but possesses a 10-amino-acid insertion that replaces part of the α2-helix with an irregular loop containing a 3(10)-helix. Homology modeling suggests a very similar structure for the Longus LngA pilin. A model for the CFA/III pilus filament was generated using the TCP electron microscopy reconstruction as a template. The unique 3(10)-helix insert fits perfectly within the gap between CofA globular domains. This insert, together with differences in surface-exposed residues, produces a filament that is smoother and more negatively charged than TCP. To explore the specificity of the type IV pilus assembly apparatus, CofA was expressed heterologously in V. cholerae by replacing the tcpA gene with that of cofA within the tcp operon. Although CofA was synthesized and processed by V. cholerae, no CFA/III filaments were detected, suggesting that the components of the type IVb pilus assembly system are highly specific to their pilin substrates. PMID:22447901

  13. Structural Characterization of CFA/III and Longus Type IVb Pili from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Roos, Justin; Yuen, Alex S. W.; Pierce, Owen M.

    2012-01-01

    The type IV pili are helical filaments found on many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, with multiple diverse roles in pathogenesis, including microcolony formation, adhesion, and twitching motility. Many pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates express one of two type IV pili belonging to the type IVb subclass: CFA/III or Longus. Here we show a direct correlation between CFA/III expression and ETEC aggregation, suggesting that these pili, like the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), mediate microcolony formation. We report a 1.26-Å resolution crystal structure of CofA, the major pilin subunit from CFA/III. CofA is very similar in structure to V. cholerae TcpA but possesses a 10-amino-acid insertion that replaces part of the α2-helix with an irregular loop containing a 310-helix. Homology modeling suggests a very similar structure for the Longus LngA pilin. A model for the CFA/III pilus filament was generated using the TCP electron microscopy reconstruction as a template. The unique 310-helix insert fits perfectly within the gap between CofA globular domains. This insert, together with differences in surface-exposed residues, produces a filament that is smoother and more negatively charged than TCP. To explore the specificity of the type IV pilus assembly apparatus, CofA was expressed heterologously in V. cholerae by replacing the tcpA gene with that of cofA within the tcp operon. Although CofA was synthesized and processed by V. cholerae, no CFA/III filaments were detected, suggesting that the components of the type IVb pilus assembly system are highly specific to their pilin substrates. PMID:22447901

  14. Modulation of the cytosolic androgen receptor in striated muscle by sex steroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rance, N. E.; Max, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of orchiectomy (GDX) and steroid administration on the level of the cytosolic androgen receptor in the rat levator ani muscle and in rat skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) was studied. Androgen receptor binding to muscle cytosol was measured using H-3 methyltrienolone (R1881) as ligand, 100 fold molar excess unlabeled R1881 to assess nonspecific binding, and 500 fold molar excess of triamcinolone acetonide to prevent binding to glucocorticoid and progestin receptors. Results demonstrate that modification of the levels of sex steroids can alter the content of androgen receptors of rat striated muscle. Data suggest that: (1) cytosolic androgen receptor levels increase after orchiectomy in both levator ani muscle and skeletal muscle; (2) the acute increase in receptor levels is blocked by an inhibitor of protein synthesis; and (3) administration of estradiol-17 beta to castrated animals increases receptor binding in levator ani muscle but not in skeletal muscle.

  15. Muscle RING‐finger 2 and 3 maintain striated‐muscle structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Lodka, Dörte; Pahuja, Aanchal; Geers‐Knörr, Cornelia; Scheibe, Renate J.; Nowak, Marcel; Hamati, Jida; Köhncke, Clemens; Purfürst, Bettina; Kanashova, Tamara; Schmidt, Sibylle; Glass, David J.; Morano, Ingo; Heuser, Arnd; Kraft, Theresia; Bassel‐Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.; Dittmar, Gunnar; Sommer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Muscle‐specific RING‐finger (MuRF) protein family of E3 ubiquitin ligases is important for maintenance of muscular structure and function. MuRF proteins mediate adaptation of striated muscles to stress. MuRF2 and MuRF3 bind to microtubules and are implicated in sarcomere formation with noticeable functional redundancy. However, if this redundancy is important for muscle function in vivo is unknown. Our objective was to investigate cooperative function of MuRF2 and MuRF3 in the skeletal muscle and the heart in vivo. Methods MuRF2 and MuRF3 double knockout mice (DKO) were generated and phenotypically characterized. Skeletal muscle and the heart were investigated by morphological measurements, histological analyses, electron microscopy, immunoblotting, and real‐time PCR. Isolated muscles were subjected to in vitro force measurements. Cardiac function was determined by echocardiography and working heart preparations. Function of cardiomyocytes was measured in vitro. Cell culture experiments and mass‐spectrometry were used for mechanistic analyses. Results DKO mice showed a protein aggregate myopathy in skeletal muscle. Maximal force development was reduced in DKO soleus and extensor digitorum longus. Additionally, a fibre type shift towards slow/type I fibres occurred in DKO soleus and extensor digitorum longus. MuRF2 and MuRF3‐deficient hearts showed decreased systolic and diastolic function. Further analyses revealed an increased expression of the myosin heavy chain isoform beta/slow and disturbed calcium handling as potential causes for the phenotype in DKO hearts. Conclusions The redundant function of MuRF2 and MuRF3 is important for maintenance of skeletal muscle and cardiac structure and function in vivo. PMID:27493870

  16. Thoracic epaxial muscles in living archosaurs and ornithopod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Organ, Christopher Lee

    2006-07-01

    Crocodylians possess the same thoracic epaxial muscles as most other saurians, but M. transversospinalis is modified by overlying osteoderms. Compared with crocodylians, the thoracic epaxial muscles of birds are reduced in size, disrupted by the synsacrum, and often modified by intratendinous ossification and the notarium. A phylogenetic perspective is used to determine muscle homologies in living archosaurs (birds and crocodylians), evaluate how the apparent disparity evolved, and reconstruct the thoracic epaxial muscles in ornithopod dinosaurs. The avian modifications of the epaxial musculoskeletal system appear to have coevolved with the synsacrum and notarium. The lattice of ossified tendons in iguanodontoidean dinosaurs (Hadrosauridae and Iguanodontidae) is homologized to M. transversospinalis in crocodylians and M. longus colli dorsalis, pars thoracica in birds. Birds have an arrangement of tendons within M. longus colli dorsalis, pars thoracica identical to that observed in the epaxial ossified tendons of iguanodontoid dinosaurs. Moreover, many birds (such as grebes and turkeys) ossify these tendons, resulting in a two- or three-layered lattice of ossified tendons, a morphology also seen in iguanodontoid dinosaurs. Although the structure of M. transversospinalis appears indistinguishable between birds and iguanodontoid dinosaurs, intratendinous ossification within this epaxial muscle evolved convergently. PMID:16779820

  17. The Effect of Lateral Ankle Ligament Repair in Muscle Reaction Time in Patients with Mechanical Ankle Instability.

    PubMed

    Li, H-Y; Zheng, J-J; Zhang, J; Hua, Y-H; Chen, S-Y

    2015-11-01

    Studies have shown that functional ankle instability can result in prolonged muscle reaction time. However, the deficit in muscle reaction time in patients with mechanical ankle instability (MAI) and the effect of lateral ankle ligament repair on muscle reaction time are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the deficit in muscle reaction time, and to evaluate the role of lateral ligament repair in improving muscle reaction time in MAI patients. Sixteen MAI patients diagnosed with lateral ankle ligament tears by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging underwent arthroscopic debridement and open lateral ankle ligament repair with a modified Broström procedure. One day before the operation, reaction times of the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus muscles were recorded following sudden inversion perturbation while walking on a custom walkway, and anterior drawer test (ADT) and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale score were evaluated. Six months postoperatively, muscle reaction time, ADT and AOFAS scale score were reevaluated, and muscle reaction times in 15 healthy controls were also recorded. Preoperatively, the affected ankles in the MAI group had significantly delayed tibialis anterior and peroneus longus muscles reaction times compared with controls. Six months after the operation, median AOFAS scale scores were significantly greater than preoperatively, and ADT was negative in the MAI group. However, the affected ankles in the MAI group showed no difference in muscle reaction time compared with preoperative values. MAI patients had prolonged muscle reaction time. The modified Broström procedure produced satisfactory clinical outcomes in MAI patients, but did not shorten reaction times of the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus muscles.

  18. The effects of horseback riding simulator exercises on the muscle activity of the lower extremities according to changes in arm posture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of horseback riding simulator exercise on the muscle activities of the lower extremities according to changes in arm posture. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 normal adult males and females. [Methods] The horseback riding simulator exercise used a horseback riding simulator device; two arm postures were used, posture 1 (holding the handle of the device) and posture 2 (crossing both arms, with both hands on the shoulders). Electromyography was used to compare the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and hip adductors in the lower extremities. [Results] Posture 2 had significantly higher muscle activity than posture 1. [Conclusion] Posture 2, which entailed crossing both arms with both hands on the shoulders, was an effective intervention for improved muscle activity in the hip adductors. PMID:26504280

  19. Age-related loss of muscle fibres is highly variable amongst mouse skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Sheard, Philip W; Anderson, Ross D

    2012-04-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, attributable in part to muscle fibre loss. We are currently unable to prevent fibre loss because we do not know what causes it. To provide a platform from which to better understand the causes of muscle fibre death we have quantified fibre loss in several muscles of aged C57Bl/6J mice. Comparison of muscle fibre numbers on dystrophin-immunostained transverse tissue sections at 6 months of age with those at 24 months shows a significant fibre loss in extensor digitorum longus and soleus, but not in sternomastoid or cleidomastoid muscles. The muscles of the elderly mice were mostly lighter than their younger counterparts, but fibres in the elderly muscles were of about the same cross-sectional area. This study shows that the contribution of fibre death to sarcopenia is highly variable and that there is no consistent pattern of age-related fibre loss between skeletal muscles.

  20. Evaluation of muscle metabolic activity in the lower limb of a transfemoral amputee using a prosthesis by using (18)F-FDG PET imaging--an application of PET imaging to rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Keiko; Yamaji, Takehiko; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Inoue, Tomio; Takagishi, Kenji; Endo, Keigo

    2004-07-01

    This study used FDG PET to evaluate the lower limb muscles metabolic activities of transfemoral amputees during walking with prostheses. As a preliminary study, FDG PET was applied for two normal adult volunteers to evaluate muscle activity in the lower extremities after gait exercise. This same method was applied for two amputee volunteers with prostheses. We found that FDG accumulated more in both gluteus medius muscles after gait exercise compared to other muscles in normal adult volunteers. In the skilled amputee volunteer, FDG uptake increased in the adductor and gluteus medius in the amputated side, while in the unskilled the adductor, gluteus maximus, and gluteus medius showed increased FDG uptake only in the normal side. This result suggests that basic metabolic changes such as an increase in oxidative metabolism and less reliance on glycolytic activity would occur as a result of skeletal muscle training in amputees. PMID:15183449

  1. Effects of stretching and disuse on amino acids in muscles of rat hind limbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of disuse and passive stretch on the concentrations of amino acids and ammonia in the unloaded soleus muscle was investigated in hindquarter-suspended (for six days by casting one foot in dorsiflexion) tail-casted rats. For a comparison with the condition of unloading, amino acids and ammonia were also measured in shortened extensor digitorum longus in the same casted limb and in denervated leg muscles. The results obtained suggest that passive stretch diminishes some of the characteristic alterations of amino acid concentrations due to unloading. This effect of stretch is considered to be due to the maintenance of muscle tension.

  2. Influences of laryngeal afferent inputs on intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization in the cat.

    PubMed

    Shiba, K; Yoshida, K; Nakajima, Y; Konno, A

    1997-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the possible role of the laryngeal afferent inputs in the regulation of intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization. We studied the influences of airflow and/or pressure applied to the larynx on intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization in ketamine-anesthetized cats. Vocalization was induced by airflow applied to the upper airway, which was isolated from the lower airway, during pontine call site stimulation. When the upper airway was open to the atmosphere through the nostrils and mouth, the airflow increased not only the vocal fold adductor and tensor activities but also the duration of these activities. The adductor and tensor activities were increased suddenly at a critical subglottic pressure level equivalent to the subglottic pressure threshold for vocalization. These effects were significantly reduced by sectioning of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve or by lidocaine application to the laryngeal mucosa. Sustained pressure applied to the isolated upper airway, when the mouth and nostrils were occluded, did not affect adductor or tensor activities. These results indicate that the afferent inputs evoked by vocal fold stretching or vibration play an important role in the motor control of intralaryngeal and respiratory muscles during vocalization.

  3. Supersonic shear imaging provides a reliable measurement of resting muscle shear elastic modulus.

    PubMed

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Nordez, Antoine

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of shear elastic modulus measurements performed using supersonic shear imaging (SSI) in nine resting muscles (i.e. gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachioradialis, adductor pollicis obliquus and abductor digiti minimi) of different architectures and typologies. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to the intra-session reliability (n = 20), inter-day reliability (n = 21) and the inter-observer reliability (n = 16) experiments. Muscle shear elastic modulus ranged from 2.99 (gastrocnemius medialis) to 4.50 kPa (adductor digiti minimi and tibialis anterior). On the whole, very good reliability was observed, with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4.6% to 8%, except for the inter-operator reliability of adductor pollicis obliquus (CV = 11.5%). The intraclass correlation coefficients were good (0.871 ± 0.045 for the intra-session reliability, 0.815 ± 0.065 for the inter-day reliability and 0.709 ± 0.141 for the inter-observer reliability). Both the reliability and the ease of use of SSI make it a potentially interesting technique that would be of benefit to fundamental, applied and clinical research projects that need an accurate assessment of muscle mechanical properties.

  4. Effect of passive muscle stretching in osteoarthritis of the hip.

    PubMed

    Leivseth, G; Torstensson, J; Reikerås, O

    1989-01-01

    1. Twenty-five minute daily muscle stretching, perpendicular to the fibre direction of the adductor muscles without movement of the hip, was performed in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. 2. Before and after treatment hip abduction was measured and muscle biopsies were taken for analysis of fibre cross-sectional areas of type 1 and type 2 fibres as well as adenosine 5'-triphosphate, creatine phosphate and glycogen contents. 3. From the results it is concluded that passive muscle stretching leads to a significant increase in hip abduction of 8.3 degrees (P less than 0.05). There was also a significant increase of type 1 and type 2 fibre cross-sectional area and of glycogen content after the treatment period (P less than 0.05), but the concentrations of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and creatine phosphate did not change significantly.

  5. Endoscopic-Assisted Flexor Hallucis Longus Transfer: Harvest of the Tendon at Zone 2 or Zone 3.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    Flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer is indicated for reconstruction of the Achilles tendon with a gap larger than 5 cm. The tendon can be harvested at zone 2 or zone 3 by minimally invasive techniques with the advantage of minimal soft-tissue dissection. The tendon can be harvested under the sustentaculum tali by zone 2 FHL tendoscopy. It is adequate for FHL transfer to the posterior calcaneal tubercle. If a double-thickness reconstruction of a huge gap of the Achilles tendon is indicated, the tendon can be harvested at the level of the hallux by means of a tendon stripper. However, the interconnection tendon of the master knot of Henry can be split together with the FHL or flexor digitorum longus tendon instead of being cut. Zone 2 FHL tendoscopy can be used to release the split tendon to complete the FHL harvest. PMID:27284516

  6. Everyday listeners' impressions of speech produced by individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Kathleen F; Eadie, Tanya L; Yorkston, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) have reported that unfamiliar communication partners appear to judge them as sneaky, nervous or not intelligent, apparently based on the quality of their speech; however, there is minimal research into the actual everyday perspective of listening to ADSD speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impressions of listeners hearing ADSD speech for the first time using a mixed-methods design. Everyday listeners were interviewed following sessions in which they made ratings of ADSD speech. A semi-structured interview approach was used and data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Three major themes emerged: (1) everyday listeners make judgments about speakers with ADSD; (2) ADSD speech does not sound normal to everyday listeners; and (3) rating overall severity is difficult for everyday listeners. Participants described ADSD speech similarly to existing literature; however, some listeners inaccurately extrapolated speaker attributes based solely on speech samples. Listeners may draw erroneous conclusions about individuals with ADSD and these biases may affect the communicative success of these individuals. Results have implications for counseling individuals with ADSD, as well as the need for education and awareness about ADSD.

  7. Influence of icing on muscle regeneration after crush injury to skeletal muscles in rats.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Ryo; Fujita, Naoto; Arakawa, Takamitsu; Kawada, Shigeo; Ishii, Naokata; Miki, Akinori

    2011-02-01

    The influence of icing on muscle regeneration after crush injury was examined in the rat extensor digitorum longus. After the injury, animals were randomly divided into nonicing and icing groups. In the latter, ice packs were applied for 20 min. Due to the icing, degeneration of the necrotic muscle fibers and differentiation of satellite cells at early stages of regeneration were retarded by ∼1 day. In the icing group, the ratio of regenerating fibers showing central nucleus at 14 days after the injury was higher, and cross-sectional area of the muscle fibers at 28 days was evidently smaller than in the nonicing group. Besides, the ratio of collagen fibers area at 14 and 28 days after the injury in the icing group was higher than in the nonicing group. These findings suggest that icing applied soon after the injury not only considerably retarded muscle regeneration but also induced impairment of muscle regeneration along with excessive collagen deposition. Macrophages were immunohistochemically demonstrated at the injury site during degeneration and early stages of regeneration. Due to icing, chronological changes in the number of macrophages and immunohistochemical expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and IGF-I were also retarded by 1 to 2 days. Since it has been said that macrophages play important roles not only for degeneration, but also for muscle regeneration, the influence of icing on macrophage activities might be closely related to a delay in muscle regeneration, impairment of muscle regeneration, and redundant collagen synthesis. PMID:21164157

  8. Comparative anatomy and muscle architecture of selected hind limb muscles in the Quarter Horse and Arab.

    PubMed

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wakeling, J M; Wilson, A M; Payne, R C

    2008-02-01

    The Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance) are situated at either end of the equine athletic spectrum. Studies into the form and function of the leg muscles in human sprint and endurance runners have demonstrated that differences exist in their muscle architecture. It is not known whether similar differences exist in the horse. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab fresh hind limb cadavers were dissected to gain information on the muscle mass and architecture of the following muscles: gluteus medius; biceps femoris; semitendinosus; vastus lateralis; gastrocnemius; tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus. Specifically, muscle mass, fascicle length and pennation angle were quantified and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force were estimated. The hind limb muscles of the Quarter Horse were of a significantly greater mass, but had similar fascicle lengths and pennation angles when compared with those of the Arab; this resulted in the Quarter Horse hind limb muscles having greater PCSAs and hence greater isometric force potential. This study suggests that Quarter Horses as a breed inherently possess large strong hind limb muscles, with the potential to accelerate their body mass more rapidly than those of the Arab.

  9. Three-Dimensional Muscle Architecture and Comprehensive Dynamic Properties of Rabbit Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus: Input for Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Tobias; Leichsenring, Kay; Rode, Christian; Wick, Carolin; Stutzig, Norman; Schubert, Harald; Blickhan, Reinhard; Böl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation) is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle) and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle) muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus. For completeness we provide the dynamic muscle properties for further important shank muscles (flexor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior; n = 1 per muscle). Maximum shortening velocity (normalized to optimal fiber length) of the gastrocnemius is about twice that of soleus, while plantaris showed an intermediate value. The force-velocity relation is similar for gastrocnemius and plantaris but is much more bent for the soleus. Although the muscles vary greatly in their three-dimensional architecture their mean pennation angle and normalized force-length relationships are almost similar. Forces of the muscles were enhanced in the isometric phase following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared to the corresponding isometric forces. While the enhancement was independent of the ramp velocity, the depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity. The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function. The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components), enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic muscle models, or

  10. Effects of step exercise on muscle damage and muscle Ca2+ content in men and women.

    PubMed

    Fredsted, Anne; Clausen, Torben; Overgaard, Kristian

    2008-07-01

    Eccentric exercise often produces severe muscle damage, whereas concentric exercise of a similar load elicits a minor degree of muscle damage. The cellular events initiating muscle damage are thought to include an increase in cytosolic Ca. It was hypothesized that eccentric muscle activity in humans would lead to a larger degree of cell damage and increased intracellular Ca accumulation in skeletal muscle than concentric activity would. Furthermore, possible differences between men and women in muscle damage were investigated following step exercise. Thirty-three healthy subjects (18 men and 15 women) participated in a 30-minute step exercise protocol involving concentric contractions with 1 leg and eccentric contractions with the other leg. Muscle Ca content, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and muscle enzymes in the plasma were measured. In a subgroup of the subjects, T2 relaxation time was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. No significant changes were found in muscle Ca content in vastus lateralis biopsy specimens in women or in men. Following step exercise, MVC decreased in both legs of both genders. The women had a significantly larger strength decrease in the eccentric leg than the men had on postexercise day 2 (p < 0.01). Plasma creatine kinase increased following step exercise, with a sevenfold higher response in women than in men on day 3 (p < 0.001). The women, but not the men, had an increase in T2 relaxation time in the eccentrically working adductor magnus muscle, peaking on day 3 (75%) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, step exercise does not lead to Ca accumulation in the vastus lateralis but does induce muscle damage preferentially in the eccentrically working muscles, considerably more in women than in men. This indicates that gender-specific step training programs may be warranted to avoid excessive muscle damage. PMID:18545196

  11. Avulsion fracture of the extensor carpi radialis longus carpal insertion due to a basketball injury: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Robert, N; Zbili, D; Bellity, J; Doursounian, L; Mauprivez, R

    2014-12-01

    Articular fractures of the base of the 2nd metacarpal involving the extensor carpi radialis longus insertion are unusual and poorly understood. There is no consensus as to how these fractures should be treated. We report the case of a 2nd metacarpal base fracture in a professional basketball player that was treated surgically with open reduction and internal fixation using cannulated screws. The management of this case is compared to similar cases in the literature.

  12. Glucocorticoid sensitivity, disuse, and the regulation of muscle mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almon, R. R.; Dubois, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    A new noninvasive immobilization procedure to be used on rats has been developed to study immobilization-induced muscle hypersensitivity to normal glucocorticoid concentration, subsequent muscle atrophy, and atrophy recovery. The immobilization procedure involves encasing the hind limb in a light-weight plasticlike cast (10 percent the usual plaster weight), completely resistant to animal gnawing. The effects of right-angle immobilization of the ankle on the slow fiber soleus, and the fast fiber extensor digitorum longus, resemble the effects of weightlessness. The increased concentration of glucocorticoid receptor sites in immobilized and denervated muscle is discussed, along with the chronic loss of muscle mass that occurs in practically all dystrophies. It is concluded that lack of mechanical work in a zero gravity environment is a major cause of glucocorticoid hypersensitivity in the body's musculature.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of decreased protein synthesis during skeletal muscle unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, G.; Steffen, J. M.; Geoghegan, T. E.

    1989-01-01

    The regulatory role of transcriptional alterations in unloaded skeletal muscles was investigated by determining levels of total muscle RNA and mRNA fractions in soleus, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of rats subjected to whole-body suspension for up to 7 days. After 7 days, total RNA and mRNA contents were lower in soleus and gastrocnemius, compared with controls, but the concentrations of both RNAs per g muscle were unaltered. Alpha-actin mRNA (assessed by dot hybridization) was significantly reduced in soleus after 1, 3, and 7 days of suspension and in gastrocnemius after 3 and 7 days, but was unchanged in EDL. Protein synthesis directed by RNA extracted from soleus and EDL indicated marked alteration in mRNAs coding for several small proteins. Results suggest that altered transcription and availability of specific mRNAs contribute significantly to the regulation of protein synthesis during skeletal muscle unloading.

  14. Comparison of transfer sites for flexor digitorum longus in a cadaveric adult acquired flatfoot model.

    PubMed

    Vaudreuil, Nicholas J; Ledoux, William R; Roush, Grant C; Whittaker, Eric C; Sangeorzan, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    Posterior tibialis tendon (PTT) dysfunction (PTTD) is associated with adult acquired flatfoot deformity. PTTD is commonly treated with a flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon transfer (FDLTT) to the navicular (NAV), medial cuneiform (CUN), or distal residuum of the degraded PTT (rPTT). We assessed the kinetic and kinematic outcomes of these three attachment sites using cadaveric gait simulation. Three transfer locations (NAV, CUN, rPTT) were tested on seven prepared flatfoot models using a robotic gait simulator (RGS). The FDLTT procedures were simulated by pulling on the PTT with biomechanically realistic FDL forces (rPTT) or by pulling on the transected FDL tendon after fixation to the navicular or medial cuneiform (NAV and CUN, respectively). Plantar pressure and foot bone motion were quantified. Peak plantar pressure significantly decreased from the flatfoot condition at the first metatarsal (NAV) and hallux (CUN). No difference was found in the medial-lateral center of pressure. Kinematic findings showed minimal differences between flatfoot and FDLTT specimens. The three locations demonstrated only minimal differences from the flatfoot condition, with the NAV and CUN procedures resulting in decreased medial pressures. Functionally, all three surgical procedures performed similarly.

  15. Anatomical variation of abductor pollicis longus in Indian population: A cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Jerina; Mishra, Pravash Ranjan; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many authors have reported the anatomical variation of abductor pollicis longus (APL) around the wrist and its association with de Quervain tenosynovitis (DQT), first carpo-metacarpal arthritis, and trapezio-metacarpal subluxation. From Indian subcontinent, there is only one original article and a few case reports on the variability of APL tendon insertion. Materials and Methods: Fifty formaldehyde preserved cadaveric wrists were dissected to look for the anatomical variation of APL in the Indian population. Results: The APL was found with single tendon in 2, double in 31, triple in 8, and quadruple in 8 extremities. A maximum of 6 tendon-slips were found in one cadaveric wrist. In all hands, the APL had at least one attachment to first metacarpal bone and in 46 hands (92%), there was second insertion to the trapezium bone. Of all tendon-slips of APL (n = 126), 44% of tendons (68 tendons) were inserted into the base of the first metacarpal bone. This was followed by the insertion into the trapezium in 42% tendons (52 tendons). Conclusion: Bi-tendinous APL is commonly observed on the dorsal compartment of the wrist in Indian population and these tendon-slips are commonly attached to the first metacarpal base and trapezium. This variation must be understood by the Indian Orthopedic surgeons as the response to treatment of DQT and reason for first carpo-metacarpal arthritis can be dependent on this anatomical variation. PMID:26538762

  16. Comparison of transfer sites for flexor digitorum longus in a cadaveric adult acquired flatfoot model.

    PubMed

    Vaudreuil, Nicholas J; Ledoux, William R; Roush, Grant C; Whittaker, Eric C; Sangeorzan, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    Posterior tibialis tendon (PTT) dysfunction (PTTD) is associated with adult acquired flatfoot deformity. PTTD is commonly treated with a flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon transfer (FDLTT) to the navicular (NAV), medial cuneiform (CUN), or distal residuum of the degraded PTT (rPTT). We assessed the kinetic and kinematic outcomes of these three attachment sites using cadaveric gait simulation. Three transfer locations (NAV, CUN, rPTT) were tested on seven prepared flatfoot models using a robotic gait simulator (RGS). The FDLTT procedures were simulated by pulling on the PTT with biomechanically realistic FDL forces (rPTT) or by pulling on the transected FDL tendon after fixation to the navicular or medial cuneiform (NAV and CUN, respectively). Plantar pressure and foot bone motion were quantified. Peak plantar pressure significantly decreased from the flatfoot condition at the first metatarsal (NAV) and hallux (CUN). No difference was found in the medial-lateral center of pressure. Kinematic findings showed minimal differences between flatfoot and FDLTT specimens. The three locations demonstrated only minimal differences from the flatfoot condition, with the NAV and CUN procedures resulting in decreased medial pressures. Functionally, all three surgical procedures performed similarly. PMID:24115238

  17. Effects of different types of exercise on muscle activity and balance control

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Gim, Min-A; Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the effects of isotonic, isokinetic, and isometric exercises of ankle joint muscles on lower extremity muscle activity and balance control. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 healthy adults (15 males) in their 20s who were randomly assigned to three different exercise method groups of 10 people each. The isokinetic exercise group performed three sets at an angular velocity of 60°/sec, including a single rest period after every set of 10 repetitions. The isometric exercise group performed three sets consisting of three 15 repetitions of a 15-second exercise followed by a 5-second rest. [Results] Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that depending on the exercise method, the non-dominant tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius muscle, and peroneus longus showed significant differences in muscle activity for weight-bearing non-dominant sides; when the dominant side was weight-bearing, the dominant gastrocnemius and peroneus longus showed significant differences in muscle activity; and the non-dominant and dominant sides showed significant differences in balance control depending on the duration of support in the area. [Conclusion] Muscle fatigue from the three exercise methods produced a decline in muscle activity and balance control; due to the fatigue before exercise, the side that did not perform the exercises was affected. PMID:26180340

  18. [Participation of the primary motor cortex in programming of muscle activity during catching of falling object].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Lipshits, M I

    2011-01-01

    Object fell into the cup that sitting subject held between thumb and index fingers. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex was performed early before and during anticipatory grip force increasing. Comparison of current EMG activity of adductor pollicis brevis and first dorsal interosseous muscles and responses of these muscles on TMS showed that responses were increased before the raising of muscle activity. From the other side only slight augmentation of responses was observed during subsequent strong muscle activation. It is assumed that the increasing of the TMS responses that occurred before the initiation of muscle activity reflects the enhancement ofthe motor cortex excitability associated to specific processes related to the motor cortex participation in programming of the muscles activities. PMID:22117465

  19. Suppression of Thyroarytenoid Muscle Responses During Repeated Air Pressure Stimulation of the Laryngeal Mucosa in Awake Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Pamela Reed; Poletto, Christopher J.; Mann, Eric A.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Repeated stimulation of the laryngeal mucosa occurs during speech. Single stimuli, however, can elicit laryngeal adductor responses (LAR). Our hypothesis was that the LAR to repeated rapid air pressure stimuli are centrally suppressed in humans. Hooked wire electrodes were inserted into the thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles bilaterally and into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle on one side. Pairs of air puff stimuli were presented to the mucosa over the arytenoids at pressure levels three times threshold with inter-stimulus intervals from 250 to 5000 ms. Bilateral thyroarytenoid responses occurred at around 150 ms to over 70% of initial stimuli. With repeated presentation at intervals of 2 seconds or less, the percent occurrence decreased to less than 40% and response amplitudes were reduced by 50%. Central suppression of adductor responses to repeated air puff stimuli may allow speakers to produce voice without eliciting reflexive spasms which could disrupt speech. PMID:15895780

  20. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  1. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  2. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy: disuse and neurogenic. Disuse atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough . This type of atrophy can often be ...

  3. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the removal of a small piece of muscle tissue for examination. ... dystrophy Myopathic changes (destruction of the muscle) Necrosis (tissue death) of muscle Necrotizing vasculitis Traumatic muscle damage Polymyositis Additional conditions ...

