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Sample records for adductor mandibulae externus

  1. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing). The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight) defined as the grazing ability index (GAI). There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni). Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate) was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests the

  2. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes. PMID:25755920

  3. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes. PMID:25755920

  4. [Chronic osteomyelitis of mandibulae].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, J; Nameta, K

    1994-02-01

    As the human lower jaw (mandibula) itself is a hard bone, and when bacterial inflammation occurs in it by pericoronal infection of the 3rd molar or apical infection of caries tooth, the inflammation remains in the bone marrow and often progresses to acute osteomyelitis. The prominent sign of acute osteomyelitis in the lower jaw is mental nerve palsy which is the so-called Vincent's Syndrome. The causative organisms are not different from those of the common odontogenic infections. Recently, we have identified some strains of Oral Streptococci tolerant against PCs and Cefems and also ones capable of biofilm formation. When antimicrobial agents or drainage proves unsuccessful, acute osteomyelitis may become chronic, which is more difficult to treat. Surgical procedures, such as, debridement or decortication of cortex bone are necessary in most cases. If these surgical procedures do not give satisfactory result, the amputation of the jaw is not rare. PMID:8126911

  5. The Jaw Adductor Muscle Complex in Teleostean Fishes: Evolution, Homologies and Revised Nomenclature (Osteichthyes: Actinopterygii)

    PubMed Central

    Datovo, Aléssio; Vari, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The infraclass Teleostei is a highly diversified group of bony fishes that encompasses 96% of all species of living fishes and almost half of extant vertebrates. Evolution of various morphological complexes in teleosts, particularly those involving soft anatomy, remains poorly understood. Notable among these problematic complexes is the adductor mandibulae, the muscle that provides the primary force for jaw adduction and mouth closure and whose architecture varies from a simple arrangement of two segments to an intricate complex of up to ten discrete subdivisions. The present study analyzed multiple morphological attributes of the adductor mandibulae in representatives of 53 of the 55 extant teleostean orders, as well as significant information from the literature in order to elucidate the homologies of the main subdivisions of this muscle. The traditional alphanumeric terminology applied to the four main divisions of the adductor mandibulae – A1, A2, A3, and Aω – patently fails to reflect homologous components of that muscle across the expanse of the Teleostei. Some features traditionally used as landmarks for identification of some divisions of the adductor mandibulae proved highly variable across the Teleostei; notably the insertion on the maxilla and the position of muscle components relative to the path of the ramus mandibularis trigeminus nerve. The evolutionary model of gain and loss of sections of the adductor mandibulae most commonly adopted under the alphanumeric system additionally proved ontogenetically incongruent and less parsimonious than a model of subdivision and coalescence of facial muscle sections. Results of the analysis demonstrate the impossibility of adapting the alphanumeric terminology so as to reflect homologous entities across the spectrum of teleosts. A new nomenclatural scheme is proposed in order to achieve congruence between homology and nomenclature of the adductor mandibulae components across the entire Teleostei. PMID

  6. The jaw adductor muscle complex in teleostean fishes: evolution, homologies and revised nomenclature (osteichthyes: actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Datovo, Aléssio; Vari, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    The infraclass Teleostei is a highly diversified group of bony fishes that encompasses 96% of all species of living fishes and almost half of extant vertebrates. Evolution of various morphological complexes in teleosts, particularly those involving soft anatomy, remains poorly understood. Notable among these problematic complexes is the adductor mandibulae, the muscle that provides the primary force for jaw adduction and mouth closure and whose architecture varies from a simple arrangement of two segments to an intricate complex of up to ten discrete subdivisions. The present study analyzed multiple morphological attributes of the adductor mandibulae in representatives of 53 of the 55 extant teleostean orders, as well as significant information from the literature in order to elucidate the homologies of the main subdivisions of this muscle. The traditional alphanumeric terminology applied to the four main divisions of the adductor mandibulae - A1, A2, A3, and Aω - patently fails to reflect homologous components of that muscle across the expanse of the Teleostei. Some features traditionally used as landmarks for identification of some divisions of the adductor mandibulae proved highly variable across the Teleostei; notably the insertion on the maxilla and the position of muscle components relative to the path of the ramus mandibularis trigeminus nerve. The evolutionary model of gain and loss of sections of the adductor mandibulae most commonly adopted under the alphanumeric system additionally proved ontogenetically incongruent and less parsimonious than a model of subdivision and coalescence of facial muscle sections. Results of the analysis demonstrate the impossibility of adapting the alphanumeric terminology so as to reflect homologous entities across the spectrum of teleosts. A new nomenclatural scheme is proposed in order to achieve congruence between homology and nomenclature of the adductor mandibulae components across the entire Teleostei. PMID:23565279

  7. Relationship between cup position and obturator externus muscle in total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is often challenging to find the causes for postoperative pain syndromes after total hip replacement, since they can be very allotropic. One possible cause is the muscular impingement syndrome. The most commonly known impingement syndrome is the psoas impingement. Another recently described impingement syndrome is the obturator externus muscle impingement. The aim of this study is to analyze pathological conditions of the Obturator externus and to show possible causes. Methods 40 patients who had undergone a total hip replacement were subjected to clinical and MRI examinations 12 months after the surgery. The Harris Hip Score (HHS) was used to analyze pain and function. Additionally, a satisfaction score and a pain score (VAS) were determined. The MRI allowed for the assessment of the spatial relation between the obturator externus muscle and the acetabulum. Also measured were the acetabular inclination angle as well as the volume and cross-sectional area of the obturator externus muscle. Results The patients were assigned to 3 groups in accordance with their MRI results. Group 1 patients (n = 18) showed no contact between the obturator externus and the acetabulum. Group 2 (n = 13) showed contact, and group 3 (n = 9) an additional clear displacement of the muscle in its course. It was not possible to establish a connection between the imaging findings, the HHS, the VAS, and patient satisfaction. What was striking, however, was a significant difference between the median inclination angle in group 1 (40° ± 5.4°) and group 3 (49° ± 4.7°) (p < 0.05), and the corresponding image-morphological pathology. The average inclination angle in group 2 was 43.3° ± 3.8° Conclusion Contact between the obturator externus muscle and the caudal acetabula border occurs frequently, but is only rarely accompanied by a painful muscular impingement. The position of the acetabula must be seen as one of the main risk factors for contact between the acetabula border

  8. Cranial muscles of the anurans Leiopelma hochstetteri and Ascaphus truei and the homologies of the mandibular adductors in Lissamphibia and other gnathostomes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The frogs Ascaphus truei and Leiopelma hochstetteri are members of the most basal lineages of extant anurans. Their cranial muscles have not been previously described in full and are investigated here by dissection. Comparison of these taxa is used to review a controversy regarding the homologies of the jaw adductor muscles in Lissamphibia, to place these homologies in a wider gnathostome context, and to define features that may be useful for cladistic analysis of Anura. A new muscle is defined in Ascaphus and is designated m. levator anguli oris. The differences noted between Ascaphus and Leiopelma are in the penetration of the jaw adductor muscles by the mandibular nerve (V3). In the traditional view of this anatomy, the paths of the trigeminal nerve branches define homologous muscles. This scheme results in major differences among frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. The alternative view is that the topology of origins, insertions, and fiber directions are defining features, and the nerves penetrate the muscle mass in a variable way. The results given here support the latter view. A new model is proposed for Lissamphibia, whereby the adductor posterior (levator articularis) is a separate entity, and the rest of the adductor mass is configured around it as a folded sheet. This hypothesis is examined in other gnathostomes, including coelacanth and lungfish, and a possible sequence for the evolution of the jaw muscles is demonstrated. In this system, the main jaw adductor in teleost fish is not considered homologous with that of tetrapods. This hypothesis is consistent with available data on the domain of expression of the homeobox gene engrailed 2, which has previously not been considered indicative of homology. Terminology is discussed, and "adductor mandibulae" is preferred to "levator mandibulae" to align with usage in other gnathostomes. PMID:21845732

  9. Imaging of adductor-related groin pain.

    PubMed

    Pesquer, L; Reboul, G; Silvestre, A; Poussange, N; Meyer, P; Dallaudière, B

    2015-09-01

    Groin pain is a common condition in athletes and results from various causes. Osteitis pubis, adductor dysfunction, inguinal hernia, or a combination of all three entities, generally explains the onset of symptoms. Adductor longus tendinopathy is the main cause of adductor-related groin pain. It leads to a significant reduction of sports participation and can require surgical management. Diagnosis is based on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Asymptomatic findings (tendinosis, calcifications, cortical erosions) are common in athletes and care should be taken when assessing groin pain. The most specific sign of tendinopathy is an intratendinous tear of the adductor longus. PMID:25823982

  10. Globus Pallidus Externus Neurons Expressing parvalbumin Interconnect the Subthalamic Nucleus and Striatal Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Arpiar; Huang, Kee Wui; Sabatini, Bernardo Luis

    2016-01-01

    The globus pallidus externus (GP) is a nucleus of the basal ganglia (BG), containing GABAergic projection neurons that arborize widely throughout the BG, thalamus and cortex. Ongoing work seeks to map axonal projection patterns from GP cell types, as defined by their electrophysiological and molecular properties. Here we use transgenic mice and recombinant viruses to characterize parvalbumin expressing (PV+) GP neurons within the BG circuit. We confirm that PV+ neurons 1) make up ~40% of the GP neurons 2) exhibit fast-firing spontaneous activity and 3) provide the major axonal arborization to the STN and substantia nigra reticulata/compacta (SNr/c). PV+ neurons also innervate the striatum. Retrograde labeling identifies ~17% of pallidostriatal neurons as PV+, at least a subset of which also innervate the STN and SNr. Optogenetic experiments in acute brain slices demonstrate that the PV+ pallidostriatal axons make potent inhibitory synapses on low threshold spiking (LTS) and fast-spiking interneurons (FS) in the striatum, but rarely on spiny projection neurons (SPNs). Thus PV+ GP neurons are synaptically positioned to directly coordinate activity between BG input nuclei, the striatum and STN, and thalamic-output from the SNr. PMID:26905595

  11. Speech Intelligibility in Severe Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Brenda K.; Cannito, Michael P.; Murry, Thomas; Woodson, Gayle E.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared speech intelligibility in nondisabled speakers and speakers with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (Botox) injection. Standard speech samples were obtained from 10 speakers diagnosed with severe ADSD prior to and 1 month following Botox injection, as well as from 10 age- and gender-matched…

  12. The adductor part of the adductor magnus is innervated by both obturator and sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Megumi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ito, Hajime; Fujimiya, Mineko; Uchiyama, Eiichi

    2014-07-01

    The hip adductor group, innervated predominantly by the obturator nerve, occupies a large volume of the lower limb. However, case reports of patients with obturator nerve palsy or denervation have described no more than minimal gait disturbance. Those facts are surprising, given the architectural characteristics of the hip adductors. Our aim was to investigate which regions of the adductor magnus are innervated by the obturator nerve and by which sciatic nerve and to consider the clinical implications. Twenty-one lower limbs were examined from 21 formalin-fixed cadavers, 18 males and 3 females. The adductor magnus was dissected and was divided into four parts (AM1-AM4) based on the locations of the perforating arteries and the adductor hiatus. AM1 was supplied solely by the obturator nerve. AM2, AM3, and AM4 received innervation from both the posterior branch of the obturator nerve and the tibial nerve portion of the sciatic nerve in 2 (9.5%), 20 (95.2%), and 6 (28.6%) of the cadavers, respectively. The double innervation in more than 90% of the AM3s is especially noteworthy. Generally, AM1-AM3 corresponds to the adductor part, traditionally characterized as innervated by the obturator nerve, and AM4 corresponds to the hamstrings part, innervated by the sciatic nerve. Here, we showed that the sciatic nerve supplies not only the hamstrings part but also the adductor part. These two nerves spread more widely than has generally been believed, which could have practical implications for the assessment and treatment of motor disability. PMID:23813615

  13. Midline lateralization thyroplasty for adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, N; Tsuji, D H; Yamamoto, Y; Iizuka, Y

    2000-02-01

    Midline lateralization thyroplasty was successfully performed on a patient with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The thyroid cartilage was incised at the midline, and a 3 x 2-mm perforation was made at the anterior commissure to widen it. The perforation was closed with a free composite graft taken from the upper edge of the thyroid ala, and the incised thyroid cartilage edges were kept separated 4 mm apart with silicone wedges. A part of the sternohyoid muscle was rotated to seal any leak from the perforation. The postoperative course was uneventful. The voice has been restored to normal, and there is no sign of recurrence of the symptom so far, as of 1 year 5 months postoperative. Although a longer follow-up is needed, this case indicates that midline type II thyroplasty could be a useful treatment for adductor spasmodic dysphonia. PMID:10685572

  14. A Rare Case of Adductor Longus Muscle Rupture

    PubMed Central

    van de Kimmenade, R. J. L. L.; van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Deurzen, P. J. E.; Verhagen, R. A. W.

    2015-01-01

    An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture. PMID:25918663

  15. A rare case of adductor longus muscle rupture.

    PubMed

    van de Kimmenade, R J L L; van Bergen, C J A; van Deurzen, P J E; Verhagen, R A W

    2015-01-01

    An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture. PMID:25918663

  16. Adductor Pollicis Longus Strain in a Professional Baseball Player

    PubMed Central

    Pinkowsky, Gregory J.; Roberts, John; Allred, Jeff; Pujalte, George G.; Gallo, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Thenar pain can represent a significant morbidity for a baseball player who relies on manual dexterity for gripping a bat and precise and accurate throws. While osseous, ligamentous, and neurovascular pathologies are commonly considered, musculotendinous injuries are often neglected in the differential diagnosis of thenar pain. We present a case of adductor pollicis longus strain as a cause of acute thenar pain in a baseball player. Adductor pollicis longus strains should be considered in any baseball player sustaining a hyperabduction force to the thumb. PMID:24459545

  17. Diagnosing adductor muscle avulsion at the symphysis pubis with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, David J; Caldera, Franklin E; Kim, Woojin

    2014-04-01

    A 58-yr-old woman presented after experiencing left hip and groin pain for 1 mo. She denies any history of trauma, falls or any bruising, or history of sports injury or extreme physical exertion before her symptoms. On ultrasonography, she was found to have an avulsion tear at the origin of the adductor muscles, predominantly involving the adductor longus and brevis muscles. The treatment course was conservative: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain control and physical therapy for muscle strengthening and balance improvement. Upon follow-up, she demonstrated significant improvement and resolution of her pain. PMID:24196970

  18. Anatomy of the Adductor Magnus Origin

    PubMed Central

    Obey, Mitchel R.; Broski, Stephen M.; Spinner, Robert J.; Collins, Mark S.; Krych, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adductor magnus (AM) has historically been a potential source of confusion in patients with suspected proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. Purpose: To investigate the anatomic characteristics of the AM, including its osseous origin, anatomic dimensions, and relationship to the proximal hamstring tendons. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Dissection of the AM origin was performed in 11 (8 cadavers) fresh-frozen hip-to-foot cadaveric hemipelvis specimens. The gross anatomy and architecture of the proximal hamstring and AM tendons were studied. After dissecting the hamstring tendons away from their origin, the dimension, shape, and orientation of the tendon footprints on the ischial tuberosity were determined. Results: The AM was identified in all cadaveric specimens. The mean tendon thickness (anterior to posterior [AP]) was 5.7 ± 2.9 mm. The mean tendon width (medial to lateral [ML]) was 7.1 ± 2.2 mm. The mean tendon length was 13.1 ± 8.7 cm. The mean footprint height (AP dimension) was 12.1 ± 2.9 mm, and mean footprint width (ML dimension) was 17.3 ± 7.1 mm. The mean distance between the AM footprint and the most medial aspect of the conjoint tendon footprint was 8.5 ± 4.2 mm. Tendon measurements demonstrated a considerable degree of both intra- and interspecimen variability. Conclusion: The AM tendon is consistently present just medial to the conjoint tendon at the ischial tuberosity, representing the lateral-most portion of the AM muscle. This study found wide variation in the dimensional characteristics of the AM tendon between specimens. Its shape and location can mimic the appearance of an intact hamstring (conjoint or semimembranosus) tendon intraoperatively or on diagnostic imaging, potentially misleading surgeons and radiologists. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the AM tendon anatomy, footprint anatomy, and its relationship to the hamstring muscle complex is paramount when planning surgical approach and technique

  19. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in adductor pollicis muscle: case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Yee-Suk; Chung, Ung-Seo

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the adductor pollicis that was confirmed by measuring elevated compartment pressure. Specific finding of magnetic resonance imaging, increased T2 signal intensity in the involved compartment, was also useful for the diagnosis. Pain was relieved by fasciotomy through a volar approach. PMID:23040640

  20. ADDUCTOR POLLICIS MUSCLE AS PREDICTOR OF MALNUTRITION IN SURGICAL PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    de MELO, Camila Yandara Sousa Vieira; da SILVA, Silvia Alves

    2014-01-01

    Background In the compromised nutritional status, there is excessive skeletal muscle loss and decreased inflammatory response, contributing to increased morbidity and mortality and length of stay. Aim To estimate the prevalence of malnutrition by measuring adductor pollicis muscle using cutoffs for surgical patients suggested in the literature. Methods Cross-sectional study with 151 patients scheduled for elective surgical procedure. Nutritional assessment was performed by classical anthropometric measurements: arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, arm muscle circumference, corrected arm muscle area, BMI and percentage of weight loss and the extent of the adductor pollicis muscle in both hands. Results The prevalence of malnutrition in patients was high. A significant association between nutritional diagnosis according to the measures of adductor pollicis muscle and arm circumference, BMI and triceps skinfold thickness but there was no association with arm muscular circumference, arm muscular area or percentage of weight loss. Conclusion The adductor pollicis muscle has proved to be a good method to diagnose muscle depletion and malnutrition in surgical patients. PMID:24676291

  1. Isolated Paralysis of the Adductor Pollicis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    De Maio, F.; Bisicchia, S.; Farsetti, P.; Ippolito, E.

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of isolated paralysis of the right adductor pollicis in a 30-year-old woman. Electromyographic study showed involvement of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve. A ganglion and an anomalous muscle were both ruled out clinically and by MRI as a possible cause of the paralysis. At surgical exploration, we found a fibrous band joining the pisiform and the hook of the hamate bone that compressed the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve. The fibrous band was excised, and a neurolysis of the motor branch of the ulnar nerve was performed. At followup, eight months later, the patient had fully recovered strength of the adductor muscle. PMID:21991410

  2. The Jaw Adductor Resultant and Estimated Bite Force in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jonathan M. G.; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Logan, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    We reconstructed the jaw adductor resultant in 34 primate species using new data on muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and data on skull landmarks. Based on predictions by Greaves, the resultant should (1) cross the jaw at 30% of its length, (2) lie directly posterior to the last molar, and (3) incline more anteriorly in primates that need not resist large anteriorly-directed forces. We found that the resultant lies significantly posterior to its predicted location, is significantly posterior to the last molar, and is significantly more anteriorly inclined in folivores than in frugivores. Perhaps primates emphasize avoiding temporomandibular joint distraction and/or wide gapes at the expense of bite force. Our exploration of trends in the data revealed that estimated bite force varies with body mass (but not diet) and is significantly greater in strepsirrhines than in anthropoids. This might be related to greater contribution from the balancing-side jaw adductors in anthropoids. PMID:22611496

  3. Scaling and Accommodation of Jaw Adductor Muscles in Canidae.

    PubMed

    Penrose, Fay; Kemp, Graham J; Jeffery, Nathan

    2016-07-01

    The masticatory apparatus amongst closely related carnivoran species raises intriguing questions about the interplay between allometry, function, and phylogeny in defining interspecific variations of cranial morphology. Here we describe the gross structure of the jaw adductor muscles of several species of canid, and then examine how the muscles are scaled across the range of body sizes, phylogenies, and trophic groups. We also consider how the muscles are accommodated on the skull, and how this is influenced by differences of endocranial size. Data were collected for a suite of morphological metrics, including body mass, endocranial volume, and muscle masses and we used geometric morphometric shape analysis to reveal associated form changes. We find that all jaw adductor muscles scale isometrically against body mass, regardless of phylogeny or trophic group, but that endocranial volume scales with negative allometry against body mass. These findings suggest that head shape is partly influenced by the need to house isometrically scaling muscles on a neurocranium scaling with negative allometry. Principal component analysis suggests that skull shape changes, such as the relatively wide zygomatic arches and large sagittal crests seen in species with higher body masses, allow the skull to accommodate a relative enlargement of the jaw adductors compared with the endocranium. Anat Rec, 299:951-966, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27103346

  4. Interfascial Spread of Injectate After Adductor Canal Injection in Fresh Human Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Pierre; Lecoq, Jean-Pierre; Ninane, Vincent; Brichant, Jean Francois; Sala-Blanch, Xavi; Gautier, Philippe E; Bonnet, Pierre; Carlier, Alain; Hadzic, Admir

    2016-08-01

    The adductor canal block has become a common analgesic technique in patients undergoing knee arthroplasty. Dispersion of local anesthetic outside the adductor canal through interfascial layers and blockade of smaller nerves that confer innervation to the knee could contribute to the analgesic efficacy of the adductor canal block. We studied the diffusion of local anesthetic mixed with dye after injection into the adductor canal in fresh human cadavers. In all 8 legs, injectate was found in the popliteal fossa in contact with the sciatic nerve and/or popliteal blood vessels. Interfascial spread patterns were identified. PMID:27442773

  5. The Head and Neck Anatomy of Sea Turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and Skull Shape in Testudines

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Marc E. H.; Werneburg, Ingmar; Curtis, Neil; Penrose, Rod; O’Higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael J.; Evans, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sea turtles (Chelonoidea) are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known. Methodology/Principal Findings Using computed tomography and classical comparative anatomy we describe the cranial anatomy in two sea turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), for a better understanding of sea turtle functional anatomy and morphological variation. In both taxa the temporal region of the skull is enclosed by bone and the jaw joint structure and muscle arrangement indicate that palinal jaw movement is possible. The tongue is relatively small, and the hyoid apparatus is not as conspicuous as in some freshwater aquatic turtles. We find several similarities between the muscles of C. caretta and L. kempii, but comparison with other turtles suggests only one of these characters may be derived: connection of the m. adductor mandibulae internus into the Pars intramandibularis via the Zwischensehne. The large fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis from the jugal seems to be a characteristic feature of sea turtles. Conclusions/Significance In C. caretta and L. kempii the ability to suction feed does not seem to be as well developed as that found in some freshwater aquatic turtles. Instead both have skulls suited to forceful biting. This is consistent with the observation that both taxa tend to feed on relatively slow moving but sometimes armoured prey. The broad fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis may be linked to thecheek region being almost fully enclosed in bone but the relationship is complex. PMID:23144831

  6. Wound Complications Following Resection of Adductor Compartment Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Grimer, Robert J.; Carter, Simon R.; Tillman, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose Limb salvage surgery of soft tissue sarcomas is associated with both a risk of local recurrence and wound complications. Although the lower limb appears to be at greater risk of wound-related morbidity, few studies separate anatomical compartments. We believe that the adductor compartment of the thigh has a particularly high rate of complications and so performed a retrospective analysis of all soft tissue sarcomas arising in this region undergoing limb salvage. Patients Patients with intermediate and high grade adductor compartment tumours were identified from our database and the case notes were reviewed for patient, tumour, surgical and wound variables, identifying those with wound complications both before and after discharge. Results Of 49 patients who underwent limb salvage surgery, 22 (42.9%) developed complications. Twelve patients (24.5%) required further surgery prior to wound healing and 10 patients had delays in post-operative radiotherapy. There were significant differences in the rates of preceding surgery, open biopsy performed at other centres and previous radiotherapy to this region between the complicated and uncomplicated groups. Discussion The management of these difficult tumours carries a high rate of wound complications and requires careful planning prior to tissue biopsy. Open biopsies should be performed by the tumour surgeon to allow easy inclusion of this site in the definitive procedure. In previously irradiated or operated limbs, alternative strategies for wound management may need to be considered. PMID:18521315

  7. Symphysis Pubis Osteomyelitis with Bilateral Adductor Muscles Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Saad M.; Gdalevitch, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Osteomyelitis of the pubis symphysis is a rare condition. There have been various reports in the literature of inflammation and osteomyelitis as well as septic arthritis of pubic symphysis. However, due to the fact that these conditions are rare and that the usual presenting symptoms are very nonspecific, osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis is often misdiagnosed, thus delaying definitive treatment. We present a case that to our knowledge is the first case in literature of osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis in a 17-year-old boy with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), which was initially misdiagnosed and progressed to bilateral adductor abscesses. A high suspicion of such condition should be considered in a JIA patient who presents with symphysis or thigh pain. PMID:25580335

  8. Influence of electrical stimulation on hip joint adductor muscle activity during maximum effort

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Sota; Wada, Chikamune

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether hip adductor activity was influenced by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata muscle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 nondisabled males. Each subject was asked to adduct the hip joint with maximum effort. The electromyogram of the adductor longus was recorded under two experimental conditions, with and without electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. [Results] In the presence of electrical stimulation, muscle activity decreased to 72.9% (57.8–89.3%) of that without stimulation. [Conclusion] These results suggested that inactivation of the adductor group was promoted by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. PMID:27313387

  9. Evolutionary Trends in the Jaw Adductor Mechanics of Ornithischian Dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Nabavizadeh, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Jaw mechanics in ornithischian dinosaurs have been widely studied for well over a century. Most of these studies, however, use only one or few taxa within a given ornithischian clade as a model for feeding mechanics across the entire clade. In this study, mandibular mechanical advantages among 52 ornithischian genera spanning all subclades are calculated using 2D lever arm methods. These lever arm calculations estimate the effect of jaw shape and difference in adductor muscle line of action on relative bite forces along the jaw. Results show major instances of overlap between taxa in tooth positions at which there was highest mechanical advantage. A relatively low bite force is seen across the tooth row among thyreophorans (e.g., stegosaurs and ankylosaurs), with variation among taxa. A convergent transition occurs from a more evenly distributed bite force along the jaw in basal ornithopods and basal marginocephalians to a strong distal bite force in hadrosaurids and ceratopsids, respectively. Accordingly, adductor muscle vector angles show repeated trends from a mid-range caudodorsal orientation in basal ornithischians to a decrease in vector angles indicating more caudally oriented jaw movements in derived taxa (e.g., derived thyreophorans, basal ornithopods, lambeosaurines, pachycephalosaurs, and derived ceratopsids). Analyses of hypothetical jaw morphologies were also performed, indicating that both the coronoid process and lowered jaw joint increase moment arm length therefore increasing mechanical advantage of the jaw apparatus. Adaptive trends in craniomandibular anatomy show that ornithischians evolved more complex feeding apparatuses within different clades as well as morphological convergences between clades. PMID:26692539

  10. Current concepts of inguinal-related and adductor-related groin pain.

    PubMed

    Dimitrakopoulou, Alexandra; Schilders, Ernest

    2016-05-14

    Groin pain encompasses a number of conditions from the lower abdomen, inguinal region, proximal adductors, hip joint, upper anterior thigh and perineum. The complexity of the anatomy, the heterogeneous terminology and the overlapping symptoms of different conditions that may co-exist epitomise the challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Inguinal-related and adductor-related pain is the most common cause of groin pain and will be discussed in this article. PMID:27174069

  11. Surgical management of a completely avulsed adductor longus muscle in a professional equestrian rider.

    PubMed

    Quah, Conal; Cottam, Andrew; Hutchinson, James

    2014-01-01

    Avulsion injuries of the adductor longus muscle tendon are rare and a challenge to manage especially in athletes. There has been little published literature on the outcome of conservative and operative treatment for these injuries. We report the first case of an acute adductor longus avulsion injury which was surgically repaired in a professional equestrian rider. Return to full preinjury function was achieved at 3 months with surgical repair using 3 suture anchors. PMID:24711943

  12. Arthroscopic pubic symphysis debridement and adductor enthesis repair in athletes with athletic pubalgia: technical note and video illustration.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Sascha; Tumin, Masjudin; Wilhelm, Peter; Pohlemann, Tim; Kelm, Jens

    2014-11-01

    We elaborately describe our novel arthroscopic technique of the symphysis pubis in athletes with osteitis pubis and concomitant adductor enthesopathy who fail to conservative treatment modalities. The symphysis pubis is debrided arthroscopically and the degenerated origin of adductor tendon (enthesis) is excised and reattached. With our surgical procedure the stability of the symphysis pubis is successfully preserved and the adductor longus enthesopathy simultaneously addressed in the same setting. PMID:25055756

  13. The hip adductor muscle group in caviomorph rodents: anatomy and homology.

    PubMed

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M

    2015-06-01

    Anatomical comparative studies including myological data of caviomorph rodents are relatively scarce, leading to a lack of use of muscular features in cladistic and morphofunctional analyses. In rodents, the hip adductor muscles constitute an important group of the hindlimb musculature, having an important function during the beginning of the stance phase. These muscles are subdivided in several distinct ways in the different clades of rodents, making the identification of their homologies hard to establish. In this contribution we provide a detailed description of the anatomical variation of the hip adductor muscle group of different genera of caviomorph rodents and identify the homologies of these muscles in the context of Rodentia. On this basis, we identify the characteristic pattern of the hip adductor muscles in Caviomorpha. Our results indicate that caviomorphs present a singular pattern of the hip adductor musculature that distinguishes them from other groups of rodents. They are characterized by having a single m. adductor brevis that includes solely its genicular part. This muscle, together with the m. gracilis, composes a muscular sheet that is medial to all other muscles of the hip adductor group. Both muscles probably have a synergistic action during locomotion, where the m. adductor brevis reinforces the multiple functions of the m. gracilis in caviomorphs. Mapping of analyzed myological characters in the context of Rodentia indicates that several features are recovered as potential synapomorphies of caviomorphs. Thus, analysis of the myological data described here adds to the current knowledge of caviomorph rodents from anatomical and functional points of view, indicating that this group has features that clearly differentiate them from other rodents. PMID:25911542

  14. Changes in Adductor Strength After Competition in Academy Rugby Union Players.

    PubMed

    Roe, Gregory A B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben L; Read, Dale B; Weakley, Jonathon J; Darrall-Jones, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    This study determined the magnitude of change in adductor strength after a competitive match in academy rugby union players and examined the relationship between locomotive demands of match-play and changes in postmatch adductor strength. A within-subject repeated measures design was used. Fourteen academy rugby union players (age, 17.4 ± 0.8 years; height, 182.7 ± 7.6 cm; body mass, 86.2 ± 11.6 kg) participated in the study. Each player performed 3 maximal adductor squeezes at 45° of hip flexion before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hours postmatch. Global positioning system was used to assess locomotive demands of match-play. Trivial decreases in adductor squeeze scores occurred immediately (-1.3 ± 2.5%; effect size [ES] = -0.11 ± 0.21; likely, 74%) and 24 hours after match (-0.7 ± 3%; ES = -0.06 ± 0.25; likely, 78%), whereas a small but substantial increase occurred at 48 hours (3.8 ± 1.9%; ES = 0.32 ± 0.16; likely, 89%) before reducing to trivial at 72 hours after match (3.1 ± 2.2%; ES = 0.26 ± 0.18; possibly, 72%). Large individual variation in adductor strength was observed at all time points. The relationship between changes in adductor strength and distance covered at sprinting speed (VO2max ≥ 81%) was large immediately postmatch (p = 0.056, r = -0.521), moderate at 24 hours (p = 0.094, r = -0.465), and very large at 48 hours postmatch (p = 0.005, r = -0.707). Players who cover greater distances sprinting may suffer greater adductor fatigue in the first 48 hours after competition. The assessment of adductor strength using the adductor squeeze test should be considered postmatch to identify players who may require additional rest before returning to field-based training. PMID:26815174

  15. Thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle in nutritional assessment of surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Katarina Papera; Silva, Naira Marceli Fraga; Faioli, Amanda Barcelos; Barreto, Marina Abelha; de Moraes, Rafael Araújo Guedes; Guandalini, Valdete Regina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the correlation between thickness of the muscle adductor pollicis and anthropometric measurements, body mass index and Subjective Global Assessment in the nutritional assessment of surgical patients. Methods The study population comprised patients admitted to the general and reconstructive surgery unit of a university hospital in the city of Vitória (ES), Brazil. The inclusion criteria were patients evaluated in the first 48 hours of admission, aged ≥20 years, hemodynamically stable, with no edema or ascites. Data analysis was performed using the software Statistical Package for Social Science 21.0, significance level of 5%. Results The sample consisted of 150 patients that were candidates to surgery, mean age of 42.7±12.0 years. The most common reasons for hospitalization were surgical procedures, gastrintestinal diseases and neoplasm. Significant association was observed between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and Subjective Global Assessment (p=0.021) and body mass index (p=0.008) for nutritional risk. Significant correlation was found between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and arm muscle circumference, corrected arm muscle area, calf circumference and body mass index. There were no significant correlations between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and triceps skinfold and age. Conclusion The use of thickness of adductor pollicis muscle proved to be an efficient method to detect malnutrition in surgical patients and it should be added to the screening process of hospitalized patients, since it is easy to perform, inexpensive and noninvasive. PMID:27074229

  16. Adductor pollicis jamming injuries in the professional baseball player: 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Grant G; Ruchelsman, David E; Belsky, Mark R; Graham, Thomas; Asnis, Peter; Leibman, Matthew I

    2013-06-01

    We characterize a mechanism of injury, injury pattern, and treatment algorithm for adductor pollicis myotendinous injuries in 2 professional baseball players. Similar to myotendinous eccentric injuries in other anatomical areas, the adductor pollicis sustains a sudden forceful eccentric load during a jammed swing, resulting in intramuscular strain or tendon rupture. Based on the reported injury mechanism, and magnetic resonance imaging features of these myotendinous injuries, the thumb of the top hand during a jammed swing was suddenly and forcefully eccentrically abducted from a contracted and adducted position, resulting in injury patterns. PMID:23707017

  17. Vocal Fold Paralysis: Improved Adductor Recovery by Vincristine Blockade of Posterior Cricoarytenoid

    PubMed Central

    Paniello, Randal C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS A new treatment for acute unilateral vocal fold paralysis was proposed, in which a drug is injected into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA) shortly after nerve injury, before the degree of natural recovery is known, to prevent antagonistic synkinetic reinnervation. This concept was tested in a series of canine experiments using vincristine as the blocking agent. STUDY DESIGN Animal experiments. METHODS Laryngeal adductor function was measured at baseline and at 6 months following experimental recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injuries, including complete transection, crush injury, and cautery. In the treatment animals, the PCA was injected with vincristine at the time of RLN injury. RESULTS Adductor function in the vincristine-treated hemilarynges was significantly improved compared with injury-matched noninjected controls (total n=43). Transection/repair controls recovered 56.1% of original adductor strength, vincristine-treated hemilarynges recovered to 73.1% (p=0.002). Cautery injuries also improved with vincristine block (60.7% vs 88.7%, p=0.031). Crush injuries recovered well even without vincristine (104.8% vs 111.2%, p=0.35). CONCLUSIONS These findings support a new paradigm of early, pre-emptive blockade of the antagonist muscle (PCA) to improve ultimate net adductor strength, which could potentially improve functional recovery in many UVFP patients and avoid the need for medialization procedures. Possible clinical aspects of this new approach are discussed. PMID:25267697

  18. Extraction and Identification of the Pigment in the Adductor Muscle Scar of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shixin; Hou, Xin; Wei, Lei; Li, Jian; Li, Zhonghu; Wang, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, UV (ultraviolet) and IR (infrared radiation) spectral analysis were integrated to identify the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The pigment was extracted from the adductor muscle scars of cleaned oyster shells that were pulverized, hydrolyzed in hot hydrochloric acid, purified with diethyl ether, and dissolved in 0.01 mL/L NaOH. The maximum absorption of the pigment in the UV absorption spectrum within the range of 190-500 nm was observed between 210-220 nm. The UV absorbance decreased with increasing wavelength which was consistent with the UV spectral absorption characteristics of melanin. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy scanning revealed characteristic absorption peaks that emerged near 3440 cm-1 and 1630 cm-1, which was consistent with infrared scanning features of eumelanin (a type of melanin). This study has demonstrated for the first time that the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster is melanin, hinting that the adductor muscle could be another organ pigmenting the mollusc shell with melanin other than mantle. PMID:26555720

  19. Acoustic Variations in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia as a Function of Speech Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapienza, Christine M.; Walton, Suzanne; Murry, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic phonatory events were identified in 14 women diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), a focal laryngeal dystonia that disturbs phonatory function, and compared with those of 14 age-matched women with no vocal dysfunction. Findings indicated ADSD subjects produced more aberrant acoustic events than controls during tasks of…

  20. Extraction and Identification of the Pigment in the Adductor Muscle Scar of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lei; Li, Jian; Li, Zhonghu; Wang, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, UV (ultraviolet) and IR (infrared radiation) spectral analysis were integrated to identify the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The pigment was extracted from the adductor muscle scars of cleaned oyster shells that were pulverized, hydrolyzed in hot hydrochloric acid, purified with diethyl ether, and dissolved in 0.01 mL/L NaOH. The maximum absorption of the pigment in the UV absorption spectrum within the range of 190–500 nm was observed between 210–220 nm. The UV absorbance decreased with increasing wavelength which was consistent with the UV spectral absorption characteristics of melanin. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy scanning revealed characteristic absorption peaks that emerged near 3440 cm-1 and 1630 cm-1, which was consistent with infrared scanning features of eumelanin (a type of melanin). This study has demonstrated for the first time that the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster is melanin, hinting that the adductor muscle could be another organ pigmenting the mollusc shell with melanin other than mantle. PMID:26555720

  1. Effects of ankle extensor muscle afferent inputs on hip abductor and adductor activity in the decerebrate walking cat.