  4. Vocal outcome after endoscopic thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sachin; Remacle, Marc; Mishra, Prasun; Desai, Vrushali

    2014-12-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) remains one of the most difficult of laryngeal pathologies to treat. With limited role for speech therapy, various surgical modalities have been tried with various success rates. The objective of the study is to report the results of vocal outcome after thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy in patients of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ASD). 15 patients of ASD were selected. GRBAS, and voice handicap index (VHI) were used for perceptual evaluation of voice. Thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy was performed by vaporizing the muscular layer of the vocal fold with CO2 laser, at an intensity of 6 W with 1.2 mm diameter in scanner mode. Voice analysis was repeated at 12, 24 and 48 months follow-up. Preoperative GRBAS scores and VHI score of all the patients were poor. At 12 months 12/15 (80 %) patients having strain score of 0. There was marked improvement in VHI scores at 6 months. 10/15 (67 %) patients have been followed up for 24 months. 5/10 (50 %) patients have strain (S) value of 0. VHI scoring of 5/10 (50 %) patients was <30. Two of the four patients completed 48 months follow-up had a strain (S) value of 0, one patient has strain value of 1 and one patient had strain value of 2. 2/4 patients had VHI score of <30; one patient had that of 40. Trans-oral CO2 laser thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy shows significant long-term improvement in voice quality in terms of reduced speech brakes, effort and strain in voice.

  5. Ankle muscle strength influence on muscle activation during dynamic and static ankle training modalities.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Baltich, Jennifer; Enders, Hendrik; Nigg, Sandro; Nigg, Benno

    2016-01-01

    Muscle weakness is considered a risk factor for ankle injury. Balance training and barefoot running have been used in an attempt to strengthen the muscles crossing the ankle. It is expected that training tasks that successfully strengthen the ankle would elicit increased muscular activity. However, it is unknown how an individual's ankle strength will influence the muscle activity used during a given task. Twenty-six participants performed dynamic (shod, barefoot running) and static tasks (squat on ground, squat on ®Bosu Ball) believed to strengthen the muscles surrounding the ankle. Electromyographic signals of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) were recorded and analysed using a non-linearly scaled wavelet analysis. Participants were divided into a strong group and a weak group according to their isometric plantar-flexion torque. The weak group required more relative GL and GM muscle activity during each training task compared to the strong group. No difference was observed between shod and barefoot running. There was a significant effect of training task on muscle activation level for the weak group. Differences in ankle strength had a significant impact on muscle activation.

  6. New Insights into Muscle Function during Pivot Feeding in Seahorses

    PubMed Central

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Dries, Billy; Herrel, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses, pipefish and their syngnathiform relatives are considered unique amongst fishes in using elastic recoil of post-cranial tendons to pivot the head extremely quickly towards small crustacean prey. It is known that pipefish activate the epaxial muscles for a considerable time before striking, at which rotations of the head and the hyoid are temporarily prevented to allow energy storage in the epaxial tendons. Here, we studied the motor control of this system in seahorses using electromyographic recordings of the epaxial muscles and the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscles with simultaneous high-speed video recordings of prey capture. In addition we present the results from a stimulation experiment including the muscle hypothesised to be responsible for the locking and triggering of pivot feeding in seahorses (m. adductor arcus palatini). Our data confirmed that the epaxial pre-activation pattern observed previously for pipefish also occurs in seahorses. Similar to the epaxials, the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscle complex shows prolonged anticipatory activity. Although a considerable variation in displacements of the mouth via head rotation could be observed, it could not be demonstrated that seahorses have control over strike distance. In addition, we could not identify the source of the kinematic variability in the activation patterns of the associated muscles. Finally, the stimulation experiment supported the previously hypothesized role of the m. adductor arcus palatini as the trigger in this elastic recoil system. Our results show that pre-stressing of both the head elevators and the hyoid retractors is taking place. As pre-activation of the main muscles involved in pivot feeding has now been demonstrated for both seahorses and pipefish, this is probably a generalized trait of Syngnathidae. PMID:25271759

  7. Effect of inaction on function of fast and slow muscle spindles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arutyunyan, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    There is no data on the comparative effect of tenotomy on the function of the muscle spindles of fast and slow muscles. This study covers this question. The experiments were conducted on cats. The musuculus extensor digitorum longus (m. EDL) was selected as the fast muscle, and the musculus soleus (m. Sol.) as the slow. In a comparison of the spontaneous activity of primary and secondary endings of the fast and slow muscle spindles (i.e., the activity with complete relaxation of the muscles) normally no difference between them was successfully found. The authors recorded the integrative, and not the individual activity, and secondly, under conditions of such recording technique, those slight changes that are observed in the fast muscle receptors could remain unnoticed.

  8. Hyperspectral deep ultraviolet autofluorescence of muscle fibers is affected by postmortem changes.

    PubMed

    Chagnot, Caroline; Vénien, Annie; Jamme, Frédéric; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Desvaux, Mickaël; Astruc, Thierry

    2015-05-20

    After slaughter, muscle cells undergo biochemical and physicochemical changes that may affect their autofluorescence characteristics. The autofluorescent response of different rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle fiber types was investigated by deep ultraviolet (UV) synchrotron microspectroscopy immediately after animal sacrifice and after 24 h of storage in a moist chamber at 20 °C. The glycogen content decreased from 23 to 18 μmol/g of fresh muscle in 24 h postmortem. Following a 275 nm excitation wavelength, the spectral muscle fiber autofluorescence response showed discrimination depending upon postmortem time (t0 versus t24 h) on both muscles at 346 and 302 nm and, to a lesser extent, at 408 and 325 nm. Taken individually, all fiber types were discriminated but with variable accuracy, with type IIA showing better separation of t0/t24 h than other fiber types. These results suggest the usefulness of the autofluorescent response of muscle cells for rapid meat-aging characterization.

  9. The effects of lower extremity muscle activation and passive range of motion on single leg squat performance.

    PubMed

    Mauntel, Timothy C; Begalle, Rebecca L; Cram, Tyler R; Frank, Barnett S; Hirth, Christopher J; Blackburn, Troy; Padua, Darin A

    2013-07-01

    Knee valgus is a potential risk factor for lower extremity (LE) injuries. Clinical movement screenings and passive range of motion (PROM) measurements may help identify neuromuscular patterns, which contribute to knee valgus. The purpose of this study was to compare LE muscle activation and PROM between subjects who display visual medial knee displacement (MKD) during a single leg squat (SLS) and those who do not. We hypothesized that muscular activation and PROM would differ between the groups. Forty physically active adults (20 controls, 20 MKDs) participated in this study. Subjects completed 10 LE PROM assessments and performed 5 SLS trials while electromyography (EMG) data were collected from 8 LE muscles. Three separate multivariate analysis of variance were used to identify group differences in EMG data, muscle coactivation, and PROM. Results during the SLS indicated hip coactivation ratios revealed smaller gluteus medius to hip adductor (GMed:Hip Add) (p = 0.028) and gluteus maximus to hip adductor (GMax:Hip Add) coactivation ratios (p = 0.007) compared with the control group. Also, the MKD group displayed significantly less passive ankle dorsiflexion with the knee extended (p = 0.047) and flexed (p = 0.034), and greater talar glide motion (p = 0.012). The findings of this study indicate that MKD during a SLS seems to be influenced by decreased coactivation of the gluteal to the hip adductor muscles and restricted dorsiflexion. Therefore, conditioning, rehabilitation, and injury prevention programs should focus on decreasing hip adductor activity, increasing hip abductor and external rotator activity, and increasing ankle dorsiflexion in hopes to decrease the incidence of these injuries. PMID:23096063

  10. Results of Abductor Pollicis Longus Suspension Ligamentoplasty for Treatment of Advanced First Carpometacarpal Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Poong-Taek; Deslivia, Maria Florencia; Lee, Suk-Joong; Nam, Sang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Suspension ligamentoplasty using abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendon without bone tunneling, was introduced as one of the techniques for treatment of advanced first carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiologic and clinical results of APL suspension ligamentoplasty. Methods The medical records of 19 patients who underwent APL suspension ligamentoplasty for advanced first CMC arthritis between January 2008 and May 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The study included 13 female and 6 male patients, whose mean age was 62 years (range, 43 to 82 years). For clinical evaluation, we assessed the grip and pinch power, radial and volar abduction angle, thumb adduction (modified Kapandji index), including visual analogue scale (VAS) and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. Radiologic evaluation was performed using simple radiographs. Results The mean follow-up was 36 months (range, 19 to 73.7 months). Mean power improved from 18.3 to 27 kg for grip power, from 2.8 to 3.5 kg for tip pinch, and from 4.3 to 5.4 kg for power pinch. All patients showed decreased VAS from 7.2 to 1.7. Radial abduction improved from 71° preoperatively to 82° postoperatively. The modified Kapandji index showed improvement from 6 to 7.3, and mean DASH was improved from 41 to 17.8. The height of the space decreased from 10.8 to 7.1 mm. Only one case had a complication involving temporary sensory loss of the first dorsal web space, which resolved spontaneously. Conclusions The APL suspension ligamentoplasty for treatment of advanced first CMC arthritis yielded satisfactory functional results. PMID:26330961

  11. Force-velocity properties of two avian hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Frank E; Gabaldón, Annette M; Roberts, Thomas J

    2004-04-01

    Recent work has provided measurements of power output in avian skeletal muscles during running and flying, but little is known about the contractile properties of avian skeletal muscle. We used an in situ preparation to characterize the force-velocity properties of two hind limb muscles, the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and peroneus longus (PL), in Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). A servomotor measured shortening velocity for at least six different loads over the plateau region of the length-tension curve. The Hill equation was fit to the data to determine maximum shortening velocity and peak instantaneous power. Maximum unloaded shortening velocity was 13.0+/-1.6 L s(-1) for the LG muscle and 14.8+/-1.0 L s(-1) for the PL muscle (mean+/-S.E.M.). These velocities are within the range of values published for reptilian and mammalian muscles. Values recorded for maximum isometric force per cross-sectional area, 271+/-28 kPa for the LG and 257+/-30.5 kPa for the PL, and peak instantaneous power output, 341.7+/-36.4 W kg(-1) for the LG and 319.4+/-42.5 W kg(-1) for the PL, were also within the range of published values for vertebrate muscle. The force-velocity properties of turkey LG and PL muscle do not reveal any extreme differences in the mechanical potential between avian and other vertebrate muscle.

  12. Flexible adaptation to an artificial recurrent connection from muscle to peripheral nerve in man.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kenji; Sasada, Syusaku; Nishimura, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    Controlling a neuroprosthesis requires learning a novel input-output transformation; however, how subjects incorporate this into limb control remains obscure. To elucidate the underling mechanisms, we investigated the motor adaptation process to a novel artificial recurrent connection (ARC) from a muscle to a peripheral nerve in healthy humans. In this paradigm, the ulnar nerve was electrically stimulated in proportion to the activation of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), which is ulnar-innervated and monosynaptically innervated from Ia afferents of the FCU, defined as the "homonymous muscle," or the palmaris longus (PL), which is not innervated by the ulnar nerve and produces similar movement to the FCU, defined as the "synergist muscle." The ARC boosted the activity of the homonymous muscle and wrist joint movement during a visually guided reaching task. Participants could control muscle activity to utilize the ARC for the volitional control of wrist joint movement and then readapt to the absence of the ARC to either input muscle. Participants reduced homonymous muscle recruitment with practice, regardless of the input muscle. However, the adaptation process in the synergist muscle was dependent on the input muscle. The activity of the synergist muscle decreased when the input was the homonymous muscle, whereas it increased when it was the synergist muscle. This reorganization of the neuromotor map, which was maintained as an aftereffect of the ARC, was observed only when the input was the synergist muscle. These findings demonstrate that the ARC induced reorganization of neuromotor map in a targeted and sustainable manner. PMID:26631144

  13. Flexible adaptation to an artificial recurrent connection from muscle to peripheral nerve in man.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kenji; Sasada, Syusaku; Nishimura, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    Controlling a neuroprosthesis requires learning a novel input-output transformation; however, how subjects incorporate this into limb control remains obscure. To elucidate the underling mechanisms, we investigated the motor adaptation process to a novel artificial recurrent connection (ARC) from a muscle to a peripheral nerve in healthy humans. In this paradigm, the ulnar nerve was electrically stimulated in proportion to the activation of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), which is ulnar-innervated and monosynaptically innervated from Ia afferents of the FCU, defined as the "homonymous muscle," or the palmaris longus (PL), which is not innervated by the ulnar nerve and produces similar movement to the FCU, defined as the "synergist muscle." The ARC boosted the activity of the homonymous muscle and wrist joint movement during a visually guided reaching task. Participants could control muscle activity to utilize the ARC for the volitional control of wrist joint movement and then readapt to the absence of the ARC to either input muscle. Participants reduced homonymous muscle recruitment with practice, regardless of the input muscle. However, the adaptation process in the synergist muscle was dependent on the input muscle. The activity of the synergist muscle decreased when the input was the homonymous muscle, whereas it increased when it was the synergist muscle. This reorganization of the neuromotor map, which was maintained as an aftereffect of the ARC, was observed only when the input was the synergist muscle. These findings demonstrate that the ARC induced reorganization of neuromotor map in a targeted and sustainable manner.

  14. Electromyographic analysis of lower limb muscles during the golf swing performed with three different clubs.

    PubMed

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Vaz, João Rocha; Castro, Maria António; Reinaldo, Gustavo; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the EMG patterns of select lower limb muscles throughout the golf swing, performed with three different clubs, in non-elite middle-aged players. Fourteen golfers performed eight swings each using, in random order, a pitching wedge, 7-iron and 4-iron. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from lower limb muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. Three-dimensional high-speed video analysis was used to determine the golf swing phases. Results showed that, in average handicap golfers, the highest muscle activation levels occurred during the Forward Swing Phase, with the right semitendinosus and the right biceps femoris muscles producing the highest mean activation levels relative to maximal electromyography (70-76% and 68-73% EMG(MAX), respectively). Significant differences between the pitching wedge and the 4-iron club were found in the activation level of the left semitendinosus, right tibialis anterior, right peroneus longus, right vastus medialis, right rectus femuris and right gastrocnemius muscles. The lower limb muscles showed, in most cases and phases, higher mean values of activation on electromyography when golfers performed shots with a 4-iron club.

  15. Electromyographic analysis of lower limb muscles during the golf swing performed with three different clubs.

    PubMed

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Vaz, João Rocha; Castro, Maria António; Reinaldo, Gustavo; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the EMG patterns of select lower limb muscles throughout the golf swing, performed with three different clubs, in non-elite middle-aged players. Fourteen golfers performed eight swings each using, in random order, a pitching wedge, 7-iron and 4-iron. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from lower limb muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. Three-dimensional high-speed video analysis was used to determine the golf swing phases. Results showed that, in average handicap golfers, the highest muscle activation levels occurred during the Forward Swing Phase, with the right semitendinosus and the right biceps femoris muscles producing the highest mean activation levels relative to maximal electromyography (70-76% and 68-73% EMG(MAX), respectively). Significant differences between the pitching wedge and the 4-iron club were found in the activation level of the left semitendinosus, right tibialis anterior, right peroneus longus, right vastus medialis, right rectus femuris and right gastrocnemius muscles. The lower limb muscles showed, in most cases and phases, higher mean values of activation on electromyography when golfers performed shots with a 4-iron club. PMID:26197882

  16. Role of glucocorticoids in increased muscle glutamine production in starvation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Cook, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The role of glucocorticoids in the synthesis of muscle glutamine during starvation was investigated in adrenalectomized fasted rats injected with cortisol (1 mg/100 g body weight). It was found that administration of cortisol in vivo increased (compared to nontreated starved adrenalectomized controls) the glutamine/glutamate ratio and the activity of glutamine synthetase in the diaphragm and the extensor digitorum muscles, and that these effects were abolished by prior treatment with actinomycin D or proflavine. The results obtained in in vitro experiments, using fresh-frozen soleus, extensor digitorum longus, and diaphragm muscle preparations, supported the in vivo indications of the cortisol-enhanced glutamine synthesis and protein turnover in starved adrenalectomized animals.

  17. Age effects on rat hindlimb muscle atrophy during suspension unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Joseph M.; Fell, Ronald D.; Geoghegan, Thomas E.; Ringel, Lisa C.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of hindlimb unloading on muscle mass and biochemical responses were examined and compared in adult (450-g) and juvenile (200-g) rats after 1, 7, or 14 days of whole-body suspension. Quantitatively and qualitatively the soleus, gastrocnemius, plantaris, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of the hindlimb exhibited a differential sensitivity to suspension and weightlessness unloading in both adults and juveniles. The red slow-twitch soleus exhibited the most pronounced atrophy under both conditions, with juvenile responses being greater than adult. In contrast, the fast-twitch EDL hypertrophied during suspension and atrophied during weightlessness, with no significant difference between adults and juveniles. Determination of biochemical parameters (total protein, RNA, and DNA) indicates a less rapid rate of response in adult muscles.

  18. Subcutaneous Rupture of the Extensor Pollicis Longus Tendon after Corticosteroid Injections for DeQuervain's Stenosing Tenovaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Boussakri, Hassan; Bouali, Amara

    2014-01-01

    DeQuervain's stenosing tenovaginitis is a common condition. Nonsurgical treatment by corticosteroid injection has significantly improved the management of this disease. The authors describe a case of subcutaneous rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon at the wrist, three months after two corticosteroid injections for DeQuervain's stenosing tenovaginitis. The etiological history has not found any trauma history of the wrist. The aim of our work is to draw attention to this rare complication and discuss its therapeutic management. Our functional results were excellent. PMID:25371839

  19. Technical tips: reconstruction of deep and superficial deltoid ligaments by peroneus longus tendon in stage 4 posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lui, T H

    2014-12-01

    The deltoid ligament is composed of the superficial and deep layers. Disruption of the deltoid ligament can occur in rotational ankle fracture, chronic ankle instability, or stage 4 posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Correcting valgus tilt at the time of flatfoot reconstruction in case of stage 4 posterior tibial tendon dysfunction may prevent future collapse and the need for ankle arthrodesis or possibly ankle arthroplasty. We describe a technique of reconstruction of both the superficial and deep deltoid ligaments by peroneus longus tendon. PMID:25457670

  20. Interference screw fixation and short harvest using flexor digitorum longus (FDL) transfer for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: a technique.

    PubMed

    Bussewitz, Bradly W; Hyer, Christopher F

    2010-01-01

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a common clinical entity treated by foot and ankle specialists, and numerous surgical treatments are available to the modern foot and ankle surgeon. Fixation methods are constantly evolving as new products are developed and new uses for existing products are attempted. Interference screw fixation is the gold standard fixation for tendon autograft and allograft in orthopedic sports medicine. The technique that we describe in this article uses a less extensive harvest of the flexor digitorum longus tendon and a sound fixation method using an interference screw positioned in the tarsal navicular. PMID:20797592

  1. Cerebral Palsy Tendon Transfers: Flexor Carpi Ulnaris to Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis and Extensor Pollicis Longus Reroutement.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Anchal; Wall, Lindley B; Goldfarb, Charles A

    2016-08-01

    The flexor carpi ulnaris to extensor carpi radialis brevis transfer and extensor pollicis longus rerouting combined with thenar release are 2 successful surgical interventions for children with spastic cerebral palsy. The goal of both procedures is to improve quality of life for patients who have previously failed conservative management, and the degree of expected improvement is predicated on several patient variables, making careful patient selection crucial for ensuring successful outcomes. Here, surgical technique is described; risk factors are discussed, and outcomes related to both procedures are presented. PMID:27387086

  2. [Symptomatic os trigonum with irritation of the flexor hallucis longus tendon - arthroscopic management via a dorsal approach].

    PubMed

    Pass, G; Hofstaetter, S G; Trieb, K

    2015-03-01

    Therapy-resistant pain in the region of the medial mallelous in the presence of an os trigonum is suggestive for irritation of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Two patients were treated by arthroscopy in the prone position via a dorsal approach; the os trigonum was removed and the tendon released. Under the conditions of blunt dissection, dorsal arthroscopy of the os trigonum is a safe and expedient operation in our toolbox. After two weeks of partial load-bearing with 2 crutches, pain-free full load-bearing is already possible and after 3 weeks the patients can return to work.

  3. Problems in analysis of data from muscles of rats flown in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Henriksen, E.; Jacob, S.; Satarug, S.; Cook, P.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of hindlimb muscles of rats flown on Spacelab-3 or tail-traction-suspended showed that 11-17 h reloading post-flight might have altered the results. Soleus atrophied, plantaris, gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum longus grew slower, and tibialis anterior grew normally. In both flight and simulated soleus and plantaris, higher tyrosine and greater glutamine/glutamate ratio indicated negative protein balance and increased glutamine production, respectively, relative to controls. Aspartate was lower in these muscles. Reloading generally decreased tyrosine, but increased aspartate and glutamine/glutamate. These data showed that at 12 h of reloading after flight is characterized by reversal to varying extents of effects of unloading.

  4. Problems in analysis of data from muscles of rats flow in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Henriksen, Erik; Jacob, Stephan; Satarug, Soisungwan; Cook, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of hind-limb muscles of rats flown on Spacelab-3 or tail-traction-suspended showed that 11-17 h reloading postflight might have altered the results. Soleus atrophied; plantaris, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus grew slower; and tibialis anteiror grew normally. In both flight and simulated soleus and plantaris, higher tyrosine and greater glutamine/glutamate ratio indicated negative protein balance and increased glutamine production, respectively, relative to controls. Aspartate was lower in these muscles. Reloading generally decreased tyrosine, but increased aspartate and glutamine/glutamate. These data showed that 12 h of reloading after flight is characterized by reversal, to varying extents, of the effects of unloading.

  5. beta-adrenergic effects on carbohydrate metabolism in the unweighted rat soleus muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of unweighting on the response of the soleus-muscle carbohydrate metabolism to a beta-adrenergic agonist (isoproterenol) was investigated in rats that were subjected to three days of tail-cast suspension. It was found that isoproterenol promoted glycogen degradation in soleus from suspended rats to a higher degree than in weighted soleus from control rats, and had no effect in unweighted digitorum longus. However, isoproterenol did not have a greater inhibitory effect on the net uptake of tritium-labeled 2-deoxy-glucose by the unweighted soleus and that isoproterenol inhibited hexose phosphorylation less in the unweighted than in the control muscle.

  6. Treatment Efficacy of Electromyography versus Fiberscopy-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injection in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Patients: A Prospective Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Wook; Park, Jae Hong; Park, Ki Nam; Lee, Seung Won

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This study prospectively evaluates and compares the treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin injection under electromyography guidance (EMG group) and percutaneous botulinum toxin injection under flexible fiberscopic guidance (fiberscopy group). Methods. Thirty patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), who had never received treatment, were randomly allocated into EMG- or fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injections between March 2008 and February 2010. We assessed acoustic and aerodynamic voice parameters, and the voice handicap index (VHI) before injection and at 1, 3, and 6 months after injection. Results. The mean total dosage of botulinum toxin was similar for both groups: 1.7 ± 0.5 U for the EMG group and 1.8 ± 0.4 U for the fiberscopy group (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in either the duration of effectiveness or complications such as breathy voice and aspiration. Conclusion. Botulinum toxin injection under fiberscopic guidance is a viable alternative to EMG-guided botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia when EMG equipment is unavailable. PMID:25383369

  7. Entrapment of the saphenous nerve at the adductor canal affecting the infrapatellar branch – a report on two cases

    PubMed Central

    Porr, Jason; Chrobak, Karen; Muir, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To present 2 cases of entrapment of the saphenous nerve at the adductor canal affecting the infrapatellar branch, and to provide insight into the utilization of nerve tension testing for the diagnosis of nerve entrapments in a clinical setting. Rationale: Saphenous nerve entrapments are a very rare condition within today’s body of literature, and the diagnosis remains controversial. Clinical Features: Two cases of chronic knee pain that were unresponsive to previous treatment. The patients were diagnosed with an entrapment of the saphenous nerve at the adductor canal affecting the infrapatellar branch using nerve tension techniques along with a full clinical examination. Intervention and Outcome: Manual therapy and rehabilitation programs were initiated including soft tissue therapy, nerve gliding techniques and gait retraining which resulted in 90% improvement in one case and complete resolution of symptoms in the second. Conclusion: Nerve tension testing may prove to be an aid in the diagnosis of saphenous nerve entrapments within a clinical setting in order to decrease time to diagnosis and proper treatment. PMID:24302782

  8. Immediate effect of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on hip adductor flexibility in female ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Ercole C; Souza, Andréa C; Mello, Mônica L; Bacurau, Reury F P; Cabral, Leonardo F; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the immediate effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on the flexibility of hip adductors in female ballet dancers. Forty-five subjects (age: 28.5 ± 8.0 years; minimum two years of ballet training) were randomly assigned to three groups: PNF (contract-release technique), Static, and Control. Subjects in the PNF and Static groups performed four sets of 30 second stretching with an interval of 30 seconds between sets. The control group stayed at rest for the same time spent by the PNF and Static groups during the stretching sessions. Maximal range of motion was measured before and immediately after the experimental and control protocols in all groups. The results indicated significant differences between pre- and post-stretching flexibility in both PNF and Static groups (p < 0.0001; effect size = 0.24 and 0.39, respectively), whereas no change was identified in the Control group (p = 0.265). However, no differences in post-exercise flexibility were found between PNF and Static groups (p = 0.235). It is concluded that static and PNF stretching methods provoked similar post-exercise acute effects on the maximal range of motion of hip adductors in highly flexible female ballet dancers.

  9. Individual muscle contributions to circular turning mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-04-13

    Turning is an activity of daily living that involves both the acceleration of the body center-of-mass (COM) towards the center of curvature and rotation of the pelvis towards the new heading. The purpose of this study was to understand which muscles contribute to turning using experimentation, musculoskeletal modeling and simulation. Ten healthy adults consented to walk around a 1-m radius circular path at their self-selected walking speed and then along a straight line at the same speed. Forward dynamics simulations of the individual subjects during the turning and straight-line walking tasks were generated to identify the contributions of individual muscle groups to the body mediolateral and anterior-posterior COM acceleration impulse and to the pelvis angular acceleration impulse. The stance leg gluteus medius and ankle plantarflexor muscles and the swing leg adductor muscles were the primary contributors to redirect the body's COM relative to straight-line walking. In some cases, contributions to mediolateral COM acceleration were modulated through changes in leg orientation rather than through changes in muscle force. While modulation of the muscle contributions generally occurred in both the inner and outer legs, greater changes were observed during inner single-leg support than during outer single-leg support. Total pelvis angular acceleration was minimal during the single-support phase, but the swing leg muscles contributed significantly to balancing the internal and external rotation of the pelvis. The understanding of which muscles contribute to turning the body during walking may help guide the development of more effective locomotor therapies for those with movement impairments.

  10. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  11. Differential sensitivity of oxidative and glycolytic muscles to hypoxia-induced muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    de Theije, C C; Langen, R C J; Lamers, W H; Gosker, H R; Schols, A M W J; Köhler, S E

    2015-01-15

    Hypoxia as a consequence of acute and chronic respiratory disease has been associated with muscle atrophy. This study investigated the sensitivity of oxidative and glycolytic muscles to hypoxia-induced muscle atrophy. Male mice were exposed to 8% normobaric oxygen for up to 21 days. Oxidative soleus and glycolytic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were isolated, weighed, and assayed for expression profiles of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) signaling. Fiber-type composition and the capillary network were investigated. Hypoxia-induced muscle atrophy was more prominent in the EDL than the soleus muscle. Although increased expression of HIF1α target genes showed that both muscle types sensed hypoxia, their adaptive responses differed. Atrophy consistently involved a hypoxia-specific effect (i.e., not attributable to a hypoxia-mediated reduction of food intake) in the EDL only. Hypoxia-specific activation of the UPS and ALP and increased expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (Gr) and its target genes were also mainly observed in the EDL. In the soleus, stimulation of gene expression of those pathways could be mimicked to a large extent by food restriction alone. Hypoxia increased the number of capillary contacts per fiber cross-sectional area in both muscles. In the EDL, this was due to type II fiber atrophy, whereas in the soleus the absolute number of capillary contacts increased. These responses represent two distinct modes to improve oxygen supply to muscle fibers, but may aggravate muscle atrophy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients who have a predominance of type II fibers.

  12. Type IV Longus Pilus of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Occurrence and Association with Toxin Types and Colonization Factors among Strains Isolated in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pichel, Mariana G.; Binsztein, Norma; Qadri, Firdausi; Girón, Jorge A.

    2002-01-01

    The longus type IV pilus structural gene (lngA) was sought among 217 clinical enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains isolated in Argentina. lngA was present in 20.7% of the isolates and was highly associated with ETEC producing heat-stable toxin and the most common colonization factors. The prevalence of longus among ETEC strains in Argentina was comparable to that of colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, and CFA/IV in other regions of the world. PMID:11826000

  13. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  14. Skeletal muscle response to spaceflight, whole body suspension, and recovery in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Dombrowski, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a 7-day spaceflight (SF), 7- and 14-day-long whole body suspension (WBS), and 7-day-long recovery on the muscle weight and the morphology of the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of rats were investigated. It was found that the effect of 7-day-long SF and WBS were highly comparable for both the soleus and the EDL, although the soleus muscle from SF rats showed greater cross-sectional area reduction than that from WBS rats. With a longer duration of WBS, there was a continued reduction in cross-sectional fast-twitch fiber area. Muscle plasticity, in terms of fiber and capillary responses, showed differences in responses of the two types of muscles, indicating that antigravity posture muscles are highly susceptible to unloading.

  15. Muscle protein and glycogen responses to recovery from hypogravity and unloading by tail-cast suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, E. J.; Tischler, M. E.; Jacob, S.; Cook, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory using the tail-bast hindlimb suspension model have shown that there are specific changes in protein and carbohydrate metabolism in the soleus muscle due to unloading. For example, 6 days of unloading caused a 27 percent decrease in mass and a 60 percent increse in glycogen content in the soleus muscle, while the extensor digitorum longus muscle was unaffected. Also, fresh tissue tyrosine and its in vitro release from the muscle are increased in the unloaded soleus, indicating that this condition causes a more negative protein balance. With these results in mind, studies to investigate the effect of hypogravity on protein and carbohydrate metabolism in a number of rat hindlimb muscles were carried out.

  16. Effect of inactivity and passive stretch on protein turnover in phasic and postural rat muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughna, P.; Goldspink, G.; Goldspink, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Muscle atrophy in humans can occur during prolonged bed rest, plaster cast immobilization, and space flight. In the present study, the suspension model used by Musacchia et al. (1983) is employed to investigate changes in protein synthesis and degradation in fast-twitch phasic (extensor digitorum longus) and slow-twitch postural (soleus) muscles in the rat, following hypokinesia and hypodynamia. In addition, the use of passive stretch was examined as a means of preventing atrophy. The obtained results suggest that the mechanisms controlling the processes of protein synthesis and protein breakdown during muscle disuse atrophy may be independent of each other. It appears, however, that the muscle atrophy due to hypokinesia and hypodynamia can be temporarily prevented by passively stretching a muscle.

  17. Muscle protein and glycogen responses to recovery from hypogravity and unloading by tail-cast suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, E. J.; Tischler, M. E.; Jacob, S.; Cook, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory using the tail-bast hindlimb suspension model have shown that there are specific changes in protein and carbohydrate metabolism in the soleus muscle due to unloading. For example, 6 days of unloading caused a 27% decrease in mass and a 60% increase in glycogen content in the soleus muscle, while the extensor digitorum longus muscle was unaffected. Also, fresh tissue tyrosine and its in vitro release from the muscle are increased in the unloaded soleus, indicating that this condition causes a more negative protein balance. With these results in mind, studies to investigate the effect of hypogravity on protein and carbohydrate metabolism in a number of rat hindlimb muscles were carried out.

  18. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  19. Electrical Muscle Stimulation: An Effective Form of Exercise and Early Mobilization to Preserve Muscle Strength in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Karatzanos, Eleftherios; Gerovasili, Vasiliki; Zervakis, Dimitrios; Tripodaki, Elli-Sophia; Apostolou, Kleovoulos; Vasileiadis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Emmanouil; Mitsiou, Georgios; Tsimpouki, Dimitra; Routsi, Christina; Nanas, Serafim

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. This is a secondary analysis of previously published data to investigate the effects of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on strength of various muscle groups in critically ill patients. Methods. One hundred forty-two consecutive patients, with APACHE II score ≥ 13, were randomly assigned to the EMS or the control group. EMS sessions were applied daily on vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and peroneus longus of both lower extremities. Various muscle groups were evaluated with the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale for muscle strength. Handgrip strength assessment was also employed. Results. Twenty four patients in the EMS group and 28 patients in the control group were finally evaluated. EMS patients achieved higher MRC scores than controls (P ≤ 0.05) in wrist flexion, hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle dorsiflexion. Collectively, the EMS group performed higher (P < 0.01) in the legs and overall. Handgrip strength correlated (P ≤ 0.01) with the upper and lower extremities' muscle strength and the overall MRC scores. Conclusions. EMS has beneficial effects on the strength of critically ill patients mainly affecting muscle groups stimulated, while it may also affect muscle groups not involved presenting itself as a potential effective means of muscle strength preservation and early mobilization in this patient population. PMID:22545212

  20. Noninvasive analysis of human neck muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, M. S.; Meyer, R. A.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Feeback, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Muscle use evoked by exercise was determined by quantifying shifts in signal relaxation times of T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Images were collected at rest and after exercise at each of two intensities (moderate and intense) for each of four head movements: 1) extension, 2) flexion, 3) rotation, and 4) lateral flexion. OBJECTIVE. This study examined the intensity and pattern of neck muscle use evoked by various movements of the head. The results will help elucidate the pathophysiology, and thus methods for treating disorders of the cervical musculoskeletal system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in T2 has been shown to indicate muscle use during the activity. The noninvasive nature of magnetic resonance imaging appears to make it an ideal approach for studying the function of the complex neuromuscular system of the neck. METHODS. The extent of T2 increase was examined to gauge how intensely nine different neck muscles or muscle pairs were used in seven subjects. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation was assessed to infer the pattern of use among and within individual neck muscles or muscle pairs. RESULTS. Signal relaxation increased with exercise intensity for each head movement. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation also increased with exercise load. Neck muscles or muscle pairs extensively used to perform each head movement were: extension--semispinalis capitis and cervicis and splenius capitis; flexion--sternocleidomastoid and longus capitis and colli; rotation--splenius capitis, levator scapulae, scalenus, semispinalis capitis ipsilateral to the rotation, and sternocleidomastoid contralateral; and lateral flexion--sternocleidomastoid CONCLUSION. The results of this study, in part, agree with the purported functions of neck muscles derived from anatomic location. This also was true for the few

  1. Maintenance of skeletal muscle energy homeostasis during prolonged wintertime fasting in the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Sanni; Mänttäri, Satu; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Saarela, Seppo

    2015-05-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid species with autumnal fattening and prolonged wintertime fasting. Nonpathological body weight cycling and the ability to tolerate food deficiency make this species a unique subject for studying physiological mechanisms in energy metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor regulating energy homeostasis. During acute fasting, AMPK promotes fatty acid oxidation and enhances glucose uptake. We evaluated the effects of prolonged fasting on muscle energy metabolism in farm-bred raccoon dogs. Total and phosphorylated AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4), insulin receptor and protein kinase B (Akt) protein expressions of hind limb muscles were determined by Western blot after 10 weeks of fasting. Plasma insulin, leptin, ghrelin, glucose and free fatty acid levels were measured, and muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition analyzed. Fasting had no effects on AMPK phosphorylation, but total AMPK expression decreased in m. rectus femoris, m. tibialis anterior and m. extensor digitorum longus resulting in a higher phosphorylation ratio. Decreased total expression was also observed for ACC. Fasting did not influence GLUT 4, insulin receptor or Akt expression, but Akt phosphorylation was lower in m. flexor digitorum superficialis and m. extensor digitorum longus. Three MHC isoforms (I, IIa and IIx) were detected without differences in composition between the fasted and control animals. The studied muscles were resistant to prolonged fasting indicating that raccoon dogs have an effective molecular regulatory system for preserving skeletal muscle function during wintertime immobility and fasting.

  2. Expression of interleukin-15 and inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscles of STZ-induced diabetic rats: effect of resistance exercise training.

    PubMed

    Molanouri Shamsi, M; Hassan, Z H; Gharakhanlou, R; Quinn, L S; Azadmanesh, K; Baghersad, L; Isanejad, A; Mahdavi, M

    2014-05-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with type-1 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is the source of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that can mediate muscle hypertrophy and atrophy, while resistance exercise can modulate both muscle mass and muscle cytokine expression. This study determined the effects of a 5-week resistance exercise training regimen on the expression of muscle cytokines in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, with special emphasis on interleukin-15 (IL-15), a muscle-derived cytokine proposed to be involved in muscle hypertrophy or responses to stress. Induction of diabetes reduced muscle weight in both the fast flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and slow soleus muscles, while resistance training preserved FHL muscle weight in diabetic rats. IL-15 protein content was increased by training in both FHL and soleus muscles, as well as serum, in normal and diabetic rats. With regard to proinflammatory cytokines, muscle IL-6 levels were increased in diabetic rats, while training decreased muscle IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; training had no effect on FHL muscle IL-6 levels in healthy rats. Also, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-1β levels were increased by diabetes, but not changed by training. In conclusion, we found that in diabetic rats, resistance training increased muscle and serum IL-15 levels, decreased muscle IL-6 levels, and preserved FHL muscle mass.

  3. Synthesis of amino acids in weight bearing and non-weight bearing leg muscles of suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Jaspers, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hypokinesia (HYP) for 6 days on the de novo synthesis of glutamine (GLN) and glutamate (GLU), and of alanine was tested in isolated leg muscles of intact, adrenalectomized (ADX) and ADX cortisol-treated rats. The net synthesis of GLN and GLU was lower in soleus muscles of HYP animals of these three groups of rats. The synthesis of alanine was lowered by HYP in ADX animals and apparently raised by HYP in ADX cortisol-treated rats. No HYP effect was seen in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of these animals. Although ADX lowered the synthesis of GLN and GLU in soleus muscles of control rats, while cortisol treatment restored this process to near normal, neither ADX nor cortisol treatment produced any effect in the HYP animals. However, effects of ADX and cortisol treatment on synthesis of GLN and GLU in EDL muscles and of alanine in both muscles seemed normal in HYP animals.

  4. Effect of exercise intervention on thigh muscle volume and anatomical cross-sectional areas--quantitative assessment using MRI.

    PubMed

    Hudelmaier, Martin; Wirth, Wolfgang; Himmer, Maria; Ring-Dimitriou, Susanne; Sänger, Alexandra; Eckstein, Felix

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the location-specific magnitudes of an exercise intervention on thigh muscle volume and anatomical cross-sectional area, using MRI. Forty one untrained women participated in strength, endurance, or autogenic training for 12 weeks. Axial MR images of the thigh were acquired before and after the intervention, using a T1-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence (10 mm sections, 0.78 mm in-plane resolution). The extensor, flexor, adductor, and sartorius muscles were segmented between the femoral neck and the rectus femoris tendon. Muscle volumes were determined, and anatomical cross-sectional areas were derived from 3D reconstructions at 10% (proximal-to-distal) intervals. With strength training, the volume of the extensors (+3.1%), flexors (+3.5%), and adductors (+3.9%) increased significantly (P < 0.05) between baseline and follow-up, and with endurance training, the volume of the extensor (+3.7%) and sartorius (+5.1%) increased significantly (P < 0.05). No relevant or statistically significant change was observed with autogenic training. The greatest standardized response means were observed for the anatomical cross-sectional area in the proximal aspect (10-30%) of the thigh and generally exceeded those for muscle volumes. The study shows that MRI can be used to monitor location-specific effects of exercise intervention on muscle cross-sectional areas, with the proximal aspect of the thigh muscles being most responsive. PMID:20665894

  5. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles.

    PubMed

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on-1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on-3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased "voluntary activation." In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT.

  6. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J.; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on–1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on–3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased “voluntary activation.” In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT. PMID:27445844

  7. Changes in skeletal muscle properties following hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, G. T.; Dettbarn, W.-D.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in AChE regulation, the functions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), and muscle fiber-type population in the extensor digitorium longus (EDL) and soleus of male rats suspended in a nonweight-bearing position are studied. Muscle weight, AChE activity, protein content, SR calcium loading rates, and muscle types in the suspended and control rats are evaluated and compared. It is observed that following 1-4 weeks of suspension the EDL is unaffected; however, the soleus muscle weight, and protein content decrease and the AChE activity increases. The SR calcium loading rates of EDL decrease 10 percent and the soleus increase 50 percent in the suspended rats. The data reveal that the population of muscle type 1 (slow fibers) decreases and type 2 (fast fibers) increases for the soleus, and the distribution is unchanged for the EDL of the suspended rats. It is detected that a nonweight-bearing position affects the soleus (a fast-twitch muscle), but not the EDL (a slow-twitch muscle).

  8. Chronic exercise increases insulin binding in muscles but not liver

    SciTech Connect

    Bonen, A.; Clune, P.A.; Tan, M.H.

    1986-08-01

    It has been postulated that the improved glucose tolerance provoked by chronic exercise is primarily attributable to increased insulin binding in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the authors investigated the effects of progressively increased training (6 wk) on insulin binding by five hindlimb skeletal muscles and in liver. In the trained animals serum insulin levels at rest were lower either in a fed or fasted state and after an oral glucose tolerance test. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise bout sections of the liver, soleus (S), plantaris (P), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles were pooled from four to six rats. Insulin binding to plasma membranes increased in S, P, and EDL but not in WG or in liver. There were insulin binding differences among muscles. Comparison of rank orders of insulin binding data with published glucose transport data for the same muscles revealed that these parameters do not correspond well. In conclusion, insulin binding to muscle is shown to be heterogeneous and training can increase insulin binding to selected muscles but not liver.

  9. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.; and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  10. Finite-element modelling reveals force modulation of jaw adductors in stag beetles.

    PubMed

    Goyens, J; Soons, J; Aerts, P; Dirckx, J

    2014-12-01

    Male stag beetles carry large and heavy mandibles that arose through sexual selection over mating rights. Although the mandibles of Cyclommatus metallifer males are used in pugnacious fights, they are surprisingly slender. Our bite force measurements show a muscle force reduction of 18% for tip biting when compared with bites with the teeth located halfway along the mandibles. This suggests a behavioural adaptation to prevent failure. We confirmed this by constructing finite-element (FE) models that mimic both natural bite situations as well as the hypothetical situation of tip biting without muscle force modulation. These models, based on micro-CT images, investigate the material stresses in the mandibles for different combinations of bite location and muscle force. Young's modulus of the cuticle was experimentally determined to be 5.1 GPa with the double indentation method, and the model was validated by digital image correlation on living beetles. FE analysis proves to be a valuable tool in the investigation of the trade-offs of (animal) weapon morphology and usage. Furthermore, the demonstrated bite force modulation in male stag beetles suggests the presence of mechanosensors inside the armature.

  11. Finite-element modelling reveals force modulation of jaw adductors in stag beetles

    PubMed Central

    Goyens, J.; Soons, J.; Aerts, P.; Dirckx, J.

    2014-01-01

    Male stag beetles carry large and heavy mandibles that arose through sexual selection over mating rights. Although the mandibles of Cyclommatus metallifer males are used in pugnacious fights, they are surprisingly slender. Our bite force measurements show a muscle force reduction of 18% for tip biting when compared with bites with the teeth located halfway along the mandibles. This suggests a behavioural adaptation to prevent failure. We confirmed this by constructing finite-element (FE) models that mimic both natural bite situations as well as the hypothetical situation of tip biting without muscle force modulation. These models, based on micro-CT images, investigate the material stresses in the mandibles for different combinations of bite location and muscle force. Young's modulus of the cuticle was experimentally determined to be 5.1 GPa with the double indentation method, and the model was validated by digital image correlation on living beetles. FE analysis proves to be a valuable tool in the investigation of the trade-offs of (animal) weapon morphology and usage. Furthermore, the demonstrated bite force modulation in male stag beetles suggests the presence of mechanosensors inside the armature. PMID:25297317

  12. Changes produced by a hypomyelinating neuropathy in muscle and its innervation. Morphological and physiological studies in the Trembler mouse.

    PubMed

    Gale, A N; Gomez, S; Duchen, L W

    1982-06-01

    The peripheral nerves of the Trembler mouse are hypomyelinated. The effects of the neuropathy on muscle and motor end-plate morphology, and on neuromuscular transmission in slow-twitch (soleus) and fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus) muscle are reported. After forming normally, motor end-plates developed ultraterminal sprouts by about 18 days of age in deep, slow-twitch muscles. The only ultrastructural abnormality in muscle at this age was disruption of Z-lines. Ultraterminal sprouting progressed, and by about 3 months the innervation zone consisted of a mass of branching axons associated in places with cholinesterase activity. The ultrastructure of end-plates became abnormal. Fascicular atrophy was present in older Tremblers and the ultrastructural morphology of muscle fibres became disorganized with accumulation of subsarcolemmal granular material. Abnormal muscle fibres were innervated by axonal sprouts. The superficial, predominantly fast-twitch, muscles showed milder changes at all ages even though the nerves supplying them were hypomyelinated. Studies of neuromuscular transmission showed that soleus retained its slow-twitch and extensor digitorum longus its fast-twitch characteristics, and miniature end-plate potentials were of normal frequency and amplitude. The latency of end-plate potentials and the refractory period of transmission were prolonged in both soleus and extensor digitorum longus. With repetitive stimulation at 50 Hz a cyclical pattern of responses and failures occurred which was probably caused by intermittent conduction block along the peripheral nerve. Although the pathological changes in Trembler muscle were like those of partial denervation, atrophic muscles contained an abundance of axons and there was no evidence of axonal degeneration. The changes in muscle are therefore a consequence of hypomyelination without axonal loss. Since slow-twitch muscles are normally subjected to prolonged stimulation, failure of Trembler axons to

  13. An In Vitro Adult Mouse Muscle-nerve Preparation for Studying the Firing Properties of Muscle Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Joy A.; Kloefkorn, Heidi E.; Hochman, Shawn; Wilkinson, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle sensory neurons innervating muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs encode length and force changes essential to proprioception. Additional afferent fibers monitor other characteristics of the muscle environment, including metabolite buildup, temperature, and nociceptive stimuli. Overall, abnormal activation of sensory neurons can lead to movement disorders or chronic pain syndromes. We describe the isolation of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and nerve for in vitro study of stretch-evoked afferent responses in the adult mouse. Sensory activity is recorded from the nerve with a suction electrode and individual afferents can be analyzed using spike sorting software. In vitro preparations allow for well controlled studies on sensory afferents without the potential confounds of anesthesia or altered muscle perfusion. Here we describe a protocol to identify and test the response of muscle spindle afferents to stretch. Importantly, this preparation also supports the study of other subtypes of muscle afferents, response properties following drug application and the incorporation of powerful genetic approaches and disease models in mice. PMID:25285602

  14. Digital image analysis of striated skeletal muscle tissue injury during reperfusion after induced ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosero Salazar, Doris Haydee; Salazar Monsalve, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Conditions such as surgical procedures or vascular diseases produce arterial ischemia and reperfusion injuries, which generate changes in peripheral tissues and organs, for instance, in striated skeletal muscle. To determine such changes, we conducted an experimental method in which 42 male Wistar rat were selected, to be undergone to tourniquet application on the right forelimb and left hind limb, to induce ischemia during one and three hours, followed by reperfusion periods starting at one hour and it was prolonged up to 32 days. Extensor carpi radialis longus and soleus respectively, were obtained to be processed for histochemical and morphometric analysis. By means of image processing and detection of regions of interest, variations of areas occupied by muscle fibers and intramuscular extracellular matrix (IM-ECM) throughout reperfusion were observed. In extensor carpi radialis longus, results shown reduction in the area occupied by muscle fibers; this change is significant between one hour and three hours ischemia followed by 16 hours, 48 hours and 32 days reperfusión (p˂0.005). To compare only periods of reperfusión that continued to three hours ischemia, were found significant differences, as well. For area occupied by IM-ECM, were identified increments in extensor carpi radialis longus by three hours ischemia and eight to 16 days reperfusion; in soleus, was observed difference by one hour ischemia with 42 hours reperfusion, and three hours ischemia followed by four days reperfusion (p˂0.005). Skeletal muscle develops adaptive changes in longer reperfusion, to deal with induced injury. Descriptions beyond 32 days reperfusion, can determine recovering normal pattern.

  15. Fate of 3H-thymidine labelled myogenic cells in regeneration of muscle isografts.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, E; Mares, V; Stichová, J

    1976-03-01

    Intact and denervated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of 20-day-old inbred Lewis-Wistar rats were labelled with 3H-thymidine. Ninety minutes after the injection of the isotope 4.0% of the nuclei were labelled in the intact (i.e. innervated) and 9.6% in the muscles, denervated 3 days before administration of the isotope. The labelled EDL muscles were grafted into the bed of the previously removed EDL muscles of inbred animals and these isografts were studied 30 days later. In the EDL muscles, regenerated from innervated isografts only occasionally labelled endothelial cells were found whereas in the muscles regenerated from denervated isografts also parenchymal muscle nuclei were regularly labelled. The incidence of labelled nuclei in the regenerated EDL muscles was, however, about 20 times lower than in the donor EDL muscles. The presen experiments provide a direct proof of utilization of donor satelite cell nuclei for regeneration in grafted muscle tissue. With respect to the low incidence of labelled nuclei in regenerated EDL muscles, other sources of cells apparently also contribute to the regeneration process.

  16. Rac1 is a novel regulator of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sylow, Lykke; Jensen, Thomas E; Kleinert, Maximilian; Mouatt, Joshua R; Maarbjerg, Stine J; Jeppesen, Jacob; Prats, Clara; Chiu, Tim T; Boguslavsky, Shlomit; Klip, Amira; Schjerling, Peter; Richter, Erik A

    2013-04-01

    In skeletal muscle, the actin cytoskeleton-regulating GTPase, Rac1, is necessary for insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation. Muscle contraction increases glucose transport and represents an alternative signaling pathway to insulin. Whether Rac1 is activated by muscle contraction and regulates contraction-induced glucose uptake is unknown. Therefore, we studied the effects of in vivo exercise and ex vivo muscle contractions on Rac1 signaling and its regulatory role in glucose uptake in mice and humans. Muscle Rac1-GTP binding was increased after exercise in mice (~60-100%) and humans (~40%), and this activation was AMP-activated protein kinase independent. Rac1 inhibition reduced contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse muscle by 55% in soleus and by 20-58% in extensor digitorum longus (EDL; P < 0.01). In agreement, the contraction-stimulated increment in glucose uptake was decreased by 27% (P = 0.1) and 40% (P < 0.05) in soleus and EDL muscles, respectively, of muscle-specific inducible Rac1 knockout mice. Furthermore, depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton decreased contraction-stimulated glucose uptake by 100% and 62% (P < 0.01) in soleus and EDL muscles, respectively. These are the first data to show that Rac1 is activated during muscle contraction in murine and human skeletal muscle and suggest that Rac1 and possibly the actin cytoskeleton are novel regulators of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake.

  17. The Compact Mutation of Myostatin Causes a Glycolytic Shift in the Phenotype of Fast Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Baán, Júlia Aliz; Kocsis, Tamás; Keller-Pintér, Anikó; Müller, Géza; Zádor, Ernö; Dux, László

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin is an important negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. The hypermuscular Compact (Cmpt) mice carry a 12-bp natural mutation in the myostatin propeptide, with additional modifier genes being responsible for the phenotype. Muscle cellularity of the fast-type tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) as well as the mixed-type soleus (SOL) muscles of Cmpt and wild-type mice was examined by immunohistochemical staining of the myosin heavy chain (MHC) proteins. In addition, transcript levels of MHC isoforms were quantified by qPCR. Based on our results, all investigated muscles of Cmpt mice were significantly larger compared with that of wild-type mice, as characterized by fiber hyperplasia of different grades. Fiber hypertrophy was not present in TA; however, EDL muscles showed specific IIB fiber hypertrophy while the (I and IIA) fibers of SOL muscles were generally hypertrophied. Both the fast TA and EDL muscles of Cmpt mice contained significantly more glycolytic IIB fibers accompanied by a decreased number of IIX and IIA fibers; however, this was not the case for SOL muscles. In summary, despite the variances found in muscle cellularity between the different myostatin mutant mice, similar glycolytic shifts were observed in Cmpt fast muscles as in muscles from myostatin knockout mice. PMID:23979839

  18. Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in leg muscles from tail-cast suspended intact and adrenalectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik; Jacob, Stephan; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of muscle unloading, adrenalectomy, and cortisol treatment on the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus of tail-cast suspended rats were investigated using C-14-labeled lucine, isoleucine, and valine in incubation studies. It was found that, compared to not suspended controls, the degradation of branched-chain amino acids in hind limb muscles was accelerated in tail-cast suspended rats. Adrenalectomy was found to abolish the aminotransferase flux and to diminish the dehydrogenase flux in the soleus. The data also suggest that cortisol treatment increases the rate of metabolism of branched-chain amino acids at the dehydrogenase step.

  19. Non-volitional assessment of skeletal muscle strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Man, W; Soliman, M; Nikoletou, D; Harris, M; Rafferty, G; Mustfa, N; Polkey, M; Moxham, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Although quadriceps weakness is well recognised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the aetiology remains unknown. In disabled patients the quadriceps is a particularly underused muscle and may not reflect skeletal muscle function as a whole. Loss of muscle function is likely to be equally distributed if the underlying pathology is a systemic abnormality. Conversely, if deconditioning and disuse are the principal aetiological factors, weakness would be most marked in the lower limb muscles. Methods: The non-volitional technique of supramaximal magnetic stimulation was used to assess twitch tensions of the adductor pollicis, quadriceps, and diaphragm muscles (TwAP, TwQ, and TwPdi) in 22 stable non-weight losing COPD patients and 18 elderly controls. Results: Mean (SD) TwQ tension was reduced in the COPD patients (7.1 (2.2) kg v 10.0 (2.7) kg; 95% confidence intervals (CI) -4.4 to -1.4; p<0.001). Neither TwAP nor TwPdi (when corrected for lung volume) differed significantly between patients and controls (mean (SD) TwAP 6.52 (1.90) N for COPD patients and 6.80 (1.99) N for controls (95% CI -1.5 to 0.97, p=0.65; TwPdi 23.0 (5.6) cm H2O for COPD patients and 23.5 (5.2) cm H2O for controls (95% CI -4.5 to 3.5, p=0.81). Conclusions: The strength of the adductor pollicis muscle (and the diaphragm) is normal in patients with stable COPD whereas quadriceps strength is substantially reduced. Disuse may be the principal factor in the development of skeletal muscle weakness in COPD, but a systemic process preferentially affecting the proximal muscles cannot be excluded. PMID:12885979

  20. Effects of subacute pyridostigmine administration on mammalian skeletal muscle function. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, M.; Deshpande, S.S.; Foster, R.E.; Maxwell, D.M.; Albuquerque, E.X.

    1992-12-31

    The subacute effects of pyridostigmine bromide were investigated on the contractile properties of rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and diaphragm muscles. The cholinesterase inhibitor was delivered via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps (Alzet) at 9 microns g h-1 (low dose) or 60 micro g h-1 (high dose). Animals receiving high-dose pyridostigmine pumps exhibited marked alterations in muscle properties within the first day of exposure that persisted for the remaining 13 days. With 0.1 Hz stimulation, EDL twitch tensions of treated animals were elevated relative to control. Repetitive stimulation at frequencies > 1 Hz led a use-dependent depression in the amplitude of successive twitches during the train. Recovery from pyridostigmine was essentially complete by 1 day of withdrawal. Rats implanted with low-dose pyridostigmine pumps showed little or no alteration of in vivo twitch tensions during the entire 14 days of treatment. Diaphragm and EDL muscles excised from pyridostigmine-treated rats and tested in vitro showed no significant alterations in twitch and tetanic tensions and displayed the same sensitivity as muscles of control animals to subsequent pyridostigmine exposures. In the presence of atropine, subacutely administered pyridostigmine protected rats from two LD5O doses of the irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor, soman. In the absence of atropine, the LD50 of soman was not altered by subacute pyridostigmine treatment. Extensor digitorum longus; diaphragm; twitch tension; ACh release; subacute; Alzet pumps; tolerance; anticholinesterase; pyridostigmine; soman.

  1. Macroscopic study of the functional significance of the forearm muscles in the giant panda.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hideki; Sasaki, Motoki; Narushima, Etsuo; Komiya, Teruyuki; Hayashida, Akiko; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Stafford, Brian J

    2003-08-01

    The extensor and flexor group muscles and their related muscles were functional-morphologically observed in the dead body of the giant panda to clarify the action of the forearm and the palm in the manipulation of the species. The Musculus flexor carpi ulnaris had two developed heads, however, we can conclude that the contraction of this muscle slightly changes the angle of the accessory carpal bone to the ulna. The data pointed out that the accessory carpal bone acts as a supporting post, when the giant panda seizes the object. The M. abductor digiti I longus possessed the well-developed origin in both ulna and radius. These findings suggest that this muscle may function as a supinator of the forearm. We also suggest that the well-developed M. pronator quadratus and M. pronator teres, and the proximal part of the M. abductor digiti I longus and the M. supinator may efficiently contribute to the pronator-spinator action of the forearm, when the giant panda brings the food to its mouth using the manipulation system equipped in the palm region.

  2. The influence of footwear on the electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles during walking.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lisa A; Murley, George S; Wickham, James B

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a standard flexible shoe and a stability running shoe on lower limb muscle activity during walking. Twenty-eight young asymptomatic adults with flat-arched feet were recruited. While walking, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from tibialis posterior and peroneus longus via intramuscular electrodes; and from tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius via surface electrodes. Three experimental conditions were assessed: (i) barefoot, (ii) a standard flexible shoe, (iii) a stability running shoe. Results showed significant differences for the peak amplitude and the time of peak amplitude for tibialis anterior, peroneus longus and medial gastrocnemius when comparing the three experimental conditions (p < 0.05). Significant differences were detected primarily between the barefoot and shoe conditions and with relatively small effect sizes for peroneus longus, tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius. Few significant differences were found between the two shoe styles. We discuss how these changes are most likely associated with the shoe upper bracing the foot, the shape of the shoe outer-sole and weight of the shoes. Further research is needed to investigate differences between these shoe styles when participants walk for longer distances (i.e. over 1000 m) and following fatigue.

  3. Differential effect of denervation on free radical scavenging enzymes in slow and fast muscle of rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asayama, K.; Dettbarn, W. D.; Burr, I. M.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect of denervation on the free radical scavenging systems in relation to the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in the slow twitch soleus and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, the sciatic nerve of the rat was crushed in the mid-thigh region and the muscle tissue levels of 5 enzymes were studied 2 and 5 weeks following crush. Radioimmunoassays were utilized for the selective measurement of cuprozinc (cytosolic) and mangano (mitochondrial) superoxide dismutases. These data represent the first systematic report of free radical scavening systems in slow and fast muscles in response to denervation. Selective modification of cuprozinc and manganosuperoxide dismutases and differential regulation of GSH-peroxidase was demonstrated in slow and fast muscle.

  4. Contractile properties of rat fast-twitch skeletal muscle during reinnervation - Effects of testosterone and castration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeagle, S. P.; Mayer, R. F.; Max, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    The peroneal nerve of subject rats were crushed 1 cm from the muscle in order to examine the isometric contractile properties of skeletal muscle in the recovery sequency during reinnervation of normal, castrated, and testosterone-treated rats. The particular muscle studied was the extensor digitorum longus, with functional reinnervation first observed 8-9 days after nerve crush. No evidence was found that either castration or testosterone injections altered the process of reinnervation after the nerve crush, with the conclusion being valid at the 0.05 p level. The most reliable index of reinnervation was found to be the twitch:tetanus ratio, a factor of use in future studies of the reinnervation of skeletal muscle.

  5. Acute effects of hindlimb unweighting on satellite cells of growing skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Edward; Darr, Kevin C.; Macius, Allison

    1994-01-01

    The proliferative behavior of satellite cells in growing rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles was examined at short periods after initiation of hindlimb unweighting. Mitotic activity of satellite cells in both muscles decreased below weight-bearing control levels within 24 h of initiation of hindlimb unweighting. This satellite cell response was equal to or greater than 48 h before any atrophic morphological changes that take place in the muscles. Suppression of mitotic activity was most severe in the soleus muscle where continuous infusion of label demonstrated that virtually all mitotic activity was abolished between 3 and 5 days. The results of this study suggest that satellite cell mitotic activity is a sensitive indicator of primary atrophic changes occurring in growing myofibers and may be a predictor of future morphological changes.

  6. Role of glucocorticoids in the response of rat leg muscles to reduced activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1986-01-01

    Adrenalectomy did not prevent atrophy of rat soleus muscle during 6 days of tail cast suspension. Cortisol treatment enhanced the atrophy and caused atrophy of the weight-bearing soleus and both extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Unloading led to increased sarcoplasmic protein concentration in the soleus but cortisol administration increased the myhofibrillar (+stromal) protein concentration in both muscles. Suspension of hindlimbs of adrenalectomized animals led to faster protein degradation, slower sarcoplasmic protein degradation, and faster myofibrillar protein synthesis in the isolated soleus, whereas with cortisol-treated animals, the difference in synthesis of myofibrillar proteins was enhanced and that of sarcoplasmic proteins was abolished. Both soleus and EDL of suspended, cortisol-treated animals showed faster protein degradation. It is unlikely that any elevation in circulating glucocorticoids was solely responsible for atrophy of the soleus in this model, but catabolic amounts of glucocorticoids could alter the response of muscle to unloading.

  7. Twitch interpolation: superimposed twitches decline progressively during a tetanic contraction of human adductor pollicis.