    PubMed

    Bolton, D A E; Misiaszek, J E

    2012-12-01

    Electrical stimulation of the lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LGS) nerve at group I afferent strength leads to adaptations in the amplitude and timing of extensor muscle activity during walking in the decerebrate cat. Such afferent feedback in the stance leg might result from a delay in stance onset of the opposite leg. Concomitant adaptations in hip abductor and adductor activity would then be expected to maintain lateral stability and balance until the opposite leg is able to support the body. As many hip abductors and adductors are also hip extensors, we hypothesized that stimulation of the LGS nerve at group I afferent strength would produce increased activation and prolonged burst duration in hip abductor and adductor muscles in the premammillary decerebrate walking cat. LGS nerve stimulation during the extensor phase of the locomotor cycle consistently increased burst amplitude of the gluteus medius and adductor femoris muscles, but not pectineus or gracilis. In addition, LGS stimulation prolonged the burst duration of both gluteus medius and adductor femoris. Unexpectedly, long-duration LGS stimulus trains resulted in two distinct outcomes on the hip abductor and adductor bursting pattern: 1) a change of burst duration and timing similar to medial gastrocnemius; or 2) to continue rhythmically bursting uninterrupted. These results indicate that activation of muscle afferents from ankle extensors contributes to the regulation of activity of some hip abductor and adductor muscles, but not all. These results have implications for understanding the neural control of stability during locomotion, as well as the organization of spinal locomotor networks. PMID:22972967

  2. Relationship between adductor pollicis muscle thickness and subjective global assessment in a cardiac intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Karst, Fernanda Pickrodt; Vieira, Renata Monteiro; Barbiero, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To verify the relationship between the adductor pollicis muscle thickness test and the subjective global assessment and to correlate it with other anthropometric methods. Methods This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in the intensive care unit of a cardiology hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The hospitalized patients underwent subjective global assessment and adductor pollicis muscle thickness tests on both hands, along with measurement of the right calf circumference. Laboratory parameters, length of stay, vital signs and electronic medical record data and tests were all collected. Results The study population included 83 patients, of whom 62% were men. The average age was 68.6 ± 12.5 years. The most common reason for hospitalization was acute myocardial infarction (34.9%), and the most common pathology was systolic blood pressure (63.9%), followed by diabetes mellitus (28.9%). According to subjective global assessment classifications, 62.7% of patients presented no nutritional risk, 20.5% were moderately malnourished and 16.9% were severely malnourished. Women had a higher nutritional risk, according to both the subjective global assessment and the adductor pollicis muscle thickness test, the cutoff for which was < 6.5mm (54.8%; p = 0.001). The pathology presenting the greatest nutritional risk was congestive heart failure (p = 0.001). Evaluation of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between adductor pollicis muscle thickness and subjective global assessment showed the accuracy of the former, with an area of 0.822. Conclusion Adductor pollicis muscle thickness proved to be a good method for evaluating nutritional risk. PMID:26761475

  3. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut manoeuvres in compression shorts: implications for return to sport after groin injury.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Jamison, Steven T; McNally, Michael P; Pan, Xueliang; Schmitt, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention of or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large, eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography (EMG) of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut manoeuvres in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all P < 0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858

  4. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut maneuvers in compression shorts: Implications for return to sport after groin injury

    PubMed Central

    CHAUDHARI, AJIT M. W.; JAMISON, STEVEN T.; MCNALLY, MICHAEL P.; PAN, XUELIANG; SCHMITT, LAURA C.

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut maneuvers in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all p<0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858

  5. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review.

    PubMed

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  6. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review

    PubMed Central

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Summary Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  7. "Modified Adductor Sling Technique"- a surgical therapy for patellar instability in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alm, Lena; Frosch, Karl-Heinz; Preiss, Achim; Heitmann, Maximilian; Akoto, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Due to open femoral physis, the therapy of patellar instability in children and adolescents is challenging. We developed a surgical technique, modified form of the "Adductor-Sling-Technique" by Sillanpää which offers a surgical treatment to avoid damage to the femoral physis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a benefit in the clinical outcome for patients operated by the "modified Adductor Sling Technique" in comparison to patients with other surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: Twenty "modified Adductor Sling" reconstructions in 19 patients (age 11-24) were included in the study until now, 15 patients with open physis and 4 patients with closed physis with special indications. Since 2010 "modified Adductor Sling" reconstruction was performed by looping the gracilis tendon around the adductor magnus tendon and attaching it at the medial facette of the patella. Clinical outcome was retrospectively evaluated at a mean follow-up period of 1.3 years (range 0.5-3.6). The evaluation also included Lysholm Score, Kujala Score and DGU score. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM®SPSS®Statistics Version 21. A P value less than 0.5 was considered significant. Results: The average age at the time of operation was 14.9 years (range 11.2-24.3). Recurrent dislocation occurred in 4 out of 20 cases (20%). It was noticeable that out of those 4 patients 2 patients had a lateral release in addition to the "modified Adductor Sling Technique" due to lateral hyperpression. No other patients had a lateral release in our patient population. Also, out of those 4 patients 3 patients had an additional maltracking of the patella, caused by a high TTTG, severe trochlea dysplasia or additional axial deformity. The overall Kujala Score was 87 (range 46-100) points, in patients without re-dislocation it was 94 (range 46-100) points. The overall Lysholm Score was 85 (range 39-100) points, in the group without re-dislocation 90 (range

  8. Surgical treatment of the adductor longus muscle's distal tendon total rupture in a soccer player.

    PubMed

    Masionis, P; Popov, K; Kurtinaitis, J; Uvarovas, V; Porvaneckas, N

    2016-09-01

    Only a few cases of adductor longus tendon ruptures have been reported in the literature and - there are no clear criteria for conservative or surgical treatment. A case of traumatic rupture of the right distal adductor longus tendon is presented in an elite soccer player, which was surgically repaired. The condition was managed conservatively primarily. However, after 2 months, a palpable mass remained on the medial side of the thigh, and the patient had pain after moderate everyday load and insufficient strength of the right leg during physical exercise. It was decided to explore ruptured tendon surgically and reattach to the femur. Full function of the right leg was achieved at 3 months after surgical repair. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient had returned to soccer at the same level. PMID:27132783

  9. Laryngeal Adductor Function in Experimental Models of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Paniello, Randal C.; Rich, Jason T.; Debnath, Nick L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Most patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis experience some degree of spontaneous reinnervation, which depends upon the type and severity of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury. After partial recovery, the paretic vocal fold may or may not adduct adequately to allow glottic closure, which in turn affects phonatory and swallowing outcomes. This process was studied in a series of canine laryngeal nerve injury models. Study Design Animal (canine) experiments. Methods Maximum stimulable laryngeal adductor pressure (LAP) was measured pre-treatment (baseline) and at 6 months following experimental RLN injuries (total n=59). The 9 study groups were designed to simulate a range of severities of RLN injury. Results The greatest LAP recovery, at 108% of original baseline, was seen in a 50% transection model; the least recovery was seen when the RLN underwent complete transection with repair, at 56% with precise alignment and 50% with alignment reversed. Intermediate models (partial RLN injuries) gave intermediate results. Crush models recovered 105% of LAP, while a half-transection, half-crush injury recovered 72% and cautery injuries recovered 61%. Controls (complete transection without repair) had no measurable recovery. Conclusions The injured RLN has a strong tendency to recover. Restoration of adductor strength, as determined by the LAP, was predictably related to the severity of RLN injury. The model RLN injuries studied provide a range of expected outcomes that can be used for future experiments exploring interventions that may improve post-injury adductor function. PMID:25283381

  10. Neuronal Activation in the Medulla Oblongata during Selective Elicitation of the Laryngeal Adductor Response

    PubMed Central

    Ambalavanar, Ranjinidevi; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Selbie, W. Scott; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Swallow and cough are complex motor patterns elicited by rapid and intense electrical stimulation of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN). The laryngeal adductor response (LAR) includes only a laryngeal response, is elicited by single stimuli to the ISLN, and is thought to represent the brain stem pathway involved in laryngospasm. To identify which regions in the medulla are activated during elicitation of the LAR alone, single electrical stimuli were presented once every 2 s to the ISLN. Two groups of 5 cats each were studied; an experimental group with unilateral ISLN stimulation at 0.5 Hz and a surgical control group. Three additional cats were studied to evaluate whether other oral, pharyngeal or respiratory muscles were activated during ISLN stimulation eliciting LAR. We quantified up to 22 sections for each of 14 structures in the medulla to determine if regions had increased Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the experimental group. Significant increases (p <0.0033) occurred with unilateral ISLN stimulation in the interstitial subnucleus, the ventrolateral subnucleus, the commissural subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarius, the lateral tegmental field of the reticular formation, the area postrema and the nucleus ambiguus. Neither the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, usually active for swallow, nor the nucleus retroambiguus, retrofacial nucleus, or the lateral reticular nucleus, usually active for cough, were active with elicitation of the laryngeal adductor response alone. The results demonstrate that the laryngeal adductor pathway is contained within the broader pathways for cough and swallow in the medulla. PMID:15212423

  11. Adductor longus muscle metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Koca, Irfan; Ucar, Mehmet; Bozdag, Zehra; Alkan, Samet

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer most commonly spreads to the lymph nodes, lungs, bones and adrenal glands. Metastasis of bladder cancer to the skeletal muscle is extremely rare, as is the case in other malignancies. We report a case of a 62-year-old male patient who presented with pain and swelling in the right lower extremity and had difficulty walking, and who was later found to have metastasis in the adductor longus muscle 3 months after the initial diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The study also provides a review of the current literature. PMID:24827659

  12. The use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed Central

    Whurr, R; Lorch, M; Fontana, H; Brookes, G; Lees, A; Marsden, C D

    1993-01-01

    Botulinum toxin injections have been used to treat 31 patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Injections of 3.00-3.75 units of botulinum toxin were performed bilaterally into the thyroarytenoid muscle. This treatment significantly decreased the standard deviation of the fundamental frequency of the speech sample, indicating a reduction in the variability of pitch amongst patients. A total of 96% of patients' subjective diary reports showed an improvement with a median of 7 days to peak effect and a 5 week duration of peak effect. Images PMID:8505645

  13. Elbow joint adductor moment arm as an indicator of forelimb posture in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Hutchinson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Forelimb posture has been a controversial aspect of reconstructing locomotor behaviour in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods. This is partly owing to the qualitative and subjective nature of typical methods, which focus on bony articulations that are often ambiguous and unvalidated postural indicators. Here we outline a new, quantitatively based forelimb posture index that is applicable to a majority of extant tetrapods. By determining the degree of elbow joint adduction/abduction mobility in several tetrapods, the carpal flexor muscles were determined to also play a role as elbow adductors. Such adduction may play a major role during the stance phase in sprawling postures. This role is different from those of upright/sagittal and sloth-like creeping postures, which, respectively, depend more on elbow extensors and flexors. Our measurements of elbow muscle moment arms in 318 extant tetrapod skeletons (Lissamphibia, Synapsida and Reptilia: 33 major clades and 263 genera) revealed that sprawling, sagittal and creeping tetrapods, respectively, emphasize elbow adductor, extensor and flexor muscles. Furthermore, scansorial and non-scansorial taxa, respectively, emphasize flexors and extensors. Thus, forelimb postures of extinct tetrapods can be qualitatively classified based on our quantitative index. Using this method, we find that Triceratops (Ceratopsidae), Anhanguera (Pterosauria) and desmostylian mammals are categorized as upright/sagittally locomoting taxa. PMID:22357261

  14. Elbow joint adductor moment arm as an indicator of forelimb posture in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Hutchinson, John R

    2012-07-01

    Forelimb posture has been a controversial aspect of reconstructing locomotor behaviour in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods. This is partly owing to the qualitative and subjective nature of typical methods, which focus on bony articulations that are often ambiguous and unvalidated postural indicators. Here we outline a new, quantitatively based forelimb posture index that is applicable to a majority of extant tetrapods. By determining the degree of elbow joint adduction/abduction mobility in several tetrapods, the carpal flexor muscles were determined to also play a role as elbow adductors. Such adduction may play a major role during the stance phase in sprawling postures. This role is different from those of upright/sagittal and sloth-like creeping postures, which, respectively, depend more on elbow extensors and flexors. Our measurements of elbow muscle moment arms in 318 extant tetrapod skeletons (Lissamphibia, Synapsida and Reptilia: 33 major clades and 263 genera) revealed that sprawling, sagittal and creeping tetrapods, respectively, emphasize elbow adductor, extensor and flexor muscles. Furthermore, scansorial and non-scansorial taxa, respectively, emphasize flexors and extensors. Thus, forelimb postures of extinct tetrapods can be qualitatively classified based on our quantitative index. Using this method, we find that Triceratops (Ceratopsidae), Anhanguera (Pterosauria) and desmostylian mammals are categorized as upright/sagittally locomoting taxa. PMID:22357261

  15. Vocal aging and adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Response to botulinum toxin injection

    PubMed Central

    Cannito, Michael P; Kahane, Joel C; Chorna, Lesya

    2008-01-01

    Aging of the larynx is characterized by involutional changes which alter its biomechanical and neural properties and create a biological environment that is different from younger counterparts. Illustrative anatomical examples are presented. This natural, non-disease process appears to set conditions which may influence the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection and our expectations for its success. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia, a type of laryngeal dystonia, is typically treated using botulinum toxin injections of the vocal folds in order to suppress adductory muscle spasms which are disruptive to production of speech and voice. A few studies have suggested diminished response to treatment in older patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This retrospective study provides a reanalysis of existing pre-to-post treatment data as function of age. Perceptual judgments of speech produced by 42 patients with ADSD were made by two panels of professional listeners with expertise in voice or fluency of speech. Results demonstrate a markedly reduced positive response to botulinum toxin treatment in the older patients. Perceptual findings are further elucidated by means of acoustic spectrography. Literature on vocal aging is reviewed to provide a specific set of biological mechanisms that best account for the observed interaction of botulinum toxin treatment with advancing age. PMID:18488884

  16. Three dimensional digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of the extinct marsupial giant Diprotodon optatum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The morphology and arrangement of the jaw adductor muscles in vertebrates reflects masticatory style and feeding processes, diet and ecology. However, gross muscle anatomy is rarely preserved in fossils and is, therefore, heavily dependent on reconstructions. An undeformed skull of the extinct marsupial, Diprotodon optatum, recovered from Pleistocene sediments at Bacchus Marsh in Victoria, represents the most complete and best preserved specimen of the species offering a unique opportunity to investigate functional anatomy. Computed tomography (CT) scans and digital reconstructions make it possible to visualise internal cranial anatomy and predict location and morphology of soft tissues, including muscles. This study resulted in a 3D digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of Diprotodon, revealing that the arrangement of muscles is similar to that of kangaroos and that the muscle actions were predominantly vertical. 3D digital muscle reconstructions provide considerable advantages over 2D reconstructions for the visualisation of the spatial arrangement of the individual muscles and the measurement of muscle properties (length, force vectors and volume). Such digital models can further be used to estimate muscle loads and attachment sites for biomechanical analyses. PMID:25165628

  17. The Results of Adductor Magnus Tenodesis in Adolescents with Recurrent Patellar Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Malecki, Krzysztof; Fabis, Jaroslaw; Flont, Pawel; Niedzielski, Kryspin Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent dislocation of the patella is a common orthopaedic problem which occurs in about 44% of cases after first-time dislocation. In most cases of first-time patellar dislocation, the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) becomes damaged. Between 2010 and 2012, 33 children and adolescents (39 knees) with recurrent patellar dislocation were treated with MPFL reconstruction using the adductor magnus tendon. The aim of our study is to assess the effectiveness of this surgical procedure. The outcomes were evaluated functionally (Lysholm knee scale, the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale, and isokinetic examination) and radiographically (Caton index, sulcus angle, congruence angle, and patellofemoral angle). Four patients demonstrated redislocation with MPFL graft failure, despite the fact that patellar tracking was found to be normal before the injury, and the patients had not reported any symptoms. Statistically significant improvements in Lysholm and Kujala scales, in patellofemoral and congruence angle, were seen (P < 0.001). A statistically significant improvement in the peak torque of the quadriceps muscle and flexor was observed for 60°/sec and 180°/sec angular velocities (P = 0.01). Our results confirm the efficacy of MPFL reconstruction using the adductor magnus tendon in children and adolescents with recurrent patellar dislocation. PMID:25785271

  18. Temporal changes in sarcomere lesions of rat adductor longus muscles during hindlimb reloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krippendorf, B. B.; Riley, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Focal sarcomere disruptions were previously observed in adductor longus muscles of rats flown approximately two weeks aboard the Cosmos 1887 and 2044 biosatellite flights. These lesions, characterized by breakage and loss of myofilaments and Z-line streaming, resembled damage induced by unaccustomed exercise that includes eccentric contractions in which muscles lengthen as they develop tension. We hypothesized that sarcomere lesions in atrophied muscles of space flow rats were not produced in microgravity by muscle unloading but resulted from muscle reloading upon re-exposure to terrestrial gravity. To test this hypothesis, we examined temporal changes in sarcomere integrity of adductor longus muscles from rats subjected to 12.5 days of hindlimb suspension unloading and subsequent reloading by return to vivarium cages for 0, 6, 12, or 48 hours of normal weightbearing. Our ultrastructural observations suggested that muscle unloading (0 h reloading) induced myofibril misalignment associated with myofiber atrophy. Muscle reloading for 6 hours induced focal sarcomere lesions in which cross striations were abnormally widened. Such lesions were electron lucent due to extensive myofilament loss. Lesions in reloaded muscles showed rapid restructuring. By 12 hours of reloading, lesions were moderately stained foci and by 48 hours darkly stained foci in which the pattern of cross striations was indistinct at the light and electron microscopic levels. These lesions were spanned by Z-line-like electron dense filamentous material. Our findings suggest a new role for Z-line streaming in lesion restructuring: rather than an antecedent to damage, this type of Z-line streaming may be indicative of rapid, early sarcomere repair.

  19. Jaw myology and bite force of the monk parakeet (Aves, Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Carril, Julieta; Degrange, Federico J; Tambussi, Claudia P

    2015-07-01

    Psittaciform birds exhibit novelties in jaw bone structure and musculature that are associated with strong bite forces. These features include an ossified arcus suborbitalis and the muscles ethmomandibularis and pseudomasseter. We analyse the jaw musculature of the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) to enable future studies aimed at understanding craniofacial development, morphology, function and evolution. We estimate bite force based on muscle dissections, physiological cross-sectional area and skull biomechanical modelling. We also compare our results with available data for other birds and traced the evolutionary origin of the three novel diagnostic traits. Our results indicate that, in Myiopsitta, (i) the arcus suborbitalis is absent and the orbit is ventrally closed by an elongate processus orbitalis and a short ligamentum suborbitale; (ii) the ethmomandibularis muscle is a conspicuous muscle with two bellies, with its origin on the anterior portion of the septum interorbitale and insertion on the medial aspect of the mandible; (iii) the pseudomasseter muscle consists of some fibers arising from the m. adductor mandibulae externus superficialis, covering the lateral surface of the arcus jugalis and attaches by an aponeurotic sheet on the processus orbitalis; (iv) a well-developed adductor mandibulae complex is present; (v) the bite force estimation relative to body mass is higher than that calculated for other non-psittaciform species; and (vi) character evolution analysis revealed that the absence of the arcus suborbitalis and the presence of the m. pseudomassseter are the ancestral conditions, and mapping is inconclusive about presence of one or two bellies of the m. ethmomandibularis. PMID:26053435

  20. Prospective randomized comparison between ultrasound-guided saphenous nerve block within and distal to the adductor canal with low volume of local anesthetic

    PubMed Central

    Adoni, Areti; Paraskeuopoulos, Tilemachos; Saranteas, Theodosios; Sidiropoulou, Tatiana; Mastrokalos, Dimitrios; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: The anatomic site and the volume of local anesthetic needed for an ultrasound-guided saphenous nerve block differ in the literature. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of two different ultrasound-guided low volume injections of local anesthetic on saphenous and vastus medialis nerves. Materials and Methods: Recruited patients (N = 48) scheduled for orthopedic surgery were randomized in two groups; Group distal adductor canal (DAC): Ultrasound-guided injection (5 ml of local anesthetic) distal to the inferior foramina of the adductor canal. Group adductor canal (AC): Ultrasound-guided injection (5 ml local anesthetic) within the adductor canal. Following the injection of local anesthetic, block progression was monitored in 5 min intervals for 15 min in the sartorial branches of the saphenous nerve and vastus medialis nerve. Results: Twenty two patients in each group completed the study. Complete block of the saphenous nerve was observed in 55% and 59% in Group AC and DAC, respectively (P = 0.88). The proportion of patients with vastus medialis weakness at 15 min in Group AC, 36%, was significantly higher than in Group DAC (0/22), (P = 0.021). Conclusions: Low volume of local anesthetic injected within the adductor canal or distally its inferior foramina leads to moderate success rate of the saphenous nerve block, while only the injection within the adductor canal may result in vastus medialis nerve motor block. PMID:25190947

  1. Single Shot Adductor Canal Block for Postoperative Analgesia of Pediatric Patellar Dislocation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Yu; Li, Na; Xu, Yong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Postoperative analgesia for the knee surgery in children can be challenging. Meanwhile acute pain management in pediatric patients is still often undertreated due to inadequate pain assessment or management. We reported the ultrasound-guided single-injection adductor canal block (ACB) with 0.2% ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine (0.5 μg/kg) in addition in a series of 6 children. Patients’ age was range from 7 to 15 years old with right or left habitual patellar dislocation needing an open reduction and internal refixation. Pain assessments using Numeric Rating Scale scores on the operative limb were made preoperatively and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 h postoperatively at rest. Medication consumption was calculated as well. The possible complications, such as hemodynamic changes, nausea, vomiting, and dysesthesia, were also recorded at 12, 24, 36, and 48 h postoperatively at rest. The pain scores were low, and analgesic medication consumption was minimal. Meanwhile, no adverse events were recorded in any of the subject. Single-injection ACB might be an optimal analgesia strategy for patellar dislocation surgery in pediatric patients. PMID:26632911

  2. The adductor pollicis muscle: a poor predictor of clinical outcome in ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Leong Shu-Fen, Claudia; Ong, Venetia; Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Ling, Teh Ai; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Henry, Jeya

    2015-01-01

    No nutrition assessment tools specifically tailored for intensive care unit (ICU) patients have been developed and validated in Singapore. Studies conducted in Brazilian populations suggest that the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle (TAPM) may be used to assess nutritional status and predict mortality of critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to determine if TAPM can be used as a predictive indicator of mortality in Singapore ICU patients. TAPM values were obtained using skinfold calipers in 229 patients admitted to the medical ICU. TAPM measured in both hands showed no significant correlation with either the primary outcome (28-day mortality) or secondary outcomes (hospital outcome and hospital length of stay). This study demonstrated that TAPM does not predict 28-day mortality and hospital outcome, and is not correlated to length of stay in Singapore ICU patients. More studies are necessary to validate the use of TAPM as an anthropometric indicator of ICU outcome in other regions of the world. PMID:26693744

  3. Partial thyroarytenoid myectomy: an animal study investigating a proposed new treatment for adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Genack, S H; Woo, P; Colton, R H; Goyette, D

    1993-03-01

    A new surgical procedure with potential application for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia was performed on ten rabbits to assess surgical effects on laryngeal function. Using an external approach, partial unilateral thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle excision was performed through a thyroplasty cartilage window. The contralateral side was left undisturbed as a control. The animals were studied acutely and at 3 months using videolaryngoscopy. Electrophysiologic measurements were recorded at 3 months. The procedure was well tolerated by all animals, with no postoperative infection or aspiration. At 3 months, spontaneous and evoked (recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation) TA muscle electromyographic potentials were measurable bilaterally. TA compound muscle action potential amplitudes were reduced on the side of myectomy. The threshold of recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation needed to produce observable vocal fold adduction was increased on the side operated on. Perioperative and long-term (3 months) videolaryngoscopy demonstrated preservation of laryngeal competence with good true vocal cord adduction. Histologic analysis with whole organ sections showed replacement of excised muscle with loose fibroareolar tissue. No evidence of muscle regeneration was observed. The vocal ligament and vocal fold mucosa were intact and undistorted in all specimens. This procedure is technically simple and appears to effectively result in a functional yet weakened TA muscle. Because myectomy includes motor unit end-plate excision, problems associated with reinnervation may be circumvented. TA myectomy may be applicable in patients with focal laryngeal dystonia to decrease muscle spasm. PMID:8464639

  4. Medullary mediation of the laryngeal adductor reflex: A possible role in sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolu; Guo, Ruichen; Zhao, Wenjing; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2016-06-01

    The laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) is a laryngeal protective reflex. Vagal afferent polymodal sensory fibres that have cell bodies in the nodose ganglion, originate in the sub-glottal area of the larynx and upper trachea. These polymodal sensory fibres respond to mechanical or chemical stimuli. The central axons of these sensory vagal neurons terminate in the dorsolateral subnuclei of the tractus solitarius in the medulla oblongata. The LAR is a critical, reflex in the pathways that play a protective role in the process of ventilation, and the sychronisation of ventilation with other activities that are undertaken by the oropharyngeal systems including: eating, speaking and singing. Failure of the LAR to operate properly at any time after birth can lead to SIDS, pneumonia or death. Despite the critical nature of this reflex, very little is known about the central pathways and neurotransmitters involved in the management of the LAR and any disorders associated with its failure to act properly. Here, we review current knowledge concerning the medullary nuclei and neurochemicals involved in the LAR and propose a potential neural pathway that may facilitate future SIDS research. PMID:26774498

  5. Responses of Electromyogram Activity in Adductor Longus Muscle of Rats to the Altered Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Takashi; Wang, Xiao Dong; Terada, Masahiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Higo, Yoko; Nakai, Naoya; Ochiai, Toshimasa; Gyotoku, Jyunichirou; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Ogura, Akihiko; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2008-06-01

    Responses of electromyogram (EMG) activities in the rostral and caudal regions of adductor longus (AL) muscle to altered gravity levels during parabolic flight of a jet airplane, as well as hindlimb suspension, were investigated in adult rats. Tonic EMGs in both regions were noted when the rats were exposed to hyper-G, as well as 1-G. The hip joints were adducted and the sedental quadrupedal position was maintained at these G levels. However, the EMG activities in these regions decreased and became phasic, when the hip joints were abducted and extended backward in μ-G environment. Such changes of joint angles caused passive shortening of sarcomeres only in the caudal region of AL. Atrophy and shift toward fast-twitch type were noted in fibers of the caudal region after 16-day unloading. Although fiber transformation was also induced in the rostral region, no atrophy was seen in fast-twitch fibers. The data may suggest that the atrophy and shift of phenotype caused by gravitational unloading in fibers of the caudal region may be related to the decrease in the neural and mechanical activities. Fiber type transformation toward fast-twitch type may be also related to the change of muscle activity from tonic to phasic patterns, which are the typical characteristics of fast-twitch muscle. However, the responses to unloading in fibers of rostral region were not related to the reduction of mechanical load.

  6. Abnormal motor cortex excitability during linguistic tasks in adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Suppa, A; Marsili, L; Giovannelli, F; Di Stasio, F; Rocchi, L; Upadhyay, N; Ruoppolo, G; Cincotta, M; Berardelli, A

    2015-08-01

    In healthy subjects (HS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied during 'linguistic' tasks discloses excitability changes in the dominant hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). We investigated 'linguistic' task-related cortical excitability modulation in patients with adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ASD), a speech-related focal dystonia. We studied 10 ASD patients and 10 HS. Speech examination included voice cepstral analysis. We investigated the dominant/non-dominant M1 excitability at baseline, during 'linguistic' (reading aloud/silent reading/producing simple phonation) and 'non-linguistic' tasks (looking at non-letter strings/producing oral movements). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral hand muscles. We measured the cortical silent period (CSP) length and tested MEPs in HS and patients performing the 'linguistic' tasks with different voice intensities. We also examined MEPs in HS and ASD during hand-related 'action-verb' observation. Patients were studied under and not-under botulinum neurotoxin-type A (BoNT-A). In HS, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited larger MEPs during 'reading aloud' than during the other 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. Conversely, in ASD, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited increased-amplitude MEPs during 'reading aloud' and 'syllabic phonation' tasks. CSP length was shorter in ASD than in HS and remained unchanged in both groups performing 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. In HS and ASD, 'linguistic' task-related excitability changes were present regardless of the different voice intensities. During hand-related 'action-verb' observation, MEPs decreased in HS, whereas in ASD they increased. In ASD, BoNT-A improved speech, as demonstrated by cepstral analysis and restored the TMS abnormalities. ASD reflects dominant hemisphere excitability changes related to 'linguistic' tasks; BoNT-A returns these excitability changes to normal. PMID:26061279

  7. Effects of aging and levodopa on the laryngeal adductor reflex in rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xin; Xu, Zengrui; Butler, Susan G.; Leng, Iris; Zhang, Tan; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an essential role in sensorimotor function, and declines with age. Previously, we found the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) was increased in excitation by a dopamine receptor antagonist. If this airway-protective reflex is similarly affected by aging, it will interfere with volitional control in older adults. The current study tested whether the LAR was affected by aging, and whether such deficits were reversed by levodopa administration in aging rats. We recorded thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle activity at rest and during elicitation of LAR responses by stimulation of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (iSLN) in 6-, 18- and 30-month-old rats under alpha-chloralose anesthesia. Using paired stimuli at different inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs), LAR central conditioning, resting muscle activity, and reflex latency and amplitudes were quantified. Numbers of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) were measured using tyrosine hydroxylase staining. We found: (1) increased resting TA muscle activity and LAR amplitude occurred with fewer dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc in 18- and 30-month-old rats; (2) decreases in LAR latency and increases in amplitude correlated with reduced numbers of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc; (3) test responses were greater at 1000 ms ISI in 18-month-old rats compared with 6-month-old rats; and (4) levodopa administration further increased response latency but did not alter muscle activity, response amplitude, or central conditioning. In conclusion, increases in laryngeal muscle activity levels and re-flex amplitudes accompanied age reductions in dopaminergic neurons but were not reversed with levodopa administration. PMID:22824541

  8. Five myofibrillar lesion types in eccentrically challenged, unloaded rat adductor longus muscle--a test model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. L.; Balog, E. M.; Fitts, R. H.; Riley, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Sarcomere disruptions are observed in the adductor longus (AL) muscles following voluntary reloading of spaceflown and hindlimb suspension unloaded (HSU) rat, which resemble lesions in eccentrically challenged muscle. We devised and tested an eccentric contraction (ECCON) test system for the 14-day HSU rat AL. Six to 7 hours following ECCON, ALs were fixed to allow immunostaining and electron microscopy (EM). Toluidine blue-stained histology semithin sections were screened for lesion density (#/mm2). Serial semithin sections from the ECCON group were characterized for myosin immunointensity of lesions. Five myofibrillar lesion types were identified in histological semithin sections: focal contractions; wide A-bands; opaque areas; missing A-bands; and hyperstretched sarcomeres. Lesion density by type was greater for ECCON than NonECCON ALs (P< or =0.05; focal contractions and opaque regions). Lesion density (#-of-all-five-types/mm2) was significantly different (ECCON: 23.91+/-10.58 vs. NonECCON: 5.48+/-1.28, P< or =0.05; ECCON vs. SHAM: 0.00+/-0.00; P< or = 0.025). PostECCON optimal tension decreased (Poi-drop, 17.84+/-4.22%) and was correlated to lesion density (R2=0.596), but prestretch tension demonstrated the highest correlation with lesion density (R2=0.994). In lesions, the darkly staining A-band lost the normally organized thick filament alignment to differing degrees across the different lesion types. Ranking the five lesion types by a measure of lesion length deformation (hypercontracted to hyperstretched) at the light microscopy level, related to the severity of thick filament registry loss across the lesion types at the electron microscopic level. This ranking suggested that the five lesion types seen in semithin sections at the light level represented a lesion progression sequence and paralleled myosin immunostaining loss as the distorted A-band filaments spread across the hyperlengthening lesion types. Lesion ultrastructure indicated damage involved

  9. Analysis of adductors angle measurement in Hammersmith infant neurological examinations using mean shift segmentation and feature point based object tracking.

    PubMed

    Dogra, D P; Majumdar, A K; Sural, S; Mukherjee, J; Mukherjee, S; Singh, A

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents image and video analysis based schemes to automate the process of adductors angle measurement which is carried out on infants as a part of Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). Image segmentation, thinning and feature point based object tracking are used for automating the analysis. Segmentation outputs are processed with a novel region merging algorithm. It is found that the refined segmentation outputs can successfully be used to extract features in the context of the application under consideration. Next, a heuristic based filtering algorithm is applied on the thinned structures for locating necessary points to measure adductors angle. A semi-automatic scheme based on the object tracking of a video has been proposed to minimize errors of the image based analysis. It is observed that the video-based analysis outperforms the image-based method. A fully automatic method has also been proposed and compared with the semi-automatic algorithm. The proposed methods have been tested with several videos recorded from hospitals and the results have been found to be satisfactory in the present context. PMID:22841364

  10. Intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer for geriatric and stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori; Kawaguchi, Saori; Uemura, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the appropriate number of measurements and the intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer (HHD) for geriatric and stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 inpatients, who were divided into two groups: 20 stroke patients in the stroke group (SG), and 20 geriatric patients in the no-stroke group (N-SG). Measurements were performed three times using an HHD with a belt. The reliability was verified using Bland-Altman analysis and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). [Results] ICC (1, 1) was >0.9. A systematic bias was not observed between the first and second measurement values except for the right side in N-SG. A systematic bias between the maximum value obtained during the first and second measurements and third measurement value was observed on the left side in N-SG, and on the non-paralyzed side in SG: the third measurement values were small in both cases. [Conclusion] Intrarater reliabilities were high for shoulder horizontal adductor strength measurements using an HHD with a belt for geriatric and stroke patients. Taking the systematic bias into consideration, these findings suggest that the required number of measurements is two. PMID:26957727

  11. Comparison of catheter tip migration using flexible and stimulating catheters inserted into the adductor canal in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Webb, Christopher A J; Kim, T Edward; Funck, Natasha; Howard, Steven K; Harrison, T Kyle; Ganaway, Toni; Keng, Heidi; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-06-01

    Use of adductor canal blocks and catheters for perioperative pain management following total knee arthroplasty is becoming increasingly common. However, the optimal equipment, timing of catheter insertion, and catheter dislodgement rate remain unknown. A previous study has suggested, but not proven, that non-tunneled stimulating catheters may be at increased risk for catheter migration and dislodgement after knee manipulation. We designed this follow-up study to directly compare tip migration of two catheter types after knee range of motion exercises. In a male unembalmed human cadaver, 30 catheter insertion trials were randomly assigned to one of two catheter types: flexible or stimulating. All catheters were inserted using an ultrasound-guided short-axis in-plane technique. Intraoperative knee manipulation similar to that performed during surgery was simulated by five sequential range of motion exercises. A blinded regional anesthesiologist performed caliper measurements on the ultrasound images before and after exercise. Changes in catheter tip to nerve distance (p = 0.547) and catheter length within the adductor canal (p = 0.498) were not different between groups. Therefore, catheter type may not affect the risk of catheter tip migration when placed prior to knee arthroplasty. PMID:25510467

  12. Adductor Canal Block for Postoperative Pain Treatment after Revision Knee Arthroplasty: A Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J.; Schrøder, Henrik M.; Mathiesen, Ole; Henningsen, Maria H.; Lund, Jørgen; Jenstrup, Morten T.; Dahl, Jørgen B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Revision knee arthroplasty is assumed to be even more painful than primary knee arthroplasty and predominantly performed in chronic pain patients, which challenges postoperative pain treatment. We hypothesized that the adductor canal block, effective for pain relief after primary total knee arthroplasty, may reduce pain during knee flexion (primary endpoint: at 4 h) compared with placebo after revision total knee arthroplasty. Secondary endpoints were pain at rest, morphine consumption and morphine-related side effects. Methods We included patients scheduled for revision knee arthroplasty in general anesthesia into this blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Patients were allocated to an adductor canal block via a catheter with either ropivacaine or placebo; bolus of 0.75% ropivacaine/saline, followed by infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine/saline. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT01191593. Results We enrolled 36 patients, of which 30 were analyzed. Mean pain scores during knee flexion at 4 h (primary endpoint) were: 52±22 versus 71±25 mm (mean difference 19, 95% CI: 1 to 37, P = 0.04), ropivacaine and placebo group respectively. When calculated as area under the curve (1–8 h/7 h) pain scores were 55±21 versus 69±21 mm during knee flexion (P = 0.11) and 39±18 versus 45±23 mm at rest (P = 0.43), ropivacaine and placebo group respectively. Groups were similar regarding morphine consumption and morphine-related side effects (P>0.05). Conclusions The only statistically significant difference found between groups was in the primary endpoint: pain during knee flexion at 4 h. However, due to a larger than anticipated dropout rate and heterogeneous study population, the study was underpowered. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01191593 PMID:25386752

  13. Potential use of fatty acid profiles of the adductor muscle of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) for traceability of collection site

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Moreira, Ana S. P.; Rey, Felisa; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Rosário Domingues, M.; Domingues, Pedro; Costa Leal, Miguel; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Geographic traceability of seafood is key for controlling its quality and safeguarding consumers’ interest. The present study assessed if the fatty acid (FA) profile of the adductor muscle (AM) of fresh cockles (Cerastoderma edule) can be used to discriminate the origin of specimens collected in different bivalve capture/production areas legally defined within a coastal lagoon. Results suggest that this biochemical approach holds the potential to trace sampling locations with a spatial resolution <10 Km, even for areas with identical classification for bivalve production. Cockles further away from the inlet, i.e. in areas exposed to a higher saline variation, exhibited lower levels of saturated fatty acids, which are key for stabilizing the bilayer structure of cell membranes, and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which enhance bilayer fluidity. Results suggest that the structural nature of the lipids present in the AM provides a stable fatty acid signature and holds potential for tracing the origin of bivalves to their capture/production areas. PMID:26084395

  14. Potential use of fatty acid profiles of the adductor muscle of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) for traceability of collection site.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Moreira, Ana S P; Rey, Felisa; Coimbra, Manuel A; Rosário Domingues, M; Domingues, Pedro; Costa Leal, Miguel; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Geographic traceability of seafood is key for controlling its quality and safeguarding consumers' interest. The present study assessed if the fatty acid (FA) profile of the adductor muscle (AM) of fresh cockles (Cerastoderma edule) can be used to discriminate the origin of specimens collected in different bivalve capture/production areas legally defined within a coastal lagoon. Results suggest that this biochemical approach holds the potential to trace sampling locations with a spatial resolution <10 Km, even for areas with identical classification for bivalve production. Cockles further away from the inlet, i.e. in areas exposed to a higher saline variation, exhibited lower levels of saturated fatty acids, which are key for stabilizing the bilayer structure of cell membranes, and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which enhance bilayer fluidity. Results suggest that the structural nature of the lipids present in the AM provides a stable fatty acid signature and holds potential for tracing the origin of bivalves to their capture/production areas. PMID:26084395

  15. Resisted adduction in hip neutral is a superior provocation test to assess adductor longus pain: An experimental pain study.

    PubMed

    Drew, M K; Palsson, T S; Izumi, M; Hirata, R P; Lovell, G; Chiarelli, P; Osmotherly, P G; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2016-08-01

    The criterion of long-standing groin pain diagnoses in athletes usually relies on palpation and clinical tests. An experimental pain model was developed to examine the clinical tests under standardized conditions. Pain was induced by hypertonic saline injected into the proximal adductor longus (AL) tendon or rectus femoris (RF) tendon in 15 healthy male participants. Isotonic saline was injected contralaterally as a control. Pain intensity was assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS). Resisted hip adduction at three different angles and trunk flexion were completed before, during, and after injections. Pain provocation in the presence of experimental pain was recorded as a true positive compared with pain provocation in the non-pain conditions. Similar peak VAS scores were found after hypertonic saline injections into the AL and RF and both induced higher VAS scores than isotonic saline (P < 0.01). Adduction at 0° had the greatest positive likelihood ratio (+LR = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.09-7.32) with 45° (-LR = 0.0, 95%CI: 0.00-1.90) and 90° (-LR = 0.0, 95%CI: 0.00-0.94) having the lowest negative LR. This study indicates that the 0° hip adduction test resisted at the ankles optimizes the diagnostic procedure without compromising diagnostic capacity to identify experimental groin pain. Validation in clinical populations is warranted. PMID:26247618

  16. Aggressive Lymphoma "Sarcoma Mimicker" Originating in the Gluteus and Adductor Muscles: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Elkourashy, Sarah A; Nashwan, Abdulqadir J; Alam, Syed I; Ammar, Adham A; El Sayed, Ahmed M; Omri, Halima El; Yassin, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal lymphoma (ENL) occurs in approximately 30%-40% of all patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and has been described in almost all organs and tissues. However, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common histological subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primarily arising in the retroperitoneal region. In this article, we report a rare case of an adult male diagnosed with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the gluteal and adductor muscles with aggressive bone involvement. All appropriate radiological and histopathological studies were done for diagnosis and staging. After discussion with the lymphoma multidisciplinary team, it was agreed to start on R-CHOP protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine (Oncovin®), and prednisone) as the standard of care, which was later changed to R-CODOX-M/R-IVAC protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin®), doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate alternating with rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine) due to inadequate response. Due to the refractory aggressive nature of the disease, subsequent decision of the multidisciplinary team was salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. The aim of this case report was to describe and evaluate the clinical presentation and important radiological features of extranodal lymphoma affecting the musculoskeletal system. PMID:27398038

  17. Lower values of handgrip strength and adductor pollicis muscle thickness are associated with hepatic encephalopathy manifestations in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Augusti, L; Franzoni, L C; Santos, L A A; Lima, T B; Ietsugu, M V; Koga, K H; Moriguchi, S M; Betting, L E; Caramori, C A; Silva, G F; Romeiro, F G

    2016-08-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a late complication of liver cirrhosis and is clearly associated with poor outcomes. Chronic liver insufficiency leads to progressive muscle wasting, impairing ammonia metabolism and thus increasing the risk for HE. Given the association between lean mass and adductor pollicis muscle thickness (APMT), it has been used to predict outcome and complications in many conditions, but not yet in cirrhotic patients. Therefore, this article aimed to study the association between HE manifestations and measures related to muscle mass and strength. This cross-sectional study included 54 cirrhotic outpatients with HE varying from subclinical to grade II according to the West-Haven criteria, who were submitted to neuropsychometric tests, electroencephalogram, brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), anthropometric measurements, handgrip strength (HGS) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry exam (DXA). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between body composition measures and HE grade. Analysis of the area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) curve revealed the values related to neurological manifestations (HE grades I and II). Reductions in APMT and HGS were associated with higher HE grades, suggesting a big impact caused by the loss of muscle mass and function on HE severity. The link between HE manifestations and anthropometric measures, namely APMT and HGS, point to a significant relation concerning skeletal muscles and the neurological impairment in this population. PMID:27131802

  18. Aggressive Lymphoma “Sarcoma Mimicker” Originating in the Gluteus and Adductor Muscles: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Elkourashy, Sarah A.; Nashwan, Abdulqadir J.; Alam, Syed I.; Ammar, Adham A.; El Sayed, Ahmed M.; Omri, Halima El; Yassin, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal lymphoma (ENL) occurs in approximately 30%–40% of all patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and has been described in almost all organs and tissues. However, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common histological subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primarily arising in the retroperitoneal region. In this article, we report a rare case of an adult male diagnosed with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the gluteal and adductor muscles with aggressive bone involvement. All appropriate radiological and histopathological studies were done for diagnosis and staging. After discussion with the lymphoma multidisciplinary team, it was agreed to start on R-CHOP protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine (Oncovin®), and prednisone) as the standard of care, which was later changed to R-CODOX-M/R-IVAC protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin®), doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate alternating with rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine) due to inadequate response. Due to the refractory aggressive nature of the disease, subsequent decision of the multidisciplinary team was salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. The aim of this case report was to describe and evaluate the clinical presentation and important radiological features of extranodal lymphoma affecting the musculoskeletal system. PMID:27398038

  19. Effects of free oxygen radicals on Ca2+ release mechanisms in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of scallop (Pecten jacobaeus) adductor muscle.

    PubMed

    Burlando, B; Viarengo, A; Pertica, M; Ponzano, E; Orunesu, M

    1997-08-01

    In vitro oxyradical effects on SR Ca2+ regulation were studied by using a SR-containing cell-free preparation from scallop (Pecten jacobaeus) adductor muscle. Ca2+ variations were fluorimetrically detected after incubation with Fluo-3 in the presence of ATP. Exposure to Fe3+/ascorbate produced dose-dependent Ca2+ release from SR vesicles, eventually leading to massive Ca2+ loss. Exposure to hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase also caused Ca2+ release but at a much slower rate. Pre-incubations with catalase or with the hydroxyl radical scavenger KMBA led to a significant decrease in the Fe3+/ascorbate-induced Ca2+ release rate and to a delay of massive Ca2+ loss. Pre-incubations with GSH or DTT strongly reduced the Ca2+ release caused by Fe3+/ascorbate and, moreover, they prevented massive Ca2+ loss from SR vesicles. Addition of GSH or DTT after Fe3+/ascorbate promptly reduced the Ca2+ release rate and delayed massive Ca2+ release. Pre-incubation with the SR Ca2+ channel blocker ruthenium red strongly reduced the Ca2+ release caused by Fe3+/ascorbate, and also prevented massive Ca2+ loss. In the presence of ruthenium red, Fe3+/ascorbate treatments followed by Ca2+ addition revealed that Ca2+ uptake inhibition was slower than Ca2+ release. Taken together, data showed that free radicals and, in particular, hydroxyl radicals, affected the scallop SR Ca2+ regulation. This mainly occurred through Ca2+ channel opening, most likely triggered by sulfhydryl oxidation, which eventually led to massive Ca2+ release from SR vesicles. The demonstration of a specific effect of oxyradicals on SR Ca2+ channels is in line with their possible involvement in cell signaling. PMID:9292226

  20. Real-time ultrasound-guided comparison of adductor canal block and psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block in laparoscopic knee surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Messeha, Medhat M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lumbar plexus block, combined with a sciatic nerve block, is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the lower extremity. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results outcome of the adductor canal block versus the psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block using real time ultrasound guidance in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries. Patients and Methods: Ninety patients who were undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries were randomly allocated to receive a sciatic nerve block in addition to lumbar plexus block using either an adductor canal block (ACB) or a posterior psoas compartment approach (PCB) using 25 ml of bupivacine 0.5% with adrenaline 1:400,000 injection over 2-3 minutes while observing the distribution of the local anesthetic in real time. Successful nerve block was defined as a complete loss of pinprick sensation in the region that is supplied by the three nerves along with adequate motor block, 30 minutes after injection. The degree of motor block was evaluated 30 minutes after the block procedure. The results of the present study showed that the real time ultrasound guidance of PCB is more effective than ACB approach. Although the sensory blockade of the femoral nerve achieved equally by both techniques, the LFC and OBT nerves were faster and more effectively blocked with PCB technique. Also PCB group showed significant complete sensory block without need for general anesthesia, significant decrease in the post-operative VAS and significant increase time of first analgesic requirement as compared to the ACB group. Result and Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that blockade of lumber plexus by psoas compartment block is more effective in complete sensory block without general anesthesia supplementation in addition to decrease post-operative analgesic requirement than adductor canal block. PMID:27212766

  1. NMR-Based Metabolomic Investigations on the Differential Responses in Adductor Muscles from Two Pedigrees of Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Cadmium and Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Yu, Junbao

    2011-01-01

    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important economic species in shellfishery in China due to its wide geographic distribution and high tolerance to environmental changes (e.g., salinity, temperature). In addition, Manila clam is a good biomonitor/bioindicator in “Mussel Watch Programs” and marine environmental toxicology. However, there are several pedigrees of R. philippinarum distributed in the marine environment in China. No attention has been paid to the biological differences between various pedigrees of Manila clams, which may introduce undesirable biological variation in toxicology studies. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to detect the biological differences in two main pedigrees (White and Zebra) of R. philippinarum and their differential responses to heavy metal exposures (Cadmium and Zinc) using adductor muscle as a target tissue to define one sensitive pedigree of R. philippinarum as biomonitor for heavy metals. Our results indicated that there were significant metabolic differences in adductor muscle tissues between White and Zebra clams, including higher levels of alanine, glutamine, hypotaurine, phosphocholine and homarine in White clam muscles and higher levels of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine), succinate and 4-aminobutyrate in Zebra clam muscles, respectively. Differential metabolic responses to heavy metals between White and Zebra clams were also found. Overall, we concluded that White pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator/biomonitor in marine toxicology studies and for marine heavy metals based on the relatively high sensitivity to heavy metals. PMID:22131959

  2. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352. PMID:27374014

  3. [Bilateral diabetic infarction of the thigh adductor muscles in a diabetic female patient-- A case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Satoh, A; Watanabe, M; Ohkoshi, N; Tamaoka, A; Shoji, S

    1999-01-01

    A 30-year-old female complained of lancinating pain in the bilateral thighs for 10 days. The patient had a 22-year history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Physical examination revealed swelling of the bilateral lower extremities. There was exquisite tenderness on palpation over the medial thighs, with marked increase in pain on hip and knee flexion. Muscle strength of quadriceps, hamstrings, and hip adductor was decreased due to muscle pain. Pedal pulses were palpable bilaterally. Roentogenograms of the left femur revealed calcification of the left femoral arterial wall. Venogram revealed no obstruction with normal drainage. Complete blood cell count showed left shift of the neutrophils, markedly accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, prolonged prothorombin time of 9 sec (normal 11.7 sec), C-reactive protein of 7.3 mg/dl and serum creatine kinase level of 175 IU/L. FBS was 225 mg/dl and Hb A 1 c was 16.4%. An MR imaging of the thighs revealed high signal intensities in the bilateral adductor muscles on T 2-weighted images. The symptoms resolved spontaneously over a three week period. From the course of the illness and MR imaging, the patient was diagnosed having diabetic muscle infarction (DMI), a rare complication of diabetes mellitus. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of DMI in Japan. Diabetic microangiopathy and hypercoagulability are thought to be responsible for inducing DMI. Because the diagnosis can be made from the characteristic clinical and the typical MR imaging findings, muscle biopsy is not always necessary to obtain the diagnosis of DMI. PMID:10391074

  4. Femoral nerve block versus adductor canal block for postoperative pain control after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A randomized controlled double blind study

    PubMed Central

    El Ahl, Mohamed Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the postoperative pain control using adductor canal block (ACB) compared that using the femoral nerve block (FNB) in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLR). Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty-eight patients who had been scheduled to patellar graft ACLR were included in this double blind study, and were randomly allocated into two groups; group ACB and group FNB (64 patients each). All patients received general anesthesia. At the end of the surgery, patients in group FNB received a FNB and those in group ACB received an ACB. The postoperative pain (visual analog scale [VAS]) and muscle weakness were assessed in the postoperative care unit and every 6 h thereafter for 24 h. The total morphine requirements were also recorded. Results: Patients in group ACB had significantly higher VAS (at 18 h and 24 h), higher morphine consumption, but significantly less quadriceps weakness than those in group FNB. Conclusion: In patients with patellar graft ACLR, the ACB can maintain a higher quadriceps power, but with lesser analgesia compared with the FNB. PMID:26240546

  5. Effects of spaceflight in the adductor longus muscle of rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. A study employing neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and conventional morphological techniques (light and electron microscopy)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Daunton, N. G.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the "slow" muscle adductor longus were examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leukocytes and mononuclear cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity (N-CAM-IR) was seen on the myofiber surface and in regenerating myofibers. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with apparent preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles replaced by microtubules and neurofilaments, degeneration of axon terminals, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. The present observations suggest that alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  6. The hyal and ventral branchial muscles in caecilian and salamander larvae: homologies and evolution.

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    Amphibians (Lissamphibia) are characterized by a bi-phasic life-cycle that comprises an aquatic larval stage and metamorphosis to the adult. The ancestral aquatic feeding behavior of amphibian larvae is suction feeding. The negative pressure that is needed for ingestion of prey is created by depression of the hyobranchial apparatus as a result of hyobranchial muscle action. Understanding the homologies of hyobranchial muscles in amphibian larvae is a crucial step in understanding the evolution of this important character complex. However, the literature mostly focuses on the adult musculature and terms used for hyal and ventral branchial muscles in different amphibians often do not reflect homologies across lissamphibian orders. Here we describe the hyal and ventral branchial musculature in larvae of caecilians (Gymnophiona) and salamanders (Caudata), including juveniles of two permanently aquatic salamander species. Based on previous alternative terminology schemes, we propose a terminology for the hyal and ventral branchial muscles that reflects the homologies of muscles and that is suited for studies on hyobranchial muscle evolution in amphibians. We present a discussion of the hyal and ventral branchial muscles in larvae of the most recent common ancestor of amphibians (i.e. the ground plan of Lissamphibia). Based on our terminology, the hyal and ventral branchial musculature of caecilians and salamanders comprises the following muscles: m. depressor mandibulae, m. depressor mandibulae posterior, m. hyomandibularis, m. branchiohyoideus externus, m. interhyoideus, m. interhyoideus posterior, m. subarcualis rectus I, m. subarcualis obliquus II, m. subarcualis obliquus III, m. subarcualis rectus II-IV, and m. transversus ventralis IV. Except for the m. branchiohyoideus externus, all muscles considered herein can be assigned to the ground plan of the Lissamphibia with certainty. The m. branchiohyoideus externus is either apomorphic for the Batrachia (frogs

  7. Evolutionary patterns of shape and functional diversification in the skull and jaw musculature of triggerfishes (Teleostei: Balistidae).

    PubMed

    McCord, Charlene L; Westneat, Mark W

    2016-06-01

    The robust skull and highly subdivided adductor mandibulae muscles of triggerfishes provide an excellent system within which to analyze the evolutionary processes underlying phenotypic diversification. We surveyed the anatomical diversity of balistid jaws using Procrustes-based geometric morphometric analyses and a phylomorphospace approach to quantifying morphological transformation through evolution. We hypothesized that metrics of interspecific cranial shape would reveal patterns of phylogenetic diversification that are congruent with functional and ecological transformation. Morphological landmarks outlining skull and adductor mandibulae muscle shape were collected from 27 triggerfish species. Procrustes-transformed skull shape configurations revealed significant phylogenetic and size-influenced structure. Phylomorphospace plots of cranial shape diversity reveal groupings of shape between different species of triggerfish that are mostly consistent with phylogenetic relatedness. Repeated instances of convergence upon similar cranial shape by genetically disparate taxa are likely due to the functional demands of shared specialized dietary habits. This study shows that the diversification of triggerfish skulls occurs via modifications of cranial silhouette and the positioning of subdivided jaw adductor muscles. Using the morphometric data collected here as input to a biomechanical model of triggerfish jaw function, we find that subdivided jaw adductors, in conjunction with a unique cranial skeleton, have direct biomechanical consequences that are not always congruent with phylomorphospace patterns in the triggerfish lineage. The integration of geometric morphometrics with biomechanical modeling in a phylogenetic context provides novel insight into the evolutionary patterns and ecological role of muscle subdivisions in triggerfishes. J. Morphol. 277:737-752, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26997352

  8. [Spasm of the adductor muscles, pre-dislocations and dislocations of the hip joints in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Clinical observations on aetiology, pathogenesis, therapy and rehabilitation. Part II. The importance of the iliopsoas tendon, its tenotomy, of the coxa valga antetorta, and correction through osteotomy turning the hip into varus (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fettweis, E

    1979-02-01

    The following factors besides spasm and contraction of the adductor muscles contribute to the occurrence of dislocations of the hip in spastic paralysis: Spasm and contraction of the iliopsoas muscle and enhanced valgus position and antetorsion. The author holds the opinion that in case of malformation of the proximal end of the femur, it is not only the indirect action of the spastic musculature via the proximal femur-epiphyseal cartilage which is responsible for this phenomen in accordance with the law on functional adaption through longitudinal growth (Pauwels), but also the direct traction of the iliopsoas tendon. A clue in this direction is the often very pronounced elongation or enlargement of the trochanter minor. The author demonstrates the pathogenetic importance of iliopsoas contracture and malpositioning of the neck of the femur by means of analyses of the course in two patients. The following principles of treatment are postulated for spastic dislocation of the hip: Elimination of the pathogenetic factors through myotenotomy of the adductor muscles and complete resection of the obturator nerve, with observation of strict aftertreatment criteria, tenotomy of the iliopsoas, repositioning and osteotomy with turning into varus. Osteotomy without previous elimination of the pathogenetically acting muscular forces does not appear useful. Likewise, permanent re-positioning by means of muscle-relaxing operation cannot be sufficiently safe-guarded without additional osteotomy once the dislocation has taken place. In twelve patients with spastic dislocation of the hip, treated in accordance with these guidelines (two without osteotomy) aged 6 6/12 and 19 5/12 years, a roentgenologically good result was obtained in half of the cases, whereas the functional result was satisfactory not only with these patients but also with part of the other patients. If surgical treatment is instituted early enough, and if the experiences described here are taken into consideration

  9. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 1; A Study Employing Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules (N-CAM) Immunocytochemistry and Conventional Morphological Techniques (Light and Electron Microscopy)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, N. G.; DAmelio, F.; Wu, L.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Krasnov, I. B.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the 'slow' muscle adductor longus was examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. Three groups - synchronous, vivarium and basal served as controls. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, N-CAM immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy, contraction bands and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leucocytes and mononuclear cells. N-CAM immunoreactivity was seen (N-CAM-IR) on the myofiber surface, satellite cells and in regenerating myofibers reminiscent of myotubes. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments that displayed varied distributive patterns. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions consisted of a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degeneration of axon terminals, increased number of microtubules, vacant axonal spaces and axonal sprouting. The present observations indicate that major alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  10. Development of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles in the zebrafish: homologies and evolution of these muscles within bony fishes and tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Rui; Hinits, Yaniv; Hughes, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Background During vertebrate head evolution, muscle changes accompanied radical modification of the skeleton. Recent studies have suggested that muscles and their innervation evolve less rapidly than cartilage. The freshwater teleostean zebrafish (Danio rerio) is the most studied actinopterygian model organism, and is sometimes taken to represent osteichthyans as a whole, which include bony fishes and tetrapods. Most work concerning zebrafish cranial muscles has focused on larval stages. We set out to describe the later development of zebrafish head muscles and compare muscle homologies across the Osteichthyes. Results We describe one new muscle and show that the number of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles found in four day-old zebrafish larvae is similar to that found in the adult. However, the overall configuration and/or the number of divisions of these muscles change during development. For example, the undivided adductor mandibulae of early larvae gives rise to the adductor mandibulae sections A0, A1-OST, A2 and Aω, and the protractor hyoideus becomes divided into dorsal and ventral portions in adults. There is not always a correspondence between the ontogeny of these muscles in the zebrafish and their evolution within the Osteichthyes. All of the 13 mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles present in the adult zebrafish are found in at least some other living teleosts, and all except the protractor hyoideus are found in at least some extant non-teleost actinopterygians. Of these muscles, about a quarter (intermandibularis anterior, adductor mandibulae, sternohyoideus) are found in at least some living tetrapods, and a further quarter (levator arcus palatini, adductor arcus palatini, adductor operculi) in at least some extant sarcopterygian fish. Conclusion Although the zebrafish occupies a rather derived phylogenetic position within actinopterygians and even within teleosts, with respect to the mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles it

  11. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1989-12-15

    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  12. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Relationships between acoustic indices and perceptual judgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannito, Michael P.; Sapienza, Christine M.; Woodson, Gayle; Murry, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated relationships between acoustical indices of spasmodic dysphonia and perceptual scaling judgments of voice attributes made by expert listeners. Audio-recordings of The Rainbow Passage were obtained from thirty one speakers with spasmodic dysphonia before and after a BOTOX injection of the vocal folds. Six temporal acoustic measures were obtained across 15 words excerpted from each reading sample, including both frequency of occurrence and percent time for (1) aperiodic phonation, (2) phonation breaks, and (3) fundamental frequency shifts. Visual analog scaling judgments were also obtained from six voice experts using an interactive computer interface to quantify four voice attributes (i.e., overall quality, roughness, brokenness, breathiness) in a carefully psychoacoustically controlled environment, using the same reading passages as stimuli. Number and percent aperiodicity and phonation breaks correlated significanly with perceived overall voice quality, roughness, and brokenness before and after the BOTOX injection. Breathiness was correlated with aperidocity only prior to injection, while roughness also correlated with frequency shifts following injection. Factor analysis reduced perceived attributes to two principal components: glottal squeezing and breathiness. The acoustic measures demonstrated a strong regression relationship with perceived glottal squeezing, but no regression relationship with breathiness was observed. Implications for an analysis of pathologic voices will be discussed.

  13. RESULTS OF ADDUCTORS MUSCLE TENOTOMY IN SPASTIC CEREBRAL PALSY

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmetti, Luiz Gabriel Betoni; Santos, Ruy Mesquita Maranhao; Mendonça, Rodrigo Góes Medea de; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Assumpçao, Rodrigo Montezuma César de; Fucs, Patricia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Radiographic evaluation of the evolution of hips that underwent soft-tissue release. Methods: This was a retrospective evaluation on 101 spastic cerebral palsy patients who underwent soft-tissue release between 1991 and 2006. Forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria: 23 boys and 21 girls; 34 diparetic and 10 quadriparetic. Functionally, 29 were non-walkers, five were able to walk at home and 10 were able to walk within the community. Reimers' index (RI) and the acetabular index (AI) were measured on pre and postoperative radiographs, with a minimum follow-up of three years. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.4 years. Results: The results were considered good if the RI had reduced, or had increased by less than 10%. This was found in 52% of this study. We observed a clear improvement in IR, along with worse results in patients with more than five years of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion: Soft-tissue release should be performed as early as possible, regardless of age, walking condition, clinical type, RI, AI or sex, and as soon as the patient clinically presents less than 30° abduction, because of the benefits relating to walking, prevention and treatment of subluxation, hygiene and pain relief. PMID:27022574

  14. Cranial musculature in the larva of the caecilian, Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Within the Gymnophiona (caecilians) oviparous species with biphasic life-cycles possess a free living semi-aquatic larval stage that feeds in aquatic habitats. The larvae pass through a metamorphosis to a purely terrestrial adult stage. It is likely that the cranial morphology of caecilian larvae has specializations for aquatic feeding. However, little is known about the cranial morphology, and the cranial musculature is especially neglected in the literature. This study provides a detailed description of the jaw and hyobranchial musculature in larval stages of a caecilian. We studied late embryonic and early larval specimens of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis. Furthermore, we compared and homologized the cranial muscles found in larval I. kohtaoensis with the muscles described for adult caecilians. Most cranial muscles of larval I. kohtaoensis are also present in the adult, except for the m. levator mandibulae externus and the m. subarcualis obliquus II. Our results were compared with the data available for larval frogs and salamanders in order to hypothesize the cranial musculature in the larva of the most recent common ancestor of the Lissamphibia. Larval caecilians, frog tadpoles, and salamander larvae share many characters in their cranial musculature, which, consequently, can be assigned to the lissamphibian ground pattern. However, the m. pterygoideus and the m. levator quadrati are unique to the Gymnophiona. PMID:17154285

  15. Bottom Feeding and Beyond: How the Premaxillary Protrusion of Cypriniforms Allowed for a Novel Kind of Suction Feeding.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, L Patricia; Staab, Katie Lynn

    2015-07-01

    While much of the functional work on suction feeding has involved members of Acanthopterygii, an earlier cypriniform radiation led to over 3200 species filling nearly every freshwater trophic niche. Within the great majority of acanthomorph clades that have been investigated suction feeding and the underlying morphology responsible for the generation of rapid suction have been largely conserved. This conserved feeding-apparatus is often associated with increasing the force experienced by the prey item, thus making a strike on elusive prey more effective. Cypriniforms' trophic anatomy is comprised of a number of novelties used for benthic feeding, which characterized early members of this clade. The modified cypriniform structure of the oral jaws represents a situation in which a particular type of suction feeding allowed for probing the benthos with a more functionally maneuverable anatomy. Requisite evolutionary modifications included origin and elongation of a median kinethmoid, duplications of certain divisions of the muscles of the adductor mandibulae, and origin of a dorsal, intra-buccal muscular palatal organ used in winnowing detritus. The elongated kinethmoid (coupled with modified adductor muscles) allowed for a type of premaxillary protrusion that decoupled the upper and lower jaws, enabled premaxillary protrusions with a closed mouth, and facilitated benthic feeding by increasing functional flexibility. The resultant flow of fluid generated by cypriniforms is also quite flexible, with multiple instances of peak flow in a single feeding event. This greatly modified morphology allowed for a degree of kinematic maneuverability not seen within most acanthomorphs. Later cypriniform radiations into piscivorous, insectivorous, or planktivorous feeding guilds were associated with shortening of the kinethmoid and with simplified morphology of the adductor, likely involving an emphasis on ram feeding. Although this suite of morphological novelties seemingly

  16. Extensive ameloblastic fibroma of the mandibula in a female adult patient: A case report with a follow-up of 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Hatipoglu, Mukerrem; Aytekin, Zeliha; Gurer, Elif Inanc

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is rare benign odontogenic tumour which usually occurs in the first two decades of life. It can occur either the mandible or maxilla but it is most frequently found in the posterior region of the mandible. Treatment of AF in usual is a conservative approach, such as enucleation and curettage but the aggressive lesions require a radical approach. A more radical approach should be considered in older patients who have likely high recurrence tendency. This report describes a case of AF in a 38-year-old female patient identified during a routine radiographic exam. Tomographic examination through three-dimensional reconstruction indicated vestibular fenestration of the cortical bone, with involvement of lingual cortical bone as the lession extended to the posterior region. We removed the tumor under local anesthesia. In this case patient has continued to be followed frequently and has been disease-free for 3 years. PMID:27011753

  17. Influence and interactions of laryngeal adductors and cricothyroid muscles on fundamental frequency and glottal posture control

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Neubauer, Juergen; Sofer, Elazar; Berry, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles (ILMs) in controlling fundamental frequency (F0) and glottal posture remain unclear. In an in vivo canine model, three sets of intrinsic laryngeal muscles—the thyroarytenoid (TA), cricothyroid (CT), and lateral cricoarytenoid plus interarytenoid (LCA/IA) muscle complex—were independently and accurately stimulated in a graded manner using distal laryngeal nerve stimulation. Graded neuromuscular stimulation was used to independently activate these paired intrinsic laryngeal muscles over a range from threshold to maximal activation, to produce 320 distinct laryngeal phonatory postures. At phonation onset these activation conditions were evaluated in terms of their vocal fold strain, glottal width at the vocal processes, fundamental frequency (F0), subglottic pressure, and airflow. F0 ranged from 69 to 772 Hz and clustered into chest-like and falsetto-like groups. CT activation was always required to raise F0, but could also lower F0 at low TA and LCA/IA activation levels. Increasing TA activation first increased then decreased F0 in all CT and LCA/IA activation conditions. Increasing TA activation also facilitated production of high F0 at a lower onset pressure. Independent control of membranous (TA) and cartilaginous (LCA/IA) glottal closure enabled multiple pathways for F0 control via changes in glottal posture. PMID:25235003

  18. Finite-element modelling reveals force modulation of jaw adductors in stag beetles

    PubMed Central

    Goyens, J.; Soons, J.; Aerts, P.; Dirckx, J.