    PubMed

    Gandevia, S C; McNeil, C J; Carroll, T J; Taylor, J L

    2013-03-01

    The assessment of voluntary activation of human muscles usually depends on measurement of the size of the twitch produced by an interpolated nerve or cortical stimulus. In many forms of fatiguing exercise the superimposed twitch increases and thus voluntary activation appears to decline. This is termed 'central' fatigue. Recent studies on isolated mouse muscle suggest that a peripheral mechanism related to intracellular calcium sensitivity increases interpolated twitches. To test whether this problem developed with human voluntary contractions we delivered maximal tetanic stimulation to the ulnar nerve (≥60 s at physiological motoneuronal frequencies, 30 and 15 Hz). During the tetani (at 30 Hz) in which the force declined by 42%, the absolute size of the twitches evoked by interpolated stimuli (delivered regularly or only in the last second of the tetanus) diminished progressively to less than 1%. With stimulation at 30 Hz, there was also a marked reduction in size and area of the interpolated compound muscle action potential (M wave). With a 15 Hz tetanus, a progressive decline in the interpolated twitch force also occurred (to ∼10%) but did so before the area of the interpolated M wave diminished. These results indicate that the increase in interpolated twitch size predicted from the mouse studies does not occur. Diminution in superimposed twitches occurred whether or not the M wave indicated marked impairment at sarcolemmal/t-tubular levels. Consequently, the increase in superimposed twitch, which is used to denote central fatigue in human fatiguing exercise, is likely to reflect low volitional drive to high-threshold motor units, which stop firing or are discharging at low frequencies. PMID:23283762

  8. Twitch interpolation: superimposed twitches decline progressively during a tetanic contraction of human adductor pollicis.

    PubMed

    Gandevia, S C; McNeil, C J; Carroll, T J; Taylor, J L

    2013-03-01

    The assessment of voluntary activation of human muscles usually depends on measurement of the size of the twitch produced by an interpolated nerve or cortical stimulus. In many forms of fatiguing exercise the superimposed twitch increases and thus voluntary activation appears to decline. This is termed 'central' fatigue. Recent studies on isolated mouse muscle suggest that a peripheral mechanism related to intracellular calcium sensitivity increases interpolated twitches. To test whether this problem developed with human voluntary contractions we delivered maximal tetanic stimulation to the ulnar nerve (≥60 s at physiological motoneuronal frequencies, 30 and 15 Hz). During the tetani (at 30 Hz) in which the force declined by 42%, the absolute size of the twitches evoked by interpolated stimuli (delivered regularly or only in the last second of the tetanus) diminished progressively to less than 1%. With stimulation at 30 Hz, there was also a marked reduction in size and area of the interpolated compound muscle action potential (M wave). With a 15 Hz tetanus, a progressive decline in the interpolated twitch force also occurred (to ∼10%) but did so before the area of the interpolated M wave diminished. These results indicate that the increase in interpolated twitch size predicted from the mouse studies does not occur. Diminution in superimposed twitches occurred whether or not the M wave indicated marked impairment at sarcolemmal/t-tubular levels. Consequently, the increase in superimposed twitch, which is used to denote central fatigue in human fatiguing exercise, is likely to reflect low volitional drive to high-threshold motor units, which stop firing or are discharging at low frequencies.

  9. Corticospinal influences on the distal muscles of the hand in conditions of inertial loading.

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V

    2010-07-01

    Electromyographic activity and synchronous discharges in the muscles of the wrist induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex as the thumb and index finger were used to hold a handle bearing a weight were studied during performance of a number of motor tasks. When the subject increased grip force, for example, in response to increases in the weight of the attached load or by voluntarily squeezing the handle, the evoked response increased proportionally to muscle activity. If the subject moved the hand holding the handle up and down with an amplitude of 10 cm and a frequency of 0.5-1 Hz, grip force changed in accordance with the predicted inertial loading. The muscle response in the adductor pollicis muscle increased to a greater extent than the activity in the muscle. The response to sudden inertial loading consisted of a reflex increase in grip force, the muscle response increasing to a lesser extent than activity in the muscle. This suggests that larger increases in evoked muscle responses on up and down movement of the hand with a load are associated with anticipatory changes in grip force. These results are assessed from the point of view of the involvement of the motor cortex in generating anticipatory changes in muscle activity in the distal muscles. PMID:20544393

  10. Bone remodelling in the natural acetabulum is influenced by muscle force-induced bone stress.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Justin; Sartori, Massimo; Lloyd, David; Munro, Jacob; Shim, Vickie

    2014-01-01

    A modelling framework using the international Physiome Project is presented for evaluating the role of muscles on acetabular stress patterns in the natural hip. The novel developments include the following: (i) an efficient method for model generation with validation; (ii) the inclusion of electromyography-estimated muscle forces from gait; and (iii) the role that muscles play in the hip stress pattern. The 3D finite element hip model includes anatomically based muscle area attachments, material properties derived from Hounsfield units and validation against an Instron compression test. The primary outcome from this study is that hip loading applied as anatomically accurate muscle forces redistributes the stress pattern and reduces peak stress throughout the pelvis and within the acetabulum compared with applying the same net hip force without muscles through the femur. Muscle forces also increased stress where large muscles have small insertion sites. This has implications for the hip where bone stress and strain are key excitation variables used to initiate bone remodelling based on the strain-based bone remodelling theory. Inclusion of muscle forces reduces the predicted sites and degree of remodelling. The secondary outcome is that the key muscles that influenced remodelling in the acetabulum were the rectus femoris, adductor magnus and iliacus.

  11. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Lynn; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2014-01-01

    The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV) of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG) compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01). The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between incremental position

  12. Muscle recruitment variations during wrist flexion exercise: MR evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleckenstein, J. L.; Watumull, D.; Bertocci, L. A.; Nurenberg, P.; Peshock, R. M.; Payne, J. A.; Haller, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many exercise protocols used in physiological studies assume homogeneous and diffuse muscle recruitment. To test this assumption during a "standard" wrist flexion protocol, variations in muscle recruitment were assessed using MRI in eight healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Variations were assessed by comparing the right to the left forearms and the effect of slight (15 degrees) pronation or supination at the wrist. RESULTS: Postexercise imaging showed focal regions of increased signal intensity (SI), indicating relatively strong recruitment, most often in entire muscles, although occasionally only in subvolumes of muscles. In 15 of 26 studies, flexor carpi radialis (FCR) showed more SI than flexor carpi ulnaris, while in 11 studies SI in these muscles increased equivalently. Relatively greater FCR recruitment was seen during pronation and/or use of the nondominant side. Palmaris longus, a wrist flexor, did not appear recruited in 4 of 11 forearms in which it was present. A portion of the superficial finger flexor became hyperintense in 89% of studies, while recruitment of the deep finger flexor was seen only in 43%. CONCLUSION: Inter- and intraindividual variations in forearm muscle recruitment should be anticipated in physiological studies of standard wrist flexion exercise protocols.

  13. Myopathic changes in murine skeletal muscle lacking synemin

    PubMed Central

    García-Pelagio, Karla P.; Muriel, Joaquin; O'Neill, Andrea; Desmond, Patrick F.; Lovering, Richard M.; Lund, Linda; Bond, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of striated muscle linked to intermediate filament (IF) proteins are associated with defects in the organization of the contractile apparatus and its links to costameres, which connect the sarcomeres to the cell membrane. Here we study the role in skeletal muscle of synemin, a type IV IF protein, by examining mice null for synemin (synm-null). Synm-null mice have a mild skeletal muscle phenotype. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles show a significant decrease in mean fiber diameter, a decrease in twitch and tetanic force, and an increase in susceptibility to injury caused by lengthening contractions. Organization of proteins associated with the contractile apparatus and costameres is not significantly altered in the synm-null. Elastimetry of the sarcolemma and associated contractile apparatus in extensor digitorum longus myofibers reveals a reduction in tension consistent with an increase in sarcolemmal deformability. Although fatigue after repeated isometric contractions is more marked in TA muscles of synm-null mice, the ability of the mice to run uphill on a treadmill is similar to controls. Our results suggest that synemin contributes to linkage between costameres and the contractile apparatus and that the absence of synemin results in decreased fiber size and increased sarcolemmal deformability and susceptibility to injury. Thus synemin plays a moderate but distinct role in fast twitch skeletal muscle. PMID:25567810

  14. Heat production during contraction in skeletal muscle of hypothyroid mice

    SciTech Connect

    Leijendekker, W.J.; van Hardeveld, C.; Elzinga, G. )

    1987-08-01

    The effect of hypothyroidism on tension-independent and -dependent heat produced during a twitch and a tetanic contraction of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle of mice was examined. The amount of heat produced during a twitch and the rate of heat development during a tetanus of EDL and soleus were measured at and above optimal length. The effect of hypothyroidism on force production was <30%. Straight lines were used to fit the relation between heat production and force. Hypothyroidism significantly decreases tension-independent heat during contraction of EDL and soleus muscle. Because the tension-independent heat is considered to be related to the Ca{sup 2+} cycling, these findings suggest that ATP splitting due to the Ca{sup 2+} cycling is reduced in hypothyroid mice. This conclusion was strengthened by the observation that the oxalate-supported {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}-uptake activity and {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}-loading capacity of muscle homogenates from hypothyroid mice were reduced, respectively, to 51 and to 65% in soleus and to 63 and 73% in EDL muscle as compared with euthyroid mice. The tension-dependent rate of heat development during a tetanus was also decreased in soleus muscle of hypothyroid mice. This suggests a lower rate of ATP hydrolysis related to cross-bridge cycling in this muscle due to the hypothyroid state.

  15. Optimization of Spinal Muscular Atrophy subject's muscle activity during gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umat, Gazlia; Rambely, Azmin Sham

    2014-06-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary disease related muscle nerve disorder caused by degeneration of the anterior cells of the spinal cord. SMA is divided into four types according to the degree of seriousness. SMA patients show different gait with normal people. Therefore, this study focused on the effects of SMA patient muscle actions and the difference that exists between SMA subjects and normal subjects. Therefore, the electromyography (EMG) test will be used to track the behavior of muscle during walking and optimization methods are used to get the muscle stress that is capable of doing the work while walking. Involved objective function is non-linear function of the quadratic and cubic functions. The study concludes with a comparison of the objective function using the force that sought to use the moment of previous studies and the objective function using the data obtained from EMG. The results shows that the same muscles, peroneus longus and bisepsfemoris, were used during walking activity by SMA subjects and control subjects. Muscle stress force best solution achieved from part D in simulation carried out.

  16. Abdominal muscle and quadriceps strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Man, W; Hopkinson, N; Harraf, F; Nikoletou, D; Polkey, M; Moxham, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Quadriceps muscle weakness is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is not observed in a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis). Although this could be explained by reduced activity in the quadriceps, the observation could also be explained by anatomical location of the muscle or fibre type composition. However, the abdominal muscles are of a similar anatomical and fibre type distribution to the quadriceps, although they remain active in COPD. Cough gastric pressure is a recently described technique that assesses abdominal muscle (and hence expiratory muscle) strength more accurately than traditional techniques. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that more severe weakness exists in the quadriceps than in the abdominal muscles of patients with COPD compared with healthy elderly controls. Methods: Maximum cough gastric pressure and quadriceps isometric strength were measured in 43 patients with stable COPD and 25 healthy elderly volunteers matched for anthropometric variables. Results: Despite a significant reduction in mean quadriceps strength (29.9 kg v 41.2 kg; 95% CI –17.9 to –4.6; p = 0.001), cough gastric pressure was preserved in patients with COPD (227.3 cm H2O v 204.8 cm H2O; 95% CI –5.4 to 50.6; p = 0.11). Conclusions: Abdominal muscle strength is preserved in stable COPD outpatients in the presence of quadriceps weakness. This suggests that anatomical location and fibre type cannot explain quadriceps weakness in COPD. By inference, we conclude that disuse and consequent deconditioning are important factors in the development of quadriceps muscle weakness in COPD patients, or that activity protects the abdominal muscles from possible systemic myopathic processes. PMID:15923239

  17. Changes of contractile responses due to simulated weightlessness in rat soleus muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhammari, A.; Noireaud, J.; Léoty, C.

    1994-08-01

    Some contractile and electrophysiological properties of muscle fibers isolated from the slow-twitch soleus (SOL) and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of rats were compared with those measured in SOL muscles from suspended rats. In suspendede SOL (21 days of tail-suspension) membrane potential (Em), intracellular sodium activity (aiNa) and the slope of the relationship between Em and log [K]o were typical of fast-twitch muscles. The relation between the maximal amplitude of K-contractures vs Em was steeper for control SOL than for EDL and suspended SOL muscles. After suspension, in SOL muscles the contractile threshold and the inactivation curves for K-contractures were shifted to more positive Em. Repriming of K-contractures was unaffected by suspencion. The exposure of isolated fibers to perchlorate (ClO4-)-containing (6-40 mM) solutions resulted ina similar concentration-dependent shift to more negative Em of activation curves for EDL and suspended SOL muscles. On exposure to a Na-free TEA solution, SOL from control and suspended rats, in contrast to EDL muscles, generated slow contractile responses. Suspended SOL showed a reduced sensitivity to the contracture-producing effect of caffeine compared to control muscles. These results suggested that the modification observed due to suspension could be encounted by changes in the characteristics of muscle fibers from slow to fast-twitch type.

  18. Vitamin D deficiency impairs skeletal muscle function in a smoking mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Cielen, Nele; Heulens, Nele; Maes, Karen; Carmeliet, Geert; Mathieu, Chantal; Janssens, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with skeletal muscle dysfunction. Vitamin D plays an important role in muscle strength and performance in healthy individuals. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in COPD, but its role in skeletal muscle dysfunction remains unclear. We examined the time-course effect of vitamin D deficiency on limb muscle function in mice with normal or deficient vitamin D serum levels exposed to air or cigarette smoke for 6, 12 or 18 weeks. The synergy of smoking and vitamin D deficiency increased lung inflammation and lung compliance from 6 weeks on with highest emphysema scores observed at 18 weeks. Smoking reduced body and muscle mass of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), but did not affect contractility, despite type II atrophy. Vitamin D deficiency did not alter muscle mass but reduced muscle force over time, downregulated vitamin D receptor expression, and increased muscle lipid peroxidation but did not alter actin and myosin expression, fiber dimensions or twitch relaxation time. The combined effect of smoking and vitamin D deficiency did not further deteriorate muscle function but worsened soleus mass loss and EDL fiber atrophy at 18 weeks. We conclude that the synergy of smoking and vitamin D deficiency in contrast to its effect on lung disease, had different, independent but important noxious effects on skeletal muscles in a mouse model of mild COPD. PMID:26906744

  19. Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2014-02-15

    With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P < 0.05) as was force (40.3 ± 12.8% vs. 57.1 ± 13.8% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Likewise, after a 2-min AP MVC, elbow flexion voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (88.3 ± 7.5% vs. 93.6 ± 3.9%; P < 0.05) as was torque (80.2 ± 4.6% vs. 86.6 ± 1.0% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Pain during ischemia was reported as Moderate to Very Strong. Postfatigue firing of group III/IV muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb. PMID:24356522

  20. Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2014-02-15

    With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P < 0.05) as was force (40.3 ± 12.8% vs. 57.1 ± 13.8% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Likewise, after a 2-min AP MVC, elbow flexion voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (88.3 ± 7.5% vs. 93.6 ± 3.9%; P < 0.05) as was torque (80.2 ± 4.6% vs. 86.6 ± 1.0% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Pain during ischemia was reported as Moderate to Very Strong. Postfatigue firing of group III/IV muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb.

  1. Cranial myology and bite force performance of Erlikosaurus andrewsi: a novel approach for digital muscle reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of bite force and bite performance in fossil and extinct animals is a challenging subject in palaeontology and is highly dependent on the reconstruction of the cranial myology. Furthermore, the morphology and arrangement of the adductor muscles considerably affect feeding processes and mastication and thus also have important dietary and ecological ramifications. However, in the past, the reconstruction of the (cranial) muscles was restricted to the identification of muscle attachment sites or simplified computer models. This study presents a detailed reconstruction of the adductor musculature of the Cretaceous therizinosaur Erlikosaurus andrewsi based on a stepwise and iterative approach. The detailed, three-dimensional models of the individual muscles allow for more accurate measurements of the muscle properties (length, cross-section, attachment angle and volume), from which muscle and bite force estimates are calculated. Bite force estimations are found to be the lowest at the tip of the snout (43–65 N) and respectively higher at the first (59–88 N) and last tooth (90–134 N) position. Nevertheless, bite forces are comparatively low for E. andrewsi, both in actual numbers as well as in comparison with other theropod dinosaurs. The results further indicate that the low bite performance was mainly used for leaf-stripping and plant cropping, rather than active mastication or chewing processes. Muscle and thus bite force in E. andrewsi (and most likely all therizinosaurs) is considerably constrained by the cranial anatomy and declines in derived taxa of this clade. This trend is reflected in the changes of dietary preferences from carnivory to herbivory in therizinosaurs. PMID:23061752

  2. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  3. Absence of insulin signalling in skeletal muscle is associated with reduced muscle mass and function: evidence for decreased protein synthesis and not increased degradation

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Elaine D.; Wilding, John P. H.; Kahn, C. Ronald; Van Remmen, Holly; McArdle, Anne; Jackson, Malcolm J.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is observed in many insulin-resistant disease states such as diabetes, cancer cachexia, renal failure and ageing although the mechanisms for this remain unclear. We hypothesised that impaired insulin signalling results in reduced muscle mass and function and that this decrease in muscle mass and function is due to both increased production of atrogenes and aberrant reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Maximum tetanic force of the extensor digitorum longus of muscle insulin receptor knockout (MIRKO) and lox/lox control mice was measured in situ. Muscles were removed for the measurement of mass, histological examination and ROS production. Activation of insulin signalling pathways, markers of muscle atrophy and indices of protein synthesis were determined in a separate group of MIRKO and lox/lox mice 15 min following treatment with insulin. Muscles from MIRKO mice had 36% lower maximum tetanic force generation compared with muscles of lox/lox mice. Muscle fibres of MIRKO mice were significantly smaller than those of lox/lox mice with no apparent structural abnormalities. Muscles from MIRKO mice demonstrated absent phosphorylation of AKT in response to exogenous insulin along with a failure to phosphorylate ribosomal S6 compared with lox/lox mice. Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 relative mRNA expression in muscles from MIRKO mice were decreased compared with muscles from lox/lox mice following insulin treatment. There were no differences in markers of reactive oxygen species damage between muscles from MIRKO mice and lox/lox mice. These data support the hypothesis that the absence of insulin signalling contributes to reduced muscle mass and function though decreased protein synthesis rather than proteasomal atrophic pathways. PMID:20431988

  4. Pubic inguinal pain syndrome: the so-called sports hernia.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Marta; Bombini, Grazia; Campanelli, Giampiero

    2014-03-01

    The "sportsman's hernia" commonly presents as a painful groin in those sports that involve kicking and twisting movements while running, particularly in rugby, football, soccer, and ice hockey players. Moreover, sportsman's hernia can be encountered even in normally physically active people. The pain experienced is recognized at the common point of origin of the rectus abdominis muscle and the adductor longus tendon on the pubic bone and the insertion of the inguinal ligament on the pubic bone. It is accepted that this chronic pain caused by abdominal wall weakness or injury occurs without a palpable hernia. We proposed the new name "pubic inguinal pain syndrome." In the period between January 2006 and November 2013 all patients afferent in our ambulatory clinic for chronic groin pain without a clinically evident hernia were assessed with medical history, physical examination, dynamic ultrasound, and pelvic and lumbar MRI. All patients were proposed for a conservative treatment and then, if it was not effective, for a surgical treatment. Our etiopathogenetic theory is based on three factors: (1) the compression of the three nerves of the inguinal region, (2) the imbalance in strength of adductor and abdominal wall muscles caused by the hypertrophy and stiffness of the insertion of rectus muscle and adductor longus muscle, and (3) the partial weakness of the posterior wall. Our surgical procedure includes the release of all three nerves of the region, the correction of the imbalance in strength with the partial tenotomy of the rectus and adductor longus muscles, and the repair of the partial weakness of the posterior wall with a lightweight mesh. This treatment reported excellent results with complete relief of symptoms after resumption of physical activity in all cases. PMID:24526429

  5. Evaluation of an in vitro muscle contraction model in mouse primary cultured myotubes.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Yasuko; Ogino, Shinya; Ito, Miyuki; Furuichi, Yasuro; Takagi, Mayumi; Yamada, Mio; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Ono, Yusuke; Fujii, Nobuharu L

    2016-03-15

    To construct an in vitro contraction model with the primary cultured myotubes, we isolated satellite cells from the mouse extensor digitorum longus. Differentiated myotubes possessed a greater number of sarcomere assemblies and higher expression levels of myosin heavy chain, cytochrome c oxidase IV, and myoglobin than in C2C12 myotubes. In agreement with these results regarding the sarcomere assemblies and protein expressions, the primary myotubes showed higher contractile activity stimulated by the electric pulses than that in the C2C12 myotubes. These data suggest that mouse primary myotubes will be a valuable research tool as an in vitro muscle contraction model. PMID:26548957

  6. Hallux saltans due to flexor hallucis longus entrapment at a previously unreported site in an unskilled manual laborer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Rajesh; Karuppal, Raju; Inassi, Jojo; Valsalan, Rejith

    2012-01-01

    Triggering of the big toe, or hallux saltans, is commonly due to stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus at the fibro-osseous tunnel below the sustentaculum tali. It is a rare condition described mainly in female ballet dancers. This is hypothesized to be due to the en pointe position used in ballet, which puts enormous supraphysiologic loads on the flexor hallucis longus, predisposing it to injury. Trigger hallux is extremely uncommon in the general population. We are reporting a case of hallux saltans in an unskilled manual laborer, with the site of tendon entrapment just proximal to the medial malleolus in the distal leg, a hitherto unreported location of stenosis. PMID:22459424

  7. Extensor pollicis brevis tendon can hyperextend thumb interphalangeal joint in absence of extensor pollicis longus: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strauch, Robert J; Strauch, Carolyn B

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting a case of extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture which did not require tendon transfer owing to the ability of the intact extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) to fully hyperextend the thumb interphalangeal joint. The thumb metacarpophalangeal joint was also able to be fully actively extended by the EPB. Previous anatomical studies have demonstrated that the insertional anatomy of the EPB tendon is highly variable and sometimes inserts onto the extensor hood and distal phalanx, which is likely the mechanism by which our patient was able to fully extend the thumb interphalangeal joint. Despite the potential for the EPB to extend the IP joint of the thumb, virtually all previously reported cases of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon rupture had deficits of thumb IP extension requiring tendon transfer. This case highlights the potential ability of the EPB tendon to completely substitute for the function of the EPL tendon in providing thumb IP joint extension. PMID:27458556

  8. Extensor pollicis brevis tendon can hyperextend thumb interphalangeal joint in absence of extensor pollicis longus: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Strauch, Robert J; Strauch, Carolyn B

    2016-07-18

    We are reporting a case of extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture which did not require tendon transfer owing to the ability of the intact extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) to fully hyperextend the thumb interphalangeal joint. The thumb metacarpophalangeal joint was also able to be fully actively extended by the EPB. Previous anatomical studies have demonstrated that the insertional anatomy of the EPB tendon is highly variable and sometimes inserts onto the extensor hood and distal phalanx, which is likely the mechanism by which our patient was able to fully extend the thumb interphalangeal joint. Despite the potential for the EPB to extend the IP joint of the thumb, virtually all previously reported cases of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon rupture had deficits of thumb IP extension requiring tendon transfer. This case highlights the potential ability of the EPB tendon to completely substitute for the function of the EPL tendon in providing thumb IP joint extension. PMID:27458556

  9. Isometric and eccentric force generation assessment of skeletal muscles isolated from murine models of muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Moorwood, Catherine; Liu, Min; Tian, Zuozhen; Barton, Elisabeth R

    2013-01-31

    Critical to the evaluation of potential therapeutics for muscular disease are sensitive and reproducible physiological assessments of muscle function. Because many pre-clinical trials rely on mouse models for these diseases, isolated muscle function has become one of the standards for Go/NoGo decisions in moving drug candidates forward into patients. We will demonstrate the preparation of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and diaphragm muscles for functional testing, which are the predominant muscles utilized for these studies. The EDL muscle geometry is ideal for isolated muscle preparations, with two easily accessible tendons, and a small size that can be supported by superfusion in a bath. The diaphragm exhibits profound progressive pathology in dystrophic animals, and can serve as a platform for evaluating many potential therapies countering fibrosis, and promoting myofiber stability. Protocols for routine testing, including isometric and eccentric contractions, will be shown. Isometric force provides assessment of strength, and eccentric contractions help to evaluate sarcolemma stability, which is disrupted in many types of muscular dystrophies. Comparisons of the expected results between muscles from wildtype and dystrophic muscles will also be provided. These measures can complement morphological and biochemical measurements of tissue homeostasis, as well as whole animal assessments of muscle function.

  10. Muscle function and hydrodynamics limit power and speed in swimming frogs.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Christofer J; Richards, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the muscle force-velocity relationship and its derived n-shaped power-velocity curve offer important insights into muscular limits of performance. Given the power is maximal at 1/3 V(max), geometric scaling of muscle force coupled with fluid drag force implies that this optimal muscle-shortening velocity for power cannot be maintained across the natural body-size range. Instead, muscle velocity may decrease with increasing body size, conferring a similar n-shaped power curve with body size. Here we examine swimming speed and muscle function in the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis. Swimming speed shows an n-shaped scaling relationship, peaking at 47.35 g. Further, in vitro muscle function of the ankle extensor plantaris longus also shows an optimal body mass for muscle power output (47.27 g), reflecting that of swimming speed. These findings suggest that in drag-based aquatic systems, muscle-environment interactions vary with body size, limiting both the muscle's potential to produce power and the swimming speed. PMID:24177194

  11. Re-innervation of fast and slow twitch muscle following nerve crush at birth.

    PubMed

    McArdle, J J; Sansone, F M

    1977-10-01

    1. The frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (m.e.p.p.s) was significantly greater in the fast twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle (extensor) than in the slow twitch soleus, even though end-plate surface area was greater for fibres in the latter muscle. 2. Crush of the sciatic nerve at birth did not prevent the appearance of this difference in m.e.p.p. frequency. However, the frequency of the potentials in the re-innervated muscles was less than normal, even though the regenerated neuromuscular junction was qualitatively normal in morphology. 3. Though the re-innevated muscles were differentiated with respect to twitch time course, the extensor muscle was more responsive than normal to the contracture-inducing action of caffeine. 4. The Z line of the re-innervated extensor muscle was similar to that of the normal soleus in thickness. 5. Resting potential, passive electrical properties and action potential generating mechanism of the sarcolemma were normal. 6. Since the re-innervated muscles lacked muscle spindles, a role of sensory feed-back in the function of the neuromuscular junction as well as the neutrotrophic regulation of muscle is discussed.

  12. Responses of skeletal muscle to unloading, a review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Jaspers, S. R.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jacob, S.

    1985-01-01

    Suspension models were used to study muscle response to reduced activity. During 6 days of tail casting, the soleus (SOL) atrophies while the extensor digitorum longus grows relatively normally. After discounting those changes in both muscles due primarily to increased secretion of adrenal hormones, the following conclusions regarding the specific responses of the SOL could be drawn: (1) Atrophy is probably due primarily to increased protein degradation; (2) Decreased synthesis of glutamine may result from reduced availability of ammonia due to diminished use of ATP; (3) Greater muscle glycogen seems to reflect an increased response to insulin of glucose uptake which leads to greater glucose metabolism; and (4) Faster catabolism of branched-chain amino acids can be attributed to enhanced flux through ketoacid dehydrogenase. Studies by others using tail casted suspended rats showed in the SOL: (1) a gradual switch from type 1 to type 2 fibers; (2) increased acid protease activity; and (3) altered muscle function and contractile duration. Using harness suspended rats, others showed in the SOL: (1) significant atrophy; (2) increased numbers of glucocorticoid receptors; and (3) no change in muscle fatigability.

  13. Responses of skeletal muscle to unloading - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Jaspers, S. R.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jacob, S.

    1985-01-01

    Suspension models were used to study muscle response to reduced activity. During 6 days of tail casting, the soleus (SOL) atrophies while the extensor digitorum longus grows relatively normally. After discounting those changes in both muscles due primarily to increased secretion of adrenal hormones, the following conclusions regarding the specific responses of the SOL could be drawn: (1) Atrophy is probably due primarily to increased protein degradation; (2) Decreased synthesis of glutamine may result from reduced availability of ammonia due to diminished use of ATP; (3) Greater muscle glycogen seems to reflect an increased response to insulin of glucose uptake which leads to greater glucose metabolism; and (4) Faster catabolism of branched-chain amino acids can be attributed to enhanced flux through ketoacid dehydrogenase. Studies by others using tail casted suspended rats showed in the SOL: (1) a gradual switch from type 1 to type 2 fibers; (2) increased acid protease activity; and (3) altered muscle function and contractile duration. Using harness suspended rats, others showed in the SOL: (1) significant atrophy; (2) increased numbers of glucocorticoid receptors; and (3) no change in muscle fatigability.

  14. Rat hindlimb muscle responses to suspension hypokinesia/hypodynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Deavers, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Hypokinetic/hyupodynamic (H/H) whole body suspension of rats eliminates hindlimb load bearing functions while permitting continued use of the forelimbs. Responses of hindlimb muscles were assessed in terms of absolute and relative weights during 1 and 2 weeks of H/H suspension. Muscle mass loss was in the order soleus greater than gastrocnemius equal to plantaris greater than extensor digitorum longus (EDL). The soleus, a postural antigravity muscle composed mainly of slow twitch fibers, was most sensitive, losing 35 and 45 percent of its weight during the first and second weeks, respectively. The gastrocnemius and plantaris showed losses during the first week but no significant loss during the second wee. The EDL showed little or no weight loss. During post suspension recovery all muscles showed a weight gain. H/H suspended rats failed to grow; following removal from suspension they gained weight linearly, comparable to controls. Products of muscle metabolism including urea, ammonia, and 3-methylhistidine increased in the urine during H/H suspension and were significantly reduced approaching control levels during recovery. This suspension model offers considerable promise for comparison with H/H responses during weightlessness.