    2014-01-01

    Male stag beetles carry large and heavy mandibles that arose through sexual selection over mating rights. Although the mandibles of Cyclommatus metallifer males are used in pugnacious fights, they are surprisingly slender. Our bite force measurements show a muscle force reduction of 18% for tip biting when compared with bites with the teeth located halfway along the mandibles. This suggests a behavioural adaptation to prevent failure. We confirmed this by constructing finite-element (FE) models that mimic both natural bite situations as well as the hypothetical situation of tip biting without muscle force modulation. These models, based on micro-CT images, investigate the material stresses in the mandibles for different combinations of bite location and muscle force. Young's modulus of the cuticle was experimentally determined to be 5.1 GPa with the double indentation method, and the model was validated by digital image correlation on living beetles. FE analysis proves to be a valuable tool in the investigation of the trade-offs of (animal) weapon morphology and usage. Furthermore, the demonstrated bite force modulation in male stag beetles suggests the presence of mechanosensors inside the armature. PMID:25297317

  19. Analysis of muscle forces acting on fragments in pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Elabjer, Esmat; Nikolić, Vasilije; Matejcić, Aljosa; Stancić, Marin; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana

    2009-12-01

    CT was used in 50 adult pelvic fractures to determine the size and the position of relevant muscles with regard to bony elements in order to calculate muscle forces acting upon certain pelvic portions. Muscle length was measured to calculate muscle volume and physiological muscle cross-section. Among others, the size and direction of muscle forces were calculated for iliac, pubic and ischiadic fractures. The strongest muscle acting in iliac fractures is m. gluteus medius. The strongest upward pulling of iliac bone fragments is exerted by the erector muscles, while the major anterior, medial and downward pulling is performed by the iliopsoas muscle. In pubic bone fractures, eight muscles push bone fragments downward, the strongest among them being m. adductor magnus. Two muscles pull them upwards: m. rectus abdominis and m. obliquus externus. Nine muscles are responsible for downward displacement of bone fragments in ischiadic fractures, but the strongest is m. semitendinosus. Calculation of moments of muscle forces acting upon bone fragments using CT of pelvic fractures gives additional data for planning of optimal operative treatment that can guarantee stable fixation in individual patients. PMID:20102053

  20. Proximate determinants of bite force in Anolis lizards.

    PubMed

    Wittorski, Antoine; Losos, Jonathan B; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Performance measures associated with the vertebrate jaw system may provide important insights into vertebrate ecology and evolution because of their importance in many ecologically relevant tasks. Previous studies have shown that in many taxa, evolution toward higher bite force has gone hand in hand with the evolution of larger body size. However, independent of differences in overall body size, bite force may vary depending on head size and shape as well. Moreover, the underlying musculature may also drive variation in bite force. Here, we investigate the proximate determinants of bite force in lizards of the genus Anolis. We dissected the jaw muscles and quantified muscle mass, fibre length, and cross-sectional area. Data were analysed for both sexes independently given the sexual dimorphism detected in the dataset. Our results show that the traits that explain bite force are similar in both males and females with overall body size and muscle mass being the principal determinants. Among the different muscles examined, the adductor externus and the pseudotemporalis groups were the best determinants of bite force. However, models run for males predicted the variation in bite force better than models for females, suggesting that selection on morphology improving bite force may be stronger in males. PMID:26471984

  1. A reevaluation of the anatomy of the jaw-closing system in the extant coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutel, Hugo; Herrel, Anthony; Clément, Gaël; Herbin, Marc

    2013-11-01

    The coelacanth Latimeria is the only extant representative of the Actinistia, a group of sarcopterygian fishes that originated in the Devonian. Moreover, it is the only extant vertebrate in which the neurocranium is divided into an anterior and a posterior portion that articulate by means of an intracranial joint. This joint is thought to be highly mobile, allowing an elevation of the anterior portion of the skull during prey capture. Here we provide a new description of the skull and jaw-closing system in Latimeria chalumnae in order to better understand its skull mechanics during prey capture. Based on a dissection and the CT scanning of an adult coelacanth, we provide a detailed description of the musculature and ligaments of the jaw system. We show that the m. adductor mandibulae is more complex than previously reported. We demonstrate that the basicranial muscle inserts more anteriorly than has been described previously, which has implications for its function. Moreover, the anterior insertion of the basicranial muscle does not correspond to the posterior tip of the tooth plate covering the parasphenoid, questioning previous inferences made on fossil coelacanths and other sarcopterygian fishes. Strong ligaments connect the anterior and the posterior portions of the skull at the level of the intracranial joint, as well as the notochord and the catazygals. These observations suggest that the intracranial joint is likely to be less mobile than previously thought and that its role during feeding merits to be reexamined.

  2. Functional morphology and biomechanics of the tongue-bite apparatus in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes.

    PubMed

    Camp, Ariel L; Konow, Nicolai; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2009-05-01

    The tongue-bite apparatus and its associated musculoskeletal elements of the pectoral girdle and neurocranium form the structural basis of raking, a unique prey-processing behaviour in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes. Using a quantitative approach, the functional osteology and myology of this system were compared between representatives of each lineage, i.e. the salmonid Salvelinus fontinalis (N = 10) and the osteoglossomorph Chitala ornata (N = 8). Divergence was found in the morphology of the novel cleithrobranchial ligament, which potentially relates to kinematic differences between the raking lineage representatives. Salvelinus had greater anatomical cross-sectional areas of the epaxial, hypaxial and protractor hyoideus muscles, whereas Chitala had greater sternohyoideus and adductor mandibulae mass. Two osteology-based biomechanical models (a third-order lever for neurocranial elevation and a modified four-bar linkage for hyoid retraction) showed divergent force/velocity priorities in the study taxa. Salvelinus maximizes both force (via powerful cranial muscles) and velocity (through mechanical amplification) during raking. In contrast, Chitala has relatively low muscle force but more efficient force transmission through both mechanisms compared with Salvelinus. It remains unclear if and how behavioural modulation and specializations in the post-cranial anatomy may affect the force/velocity trade-offs in Chitala. Further studies of tongue-bite apparatus morphology and biomechanics in a broader species range may help to clarify the role that osteology and myology play in the evolution of behavioural diversity. PMID:19438765

  3. Functional morphology and biomechanics of the tongue-bite apparatus in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Ariel L; Konow, Nicolai; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2009-01-01

    The tongue-bite apparatus and its associated musculoskeletal elements of the pectoral girdle and neurocranium form the structural basis of raking, a unique prey-processing behaviour in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes. Using a quantitative approach, the functional osteology and myology of this system were compared between representatives of each lineage, i.e. the salmonid Salvelinus fontinalis (N =10) and the osteoglossomorph Chitala ornata(N = 8). Divergence was found in the morphology of the novel cleithrobranchial ligament, which potentially relates to kinematic differences between the raking lineage representatives. Salvelinus had greater anatomical cross-sectional areas of the epaxial, hypaxial and protractor hyoideus muscles, whereas Chitala had greater sternohyoideus and adductor mandibulae mass. Two osteology-based biomechanical models (a third-order lever for neurocranial elevation and a modified four-bar linkage for hyoid retraction) showed divergent force/velocity priorities in the study taxa. Salvelinus maximizes both force (via powerful cranial muscles) and velocity (through mechanical amplification) during raking. In contrast, Chitala has relatively low muscle force but more efficient force transmission through both mechanisms compared with Salvelinus. It remains unclear if and how behavioural modulation and specializations in the post-cranial anatomy may affect the force/velocity trade-offs in Chitala. Further studies of tongue-bite apparatus morphology and biomechanics in a broader species range may help to clarify the role that osteology and myology play in the evolution of behavioural diversity. PMID:19438765

  4. A reevaluation of the anatomy of the jaw-closing system in the extant coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae.

    PubMed

    Dutel, Hugo; Herrel, Anthony; Clément, Gaël; Herbin, Marc

    2013-11-01

    The coelacanth Latimeria is the only extant representative of the Actinistia, a group of sarcopterygian fishes that originated in the Devonian. Moreover, it is the only extant vertebrate in which the neurocranium is divided into an anterior and a posterior portion that articulate by means of an intracranial joint. This joint is thought to be highly mobile, allowing an elevation of the anterior portion of the skull during prey capture. Here we provide a new description of the skull and jaw-closing system in Latimeria chalumnae in order to better understand its skull mechanics during prey capture. Based on a dissection and the CT scanning of an adult coelacanth, we provide a detailed description of the musculature and ligaments of the jaw system. We show that the m. adductor mandibulae is more complex than previously reported. We demonstrate that the basicranial muscle inserts more anteriorly than has been described previously, which has implications for its function. Moreover, the anterior insertion of the basicranial muscle does not correspond to the posterior tip of the tooth plate covering the parasphenoid, questioning previous inferences made on fossil coelacanths and other sarcopterygian fishes. Strong ligaments connect the anterior and the posterior portions of the skull at the level of the intracranial joint, as well as the notochord and the catazygals. These observations suggest that the intracranial joint is likely to be less mobile than previously thought and that its role during feeding merits to be reexamined. PMID:24162135

  5. Diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    De Meyer, Jens; Christiaens, Joachim; Adriaens, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Two phenotypes are present within the European eel population: broad-heads and narrow-heads. The expression of these phenotypes has been linked to several factors, such as diet and differential growth. The exact factors causing this dimorphism, however, are still unknown. In this study, we performed a feeding experiment on glass eels from the moment they start to feed. Eels were either fed a hard diet, which required biting and spinning behavior, or a soft diet, which required suction feeding. We found that the hard feeders develop a broader head and a larger adductor mandibulae region than eels that were fed a soft diet, implying that the hard feeders are capable of larger bite forces. Next to this, soft feeders develop a sharper and narrower head, which could reduce hydrodynamic drag, allowing more rapid strikes towards their prey. Both phenotypes were found in a control group, which were given a combination of both diets. These phenotypes were, however, not as extreme as the hard or the soft feeding group, indicating that some specimens are more likely to consume hard prey and others soft prey, but that they do not selectively eat one of both diets. In conclusion, we found that diet is a major factor influencing head shape in European eel and this ability to specialize in feeding on hard or soft prey could decrease intra-specific competition in European eel populations. PMID:26847560

  6. Jaw muscle fiber type distribution in Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes: histochemical correlations with feeding ecology and behavior.

    PubMed

    Maie, Takashi; Meister, Andrew B; Leonard, Gerald L; Schrank, Gordon D; Blob, Richard W; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2011-12-01

    Differences in fiber type distribution in the axial muscles of Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes have previously been linked to differences in locomotor performance, behavior, and diet across species. Using ATPase assays, we examined fiber types of the jaw opening sternohyoideus muscle across five species, as well as fiber types of three jaw closing muscles (adductor mandibulae A1, A2, and A3). The jaw muscles of some species of Hawaiian stream gobies contained substantial red fiber components. Some jaw muscles always had greater proportions of white muscle fibers than other jaw muscles, independent of species. In addition, comparing across species, the dietary generalists (Awaous guamensis and Stenogobius hawaiiensis) had a lower proportion of white muscle fibers in all jaw muscles than the dietary specialists (Lentipes concolor, Sicyopterus stimpsoni, and Eleotris sandwicensis). Among Hawaiian stream gobies, generalist diets may favor a wider range of muscle performance, provided by a mix of white and red muscle fibers, than is typical of dietary specialists, which may have a higher proportion of fast-twitch white fibers in jaw muscles to help meet the demands of rapid predatory strikes or feeding in fast-flowing habitats. PMID:21978841

  7. Rhythmic chewing with oral jaws in teleost fishes: a comparison with amniotes.

    PubMed

    Gintof, Chris; Konow, Nicolai; Ross, Callum F; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2010-06-01

    Intra-oral prey processing (chewing) using the mandibular jaws occurs more extensively among teleost fishes than previously documented. The lack of muscle spindles, gamma-motoneurons and periodontal afferents in fishes makes them useful for testing hypotheses regarding the relationship between these sensorimotor components and rhythmic chewing in vertebrates. Electromyography (EMG) data from the adductor mandibulae (AM) were used to quantify variation in chew cycle duration in the bowfin Amia, three osteoglossomorphs (bony-tongues), four salmonids and one esocid (pike). All species chewed prey using their oral jaw in repetitive trains of between 3 and 30 consecutive chews, a pattern that resembles cyclic chewing in amniote vertebrates. Variance in rhythmicity was compared within and between lineages using coefficients of variation and Levene's test for homogeneity of variance. These comparisons revealed that some teleosts exhibit degrees of rhythmicity that are comparable to mammalian mastication and higher than in lepidosaurs. Moreover, chew cycle durations in fishes, as in mammals, scale positively with mandible length. Chewing among basal teleosts may be rhythmic because it is stereotyped and inflexible, the result of patterned interactions between sensory feedback and a central pattern generator, because the lack of a fleshy tongue renders jaw-tongue coordination unnecessary and/or because stereotyped opening and closing movements are important for controlling fluid flow in the oral cavity. PMID:20472774

  8. Jaw lever analysis of Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes: a simulation study of morphological diversity and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Maie, Takashi; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2009-08-01

    Differences in feeding behavior and performance among the five native Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes (Sicyopterus stimpsoni, Lentipes concolor, Awaous guamensis, Stenogobius hawaiiensis, and Eleotris sandwicensis) have been proposed based on the skeletal anatomy of their jaws and dietary specialization. However, performance of the feeding apparatus likely depends on the proportions and configurations of the jaw muscles and the arrangement of the jaw skeleton. We used a published mathematical model of muscle function to evaluate potential differences in jaw closing performance and their correlations with morphology among these species. For example, high output force calculated for the adductor mandibulae muscles (A2 and A3) of both A. guamensis and E. sandwicensis matched expectations based on the morphology of these species because these muscles are larger than in the other species. In contrast, Stenogobius hawaiiensis exhibited an alternative morphological strategy for achieving high relative output forces of both A2 and A3, in which the placement and configuration of the muscles conveyed high mechanical advantage despite only moderate cross-sectional areas. These differing anatomical pathways to similar functional performance suggest a pattern of many-to-one mapping of morphology to performance. In addition, a functional differentiation between A2 and A3 was evident for all species, in which A2 was better suited for producing forceful jaw closing and A3 for rapid jaw closing. Thus, the diversity of feeding performance of Hawaiian stream gobies seems to reflect a maintenance of functional breadth through the retention of some primitive traits in combination with novel functional capacities in several species. PMID:19274745

  9. Swimming away or clamming up: the use of phasic and tonic adductor muscles during escape responses varies with shell morphology in scallops.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Isabelle; Guderley, Helga E; Himmelman, John H

    2012-12-01

    The simple locomotor system of scallops facilitates the study of muscle use during locomotion. We compared five species of scallops with different shell morphologies to see whether shell morphology and muscle use change in parallel or whether muscle use can compensate for morphological constraints. Force recordings during escape responses revealed that the use of tonic and phasic contractions varied markedly among species. The active species, Amusium balloti, Placopecten magellanicus and Pecten fumatus, made more phasic contractions than the more sedentary species, Mimachlamys asperrima and Crassadoma gigantea. Tonic contractions varied considerably among these species, with the two more sedentary species often starting their response to the predator with a tonic contraction and the more active species using shorter tonic contractions between series of phasic contractions. Placopecten magellanicus made extensive use of short tonic contractions. Pecten fumatus mounted an intense series of phasic contractions at the start of its response, perhaps to overcome the constraints of its unfavourable shell morphology. Valve closure by the more sedentary species suggests that their shell morphology protects them against predation, whereas swimming by the more active species relies upon intense phasic contractions together with favourable shell characteristics. PMID:22972884

  10. [A man with a crooked smile].

    PubMed

    Bechan, M A H Afzal; van Dortmont, Laura M C; Claes, J Franka H M

    2013-01-01

    A 51-year-old man had a paresis of the right side of the lower lip after carotic endarterectomy. The diagnosis was 'pressure neuropathy of the right ramus marginalis mandibulae' caused by the operation. This neuropathy is self limiting. PMID:24152368

  11. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  12. Comparative analysis of trunk muscle activities in climbing of during upright climbing at different inclination angles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byung-Joon; Kim, Joong-Hwi; Kim, Jang-Hwan; Choi, Byeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to provide evidence for the therapeutic exercise approach through a compative analysis of muscle activities according to climbing wall inclination. [Subjects and Methods] Twentyfour healthy adult subjects without climbing experience performed static exercises at a therapeutic climbing at with various inclination angles (0°, 10°, 20°), and the activities of the trunk muscles (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, erector spinae) were measured using surface electromyography (EMG) for 7 seconds. [Results] Significant differences were found between the inclination angles of 10° and 0°, as well as 20° in the rectus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, right obliquus externus abdominis, and right erector spinae. [Conclusion] Based on measurements of trunk muscle activity in a static climbing standing position at different angles, significant changes in muscle activity appear to be induced at 10 degrees. Therefore, the results appear to provide clinically relevant evidence. PMID:26644661

  13. Management of a giant perineal condylomata acuminata.

    PubMed

    Hemper, Evelyn; Wittau, Mathias; Lemke, Johannes; Kornmann, Marko; Henne-Bruns, Doris

    2016-01-01

    A condylomata acuminata infection is caused by human papillomaviridae (HPV). This sexually transmitted condition most often affects the perineal region. Importantly, infections with types 16 and 18 are associated with an increased risk for anal and cervix cancer. In most cases topical therapy is sufficient for successfully treating condylomata acuminata. Here, we report the case of a 51-year old patient who suffered from a giant perianal located condylomata acuminata which had developed over a period of more than 10 years. Imaging by MRI revealed a possible infiltration of the musculus sphincter ani externus. Because a topical treatment or a radiotherapy was considered unfeasible, a surgical treatment was the only therapeutic option in this unusual case. First, a colostomy was performed and subsequently a resection of the tumor in toto with circular resection of the external portion of the musculus sphincter ani externus was performed. The large skin defect was closed by two gluteus flaps. The rectum wall was reinserted in the remnant of the musculus sphincter ani externus. Postoperatively, parts of the flaps developed necrosis. Therefore, a vacuum sealing therapy was initiated. Subsequently, the remaining skin defects were closed by autologous skin transplantation. Six months later the colostomy could be reversed. To date, one year after first surgery, the patient has still a normal sphincter function and no recurrence of the condylomata acuminata. This case report demonstrates how giant condylomata acuminata can be successfully treated by extended surgical procedures including colostomy and plastic reconstruction of resulting defects upon resection. PMID:26814336

  14. Management of a giant perineal condylomata acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Hemper, Evelyn; Wittau, Mathias; Lemke, Johannes; Kornmann, Marko; Henne-Bruns, Doris

    2016-01-01

    A condylomata acuminata infection is caused by human papillomaviridae (HPV). This sexually transmitted condition most often affects the perineal region. Importantly, infections with types 16 and 18 are associated with an increased risk for anal and cervix cancer. In most cases topical therapy is sufficient for successfully treating condylomata acuminata. Here, we report the case of a 51-year old patient who suffered from a giant perianal located condylomata acuminata which had developed over a period of more than 10 years. Imaging by MRI revealed a possible infiltration of the musculus sphincter ani externus. Because a topical treatment or a radiotherapy was considered unfeasible, a surgical treatment was the only therapeutic option in this unusual case. First, a colostomy was performed and subsequently a resection of the tumor in toto with circular resection of the external portion of the musculus sphincter ani externus was performed. The large skin defect was closed by two gluteus flaps. The rectum wall was reinserted in the remnant of the musculus sphincter ani externus. Postoperatively, parts of the flaps developed necrosis. Therefore, a vacuum sealing therapy was initiated. Subsequently, the remaining skin defects were closed by autologous skin transplantation. Six months later the colostomy could be reversed. To date, one year after first surgery, the patient has still a normal sphincter function and no recurrence of the condylomata acuminata. This case report demonstrates how giant condylomata acuminata can be successfully treated by extended surgical procedures including colostomy and plastic reconstruction of resulting defects upon resection. PMID:26814336

  15. Ectopic Premolar Tooth in the Sigmoid Notch.

    PubMed

    Törenek, K; Akgül, H M; Bayrakdar, I S

    2016-01-01

    Impaction of a mandibular premolar is relatively uncommon. Ectopic placement is more unusual and there has been no discussion in the literature of an ectopic mandibular premolar in the coronoid process. In this case report, we present an impacted ectopic mandibular permanent premolar in the sigmoid notch (incisura mandibulae) region. Etiology of the tooth and treatment options are discussed and illustrated by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images. PMID:27547475

  16. Ectopic Premolar Tooth in the Sigmoid Notch

    PubMed Central

    Akgül, H. M.; Bayrakdar, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Impaction of a mandibular premolar is relatively uncommon. Ectopic placement is more unusual and there has been no discussion in the literature of an ectopic mandibular premolar in the coronoid process. In this case report, we present an impacted ectopic mandibular permanent premolar in the sigmoid notch (incisura mandibulae) region. Etiology of the tooth and treatment options are discussed and illustrated by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images. PMID:27547475

  17. [Unilateral condylar hyperactivity].

    PubMed

    Karssemakers, L H E; Nolte, J W; Saridin, C P; Raijmakers, P G H M; Becking, A G

    2012-10-01

    Unilateral condylar hyperactivity is a growth disorder which is characterised by a progressive asymmetry in the mandibula and in some cases also secondarily in the maxilla. Various forms are hemimandibular hyperplasia, hemimandibular elongation and a hybridform. In deciding on a plan of treatment, it is important to determine whether there is a question of continuous and/or excessive condylar activity, possibly with the help of a skeletal scintigraphy. PMID:23126178

  18. Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pubic bone (adductors) are also stretched or torn. Cause Sports activities that involve planting the feet ... may need to consider surgery to repair the torn tissues. Page ( 2 ) AAOS does not endorse any ...

  19. Relative contributions of animal and muscle effects to variation in beef lean color stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef carcasses (n = 100) were selected from a commercial processing facility. Longissimus lumborum (LM), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus medius (GM), triceps brachii (TB), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), adductor (AD), semitendinosus (ST), infraspinatus (IS), teres ma...

  20. The growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles in the chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Helmi, C; Cracraft, J

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles of the chicken relative to the functional-biomechanical demands of increasing body size. The biceps femoris, a bipennate non-postural muscle, grew relatively faster in terms of wet and dry weight than did the parallel-fibred adductor superficialis or the unipennate adductor profundus, both postural muscles. All three muscles exhibited positive allometry (relative to body weight) in muscle length but only biceps femoris and adductor profundus showed positive allometry in cross sectional area adductor superficialis having isometric growth in this parameter. In biceps femoris and adductor superficialis the lengths of the longest and shortest fasciculi grew at equal rates, whereas in adductor profundus the shortest fasciculi grew faster than the longest. We conclude that muscle weight alone is an insufficient indicator of changing function in growing muscle. Hence, growth studies should include other functionally relevant parameters such as cross sectional area, which is proportional to the force-producing capabilities of the muscle, or fibre (fasciculus) length, which is indicative of the absolute amount of stretching or shortening that is possible and of the contraction velocity. PMID:885779

  1. Comparison of Isokinetic Hip Abduction and Adduction Peak Torques and Ratio Between Sexes

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Dai; Mattacola, Carl G.; Mullineaux, David R.; Palmer, Thomas G.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate hip abductor and adductor peak torque outputs and compare their ratios between sexes. Design A cross-sectional laboratory-controlled study. Setting Participants visited a laboratory and performed an isokinetic hip abductor and adductor test. All participants performed 2 sets of 5 repetitions of concentric hip abduction and adduction in a standing position at 60 degrees per second. Gravity was determined as a function of joint angle relative to the horizontal plane and was corrected by normalizing the weight of the limb on an individual basis. Participants A total of 36 collegiate athletes. Independent Variable Sex (20 females and 16 males). Main Outcome Measures Bilateral peak hip abductor and adductor torques were measured. The 3 highest peak torque values were averaged for each subject. Results Independent t tests were used to compare sex differences in hip abductor and adductor peak torques and the abductor:adductor peak torque ratios. Males demonstrated significantly greater hip abductor peak torque compared with females (males 1.29 ± 0.24 Nm/kg, females 1.13 ± 0.20 Nm/kg; P = 0.03). Neither hip adductor peak torque nor their ratios differed between sexes. Conclusions Sex differences in hip abductor strength were observed. The role of weaker hip abductors in females deserves further attention and may be a factor for higher risk of knee pathologies. PMID:24905541

  2. [Micronutrient structure of food parts of a trade bivalve mollusc of Anadara broughtoni].

    PubMed

    Tabakaeva, O V; Tabakaev, A V

    2016-01-01

    The content of micronutrients in food parts of a bivalve mollusk of the Far East region of Anadara broughtoni has been defined. It is established that in a muscle the prevailing mineral is potassium, in a cloak with a adductor--sodium. In Anadara broughtoni muscle concentration of potassium reaches 490 mg/100 g of crude tissue that is 2-3 fold higher than the content of this element in combs and oysters and 4 fold above, than in a cloak. For sodium inverse relationship is observed: its contents in a cloak (439 mg/100 g) is 3 fold more, than in a muscle. The low content of sodium in an adductor should be noted. For all food parts of a mollusk of Anadara broughtoni the dominating trace elements are iron and zinc. The content of iron is maximum in a muscle (4.84 mg/100 g) and exceeds that in an adductor by 1.84 fold. The content of zinc in food parts differs insignificantly, the maximum contents is defined in a cloak (2.12 mg/100 g), in comparison with an adductor excess makes only 15%. It should be noted the high content of manganese--especially in a cloak (1.12 mg/100 g)--in comparison with an adductor 43.5% more. Chromium content in a muscle (0.018 mg/100 g) exceeds that in an adductor 2.25 times. The high content of copper in a muscle (0.04 mg/100 g)--4 times old higher than in an adductor is defined. The content of selenium and of iodine is maximum in a muscle (0.03 mg/100 g). For a cloak and a muscle the prevailing class of lipids are phospholipids, for an adductor--cholesterol. The content of cholesterol in an adductor is 2 7-37% more, than in other food parts of a mollusk. The level of total carotenoids in a motive muscle (5.7 mg/100 g) 1.78 fold exceeds the contents in an adductor and by 1.5 fold elevates the contents in a cloak. The main share of carotenoids is concentrated in a motive muscle. PMID:27228707

  3. Differential regulation of the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes with skeletal muscle type in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kimura, Sayaka; Kitashiro, Ayana; Tsuchii, Nami; Tsuchihashi, Tatsuya; Inui, Mariko; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    The regulatory mechanisms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are known to differ among skeletal muscle types in mammals. For example, glycolytic muscles prefer glucose as an energy source, whereas oxidative muscles prefer fatty acids (FA). We herein demonstrated differences in the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the pectoralis major (a glycolytic twitch muscle), adductor superficialis (an oxidative twitch muscle), and adductor profound (a tonic muscle) of 14-day-old chicks. Under ad libitum feeding conditions, the mRNA levels of muscle type phosphofructokinase-1 were markedly lower in the adductor superficialis muscle, suggesting that basal glycolytic activity is very low in this type of muscle. In contrast, high mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36) in the adductor superficialis muscle suggest that FA uptake is high in this type of muscle. The mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) were significantly higher in the adductor profound muscle than in other muscles, suggesting that basal lipolytic activity is high in this type of muscle. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor δ and CPT1b were significantly increased in the adductor superficialis muscle, but not in other muscles, after 24h of fasting. Therefore, the availability of FA in the oxidative twitch muscles in growing chickens appears to be upregulated by fasting. Our results suggest that lipid metabolism-related genes are upregulated under both basal and fasting conditions in the adductor superficialis in growing chickens. PMID:26188321

  4. Can bedside patient-reported numbness predict postoperative ambulation ability for total knee arthroplasty patients with nerve block catheters?

    PubMed Central

    Mudumbai, Seshadri C.; Ganaway, Toni; Kim, T. Edward; Howard, Steven K.; Giori, Nicholas J.; Shum, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Background Adductor canal catheters offer advantages over femoral nerve catheters for knee replacement patients because they produce less quadriceps muscle weakness; however, applying adductor canal catheters in bedside clinical practice remains challenging. There is currently no patient-reported outcome that accurately predicts patients' physical function after knee replacement. The present study evaluates the validity of a relatively new patient-reported outcome, i.e., a numbness score obtained using a numeric rating scale, and assesses its predictive value on postoperative ambulation. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study pooling data from two previously-published clinical trials using identical research methodologies. Both studies recruited patients undergoing knee replacement; one studied adductor canal catheters while the other studied femoral nerve catheters. Our primary outcome was patient-reported numbness scores on postoperative day 1. We also examined postoperative day 1 ambulation distance and its association with postoperative numbness using linear regression, adjusting for age, body mass index, and physical status. Results Data from 94 subjects were included (femoral subjects, n = 46; adductor canal subjects, n = 48). Adductor canal patients reported decreased numbness (median [10th–90th percentiles]) compared to femoral patients (0 [0–5] vs. 4 [0–10], P = 0.001). Adductor canal patients also ambulated seven times further on postoperative day 1 relative to femoral patients. There was a significant association between postoperative day 1 total ambulation distance and numbness (Beta = –2.6; 95% CI: –4.5, –0.8, P = 0.01) with R2 = 0.1. Conclusions Adductor canal catheters facilitate improved early ambulation and produce less patient-reported numbness after knee replacement, but the correlation between these two variables is weak. PMID:26885299

  5. [Use of Tissucol, a tissue glue, in reconstructive surgery of large scleral defects].

    PubMed

    Karel, I; Dolezalová, J

    1991-05-01

    In a 14-year-old female patient the postoperative course of myectomy of the musculus rectus oculi externus on account of concomittant strabism was complicated by necrosis of the sclera (diameter 9 mm) at the site of intrascleral stitches and exudation into the anterior chamber and the vitreous body. For fixation of the transplant from lyophilized sclera the tissue glue Tissucol Kit was used. Tissucol rapidly and firmly joined the wound areas, its direct contact with uveal tissue did not produce an inflammatory reaction and the exudate from the anterior chamber and vitreous body was absorbed rapidly and completely. PMID:1913913

  6. Pelvic osteomyelitis mimicking septic hip arthritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Richelle C; Strongwater, Allan M

    2009-09-01

    Peripelvic infections are rare, compared with the incidence of septic hip arthritis, but are serious, requiring emergent treatment. They often are not included in differential diagnoses for patients presenting with fever, pain, inability to bear weight, elevated white blood cell count, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Most patients are treated initially as a septic hip arthritis. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to outcome in peripelvic abscess. Use of MRI may help to elucidate the correct diagnosis. Previously reported peripelvic infections included obturator internus and externus, and psoas, but to the best of our knowledge, this is first case report of infection of the ischiopubic ramus synchondrosis presenting as septic arthritis. PMID:19491707

  7. A biomechanical model of rock drilling in the piddock Barnea candida (Bivalvia; Mollusca)

    PubMed Central

    Nederlof, Ralf; Muller, Mees

    2012-01-01

    The bivalve Barnea candida (Pholadacea) makes its burrow in clay, soft rock and peat. Barnea has developed a number of adaptations to accommodate this lifestyle. Four muscles enable burrowing. These are situated around a dorsal pivot in such a way that the piddock is able to rotate the shells around two approximate orthogonal axes. The anterior adductor muscle anterior (AAM-A) and the posterior adductor muscle rotate the shells around a dorso-ventral axis; the anterior adductor muscle posterior (AAM-P) and the ventral adductor muscle rotate the shells around an antero-posterior axis. The AAM-A and the AAM-P have evolved from a single anterior adductor muscle and are attached to a piece of the shell that is folded inside out, the umbonal reflection. At the dorsal side of the piddock, the shell margins are reduced. This prevents collision of these margins during movement. Electrical stimulation experiments revealed that the opening of the antero-ventral side of the piddock is faster than its closure. These results were incorporated into a computer model that could simulate shell movements. The computer model allowed predictions about the shapes of burrows and scrape marks. As in Nature, simulated burrows had a long droplet shape with straight scrape marks. PMID:22696480

  8. Scallops show that muscle metabolic capacities reflect locomotor style and morphology.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Isabelle; Guderley, Helga E

    2014-01-01

    Although all scallops swim using their adductor muscle to close their valves, scallop species differ considerably in how they use their muscle during escape responses, in parallel with the striking interspecific differences in shell morphology. This provides an excellent opportunity to study links between muscle metabolic capacities and animal performance. We found that the capacity for anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic metabolism, as well as phosphoarginine levels in the phasic adductor muscle, differ with escape response strategy. Phosphoarginine contents were high in species that rely on phasic contractions (Amusium balloti, Placopecten magellanicus, and Pecten fumatus). Arginine kinase activities reflect reliance on rapid initial bursts of phasic contractions. Scallops that maintain their valves in a closed position for prolonged periods (P. fumatus, Mimachlamys asperrima, and Crassadoma gigantea) have high activities of enzymes of anaerobic glycolysis in their phasic adductor muscle. Myosin ATPase activity was lower in the nonswimming scallop, C. gigantea, than in swimming scallops. The different patterns and roles of swimming are reflected in interspecific differences in the biochemical attributes of the phasic adductor muscle. These patterns suggest coevolution of muscle metabolic capacities, patterns of adductor muscle use, and shell morphology in scallops. PMID:24642541

  9. [Osteoradionecrosis. I. Etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Thiel, H J

    1989-01-01

    In curative therapy of mouth-cavity and oropharyngeal carcinomas the osteoradionecrosis has to be accepted as a calculated risk with an incidence of 4-35%. It is the question of a radio-caused bone death that comes about by progressive and irreversible morphological alterations at bones and at vessels: Loss of osteocytes, active osteoblasts and osteoclasts (hypocellularity), injury of normal bone metabolism, slackening of regeneration process, extreme susceptibility to infections of the devitalized bone, radio-induced obliterating endarteritis with hyalinization, thrombosis and fibrosing of vessels, obliteration of the lumen and gradual reduction of blood-supply at the level of tissue (hypovascularity and hypoxemia: Aseptic osteoradionecrosis, radio-osteonecrosis). If there is a secondary infection of dental, periodontal or traumatic origin additionally, the condition explodes as septic osteoradionecrosis with the symptoms and findings of radio-osteomyelitis. The osteoradionecrosis begins more frequently in the mandibula than in the maxilla. The cumulative incidence is 30% after 6, 60% after 12, and more than 80% after 24 months. The duration of osteoradionecrosis follows an exponential curve with constant probability of necrosis termination at any moment after necrosis event in which the monthly probability of necrosis healing is nearly 0.06. Risk factors for formation of an osteoradionecrosis are tumor neighbourhood to bones and teeth, tumor and mandibula dosis, tumor stage, irradiation technique, status of teeth as well as moment and carrying out of tooth extractions. Tumors in neighbourhood of mandibula have a fivefold higher risk, with 80 Gy irradiated patients a 2.9-fold and toothed patients a 2.6-fold, altogether high-risk patients have a 17.7-fold higher necrosis risk than low-risk patients. Promoting factors are caries, parodontosis, a periapical pathology, a trauma, irritation by artificial teeth, elective tooth extraction before irradiation, tooth

  10. Caecilian jaw-closing mechanics: integrating two muscle systems.

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander; Summers, Adam P

    2008-12-01

    Caecilians (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona) are unique among vertebrates in having two sets of jaw-closing muscles, one on either side of the jaw joint. Using data from high-resolution X-ray radiation computed tomography scans, we modelled the effect of these two muscle groups (mm. levatores mandibulae and m. interhyoideus posterior) on bite force over a range of gape angles, employing a simplified lever arm mechanism that takes into account muscle cross-sectional area and fibre angle. Measurements of lever arm lengths, muscle fibre orientations and physiological cross-sectional area of cranial muscles were available from three caecilian species: Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis; Siphonops annulatus; and Typhlonectes natans. The maximal gape of caecilians is restricted by a critical gape angle above which the mm. levatores mandibulae will open the jaw and destabilize the mandibular joint. The presence of destabilizing forces in the caecilian jaw mechanism may be compensated for by a mandibular joint in that the fossa is wrapped around the condyle to resist dislocation. The caecilian skull is streptostylic; the quadrate-squamosal complex moves with respect to the rest of the skull. This increases the leverage of the jaw-closing muscles. We also demonstrate that the unusual jaw joint requires streptostyly because there is a dorsolateral movement of the quadrate-squamosal complex when the jaw closes. The combination of the two jaw-closing systems results in high bite forces over a wide range of gape angles, an important advantage for generalist feeders such as caecilians. The relative sizes and leverage mechanics of the two closing systems allow one to exert more force when the other has a poor mechanical advantage. This effect is seen in all three species we examined. In the aquatic T. natans, with its less well-roofed skull, there is a larger contribution of the mm. levatores mandibulae to total bite force than in the terrestrial I. cf. kohtaoensis and S. annulatus. PMID

  11. Latest Mississippian (Namurian A) nonmarine ostracodes from West Virginia and Virginia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.

    1985-01-01

    Nonmarine ostracodes occur as partly exfoliated carapaces and internal molds at the base of the Bramwell Member of the Bluestone Formation, which represents the uppermost Mississippian (Namurian A), stratigraphic subdivision in West Virginia and Virginia. These specimens are important in that they permit the determination of a variety of adductor-muscle-attachment scars. The adductor-muscle-attachment scar patterns illustrated herein for the first time are the oldest recorded in North America for nonmarine ostracodes. The new family Carbonitidae and superfamily Carbonitacea are established on the basis of the pattern of adductor-muscle-attachment scars. The following nonmarine genera in this unit are illustrated in open nomenclature: Carbonita Strand, 1928; Whipplella? Holland, 1934; Gutschickia Scott, 1944; Pruvostina? Scott and Summerson, 1943; Darwinula Brady and Robertson, 1885; and two steinkerns of geisinid ostracodes, 'Pseudo-ornamentation' on molds is illustrated.-Author

  12. [Tonsil calculi in the orthopantomography image].

    PubMed

    Crameri, Manuel; Bassetti, Renzo; Werder, Peter; Kuttenberger, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Tonsilloliths are calcifications within the tonsillar crypts. Affected are especially the palatine tonsils. The prevalence is ranging between 16 and 46.1%. Tonsilloliths can be the reason for chronic halitosis, irritating cough, dysphagia, otalgia, foreign body sensation or foul taste in the mouth. They are often asymptomatic. Tonsilloliths can be discovered incidentally in orthopantomography (OPT) as singular or multiple radioopacities in the area of the ramus mandibulae. The aim of this case report is to present two cases with asymptomatic tonsilloliths detected based on an OPT and confirmed in a computed tomography (CT) or by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:26797801

  13. Cholinesterase activity in the tissues of bivalves Noah's ark shell (Arca noae) and warty venus (Venus verrucosa): characterisation and in vitro sensitivity to organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon.

    PubMed

    Perić, Lorena; Ribarić, Luka; Nerlović, Vedrana

    2013-08-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE, EC 3.1.1.7) activity was investigated in gills and adductor muscle of two bivalve species: Arca noae and Venus verrucosa. The properties of ChEs were investigated using acetylcholine iodide (ASCh), butyrylcholine iodide (BSCh) and propionylcholine iodide (PrSCh) as substrates and eserine, BW254c51 and iso-OMPA as specific inhibitors. The highest level of ChE activity in crude tissue extracts was detected with PrSCh followed by ASCh, while values obtained with BSCh were apparently low, except in A. noae adductor muscle. The enzyme activity in A. noae gills and V. verrucosa gills and adductor muscle was significantly inhibited by BW254c51, but not with iso-OMPA. ChE activity in adductor muscle of A. noae was significantly reduced by both diagnostic inhibitors. The effect of organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon on ChE activity was investigated in vitro in both species as well as in the gills of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. The highest sensitivity of ChE to trichlorfon was observed in A. noae gills and adductor muscle (IC50 1.6×10(-7)M and 1.1×10(-7)M, respectively), followed by M. galloprovincialis gills (IC50 1.0×10(-6)M) and V. verrucosa gills and adductor muscle (IC50 1.7×10(-5)M and 0.9×10(-5)M, respectively). The results of this study suggest the potential of ChE activity measurement in the tissues of A. noae as effective biomarker of OP exposure in marine environment. PMID:23701992

  14. Sports Hernia and Extra-Articular Causes of Groin Pain in the Athlete.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Randy M; Lerebours, Frantz; Strauss, Eric J

    2015-06-01

    Groin pain is a common complaint in athletes that use the musculature of the lower abdomen and proximal thigh. The complex anatomy of the groin region and broad differential diagnosis presents the sports medicine specialist with unique diagnostic and treatment challenges. Sports hernia, osteitis pubis, and adductor dysfunction are common extra-articular musculoskeletal causes of groin pain in athletes. The current paper reviews the pathogenesis, history and physical examination, imaging, non-operative treatment, surgical techniques, and outcomes for these conditions. Treatment algorithms are presented for management of patients with sports hernia, osteitis pubis, and adductor dysfunction. PMID:26517161

  15. Primary Chronic Osteomyelitis of the Jaws in Children: An Update on Pathophysiology, Radiological Findings, Treatment Strategies, and Prospective Analysis of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Caroline; Ekströmer, Karin; Abtahi, Jahan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Primary chronic osteomyelitis (PCO) of the jaws in children is associated with pain, trismus, and swelling. In children, temporomandibular joint involvement is rare and few studies have been published due to the relatively low incidence. This paper presents two cases of mandibular PCO in children with the involvement of the collum mandibulae. In addition, a review of the literature regarding demographic data, histological, radiological, and laboratory findings, and treatment strategies of PCO was also performed. Material and Methods. Prospective analyses of two PCO cases. A PubMed search was used and the articles were sorted according to their corresponding key area of focus. Results. Review of the literature revealed twenty-four cases of PCO with two cases of mandibular condyle involvement. The mean age was 18 years; the male to female ratio was 1 : 3. Most of the patients were treated with anti-inflammatory drugs in combination with decortication. Clinical recurrence was seen in 7 cases. Conclusion. A combination of anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical intervention appears to be the first choice of treatment. However, surgical removal of necrotic tissue adjacent to collum mandibulae has its limitations in children. Further investigations are of utmost importance in order to increase our knowledge and understanding of this disease. PMID:26435856

  16. Ontogenetic differences in the feeding biomechanics of oviparous and viviparous caecilians (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Caecilians have a unique dual jaw-closing system in that jaw closure is driven by the ancestral jaw-closing muscles (mm. levatores mandibulae) plus a secondarily recruited hyobranchial muscle (m. interhyoideus posterior). There is a variety of feeding habits (suction feeding, skin feeding, intrauterine scraping, and biting) during ontogeny that relate to reproductive modes in different caecilian species. This study examines the cranial biomechanics of caecilians in the suction-feeding larva of Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis, in the embryo and juvenile of the skin-feeding Boulengerula taitana, and in a newborn of the intrauterine feeder Typhlonectes natans. A lever arm model was applied to calculate effective mechanical advantages of jaw-closing muscles over gape angles and to predict total bite force in developing caecilians. In I. cf. kohtaoensis, Notable differences were found in the larval jaw-closing system compared to that of the adult. The suction-feeding larva of I. cf. kohtaoensis has comparatively large mm. levatores mandibulae that insert with an acute muscle fiber angle to the lower jaw and a m. interhyoideus posterior that has its optimal leverage at small gape angles. Conversely, the skin-feeding juvenile of B. taitana and the neonate T. natans are very similar in the feeding parameters considered herein compared to adult caecilians. Some ontogenetic variation in the feeding system of B. taitana before the onset of feeding was present. This study contributes to our understanding of the functional demands that feeding habits put on the development of cranial structures. PMID:20952171

  17. Traumatic Hallux Varus Treated by Minimally Invasive Extensor Hallucis Brevis Tenodesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, C. N.; Lui, T. H.

    2015-01-01

    A case of traumatic hallux varus due to avulsion fracture of the lateral side of the base of proximal phalanx was reported. The lateral instability of the first metatarsophalangeal joint was believed to be due to the disruption of adductor hallucis function. It was successfully managed by minimally invasive extensor hallucis brevis tenodesis. PMID:26793399

  18. Unilateral absence of thigh muscles confirmed by CT scan.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J E; Currarino, G

    1981-01-01

    A 5-month-old infant is presented with congenital absence of a group of muscles of the right thigh including the three adductors, gracilis, semimembranosus and semitendinosus. The diagnosis was suspected from the conventional radiographs and was confirmed by computerized tomography. PMID:7322654

  19. Alterations in CNS Activity Induced by Botulinum Toxin Treatment in Spasmodic Dysphonia: An H[subscript 2][superscript 15]O PET Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, S. Omar; Thomassen, Michael; Schulz, Geralyn M.; Hosey, Lara A.; Varga, Mary; Ludlow, Christy L.; Braun, Allen R.

    2006-01-01

    Speech-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured using H[subscript 2][superscript 15]O positron-emission tomography in 9 adults with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (BTX) injection and 10 age- and gender-matched volunteers without neurological disorders. Scans were acquired at rest…

  20. APPLICATION OF ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE MEASUREMENTS FOR THE EVALUATION OF STRESS IN 'MYTILUS EDULIS' AND 'CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    After 10 weeks treatment with 10 micrograms Ni/kg seawater, the concentration of ATP in Mytilus edulis adductor muscles was significently less than that in muscles from control and 5 micrograms Ni/kg treated mussels. Mussels sampled in August after exposure for 12 weeks to pollut...

  1. TRANSPORT OF NAPHTHALENE IN THE OYSTER 'OSTREA EDULIS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    In small oysters (Ostrea edulis), transport of naphthalene between tissues is primarily by diffusion and not via the circulatory system. In intact oysters, accumulation in the adductor muscle and body followed accumulation in the gills after a large lag-time. In isolated tissues ...

  2. Longitudinal Phonatory Characteristics after Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kimberly V.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated the long-term effects of a Botulinum Toxin Type A injection on the glottal competency of a man with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Results suggest that change in degree of glottal adduction over time can be observed even when vocal instability is present within each recording session. (CR)

  3. Tissue-specific toxicological effects of cadmium in green mussels (Perna viridis): nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-04-01

    Toxicity tests for metals have traditionally focused on selected biomarkers to characterize the biological stress induced by metals in marine organisms. Here nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics, a system biology tool, was applied to the marine green mussel, Perna viridis, to investigate the toxicological effects of Cd in both digestive gland and adductor muscle tissues. After Cd exposure for either two or four weeks, there was no significant metabolic change in the mussels exposed to Cd at 2 µg/L. At 20 µg/L, there were major metabolite changes related to amino acids, osmolytes, and energy metabolites. Digestive gland tissue was more sensitive to Cd than adductor muscle tissue. The adductor muscle tissue showed elevated levels of glutamine, glutamate, and lactate, and reduced levels of branched chain amino acids, aspartate, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Overall, four weeks of Cd exposure produced neurotoxicity and metabolic disturbances and disturbed osmoregulation. These results suggest that the adductor muscle tissue of mussels may be a suitable supplemental biomarker for exposure to toxicants. In addition, the results demonstrate that (1) H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis can provide a systematic view of the toxicological effects of metals on mussels, suggesting that it might be employed to investigate the toxicological effects of other marine pollutants. PMID:21184531

  4. [Imaging features of pubalgia].

    PubMed

    Sans, N; Lhoste-Trouilloud, A; Sethom, S; Camara, P-Y; Jirari, M; Ponsot, A; Railhac, J-J

    2011-06-01

    Pubalgia is a generic term used to describe groin pain due to a multitude of different etiologies such as skeletal (microtraumatic pubic symphysis arthropathy), muscular (adductor or rectus abdominis disorders), or abdominal wall (inguinal hernia) disorders. Diagnosis relies mainly on MRI for musculoskeletal disorders and ultrasound for abdominal wall disorders. PMID:21704249

  5. Groin Injuries in Sports Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Timothy F.; Silvers, Holly J.; Gerhardt, Michael B.; Nicholas, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: An in-season groin injury may be debilitating for the athlete. Proper diagnosis and identification of the pathology are paramount in providing appropriate intervention. Furthermore, an adductor strain that is treated improperly can become chronic and career threatening. Any one of the 6 muscles of the adductor muscle group can be involved. The degree of injury can range from a minor strain (grade 1), where minimal playing time is lost, to a severe strain (grade 3), in which there is complete loss of muscle function. Persistent groin pain and muscle imbalance may lead to athletic pubalgia. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane database from 1990 to 2009, as well as a manual review of reference lists of identified sources. Results: Ice hockey and soccer players seem particularly susceptible to adductor muscle strains. In professional ice hockey and soccer players throughout the world, approximately 10% to 11% of all injuries are groin strains. These injuries have been linked to hip muscle weakness, a previous injury to that area, preseason practice sessions, and level of experience. This injury may be prevented if these risk factors are addressed before each season. Conclusion: Despite the identification of risk factors and strengthening intervention for athletes, adductor strains continue to occur throughout sport. If groin pain persists, the possibility of athletic pubalgia needs to be explored, because of weakening or tears in the abdominal wall muscles. A diagnosis is confirmed by exclusion of other pathology. PMID:23015943

  6. Isokinetic imbalance of hip muscles in soccer players with osteitis pubis.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Walaa Sayed; Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa; Elhafez, Salam Mohamed; Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Nassif, Nagui Sobhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the isokinetic torques of hip flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors in soccer players suffering from osteitis pubis (OP), with normal soccer players. Twenty soccer male athletes with OP and 20 normal soccer athletes were included in this study. Peak torque/body weight (PT/BW) was recorded from hip flexor/extensor and abductor/adductor muscles during isokinetic concentric contraction modes at angular velocity of 2.1 rad · s(-1), for both groups. The results showed a significant difference between the normal and OP groups for hip flexors (P < 0.05). The normal group had significant, lower PT/BW value than the OP group for their hip flexors (P < 0.05). The hip flexor/extensor PT ratio of OP affected and non-affected limbs was significantly different from that of normal dominant and non-dominant limbs. There were no significant differences between the normal and OP groups for hip extensor, adductor and abductor muscles (P > 0.05). Regarding the hip adductor/abductor PT ratio, there was no significant difference between the normal and OP groups of athletes (P > 0.05). The OP group displayed increase in hip flexor strength that disturbed the hip flexor/extensor torque ratio of OP. Therefore, increasing the hip extensor strength should be part of rehabilitation programmes of patients with OP. PMID:24499182

  7. 50 CFR 648.14 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... surrendered in accordance with applicable regulations. (8) Fail to comply with any sea turtle conservation measure specified in 50 CFR parts 222 and 223, including any sea turtle conservation measure implemented... exception of sea scallops harvested only for adductor muscles and shucked at sea, unless issued...

  8. 50 CFR 648.14 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... comply with any sea turtle conservation measure specified in 50 CFR parts 222 and 223, including any sea..., with the exception of sea scallops harvested only for adductor muscles and shucked at sea, unless.... (iv) Fish for, harvest, catch, possess, or attempt to fish for, harvest, catch, or possess any...

  9. Normal shoulder muscular activation and co-ordination during a shoulder elevation task based on activities of daily living: an electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, David H; Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Fisher, Anthony C; Kemp, Graham J; Roebuck, Margaret M; Frostick, Simon P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of normal shoulder function have often failed to consider the inter-relationship between different muscle groups in activities relevant to daily life. Upper limb functional status was assessed in 12 healthy male volunteers using the Functional Impairment Test-Hand, Neck, Shoulder and Arm test (FIT-HaNSA). Electromyography was then used to study the activity and coordination of 13 muscles (10 by surface electrodes, 3 by fine-wire intramuscular electrodes) around the shoulder during a dynamic movement task based on the shelf-lifting task in FIT-HaNSA. Muscles were grouped for analysis into deltoid (anterior, middle, and posterior divisions), adductors (latissimus dorsi and teres major), rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis), and elbow flexor (brachioradialis, biceps brachii) groups. There were no significant inter-session effects. Using cross-correlation analysis to investigate the whole time-course of activation, there were highly significant positive correlations (p < 0.001) between the deltoid and rotator cuff, the deltoid and adductor and the adductor and rotator cuff groups, and a significant negative correlation between the deltoid and elbow flexor groups (p = 0.031). We conclude that the deltoid, adductor, and rotator cuff muscles all contribute to the muscular component of glenohumeral joint stability. Muscular stability can be adapted as required to meet task-specific demands. PMID:21674607

  10. 75 FR 76315 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... temporary emergency action published on November 13, 2009 (74 FR 58567), is extended through December 31..., 2005, NMFS published an emergency rule (70 FR 35047) closing the area recommended by the FDA (i.e., the... of sea scallop adductor muscles harvested and shucked at sea, and that the southern area...

  11. 76 FR 72125 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... action published on December 8, 2010 (75 FR 76315), is extended through December 31, 2012. Comments must... (70 FR 35047) closing the area recommended by the FDA (i.e., the Temporary PSP Closure Area). Since... the exception of sea scallop adductor muscles harvested and shucked at sea, and that the southern...

  12. 77 FR 72994 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... action published on December 8, 2010 (75 FR 76315), and extended on November 22, 2011 (76 FR 72125), is... death from PSP. On June 16, 2005, NMFS published an emergency rule (70 FR 35047) closing the area... the exception of sea scallop adductor muscles harvested and shucked at sea, and that the southern...

  13. Adequate Selection of a Therapeutic Site Enables Efficient Development of Collateral Vessels in Angiogenic Treatment With Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Masaru; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Ayako; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Miyata, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Induction of angiogenic mechanisms to promote development of collateral vessels is considered promising for the treatment of peripheral arterial diseases. Collateral vessels generally develop from preexisting arteriolar connections, bypassing the diseased artery. We speculated that induction of angiogenic mechanisms should be directed to such arteriolar connections to achieve efficient collateral development. The aim of this study was to verify this hypothesis using autologous transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells in the rabbit model of chronic limb ischemia. Methods and Results The left femoral artery was excised to induce limb ischemia in male rabbits. In this model, arteriolar connections in the left coccygeofemoral muscle tend to develop into collateral vessels, although this transformation is insufficient to alleviate the limb ischemia. In contrast, arteriolar connections in the closely located adductor muscle do not readily develop into collateral vessels. At 21 days after ischemia initiation, a sufficient number of automononuclear cells were selectively injected in the left coccygeofemoral muscle (coccygeo group) or left adductor muscle (adductor group). Evaluation of calf blood pressure ratios, blood flow in the left internal iliac artery, and angiographic scores at day 28 after injection revealed that collateral development and improvement of limb ischemia were significantly more efficient in the coccygeo group than in the adductor group. Morphometric analysis of the coccygeofemoral muscle at day 14 showed similar results. Conclusions Specific delivery of mononuclear cells to the coccygeofemoral but not the adductor muscle effectively improves collateral circulation in the rabbit model of limb ischemia and suggests that adequate site selection can facilitate therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:26370447

  14. Effect of reproduction on escape responses and muscle metabolic capacities in the scallop Chlamys islandica Müller 1776.

    PubMed

    Brokordt; Himmelman; Guderley

    2000-08-30

    In scallops, gametogenesis leads to mobilization of glycogen and proteins from the adductor muscle towards the gonad. This mobilization is likely to diminish the metabolic capacities of the adductor muscle and thereby the scallops' escape response. We examined the escape response in terms of number of valve claps until exhaustion, rate of clapping and the recovery during and after valve closure in adult scallops, Chlamys islandica, sampled at different stages in the reproductive cycle (immature, mature, before and after spawning). In parallel, we measured muscle glycogen, protein and phosphoarginine contents, the oxidative capacity of mitochondria isolated from the adductor muscle and levels of muscle enzymes which are active during exercise and recovery. The number of claps (24-26), rate of clapping ( approximately 13 clapsmin(-1)) and phosphoarginine and arginine kinase levels were similar during the different reproductive stages. All immature scallops responded to restimulation immediately after opening their valves, while only 62% of mature, 82% of prespawned and 38% of spawned scallops responded. Immature animals completely recovered their initial swimming capacity within 4 h of opening their valves, but mature, prespawned and spawned scallops needed 18, 12 and 18 h, respectively. Overall phasic adductor muscle from mature, prespawned and spawned animals showed decreased glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase (except for prespawned), octopine dehydrogenase and citrate synthase levels, a deterioration of the oxidative capacity of mitochondria and a marked decrease in glycogen content compared to immature scallops. Therefore, during gonadal maturation and spawning, C. islandica did not change its clapping capacity, but slowed its recuperation from exhausting burst exercise, both during and after valve closure, likely due to the decreased metabolic capacity of the adductor muscle. PMID:10960615

  15. Is an Apicomplexan Parasite Responsible for the Collapse of the Iceland Scallop (Chlamys islandica) Stock?

    PubMed Central

    Kristmundsson, Árni; Erlingsdóttir, Ásthildur; Freeman, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the total and unexpected collapse of the Iceland scallop, Chlamys islandica, stocks around Iceland during the 2000s, a commercial fishing ban has been imposed on this valuable resource since 2003. Following the initial identification of an apicomplexan parasite in the scallops, a long-term surveillance program was established to evaluate the effect of the parasite on the population. The infections were highly prevalent in all shell sizes throughout the study. However, the parasite only impacts mature scallops where they cause severe macroscopic changes, characterized by an extensively diminished and abnormally coloured adductor muscle. A highly significant relationship was observed between infection intensity and gonad and adductor muscle indices. The first four years of the study, were characterized by high infection intensity and very poor condition of the adductor muscle and gonads, whilst during subsequent years, infections gradually decreased and the condition of the scallops improved. Histopathological changes were restricted to the presence of apicomplexan zoites which were widely distributed, causing varying degrees of pathology in all organs. In heavy infections, muscular and connective tissues were totally necrotized, destroying significant parts of numerous organs, especially the adductor muscle, digestive gland and gonads. The progression of the disease was in good synchrony with the mortality rates and the subsequent decline observed in the scallop stock and recruitment indices. Our findings strongly suggest that the apicomplexan parasite played a major role in the collapse of the Iceland scallop stock in Breidafjordur. In addition to causing mortality, the infections significantly impact gonad development which contributes further to the collapse of the stock in the form of lower larval recruitment. Furthermore, compelling evidence exists that this apicomplexan pathogen is causing serious disease outbreaks in other scallop populations. Similar

  16. Bilateral recurrent external obturator muscle hematoma: An unusual cause of pelvic pain in hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    ARPACI, TANER; SASMAZ, ILGEN; AKBAS, TUGANA; EKEN, ALPER; OZGUR, ANIL; ANTMEN, BULENT

    2016-01-01

    Following joint hemorrhages, intramuscular hemorrhages are the second most prevalent bleeding pattern in hemophiliac patients. Hematomas of the iliopsoas muscle are a well-known complication of hemophilia; however, obturator muscle hematomas are rare. We herein report a case of spontaneous bleeding of the bilateral external obturator muscles, which occured three times within a period of 9 months in a hemophilia patient with factor VIII inhibitors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case of an obturator externus muscle hematoma in hemophilia. In addition to hip hemarthrosis, iliopsoas hematomas and acute appendicitis, obturator muscle hematoma should be considered as one of the diagnostic alternatives for pelvic pain in hemophiliaψ patients. Magnetic resonance imaging enables rapid diagnosis of obturator muscle hematoma. PMID:27073678

  17. Obturator internus muscle abscess in children: report of seven cases and review.

    PubMed

    Viani, R M; Bromberg, K; Bradley, J S

    1999-01-01

    Obturator internus muscle (OIM) abscess is an uncommon entity often mistaken for septic arthritis of the hip. We describe seven children with OIM abscess and review seven previously reported cases. The most common presenting symptoms were hip or thigh pain (14 patients), fever (13), and limp (13). The hip was flexed, abducted, and externally rotated in 11 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) were diagnostic for OIM abscess in the 14 patients. Associated abscesses were located in the obturator externus muscle (5 patients), psoas muscle (2), and iliac muscle (1). The etiologic agents were Staphylococcus aureus (8 patients), Streptococcus pyogenes (2), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (2), and Enterococcus faecalis (1). Three patients underwent CT-guided percutaneous drainage, and three had surgical drainage. Three patients had ischial osteomyelitis in addition to OIM abscess. The 11 children with uncomplicated OIM abscess were treated for a median of 28 days. All patients had an uneventful recovery. PMID:10028081

  18. Molecular Prevalence of Acarapis Mite Infestations in Honey Bees in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ah-Jin; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Noh, Jin-Hyeong; Kim, Young-Ha; Yoo, Mi-Sun; Kang, Seung-Won; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Shin, Sung Shik

    2015-06-01

    Acarapis mites, including Acarapis woodi, Acarapis externus, and Acarapis dorsalis, are parasites of bees which can cause severe damage to the bee industry by destroying colonies and decreasing honey production. All 3 species are prevalent throughout many countries including UK, USA, Iran, Turkey, China, and Japan. Based on previous reports of Acarapis mites occurring in northeast Asia, including China and Japan, we investigated a survey of Acarapis mite infestations in honey bees in Korean apiaries. A total of 99 colonies of Apis mellifera were sampled from 5 provinces. The head and thorax of 20 bees from each colony were removed for DNA extraction. PCR assays were performed with 3 primer sets, including T, A, and K primers. Results indicated that 42.4% (42/99) of samples were Acarapis-positive by PCR assay which were sequenced to identify species. Each sequence showed 92.6-99.3% homology with reference sequences. Based on the homology, the number of colonies infected with A. dorsalis was 32 which showed the highest infection rate among the 3 species, while the number of colonies infected with A. externus and A. woodi was 9 and 1, respectively. However, none of the Acarapis mites were morphologically detected. This result could be explained that all apiaries in the survey used acaricides against bee mites such as Varroa destructor and Tropilaelaps clareae which also affect against Acarapis mites. Based on this study, it is highly probable that Acarapis mites as well as Varroa and Tropilaelaps could be prevalent in Korean apiaries. PMID:26174825

  19. [Nutrition and biological value of food parts of a trade bivalve mollusk Anadara broughtoni].

    PubMed

    Tabakaeva, O V; Tabakaev, A V

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the human diet includes different new products of seafishing, including non-fish--bivalves and gastropods, holothurias, echinoderms, jellyfishes that demands careful studying of their chemical composition. The purpose of the study was to determine the nutritional and biological value of all soft parts of the burrowing bivalve MOLLUSK Anadara broughtoni from the Far East region. It was established thatfood parts of a bivalve were significantly flooded (water content--73.5-84.2%), with the minimum water content in the adductor and maximum in the mantle. Dry solids are presented by organic (89-93%) and mineral (7-11%) components. Organic components consist of protein (14.6-20.7%), lipids (1.8-2.3%), carbohydrates (2.1-2.6%). The analysis of amino-acid composition of proteins of food parts of the mollusk of Anadara broughtonishowed the presence of all essential amino acids with slight differences in their content depending on the localization of the protein. All edible parts have tryptophan as the limiting amino acid. Muscle proteins have maximum level of lysine, methionine, cysteine, phenylalanine and tyrosine; mantle proteins--leucine, isoleucine and threonine; adductor proteins--valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine and cysteine. Predominant nonessential amino acids forproteins of all food pieces are glycine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine. The coefficient of amino-acid score differences of adductor protein (31.7%) is less than the same of cloak by 3.7%. The indicator "biological value" is maximal for adductor (68.3%), but the differenceformuscle is only 0.83%. Mantle proteins are characterized by minimum biological value (64.6%). The coefficient of utility of amino acid composition of protein is maximalfor muscle (57.83%), and values for a cloak and an adductor differ slightly (55.81 and 55.96%). Taurine content in food parts of a mollusk Anadara broughtoni is rather high compared to with other bivalve mollusks of the Far East region

  20. Bruxism control in a child with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cristiana Aroeira G R; de Paula, Viviane Andrade Cancio; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Primo, Laura Salignac Guimarães; Castro, Gloria Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most severe childhood disabilities due to a lesion in the developing brain. Oral conditions often observed in this pathogenic are a tendency for the delayed eruption of permanent molars, higher percentages of malocclusion and parafunctional habits, including bruxism. The significance of oral conditions observed in CP patients demonstrates the need for intensive home and professional care for these individuals. This paper presents a 7-year-old boy, with cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation, who had high abrasion wear of the primary teeth related to bruxism. Dental care was carried out under oxide-induced sedation, and management of the bruxism was achieved after the use of a resin acrylic protective appliance fixed on both sides of the mandibula. The treatment performed offered efficiency advantages, was clinically viable, and should be a valuable option to practitioners considering appliance therapy to control parafunctional behavior. PMID:21991456

  1. [Dissertations 25 years after date 46. Treatment of mandibular fractures].