  15. Satellite cell depletion prevents fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Egner, Ingrid M; Bruusgaard, Jo C; Gundersen, Kristian

    2016-08-15

    The largest mammalian cells are the muscle fibers, and they have multiple nuclei to support their large cytoplasmic volumes. During hypertrophic growth, new myonuclei are recruited from satellite stem cells into the fiber syncytia, but it was recently suggested that such recruitment is not obligatory: overload hypertrophy after synergist ablation of the plantaris muscle appeared normal in transgenic mice in which most of the satellite cells were abolished. When we essentially repeated these experiments analyzing the muscles by immunohistochemistry and in vivo and ex vivo imaging, we found that overload hypertrophy was prevented in the satellite cell-deficient mice, in both the plantaris and the extensor digitorum longus muscles. We attribute the previous findings to a reliance on muscle mass as a proxy for fiber hypertrophy, and to the inclusion of a significant number of regenerating fibers in the analysis. We discuss that there is currently no model in which functional, sustainable hypertrophy has been unequivocally demonstrated in the absence of satellite cells; an exception is re-growth, which can occur using previously recruited myonuclei without addition of new myonuclei. PMID:27531949

  16. The effect of hypokinesia and hypodynamia on protein turnover and the growth of four skeletal muscles of the rat.

    PubMed

    Goldspink, D F; Morton, A J; Loughna, P; Goldspink, G

    1986-09-01

    An animal suspension model has been used to simulate the weightlessness experienced during space travel. This procedure results in a reduction in the normal shortening (i.e. hypokinesia) and force generation functions of hind limb muscles (i.e. hypodynamia). The ensuing muscle atrophy was studied over 12 days in different muscle types. Slow muscles (e.g. the soleus) underwent a more pronounced atrophy than intermediate (i.e. gastrocnemius) and fast phasic muscles (e.g. extensor digitorum longus). In all muscle types inactivity resulted in a smaller accumulation of DNA and losses of RNA and protein after 5 days. The latter arose from a decrease in the rate of protein synthesis (measured in vivo) and an increase in protein breakdown. Increased specific activities of cathepsins B and D also supported the view that there is an increased proteolysis after hypokinesia and hypodynamia. When the inactive soleus was simultaneously held in a lengthened (stretched) state the atrophy was prevented through a large increase in the fractional rate of protein synthesis. Protein degradation remained elevated with stretch, thereby slowing the growth of these muscles relative to those in pair-fed, ambulatory controls. The much smaller atrophy of the tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles in suspended only limbs represented an underestimate of the true atrophic effects of hypokinesia and hypodynamia. In this model gravity pulls the suspended foot into a plantar flexed position, thereby permanently stretching and protecting such flexor muscles. When this influence of stretch was removed a greater atrophy ensued, mainly due to the loss of the stretch-induced stimulation of protein synthesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Nutrient Excess and AMPK Downregulation in Incubated Skeletal Muscle and Muscle of Glucose Infused Rats

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Rudy J.; Petrocelli, Robert; Schultz, Vera; Brandon, Amanda; Cooney, Gregory J.; Kraegen, Edward W.; Ruderman, Neil B.; Saha, Asish K.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that incubation for 1h with excess glucose or leucine causes insulin resistance in rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle by inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To examine the events that precede and follow these changes, studies were performed in rat EDL incubated with elevated levels of glucose or leucine for 30min-2h. Incubation in high glucose (25mM) or leucine (100μM) significantly diminished AMPK activity by 50% within 30min, with further decreases occurring at 1 and 2h. The initial decrease in activity at 30min coincided with a significant increase in muscle glycogen. The subsequent decreases at 1h were accompanied by phosphorylation of αAMPK at Ser485/491, and at 2h by decreased SIRT1 expression and increased PP2A activity, all of which have previously been shown to diminish AMPK activity. Glucose infusion in vivo, which caused several fold increases in plasma glucose and insulin, produced similar changes but with different timing. Thus, the initial decrease in AMPK activity observed at 3h was associated with changes in Ser485/491 phosphorylation and SIRT1 expression and increased PP2A activity was a later event. These findings suggest that both ex vivo and in vivo, multiple factors contribute to fuel-induced decreases in AMPK activity in skeletal muscle and the insulin resistance that accompanies it. PMID:25996822

  18. Slow myosin in developing rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Through S1 nuclease mapping using a specific cDNA probe, we demonstrate that the slow myosin heavy-chain (MHC) gene, characteristic of adult soleus, is expressed in bulk hind limb muscle obtained from the 18-d rat fetus. We support these results by use of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) which is highly specific to the adult slow MHC. Immunoblots of MHC peptide maps show the same peptides, uniquely recognized by this antibody in adult soleus, are also identified in 18-d fetal limb muscle. Thus synthesis of slow myosin is an early event in skeletal myogenesis and is expressed concurrently with embryonic myosin. By immunofluorescence we demonstrate that in the 16-d fetus all primary myotubes in future fast and future slow muscles homogeneously express slow as well as embryonic myosin. Fiber heterogeneity arises owing to a developmentally regulated inhibition of slow MHC accumulation as muscles are progressively assembled from successive orders of cells. Assembly involves addition of new, superficial areas of the anterior tibial muscle (AT) and extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) in which primary cells initially stain weakly or are unstained with the slow mAb. In the developing AT and EDL, expression of slow myosin is unstable and is progressively restricted as these muscles specialize more and more towards the fast phenotype. Slow fibers persisting in deep portions of the adult EDL and AT are interpreted as vestiges of the original muscle primordium. A comparable inhibition of slow MHC accumulation occurs in the developing soleus but involves secondary, not primary, cells. Our results show that the fate of secondary cells is flexible and is spatially determined. By RIA we show that the relative proportions of slow MHC are fivefold greater in the soleus than in the EDL or AT at birth. After neonatal denervation, concentrations of slow MHC in the soleus rapidly decline, and we hypothesize that, in this muscle, the nerve protects and amplifies initial programs of slow MHC

  19. Neglected Achilles Tendon Rupture Treated with Flexor Hallucis Longus transfer with two turndown gastrocnemius fascia flap and reinforced with plantaris tendon.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haijiao; Shi, Zengyuan; Xu, Dachuan; Liu, Zhenxin

    2015-09-01

    Neglected Achilles Tendon Ruptures are commonly seen by orthopaedic surgeons. In cases resistant to conservative treatment, a variety of surgical procedures have been utilized in the past. The senior -surgeon at our institution has utilized a technique -employing two turndown fascia flaps fashioned from the proximal Achilles tendon augmented by a tenomyodesis of the flexor hallucis longus and plantaris tendon. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcome of all patients who underwent this procedure. The medical records of 10 cases that underwent this procedure were retrospectively reviewed. We completed data collection sets using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot scores, isokinetic evaluation, and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1 year of follow-up. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot scores improved from 64.4±3.54. Isokinetic testing at 30º/sec and 120º/sec revealed an mean deficits of 24.5%, respectively, in the plantar flexion peak torque of the involved ankle than non-involved ankle. The flexor hallucis longus tendon, gastrocnemius fascia flap and plantaris were well -integrated into the Achilles tendon forming a homogenous tendon, which was confirmed in MRI. Our subjective and objective data indicate that the reconstructive technique using flexor hallucis longus transfer with two turndown gastrocnemius fascia flaps and plantaris tendon is a good option for repairing large gap defect of Achilles tendon.

  20. Cancer cachexia decreases specific force and accelerates fatigue in limb muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, B.M.; Frye, G.S.; Ahn, B.; Ferreira, L.F.; Judge, A.R.

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •C-26 cancer cachexia causes a significant decrease in limb muscle absolute force. •C-26 cancer cachexia causes a significant decrease in limb muscle specific force. •C-26 cancer cachexia decreases fatigue resistance in the soleus muscle. •C-26 cancer cachexia prolongs time to peak twitch tension in limb muscle. •C-26 cancer cachexia prolongs one half twitch relaxation time in limb muscle. -- Abstract: Cancer cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome that is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle mass and weakness, which compromises physical function, reduces quality of life, and ultimately can lead to mortality. Experimental models of cancer cachexia have recapitulated this skeletal muscle atrophy and consequent decline in muscle force generating capacity. However, more recently, we provided evidence that during severe cancer cachexia muscle weakness in the diaphragm muscle cannot be entirely accounted for by the muscle atrophy. This indicates that muscle weakness is not just a consequence of muscle atrophy but that there is also significant contractile dysfunction. The current study aimed to determine whether contractile dysfunction is also present in limb muscles during severe Colon-26 (C26) carcinoma cachexia by studying the glycolytic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and the oxidative soleus muscle, which has an activity pattern that more closely resembles the diaphragm. Severe C-26 cancer cachexia caused significant muscle fiber atrophy and a reduction in maximum absolute force in both the EDL and soleus muscles. However, normalization to muscle cross sectional area further demonstrated a 13% decrease in maximum isometric specific force in the EDL and an even greater decrease (17%) in maximum isometric specific force in the soleus. Time to peak tension and half relaxation time were also significantly slowed in both the EDL and the solei from C-26 mice compared to controls. Since, in addition to postural control, the oxidative

  1. BTX-A administration to the target muscle affects forces of all muscles within an intact compartment and epimuscular myofascial force transmission.

    PubMed

    Yucesoy, Can A; Emre Arıkan, Önder; Ateş, Filiz

    2012-11-01

    Measurement of forces of mono- and bi-articular muscles of an entire intact muscle compartment can allow for a comprehensive assessment of the effects of Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) both at and beyond the injection site, and in conditions close to those in vivo. The goal was to test the hypotheses that BTX-A affects (1) the forces of not only the injected but also the noninjected muscles of the compartment, and (2) epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT). Two groups of Wistar rats were tested: Control (no BTX-A injected) and BTX (0.1 units of BTX-A were injected exclusively to the mid-belly of TA). Isometric forces were measured simultaneously at the distal tendons of the tibialis anterior (TA) at different lengths, the restrained extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and the extensor hallucis longus (EHL) muscles and at the proximal tendon of EDL. Five days post-injection, BTX-A did affect the total forces of all muscles significantly: (1) The TA force decreased differentially (by 46.6%-55.9%) for most lengths such that a significant negative correlation was found between force reductions and increased muscle length. The maximum TA force decreased by 47.3%. However, the muscle's length range of force production did not change significantly. (2) Distal and proximal EDL forces decreased (on average by 67.8% and 62.9%, respectively). (3) The EHL force also decreased (on average by 9.2%). The passive forces of only the TA showed a significant increase at higher lengths. EMFT effects were shown for the control group: (1) at the shortest TA lengths, the EDL proximo-distal force differences were in favor of the distal force, which was reversed at higher lengths. (2) the EHL force measured at the shortest TA length decreased (by 34%) as a function of TA lengthening. After BTX-A exposure, such EMFT effects disappeared for the EDL, whereas they remained as profound for the EHL. Exposure to BTX-A does affect forces of all muscles operating in an intact compartment. For

  2. Heat treatment inhibits skeletal muscle atrophy of glucocorticoid-induced myopathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Y; Kondo, Y; Kataoka, H; Honda, Y; Kozu, R; Sakamoto, J; Nakano, J; Origuchi, T; Yoshimura, T; Okita, M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of heat treatment on glucocorticoid (GC)-induced myopathy. Eight-week-old Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the control, Dex, and Dex + Heat groups. Dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously 6 days per week for 2 weeks in the Dex and Dex + Heat group. In the Dex + Heat group, heat treatment was performed by immersing hindlimbs in water at 42 °C for 60 min, once every 3 days for 2 weeks. The extensor digitorum longus muscle was extracted following 2 weeks of experimentation. In the Dex + Heat group, muscle fiber diameter, capillary/muscle fiber ratio, and level of heat shock protein 72 were significantly higher and atrogene expression levels were significantly lower than in the Dex group. Our results suggest that heat treatment inhibits the development of GC-induced myopathy by decreasing atrogene expression and increasing angiogenesis.

  3. Slow to fast alterations in skeletal muscle fibers caused by clenbuterol, a beta(2)-receptor agonist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Richard J.; Ludemann, Robert; Easton, Thomas G.; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of a beta(2)-receptor agonist, clenbuterol, and a beta(2) antagonist, butoxamine, on the skeletal muscle fibers of rats were investigated. It was found that chronic treatment of rats with clenbuterol caused hypertrophy of histochemically identified fast-twitch, but not slow-twitch, fibers within the soleus, while in the extensor digitorum longus the mean areas of both fiber types were increased; in both muscles, the ratio of the number of fast-twitch to slow-twitch fibers was increased. In contrast, a treatment with butoxamine caused a reduction of the fast-twitch fiber size in both muscles, and the ratio of the fast-twitch to slow-twitch fibers was decreased.

  4. Muscle fiber type specific induction of slow myosin heavy chain 2 gene expression by electrical stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Crew, Jennifer R.; Falzari, Kanakeshwari; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2010-04-01

    Vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber types are defined by a broad array of differentially expressed contractile and metabolic protein genes. The mechanisms that establish and maintain these different fiber types vary throughout development and with changing functional demand. Chicken skeletal muscle fibers can be generally categorized as fast and fast/slow based on expression of the slow myosin heavy chain 2 (MyHC2) gene in fast/slow muscle fibers. To investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control fiber type formation in secondary or fetal muscle fibers, myoblasts from the fast pectoralis major (PM) and fast/slow medial adductor (MA) muscles were isolated, allowed to differentiate in vitro, and electrically stimulated. MA muscle fibers were induced to express the slow MyHC2 gene by electrical stimulation, whereas PM muscle fibers did not express the slow MyHC2 gene under identical stimulation conditions. However, PM muscle fibers did express the slow MyHC2 gene when electrical stimulation was combined with inhibition of inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) activity. Electrical stimulation was sufficient to increase nuclear localization of expressed nuclear-factor-of-activated-T-cells (NFAT), NFAT-mediated transcription, and slow MyHC2 promoter activity in MA muscle fibers. In contrast, both electrical stimulation and inhibitors of IP3R activity were required for these effects in PM muscle fibers. Electrical stimulation also increased levels of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} co-activator-1 (PGC-1{alpha}) protein in PM and MA muscle fibers. These results indicate that MA muscle fibers can be induced by electrical stimulation to express the slow MyHC2 gene and that fast PM muscle fibers are refractory to stimulation-induced slow MyHC2 gene expression due to fast PM muscle fiber specific cellular mechanisms involving IP3R activity.

  5. The effects of cutting or of stretching skeletal muscle in vitro on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seider, M. J.; Kapp, R.; Chen, C.-P.; Booth, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    Skeletal muscle preparations using cut muscle fibers have often been used in studies of protein metabolism. The present paper reports an investigation of the effect of muscle cutting or stretching in vitro on the rates of protein synthesis and/or degradation. Protein synthesis and content, and ATP and phosphocreatine levels were monitored in soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from the rat with various extents of muscle fiber cuts and following stretching to about 120% the resting length. Rates of protein synthesis are found to be significantly lower and protein degradation higher in the cut muscles than in uncut controls, while ATP and phosphocreatine concentrations decreased. Stretched intact muscles, on the other hand, are observed to have higher concentrations of high-energy phosphates than unstretched muscles, while rates of protein degradation were not affected. Results thus demonstrate that the cutting of skeletal muscle fibers alters many aspects of muscle metabolism, and that moderate decreases in ATP concentration do not alter rates of protein concentration in intact muscles in vitro.

  6. Extensor Pollicis Longus Injury in Addition to De Quervain’s with Text Messaging on Mobile Phones

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bhaskaranand; Bhat, Anil K; Venugopal, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To do a clinical and ultrasonic evaluation of subjects with thumb pain with text messaging. Background: Thumbs are commonly used for text messaging, which are not as well designed for fine manipulative or dexterous work. Repetitive use as in text messaging can lead to the injury to the tendons of the thumb. Materials and Methods: Ninety eight students with symptoms of Repetitive Strain Type of injuries of the thumb were selected from a survey and evaluated both clinically and by ultrasound analysis of the musculotendinous unit of the thumb to note changes due to excessive use of the mobile phone. Age and sex matched controls were also subjected to ultrasound evaluation. Results: Clinical examination showed positive Finkelstein test in 40% of the cases, significant reduction in the lateral and tip pinch strengths in the cases. Ultrasound detected changes in the first and the third compartments in 19% of the cases. Conclusion: Isolated cases of pain in the thumb have been reported but this study noted changes both clinically and by ultrasound in the tendons of the thumb. These changes should be taken as warning signs of possible subclinical changes taking place in the soft tissues of the thumb in these subjects due to repetitive use of mobile phones and thus, making them prone for developing painful Musculoskeletal Disorders. Application: Repetitive use of mobile phones for text messaging can lead to the damage of Extensor pollicis longus of the thumb in addition to the tendons of the first compartment of the wrist. PMID:25584249

  7. MuSK levels differ between adult skeletal muscles and influence postsynaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Punga, Anna R; Maj, Marcin; Lin, Shuo; Meinen, Sarina; Rüegg, Markus A

    2011-03-01

    Muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) is involved in the formation and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), and is necessary for NMJ integrity. As muscle involvement is strikingly selective in pathological conditions in which MuSK is targeted, including congenital myasthenic syndrome with MuSK mutation and MuSK antibody-seropositive myasthenia gravis, we hypothesized that the postsynaptic response to MuSK-agrin signalling differs between adult muscles. Transcript levels of postsynaptic proteins were compared between different muscles in wild-type adult mice. MuSK expression was high in the soleus and sternomastoid muscles and low in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and omohyoid muscles. The acetylcholine receptor (AChR) α subunit followed a similar expression pattern, whereas expression of Dok-7, Lrp4 and rapsyn was comparable between the muscles. We subsequently examined muscles in mice that overexpressed a miniaturized form of neural agrin or MuSK. In these transgenic mice, the soleus and sternomastoid muscles responded with formation of ectopic AChR clusters, whereas such clusters were almost absent in the EDL and omohyoid muscles. Electroporation of Dok-7 revealed its important role as an activator of MuSK in AChR cluster formation in adult muscles. Together, our findings indicate for the first time that adult skeletal muscles harbour different endogenous levels of MuSK and that these levels determine the ability to form ectopic AChR clusters upon overexpression of agrin or MuSK. We believe that these findings are important for our understanding of adult muscle plasticity and the selective muscle involvement in neuromuscular disorders in which MuSK is diminished. PMID:21255125

  8. Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Taro Yoshinaga, Mariko

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Regulation of amino acid transporter expression in working muscle remains unclear. •Expression of amino acid transporters for leucine were induced by a bout of exercise. •Requirement of leucine in muscle cells might regulate expression of its transporters. •This information is beneficial for understanding the muscle remodeling by exercise. -- Abstract: We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles.

  9. Effects of Muscle Atrophy on Motor Control: Cage-size Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Two populations of male Sprague-Dawley rats were raised either in conventional minimum-specification cages or in a larger cage. When the animals were mature (125 to 150 d), the physiological status of the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of the small- and large-cage animals were compared. Analysis of whole-muscle properties including the performance of the test muscle during a standardized fatigue test in which the nerve to the test muscle was subjected to supramaximal intermittent stimulation shows: (1) the amplitude, area, mean amplitude, and peak-to-peak rate of the compound muscle action potential decreased per the course of the fatigue test; (2) cage size did not affect the profile of changes for any of the action-potential measurements; (3) changes exhibited in the compound muscle action potential by SOL and EDL were substantially different; and (4) except for SOL of the large-cage rats, there was a high correlation between all four measures of the compound muscle action potential and the peak tetanic force during the fatigue test; i.e., either the electrical activity largely etermines the force profile during the fatigue test or else contractile-related activity substantially affects the compound muscle action potential.

  10. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  11. Analgesic Efficacy of Adductor Canal Block in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xu; Wang, Qian-Qian; Wu, Cheng-Ai; Tian, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adductor canal block (ACB) for early postoperative pain management in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Relevant manuscripts comparing ACB with saline or femoral nerve block (FNB) in TKA patients were searched for in the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. The outcomes assessed included cumulative analgesic consumption, pain at rest or during movement, ability to ambulate, quadriceps strength, and complications (nausea, vomiting or sedation). For continuous outcomes, pooled effects were measured using weighted mean difference (WMD) or standard mean difference (SMD), together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For outcomes without sufficient data for synthesis, qualitative interpretation of individual studies was summarized. Finally, 11 RCTs involving 675 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled results showed that ACB resulted in less postoperative analgesic consumption than saline (WMD, -12.84 mg; 95% CI, -19.40 mg to -6.27 mg; P < 0.001) and less pain at rest or during activity. No conclusions could be drawn regarding ability to ambulate and quadriceps strength, because only one study reported these variables. Most studies comparing ACB and FNB reported similar effects on postoperative analgesic consumption (WMD, -0.56 mg; 95% CI, -8.05 mg to 6.93 mg; P = 0.884) and pain; however, ability to ambulate and quadriceps strength were significantly better with ACB (SMD, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.04-1.94; P = 0.041). Additionally, ACB did not increase the rate of complications. Our results suggest that, compared with saline, ACB decreases analgesic consumption and offers short-term advantages in terms of pain relief. Compared with FNB, ACB was associated with better ability to ambulate and quadriceps strength. PMID:27627711

  12. A Morphometric Study of the Obturator Nerve around the Obturator Foramen

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Se Yeong; Chang, Jae Chil; Bae, Hack Gun; Oh, Jae-Sang; Heo, Juneyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obturator neuropathy is a rare condition. Many neurosurgeons are unfamiliar with the obturator nerve anatomy. The purpose of this study was to define obturator nerve landmarks around the obturator foramen. Methods Fourteen cadavers were studied bilaterally to measure the distances from the nerve root to relevant anatomical landmarks near the obturator nerve, including the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS), the pubic tubercle, the inguinal ligament, the femoral artery, and the adductor longus. Results The obturator nerve exits the obturator foramen and travels infero-medially between the adductors longus and brevis. The median distances from the obturator nerve exit zone (ONEZ) to the ASIS and pubic tubercle were 114 mm and 30 mm, respectively. The median horizontal and vertical distances between the pubic tubercle and the ONEZ were 17 mm and 27 mm, respectively. The shortest median distance from the ONEZ to the inguinal ligament was 19 mm. The median inguinal ligament lengths from the ASIS and the median pubic tubercle to the shortest point were 103 mm and 24 mm, respectively. The median obturator nerve lengths between the ONEZ and the adductor longus and femoral artery were 41 mm and 28 mm, respectively. Conclusion The obturator nerve exits the foramen 17 mm and 27 mm on the horizontal and sagittal planes, respectively, from the pubic tubercle below the pectineus muscle. The shallowest area is approximately one-fifth medially from the inguinal ligament. This study will help improve the accuracy of obturator nerve surgeries to better establish therapeutic plans and decrease complications. PMID:27226861

  13. Activity of lower limb muscles during treadmill running at different velocities

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Keiichi; Ishida, Hiroyasu; Oba, Kaori; Ueki, Tsutomu; Fujihashi, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine changes in muscle activity while moving on a treadmill at various speeds. [Subjects] The activities of the left vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, hip adductors, lateral head of gastrocnemius, medial head gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior of 10 healthy male university students were analyzed. [Methods] University students walked, jogged, and ran for 10 minutes each in random order, and then myogenic potentials were measured 10 minutes later for 30 seconds. The flexion angle of the lower limb upon initial contact, mid stance, and toe off were measured. [Results] The average walking, jogging, and running speeds were 3.6 ± 0.4, 6.7 ± 0.6, and 10.4 ± 1.3 km/h, respectively. The average electromyographic activities of the vastus medial, tibialis anterior, medial head of gastrocnemius, and lateral head of gastrocnemius significantly differed. All muscles were more active during jogging and running than walking. Only the soleus was more active during running than walking, and the activities of the hip adductors and vastus lateralis did not significantly differ. [Conclusion] Velocity is faster and the angles of the lower limbs and ground reaction force (GRF) are larger during running than walking. The vastus medialis and soleus worked more easily according to the angle of the knee joint, whereas the tibialis anterior worked more easily at faster velocities and the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius worked more easily with an increased GRF. PMID:25729166

  14. Physiological comparison of rat muscle in body suspension and weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Dombrovski, J.

    1987-01-01

    Hind limb unloading is achieved with whole body suspension (WBS) and with tail suspension (TS). Comparable levels of muscle mass loss and decreases in protein levels result during one to three weeks of exposure to microgravity (microG), WBS, and TS. Losses are most apparent in soleus (S), intermediate in gastrocnemius (G) and least in extensor digigorum longus (EDL). Comparison of S and EDL type I and II fiber changes (numbers and area) after seven days of microG flight and WBS showed, in S, an increase in Type I and Type II fiber density and a decrease in area. Except for a decrease in Type I fiber density in EDL, all other parameters remained comparable. The general conclusions were that the S under microG and WBS responds in a similar manner. The EDL, for the most part, shows little change under both conditions.

  15. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation attenuates thigh skeletal muscles atrophy but not trunk muscles after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Dolbow, David R; Cifu, David X; Gater, David R

    2013-08-01

    The current study examined the effects of 12weeks of surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and ankle weights on the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of three thigh [Gracilis (Gra), Sartorious (Sar) and Adductor (Add)] as well as two trunk [hip flexor (HF) and back extensor (BE)] muscle groups in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Seven individuals with chronic motor complete SCI were randomly assigned into a resistance training +diet (RT+diet; n=4) or diet control (n=3) groups. The RT+diet group underwent twice weekly training with surface NMES and ankle weights for 12weeks. Training composed of four sets of 10 repetitions of leg extension exercise while sitting in their wheelchairs. Both groups were asked to monitor their dietary intake. Magnetic resonance images were captured before and after 12weeks of interventions. Gra muscle CSA showed no change before and after interventions. A significant interaction (P=0.001) was noted between both groups as result of 9% increase and 10% decrease in the Gra muscle CSA of the RT+diet and diet groups, respectively. Sar muscle CSA increased [1.7±0.4-2.5±0.5cm(2); P=0.029] in the RT+diet group with no change [2.9±1.4-2.6±1.3cm(2)] in the diet group; with interaction noted between both groups (P=0.002). Analysis of covariance indicated that Add muscle CSA was 38% greater in the RT+diet compared to the diet group (P=0.025) after 12weeks; a trend of interaction was also noted between both groups (P=0.06). HF and BE muscle groups showed no apparent changes in CSA in both groups. The results suggested that surface NMES can delay the process of progressive skeletal muscle atrophy after chronic SCI. However, the effects are localized to the trained thigh muscles and do not extend to the proximal trunk muscles.

  16. Spaceflight effects on adult rat muscle protein, nucleic acids, and amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure to conditions of weightlessness has been associated with decrements in muscle mass and strength. The present studies were undertaken to determine muscle responses at the cellular level. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (360-410 g) were exposed to 7 days of weightlessness during the Spacelab-3 shuttle flight (May 1985). Animals were killed 12 h postflight, and soleus (S), gastrocnemius (G), and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were excised. Muscle protein, RNA, and DNA were extracted and quantified. Differential muscle atrophy was accompanied by a significant (P less than 0.05) reduction in total protein only in S muscles. There were no significant changes in protein concentration (mg/g) in the muscles examined. In S muscles from flight animals, sarcoplasmic protein accounted for a significantly greater proportion of total protein that in ground controls (37.5 vs. 32.5%). Tissue concentrations (nmol/g) of asparagine-aspartate, glutamine-glutamate, glycine, histidine, and lysine were significantly reduced (from 17 to 63%) in S muscles from flight animals, but only glutamine-glutamate levels were decreased in the G and EDL. Muscle DNA content (microgram) was unchanged in the tissues examined, but S muscle DNA concentration (micrograms/mg) increased 27%. RNA content (micrograms) was significantly (P less than 0.025) reduced in S (-28%) and G(-22%) muscles following spaceflight. These results identify specific alterations in rat skeletal muscle during short term (7-day) exposure to weightlessness and compare favorably with observations previously obtained from ground-based suspension simulations.

  17. Real-time ultrasound-guided comparison of adductor canal block and psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block in laparoscopic knee surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Messeha, Medhat M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lumbar plexus block, combined with a sciatic nerve block, is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the lower extremity. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results outcome of the adductor canal block versus the psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block using real time ultrasound guidance in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries. Patients and Methods: Ninety patients who were undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries were randomly allocated to receive a sciatic nerve block in addition to lumbar plexus block using either an adductor canal block (ACB) or a posterior psoas compartment approach (PCB) using 25 ml of bupivacine 0.5% with adrenaline 1:400,000 injection over 2-3 minutes while observing the distribution of the local anesthetic in real time. Successful nerve block was defined as a complete loss of pinprick sensation in the region that is supplied by the three nerves along with adequate motor block, 30 minutes after injection. The degree of motor block was evaluated 30 minutes after the block procedure. The results of the present study showed that the real time ultrasound guidance of PCB is more effective than ACB approach. Although the sensory blockade of the femoral nerve achieved equally by both techniques, the LFC and OBT nerves were faster and more effectively blocked with PCB technique. Also PCB group showed significant complete sensory block without need for general anesthesia, significant decrease in the post-operative VAS and significant increase time of first analgesic requirement as compared to the ACB group. Result and Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that blockade of lumber plexus by psoas compartment block is more effective in complete sensory block without general anesthesia supplementation in addition to decrease post-operative analgesic requirement than adductor canal block. PMID:27212766

  18. Organization of lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups innervating hindlimb, pelvic floor, and axial muscles in the cat.

    PubMed

    Vanderhorst, V G; Holstege, G

    1997-05-26

    In a study on descending pathways from the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) to hindlimb motoneurons (see accompanying paper), it appeared impossible, using data from the literature, to precisely determine which muscles were innervated by the motoneurons receiving the NRA fibers. This lack of data made it necessary to produce a detailed map of the lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups in the cat. Therefore, 50 different muscles or muscle compartments of hindlimb, pelvic floor and lower back were injected with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in 135 cases. The respective muscles were divided into ten groups: I, sartorius and iliopsoas; II, quadriceps; III, adductors; IV, hamstrings; V, gluteal and other proximal muscles of the hip; VI, posterior compartment of the distal hindlimb; VII, anterior compartment of the distal hindlimb; VIII, long flexors and intrinsic muscles of the foot; IX, pelvic floor muscles; and X, extensors of the lower back and tail. The L4-S2 segments were cut and incubated, and labeled motoneurons were counted and plotted. A new method was developed that made it possible, despite variations in size and segmental organization between the different cases, to compare the results of different cases. The results show that the spatial interrelationship between the hindlimb and pelvic floor lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups remains constant. This finding enabled the authors to compose an accurate overall map of the location of lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups. The general distribution of the motoneuronal cell groups is also discussed in respect to their dorsoventral, mediolateral, and rostrocaudal position within the lumbosacral ventral horn. PMID:9136811

  19. Upper Limb Strength and Muscle Volume in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Saul, Katherine R; Vidt, Meghan E; Gold, Garry E; Murray, Wendy M

    2015-12-01

    Our purpose was to characterize shoulder muscle volume and isometric moment, as well as their relationship, for healthy middle- aged adults. Muscle volume and maximum isometric joint moment were assessed for 6 functional muscle groups of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in 10 middle-aged adults (46–60 y, 5M, 5F). Compared with young adults, shoulder abductors composed a smaller percentage of total muscle volume (P = .0009) and there was a reduction in shoulder adductor strength relative to elbow flexors (P = .012). We observed a consistent ordering of moment-generating capacity among functional groups across subjects. Although total muscle volume spanned a 2.3-fold range, muscle volume was distributed among functional groups in a consistent manner across subjects. On average, 72% of the variation in joint moment could be explained by the corresponding functional group muscle volume. These data are useful for improved modeling of upper limb musculoskeletal performance in middle-aged subjects, and may improve computational predictions of function for this group. PMID:26155870

  20. Electromyographic analysis of thigh muscles during track cycling on a velodrome.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Sato, Takayuki; Mukaimoto, Takahiro; Takashima, Wataru; Yamagishi, Michio; Nishiyama, Tetsunari

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate neuromuscular activation of thigh muscles during track cycling at various speeds. Eight male competitive cyclists volunteered to participate in this study. Surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and adductor magnus muscles of the bilateral legs was recorded during track cycling on velodromes with a 250-m track. The participants were instructed to maintain three different lap times: 20, 18 and 16 s. The average rectified value (ARV) was calculated from the sampled surface electromyography. Significantly higher ARVs were observed in the right compared to left leg for the biceps femoris muscle during both straight and curved sections at 18- and 16-s lap times (P < 0.05). In the biceps femoris muscle, significant changes in ARVs during the recovery phase with an increase in speed were seen in the right leg only (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in ARVs between the straight and curved sections for all three muscles (P > 0.05). From our findings, it was suggested that during track cycling on a velodrome the laterality of the biceps femoris muscle activity is a key strategy to regulate the speed, and fixed neuromuscular strategies are adopted between straight and curved sections for thigh muscles.