    PubMed

    Kuiper, L; Kroon, F H M

    2016-06-01

    In the 1980s, professionals wanted to determine what the best method was for treating fractures of the mandibula. The emergence of osteosynthesis plates in the late 1960s, bringing with them the possibility of immediate functional restoration, had had a dramatic effect. This type of plate was most often placed by means of an extra-oral incision. A decade later, a system of smaller plates was introduced, which were placed intra-orally. A doctoral research project from 1991 investigated the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of treating a mandibular fracture in order to determine which was most applicable. The importance of careful assessment on the basis of the type of fracture and the desired firmness of the osteosynthesis, described in the dissertation, is still decisive in conclusions concerning surgical treatment method and choice of material. PMID:27275661

  2. A case of early detection of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.

    PubMed

    Mori, Miyu; Koide, Tetsuro; Matsui, Yuriyo; Matsuda, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaws is an adverse reaction associated with the use of bisphosphonates. Although the diagnosis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is based on symptomatology, it is often detected late because the patients become symptomatic only after osteonecrosis is well established. We describe a case of early oral BRONJ detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accidentally. Head MRI revealed low signal of T1-weight images in left mandibula. Patient had been treated with minodronate for osteoporosis during 18 months. Based on the MRI findings and medication history, early stage BRONJ could be considered. Therefore minodronate was switched to teriparatide. Thereafter mandible pares-thesias, odontalgia and exposed bone were not observed. This case suggests that MRI is useful for the early detection of BRONJ. PMID:26069377

  3. A case of early detection of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Miyu; Koide, Tetsuro; Matsui, Yuriyo; Matsuda, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaws is an adverse reaction associated with the use of bisphosphonates. Although the diagnosis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is based on symptomatology, it is often detected late because the patients become symptomatic only after osteonecrosis is well established. We describe a case of early oral BRONJ detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accidentally. Head MRI revealed low signal of T1-weight images in left mandibula. Patient had been treated with minodronate for osteoporosis during 18 months. Based on the MRI findings and medication history, early stage BRONJ could be considered. Therefore minodronate was switched to teriparatide. Thereafter mandible pares-thesias, odontalgia and exposed bone were not observed. This case suggests that MRI is useful for the early detection of BRONJ. PMID:26069377

  4. [A diagnosed follicular cyst turned out to be a squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mizbah, K; Dings, J P J; Gonesh, S J; Merkx, M A W

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old man had undergone a complicated removal of tooth 48 which initially seemed related to a follicular cyst. Subsequently, it turned out that a squamous cell carcinoma had probably developed from the follicular cyst. The patient underwent excision of the tumour, hemimandibulectomy, a neck dissection, and reconstruction of the mandibula using a metal plate, followed by postoperative local radiotherapy. This type of development of a squamous cell carcinoma presents very rarely. From the literature, it can be concluded that the prognosis is unfavourable and that the tumour tends to grow aggressively. In case of abnormal wound healing after the removal of a tooth (with a follicular cyst), it is recommended to examine representative tissue histologically. PMID:23413586

  5. Use of three-dimensional medical modeling methods for precise planning of orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Mavili, Mehmet Emin; Canter, Halil Ibrahim; Saglam-Aydinatay, Banu; Kamaci, Soner; Kocadereli, Ilken

    2007-07-01

    Stereolithographic (medical rapid prototyping) biomodeling allows three-dimensional computed tomography to be used to generate solid plastic replicas of anatomic structures. Reports in the literature suggest that such biomodels may have a use in maxillofacial surgery, craniofacial surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, otology, vascular, and nasal research. A prospective trial to assess the usefulness of biomodeling in orthognathic surgery has been performed. In 12 patients with mandibular prognathism and/or maxillary retrusion, in addition to routine preoperative cephalometric analysis, preoperative high-resolution (cutting slice thickness of 1 mm) three-dimensional computed tomography scan of the patients was obtained. Raw data obtained from computed tomography scanning was processed with a Mimics 9.22 Software (Materialise's Interactive Medical Image Control System, Belgium). Fabrication of three-dimensional medical models was obtained through a process called powder depositional modeling by use of a Spectrum Z 510 3D Color Printer (Z Corporation, Burlington, MA). Alveolar arches of the maxilla and mandibula of the models were replaced with orthodontic dental cast models. Temporomandibular joints of the models were fixed with Kirschner wire. Maxillary and mandibular bony segments were mobilized according to preoperative orthodontic planning done by analysis of cephalometric plain radiographs. The relation between proximal and distal mandibular segments after bilateral sagittal split osteotomies were evaluated on models preoperatively. The same surgeon had a role in both model cutting preoperatively and as an instructor preoperatively. The same bony relation was observed both in preoperative modelsand in the perioperative surgical field in all patients. Condylar malpositioning was not observed in any of the patients. Studying preoperative planned movements of osteotomized bone segments and observing relations of osteotomized segments of mandibula and maxilla in

  6. Implant-supported hybrid prosthesis: Conventional treatment method for borderline cases

    PubMed Central

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Bozkaya, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    An implant-supported hybrid prosthesis is an acrylic resin complete fixed dental prosthesis and supported by implants might be a solution in extreme cases that the need of the restoration for esthetics, function, lip support, and speech. This clinical report aims to present the esthetic and functional prosthetic rehabilitation of three borderline cases with implant-supported hybrid prostheses. Patient 1 (62-year-old man) and Patient 2 (61-year-old man) presented a chief complaint of a compromised esthetic. After clinical evaluations, in Patient 1, 8 implants in the maxilla and 7 implants in mandibula were observed. Patient 2 had 7 implants in the maxilla and 7 implants in mandibula, which were previously placed. The intra-arch dimension of both patients was excessive and an insufficient peri-oral soft tissue support was observed. Patient 3 was a 61-year-old man had 2 implants with a history of previously implanted graft infection and implant loss on his maxillary posterior jaw. An excessive intra-arch dimension was observed in clinical examination. In addition, massive bone defect and insufficient soft tissue support were examined. In all patients, implant-supported hybrid prostheses were successfully performed. The clinical and radiologic findings were satisfactory. After 3 years of follow-up, no functional, phonetic, or esthetic problems with the restorations were noted. These case reports suggest that implant-supported hybrid prostheses can be a reliable alternative treatment procedure when a porcelain-fused metal fixed restoration does not satisfy a patient's requirements for esthetics, phonetics, oral hygiene, and oral comfort. PMID:26430378

  7. Effect of hindlimb suspension and clenbuterol treatment on polyamine levels in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abukhalaf, Imad K.; von Deutsch, Daniel A.; Wineski, Lawrence E.; Silvestrov, Natalia A.; Abera, Saare A.; Sahlu, Sinafikish W.; Potter, David E.; Thierry-Palmer, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Polyamines are unbiquitous, naturally occurring small aliphatic, polycationic, endogenous compounds. They are involved in many cellular processes and may serve as secondary or tertiary messengers to hormonal regulation. The relationship of polyamines and skeletal muscle mass of adductor longus, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius under unloading (hindlimb suspension) conditions was investigated. Unloading significantly affected skeletal muscle polyamine levels in a fiber-type-specific fashion. Under loading conditions, clenbuterol treatment increased all polyamine levels, whereas under unloading conditions, only the spermidine levels were consistently increased. Unloading attenuated the anabolic effects of clenbuterol in predominately slow-twitch muscles (adductor longus), but had little impact on clenbuterol's action as a countermeasure in fast- twitch muscles such as the extensor digitorum longus. Spermidine appeared to be the primary polyamine involved in skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. An Unusual Course and Termination of Small Saphenous Vein: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Prakashchandra; D'Souza, Melanie Rose; Nayak, Satheesha B

    2016-03-01

    The superficial veins of the lower limb can vary in their course and termination. We report a relatively rare type of variation in the course and termination of small saphenous vein. The small saphenous vein had normal origin and course in the leg. However, instead of terminating into the popliteal vein, it continued up in the posterior compartment of the thigh and terminated into the femoral vein after piercing the fleshy part of the adductor magnus muscle. This course might lead to varicosity of the small saphenous vein due to the compression by the fleshy fibres of adductor magus near its termination. The case may be of interest to general and plastic surgeons and even cardiothoracic surgeons. PMID:27134850

  9. An Unusual Course and Termination of Small Saphenous Vein: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Prakashchandra; D’Souza, Melanie Rose

    2016-01-01

    The superficial veins of the lower limb can vary in their course and termination. We report a relatively rare type of variation in the course and termination of small saphenous vein. The small saphenous vein had normal origin and course in the leg. However, instead of terminating into the popliteal vein, it continued up in the posterior compartment of the thigh and terminated into the femoral vein after piercing the fleshy part of the adductor magnus muscle. This course might lead to varicosity of the small saphenous vein due to the compression by the fleshy fibres of adductor magus near its termination. The case may be of interest to general and plastic surgeons and even cardiothoracic surgeons. PMID:27134850

  10. Tissue-specific Cd and Pb accumulation in Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) transplanted to a suspended and bottom culture at Sechura Bay, Peru.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, Iván; Hurtado, Daniela; Miglio, Maria; Orrego, Henry; Mendo, Jaime

    2015-02-28

    In order to understand the effect of different culture systems on Cd and Pb accumulation, suspended long-line and bottom cultures of Argopecten purpuratus were conducted during January until April 2010 (120 days). The Cd tissue levels were the highest at the middle of the experiment (30-d till 70-d) for suspended-cultured individuals, while bottom-cultured individuals showed an increasing trend. Gonad Pb levels were also higher during the same period for all cultures, while adductor muscle exhibited no considerable variations. Cd and Pb tissue concentrations were mainly greater in deeper cultures. There were no significant differences in Cd and Pb accumulation between individual sizes. The Cd and Pb levels in edible tissue (gonad+adductor muscle) did not exceed the EU and FDA maximum levels. Based on the target hazard quotient (THQ) and the provisional tolerance weekly intake (PTWI), no risk (THQ<1 and %PTWI<30) was found for human consumption. PMID:25444617

  11. Evaluation of muscle metabolic activity in the lower limb of a transfemoral amputee using a prosthesis by using (18)F-FDG PET imaging--an application of PET imaging to rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Keiko; Yamaji, Takehiko; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Inoue, Tomio; Takagishi, Kenji; Endo, Keigo

    2004-07-01

    This study used FDG PET to evaluate the lower limb muscles metabolic activities of transfemoral amputees during walking with prostheses. As a preliminary study, FDG PET was applied for two normal adult volunteers to evaluate muscle activity in the lower extremities after gait exercise. This same method was applied for two amputee volunteers with prostheses. We found that FDG accumulated more in both gluteus medius muscles after gait exercise compared to other muscles in normal adult volunteers. In the skilled amputee volunteer, FDG uptake increased in the adductor and gluteus medius in the amputated side, while in the unskilled the adductor, gluteus maximus, and gluteus medius showed increased FDG uptake only in the normal side. This result suggests that basic metabolic changes such as an increase in oxidative metabolism and less reliance on glycolytic activity would occur as a result of skeletal muscle training in amputees. PMID:15183449

  12. [Laryngeal and larynx-associated reflexes].

    PubMed

    Ptok, M; Kühn, D; Miller, S; Jungheim, M; Schroeter, S

    2016-06-01

    The laryngeal adductor reflex and the pharyngoglottal closure reflex protect the trachea and lower respiratory tract against the entrance of foreign material. The laryngeal expiration reflex and the cough reflex serve to propel foreign material, which has penetrated in the cranial direction. The inspiration reflex, the sniff reflex, and the swallowing reflex are further larynx-associated reflexes. In patients with dysphagia the laryngeal adductor reflex can be clinically tested with air pulses. The water swallow test serves to show the integrity of the cough reflex. The sniff reflex is useful to test the abduction function of the vocal folds. Future studies should address laryngeal reflexes more specifically, both for a better understanding of these life-supporting mechanisms and to improve diagnostic procedures in patients with impaired laryngeal function. PMID:27240793

  13. Force Irregularity Following Maximal Effort: The After-Peak Reduction.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Barbara M; Mettler, Joni A; Griffin, Lisa; Spirduso, Waneen

    2016-08-01

    Irregularities in force output are present throughout human movement and can impair task performance. We investigated the presence of a large force discontinuity (after-peak reduction, APR) that appeared immediately following peak in maximal effort ramp contractions performed with the thumb adductor and ankle dorsiflexor muscles in 25 young adult participants (76% males, 24% females; M age 24.4 years, SD = 7.1). The after-peak reduction displayed similar parameters in both muscle groups with comparable drops in force during the after-peak reduction minima (thumb adductor: 27.5 ± 7.5% maximal voluntary contraction; ankle dorsiflexor: 25.8 ± 6.2% maximal voluntary contraction). A trend for the presence of fewer after-peak reductions with successive ramp trials was observed, suggesting a learning effect. Further investigation should explore underlying neural mechanisms contributing to the after-peak reduction. PMID:27502241

  14. [Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy: Importance of Monitoring Neuromuscular Function at Multiple Sites].

    PubMed

    Matsui, Shuhei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kiyosawa, Kenkichi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Kawamata, Mikito

    2015-12-01

    A 39-year-old female with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) was scheduled for thoracoscopic resection of an anterior mediastinal tumor. She had slowly progressive weakness and atrophy in the fascial and shoulder girdle muscles. General anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol, remifentanil, and fentanyl combined with thoracic paravertebral block. Rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade was evaluated with acceleromyography at the corrugator supercilii, masseter, and adductor pollicis muscles. There was no reaction at the atrophic corrugator supercilii muscle in response to train-of-four (TOF) stimulation even before rocuronium administration. In contrast twitch responses at the masseter and adductor pollicis muscles to TOF stimulation could be evoked and the duration of action of rocuronium was found to be similar to that of the normal population. The perioperative course was uneventful. Neuromuscular monitoring sites should be carefully selected in FSHD patients because of possible inability to monitor neuromuscular function at the atrophic muscles. PMID:26790332

  15. Oxidative-stress: comparison of species specific and tissue specific effects in the marine bivalves Mytilus edulis (L.) and Dosinia lupinus (L.).

    PubMed

    Walker, S T; Mantle, D; Bythell, J C; Thomason, J C

    2000-11-01

    This study describes a novel approach to the objective of identifying a suitable biomarker of oxidative-stress in marine animals and evaluates an established assay under controlled experimental conditions in vivo and in vitro. Live animals and tissue homogenates of the euryoxic blue mussel Mytilus edulis (L.), and the stenoxic smooth artemis Dosinia lupinus (L.), were exposed to oxidative-stress generated using a 60Co gamma-radiation source. In live organisms, mortality-rates were significantly different between species. M. edulis showed zero mortality and D. lupinus 30% mortality over 18 h. Protein-carbonyl (PC=O) content was determined by colourimetric assay (total protein-carbonyl) or immunodetection (for individual proteins) in four tissue types: digestive gland, mantle, adductor muscle and foot. In tissue homogenates, digestive gland and adductor muscle of both species showed significant increases (greater for D. lupinus) in PC=O content following irradiation in vitro. All tissues from live animals (with the exception of M. edulis mantle and adductor muscle of D. lupinus which died under irradiation) showed significantly different levels of PC Os following irradiation; D. lupinus PC=O levels were increased whilst in M. edulis PC=O content decreased. In D. lupinus which died during irradiation, PC=O content was greater than in those D. lupinus which survived, particularly in the adductor muscle, the former were inceased by 74% above controls. The findings support the hypothesis that species-specific adaptations to euryoxic and stenoxic environments, and metabolic requirements of different tissues, should result in differing ROS defences. PMID:11126765

  16. Rostroconchia: A new class of bivalved mollusks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pojeta, J., Jr.; Runnegar, B.; Morris, N.J.; Newell, N.D.

    1972-01-01

    Four Paleozoic bivalved genera are assigned to the new molluscan class Rostroconchia: Eopteria, Euchasma, Conocardium, and Pseudoconocardium. These mollusks have an uncoiled univalved larval shell; an untorted bivalved adult shell; no hinge teeth, ligament, or adductor muscles; and a fused, almost inflexible, hinge. Rostroconchians developed separately from the pelecypods through the ribeirioids, but are regarded as more closely related to the Pelecypoda and Scaphopoda than to other known classes of molllusks.

  17. Pm-miR-133 hosting in one potential lncRNA regulates RhoA expression in pearl oyster Pinctada martensii.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhe; Huang, RongLian; Tian, RongRong; Jiao, Yu; Du, Xiaodong

    2016-10-15

    Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are abundant in the genome of higher forms of eukaryotes and implicated in regulating the diversity of biological processes partly because they host microRNAs (miRNAs), which are repressors of target gene expression. In vertebrates, miR-133 regulates the differentiation and proliferation of cardiac and skeletal muscles. Pinctada martensii miR-133 (pm-miR-133) was identified in our previous research through Solexa deep sequencing. In the present study, the precise sequence of mature pm-miR-133 was validated through miR-RACE. Stem loop qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that mature pm-miR-133 was constitutively expressed in the adductor muscle, gonad, hepatopancreas, mantle, foot, and gill of P. martensii. Among these tissues, the adductor muscle exhibited the highest pm-miR-133 expression. Target analysis indicated that pm-RhoA was the potential regulatory target of pm-miR-133. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that a potential LncRNA (designated as Lnc133) with a mature pm-miR-133 could generate a hairpin structure that was highly homologous to that of Lottia gigantea. Lnc133 was also highly expressed in the adductor muscle, gill, hepatopancreas, and gonad. Phylogenetic analysis further showed that the miR-133s derived from chordate and achordate were separated into two classes. Therefore, Lnc133 hosting pm-miR-133 could be involved in regulating the cell proliferation of adductor muscles by targeting pm-RhoA. PMID:27363668

  18. Groin pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Jim; Johson, Chris; Schroeder, Erik L

    2006-12-01

    Groin pain is a common and often frustrating problem in athletes who engage in sports involving kicking, rapid accelerations and decelerations, and sudden direction changes. The most common problems are adductor strain, osteitis pubis, and sports hernia. Other causes must be considered, including nerve pain, stress fractures, and intrinsic hip pathology. There is significant overlap and multiple problems frequently coexist. Accurate diagnosis leads to directed treatment, with rehabilitation focused on functional closed-chain strengthening and core stability. PMID:17067496

  19. Preliminary Study of Open Quotient in an Ex-Vivo Perfused Human Larynx Model

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Abie H.; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Luegmair, Georg; Orestes, Michael; Berke, Gerald S.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Scientific understanding human voice production to date is a product of indirect investigations including animal models, cadaveric tissue study, or computational modeling. Due to its invasive nature, direct experimentation of human voice production has previously not been possible. The feasibility of an ex-vivo perfused human phonatory model has recently allowed systematic investigation in virtually living human larynges with parametric laryngeal muscle stimulation. Objective In this study, the relationship between adductor muscle group stimulation and the open quotient (OQ) of vocal fold vibration was investigated using an ex-vivo perfused human larynx. Design Human perfused tissue study. Setting Physiology Laboratory. Participants Human larynx is recovered from research-consented organ donors within two hours of cardiac death. Interventions, Main Outcomes and Measures Perfusion with donated human blood is re-established shortly after cardiac death. Human perfused phonation is achieved by providing subglottal airflow under graded neuromuscular electrical stimulation bilaterally to the intrinsic adductor groups and cricothyroid muscles. The phonation resulting from the graded states of neuromuscular stimulations are evaluated through high-speed vibratory imaging. OQ is derived through digital kymography and glottal area waveform analysis. Results Under constant glottal flow, step-wise increase in adductor muscle group stimulation decreased OQ. Quantitatively, OQ values reached a lower limit of 0.42. Increased stimulation above maximal muscle deformation was unable to affect OQ beyond this lower limit. Conclusions and Relevance For the first time in a neuromuscularly activated human larynx, a negative relationship between adductor muscle group stimulation and phonatory OQ was demonstrated. Further experience with the ex-vivo perfused human phonatory model will work to systematically define this causal relationship. PMID:26181642

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF SEX AND MATURATION ON LANDING BIOMECHANICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ACL INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Sigward, S. M.; Pollard, C. D.; Powers, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    During landing and cutting, females exhibit greater frontal plane moments at the knee (internal knee adductor moments or external knee abduction moments) and favor use of the knee extensors over the hip extensors to attenuate impact forces when compared to males. However, it is not known when this biomechanical profile emerges. The purpose of this study was to compare landing biomechanics between sexes across maturation levels. One hundred and nineteen male and female soccer players (9–22 years) participated. Subjects were grouped based on maturational development. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were obtained during a drop-land task. Dependent variables included the average internal knee adductor moment and sagittal plane knee/hip moment and energy absorption ratios during the deceleration phase of landing. When averaged across maturation levels, females demonstrated greater internal knee adductor moments (0.06±0.03 vs. 0.01±0.02 Nm/kg*m; P<0.005), knee/hip extensor moment ratios (2.0±0.1 vs. 1.4±0.1 Nm/kg*m; P<0.001), and knee/hip energy absorption ratios (2.9±0.1 vs. 1.96±0.1 Nm/kg*m; P<0.001) compared to males. Higher knee adductor moments combined with disproportionate use of knee extensors relative to hip extensors observed in females reflects a biomechanical pattern that increases ACL loading. This biomechanical strategy already was established in pre-pubertal female athletes. PMID:21210853

  1. Athletic groin pain (part 1): a prospective anatomical diagnosis of 382 patients—clinical findings, MRI findings and patient-reported outcome measures at baseline

    PubMed Central

    Falvey, É C; King, E; Kinsella, S; Franklyn-Miller, A

    2016-01-01

    Background Athletic groin pain remains a common field-based team sports time-loss injury. There are few reports of non-surgically managed cohorts with athletic groin pain. Aim To describe clinical presentation/examination, MRI findings and patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores for an athletic groin pain cohort. Methods All patients had a history including demographics, injury duration, sport played and standardised clinical examination. All patients underwent MRI and PRO score to assess recovery. A clinical diagnosis of the injured anatomical structure was made based on these findings. Statistical assessment of the reliability of accepted standard investigations undertaken in making an anatomical diagnosis was performed. Result 382 consecutive athletic groin pain patients, all male, enrolled. Median time in pain at presentation was (IQR) 36 (16–75) weeks. Most (91%) played field-based ball-sports. Injury to the pubic aponeurosis (PA) 240 (62.8%) was the most common diagnosis. This was followed by injuries to the hip in 81 (21.2%) and adductors in 56 (14.7%) cases. The adductor squeeze test (90° hip flexion) was sensitive (85.4%) but not specific for the pubic aponeurosis and adductor pathology (negative likelihood ratio 1.95). Analysed in series, positive MRI findings and tenderness of the pubic aponeurosis had a 92.8% post-test probability. Conclusions In this largest cohort of patients with athletic groin pain combining clinical and MRI diagnostics there was a 63% prevalence of PA injury. The adductor squeeze test was sensitive for athletic groin pain, but not specific individual pathologies. MRI improved diagnostic post-test probability. No hernia or incipient hernia was diagnosed. Clinical trial registration number NCT02437942. PMID:26626272

  2. A case of segmental myoclonus in amputation stump: evidence for spinal generator and physiopathogenetic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Devetag Chalaupka, F; Bernardi, M

    1999-10-01

    We describe a 68-year-old woman who experienced pain and phantom limb sensation following an above-the-knee amputation of the right leg. A month later, the patient had myoclonic jerks of the stump. Polymyo-graphic recordings showed synchronous jerks in the vastus medialis and adductors of the thigh on the right side. The patient responded to clonazepam. We conclude that the myoclonic jerks were of spinal cord origin. PMID:10933443

  3. On the central muscle attachment scar pattern of Suchonella Spizharsky 1939

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    The fortuitous spalling of a carapace of the nonmarine Permian Suchonella typica Spizharsky 1939 disclosed the adductor muscle attachment scar as well as two accessory scars on both the right side of the steinkern and the inside of the spalled right valve. This central muscle field is illustrated and discussed. An objective list of species described in or referred to Suchonella Spizharsky 1939 is appended.

  4. A Morphometric Study of the Obturator Nerve around the Obturator Foramen

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Se Yeong; Chang, Jae Chil; Bae, Hack Gun; Oh, Jae-Sang; Heo, Juneyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obturator neuropathy is a rare condition. Many neurosurgeons are unfamiliar with the obturator nerve anatomy. The purpose of this study was to define obturator nerve landmarks around the obturator foramen. Methods Fourteen cadavers were studied bilaterally to measure the distances from the nerve root to relevant anatomical landmarks near the obturator nerve, including the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS), the pubic tubercle, the inguinal ligament, the femoral artery, and the adductor longus. Results The obturator nerve exits the obturator foramen and travels infero-medially between the adductors longus and brevis. The median distances from the obturator nerve exit zone (ONEZ) to the ASIS and pubic tubercle were 114 mm and 30 mm, respectively. The median horizontal and vertical distances between the pubic tubercle and the ONEZ were 17 mm and 27 mm, respectively. The shortest median distance from the ONEZ to the inguinal ligament was 19 mm. The median inguinal ligament lengths from the ASIS and the median pubic tubercle to the shortest point were 103 mm and 24 mm, respectively. The median obturator nerve lengths between the ONEZ and the adductor longus and femoral artery were 41 mm and 28 mm, respectively. Conclusion The obturator nerve exits the foramen 17 mm and 27 mm on the horizontal and sagittal planes, respectively, from the pubic tubercle below the pectineus muscle. The shallowest area is approximately one-fifth medially from the inguinal ligament. This study will help improve the accuracy of obturator nerve surgeries to better establish therapeutic plans and decrease complications. PMID:27226861

  5. Influences of laryngeal afferent inputs on intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization in the cat.

    PubMed

    Shiba, K; Yoshida, K; Nakajima, Y; Konno, A

    1997-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the possible role of the laryngeal afferent inputs in the regulation of intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization. We studied the influences of airflow and/or pressure applied to the larynx on intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization in ketamine-anesthetized cats. Vocalization was induced by airflow applied to the upper airway, which was isolated from the lower airway, during pontine call site stimulation. When the upper airway was open to the atmosphere through the nostrils and mouth, the airflow increased not only the vocal fold adductor and tensor activities but also the duration of these activities. The adductor and tensor activities were increased suddenly at a critical subglottic pressure level equivalent to the subglottic pressure threshold for vocalization. These effects were significantly reduced by sectioning of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve or by lidocaine application to the laryngeal mucosa. Sustained pressure applied to the isolated upper airway, when the mouth and nostrils were occluded, did not affect adductor or tensor activities. These results indicate that the afferent inputs evoked by vocal fold stretching or vibration play an important role in the motor control of intralaryngeal and respiratory muscles during vocalization. PMID:9089702

  6. Extending the use of the gracilis muscle flap in perineal reconstruction surgery.

    PubMed

    Goldie, Stephen J; Almasharqah, Riyadh; Fogg, Quentin A; Anderson, William

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction of the perineum is required following oncological resections. Plastic surgical techniques can be used to restore the aesthetics and function of the perineum. The gracilis myocutaneous flap provides a substantial skin paddle, with minimal donor site morbidity. The flap is pedicled on a perforator from the medial circumflex femoral artery, giving it limited reach across the perineum. Tunnelling the flap under the adductor longus muscle may free up more of the arterial pedicle, increasing its reach. On three female cadavers, bilateral gracilis flaps were raised in the standard surgical manner, giving six flaps in total. With the flaps pedicled across the perineum, the distance from the tip of each flap was measured to the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). The flaps were then tunnelled under the adductor longus muscle. The distances to the ASIS were measured again. The average pedicle length was greater than 7 cm. Tunnelling the flap under the adductor longus muscle increased the reach by more than 4 cm on average. Cadaveric dissection has shown that tunnelling of the flap in a novel way increase its reach across the perineum. This additional flexibility improves its use clinically and is of benefit to plastic surgeons operating in perineal reconstruction. PMID:27221783

  7. Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Anil; Zywiel, Michael G; Ulrich, Slif D; McGrath, Mike S; Seyler, Thorsten M; Marker, David R; Delanois, Ronald E; Mont, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of hip adductor, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris muscle contractures following total hip arthroplasties are quite common, with some patients failing to improve despite treatment with a variety of non-operative modalities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of and patient outcomes of botulinum toxin injections as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty. Methods Ten patients (14 hips) who had hip adductor, abductor, and/or flexor muscle contractures following total arthroplasty and had been refractory to physical therapeutic efforts were treated with injection of botulinum toxin A. Eight limbs received injections into the adductor muscle, 8 limbs received injections into the tensor fascia lata muscle, and 2 limbs received injection into the rectus femoris muscle, followed by intensive physical therapy for 6 weeks. Results At a mean final follow-up of 20 months, all 14 hips had increased range in the affected arc of motion, with a mean improvement of 23 degrees (range, 10 to 45 degrees). Additionally all hips had an improvement in hip scores, with a significant increase in mean score from 74 points (range, 57 to 91 points) prior to injection to a mean of 96 points (range, 93 to 98) at final follow-up. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion Botulinum toxin A injections combined with intensive physical therapy may be considered as a potential treatment modality, especially in difficult cases of muscle tightness that are refractory to standard therapy. PMID:19709429

  8. Feeding biomechanics of the cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, over ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Motta, Philip J; Grubbs, R Dean

    2015-09-01

    Growth affects the performance of structure, so the pattern of growth must influence the role of a structure and an organism. Because animal performance is linked to morphological specialization, ontogenetic change in size may influence an organism's biological role. High bite force generation is presumably selected for in durophagous taxa. Therefore, these animals provide an excellent study system for investigating biomechanical consequences of growth on performance. An ontogenetic series of 27 cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) were dissected in order to develop a biomechanical model of the feeding mechanism, which was then compared with bite forces measured from live rays. Mechanical advantage of the feeding apparatus was generally conserved throughout ontogeny, while an increase in the mass and cross-sectional area of the jaw adductors resulted in allometric gains in bite force generation. Of primary importance to forceful biting in this taxon is the use of a fibrocartilaginous tendon associated with the insertion of the primary jaw adductor division. This tendon may serve to redirect muscle forces anteriorly, transmitting them within the plane of biting. Measured bite forces obtained through electrostimulation of the jaw adductors in live rays were higher than predicted, possibly due to differences in specific tension of actual batoid muscle and that used in the model. Mass-specific bite forces in these rays are the highest recorded for elasmobranchs. Cownose rays exemplify a species that, through allometric growth of bite performance and morphological novelties, have expanded their ecological performance over ontogeny. PMID:26183820

  9. Management of severe lower abdominal or inguinal pain in high-performance athletes. PAIN (Performing Athletes with Abdominal or Inguinal Neuromuscular Pain Study Group).

    PubMed

    Meyers, W C; Foley, D P; Garrett, W E; Lohnes, J H; Mandlebaum, B R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the pathophysiologic processes of severe lower-abdominal or inguinal pain in high-performance athletes. We evaluated 276 patients; 175 underwent pelvic floor repairs. Of the 157 athletes who had not undergone previous surgery, 124 (79%) participated at a professional or other highly competitive level, and 138 patients (88%) had adductor pain that accompanied the lower-abdominal or inguinal pain. More patients underwent related adductor releases during the later operative period in the series. Evaluation revealed 38 other abnormalities, including severe hip problems and malignancies. There were 152 athletes (97%) who returned to previous levels of performance. The syndrome was uncommon in women and the results were less predictable in nonathletes. A distinct syndrome of lower-abdominal/adductor pain in male athletes appears correctable by a procedure designed to strengthen the anterior pelvic floor. The location and pattern of pain and the operative success suggest the cause to be a combination of abdominal hyperextension and thigh hyperabduction, with the pivot point being the pubic symphysis. Diagnosis of "athletic pubalgia" and surgery should be limited to a select group of high-performance athletes. The consideration of other causes of groin pain in the patient is critical. PMID:10653536

  10. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided obturator nerve block in transurethral surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thallaj, Ahmed; Rabah, Dany

    2011-01-01

    Background: During transurethral resection surgery (TUR), accidental stimulation of the obturator nerve can cause violent adductor contraction, leading to serious intraoperative complications. General anesthesia with muscle relaxation is currently the preferred technique for TUR surgery. Spinal anesthesia combined with obturator nerve block has also been used for TUR surgery in geriatric population. Blind, anatomical methods for identifying the obturator nerve are often unsatisfactory. Therefore, we conducted this prospective study to validate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided obturator nerve block (USONB) during TUR procedures. Methods: Eighteen male patients undergoing TURP surgery under spinal anesthesia were included in the study. Bilateral USONB with maximum 20 ml of 1% lidocaine per patient was performed. An independent observer was present to monitor any adduction movements during the operation and to record patient and surgeon satisfactions. Results: In all patients, obturator nerve was visualized from the first attempt, requiring an average of 4.3 min for blocking of each side. USONB was successful (97.2%) in preventing an adductor spasm in all except one patient. Patient’s and surgeon’s satisfaction were appropriate. In all patients, adductor muscle strength recovered fully within 2 h following the surgical procedure. Conclusions: USONB is safe and effective during TUR surgery. It provides optimal intra-and postoperative conditions. PMID:21655015

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of live freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, Holliman F.; Davis, D.; Bogan, A.E.; Kwak, T.J.; Gregory, Cope W.; Levine, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the soft tissues of live freshwater mussels, Eastern elliptio Elliptio complanata, via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), acquiring data with a widely available human whole-body MRI system. Anatomical features depicted in the profile images included the foot, stomach, intestine, anterior and posterior adductor muscles, and pericardial cavity. Noteworthy observations on soft tissue morphology included a concentration of lipids at the most posterior aspect of the foot, the presence of hemolymph-filled fissures in the posterior adductor muscle, the presence of a relatively large hemolymph-filled sinus adjacent to the posterior adductor muscle (at the ventral-anterior aspect), and segmentation of the intestine (a diagnostic description not reported previously in Unionidae). Relatively little is known about the basic biology and ecological physiology of freshwater mussels. Traditional approaches for studying anatomy and tissue processes, and for measuring sub-lethal physiological stress, are destructive or invasive. Our study, the first to evaluate freshwater mussel soft tissues by MRI, clarifies the body plan of unionid mussels and demonstrates the efficacy of this technology for in vivo evaluation of the structure, function, and integrity of mussel soft tissues. ?? 2008, The American Microscopical Society, Inc.

  12. An Integrated Musculoskeletal Countermeasure Battery for Long-Duration Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, T. F.; Streeper, T. S.; Cavanagh, P. R.; Saeed, I. H.; Carpenter, R. D.; Frassetto, L. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Grodsinsky, C. M.; Funk, J.; Hanson, A. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Sibonga, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    During extended periods of skeletal unloading, losses in strength and density of the proximal femur will occur. In long-duration spaceflight, resistive exercise is used to replace the normal loads exerted on the spine and hip. At the present time, there is no conclusive evidence that hip bone loss has been prevented in this scenario. Our group has recently developed and clinically evaluated a multifunctional exercise system, the Combined Countermeasure Device (CCD). The CCD comprises a low-footprint Stuart Platform for lower-body resistance exercise and balance training, and a cardiovascular exercise bicycle. A consideration for resistance exercise was targeting of the hip abductor and adductor muscles, which attach directly at the hip and which should subject it to the largest loads. In our training study, we found that CCD exercise increased hip adductor and abductor strength, and modeling results suggest that this exercise exerts forces on the hip of approx. 4-6 body weights at 1g, compared to forces of approx.2.5 body weight y squatting exercise. In our current study, we hypothesize that abductor and adductor exercise will increase the density and strength of the proximal femur.

  13. Structural basis for radial ornamentation in orthid brachiopods

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerly, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Radial ornamentation patterns in brachiopods (eg. ribs, costellae) result from accretionary growth of a crenulated shell margin. The direction of rib growth represents the orientation of the crenulated fabric at the time of shell formation. Morphologic analysis reveals a close relationship between rib growth patterns and the position of adductor muscle attachment sites in the shell. In the brachial valves of most orthid brachiopods, the directions of rib growth, when projected backwards into the shell, converge on the anterior, or catch, adductor muscle scars. One explanation for the observed relationship is that the crenulated surface provides rigidity to the thin growing margin of the shell thereby resisting deformations caused by the adductor loadings. Alternatively, calcite secretion may be mediated by strain-induced growth mechanisms as observed in vertebrate bone growth patterns. Correspondence of muscle position with shell geometry indicates that muscle placement may be constrained by mechanical properties of the shell rather than by requirements of the hinge mechanism. Morphologic diversity among brachiopods is discussed in terms of structural and mechanical constraints on form.

  14. Minimally invasive medial hip approach.

    PubMed

    Chiron, P; Murgier, J; Cavaignac, E; Pailhé, R; Reina, N

    2014-10-01

    The medial approach to the hip via the adductors, as described by Ludloff or Ferguson, provides restricted visualization and incurs a risk of neurovascular lesion. We describe a minimally invasive medial hip approach providing broader exposure of extra- and intra-articular elements in a space free of neurovascular structures. With the lower limb in a "frog-leg" position, the skin incision follows the adductor longus for 6cm and then the aponeurosis is incised. A slide plane between all the adductors and the aponeurosis is easily released by blunt dissection, with no interposed neurovascular elements. This gives access to the lesser trochanter, psoas tendon and inferior sides of the femoral neck and head, anterior wall of the acetabulum and labrum. We report a series of 56 cases, with no major complications: this approach allows treatment of iliopsoas muscle lesions and resection or filling of benign tumors of the cervical region and enables intra-articular surgery (arthrolysis, resection of osteophytes or foreign bodies, labral suture). PMID:25164350

  15. Effect of diet and temperature upon muscle metabolic capacities and biochemical composition of gonad and muscle in Argopecten purpuratus Lamarck 1819.

    PubMed

    Martínez; Brokordt; Aguilera; Soto; Guderley

    2000-04-26

    Recently spawned Argopecten purpuratus broodstock were conditioned at two temperatures and fed three different diets (microalgae, microalgae mixed with lipids and microalgae mixed with carbohydrates) to examine changes in the biochemical composition of gonad and muscle as well as muscle metabolic capacities. During one experiment, scallops were fed at 3% of their dry mass per day whereas during a second experiment, they were fed at 6% of their dry mass per day. During both experiments, total gonadal levels of lipids and protein increased markedly during conditioning with the two mixed diets at 16 degrees C. These increases were less pronounced at 20 degrees C. Carbohydrate gonadal levels only increased during the second experiment at both temperatures and with the three diets. Of the major biochemical components of the adductor muscle, carbohydrate levels changed most during conditioning. Whereas muscle protein levels increased slightly with gonadal maturation, carbohydrate levels dropped considerably. Despite the marked drop in the levels of glycolytic substrates, only the activities of octopine dehydrogenase in the adductor muscle of the scallops conditioned at 16 degrees C consistently decreased. Muscle levels of glycogen phosphorylase were higher in mature than in recently spawned (control) scallops, suggesting a role in the transfer of glucose equivalents from the adductor muscle to other tissues. PMID:10727686

  16. Amphibian skull evolution: the developmental and functional context of simplification, bone loss and heterotopy.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Rainer R

    2014-12-01

    Despite their divergent morphology, extant and extinct amphibians share numerous features in the timing and spatial patterning of dermal skull elements. Here, I show how the study of these features leads to a deeper understanding of morphological evolution. Batrachians (salamanders and frogs) have simplified skulls, with dermal bones appearing rudimentary compared with fossil tetrapods, and open cheeks resulting from the absence of other bones. The batrachian skull bones may be derived from those of temnospondyls by truncation of the developmental trajectory. The squamosal, quadratojugal, parietal, prefrontal, parasphenoid, palatine, and pterygoid form rudimentary versions of their homologs in temnospondyls. In addition, failure to ossify and early fusion of bone primordia both result in the absence of further bones that were consistently present in Paleozoic tetrapods. Here, I propose a new hypothesis explaining the observed patterns of bone loss and emargination in a functional context. The starting observation is that jaw-closing muscles are arranged in a different way than in ancestors from the earliest ontogenetic stage onwards, with muscles attaching to the dorsal side of the frontal, parietal, and squamosal. The postparietal and supratemporal start to ossify in a similar way as in branchiosaurids, but are fused to neighboring elements to form continuous attachment areas for the internal adductor. The postfrontal, postorbital, and jugal fail to ossify, as their position is inconsistent with the novel arrangement of adductor muscles. Thus, rearrangement of adductors forms the common theme behind cranial simplification, driven by an evolutionary flattening of the skull in the batrachian stem. PMID:25404554

  17. Quantifying the aging response and nutrient composition for muscles of the beef round.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C L; Woerner, D R; Tokach, R J; Chapman, P L; Engle, T E; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P < 0.05) between individual muscle and postmortem aging period. The WBSF of all muscles except the superficial digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All

  18. Groin injuries in athletes--development of clinical entities, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Hölmich, Per

    2015-12-01

    The doctoral thesis is based on eight papers published in peer-reviewed journals and a review of the literature. The papers are published between 1997 and 2013 in cooperation with Sankt Elisabeth Hospital, Herlev Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre Hospital, Amager Hospital, Copenhagen Trial Unit, and Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen. Groin injuries in sport are very common and in football they are among the most common and most time-consuming injuries. These injuries are treated very differently around the world. There is no consensus in the literature regarding definitions, examination methods, diagnosis or treatment and in general the level of evidence is very low. There is a need for identification of the painful anatomical structures, how to examine them and how to define clinical entities to develop effective treatment and prevention. The aim of these studies were: - To review the literature to create an overview of the ideas and the knowledge in order to plan future studies in this field. - Develop and test clinical examination techniques of the relevant tendons and muscles in the region. - Since no evidence-based diagnosis exist; to develop a set of clinical entities to identify the different groups of patients. - To test the effect of a dedicated exercise program developed for treatment of long-standing adductor-related groin pain in athletes in a randomised clinical trial comparing it to the treatment modalities used at that time. - To examine the long-term effect of the above mentioned training program for treatment of long-standing adductor-related groin pain. - To develop a training program for prevention of groin injuries in soccer and test it in a randomised clinical trial. - To describe the occurrence and presentation in clinical entities of groin injuries in male football and to examine the characteristics of these injuries. - Evaluate if radiological signs of femuro-acetabular impingement (FAI) or dysplasia affect the

  19. The forebrain of the blind cave fish Astyanax hubbsi (Characidae). I. General anatomy of the telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Riedel, G

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the cell groups in the telencephalon of the teleost Astyanax hubbsi, based on series of transverse sections stained with the Nissl-Klüver-Barrera and Bodian procedures. The work was conducted for two reasons. Firstly, it was intended to determine the contribution of the forebrain of blind cave fish to certain forms of behavior. An understanding of the anatomy of the telencephalic organization is essential for such a neuroethological approach. The second purpose was to provide the cytoarchitectural basis for the experimental analysis of the fiber connectivity of the telencephalon of A. hubbsi. Furthermore, information about the forebrain of characids is widely lacking, and this study may thus provide important knowledge about the cellular organization of characid forebrains for comparative anatomists. The brain of A. hubbsi is slender and elongated. Both optic nerves and optic tectum are reduced. Three longitudinal sulci-s. ypsiliformis, s. externus and s. limitans telencephali-can be distinguished in the telencephalon. A fiber lamina reaching from the s. externus to the s. limitans telencephali separates the area dorsalis (D) from the area ventralis telencephali (V). The two hemispheres are connected by fibers decussating in the anterior commissure. Although cross sections revealed no distinct fiber laminae between cytoarchitectonic components, 17 cell masses could be delineated: ten of these belong to D, seven to V. The topological analysis yielded the following results. The dorsal telencephalon D consists of three longitudinal columns, termed pars medialis (Dm), pars dorsalis and centralis (Dd and Dc) considered together, and par lateralis (Dl), which converge into a uniform posterior part (Dp). The columns can be divided into several subregions: Dm1 and Dm2, as well as Dlv and Dld, precommissurally, Dm3 and Dm4 postcommisurally. At polus posterior levels nucleus tenia can be identified. The ventral telencephalon (V) is arranged

  20. Female genital system of the folding-trapdoor spider Antrodiaetus unicolor (Hentz, 1842) (Antrodiaetidae, Araneae): ultrastructural study of form and function with notes on reproductive biology of spiders.

    PubMed

    Michalik, Peter; Reiher, Wencke; Tintelnot-Suhm, Marika; Coyle, Frederick A; Alberti, Gerd

    2005-03-01

    The genitalia of the female folding-trapdoor spider Antrodiaetus unicolor are characterized by two pairs of spermathecae that are arranged in a single row and connected to the roof of the bursa copulatrix. Each single spermatheca is divided into three main parts: stalk, bowl, and bulb, which are surrounded by the spermathecal gland. The epithelium of the spermathecal gland is underlain by a muscle meshwork and consists of different types of cells partly belonging to glandular cell units (Class 3 gland cells) that extend into pores in the cuticle of the stalk and bowl. Interestingly, the bulb lacks glandular pores and is characterized by a weakly sclerotized cuticle. This peculiarly structured bulb probably plays an important role in the discharge of the sperm mass. It is suggested that by contraction of the muscle layer the sperm mass may be squeezed out, when the bulb invaginates and expands into the spermathecal lumen, pushing the sperm to the uterus lumen. Each glandular unit consists of usually one or two central secretory cells that are for the most part surrounded by a connecting cell that again is surrounded by a canal cell. The canal cell, finally, is separated from the other epithelial cells (intercalary cells) located between the glandular units by several thin sheath cells that form the outer enveloping layer of the unit. The secretions are released through a cuticular duct that originates proximally between the apical part of the connecting cell and the apical microvilli of the secretory cells and runs into a pore of the spermathecal cuticle. The glandular products of the Class 3 gland cells likely contribute to the conditions allowing long-term storage of the spermatozoa in this species. Details regarding the ovary, the uterus internus, and the uterus externus are reported. Most of the secretion that composes the chorion of the egg is produced in the ovary. Glandular cell units observed in the uterus externus differ structurally from those in the

  1. Nonlinear effects of consumer density on multiple ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Klemmer, Amanda J; Wissinger, Scott A; Greig, Hamish S; Ostrofsky, Milton L

    2012-07-01

    1. In the face of human-induced declines in the abundance of common species, ecologists have become interested in quantifying how changes in density affect rates of biophysical processes, hence ecosystem function. We manipulated the density of a dominant detritivore (the cased caddisfly, Limnephilus externus) in subalpine ponds to measure effects on the release of detritus-bound nutrients and energy. 2. Detritus decay rates (k, mass loss) increased threefold, and the loss of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from detrital substrates doubled across a range of historically observed caddisfly densities. Ammonium and total soluble phosphorus concentrations in the water column also increased with caddisfly density on some dates. Decay rates, nutrient release and the change in total detritivore biomass all exhibited threshold or declining responses at the highest densities. 3. We attributed these threshold responses in biophysical processes to intraspecific competition for limiting resources manifested at the population level, as density-dependent per-capita consumption, growth, development and case : body size in caddisflies was observed. Moreover, caddisflies increasingly grazed on algae at high densities, presumably in response to limiting detrital resources. 4. These results provide evidence that changes in population size of a common species will have nonlinear, threshold effects on the rates of biophysical processes at the ecosystem level. Given the ubiquity of negative density dependence in nature, nonlinear consumer density-ecosystem function relationships should be common across species and ecosystems. PMID:22339437

  2. Glutamate and GABA concentration changes in the globus pallidus internus of Parkinson's patients during performance of implicit and declarative memory tasks: a report of two subjects.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Robert J; Gjini, Klevest; Darrow, David; Varga, Georgeta; Robinson, Jennifer L; Nadasdy, Zoltan

    2015-03-01

    The basal ganglia, typically associated with motor function, are involved in human cognitive processes, as demonstrated in behavioral, lesion, and noninvasive functional neuroimaging studies. Here we report task-contingent changes in concentrations of the neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) of two patients with Parkinson's disease undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery by utilizing in-vivo microdialysis measurements during performance of implicit and declarative memory tasks. Performance of an implicit memory task (weather prediction task-WPT) was associated with increased levels of glutamate and GABA in the GPi compared to their concentrations at baseline. On the other hand, performance of a declarative memory task (verbal learning task-VLT) was associated with decreased levels of glutamate and GABA in GPi compared to baseline during the encoding and immediate recall phase with less conclusive results during the delayed recall phase. These results are in line with hypothesized changes in these neurotransmitter levels: an increase of excitatory (Glu) input from subthalamic nucleus (STN) to GPi during implicit memory task performance and a decrease of inhibitory inputs (GABA) from globus pallidus externus (GPe) and striatum to GPi during declarative memory performance. Consistent with our previous report on in-vivo neurotransmitter changes during tasks in STN, these data provide corroborative evidence for the direct involvement of basal ganglia in cognitive functions and complements our model of the functional circuitry of basal ganglia in the healthy and Parkinson's disease affected brain. PMID:25596441

  3. Neuromuscular diversity in archosaur deep dorsal thigh muscles.

    PubMed

    Gatesy, S M

    1994-01-01

    The living members of the clade Archosauria, crocodilians and birds, differ markedly in the morphology of their deep dorsal thigh muscles. To investigate whether this diversity is accompanied by differences in motor pattern and muscle function, the hindlimbs of representative archosaurs were studied by electromyography and cineradiography during terrestrial locomotion. In a crocodilian, Alligator, the iliofemoralis and pubo-ischio-femoralis internus part 2 are both active during the swing phase of the stride cycle. This appears to be the primitive motor pattern for archosaurs. There are four avian homologues of these muscles in the helmeted guineafowl, Numida. These are primarily active in the propulsive phase (iliotrochantericus caudalis and iliotrochantericus medius), the swing phase (iliotrochantericus cranialis) and a speed-dependent combination of the propulsive and/or swing phases (iliofemoralis externus). Differences between Alligator and Numida in the number and attachment of deep dorsal muscles are associated with dissimilar motor patterns and functions. Evolutionary modifications of neuromuscular control must be recognized when evaluating avian locomotor history, but are rarely considered by paleontologists. Even within the deep dorsal thigh muscles of Numida, developmentally and anatomically similar muscles are active out-of-phase. Therefore, although the actions of two adjacent muscles appear equivalent, their functions may differ dramatically. The diversity of deep dorsal thigh muscles in modern birds may be a good model for studying the relationship between activity pattern and peripheral morphology. PMID:8306187

  4. Neurophysiological properties of pallidal neurons in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sterio, D; Berić, A; Dogali, M; Fazzini, E; Alfaro, G; Devinsky, O

    1994-05-01

    Neuronal properties of the human globus pallidus (GP) are not known. Since GP is the major output of the basal ganglia, it may be involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. We studied 12 patients with medically resistant Parkinson's disease by using single cell recording of the GP during stereotaxic pallidotomy to define neuronal firing rate and its modulation during active and passive movements. Different frequency and pattern of single cell activity was found in globus pallidus externus compared with globus pallidus internus. Discharge rates of 19% of GP cells were modulated by passive contralateral movements. Pallidal units were most often related solely to single joint movement. Different patterns of activity in relation to the two different movements of the same joint were often observed. We identified somatotopically arranged cell clusters that alter discharge rate with related movements. These findings suggest at least a partial somatotopic organization of the human GP and similarity with experimental results in both healthy and MPTP monkeys, providing a rationale for surgical or pharmacological targeting of GP for treating Parkinson's disease. PMID:8179304

  5. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation. PMID:26601104

  6. The effects of transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the activation of deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jin Hyun; Jung, Gil Su; Baek, Seung Ok; Jones, Rodney; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effectiveness of three different neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) protocols for the deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with LDK were recruited. Three stimulation protocols were investigated: stimulation of the abdominal muscles (protocol A); stimulation of the lumbar muscles (protocol B); and simultaneous stimulation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles (protocol A+B). Images of the obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI), transversus abdominis (TrA), and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles were captured by real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI). [Results] The thickness of LM was significantly greater during stimulation than at rest for all three protocols. Thicknesses of the abdominal muscles (TrA, OI, and OE) were significantly greater during stimulation than at rest for protocols A and A+B. Thickness increases in LM were significantly greater during protocols B and A+B, but not during protocol A. Thickness increases in the abdominal muscles (TrA, OI, and OE) were significantly greater during protocols A and A+B, but not during protocol B. [Conclusion] NMES can significantly activate the deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with LDK. Protocol A+B of NMES is recommended to aid postural correction and low back pain (LBP) in patients with LDK. PMID:27064323

  7. Reliability of Abdominal Muscle Stiffness Measured Using Elastography during Trunk Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, David; Wan, Alan; McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie; Hug, François

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra-session and inter-rater reliability of shear modulus measured in abdominal muscles during two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers performed a series of abdominal hollow and abdominal brace tasks. Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure the shear modulus (considered an index of muscle tension) of the four anterior trunk muscles: obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis. Because of measurement artifacts, internus abdominis and transversus abdominis data were not analyzed for 36.7% and 26.7% of the participants, respectively. These participants exhibited thicker superficial fat layers than the others. For the remaining participants, fair to excellent intra-session and inter-rater reliability was observed with moderate to high intra-class coefficients (0.45-0.97) and low to moderate standard error of measurement values (0.38-3.53 kPa). Reliability values were consistently greater for superficial than for deeper muscles. PMID:26746381

  8. The use of deep brain stimulation in Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rotsides, Janine; Mammis, Antonios

    2013-11-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a childhood neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple involuntary motor and vocal tics. It is commonly associated with other behavioral disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, depression, and self-injurious behaviors. Tourette's syndrome can be effectively managed with psychobehavioral and pharmacological treatments, and many patients experience an improvement in tics in adulthood. However, symptoms may persist and cause severe impairment in a small subset of patients despite available therapies. In recent years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be a promising treatment option for such patients. Since the advent of its use in 1999, multiple targets have been identified in DBS for TS, including the medial thalamus, globus pallidus internus, globus pallidus externus, anterior limb of the internal capsule/nucleus accumbens, and subthalamic nucleus. While the medial thalamus is the most commonly reported trajectory, the optimal surgical target for TS is still a topic of much debate. This paper provides a review of the available literature regarding the use of DBS for TS. PMID:24175864

  9. The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of a 6-month-old Crocodylus niloticus (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    PubMed

    Fechner, R; Schwarz-Wings, D

    2013-06-01

    The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of crocodilians play an important role in their ventilatory mechanism. Yet the anatomy and homology of these muscles is poorly understood. To gain new insights into the anatomy of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall, we dissected a specimen of Crocodylus niloticus. Origin and insertion of the muscles, as well as their arrangement relative to each other was examined in great detail. The findings were compared with those of other crocodilian taxa to detect potential variability of the muscles of interest. The homology of the muscles was studied by comparing the muscles of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall with those of other diapsids. In Crocodylus niloticus, the infrapubic abdominal wall consists of four muscles: Musculus truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus, and Mm. rectus abdominis externus and internus. The arrangement of the muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of Crocodylus niloticus is consistent with that found in most other crocodilian taxa. In some crocodilian taxa, an additional muscle, M. ischiopubis, is found. In the remaining diapsids, only M. rectus abdominis is present. The crocodilian M. truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus and, if present, M. ischiopubis appear to be derivates of M. rectus abdominis; the development of those might be related to the evolution of the unique crocodilian ventilatory mechanism. PMID:22909340

  10. Female genital morphology in the secondarily haplogyne spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae), with comments on its phylogenetic significance.

    PubMed

    Cabra-García, Jimmy; Hormiga, Gustavo; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2014-09-01

    Female genital morphology of secondarily haplogyne spiders has been poorly studied, hampering the analysis of its possible phylogenetic significance. We conduct a comparative morphological study of 12 species of the secondarily haplogyne spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 using scanning electron microscopy. Representatives of the closely related genera Pachygnatha Sundevall, 1823 and Dyschiriognatha Simon, 1893 were also examined. The female genitalia of Glenognatha, Dyschiriognatha, and Pachygnatha species examined are composed of a spiracle-shape gonopore, a membranous chamber, a pair of copulatory ducts (CD) leading to spermathecae and a large uterus externus (UE). The most significant variation among Glenognatha species, previously unregistered within Araneoidea, is related with the absence or presence of CD and spermathecae. In addition, several characters as the form and distribution of long stem gland ductules and compartmentalization of the UE may be important for phylogenetic inference at species and generic level. Our results corroborate the close relationship between Dyshiriognatha and Glenognatha. A table with potentially informative female genitalic characters for phylogenetic inference within Glenognatha is provided. Understanding the general structure of the female genitalia in secondarily haplogyne taxa is a crucial step in order to propose characters for phylogenetic inference and to understand its possible functional significance. PMID:24788235

  11. Occultifur kilbournensis f.a. sp. nov., a new member of the Cystobasidiales associated with maize (Zea mays) cultivation.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2015-05-01

    During a study of microorganisms associated with maize (Zea mays) cultivation, yeasts were isolated from overwintered stalks, cobs and surrounding soil, which were collected from an agricultural field in south-central Illinois, USA. Predominant among isolates were two species of Cryptococcus (Cr. flavescens, Cr. magnus) and a red yeast that D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene sequences revealed to be a new species of the basidiomycete yeast genus Occultifur. The species, which was not detected in the same field during the growing season, is described here as Occultifur kilbournensis (MycoBank number MB 811259; type strain NRRL Y-63695, CBS 13982, GenBank numbers, D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene, KP413160, ITS, KP413162; allotype strain NRRL Y-63699, CBS 13983). Mixture of the type and allotype strains resulted in formation of hyphae with clamp connections and a small number of apparent basidia following incubation on 5% malt extract agar at 15 °C for 2 months. In view of the uncertainty of the life cycle, the new species is being designated as forma asexualis. From analysis of D1/D2 and ITS nucleotide sequences, the new species is most closely related to Occultifur externus. PMID:25761862

  12. Abdominal wall muscle elasticity and abdomen local stiffness on healthy volunteers during various physiological activities.

    PubMed

    Tran, D; Podwojewski, F; Beillas, P; Ottenio, M; Voirin, D; Turquier, F; Mitton, D

    2016-07-01

    The performance of hernia treatment could benefit from more extensive knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the abdominal wall in a healthy state. To supply this knowledge, the antero-lateral abdominal wall was characterized in vivo on 11 healthy volunteers during 4 activities: rest, pullback loading, abdominal breathing and the "Valsalva maneuver". The elasticity of the abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, obliquus internus and transversus abdominis) was assessed using ultrasound shear wave elastography. In addition, the abdomen was subjected to a low external load at three locations: on the midline (linea alba), on the rectus abdominis region and on lateral muscles region in order to evaluate the local stiffness of the abdomen, at rest and during "Valsalva maneuver". The results showed that the "Valsalva maneuver" leads to a statistically significant increase of the muscle shear modulus compared to the other activities. This study also showed that the local stiffness of the abdomen was related to the activity. At rest, a significant difference has been observed between the anterior (0.5N/mm) and the lateral abdomen locations (1N/mm). Then, during the Valsalva maneuver, the local stiffness values were similar for all locations (ranging from 1.6 to 2.2N/mm). This work focuses on the in vivo characterization of the mechanical response of the human abdominal wall and abdomen during several activities. In the future, this protocol could be helpful for investigation on herniated patients. PMID:26994992

  13. Allometric shape change of the lower pharyngeal jaw correlates with a dietary shift to piscivory in a cichlid fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellig, Christoph J.; Kerschbaumer, Michaela; Sefc, Kristina M.; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-07-01

    The morphological versatility of the pharyngeal jaw of cichlid fishes is assumed to represent a key factor facilitating their unparalleled trophic diversification and explosive radiation. It is generally believed that the functional design of an organism relates to its ecology, and thus, specializations to different diets are typically associated with distinct morphological designs, especially manifested in the cichlids’ pharyngeal jaw apparatus. Thereby, the lower pharyngeal jaw (LPJ) incorporates some of the most predictive features for distinct diet-related morphotypes. Thus, considering that piscivorous cichlids experience an ontogenetic dietary shift from typically various kinds of invertebrates to fish, concomitant morphological changes in the LPJ are expected. Using Lepidiolamprologus elongatus, a top predator in the shallow rocky habitat of Lake Tanganyika, as model, and applying geometric and traditional morphometric techniques, we demonstrate an allometric change in ontogenetic LPJ shape development coinciding with the completion of the dietary shift toward piscivory. The piscivorous LPJ morphotype is initiated in juvenile fish by increasing elongation and narrowing of the LPJ and—when the fish reach a size of 80-90 mm standard length—further refined by the elongation of the posterior muscular processes, which serve as insertion for the fourth musculus levator externus. The enlarged muscular processes of the fully mature piscivorous morphotype provide for the construction of a powerful lever system, which allows the large individuals to process large prey fish and rely on exclusive piscivory.

  14. DBS in Tourette syndrome: where are we standing now?

    PubMed

    Andrade, Pablo; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle

    2016-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as an established effective and safe treatment option for a small subset of patients with severe Tourette syndrome (TS) refractory to psychological and pharmacological treatments. Several targets have been implicated in the study of the effects of DBS on TS symptomatology. The targets applied for DBS in TS include the thalamus, the globus pallidus internus, the internal capsule/nucleus accumbens, the globus pallidus externus and the subthalamic nucleus. In the majority of studies there has been a significant clinical benefit on tics. Nevertheless, the best target has not been defined yet. Up until now, only five double blind randomized controlled trials have been carried out worldwide for a total of 32 patients. Thus, the new recommendations for DBS in TS emphasize the importance of standardized recordings of all pre-, intra-, and postoperative data to optimize the registration of patients so that results can be compared. Recent reports have shown that standard continuous DBS for TS patients may not be the most optimal paradigms to pursue. Adaptive stimulation and the use of human-computer interfaces might in the future optimize the results of DBS in TS because of the paroxysmal nature of the disease. PMID:27209036

  15. Pyomyositis of Obturator Muscles: Unusual Late Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Soraganvi, Prasad Channappa; Ramakanth, R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Pyomyositis of obturator muscles is rare condition. Late presentation with deformities of hip misleads the clinician. Late presentation (6 weeks) of this condition has not been reported earlier. This report highlights this unusual presentation of Pyomyositis of the obturator muscles. Case Report: We are reporting a 14year old female patient presented with limp and pain in hip since 6 weeks. Her hip radiographs were unremarkable. Patient was admitted and MRI done. MRI findings were consistent with obturator pyomyositis. Diagnosis of pyomyositis confirmed by MRI and we performed percutaneous aspiration and drained about 25ml of purulent material mixed with blood. The culture grew Staphylococcus aureus. Patient received intravenous antibiotic for 1week and oral antibiotic for 2weeks. Patient was immobilized in fixed skin traction in Thomas splint for 5days, later gentle mobilization was started. Her condition improved dramatically after aspiration. A follow up MRI done at 3 weeks following aspiration revealed a significant reduction in intramuscular collection of obturator internus and obturator externus. Three weeks following aspiration patient was relieved of the pain and was able to walk normally. At 6 months follow up visit patient was asymptomatic. Conclusion: Late presentation of obturator pyomyositis is rare. We emphasise on careful examination and need for early imaging for diagnosis. Percutaneous drainage results in successful treatment. PMID:27298909

  16. Coordinated reset stimulation in a large-scale model of the STN-GPe circuit

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Martin; Hauptmann, Christian; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Synchronization of populations of neurons is a hallmark of several brain diseases. Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation is a model-based stimulation technique which specifically counteracts abnormal synchrony by desynchronization. Electrical CR stimulation, e.g., for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), is administered via depth electrodes. In order to get a deeper understanding of this technique, we extended the top-down approach of previous studies and constructed a large-scale computational model of the respective brain areas. Furthermore, we took into account the spatial anatomical properties of the simulated brain structures and incorporated a detailed numerical representation of 2 · 104 simulated neurons. We simulated the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus externus (GPe). Connections within the STN were governed by spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). In this way, we modeled the physiological and pathological activity of the considered brain structures. In particular, we investigated how plasticity could be exploited and how the model could be shifted from strongly synchronized (pathological) activity to strongly desynchronized (healthy) activity of the neuronal populations via CR stimulation of the STN neurons. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of specific stimulation parameters especially the electrode position on the stimulation outcome. Our model provides a step forward toward a biophysically realistic model of the brain areas relevant to the emergence of pathological neuronal activity in PD. Furthermore, our model constitutes a test bench for the optimization of both stimulation parameters and novel electrode geometries for efficient CR stimulation. PMID:25505882

  17. A direct GABAergic output from the basal ganglia to frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Arpiar; Oldenburg, Ian A.; Berezovskii, Vladimir K.; Johnson, Caroline A.; Kingery, Nathan D.; Elliott, Hunter L.; Xie, Tiao; Gerfen, Charles R.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are phylogenetically conserved subcortical nuclei necessary for coordinated motor action and reward learning1. Current models postulate that the BG modulate cerebral cortex indirectly via an inhibitory output to thalamus, bidirectionally controlled by the BG via direct (dSPNs) and indirect (iSPNs) pathway striatal projection neurons2–4. The BG thalamic output sculpts cortical activity by interacting with signals from sensory and motor systems5. Here we describe a direct projection from the globus pallidus externus (GP), a central nucleus of the BG, to frontal regions of the cerebral cortex (FC). Two cell types make up the GP-FC projection, distinguished by their electrophysiological properties, cortical projections and expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a synthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Despite these differences, ChAT+ cells, which have been historically identified as an extension of the nucleus basalis (NB), as well as ChAT− cells, release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) and are inhibited by iSPNs and dSPNs of dorsal striatum. Thus GP-FC cells comprise a direct GABAergic/cholinergic projection under the control of striatum that activates frontal cortex in vivo. Furthermore, iSPN inhibition of GP-FC cells is sensitive to dopamine 2 receptor signaling, revealing a pathway by which drugs that target dopamine receptors for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders can act in the BG to modulate frontal cortices. PMID:25739505

  18. A direct GABAergic output from the basal ganglia to frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Arpiar; Oldenburg, Ian A; Berezovskii, Vladimir K; Johnson, Caroline A; Kingery, Nathan D; Elliott, Hunter L; Xie, Tiao; Gerfen, Charles R; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2015-05-01

    The basal ganglia are phylogenetically conserved subcortical nuclei necessary for coordinated motor action and reward learning. Current models postulate that the basal ganglia modulate cerebral cortex indirectly via an inhibitory output to thalamus, bidirectionally controlled by direct- and indirect-pathway striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs, respectively). The basal ganglia thalamic output sculpts cortical activity by interacting with signals from sensory and motor systems. Here we describe a direct projection from the globus pallidus externus (GP), a central nucleus of the basal ganglia, to frontal regions of the cerebral cortex (FC). Two cell types make up the GP-FC projection, distinguished by their electrophysiological properties, cortical projections and expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a synthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Despite these differences, ChAT(+) cells, which have been historically identified as an extension of the nucleus basalis, as well as ChAT(-) cells, release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) and are inhibited by iSPNs and dSPNs of dorsal striatum. Thus, GP-FC cells comprise a direct GABAergic/cholinergic projection under the control of striatum that activates frontal cortex in vivo. Furthermore, iSPN inhibition of GP-FC cells is sensitive to dopamine 2 receptor signalling, revealing a pathway by which drugs that target dopamine receptors for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders can act in the basal ganglia to modulate frontal cortices. PMID:25739505

  19. [Vesalius' Fabrica and the anatomy of the masticatory system].

    PubMed

    Gysel, C

    1993-01-01

    In this Tabulae sex, Vesalius does not dare contradict Galenus views too definitely: in the upper jaw he counts fifteen bones amongst which the Os intermaxillare, and two bones in the Mandibula. In the Fabrica, he maintains the unity of the Mandibula; he denies the presence in man of the Os intermaxillare and counts in the upper jaw twelve bones (amongst which the Os planum). He denies the existence of the Vomer and the lower nose-shells. He gives a lyrical description of the Sinus maxillaris, but without an evident image. The under-jaw is moved by four pairs of muscles, which he does not name but numbers. The Musculus pterygoideus lateralis is not described. Jaws, tongue and teeth are tended, not by the Nervus trigeminus, but by the third and fourth pairs of the seven "brain nerves". The thirty-two teeth are divided into "cutting-teeth", "eye-teeth" and "molars", but, with their roots they are pictured in a wrong occlusion. Vesalius declares more than once, that he discovered the pulp-chamber and also the chamber of the smaller bones and concludes hereby that teeth have got all the characters of bones. They consequently are made of only one substance. Their chamber lies as far of the chewing-surface as of the summit of the root and is filled with a kind of marrow. Blood-vessels and nerves penetrate into the side of the hard substance of the hidden part. Vesalius does not make any difference between milk teeth and the permanent dentition. Just like a long bone, a tooth possesses a diaphysis and an epiphysis, for which he uses the word "appendix". In both cases the two parts only join at the end of the growth. When about seven years, the "appendices" fall out, they are replaced by their "diaphyses". If this does not happen, for instance in the big molars, diaphysis and appendix grow firmly together. Vesalius' therapy for early caries is surprising. If, in a child a permanent tooth gets injured, and if only the crown is removed, the tooth is replaced by a "new" tooth

  20. The reproductive cycle, condition index, and glycogen reserves of the cockles Cerastoderma glaucum from the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Karray, Sahar; Smaoui-Damak, Wafa; Rebai, Tarek; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2015-11-01

    The gametogenic cycle of the Cerastoderma glaucum was analyzed using both qualitative and semi-quantitative methods. The condition index and glycogen concentrations were determined in order to provide information on energy storage. The cockles were collected monthly from a Bayyadha site located 15 km south of Sfax City (Gulf of Gabès) between January 2007 and January 2008. From histological point of view, we applied two approaches: (i) the qualitative method describing the various stages of gamete development for males and females during a cycle of 13 months, and (ii) the semi-quantitative method concerning the estimation of different tissue surfaces. The results showed that there is evidence of three periods of reproduction in this population. A comparison between the surfaces occupied by the three organs showed that the foot and the gonad surfaces are higher than the surface of the adductor muscle. This could suggest that these two organs are more involved in the process of glycogen reserve storage. The results of the glycogen concentrations in the different tissues (gonad, adductor muscle, and "remainders") show that during the second and third periods of reproduction, glycogen was stored in the adductor muscle and in the remainder during sexual rest, and in the gonad during the gametogenesis phases in order to supply the reproductive effort. On the contrary, in the first period of reproduction, the low concentrations of glycogen recorded in the gonad coincided with its high degree of development. This fact could be related to environmental conditions (low temperature and food) recorded during this period. PMID:25804659

  1. [Effects of surgery on muscles on clinical and radiographic findings in the hip joint region in cerebral palsy patients].