  1. Cranial muscle development in frogs with different developmental modes: direct development versus biphasic development.

    PubMed

    Ziermann, Janine M; Diogo, Rui

    2014-04-01

    Normal development in anurans includes a free swimming larva that goes through metamorphosis to develop into the adult frog. We have investigated cranial muscle development and adult cranial muscle morphology in three different anuran species. Xenopus laevis is obligate aquatic throughout lifetime, Rana(Lithobates) pipiens has an aquatic larvae and a terrestrial adult form, and Eleutherodactylus coqui has direct developing juveniles that hatch from eggs deposited on leaves (terrestrial). The adult morphology shows hardly any differences between the investigated species. Cranial muscle development of E. coqui shows many similarities and only few differences to the development of Rana (Lithobates) and Xenopus. The differences are missing muscles of the branchial arches (which disappear during metamorphosis of biphasic anurans) and a few heterochronic changes. The development of the mandibular arch (adductor mandibulae) and hyoid arch (depressor mandibulae) muscles is similar to that observed in Xenopus and Rana (Lithobates), although the first appearance of these muscles displays a midmetamorphic pattern in E. coqui. We show that the mix of characters observed in E. coqui indicates that the larval stage is not completely lost even without a free swimming larval stage. Cryptic metamorphosis is the process in which morphological changes in the larva/embryo take place that are not as obvious as in normal metamorphosing anurans with a clear biphasic lifestyle. During cryptic metamorphosis, a normal adult frog develops, indicating that the majority of developmental mechanisms towards the functional adult cranial muscles are preserved.

  2. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Kent; SUZUKI, Satoshi; KOYABU, Daisuke; KIMURA, Junpei; HAN, Sung-Yong; ENDO, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  3. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  4. Hoffmann's syndrome with unusually long duration: Report on clinical, laboratory and muscle imaging findings in two cases

    PubMed Central

    Nalini, Atchayaram; Govindaraju, C.; Kalra, Pramila; Kadukar, Prashanth

    2014-01-01

    Two adult men presented with the rare Hoffmann's syndrome (HS). Case 1: A 35-year-old male patient had progressive stiffness of lower limbs of 13 years and generalized muscle hypertrophy and myalgia of 3 years duration. Had periorbital edema, dry skin, generalized muscle hypertrophy and spastic dysarthria with hoarseness. Muscle power was normal. Jaw jerk and deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated. Case 2: A 24-year-old male patient presented with muscle hypertrophy from childhood, slowness in motor activities and hearing impairment. For 6 months, he had severe muscle pains, cramps and further increase in hypertrophy. He had yellow tinged, dry skin, hoarseness of voice, gross muscle hypertrophy and minimal weakness. Both had markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels and high thyroid stimulating hormone, low free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels. Levothyroxine treatment demonstrated remarkable reduction in muscle bulk at 2 months in both and no symptoms at 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of lower limbs in both cases revealed almost identical features with involvement of the muscles of posterior and adductor compartment of thighs and posterior and lateral compartments of the legs. Differential diagnosis of long duration muscle pseudohypertrophy and elevated CK levels should include HS. PMID:25024579

  5. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  6. A study of optimal handle shape and muscle strength distribution on lower arm when holding a foil.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Fang-Tsan; Li, Kai-Way; Jou, Yung-Tsan; Huang, Chuen-Der

    2009-04-01

    The strength of five working muscle groups of the lower arms of 8 male fencers, including adductor pollicis, extensor carpi radialis, flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris, and flexor carpi ulnaris, were examined during competition. Root mean square values of muscular electromyographic signals indicated that the shape of foil handles significantly influenced distribution of working strength of each muscle group. Use of the Pistol-Viscounti type of foil handle showed better distribution of strength among the 5 muscle groups than did other types of foils. Using the Pistol-Viscounti foil handle not only reduced muscular fatigue but also lessened cumulative trauma symptoms while holding a foil for a long duration. PMID:19544957

  7. ATP decreases mechanical sensitivity of muscle thin-fiber afferents in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Teru; Kubo, Asako; Taguchi, Toru; Mizumura, Kazue

    2015-08-01

    ATP is an energy rich substance contained in cells in the order of mM. It is released when cells are damaged and when muscle is compressed or contracted. Subcutaneous injection of ATP induces pain-related behavior and hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimulation in rats. However, the effects of ATP in muscle have not been fully studied. In the present study we examined the effects of ATP on muscle C-fiber afferent activities using single fiber recordings, and on nociceptive behavior. Muscle C-fiber activities were recorded in vitro using extensor digitorum longus muscle-common peroneal nerve preparations excised from rats deeply anesthetized with pentobarbital. ATP (100 μM and 1 mM, but not 1 μM) superfused for 5 min before the mechanical stimulation suppressed the mechanical responses of muscle thin fibers irrespective of whether they excited the fiber. This suppressive effect was reversed by P2X receptor antagonists PPADS (100 μM) and suramin (300 μM). We also found that subcutaneous injection of ATP (10 mM) induced nociceptive behavior, whereas intramuscular injection had no effect. These findings showed that effects of ATP on muscle afferents differ from those on cutaneous afferents.

  8. Glucose uptake during contraction in isolated skeletal muscles from neuronal nitric oxide synthase μ knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yet Hoi; Frugier, Tony; Zhang, Xinmei; Murphy, Robyn M; Lynch, Gordon S; Betik, Andrew C; Rattigan, Stephen; McConell, Glenn K

    2015-05-01

    Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) significantly attenuates the increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction/exercise, and a greater attenuation is observed in individuals with Type 2 diabetes compared with healthy individuals. Therefore, NO appears to play an important role in mediating muscle glucose uptake during contraction. In this study, we investigated the involvement of neuronal NOSμ (nNOSμ), the main NOS isoform activated during contraction, on skeletal muscle glucose uptake during ex vivo contraction. Extensor digitorum longus muscles were isolated from nNOSμ(-/-) and nNOSμ(+/+) mice. Muscles were contracted ex vivo in a temperature-controlled (30°C) organ bath with or without the presence of the NOS inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA) and the NOS substrate L-arginine. Glucose uptake was determined by radioactive tracers. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake increased approximately fourfold during contraction in muscles from both nNOSμ(-/-) and nNOSμ(+/+) mice. L-NMMA significantly attenuated the increase in muscle glucose uptake during contraction in both genotypes. This attenuation was reversed by L-arginine, suggesting that L-NMMA attenuated the increase in muscle glucose uptake during contraction by inhibiting NOS and not via a nonspecific effect of the inhibitor. Low levels of NOS activity (~4%) were detected in muscles from nNOSμ(-/-) mice, and there was no evidence of compensation from other NOS isoform or AMP-activated protein kinase which is also involved in mediating muscle glucose uptake during contraction. These results indicate that NO regulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake during ex vivo contraction independently of nNOSμ.

  9. Cranial muscle development in the model organism ambystoma mexicanum: implications for tetrapod and vertebrate comparative and evolutionary morphology and notes on ontogeny and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Ziermann, Janine M; Diogo, Rui

    2013-07-01

    There is still confusion about the homology of several cranial muscles in salamanders with those of other vertebrates. This is true, in part, because of the fact that many muscles present in early ontogeny of amphibians disappear during development and specifically during metamorphosis. Resolving this confusion is important for the understanding of the comparative and evolutionary morphology of vertebrates and tetrapods because amphibians are the phylogenetically most plesiomorphic tetrapods, concerning for example their myology, and include two often used model organisms, Xenopus laevis (anuran) and Ambystoma mexicanum (urodele). Here we provide the first detailed report of the cranial muscle development in axolotl from early ontogenetic stages to the adult stage. We describe different and complementary types of general muscle morphogenetic gradients in the head: from anterior to posterior, from lateral to medial, and from origin to insertion. Furthermore, even during the development of neotenic salamanders such as axolotls, various larval muscles become indistinct, contradicting the commonly accepted view that during ontogeny the tendency is mostly toward the differentiation of muscles. We provide an updated comparison between these muscles and the muscles of other vertebrates, a discussion of the homologies and evolution, and show that the order in which the muscles appear during axolotl ontogeny is in general similar to their appearance in phylogeny (e.g. differentiation of adductor mandibulae muscles from one anlage to four muscles), with only a few remarkable exceptions, as for example the dilatator laryngis that appears evolutionary later but in the development before the intermandibularis.

  10. Effects of pleiotrophin overexpression on mouse skeletal muscles in normal loading and in actual and simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; Pierno, Sabata; Liantonio, Antonella; De Bellis, Michela; Cannone, Maria; Sblendorio, Valeriana; Conte, Elena; Mele, Antonietta; Tricarico, Domenico; Tavella, Sara; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Cancedda, Ranieri; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Danieli-Betto, Daniela; Ciciliot, Stefano; Germinario, Elena; Sandonà, Dorianna; Betto, Romeo; Camerino, Diana Conte; Desaphy, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a widespread cytokine involved in bone formation, neurite outgrowth, and angiogenesis. In skeletal muscle, PTN is upregulated during myogenesis, post-synaptic induction, and regeneration after crushing, but little is known regarding its effects on muscle function. Here, we describe the effects of PTN on the slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles in mice over-expressing PTN under the control of a bone promoter. The mice were maintained in normal loading or disuse condition, induced by hindlimb unloading (HU) for 14 days. Effects of exposition to near-zero gravity during a 3-months spaceflight (SF) into the Mice Drawer System are also reported. In normal loading, PTN overexpression had no effect on muscle fiber cross-sectional area, but shifted soleus muscle toward a slower phenotype, as shown by an increased number of oxidative type 1 fibers, and increased gene expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV and citrate synthase. The cytokine increased soleus and EDL capillary-to-fiber ratio. PTN overexpression did not prevent soleus muscle atrophy, slow-to-fast transition, and capillary regression induced by SF and HU. Nevertheless, PTN exerted various effects on sarcolemma ion channel expression/function and resting cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in soleus and EDL muscles, in normal loading and after HU. In conclusion, the results show very similar effects of HU and SF on mouse soleus muscle, including activation of specific gene programs. The EDL muscle is able to counterbalance this latter, probably by activating compensatory mechanisms. The numerous effects of PTN on muscle gene expression and functional parameters demonstrate the sensitivity of muscle fibers to the cytokine. Although little benefit was found in HU muscle disuse, PTN may emerge useful in various muscle diseases, because it exerts synergetic actions on muscle fibers and vessels, which could enforce oxidative metabolism and ameliorate muscle

  11. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Słupska, Lucyna; Bartnicki, Janusz; Dymarek, Robert; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Heimrath, Jerzy; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM), gluteus maximus (GM), rectus abdominis (RA), and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a woman’s ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM) during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI. Materials and methods This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16) and continent women (n=14). The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM) was recorded with a surface electromyographic instrument in a standing position during resting and functional PFM activity. Results Bioelectrical activity of RA was significantly higher in the incontinent group than in the continent group. These results concern the RA activity during resting and functional PFM activity. The results for other muscles showed no significant difference in bioelectrical activity between groups. Conclusion In women with SUI, during the isolated activation of PFM, an increased synergistic activity of RA muscle was observed; however, this activity was not observed in asymptomatic women. This may indicate the important accessory contribution of these muscles in the

  12. Addressing stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: biomechanically repairing the osseous structures without the need of performing the flexor digitorum longus transfer.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Lawrence A; Thomas, Zachary M; Fahim, Ramy

    2014-07-01

    The clinical presentation of adult flatfoot can range from a flexible deformity with normal joint integrity to a rigid, arthritic flat foot. Debate still exists regarding the surgical management of stage II deformities, especially in the presence of medial column instability. This article reviews and discusses various surgical options for the correction of stage II flatfoot reconstructive procedures. The authors discuss their opinion that is not always necessary to transfer the flexor digitorum longus tendon to provide relief and stability in this patient population. The anatomy, diagnosis, and current treatments of flexible flatfoot deformity are discussed. PMID:24980929

  13. Modified arthroscopic excision of the symptomatic os trigonum and release of the flexor hallucis longus tendon: operative technique and case study.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, C M; Silhanek, A D; Connolly, F G

    1999-01-01

    This article presents an operative technique for modified arthroscopic excision of the symptomatic os trigonum and release of the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. The procedure uses two stacked posterolateral subtalar joint portals, rather than the customary anterolateral and posterolateral portal combination. By visualizing the os trigonum with an arthroscope positioned in a distal portal and introducing instrumentation through a proximal portal, the ossicle may be quickly exposed and excised with minimal dissection. A case study with a 22-month follow-up and a discussion of os trigonum syndrome are included to illustrate this procedure as an alternative to open excision or traditional arthroscopic excision.

  14. Development of the deep flexor tendons and lumbricalis muscle in the hand and foot: a histological study using human mid-term foetuses.

    PubMed

    Cho, K H; Kim, J H; Ha, Y S; Murakami, G; Cho, B H; Abe, S

    2012-08-01

    To revisit foetal development of the deep flexor tendons of the hand and foot, we examined the paraffin-embedded histology of 20 mid-term foetuses at 8-15 weeks of estimated gestational age (35-118 mm crown-rump length or CRL). At 8-9 weeks, in front of the metacarpal bones, the flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles provided a plate-like, common tendon from which the lumbricalis muscles originated. However, in the foot, we had no evidence of such a common tendon. The flexor pollicis tendon was separated from the common tendon at 9-10 weeks possibly due to mechanical stress from the laterally growing thumb. Notably, at the lumbricalis muscle origins at 10-12 weeks, the FDP and flexor digitorum longus tendons remained undifferentiated and the primitive tenocytes were dispersed from them. The dispersed cells seemed to develop into an interface tissue between the lumbricalis muscle fibre and the deep tendon. In 3 of 5 specimens at 15 weeks, we found an excess number of the FDP tendons (5-7) in the proximal side of the lumbricalis muscle origin. However, the excess tendons dispersed in the lumbricalis muscle origin. The development of the lumbricalis muscle origin might follow the tendon splitting for four fingers. However, conversely, we hypothesised that the developing lumbricalis muscles re-arranged the deep flexor tendons to provide a configuration of one deep tendon per one finger (or toe). The quadrates plantae muscle seemed not to contribute on the re-arrangement.

  15. Foot posture influences the electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles during gait

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Some studies have found that flat-arched foot posture is related to altered lower limb muscle function compared to normal- or high-arched feet. However, the results from these studies were based on highly selected populations such as those with rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare lower limb muscle function of normal and flat-arched feet in people without pain or disease. Methods Sixty adults aged 18 to 47 years were recruited to this study. Of these, 30 had normal-arched feet (15 male and 15 female) and 30 had flat-arched feet (15 male and 15 female). Foot posture was classified using two clinical measurements (the arch index and navicular height) and four skeletal alignment measurements from weightbearing foot x-rays. Intramuscular fine-wire electrodes were inserted into tibialis posterior and peroneus longus under ultrasound guidance, and surface EMG activity was recorded from tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius while participants walked barefoot at their self-selected comfortable walking speed. Time of peak amplitude, peak and root mean square (RMS) amplitude were assessed from stance phase EMG data. Independent samples t-tests were performed to assess for significant differences between the normal- and flat-arched foot posture groups. Results During contact phase, the flat-arched group exhibited increased activity of tibialis anterior (peak amplitude; 65 versus 46% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction) and decreased activity of peroneus longus (peak amplitude; 24 versus 37% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction). During midstance/propulsion, the flat-arched group exhibited increased activity of tibialis posterior (peak amplitude; 86 versus 60% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction) and decreased activity of peroneus longus (RMS amplitude; 25 versus 39% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction). Effect sizes for these significant findings ranged from 0.48 to 1.3, representing moderate to

  16. Comparison of Adductor Canal Block and Femoral Nerve Block for Postoperative Pain in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Cui-Cui; Dong, Shu-Ling; He, Fu-Cheng

    2016-03-01

    A total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has always been associated with moderate-to-severe pain. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pain control of adductor canal block (ACB) and femoral nerve block (FNB) after TKA.Relevant literatures about the ACB and FNB after TKA for reducing pain were searched from Medline (1996-January, 2015), Embase (1980-January, 2015), PubMed (1980-January, 2015), Web of Science (1980-January, 2015), and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. High-quality RCTs and non-RCTs were picked to evaluate the visual analogue scale (VAS) and other outcome. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the PRISMA statement criteria. The software RevMan 5.30 was used for the meta-analysis.Eight literatures fitted into the inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences in VAS score with rest or mobilization at 4, 24, and 48 h between ACB group and FNB group. There were also no significant differences in the strength of quadriceps and adductor, the length of hospital stay, and complications of vomiting and nausea.Present meta-analysis indicated that ACB shows no superiority than FNB group. Both of them can reduce the pain score after TKA. As referred to which method to adopt, it is determined by the preference of the surgeons and anesthesiologists. PMID:27015172

  17. Hallucal grasping in Nycticebus coucang: further implications for the functional significance of a large peroneal process.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Amanda K; Boyer, Doug M; Patel, Biren A; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T

    2010-01-01

    Euprimate grasping feet are characterized by a suite of morphological traits, including an enlarged peroneal process on the base of the first metatarsal, which serves as the insertion site of the peroneus longus muscle. In prosimians, a large process has typically been associated with a powerful hallucal grasp via the contraction of the peroneus longus to adduct the hallux. Recent electromyography (EMG) studies have documented that peroneus longus does not contribute substantially to hallucal grasping in lemurids (Boyer et al., 2007). However, non-lemurid prosimians have a I-V opposable grasp complex that is morphologically different and phylogenetically more primitive than the I-II adductor grasp complex of the lemurids previously studied. Therefore, it is possible that peroneus longus did function during grasping in early euprimates, but lost this function in large-bodied lemurids. The present study tests the hypothesis that a large peroneal process is related to powerful grasping ability in primates displaying the more primitive I-V grasp complex. We use EMG to evaluate the recruitment of peroneus longus, other crural muscles, and adductor hallucis in static and locomotor grasping activities of the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Results show that peroneus longus is active during grasping behaviors that require the subject to actively resist inversion of the foot, and likely contributes to a hallucal grasp in these activities. Peroneus longus activity level does not differ between grasping and power grasping activities, nor does it differ between grasping and non-grasping locomotor modes. Conversely, the digital flexors and hallucal adductor are recruited at higher levels during power grasping and grasping locomotor modes. Consequently, we reject the hypothesis that an enlarged peroneal process represents an adaptation specifically to enhance the power of the I-V grasp, but accept that the muscle likely plays a role in adducting the hallux during grasping

  18. Hallucal grasping in Nycticebus coucang: further implications for the functional significance of a large peroneal process.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Amanda K; Boyer, Doug M; Patel, Biren A; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T

    2010-01-01

    Euprimate grasping feet are characterized by a suite of morphological traits, including an enlarged peroneal process on the base of the first metatarsal, which serves as the insertion site of the peroneus longus muscle. In prosimians, a large process has typically been associated with a powerful hallucal grasp via the contraction of the peroneus longus to adduct the hallux. Recent electromyography (EMG) studies have documented that peroneus longus does not contribute substantially to hallucal grasping in lemurids (Boyer et al., 2007). However, non-lemurid prosimians have a I-V opposable grasp complex that is morphologically different and phylogenetically more primitive than the I-II adductor grasp complex of the lemurids previously studied. Therefore, it is possible that peroneus longus did function during grasping in early euprimates, but lost this function in large-bodied lemurids. The present study tests the hypothesis that a large peroneal process is related to powerful grasping ability in primates displaying the more primitive I-V grasp complex. We use EMG to evaluate the recruitment of peroneus longus, other crural muscles, and adductor hallucis in static and locomotor grasping activities of the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Results show that peroneus longus is active during grasping behaviors that require the subject to actively resist inversion of the foot, and likely contributes to a hallucal grasp in these activities. Peroneus longus activity level does not differ between grasping and power grasping activities, nor does it differ between grasping and non-grasping locomotor modes. Conversely, the digital flexors and hallucal adductor are recruited at higher levels during power grasping and grasping locomotor modes. Consequently, we reject the hypothesis that an enlarged peroneal process represents an adaptation specifically to enhance the power of the I-V grasp, but accept that the muscle likely plays a role in adducting the hallux during grasping

  19. Effect of static stretching of muscles surrounding the knee on knee joint position sense

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffarinejad, Farahnaz; Taghizadeh, Shohreh; Mohammadi, Farshid

    2007-01-01

    Background Muscle stretching is widely used in sport training and in rehabilitation. Considering the important contribution of joint position sense (JPS) to knee joint stability and function, it is legitimate to question if stretching might alter the knee JPS. Objective To evaluate if a stretch regimen consisting of three 30 s stretches alters the knee JPS. Design and setting A blinded, randomised design with a washout time of 24 h was used. Subjects 39 healthy students (21 women, 18 men) volunteered to participate in this study. Methods and main outcome measures JPS was estimated by the ability to reproduce the two target positions (20° and 45° of flexion) in the dominant knee. The absolute angular error (AAE) was defined as the absolute difference between the target angle and the subject perceived angle of knee flexion. AAE values were measured before and immediately after the static stretch. Measurements were repeated three times. The static stretch comprised a 30 s stretch followed by a 30 s pause, three times for each muscle. Results The AAE decreased significantly after the stretching protocols for quadriceps (3.5 (1.3) vs 0.7 (2.4); p<0.001), hamstring (3.6 (2.2) vs 1.6 (3.1); p = 0.016) and adductors (3.7 (2.8) vs 1.7 (2.4); p = 0.016) in 45° of flexion, but no differences were found for values of the gastrocnemius and popliteus muscles in this angle and for the values of all muscles in 20° of flexion (p>0.05). Conclusion The accuracy of the knee JPS in 45° of flexion is improved subsequent to a static stretch regimen of quadriceps, hamstring and adductors in healthy subjects. PMID:17510229

  20. Force enhancement during and following muscle stretch of maximal voluntarily activated human quadriceps femoris.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Daniel; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2007-08-01

    Force enhancement during and following muscle stretch has been observed for electrically and voluntarily activated human muscle. However, especially for voluntary contractions, the latter observation has only been made for adductor pollicis and the ankle joint muscles, but not for large muscles like quadriceps femoris. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of active muscle stretch on force production for maximal voluntary contractions of in vivo human quadriceps femoris (n = 15). Peak torques during and torques at the end of stretch, torques following stretch, and passive torques following muscle deactivation were compared to the isometric torques at corresponding muscle length. In addition, muscle activation of rectus femoris, vastus medialis and vastus lateralis was obtained using surface EMG. Stretches with different amplitudes (15, 25 and 35 degrees at a velocity of 60 degrees s(-1)) were performed on the plateau region and the descending limb of the force-length relation in a random order. Data analysis showed four main results: (1) peak torques did not occur at the end of the stretch, but torques at the end of the stretch exceeded the corresponding isometric torque; (2) there was no significant force enhancement following muscle stretch, but a small significant passive force enhancement persisted for all stretch conditions; (3) forces during and following stretch were independent of stretch amplitude; (4) muscle activation during and following muscle stretch was significantly reduced. In conclusion, although our results showed passive force enhancement, we could not provide direct evidence that there is active force enhancement in voluntarily activated human quadriceps femoris.

  1. Fibrosis, adipogenesis, and muscle atrophy in congenital muscular torticollis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Xiong; Tang, Sheng-Ping; Gao, Fu-Tang; Xu, Jiang-Long; Jiang, Xian-Ping; Cao, Juan; Fu, Gui-Bing; Sun, Ke; Liu, Shi-Zhe; Shi, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In the traditional view, muscle atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were regarded as the basic pathological features of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). But in the ultrastructure study, the mesenchyme-like cells, myoblasts, myofibroblasts, and fibroblasts were found in the proliferation of interstitium of CMT. To investigate the characteristics of pathological features and the mechanisms of muscle atrophy in CMT, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 185 CMT patients from July 2009 to July 2011 in Shenzhen Children's Hospital in China and performed pathological studies. According to age, the 185 CMT patients were divided into 4 groups. All resected surgical specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson trichromic staining. Sudan III staining was used for frozen sections, whereas immunohistochemical staining for S-100, calpain-1, ubiquitin, and 20S proteasome was carried out on 40 CMT specimens. Eight adductor muscle specimens from 8 patients with development dysplasia of the hip were taken as control group in the immunohistochemical staining. By Masson trichromic staining, the differences in the percent area of fibrous tissue in each CMT groups were significant. In Sudan III staining and immunostaining for S-100, adipocyte hyperplasia was the pathological feature of CMT. Moreover, compared with controls, most atrophic muscle fibers in CMT specimens were found to show strong immunoreactivity for calpain-1, ubiquitin, and 20S proteasome. With increasing age, fibrosis peaked at both sides and it was low in middle age group. Adipocytes increased with age. The characteristics of pathological features in CMT are changeable with age. The calpain and the ubiquitin-proteasome system may play a role in muscle atrophy of CMT. In the CMT, adipogenesis, fibrogenesis, and myogenesis may be the results of mesenchyme-like cells in SCM (sternocleidomastoid muscle). In conclusion, the present study furthermore supports maldevelopment of the

  2. Fibrosis, Adipogenesis, and Muscle Atrophy in Congenital Muscular Torticollis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huan-xiong; Tang, Sheng-ping; Gao, Fu-tang; Xu, Jiang-Long; Jiang, Xian-ping; Cao, Juan; Fu, Gui-bing; Sun, Ke; Liu, Shi-zhe; Shi, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the traditional view, muscle atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were regarded as the basic pathological features of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). But in the ultrastructure study, the mesenchyme-like cells, myoblasts, myofibroblasts, and fibroblasts were found in the proliferation of interstitium of CMT. To investigate the characteristics of pathological features and the mechanisms of muscle atrophy in CMT, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 185 CMT patients from July 2009 to July 2011 in Shenzhen Children's Hospital in China and performed pathological studies. According to age, the 185 CMT patients were divided into 4 groups. All resected surgical specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson trichromic staining. Sudan III staining was used for frozen sections, whereas immunohistochemical staining for S-100, calpain-1, ubiquitin, and 20S proteasome was carried out on 40 CMT specimens. Eight adductor muscle specimens from 8 patients with development dysplasia of the hip were taken as control group in the immunohistochemical staining. By Masson trichromic staining, the differences in the percent area of fibrous tissue in each CMT groups were significant. In Sudan III staining and immunostaining for S-100, adipocyte hyperplasia was the pathological feature of CMT. Moreover, compared with controls, most atrophic muscle fibers in CMT specimens were found to show strong immunoreactivity for calpain-1, ubiquitin, and 20S proteasome. With increasing age, fibrosis peaked at both sides and it was low in middle age group. Adipocytes increased with age. The characteristics of pathological features in CMT are changeable with age. The calpain and the ubiquitin–proteasome system may play a role in muscle atrophy of CMT. In the CMT, adipogenesis, fibrogenesis, and myogenesis may be the results of mesenchyme-like cells in SCM (sternocleidomastoid muscle). In conclusion, the present study furthermore supports

  3. [The groin pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Janković, S; Delimar, D; Hudetz, D

    2001-12-01

    Groin pain is defined as tendon enthesitis of adductor longus muscle and/or abdominal muscles that may lead to degenerative arthropathy of pubic symphises in an advanced stage. Pubic region is a point where kinematic forces cross. The balance between the adductor and abdominal muscles is of great importance, as well as the elasticity of pubic symphises which enables movement of up to 2 mm and rotation of up to 3 degrees. The weakness of the abdominal muscle wall, known as the sportsman's hernia, is the most common cause of painful groin. Groin pain is the most common in soccer players (6.24% in Croatia). Most authors believe that the main cause of groin pain is the adductor muscle overload. When active, sportsmen start to feel a dull pain in the groin region. The adductor test is of great importance for physical examination; the patient should be lying supine with his hips abducted and flexed at 80 degrees. The test is positive if the patient, while attempting to pull his/her legs against pressing in the opposite direction, feels a sharp pain in the groins. The treatment of groin pain is complex and individual, as its causes may vary from patient to patient. Gradual physical therapy combined with pharmacotherapy should be effective in most cases. The latter includes nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants. A physical therapy programme usually involves stretching and strengthening of adductor muscles, abdominal wall muscles, iliopsoas muscle, quadriceps, and hamstrings. In case that physical therapy and pharmacotherapy fail, surgery is needed, depending on the cause. PMID:11831125

  4. [The groin pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Janković, S; Delimar, D; Hudetz, D

    2001-12-01

    Groin pain is defined as tendon enthesitis of adductor longus muscle and/or abdominal muscles that may lead to degenerative arthropathy of pubic symphises in an advanced stage. Pubic region is a point where kinematic forces cross. The balance between the adductor and abdominal muscles is of great importance, as well as the elasticity of pubic symphises which enables movement of up to 2 mm and rotation of up to 3 degrees. The weakness of the abdominal muscle wall, known as the sportsman's hernia, is the most common cause of painful groin. Groin pain is the most common in soccer players (6.24% in Croatia). Most authors believe that the main cause of groin pain is the adductor muscle overload. When active, sportsmen start to feel a dull pain in the groin region. The adductor test is of great importance for physical examination; the patient should be lying supine with his hips abducted and flexed at 80 degrees. The test is positive if the patient, while attempting to pull his/her legs against pressing in the opposite direction, feels a sharp pain in the groins. The treatment of groin pain is complex and individual, as its causes may vary from patient to patient. Gradual physical therapy combined with pharmacotherapy should be effective in most cases. The latter includes nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants. A physical therapy programme usually involves stretching and strengthening of adductor muscles, abdominal wall muscles, iliopsoas muscle, quadriceps, and hamstrings. In case that physical therapy and pharmacotherapy fail, surgery is needed, depending on the cause.

  5. Role of Glucocorticoids in the Response to Unloading of Muscle Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Jaspers, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    Intact control (weight bearing) and suspended rats gained weight at a similar rate during a 6 day period. Adrenaectomized (adx) weight bearing rats gained less weight during this period while adrenalectomized suspended rats showed no significant weight gain. Cortisol treatment of both of these groups of animals caused a loss of body weight. Results from these studies show several important findings: (1) Metabolic changes in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of suspended rats are due primarily to increased circulating gluccorticoids; (2) Metabolic changes in the soleus due to higher steroid levels are probably potentiated by greater numbers of receptors; and (3) Not all metabolic responses in the unloaded soleus muscle are due to direct action of elevated glucocorticoids or increased sensitivity to these hormones.

  6. Partially irreversible paresis of the deep peroneal nerve caused by osteocartilaginous exostosis of the fibula without affecting the tibialis anterior muscle.

    PubMed

    Paprottka, Felix Julian; Machens, Hans-Günther; Lohmeyer, Jörn Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Dysfunction of the lower limb's muscles can cause severe impairment and immobilisation of the patient. As one of the leg's major motor and sensory nerves, the deep peroneal nerve (synonym: deep fibular nerve) plays a very important role in muscle innervation in the lower extremities. We report the case of a 19-year-old female patient, who suffered from a brace-like exostosis 6-cm underneath her left fibular head causing a partially irreversible paresis of her deep peroneal nerve. This nerve damage resulted in complete atrophy of her extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus muscle, and in painful sensory disturbance at her left shin and first web space. The tibialis anterior muscle stayed intact because its motor branch left the deep peroneal nerve proximal to the nerve lesion. Diagnosis was first verified 6 years after the onset of symptoms by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of her complete left lower leg. Subsequently, the patient was operated on in our clinic, where a neurolysis was performed and the 4-cm-long osteocartilaginous exostosis was removed. Paralysis was already irreversible but sensibility returned completely after neurolysis. The presented case shows that an osteocartilaginous exostosis can be the cause for partial deep peroneal nerve paresis. If this disorder is diagnosed at an early stage, nerve damage is reversible. Typical for an exostosis is its first appearance during the juvenile growth phase.

  7. Metabolomic Analysis of Oxidative and Glycolytic Skeletal Muscles by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/IonizationMass Spectrometric Imaging (MALDI MSI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Garrett, Timothy J.; Carter, Christy S.; Yost, Richard A.

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscles are composed of heterogeneous muscle fibers that have different physiological, morphological, biochemical, and histological characteristics. In this work, skeletal muscles extensor digitorum longus, soleus, and whole gastrocnemius were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to characterize small molecule metabolites of oxidative and glycolytic muscle fiber types as well as to visualize biomarker localization. Multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were performed to extract significant features. Different metabolic fingerprints were observed from oxidative and glycolytic fibers. Higher abundances of biomolecules such as antioxidant anserine as well as acylcarnitines were observed in the glycolytic fibers, whereas taurine and some nucleotides were found to be localized in the oxidative fibers.

  8. Metabolomic Analysis of Oxidative and Glycolytic Skeletal Muscles by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometric Imaging (MALDI MSI)

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Garrett, Timothy J.; Carter, Christy S.; Yost, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles are composed of heterogeneous muscle fibers that have different physiological, morphological, biochemical, and histological characteristics. In this work, skeletal muscles extensor digitorum longus, soleus, and whole gastrocnemius were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to characterize small molecule metabolites of oxidative and glycolytic muscle fiber types as well as to visualize biomarker localization. Multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were performed to extract significant features. Different metabolic fingerprints were observed from oxidative and glycolytic fibers. Higher abundances of biomolecules such as antioxidant anserine as well as acylcarnitines were observed in the glycolytic fibers, whereas taurine and some nucleotides were found to be localized in the oxidative fibers. PMID:25893271

  9. Contributions of muscles to mediolateral ground reaction force over a range of walking speeds.

    PubMed

    John, Chand T; Seth, Ajay; Schwartz, Michael H; Delp, Scott L

    2012-09-21

    Impaired control of mediolateral body motion during walking is an important health concern. Developing treatments to improve mediolateral control is challenging, partly because the mechanisms by which muscles modulate mediolateral ground reaction force (and thereby modulate mediolateral acceleration of the body mass center) during unimpaired walking are poorly understood. To investigate this, we examined mediolateral ground reaction forces in eight unimpaired subjects walking at four speeds and determined the contributions of muscles, gravity, and velocity-related forces to the mediolateral ground reaction force by analyzing muscle-driven simulations of these subjects. During early stance (0-6% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the leading foot was directed laterally and increased significantly (p<0.05) with walking speed. During early single support (14-30% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the stance foot was directed medially and increased significantly (p<0.01) with speed. Muscles accounted for more than 92% of the mediolateral ground reaction force over all walking speeds, whereas gravity and velocity-related forces made relatively small contributions. Muscles coordinate mediolateral acceleration via an interplay between the medial ground reaction force contributed by the abductors and the lateral ground reaction forces contributed by the knee extensors, plantarflexors, and adductors. Our findings show how muscles that contribute to forward progression and body-weight support also modulate mediolateral acceleration of the body mass center while weight is transferred from one leg to another during double support.

  10. Proteomic Changes in Rat Thyroarytenoid Muscle Induced by Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection

    PubMed Central

    Welham, Nathan V.; Marriott, Gerard; Tateya, Ichiro; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection into the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle is a commonly performed medical intervention for adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The mechanism of action of BoNT at the neuromuscular junction is well understood, however, aside from reports focused on myosin heavy chain isoform abundance, there is a paucity of data addressing the effects of therapeutic BoNT injection on the TA muscle proteome. In this study, 12 adult Sprague Dawley rats underwent unilateral TA muscle BoNT serotype A injection followed by tissue harvest at 72 hrs, 7 days, 14 days, and 56 days post-injection. Three additional rats were reserved as controls. Proteomic analysis was performed using 2D SDS-PAGE followed by MALDI-MS. Vocal fold movement was significantly reduced by 72 hrs, with complete return of function by 56 days. Twenty-five protein spots demonstrated significant protein abundance changes following BoNT injection, and were associated with alterations in energy metabolism, muscle contractile function, cellular stress response, transcription, translation, and cell proliferation. A number of protein abundance changes persisted beyond the return of gross physiologic TA function. These findings represent the first report of BoNT induced changes in any skeletal muscle proteome, and reinforce the utility of applying proteomic tools to the study of system-wide biological processes in normal and perturbed TA muscle function. PMID:18442174

  11. Defective regulation of energy metabolism in mdx-mouse skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Even, P C; Decrouy, A; Chinet, A

    1994-12-01

    Our previous finding of a reduced energy metabolism in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres from the murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (the mdx mouse) led us to examine the importance of intracellular glucose availability for a normal energy turnover. To this end, basal and KCl-stimulated (20.9 mM total extracellular K+) rates of glucose uptake (GUP) and heat production were measured in isolated, glucose-incubated (5 mM) soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mdx and control C57B1/10 mice, in the presence and in the absence of insulin (1.7 nM). Under all conditions and for both muscle types, glucose uptake values for mdx and control muscles were similar although heat production was lower in mdx muscles. The marked stimulation of GUP by insulin in both mdx and control muscles had only minor effects on heat production. In contrast, glucose deprivation or inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (5 mM) significantly decreased heat production in control muscles only, which attenuated, although did not suppress, the difference in basal heat production between mdx and control muscles. Stimulation of heat production by a short-chain fatty acid salt (octanoate, 2 mM) was significantly less marked in mdx than in control muscles. Increased cytoplasmic synthesis of CoA by addition of 5 mM pantothenate (vitamin B5) increased the thermogenic response to glucose more in mdx than in control muscles. We conclude that the low energy turnover in mdx-mouse muscle fibres is not due to a decrease of intracellular glucose availability, but rather to a decreased oxidative utilization of glucose and free fatty acids. We suggest that some enzyme complex of the tricarboxylic acid cycle or inefficiency of CoA transport in the mitochondria could be involved. PMID:7999003

  12. Changes in contractile activation characteristics of rat fast and slow skeletal muscle fibres during regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gregorevic, Paul; Plant, David R; Stupka, Nicole; Lynch, Gordon S

    2004-01-01

    Damaged skeletal muscle fibres are replaced with new contractile units via muscle regeneration. Regenerating muscle fibres synthesize functionally distinct isoforms of contractile and regulatory proteins but little is known of their functional properties during the regeneration process. An advantage of utilizing single muscle fibre preparations is that assessment of their function is based on the overall characteristics of the contractile apparatus and regulatory system and as such, these preparations are sensitive in revealing not only coarse, but also subtle functional differences between muscle fibres. We examined the Ca2+- and Sr2+-activated contractile characteristics of permeabilized fibres from rat fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles at 7, 14 and 21 days following myotoxic injury, to test the hypothesis that fibres from regenerating fast and slow muscles have different functional characteristics to fibres from uninjured muscles. Regenerating muscle fibres had ∼10% of the maximal force producing capacity (Po) of control (uninjured) fibres, and an altered sensitivity to Ca2+ and Sr2+ at 7 days post-injury. Increased force production and a shift in Ca2+ sensitivity consistent with fibre maturation were observed during regeneration such that Po was restored to 36–45% of that in control fibres by 21 days, and sensitivity to Ca2+ and Sr2+ was similar to that of control (uninjured) fibres. The findings support the hypothesis that regenerating muscle fibres have different contractile activation characteristics compared with mature fibres, and that they adopt properties of mature fast- or slow-twitch muscle fibres in a progressive manner as the regeneration process is completed. PMID:15181161

  13. Leg muscle volume during 30-day 6-degree head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Lee, P. L.; Ellis, S.; Selzer, R. H.; Ortendahl, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to compare the effect of two modes of lower-extremity exercise training on the mass (volume) of posterior leg group (PLG) muscles (soleus, flexor hallucis longus, tibialis posterior, lateral and medial gastrocnemius, and flexor digitorum longus) on 19 men (ages 32-42 years) subjected to intense dynamic-isotonic (ITE, cycle ergometer, number of subjects (N) = 7), isokinetic (IKE, torque egrometer, N = 7), and no exercise (NOE, N = 5) training for 60 min/day during head-down bed rest (HDBR). Total volume of the PLG muscles decreased (p less than 0.05) similarly: ITE = 4.3 +/- SE 1.6%, IKE = 7.7 +/- 1.6%, and NOE = 6.3 +/- 0.8%; combined volume (N = 19) loss was 6.1 +/- 0.9%. Ranges of volume changes were 2.6% to -9.0% (ITE), -2.1% to -14.9% (IKE), and -3.4% to -8/1% (NOE). Correlation coefficients (r) of muscle volume versus thickness measured with ultrasonography were: ITE r + 0.79 (p less than 0.05), IKE r = 0.27 (not significant (NS)), and NOE r = 0.63 (NS). Leg-muscle volume and thickness were highly correlated (r = 0.79) when plasma volume was maintained during HDBR with ITE. Thus, neither intensive lower extremity ITE nor IKE training influence the normal non-exercised posterior leg muscle atrophy during HDBR. The relationship of muscle volume and thickness may depend on the mode of exercise training associated with the maintenance of plasma volume.

  14. Correction of Multiple Striated Muscles in Murine Pompe Disease Through Adeno-associated Virus-Mediated Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baodong; Young, Sarah P.; Li, Ping; Di, Chunhui; Brown, Talmage; Salva, Maia Z.; Li, Songtao; Bird, Andrew; Yan, Zhen; Auten, Richard; Hauschka, Stephen D.; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease; MIM 232300) stems from the deficiency of acid-α-glucosidase (GAA; acid maltase; EC 3.2.1.20), which primarily involves cardiac and skeletal muscles. We hypothesized that systemic administration of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector containing a muscle specific regulatory cassette could drive efficacious transgene expression in GAA-knockout (GAA-KO) mice. AAV2/8 vectors containing the muscle creatine kinase (CK1) or hybrid α-myosin heavy chain enhancer-/muscle creatine kinase enhancer-promoter (MHCK7) cassettes were compared. The CK1 reduced glycogen content by approximately 50% in the heart and quadriceps, in comparison to untreated GAA-KO mice, whereas the MHCK7 containing vector reduced glycogen content even further: >95% in heart and >75% in the diaphragm and quadriceps. Administration of the MHCK7-containing vector significantly increased striated muscle function as assessed by increased Rotarod times at 18 weeks post-injection, whereas the CK1-containing vector did not increase Rotarod performance. Transduction efficiency was evaluated with an AAV2/8 vector in which MHCK7 drives alkaline-phosphatase, revealing that many more myofibers were transduced in the quadriceps than in the gastrocnemius. An AAV2/9 vector containing the MHCK7 cassette corrected GAA deficiency in the skeletal muscles of the distal limb, including the gastrocnemius, extensor digitalis longus, and soleus; furthermore, glycogen accumulations were substantially cleared by hGAA expression therein. Importantly, type IIb myofibers in the extensor digitalis longus were transduced, thereby correcting a myofiber type that is unresponsive to enzyme replacement therapy. In summary, AAV8 and AAV9-pseudotyped vectors containing the MHCK7 regulatory cassette achieved enhanced efficacy in Pompe disease mice. PMID:18560415

  15. Increased sphingosine-1-phosphate improves muscle regeneration in acutely injured mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Presently, there is no effective treatment for the lethal muscle wasting disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we show that increased sphingosine-1-phoshate (S1P) through direct injection or via the administration of the small molecule 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI), an S1P lyase inhibitor, has beneficial effects in acutely injured dystrophic muscles of mdx mice. Methods We treated mdx mice with and without acute injury and characterized the histopathological and functional effects of increasing S1P levels. We also tested exogenous and direct administration of S1P on mdx muscles to examine the molecular pathways under which S1P promotes regeneration in dystrophic muscles. Results Short-term treatment with THI significantly increased muscle fiber size and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle specific force in acutely injured mdx limb muscles. In addition, the accumulation of fibrosis and fat deposition, hallmarks of DMD pathology and impaired muscle regeneration, were lower in the injured muscles of THI-treated mdx mice. Furthermore, increased muscle force was observed in uninjured EDL muscles with a longer-term treatment of THI. Such regenerative effects were linked to the response of myogenic cells, since intramuscular injection of S1P increased the number of Myf5nlacz/+ positive myogenic cells and newly regenerated myofibers in injured mdx muscles. Intramuscular injection of biotinylated-S1P localized to muscle fibers, including newly regenerated fibers, which also stained positive for S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1). Importantly, plasma membrane and perinuclear localization of phosphorylated S1PR1 was observed in regenerating muscle fibers of mdx muscles. Intramuscular increases of S1P levels, S1PR1 and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-rpS6), and elevated EDL muscle specific force, suggest S1P promoted the upregulation of anabolic pathways that mediate skeletal muscle mass and function. Conclusions These data show that S1P is

  16. The pectoral fin muscles of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae: Functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Tsutomu; Kumamoto, Minayori; Iwata, Masamitsu; Sato, Ryuichi; Okabe, Masataka; Koie, Hiroshi; Kumai, Nori; Fujii, Kenichi; Matsuzaki, Koji; Nakamura, Chiho; Yamauchi, Shinya; Yoshida, Kosuke; Yoshimura, Kohtaroh; Komoda, Akira; Uyeno, Teruya; Abe, Yoshitaka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the morphology and evolutionary origin of muscles in vertebrate limbs, we conducted anatomical dissections, computed tomography and kinematic analyses on the pectoral fin of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. We discovered nine antagonistic pairs of pronators and supinators that are anatomically and functionally distinct from the abductor and adductor superficiales and profundi. In particular, the first pronator and supinator pair represents mono- and biarticular muscles; a portion of the muscle fibers is attached to ridges on the humerus and is separated into two monoarticular muscles, whereas, as a biarticular muscle, the main body is inserted into the radius by crossing two joints from the shoulder girdle. This pair, consisting of a pronator and supinator, constitutes a muscle arrangement equivalent to two human antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod between the shoulder and elbow joints. Our recent kinesiological and biomechanical engineering studies on human limbs have demonstrated that two antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod (1) coordinately control output force and force direction at the wrist and ankle and (2) achieve a contact task to carry out weight-bearing motion and maintain stable posture. Therefore, along with dissections of the pectoral fins in two lungfish species, Neoceratodus forsteri and Protopterus aethiopicus, we discuss the functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods. Anat Rec, 299:1203-1223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The pectoral fin muscles of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae: Functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Tsutomu; Kumamoto, Minayori; Iwata, Masamitsu; Sato, Ryuichi; Okabe, Masataka; Koie, Hiroshi; Kumai, Nori; Fujii, Kenichi; Matsuzaki, Koji; Nakamura, Chiho; Yamauchi, Shinya; Yoshida, Kosuke; Yoshimura, Kohtaroh; Komoda, Akira; Uyeno, Teruya; Abe, Yoshitaka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the morphology and evolutionary origin of muscles in vertebrate limbs, we conducted anatomical dissections, computed tomography and kinematic analyses on the pectoral fin of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. We discovered nine antagonistic pairs of pronators and supinators that are anatomically and functionally distinct from the abductor and adductor superficiales and profundi. In particular, the first pronator and supinator pair represents mono- and biarticular muscles; a portion of the muscle fibers is attached to ridges on the humerus and is separated into two monoarticular muscles, whereas, as a biarticular muscle, the main body is inserted into the radius by crossing two joints from the shoulder girdle. This pair, consisting of a pronator and supinator, constitutes a muscle arrangement equivalent to two human antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod between the shoulder and elbow joints. Our recent kinesiological and biomechanical engineering studies on human limbs have demonstrated that two antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod (1) coordinately control output force and force direction at the wrist and ankle and (2) achieve a contact task to carry out weight-bearing motion and maintain stable posture. Therefore, along with dissections of the pectoral fins in two lungfish species, Neoceratodus forsteri and Protopterus aethiopicus, we discuss the functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods. Anat Rec, 299:1203-1223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27343022

  18. Contractile properties, fiber types, and myosin isoforms in fast and slow muscles of hyperactive Japanese waltzing mice.

    PubMed

    Asmussen, Gerhard; Schmalbruch, Ina; Soukup, Tomás; Pette, Dirk

    2003-12-01

    This study focuses on the effects of neuromuscular hyperactivity on the contractile properties, fiber type composition, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression of fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus (SOL) muscles in Japanese waltzing mice (JWM) of the C57BL/6J-v2J strain. The same properties were studied in the homologous muscle of control CBA/J mice (CM). In comparison to CM, the JWM exhibited (i) longer activity periods, prolonged bouts of running and a higher food intake, (ii) slower twitch and tetanic contractions of both EDL and SOL muscles, decreased cold and post-tetanic potentiation of the EDL, as well as increased cold and post-tetanic depressions of the SOL. Electrophoretic analyses of MHC isoform revealed a shift toward slower isoforms in both EDL and SOL muscles of JWM as compared to the homologous muscles of CM, namely, a shift from the fastest MHCIIb to the MHCIId/x isoform in the EDL muscle and a shift from MHCIIa to MHCI in the SOL muscle. The latter also contained a higher percentage of type I fibers and displayed a higher capillary density than the SOL muscle of CM. These findings show that the inherently enhanced motor activity of the JWM leads to fiber type transitions in the direction of slower phenotypes. JWM thus represent a suitable model for studying fast-to-slow fiber transitions under the influence of spontaneous motor hyperactivity.

  19. Effect of isotonic and isokinetic exercise on muscle activity and balance of the ankle joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to examine how the balance of lower limbs and the muscle activities of the tibialis anterior (TA), the medial gastrocnemius (GCM), and the peroneus longus (PL) are influenced by isotonic and isokinetic exercise of the ankle joint. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were healthy adults (n=20), and they were divided into two groups (isotonic=10, isokinetic=10). [Methods] Isotonic group performed 3 sets of 10 contractions at 50% of MVIC and Isokinetic group performed 3 sets of 60°/sec. Muscle activity was measured by EMG and balance was measured by one-leg standing test. [Results] For muscle activity, a main effect of group was found in the non-dominant TA, and the dominant TA, GCM and PL. For balance, a main effect of time was found in both groups for the sway area measured support was provided by the non-dominant side. [Conclusion] In terms of muscle activity, the two groups showed a significant difference, and the isokinetic group showed higher muscle activities. In terms of balance, there was a significant difference between the pre-test and the post-test. The results of this study may help in the selection of exercises for physical therapy, because they show that muscle activity and balance vary according to the type of exercise. PMID:25729181

  20. Changes in the cholinergic system of rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle following suspension induced disuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, R. C.; Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle disused induced changes in the cholinergic system of sciatic nerve, slow twitch soleus (SOL) and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were studied in rats. Rats with hindlimbs suspended for 2 to 3 weeks showed marked elevation in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sciatic nerve (38%), in SOL (108%) and in EDL (67%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in SOL increased by 163% without changing the molecular forms pattern of 4S, 10S, 12S, and 16S. No significant changes in activity and molecular forms pattern of AChE were seen in EDL or in AChE activity of sciatic nerve. Nicotinic receptor binding of 3H-acetylcholine was increased in both muscles. When measured after 3 weeks of hindlimb suspension the normal distribution of type 1 fibers in SOL was reduced and a corresponding increase in type IIa and IIb fibers is seen. In EDL no significant change in fiber proportion is observed. Muscle activity, such as loadbearing, appears to have a greater controlling influence on the characteristics of the slow twitch SOL muscle than upon the fast twitch EDL muscle.

  1. Adrenalectomy eliminates both fiber-type differences and starvation effects on denervated muscle.

    PubMed

    Almon, R R; Dubois, D C

    1988-12-01

    This report describes changes in muscle mass of innervated and denervated pairs of muscles taken from intact and adrenalectomized 250-g male Sprague-Dawley rats provided with different diets. Diets ranged from a nutritionally complete liquid diet to starvation (water only). In the intact animals, muscles with a more tonic character (soleus) are less sensitive to starvation than are muscles with a more phasic character (extensor digitorum longus), whereas the opposite is true of denervation. In the intact animals, starvation greatly increased the amount of atrophy following denervation. In the adrenalectomized animals, starvation had no effect on the amounts of atrophy following denervation. Furthermore, adrenalectomy virtually eliminated the fiber-type differences in the amount of atrophy following denervation. In addition, a comparison between denervated muscles from intact animals and adrenalectomized animals subjected to starvation demonstrates that all denervated muscles from the adrenalectomized animals atrophy less. Finally, it was observed that although an adrenalectomized animal can tolerate 6 days of starvation, an adrenalectomized-castrated animal cannot tolerate even short periods of starvation. The difference appears to be due to low amounts of corticosterone of testicular origin.

  2. Muscle-Activation Onset Times With Shoes and Foot Orthoses in Participants With Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Dingenen, Bart; Peeraer, Louis; Deschamps, Kevin; Fieuws, Steffen; Janssens, Luc; Staes, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Context Participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI) use an altered neuromuscular strategy to shift weight from double-legged to single-legged stance. Shoes and foot orthoses may influence these muscle-activation patterns. Objective To evaluate the influence of shoes and foot orthoses on onset times of lower extremity muscle activity in participants with CAI during the transition from double-legged to single-legged stance. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Musculoskeletal laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 15 people (9 men, 6 women; age = 21.8 ± 3.0 years, height = 177.7 ± 9.6 cm, mass = 72.0 ± 14.6 kg) who had CAI and wore foot orthoses were recruited. Intervention(s) A transition task from double-legged to single-legged stance was performed with eyes open and with eyes closed. Both limbs were tested in 4 experimental conditions: (1) barefoot (BF), (2) shoes only, (3) shoes with standard foot orthoses, and (4) shoes with custom foot orthoses (SCFO). Main Outcome Measure(s) The onset of activity of 9 lower extremity muscles was recorded using surface electromyography and a single force plate. Results Based on a full-factorial (condition, region, limb, vision) linear model for repeated measures, we found a condition effect (F3,91.8 = 9.39, P < .001). Differences among experimental conditions did not depend on limb or vision condition. Based on a 2-way (condition, muscle) linear model within each region (ankle, knee, hip), earlier muscle-activation onset times were observed in the SCFO than in the BF condition for the peroneus longus (P < .001), tibialis anterior (P = .003), vastus medialis obliquus (P = .04), and vastus lateralis (P = .005). Furthermore, the peroneus longus was activated earlier in the shoes-only (P = .02) and shoes-with-standard-foot-orthoses (P = .03) conditions than in the BF condition. No differences were observed for the hip muscles. Conclusions Earlier onset of muscle activity was most apparent in the SCFO

  3. ‘Fast’ and ‘slow’ muscle fibres in hindlimb muscles of adult rats regenerate from intrinsically different satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Kalhovde, JM; Jerkovic, R; Sefland, I; Cordonnier, C; Calabria, E; Schiaffino, S; Lømo, T

    2005-01-01

    Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was examined in regenerating fast extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow soleus (SOL) muscles of adult rats. Myotoxic bupivacaine was injected into SOL and EDL and the muscles were either denervated or neuromuscularly blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the sciatic nerve. Three to 10 or 30 days later, denervated SOL or EDL, or innervated but neuromuscularly blocked EDL received a slow 20 Hz stimulus pattern through electrodes implanted on the muscles or along the fibular nerve to EDL below the TTX block. In addition, denervated SOL and EDL received a fast 100 Hz stimulus pattern. Denervated EDL and SOL stimulated with the same slow stimulus pattern expressed different amounts of type 1 MyHC protein (8%versus 35% at 10 days, 13%versus 87% at 30 days). Stimulated denervated and stimulated innervated (TTX blocked) EDL expressed the same amounts of type 1, 2A, 2X and 2B MyHC proteins. Cross-sections treated for in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry showed expression of type 1 MyHC in all SOL fibres but only in some scattered single or smaller groups of fibres in EDL. The results suggest that muscle fibres regenerate from intrinsically different satellite cells in EDL and SOL and within EDL. However, induction by different extrinsic factors arising in extracellular matrix or from muscle position and usage in the limb has not been excluded. No evidence for nerve-derived trophic influences was obtained. PMID:15564285

  4. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  5. Leg muscle recruitment during cycling is less developed in triathletes than cyclists despite matched cycling training loads.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Andrew R; Vicenzino, Bill; Blanch, Peter; Hodges, Paul W

    2007-08-01

    Studies of arm movements suggest that interference with motor learning occurs when multiple tasks are practiced in sequence or with short interim periods. However, interference with learning has only been studied during training periods of 1-7 days and it is not known if interference with learning continues during long-term multitask training. This study investigated muscle recruitment in highly trained triathletes, who swim, cycle and run sequentially during training and competition. Comparisons were made to highly trained and novice cyclists, i.e. between trained multidiscipline, trained single-discipline and novice single-discipline athletes, to investigate adaptations of muscle recruitment that occur in response to ongoing multitask, or multidiscipline, training. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of five leg muscles, tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius lateralis and soleus muscles, was recorded during cycling using intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. Differences were found between trained triathletes and trained cyclists in recruitment of all muscles, and patterns of muscle recruitment in trained triathletes were similar to those recorded in novice cyclists. More specifically, triathletes and novice cyclists were characterised by greater sample variance (i.e. greater variation between athletes), greater variation in muscle recruitment patterns between pedal strokes for individual cyclists, more extensive and more variable muscle coactivation, and less modulation of muscle activity (i.e. greater EMG amplitude between primary EMG bursts). In addition, modulation of muscle activity decreased with increasing cadence (i.e. the amplitude and duration of muscle activity was greater at higher movement speeds) in both triathletes and novice cyclists but modulation of muscle activity was not influenced by cadence in trained cyclists. Our findings imply that control of muscle recruitment is less developed in triathletes than in cyclists

  6. Postoperative gait analysis and hip muscle strength in patients with pelvic ring fracture.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Masafumi; Uchida, Kenzo; Kokubo, Yasuo; Shimada, Seiichiro; Matsuo, Hideaki; Yayama, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Sugita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Shuji; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2013-07-01

    The aims of present study were (1) to determine changes in kinematic and kinetic variables at 3 and 12 months after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of pelvic ring fracture and (2) to determine the factor(s) associated with gait disorders that correlate with gait parameters measured at 12 months after surgery. Nineteen patients with pelvic ring fractures underwent ORIF and examined at 3 and 12 months postoperatively. The study also included a similar number of age-matched control subjects. Peak hip abduction angle, peak hip extension moment in the stance, peak hip abduction moment, and peak ankle plantarflexion moment at 3 months after ORIF were significantly lower than the respective control values. At 12 months, complete recovery was noted in peak hip abduction moment and peak ankle plantarflexion moment, whereas the recovery in peak hip abduction angle and peak hip extension moment in the stance was partial. The existence of neurological lesions and strength asymmetry of hip abductor and adductor at 3 months post-ORIF correlated with decreased peak hip abduction moment after ORIF. Our results highlighted characteristic gait patterns up to 12 months after ORIF for pelvic fracture, and these patterns correlated with neurological lesion and weakness of hip abductor and adductor muscles. PMID:23333355

  7. Epinephrine depletion exacerbates the fasting-induced protein breakdown in fast-twitch skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Graça, Flávia A; Gonçalves, Dawit A P; Silveira, Wilian A; Lira, Eduardo C; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia; Zanon, Neusa M; Garófalo, Maria Antonieta R; Kettelhut, Isis C; Navegantes, Luiz C C

    2013-12-01

    The physiological role of epinephrine in the regulation of skeletal muscle protein metabolism under fasting is unknown. We examined the effects of plasma epinephrine depletion, induced by adrenodemedullation (ADMX), on muscle protein metabolism in fed and 2-day-fasted rats. In fed rats, ADMX for 10 days reduced muscle mass, the cross-sectional area of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, and the phosphorylation levels of Akt. In addition, ADMX led to a compensatory increase in muscle sympathetic activity, as estimated by the rate of norepinephrine turnover; this increase was accompanied by high rates of muscle protein synthesis. In fasted rats, ADMX exacerbated fasting-induced proteolysis in EDL but did not affect the low rates of protein synthesis. Accordingly, ADMX activated lysosomal proteolysis and further increased the activity of the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS). Moreover, expression of the atrophy-related Ub ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 and the autophagy-related genes LC3b and GABARAPl1 were upregulated in EDL muscles from ADMX-fasted rats compared with sham-fasted rats, and ADMX reduced cAMP levels and increased fasting-induced Akt dephosphorylation. Unlike that observed for EDL muscles, soleus muscle proteolysis and Akt phosphorylation levels were not affected by ADMX. In isolated EDL, epinephrine reduced the basal UPS activity and suppressed overall proteolysis and atrogin-1 and MuRF1 induction following fasting. These data suggest that epinephrine released from the adrenal medulla inhibits fasting-induced protein breakdown in fast-twitch skeletal muscles, and these antiproteolytic effects on the UPS and lysosomal system are apparently mediated through a cAMP-Akt-dependent pathway, which suppresses ubiquitination and autophagy.

  8. Shank Muscle Strength Training Changes Foot Behaviour during a Sudden Ankle Supination

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Marco; Lescher, Stephanie; Gerhardt, Andreas; Lahner, Matthias; Felber, Stephan; Hennig, Ewald M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The peroneal muscles are the most effective lateral stabilisers whose tension braces the ankle joint complex against excessive supination. The purpose of this study was to identify the morphological and biomechanical effects of two machine-based shank muscle training methods. Methods Twenty-two healthy male recreationally active sports students performed ten weeks of single-set high resistance strength training with 3 training sessions per week. The subjects conducted subtalar pronator/supinator muscle training (ST) with the right leg by using a custom-made apparatus; the left foot muscles were exercised with machine-based talocrural plantar and dorsiflexor training (TT). Muscle strength (MVIC), muscle volume and foot biomechanics (rearfoot motion, ground reaction forces, muscle reaction times) during a sudden ankle supination were recorded before and after the intervention. Results Compared to TT, ST resulted in significantly higher pronator (14% vs. 8%, P<0.01) and supinator MVIC (25% vs. 12%, P<0.01). During sudden foot inversions, both ST and TT resulted in reduced supination velocity (-12%; P<0.01). The muscle reaction onset time was faster after the training in peroneus longus (PL) (P<0.01). Muscle volume of PL (P<0.01) and TA (P<0.01) increased significantly after both ST and TT. Conclusion After both ST and TT, the ankle joint complex is mechanically more stabilised against sudden supinations due to the muscle volume increase of PL and TA. As the reduced supination velocities indicate, the strength training effects are already present during free-fall. According to a sudden ankle supination in standing position, both machine-based dorsiflexor and pronator strength training is recommended for enhancing the mechanical stability of the ankle. PMID:26110847

  9. Is a convergently derived muscle-activity pattern driving novel raking behaviours in teleost fishes?

    PubMed

    Konow, Nicolai; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2008-03-01

    Behavioural differences across prey-capture and processing mechanisms may be governed by coupled or uncoupled feeding systems. Osteoglossomorph and salmonid fishes process prey in a convergently evolved tongue-bite apparatus (TBA), which is musculoskeletally coupled with the primary oral jaws. Altered muscle-activity patterns (MAPs) in these coupled jaw systems could be associated with the independent origin of a novel raking behaviour in these unrelated lineages. Substantial MAP changes in the evolution of novel behaviours have rarely been quantified so we examined MAP differences across strikes, chewing and rakes in a derived raking salmonid, the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Electromyography, including activity onset timing, duration, mean amplitude and integrated area from five feeding muscles revealed significant differences between behaviour-specific MAPs. Specifically, early activity onset in the protractor hyoideus and adductor mandibularis muscles characterised raking, congruent with a recent biomechanical model of the component-mechanisms driving the raking preparatory and power-stroke phases. Oncorhynchus raking MAPs were then compared with a phylogenetically derived osteoglossomorph representative, the Australian arowana, Scleropages jardinii. In both taxa, early onset of protractor hyoideus and adductor mandibularis activity characterised the raking preparatory phase, indicating a convergently derived MAP, while more subtle inter-lineage divergence in raking MAPs resulted from onset-timing and duration differences in sternohyoideus and hypaxialis activity. Convergent TBA morphologies are thus powered by convergently derived MAPs, a phenomenon not previously demonstrated in feeding mechanisms. Between lineages, differences in TBA morphology and associated differences in the functional coupling of jaw systems appear to be important factors in shaping the diversification of raking behaviours. PMID:18310124

  10. The Effects of Knee Joint and Hip Abduction Angles on the Activation of Cervical and Abdominal Muscles during Bridging Exercises.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Kyoung; Park, Du-Jin

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the flexion angle of the knee joint and the abduction angle of the hip joint on the activation of the cervical region and abdominal muscles. [Subjects] A total of 42 subjects were enrolled 9 males and 33 females. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study was one form of exercise with a knee joint flexion angle of 90°. Based on this, a bridging exercise was conducted at the postures of abduction of the lower extremities at 0, 5, 10, and 15°. [Result] The changes in the knee joint angle and the hip abduction angle exhibited statistically significant effects on the cervical erector spinae, adductor magnus, and gluteus medius muscles. The abduction angles did not result in statistically significant effects on the upper trapezium, erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. However, in relation to the knee joint angles, during the bridging exercise, statistically significant results were exhibited. [Conclusion] When patients with both cervical and back pain do a bridging exercise, widening the knee joint angle would reduce cervical and shoulder muscle activity through minimal levels of abduction, permitting trunk muscle strengthening with reduced cervical muscle activity. This method would be helpful for strengthening trunk muscles in a selective manner. PMID:24259870

  11. The effect of bilateral asymmetry of muscle strength on the height of a squat jump: a computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Shinsuke; Nagano, Akinori; Hay, Dean C; Fukashiro, Senshi

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of bilateral asymmetry of muscle strength on maximal height of the squat jump. A computer simulation technique was used to develop two kinds of 3D human lower limb musculoskeletal model (model-symmetry and model-asymmetry). The total muscle strength of the two models was set to be identical. Bilateral muscle strength was equal in the model-symmetry simulation, while the model-asymmetry simulation was performed with a 10% bilateral strength asymmetry. A forward dynamics approach was used to simulate squat jumps. The squat jumps were successfully generated, producing jump heights of 0.389 m for model-symmetry and 0.387 m for model-asymmetry. The small difference in height (0.5%) indicated that the effect of the 10% bilateral asymmetry of muscle strength on jump height is negligible. With model-asymmetry, the strong leg compensated for the muscle strength deficit of the weak leg. Importantly, the mono-articular and large extensor muscles of the hip and knee joint of the strong leg, including the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, and vasti, compensated for the muscle strength deficit of the weak leg. PMID:21506038

  12. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes.

  13. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes. PMID:25755920

  14. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes. PMID:25755920

  15. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and its essential oil on the PC3 and MCF7 cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    MEMARIANI, TOKTAM; HOSSEINI, TOKTAM; KAMALI, HOSSEIN; MOHAMMADI, AMENEH; GHORBANI, MARYAM; SHAKERI, ABDOREZA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.; SHAHSAVAND, SHABNAM

    2016-01-01

    Cyperus longus is one of the Iranian endemic species. However, to date, and to the best of our knowledge, there are no availale academic reports on the cytotoxicity of this plant. Thus, this study was carried out to examine the in vitro anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and essential oil (EO) on MCF7 and PC3 cell lines. The chemical constituents of EO were identified using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and incubated with various concentrations of the plant extract and fractions. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay following 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure to (12.5–200 µg/ml) of the methanol extract, the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water fractions, as well as the EO of the plant. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragments by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The most effective fraction in the MCF7 cell line was the CH2Cl2 fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 25.34±2.01). The EtOAc fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 35.2±2.69) and the methanol extract (IC50 after 48 h, 64.64±1.64) were also found to be effective. The IC50 values obtained for the PC3 cell line were 37.97±3.87, 51.57±3.87 and 70.33±2.36 for the CH2Cl2 fraction, the EtOAc fraction and the methanol extract, respectively. Based on these data and due to the partial polarity of the most effective fraction (the CH2Cl2 fraction), we also examined the cytotoxicity of the plant EO. The IC50 values after 48 h were 22.25±4.25 and 12.55±3.65 in the PC3 and MCF7 cell lines, respectively. DNA fragmentation assay also confirmed these data. Performing GC-MS analysis for the plant EO revealed that β-himachalene (10.81%), α-caryophyllene oxide (7.6%), irisone (4.78%), β-caryophyllene oxide (4.36%), humulene oxide (12%), viridiflorol (4.73%), aristolone (6.39%) and longiverbenone (6.04%) were the main constituents. Our results

  16. Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs. resistance training in untrained young men.

    PubMed

    Vissing, Kristian; Brink, Mads; Lønbro, Simon; Sørensen, Henrik; Overgaard, Kristian; Danborg, Kasper; Mortensen, Jesper; Elstrøm, Ole; Rosenhøj, Nikolaj; Ringgaard, Steffen; Andersen, Jesper L; Aagaard, Per

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle strength, power, and morphology induced by conventional strength training vs. plyometric training of equal time and effort requirements. Young, untrained men performed 12 weeks of progressive conventional resistance training (CRT, n = 8) or plyometric training (PT, n = 7). Tests before and after training included one-repetition maximum (1 RM) incline leg press, 3 RM knee extension, and 1 RM knee flexion, countermovement jumping (CMJ), and ballistic incline leg press. Also, before and after training, magnetic resonance imaging scanning was performed for the thigh, and a muscle biopsy was sampled from the vastus lateralis muscle. Muscle strength increased by approximately 20-30% (1-3 RM tests) (p < 0.001), with CRT showing 50% greater improvement in hamstring strength than PT (p < 0.01). Plyometric training increased maximum CMJ height (10%) and maximal power (Pmax; 9%) during CMJ (p < 0.01) and Pmax in ballistic leg press (17%) (p < 0.001). This was far greater than for CRT (p < 0.01), which only increased Pmax during the ballistic leg press (4%) (p < 0.05). Quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor whole-muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) increased equally (7-10%) with CRT and PT (p < 0.001). For fiber CSA analysis, some of the biopsies had to be omitted. Type I and IIa fiber CSA increased in CRT (n = 4) by 32 and 49%, respectively (p < 0.05), whereas no significant changes occurred for PT (n = 5). Myosin heavy-chain IIX content decreased from 11 to 6%, with no difference between CRT and PT. In conclusion, gross muscle size increased both by PT and CRT, whereas only CRT seemed to increase muscle fiber CSA. Gains in maximal muscle strength were essentially similar between groups, whereas muscle power increased almost exclusively with PT training. PMID:18978625

  17. Capillary muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Caroline; Mouterde, Timothée; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The contraction of a muscle generates a force that decreases when increasing the contraction velocity. This “hyperbolic” force–velocity relationship has been known since the seminal work of A. V. Hill in 1938 [Hill AV (1938) Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 126(843):136–195]. Hill’s heuristic equation is still used, and the sliding-filament theory for the sarcomere [Huxley H, Hanson J (1954) Nature 173(4412):973–976; Huxley AF, Niedergerke R (1954) Nature 173(4412):971–973] suggested how its different parameters can be related to the molecular origin of the force generator [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255–318; Deshcherevskiĭ VI (1968) Biofizika 13(5):928–935]. Here, we develop a capillary analog of the sarcomere obeying Hill’s equation and discuss its analogy with muscles. PMID:25944938

  18. Mapping of intramuscular tenderness and muscle fiber orientation of muscles in the beef round.

    PubMed

    Senaratne, L S; Calkins, C R; de Mello, A S; Pokharel, S; Hinkle, J B

    2010-09-01

    Intramuscular tenderness variation and muscle fiber orientation of beef M. adductor femoris (AF), M. biceps femoris (BF), M. gracilis (GL), M. pectineus (PT), M. sartorius (SR), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (SO), M. vastus intermedius (VI), M. vastus medialis (VM), and M. vastus lateralis (VL) were investigated. The USDA Choice boxed beef subprimals were purchased and aged for 14 d from boxed date. The AF, BF, GL, PT, SR, SM, SO, VI, VM, and VL (n = 10 each) were fabricated from subprimals. Crust-frozen AF, BF, SO, SM, and VL were cut into 2.54-cm steaks perpendicular to the long axis and grilled (71 degrees C). The PT, SR, VI, and VM were grilled (71 degrees C) as whole muscles, whereas the GL was grilled after cutting into anterior and posterior regions. Grilled muscles were cut into equal size sections perpendicular to long axis of muscles. Location-specific cores were prepared from each steak/section, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was measured. The muscle fiber orientations of BF, PT, and VI were bipennate, SR and SO were fusiform, and AD, SM, VL, GL, and VM were unipennate. The overall mean WBSF values for BF, SO, AF, SM, PT, SR, GL, VI, VM, and VL were 5.62, 4.86, 4.18, 4.90, 3.76, 4.44, 4.75, 4.78, 4.24, and 6.53 kg, respectively. Based on WBSF values, PT was tender, BF and VL were tough, and VM, VI, SM, GL SR, AF, and SO were intermediate. The first 2 proximal steaks of long head BF were more tender than the rest (P < 0.05). In the SO, the tenderness decreased from the middle of the muscle to both ends (P < 0.05). The anterior sides of the long head BF and SO were tougher than their posterior sides (P < 0.05).The first 4 steaks of the SM were more tender than the rest of the muscle (P < 0.05). There was a significant tenderness increment from the middle of the AF and SR to both ends of each muscle (P < 0.05). The medial side of the VI was more tender than its lateral side (P < 0.05). The VM had its smallest shear force value at the

  19. Sepsis stimulates nonlysosomal, energy-dependent proteolysis and increases ubiquitin mRNA levels in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Tiao, G; Fagan, J M; Samuels, N; James, J H; Hudson, K; Lieberman, M; Fischer, J E; Hasselgren, P O

    1994-01-01

    We tested the role of different intracellular proteolytic pathways in sepsis-induced muscle proteolysis. Sepsis was induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture; controls were sham operated. Total and myofibrillar proteolysis was determined in incubated extensor digitorum longus muscles as release of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine, respectively. Lysosomal proteolysis was assessed by using the lysosomotropic agents NH4Cl, chloroquine, leupeptin, and methylamine. Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis was determined in the absence or presence of Ca2+ or by blocking the Ca(2+)-dependent proteases calpain I and II. Energy-dependent proteolysis was determined in muscles depleted of ATP by 2-deoxyglucose and 2.4-dinitrophenol. Muscle ubiquitin mRNA and the concentrations of free and conjugated ubiquitin were determined by Northern and Western blots, respectively, to assess the role of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. Total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was increased during sepsis by 50 and 440%, respectively. Lysosomal and Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis was similar in control and septic rats. In contrast, energy-dependent total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was increased by 172% and more than fourfold, respectively, in septic muscle. Ubiquitin mRNA was increased severalfold in septic muscle. The results suggest that the increase in muscle proteolysis during sepsis is due to an increase in nonlysosomal energy-dependent protein breakdown, which may involve the ubiquitin system. Images PMID:7989581

  20. The miRNA Transcriptome Directly Reflects the Physiological and Biochemical Differences between Red, White, and Intermediate Muscle Fiber Types

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jideng; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Rui; Jin, Long; Tang, Qianzi; Wang, Xun; Jiang, Anan; Hu, Yaodong; Li, Zongwen; Zhu, Li; Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Mingzhou; Li, Xuewei

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can regulate their target genes at the post-transcriptional level. Skeletal muscle comprises different fiber types that can be broadly classified as red, intermediate, and white. Recently, a set of miRNAs was found expressed in a fiber type-specific manner in red and white fiber types. However, an in-depth analysis of the miRNA transcriptome differences between all three fiber types has not been undertaken. Herein, we collected 15 porcine skeletal muscles from different anatomical locations, which were then clearly divided into red, white, and intermediate fiber type based on the ratios of myosin heavy chain isoforms. We further illustrated that three muscles, which typically represented each muscle fiber type (i.e., red: peroneal longus (PL), intermediate: psoas major muscle (PMM), white: longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM)), have distinct metabolic patterns of mitochondrial and glycolytic enzyme levels. Furthermore, we constructed small RNA libraries for PL, PMM, and LDM using a deep sequencing approach. Results showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs were mainly enriched in PL and played a vital role in myogenesis and energy metabolism. Overall, this comprehensive analysis will contribute to a better understanding of the miRNA regulatory mechanism that achieves the phenotypic diversity of skeletal muscles. PMID:25938964

  1. Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK-dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Treebak, Jonas T.; Schjerling, Peter; Goodyear, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Metformin-induced activation of the 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent on AMPK signaling. Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given to muscle-specific kinase dead (KD) AMPKα2 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 wk. Soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot analyses. Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (∼45%, P < 0.01) but not of AMPK KD mice. Insulin signaling at the level of Akt protein expression or Thr308 and Ser473 phosphorylation was not changed by metformin treatment. Insulin signaling at the level of Akt and TBC1D4 protein expression as well as Akt Thr308/Ser473 and TBC1D4 Thr642/Ser711 phosphorylation were not changed by metformin treatment. Also, protein expressions of Rab4, GLUT4, and hexokinase II were unaltered after treatment. The acute metformin treatment did not affect glucose uptake in muscle of either of the genotypes. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence for a role of AMPK in potentiating the effect of insulin on glucose uptake in soleus muscle in response to chronic metformin treatment. PMID:24644243

  2. Comparative Label-Free Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Mildly versus Severely Affected mdx Mouse Skeletal Muscles Identifies Annexin, Lamin, and Vimentin as Universal Dystrophic Markers.

    PubMed

    Holland, Ashling; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Winkler, Claudia K; Krautwald, Mirjam; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2015-01-01

    The primary deficiency in the membrane cytoskeletal protein dystrophin results in complex changes in dystrophic muscles. In order to compare the degree of secondary alterations in differently affected subtypes of skeletal muscles, we have conducted a global analysis of proteome-wide changes in various dystrophin-deficient muscles. In contrast to the highly degenerative mdx diaphragm muscle, which showed considerable alterations in 35 distinct proteins, the spectrum of mildly to moderately dystrophic skeletal muscles, including interosseus, flexor digitorum brevis, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus muscle, exhibited a smaller number of changed proteins. Compensatory mechanisms and/or cellular variances may be responsible for differing secondary changes in individual mdx muscles. Label-free mass spectrometry established altered expression levels for diaphragm proteins associated with contraction, energy metabolism, the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix and the cellular stress response. Comparative immunoblotting verified the differences in the degree of secondary changes in dystrophin-deficient muscles and showed that the up-regulation of molecular chaperones, the compensatory increase in proteins of the intermediate filaments, the fibrosis-related increase in collagen levels and the pathophysiological decrease in calcium binding proteins is more pronounced in mdx diaphragm as compared to the less severely affected mdx leg muscles. Annexin, lamin, and vimentin were identified as universal dystrophic markers. PMID:26102067

  3. Fiber-type-specific alphaB-crystallin distribution and its shifts with T(3) and PTU treatments in rat hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Atomi, Y; Toro, K; Masuda, T; Hatta, H

    2000-04-01

    Changes in alphaB-crystallin content in adult rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) were examined after 8 wk of 3,5, 3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) and propylthiouracil (PTU) treatments. Cellular distributions of alphaB-crystallin expression related to fiber type, and distribution shifts with these treatments were also examined in detail from the gray level of reactivity to specific anti-alphaB-crystallin antibody. alphaB-crystallin content in both soleus and EDL muscles was significantly decreased after T(3), and that in EDL was significantly increased over twofold after PTU treatment. In both control soleus and EDL muscles, the gray level of type I fibers was higher than that of type II fibers. alphaB-crystallin expression among type II subtypes was muscle specific; the order was type I > IIa > IIx > IIb in control EDL muscle and type IIx > or = IIa in soleus muscle. The relation was basically unchanged in both muscles after T(3) treatment and was, in particular, well maintained in EDL muscle. Under hypothyroidism conditions with PTU, the mean alphaB-crystallin levels of type IIa and IIx fibers were significantly lower than levels under control conditions. Thus the relation between fiber type and the expression manner of stress protein alphaB-crystallin is muscle specific and also is well regulated under thyroid hormone, especially in fast EDL muscle.

  4. Built for rowing: frog muscle is tuned to limb morphology to power swimming

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Christopher T.; Clemente, Christofer J.

    2013-01-01

    Rowing is demanding, in part, because drag on the oars increases as the square of their speed. Hence, as muscles shorten faster, their force capacity falls, whereas drag rises. How do frogs resolve this dilemma to swim rapidly? We predicted that shortening velocity cannot exceed a terminal velocity where muscle and fluid torques balance. This terminal velocity, which is below Vmax, depends on gear ratio (GR = outlever/inlever) and webbed foot area. Perhaps such properties of swimmers are ‘tuned’, enabling shortening speeds of approximately 0.3Vmax for maximal power. Predictions were tested using a ‘musculo-robotic’ Xenopus laevis foot driven either by a living in vitro or computational in silico plantaris longus muscle. Experiments verified predictions. Our principle finding is that GR ranges from 11.5 to 20 near the predicted optimum for rowing (GR ≈ 11). However, gearing influences muscle power more strongly than foot area. No single morphology is optimal for producing muscle power. Rather, the ‘optimal’ GR decreases with foot size, implying that rowing ability need not compromise jumping (and vice versa). Thus, despite our neglect of additional forces (e.g. added mass), our model predicts pairings of physiological and morphological properties to confer effective rowing. Beyond frogs, the model may apply across a range of size and complexity from aquatic insects to human-powered rowing. PMID:23676897

  5. Muscle imaging in patients with tubular aggregate myopathy caused by mutations in STIM1

    PubMed Central

    Tasca, Giorgio; D'Amico, Adele; Monforte, Mauro; Nadaj-Pakleza, Aleksandra; Vialle, Marc; Fattori, Fabiana; Vissing, John; Ricci, Enzo; Bertini, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Tubular aggregate myopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by tubular aggregates as the hallmark on muscle biopsy. Mutations in STIM1 have recently been identified as one genetic cause in a number of tubular aggregate myopathy cases. To characterize the pattern of muscle involvement in this disease, upper and lower girdles and lower limbs were imaged in five patients with mutations in STIM1, and the scans were compared with two patients with tubular aggregate myopathy not caused by mutations in STIM1. A common pattern of involvement was found in STIM1-mutated patients, although with variable extent and severity of lesions. In the upper girdle, the subscapularis muscle was invariably affected. In the lower limbs, all the patients showed a consistent involvement of the flexor hallucis longus, which is very rarely affected in other muscle diseases, and a diffuse involvement of thigh and posterior leg with sparing of gracilis, tibialis anterior and, to a lesser extent, short head of biceps femoris. Mutations in STIM1 are associated with a homogeneous involvement on imaging despite variable clinical features. Muscle imaging can be useful in identifying STIM1-mutated patients especially among other forms of tubular aggregate myopathy. PMID:26255678

  6. Muscle imaging in patients with tubular aggregate myopathy caused by mutations in STIM1.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio; D'Amico, Adele; Monforte, Mauro; Nadaj-Pakleza, Aleksandra; Vialle, Marc; Fattori, Fabiana; Vissing, John; Ricci, Enzo; Bertini, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Tubular aggregate myopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by tubular aggregates as the hallmark on muscle biopsy. Mutations in STIM1 have recently been identified as one genetic cause in a number of tubular aggregate myopathy cases. To characterize the pattern of muscle involvement in this disease, upper and lower girdles and lower limbs were imaged in five patients with mutations in STIM1, and the scans were compared with two patients with tubular aggregate myopathy not caused by mutations in STIM1. A common pattern of involvement was found in STIM1-mutated patients, although with variable extent and severity of lesions. In the upper girdle, the subscapularis muscle was invariably affected. In the lower limbs, all the patients showed a consistent involvement of the flexor hallucis longus, which is very rarely affected in other muscle diseases, and a diffuse involvement of thigh and posterior leg with sparing of gracilis, tibialis anterior and, to a lesser extent, short head of biceps femoris. Mutations in STIM1 are associated with a homogeneous involvement on imaging despite variable clinical features. Muscle imaging can be useful in identifying STIM1-mutated patients especially among other forms of tubular aggregate myopathy. PMID:26255678

  7. Target-derived trophic effect on skeletal muscle innervation in senescent mice.

    PubMed

    Messi, Maria Laura; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2003-02-15

    In the present work, we tested the hypothesis that target-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) prevents alterations in neuromuscular innervation in aging mammals. To explore this hypothesis, we studied senescent wild-type mice as a model of deficient IGF-1 secretion and signaling and S1S2 transgenic mice as a tool to investigate the role of sustained overexpression of IGF-1 in striated muscle in neuromuscular innervation. The analysis of the nerve terminal in extensor digitorum longus muscles from senescent mice showed that the decrease in the percentage of cholinesterase-stained zones (CSZ) exhibiting nerve terminal branching, number of nerve branches at the CSZ, and nerve branch points was partially or completely reversed by sustained overexpression of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle. Target-derived IGF-1 also prevented age-related decreases in the postterminal alpha-bungarotoxin immunostained area, as well as the reduction in the number and length of postsynaptic folds, and area and density of postsynaptic folds studied with electron microscopy. Overexpression of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle may account for the lack of age-dependent switch in muscle fiber type composition recorded in senescent mice. In summary, the use of the S1S2 IGF-1 transgenic mouse model allowed us to provide morphological evidence for the role of target-derived IGF-1 in spinal cord motor neurons in senescent mice.

  8. The Body Action Coding System II: muscle activations during the perception and expression of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Huis In ‘t Veld, Elisabeth M. J.; van Boxtel, Geert J. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Research into the expression and perception of emotions has mostly focused on facial expressions. Recently, body postures have become increasingly important in research, but knowledge on muscle activity during the perception or expression of emotion is lacking. The current study continues the development of a Body Action Coding System (BACS), which was initiated in a previous study, and described the involvement of muscles in the neck, shoulders and arms during expression of fear and anger. The current study expands the BACS by assessing the activity patterns of three additional muscles. Surface electromyography of muscles in the neck (upper trapezius descendens), forearms (extensor carpi ulnaris), lower back (erector spinae longissimus) and calves (peroneus longus) were measured during active expression and passive viewing of fearful and angry body expressions. The muscles in the forearm were strongly active for anger expression and to a lesser extent for fear expression. In contrast, muscles in the calves were recruited slightly more for fearful expressions. It was also found that muscles automatically responded to the perception of emotion, without any overt movement. The observer's forearms responded to the perception of fear, while the muscles used for leaning backwards were activated when faced with an angry adversary. Lastly, the calf responded immediately when a fearful person was seen, but responded slower to anger. There is increasing interest in developing systems that are able to create or recognize emotional body language for the development of avatars, robots, and online environments. To that end, multiple coding systems have been developed that can either interpret or create bodily expressions based on static postures, motion capture data or videos. However, the BACS is the first coding system based on muscle activity. PMID:25294993

  9. Urocortin 3 activates AMPK and AKT pathways and enhances glucose disposal in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Roustit, Manon M; Vaughan, Joan M; Jamieson, Pauline M; Cleasby, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) in skeletal muscle is an important component of both type 2 diabetes and the syndrome of sarcopaenic obesity, for which there are no effective therapies. Urocortins (UCNs) are not only well established as neuropeptides but also have their roles in metabolism in peripheral tissues. We have shown recently that global overexpression of UCN3 resulted in muscular hypertrophy and resistance to the adverse metabolic effects of a high-fat diet. Herein, we aimed to establish whether short-term local UCN3 expression could enhance glucose disposal and insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. UCN3 was found to be expressed in right tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus muscles of rats by in vivo electrotransfer and the effects studied vs the contralateral muscles after 1 week. No increase in muscle mass was detected, but test muscles showed 19% larger muscle fibre diameter (P=0.030), associated with increased IGF1 and IGF1 receptor mRNA and increased SER256 phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factor. Glucose clearance into the test muscles after an intraperitoneal glucose load was increased by 23% (P=0.018) per unit mass, associated with increased GLUT1 (34% increase; P=0.026) and GLUT4 (48% increase; P=0.0009) proteins, and significantly increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, AKT, AKT substrate of 160 kDa, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, AMP-activated protein kinase and its substrate acetyl coA carboxylase. Thus, UCN3 expression enhances glucose disposal and signalling in muscle by an autocrine/paracrine mechanism that is separate from its pro-hypertrophic effects, implying that such a manipulation may have promised for the treatment of IR syndromes including sarcopaenic obesity. PMID:25122003

  10. The Body Action Coding System II: muscle activations during the perception and expression of emotion.

    PubMed

    Huis In 't Veld, Elisabeth M J; van Boxtel, Geert J M; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Research into the expression and perception of emotions has mostly focused on facial expressions. Recently, body postures have become increasingly important in research, but knowledge on muscle activity during the perception or expression of emotion is lacking. The current study continues the development of a Body Action Coding System (BACS), which was initiated in a previous study, and described the involvement of muscles in the neck, shoulders and arms during expression of fear and anger. The current study expands the BACS by assessing the activity patterns of three additional muscles. Surface electromyography of muscles in the neck (upper trapezius descendens), forearms (extensor carpi ulnaris), lower back (erector spinae longissimus) and calves (peroneus longus) were measured during active expression and passive viewing of fearful and angry body expressions. The muscles in the forearm were strongly active for anger expression and to a lesser extent for fear expression. In contrast, muscles in the calves were recruited slightly more for fearful expressions. It was also found that muscles automatically responded to the perception of emotion, without any overt movement. The observer's forearms responded to the perception of fear, while the muscles used for leaning backwards were activated when faced with an angry adversary. Lastly, the calf responded immediately when a fearful person was seen, but responded slower to anger. There is increasing interest in developing systems that are able to create or recognize emotional body language for the development of avatars, robots, and online environments. To that end, multiple coding systems have been developed that can either interpret or create bodily expressions based on static postures, motion capture data or videos. However, the BACS is the first coding system based on muscle activity.

  11. The trophic influence of tetrodotoxin-inactive nerves on normal and reinnervated rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, J J; Hubbard, J I; Mills, R G

    1979-01-01

    1. Nerve impulses in the rat sciatic nerve were blocked for long periods by tetrodotoxin (TTX) released from capillary implants. The TTX capillaries did not block axonal transport, nor did they cause any sign of nerve degeneration. 2. A comparison of the effects of TTX paralysis and denervation was made on both extensor digitorium longus (e.d.l.) and soleus muscles over 21 days, a time when the products of nerve degeneration were unlikely to contribute to the changes associated with denervation. The resting membrane potential of TTX-paralysed muscles was significantly different (P less than 0.005) from that of the denervated muscles at all periods and at 21 days the decrease that can be attributed to inactivity was 61% (e.d.l.) and 49% (soleus) of that which follows denervation. This disparity was even more pronounced for the ACh receptor density where the increase in receptors due to inactivity was only 34% (e.d.l.) and 21% (soleus) of that due to denervation. 3. A similar comparison was made on muscles which had been reinnervated by TTX-inactive nerves. These muscles were found to have a significantly higher resting membrane potential and lower ACh receptor density than the denervated muscles (P less than 0.05). 4. The experiments on reinnervated muscles preclude the possibility that nerve degeneration products are solely responsible for the difference between the TTX-paralysed and denervated muscles and suggest that the difference can be attributed to the trophic influence of the nerve. 5. An observed increase in the m.e.p.p. frequency of the TTX-paralysed muscles indicated that nerve action potentials play a role in regulating the spontaneous release from nerve terminals. PMID:94092

  12. Adaptive control for backward quadrupedal walking VI. metatarsophalangeal joint dynamics and motor patterns of digit muscles.

    PubMed

    Trank, T V; Smith, J L

    1996-02-01

    1. We compared the dynamics of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint of the cat's hind paw and the motor patterns of two short and four long muscles of the digits for two walking forms, forward (FWD) and backward (BWD). Kinematic (angular displacements) data digitized from high-speed ciné film and electromyographic (EMG) data were synchronized and assessed for bouts of treadmill walking. Kinetic data (joint forces) were calculated from kinematic and anthropometric data with the use of inverse-dynamic calculations in which the MTP joint net torque was divided into gravitational, motion-dependent, ground contact (absent for swing), and muscle torque components. Swing-phase kinetics were calculated from treadmill steps and stance-phase kinetics from overground steps in which one hind paw contacted a miniature force platform embedded in the walkway. 2. The plantar angle at the intersection of the metatarsal and phalangeal segmental lines was used to measure MTP angular displacements. During swing for both walking forms, the MTP joint flexed (F) and then extended (E); however, the F-E transition occurred at the onset of FWD swing and at the end of BWD swing. For FWD walking, the MTP joint extended at a constant velocity during most of stance as the cat's weight rotated forward over the paw. During the unweighting phase at the end of stance, the MTP joint flexed rapidly before paw lift off. For BWD walking, the MTP joint extended briefly at stance onset (similar to a yield) and then flexed at a constant velocity as the cat's weight rotated backward over the paw. At the end of stance, the MTP joint extended and then flexed slightly as the paw was unweighted before paw lift off. 3. For both forms of walking, three of the six muscles tested were recruited just before paw contact and remained active for most (75-80%) of stance for both walking forms: plantaris (PLT), flexor hallucis longus (FHL), and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB). Their recruitment contributed to the flexor

  13. Muscle-specific deletion of exons 2 and 3 of the IL15RA gene in mice: effects on contractile properties of fast and slow muscles.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Grant; Guo, Ge; Stricker, Janelle; Quinn, LeBris S; Ma, Averil; Pistilli, Emidio E

    2015-02-15

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a putative myokine hypothesized to induce an oxidative skeletal muscle phenotype. The specific IL-15 receptor alpha subunit (IL-15Rα) has also been impli