    PubMed

    Schejbalová, A; Havlas, V

    2008-10-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Isolated or combined surgical procedures on muscles around the hip joint are currently indicated by many authors. In cerebral palsy patients they are regarded as essential intervention. MATERIAL In the years 2005-2007, surgery in the hip joint region was essential for 150 children between 3 and 18 years of age. At the time of surgery, the patients' locomotion ranged from stage 1 to stage 7 of the Vojta system. METHODS The outcome was evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination at 2 and 6 months post-operatively and hip migration percentage and Wiberg's CE angle were measured. RESULTS The best clinical and radiographic outcomes were achieved in children younger than 6 years of age. On the other hand, isolated transfer of the distal rectus femoris muscle significantly affected pelvis anteflexion in adolescent patients. The most marked decrease in migration percentage was found after adductor tenotomy combined with surgery on the iliopsoas muscle (55.6 %) or when the two procedures were combined with distal rectus femoris transfer. DISCUSSION Combined surigical procedures, i.e., adductor tenotomy, surgery on the iliopsoas muscle or rectus femoris muscle and medial hamstrings, with fixation using an abduction modified Atlanta brace, are effective in patients with marked lateral hip migration who are younger that 6 years. Isolated adductor tenotomy and distal transfer of the rectus femoris muscle markedly improve standing position in walking patients. CONCLUSION An appropriate combination of surgical procedures on muscles in the hip region and on medial hamstrings can significantly improve the patient's locomotion and, if lateral migration is present, help to avoid surgery on bones. PMID:19026189

  2. Biochemical response of the mussel Mytilus coruscus (Mytiloida: Mytilidae) exposed to in vivo sub-lethal copper concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifeng; Gu, Zhongqi; Liu, Hong; Shen, Heding; Yang, Jinglong

    2012-09-01

    Many aquatic organisms are negatively affected by exposure to high copper concentrations. We investigated the biochemical response of the mussel Mytilus coruscus (Mytiloida: Mytilidae) to copper exposure. In vivo bioassays using M. coruscus and different copper concentrations were conducted. The activity of six biomarkers, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were measured. Survival rates decreased with increased copper concentrations and exposure times. The LC50 values at 48, 72, and 96 h exposure were 0.48, 0.37, and 0.32 mg/L, respectively. Within digestive glands, CAT activity increased with increasing Cu concentrations. The activity of AKP showed no significant change, while the remaining four enzymes showed decreasing activity with increasing Cu concentrations. Within the gills, AKP activity increased when the Cu concentration was 0.05 mg/L, but showed no significant changes at higher concentrations. Activity of CAT and ACP within gills tended to decrease with increasing Cu concentration. The activity of SOD and GPT decreased at an exposure concentration of 0.2 mg/L. GOT activity within gills decreased at 0.1 mg/L and increased at an exposure concentration of 0.2 mg/L. Within the adductor muscle, AKP activity increased at 0.05 mg/L but did not change at higher exposure concentrations. ACP activity within adductor muscle tissue showed no change, while activities of CAT, GOT and GPT decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. SOD activity within the adductor muscle tissue significantly decreased at the 0.02, 0.05 and 0.2 mg/L exposure concentrations. Our results show tissue specific differences for the six biomarkers in for M. coruscus. Our findings provide the basis for the establishment of reference activity levels against which biomarker changes can be estimated, and are essential preliminary steps in development

  3. Musculoskeletal underpinnings to differences in killing behavior between North American accipiters (Falconiformes: Accipitridae) and falcons (Falconidae).

    PubMed

    Sustaita, Diego

    2008-03-01

    Accipiters (Accipiter spp.) and falcons (Falco spp.) both use their feet to seize prey, but falcons kill primarily with their beaks, whereas accipiters kill with their feet. This study examines the mechanistic basis to differences in their modes of dispatching prey, by focusing on the myology and biomechanics of the jaws, digits, and distal hindlimb. Bite, grip, and distal hindlimb flexion forces were estimated from measurements of physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and indices of mechanical advantage (MA) for the major jaw adductors, and digit and tarsometatarsal flexors. Estimated bite force, total jaw adductor PCSA, and jaw MA (averaged over adductors) tended to be relatively and absolutely greater in falcons, reflecting their emphasis on biting for dispatching their prey. Differences between genera in estimated grip force, total digit flexor PCSA, and digit MA (averaged over inter-phalangeal joints and digits) were not as clear-cut; each of these parameters scaled positively allometric in accipiters, which may reflect the scaling of both prey size, and the proportion of mammalian prey consumed by this lineage with increasing body size. Estimated tarsometatarsal force was greater in falcons than in accipiters, due to their greater MA, which may reflect selection for incurring greater forces during prey strikes. Conversely, the comparatively lower tarsometatarsal MA in accipiters reflects their capacity for greater foot speed potentially necessary for grasping elusive prey. Thus, this study elucidates how differences in jaw and hindlimb musculoskeletal morphology of accipiters and falcons are reflected in differences in their killing modes, and through differences in their force-generating capacities. PMID:17960801

  4. Medium- and long-term results of high tibial osteotomy using Garches external fixator and gait analysis for dynamic correction in varus osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    McClelland, D; Barlow, D; Moores, T S; Wynn-Jones, C; Griffiths, D; Ogrodnik, P J; Thomas, P B M

    2016-05-01

    In arthritis of the varus knee, a high tibial osteotomy (HTO) redistributes load from the diseased medial compartment to the unaffected lateral compartment. We report the outcome of 36 patients (33 men and three women) with 42 varus, arthritic knees who underwent HTO and dynamic correction using a Garches external fixator until they felt that normal alignment had been restored. The mean age of the patients was 54.11 years (34 to 68). Normal alignment was achieved at a mean 5.5 weeks (3 to 10) post-operatively. Radiographs, gait analysis and visual analogue scores for pain were measured pre- and post-operatively, at one year and at medium-term follow-up (mean six years; 2 to 10). Failure was defined as conversion to knee arthroplasty. Pre-operative gait analysis divided the 42 knees into two equal groups with high (17 patients) or low (19 patients) adductor moments. After correction, a statistically significant (p < 0.001, t-test,) change in adductor moment was achieved and maintained in both groups, with a rate of failure of three knees (7.1%), and 89% (95% confidence interval (CI) 84.9 to 94.7) survivorship at medium-term follow-up. At final follow-up, after a mean of 15.9 years (12 to 20), there was a survivorship of 59% (95% CI 59.6 to 68.9) irrespective of adductor moment group, with a mean time to conversion to knee arthroplasty of 9.5 years (3 to 18; 95% confidence interval ± 2.5). HTO remains a useful option in the medium-term for the treatment of medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee but does not last in the long-term. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:601-7. PMID:27143729

  5. Study quality on groin injury management remains low: a systematic review on treatment of groin pain in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Serner, Andreas; van Eijck, Casper H; Beumer, Berend R; Hölmich, Per; Weir, Adam; de Vos, Robert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background Groin pain in athletes is frequent and many different treatment options have been proposed. The current level of evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is unknown. Objective Systematically review the literature on the efficacy of treatments for groin pain in athletes. Methods Nine medical databases were searched in May 2014. Inclusion criteria: treatment studies in athletes with groin pain; randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials or case series; n>10; outcome measures describing number of recovered athletes, patient satisfaction, pain scores or functional outcome scores. One author screened search results, and two authors independently assessed study quality. A best evidence synthesis was performed. Relationships between quality score and outcomes were evaluated. Review registration number CRD42014010262. Results 72 studies were included for quality analysis. Four studies were high quality. There is moderate evidence that, for adductor-related groin pain, active exercises compared with passive treatments improve success, multimodal treatment with a manual therapy technique shortens the time to return to sports compared with active exercises and adductor tenotomy improves treatment success over time. There is moderate evidence that for athletes with sportsman's hernia, surgery results in better treatment success then conservative treatment. There was a moderate and inverse correlation between study quality and treatment success (p<0.001, r=−0.41), but not between study quality and publication year (p=0.09, r=0.20). Conclusions Only 6% of publications were high quality. Low-quality studies showed significantly higher treatment success and study quality has not improved since 1985. There is moderate evidence for the efficacy of conservative treatment (active exercises and multimodal treatments) and for surgery in patients with adductor-related groin pain. There is moderate evidence for efficacy of surgical treatment in sportsman

  6. Sports hernia and femoroacetabular impingement in athletes: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Munegato, Daniele; Bigoni, Marco; Gridavilla, Giulia; Olmi, Stefano; Cesana, Giovanni; Zatti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between sports hernias and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in athletes. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and Google Scholar databases were electronically searched for articles relating to sports hernia, athletic pubalgia, groin pain, long-standing adductor-related groin pain, Gilmore groin, adductor pain syndrome, and FAI. The initial search identified 196 studies, of which only articles reporting on the association of sports hernia and FAI or laparoscopic treatment of sports hernia were selected for systematic review. Finally, 24 studies were reviewed to evaluate the prevalence of FAI in cases of sports hernia and examine treatment outcomes and evidence for a common underlying pathogenic mechanism. RESULTS: FAI has been reported in as few as 12% to as high as 94% of patients with sports hernias, athletic pubalgia or adductor-related groin pain. Cam-type impingement is proposed to lead to increased symphyseal motion with overload on the surrounding extra-articular structures and muscle, which can result in the development of sports hernia and athletic pubalgia. Laparoscopic repair of sports hernias, via either the transabdominal preperitoneal or extraperitoneal approach, has a high success rate and earlier recovery of full sports activity compared to open surgery or conservative treatment. For patients with FAI and sports hernia, the surgical management of both pathologies is more effective than sports pubalgia treatment or hip arthroscopy alone (89% vs 33% of cases). As sports hernias and FAI are typically treated by general and orthopedic surgeons, respectively, a multidisciplinary approach for diagnosis and treatment is recommended for optimal treatment of patients with these injuries. CONCLUSION: The restriction in range of motion due to FAI likely contributes to sports hernias; therefore, surgical treatment of both pathologies represents an optimal therapy. PMID:26380829

  7. Evaluation of interadductor approach in neurolytic blockade of obturator nerve in spastic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Anju; Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Hooda, Sarla; Garg, Nidhi; Kundu, Zile S.; Gupta, Tushar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Spasticity is a syndrome associated with a persistent increase in involuntary reflex activity of a muscle in response to stretch. Adductor muscle spasticity is a common complication of spinal cord and brain injury. It needs to be treated if it interferes with activities of daily living and self-care. Obturator neurolytic blockade is one of the cost-effective therapeutic possibilities to treat spasticity of adductor group of muscles. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of interadductor approach in alleviating the spasticity. Methods: Obturator neurolysis using 8-10 ml 6% phenol was given with the guidance of a peripheral nerve stimulator in 20 spastic patients. Technical evaluation included number of attempted needle insertions, time to accurate location of the nerve, depth of needle insertion, and success rate. Pain, spasticity, hip abduction range of motion (ROM), number of spasms, gait, and hygiene were evaluated at 1st hour, 24th hour, end of the 1st week, and in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd months following the intervention. Results: The success rate was 100% with mean time to accurate nerve location 4.9±2.06 min. Average depth of needle insertion was 2.91±0.32 cm. Compared with the scores measured immediately before the block, all studied parameters improved significantly. An increase in the Modified Ashworth Scale values was observed in the 2nd and 3rd months, but they did not reach their initial values. Conclusion: The interadductor approach proved to be accurate and fast, with a high success rate. Phenol blockade is an efficient and cost-effective technique in patients with adductor spasticity. It led to a decrease in spasticity and pain with an increase in the ROM of the hip and better hygiene, with an efficacy lasting for about 3 months. PMID:24348294

  8. No effect of hypergravity on adult rat ventral horn neuron size or SDH activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R. R.; Ishihara, A.; Moran, M. M.; Wade, C. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spaceflights of short duration (approximately 2 wk) result in adaptations in the size and/or metabolic properties of a select population of motoneurons located in the lumbosacral region of the rat spinal cord. A decrease in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, an oxidative marker enzyme) activity of moderately sized (500-800 microm2) motoneurons in the retrodorsolateral region of the spinal cord (L6) has been observed after a 14-d flight. HYPOTHESIS: Our hypothesis was that exposure to short-term hypergravity would result in adaptations in the opposite direction, reflecting a continuum of morphological and biochemical responses in the spinal motoneurons from zero gravity to hypergravity. METHODS: Young, male rats were centrifuged at either 1.5 or 2.0 G for 2 wk. The size and SDH activity of a population of motoneurons in the retrodorsolateral region of the spinal cord (L5) were determined and compared with age-matched rats maintained at 1.0 G. The absolute and relative (to body weight) masses of the soleus, gastrocnemius, adductor longus and tibialis anterior muscles were compared among the three groups. RESULTS: There were no effects of either hypergravity intervention on the motoneuron properties. Rats maintained under hypergravity conditions gained less body mass than rats kept at 1.0 G. For the 1.5 and 2.0 G groups, the muscle absolute mass was smaller and relative mass similar to that observed in the 1.0 G rats, except for the adductor longus. The adductor longus absolute mass was similar to and the relative mass larger in both hypergravity groups than in the 1.0 G group. CONCLUSIONS: Our hypothesis was rejected. The findings suggest that rat motoneurons are more responsive to short-term chronic exposure to spaceflight than to hypergravity conditions.

  9. Durophagy in sharks: feeding mechanics of the hammerhead Sphyrna tiburo.

    PubMed

    Wilga, C D; Motta, P J

    2000-09-01

    This study investigates the motor pattern and head movements during feeding of a durophagus shark, the bonnethead Sphyrna tiburo, using electromyography and simultaneous high-speed video. Sphyrna tiburo feeds almost exclusively on hard-shelled crabs, with shrimp and fish taken occasionally. It captures crabs by ram feeding, then processes or reduces the prey by crushing it between molariform teeth, finally transporting the prey by suction for swallowing. The prey-crushing mechanism is distinct from that of ram or bite capture and suction transport. This crushing mechanism is accomplished by altering the duration of jaw adductor muscle activity and modifying jaw kinematics by the addition of a second jaw-closing phase. In crushing events, motor activity of the jaw adductor muscles continues (biting of the prey occurs as the jaws close and continues after the jaws have closed) throughout a second jaw-closing phase, unlike capture and transport events during which motor activity (biting) ceases at jaw closure. Sphyrna tiburo is able to take advantage of a resource (hard prey) that is not readily available to most sharks by utilizing a suite of durophagous characteristics: molariform teeth, a modified jaw protrusor muscle, altered jaw adductor activity and modified jaw kinematics. Sphyrna tiburo is a specialist feeder on crab prey as demonstrated by the lack of differences in kinematic or motor patterns when offered prey of differing hardness and its apparent lack of ability to modulate its behavior when feeding on other prey. Functional patterns are altered and coupled with modifications in dental and jaw morphology to produce diverse crushing behaviors in elasmobranchs. PMID:10952878

  10. Ulnar Nerve Tendon Transfers for Pinch.

    PubMed

    Cook, Shane; Gaston, R Glenn; Lourie, Gary M

    2016-08-01

    Power and tip pinch are an integral part of intrinsic hand function that can be significantly compromised with dysfunction of the ulnar nerve. Loss of power pinch is one component that can significantly affect an individual's ability to perform simple daily tasks. Tip pinch is less affected, as this task has significant contributions from the median nerve. To restore power pinch, the primary focus must be on restoring the action of the adductor pollicis primarily, and if indicated the first dorsal interosseous muscle and flexor pollicis brevis. PMID:27387080

  11. Spasmodic dysphonia in an adolescent patient with an autoimmune neurologic disorder.

    PubMed

    Boseley, Mark E; Gherson, Shirley; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) has been primarily described in the neurology and psychiatry literature. The symptoms of this syndrome typically are a range of obsessive compulsive disorders and neuromuscular tics. The otolaryngologist occasionally becomes involved with these children when it is deemed that chronic tonsil infections are the source. We report here on a child diagnosed with PANDAS who presented with severe ventricular hyperfunction and adductor spasmodic dysphonia. She was treated with botulinum toxin, which resulted in a significant improvement in subjective voice as well as reduced jitter and shimmer on objective voice measurements. PMID:17362824

  12. Pectoralis major tendon rupture. Surgical procedures review.

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pectoralis major (PM) muscle is the powerful dynamic stabiliser of the shoulder that acts as a flexor, adductor and internal rotator. The rupture of the PM tendon is a relatively rare injury that was firstly described in a French boy by Patissier in 1822 and later, in 1861, by Letenneur who reported another similiar case. To date, over 200 cases have been published. In this article we describe the clinical anatomy and the mechanism of injuries of PM and we review the surgical procedures for acute and chronic ruptures. PMID:23738281

  13. Groin pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Groin pain in athletes is a common problem in sport medicine, and remains a diagnostic challenge. It is more common with sports that involve kicking, rapid accelerations and decelerations, and sudden direction changes. There is an extensive differential diagnosis and overlap in signs between possible diagnoses. It is important to appreciate the anatomy of the groin and undertake a careful history and examination. Adductor strain, groin disruption and osteitis pubis are among the common causes. The aim of this article is to briefly review the most common causes of groin pain in athletes. The diagnosis and management of these conditions are briefly discussed. PMID:20533693

  14. [Moebius syndrome : one case (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Legrand, J; Gillot, F

    1980-01-01

    The Moebius syndrome is a congenital anomaly characterized by paralysis of the sixth and seventh nerves. In some instances, there may be weakness of the adductors. The other muscles are normal. Visual acuity is not affected. Other congenital defects may be associated: polydactyly, defects of the ear and of the tongue. Etiology is probably an embryonal egression, cause of aplasia of the facial and abducens nucleï. The impossibility to move the eyes laterally in either direction, points to supranucleus involvement by defective development of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Some people suggest that a myogen disturbance should be the principal and unique etiology. No evolution. No treatment. PMID:7451821

  15. Examination of body burden and taint for Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica) and American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides) near the Terra Nova offshore oil development over ten years of drilling on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kiceniuk, Joe W.; Paine, Michael D.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Gregory Janes, G.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results of analyses of body burdens of metals and hydrocarbons, and taste tests for taint, in Iceland scallop and American plaice performed as part of the Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program for the Terra Nova offshore oil development (Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada). Scallop and plaice were collected in a Study Area located within approximately 1 km of drill centres at Terra Nova and in a Reference Area located approximately 20 km from the development. Samples were collected in 1997 to establish a baseline, and from 2000 to 2010, during drilling periods. Scallop adductor muscle tissue was contaminated with >C10-C21 aliphatic hydrocarbons resembling the drilling fluid in the synthetic drilling mud (SBM) used at Terra Nova in 2000, 2002 and 2004, but contamination of adductor muscle was not noted in 2006, 2008 and 2010. The maximum concentration in muscle was 28 mg/kg wet weight, noted in 2002. Scallop viscera was contaminated with hydrocarbons resembling drilling fluid in SBMs near drill centres in all EEM years except 2010. Viscera contamination with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons gradually decreased from a maximum of 150 mg/kg in 2000, to a maximum of 27 mg/kg in 2008; all values were below the laboratory reporting detection limit of 15 mg/kg in 2010. Therefore, evidence from both muscle and viscera indicates a decrease in tissue hydrocarbon contamination in recent years. Barium, another major constituent in drilling muds, has not been noted in scallop adductor muscles at concentrations above the reporting detection limit, but barium was detected in viscera in baseline and EEM years. The maximum concentration of barium in viscera during baseline sampling was 8 mg/kg. The maximum concentration in EEM years (29 mg/kg) was noted in 2000. The maximum concentration in 2010 was 25 mg/kg. The concentration of metals other than barium in scallop tissues was similar between the Terra Nova Study Area and the Reference Area. Hydrocarbons

  16. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1986-10-01

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.

  17. Effects of the applications of oil drip onto surface and of the use of a temperature of 35°C for 4 days on some physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J

    2014-10-01

    The effects of: a) applications of oil drip (from aged salted pork fat) onto dry-cured ham surface and b) application of a temperature of 35°C for 4days after 234days of processing (HTST treatment) were evaluated. The oil application reduced moisture, proteolysis and white film in semimembranosus, microbial counts in adductor and the intensity of hollow extent, toasted flavour, adhesiveness, pastiness (in semimembranosus) and chewiness (in semimembranosus and biceps femoris) and increased the intensity of nutty flavour (in both muscles), aged flavour, hardness, fibrousness and overall liking (in semimembranosus). The HTST did not affect any ham characteristics. PMID:24906185

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging for pain after surgical treatment for athletic pubalgia and the "sports hernia".

    PubMed

    Zoga, Adam C; Meyers, William C

    2011-09-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique and findings in the setting of athletic pubalgia, including injury at the rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis, are becoming widely recognized. A subset of these patients is treated with various pelvic floor repairs, mesh reinforcements, and tendon releases. Most of these patients do well after intervention, but some have persistent or refractory groin pain, and others eventually develop new injuries in the pubic region or elsewhere about the pelvic girdle. This review describes the expected and some unexpected MRI findings in patients with recurrent or persistent groin pain after a "sports hernia" repair. PMID:21928160

  19. Rehabilitation of Extra-Articular Sources of Hip Pain in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Among people who participate in sports, extra-articular soft tissue injuries around the hip are common. The hamstring, quadriceps, adductor, and abductor muscle groups are often the site of soft tissue injury. Overlapping conditions make it difficult to identify the primary cause of hip pain and dysfunction. A proper evaluation and diagnosis of the impairment are crucial for the selection of interventions and quick return to play. The purpose of the clinical commentary is to present an evidence based stepwise progression in the evaluation and treatment of several common soft tissue injuries of the hip. PMID:21509140

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of athletic pubalgia and the sports hernia: current understanding and practice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Waseem; Zoga, Adam C; Meyers, William C

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard imaging modality for activity-related groin pain. Lesions, including rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis injury and osteitis pubis, can be accurately identified and delineated in patients with clinical conditions termed athletic pubalgia, core injury, and sports hernia. A dedicated noncontrast athletic pubalgia MRI protocol is easy to implement and should be available at musculoskeletal MR imaging centers. This article will review pubic anatomy, imaging considerations, specific lesions, and common MRI findings encountered in the setting of musculoskeletal groin pain. PMID:23168185

  1. The athlete's hip and groin.

    PubMed

    Tammareddi, Kumar; Morelli, Vincent; Reyes, Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Groin and hip injuries are seen in athletes who perform quick directional changes and cutting movements. Because forces generated through athletic performance are transferred through the hip, injuries to these areas may limit athletes with mild pain or lead to career-ending injuries. The anatomy of the hip and groin is complex and symptoms often overlap. This article discusses some athletic causes, but other medical conditions may be associated with hip and groin pain as well. Updates in evaluation and treatment are discussed for adductor strains, hip osteoarthritis, femoroacetabular impingement, sports hernia, osteitis pubis, and obturator nerve entrapment. PMID:23668647

  2. Core Injuries Remote from the Pubic Symphysis.

    PubMed

    Belair, Jeffrey A; Hegazi, Tarek M; Roedl, Johannes B; Zoga, Adam C; Omar, Imran M

    2016-09-01

    The core, or central musculoskeletal system of the torso, is essential for participating in sports and other physical activities. Core injuries are commonly encountered in athletes and active individuals. The importance of the midline pubic plate and rectus abdominis-adductor aponeurosis for core stability and function is discussed in the literature. This review article examines other important core injuries remote from the pubic symphysis, relevant clinical features, and preferred approaches to imaging. Several specific syndromes encountered in the core are reviewed. By protocoling imaging studies and identifying pathology, radiologists can add value to the clinical decision-making process and help guide therapeutic options. PMID:27545427

  3. Return to Play After Sports Hernia Surgery.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ho-Rim; Elattar, Osama; Dills, Vickie D; Busconi, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Sports hernia is a condition that causes acute/chronic pain of low abdominal, groin, or adductor area in athletes. It is considered a weakness in the rectus abdominis insertion or posterior inguinal wall of lower abdomen caused by acute or repetitive injury of the structure. It is most commonly seen in soccer, ice hockey, and martial arts players who require acute cutting, pivoting, or kicking. A variety of surgical options have been reported with successful outcome and with high rates of return to the sports in a majority of cases. PMID:27543403

  4. Exposure to air, but not seawater, increases the glutamine content and the glutamine synthetase activity in the marsh clam Polymesoda expansa.

    PubMed

    Hiong, Kum C; Peh, Wendy Y X; Loong, Ai M; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2004-12-01

    Polymesoda expansa spends a considerable portion of its life exposed to air in mangrove swamps where salinity fluctuates greatly. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerial exposure (transfer from 10 per thousand brackish water directly to air) or salinity changes (transfer from 10 per thousand brackish water directly to 30 per thousand seawater) on nitrogen metabolism in P. expansa. We concluded that P. expansa is non-ureogenic because carbamoyl phosphate (CPS) III activity was undetectable in the adductor muscle, foot muscle, hepatopancreas and mantle when exposed to brackish water (control), seawater or air for 17 days. It is ammonotelic as it excretes nitrogenous wastes mainly as ammonia in brackish water or seawater. After transfer to seawater for 17 days, the contents of total free amino acids (TFAA) in the adductor muscle, foot muscle, hepatopancreas and mantle increased significantly. This could be related to an increase in protein degradation because exposure to seawater led to a greater rate of ammonia excretion on days 15 and 17, despite unchanged tissue ammonia contents. Alanine was the major free amino acid (FAA) in P. expansa. The contribution of alanine to the TFAA pool in various tissues increased from 43-48% in brackish water to 62-73% in seawater. In contrast, in clams exposed to air for 17 days there were no changes in alanine content in any of the tissues studied. Thus, the functional role of alanine in P. expansa is mainly connected with intracellular osmoregulation. Although 8.5-16.1% of the TFAA pool of P. expansa was attributable to glutamine, the glutamine contents in the adductor muscle, foot muscle, hepatopancreas and mantle were unaffected by 17 days of exposure to seawater. However, after exposure to air for 17 days, there were significant increases in ammonia content in all these tissues in P. expansa, accompanied by significant increases in glutamine content (2.9-, 2.5-, 4.5- and 3.4-fold, respectively

  5. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of SLA titanium surfaces with further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, E W; Wang, Y B; Shuai, K G; Gao, F; Bai, Y J; Cheng, Y; Xiong, X L; Zheng, Y F; Wei, S C

    2011-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of titanium surfaces sandblasted with large-grit corundum and acid etched (SLA) plus further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment for dental implant application. Pure titanium disks were mechanically polished as control surface (Ti-control) and then sandblasted with large-grit corundum and acid etched (SLA). Further chemical modifications were conducted using alkali and heat treatment (ASLA) and hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment (HSLA) alternatively. The surface properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle and roughness measurements. Further evaluation of surface bioactivity was conducted by MC3T3-E1 cell attachment, proliferation, morphology, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition on the sample surfaces. After insertion in the beagle's mandibula for a specific period, cylindrical implant samples underwent micro-CT examination and then histological examination. It was found that ASLA and HSLA surfaces significantly increased the surface wettability and MC3T3-E1 cell attachment percentage, ALP activity and the quality of calcium deposition in comparison with simple SLA and Ti-control surfaces. Animal studies showed good osseointegration of ASLA and HSLA surfaces with host bone. In conclusion, ASLA and HSLA surfaces enhanced the bioactivity of the traditional SLA surface by integrating the advantages of surface topography, composition and wettability. PMID:21293055

  6. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients. PMID:26802697

  7. How many entities exist for the spectrum of disorders associated with brachydactyly, syndactyly, short stature, microcephaly, and intellectual disability?

    PubMed

    Ravel, Aimé; Chouery, Eliane; Stora, Samantha; Jalkh, Nadine; Villard, Laurent; Temtamy, Samia; Mégarbané, André

    2011-04-01

    We describe a French young man with digital anomalies consisting of brachydactyly, F1-5 bilateral camptodactyly, interdigital webbing, F5 bilateral radial clinodactyly, and partial syndactyly of some fingers and toes. He had psychomotor retardation, short stature, umbilical hernia, a secundum atrial septal defect, seizures, hearing impairment, and dysmorphic features consisting of microcephaly, a prominent metopic ridge, upslanting palpebral fissures, synophrys, enophthalmia, large ears, a bulbous nose, a high palate, a smooth and short philtrum, a low hanging columella, a thin upper vermillion, an everted lower lip, prognathism, pectum excavatum, and supernumerary nipples. Osteotendinous reflexes were brisk. Mild nystagmus, myopia, and astigmatia were also noted. Total body X-rays showed short terminal phalanges of the hands, short middle phalanges of the index and little fingers, clinodactyly of the little fingers, short and fused proximal 4th and 5th metacarpals of the right hand, a short 5th metacarpal of the left hand, a fused left lunate-triquetrum, fused capitate-hamates, a prominent mandibula, and partial sacral agenesis. A thin posterior corpus callosum was apparent by MRI. Differential diagnoses for mainly the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, the Tsukahara syndrome, the Filippi syndrome, the Feingold syndrome, and the Tonoki syndrome are discussed, and the possibility that we might be reporting a novel entity is raised. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21416592

  8. Austromesocypris bluffensis sp. n. (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Cypridoidea, Scottiinae) from subterranean aquatic habitats in Tasmania, with a key to world species of the subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Karanovic, Ivana; Eberhard, Stefan; Perina, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Austromesocypris bluffensis sp. n. is described and we report another species, Austromesocypris sp., both collected from subterranean aquatic habitats in Tasmania. This discovery adds a major taxonomic group to the already diverse invertebrate cave fauna of Tasmania, and is of interest because, globally, obligate subterranean aquatic species (stygobites) are poorly represented within the family Cyprididae. The genus Austromesocypris Martens, De Deckker & Rossetti, 2004 is otherwise known to comprise entirely “terrestrial or semi-terrestrial” species. The second species is not described because only juvenile specimens were collected. Both species stand apart from their congeners by the carapace shape, which is rectangular in Austromesocypris bluffensis and triangular and asymmetrical in the unnamed species. Another unique feature of the new species is the almost symmetrical uropodal rami. We also identify some broader systematic issues within the Scottiinae including the position of two New Zealand species, Scottia audax (Chapman, 1961) and Scottia insularis Chapman, 1963 in the genus, and point out their closer relationship to the Gondwana genera of Scottiinae, Austromesocypris and Mesocypris Daday, 1910, than to the Palearctic genus Scottia Brady & Norman, 1889, based on the morphology of the maxillula and mandibula. The identity of the Australian records of Scottia audax (Chapman, 1961), Austromesocypris australiensis (De Deckker, 1983) and the Boreal records of Scottia pseudobrowniana Kempf, 1971 are all considered doubtful. A key to the world species of Scottiinae is provided. PMID:22936868

  9. In Vivo Quantification of Femoral-Popliteal Compression during Isometric Thigh Contraction: Assessment using MR Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ryan; Nguyen, Thanh D.; Spincemaille, Pascal; Prince, Martin R.; Wang, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To quantify femoral-popliteal vessel deformation during thigh contraction. Materials and Methods Eleven subjects underwent an MR examination of the femoral-popliteal vasculature on a 1.5 T system. A custom 3D balanced steady state free precession (SSFP) sequence was implemented to image a 15–20 cm segment of the vasculature during relaxation and voluntary isometric thigh contraction. The arterial and venous lumina were outlined using a semi-automated method. For the artery, this outline was fit to an ellipse whose aspect ratio was used to describe arterial deformation, while venous deformation was characterized by its cross-sectional area. Results Focal compression of the femoral-popliteal artery during contraction was observed 94 to 143 mm superior to the condyle that corresponds to the distal adductor canal (AC) immediately superior to the adductor hiatus. This was illustrated by a significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) in aspect ratio from 0.88 ± 0.06 during relaxation to 0.77 ± 0.09 during contraction. A negligible change in arterial aspect ratio was observed inferior to the AC and in the proximal AC. Similarly, venous area was dramatically reduced in the distal AC region during contraction. Conclusion Rapid 3D SSFP MR angiography of the femoral-popliteal vasculature during thigh contraction demonstrated focal compression of the artery in the distal AC region. This may help explain the high stent failure rate and the high likelihood of atherosclerotic disease in the AC. PMID:19388112

  10. Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat-kangaroos (marsupialia: macropodoidea).

    PubMed

    Warburton, Natalie Marina

    2009-06-01

    The jaw muscles were studied in seven genera of macropodoid marsupials with diets ranging from mainly fungi in Potorous to grass in Macropus. Relative size, attachments, and lamination within the jaw adductor muscles varied between macropodoid species. Among macropodine species, the jaw adductor muscle proportions vary with feeding type. The relative mass of the masseter is roughly consistent, but grazers and mixed-feeders (Macropus and Lagostrophus) had relatively larger medial pterygoids and smaller temporalis muscles than the browsers (Dendrolagus, Dorcopsulus, and Setonix). Grazing macropods show similar jaw muscle proportions to "ungulate-grinding" type placental mammals. The internal architecture of the jaw muscles also varies between grazing and browsing macropods, most significantly, the anatomy of the medial pterygoid muscle. Potoroines have distinctly different jaw muscle proportions to macropodines. The masseter muscle group, in particular, the superficial masseter is enlarged, while the temporalis group is relatively reduced. Lagostrophus fasciatus is anatomically distinct from other macropods with respect to its masticatory muscle anatomy, including enlarged superficial medial pterygoid and deep temporalis muscles, an anteriorly inflected masseteric process, and the shape of the mandibular condyle. The enlarged triangular pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, in particular, is distinctive of Lagsotrophus. PMID:19462457

  11. Effects of Seated Postural Stability and Trunk and Upper Extremity Strength on Performance during Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Tests in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Audrey; Gabison, Sharon; Verrier, Molly C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To quantify the association between performance-based manual wheelchair propulsion tests (20 m propulsion test, slalom test, and 6 min propulsion test), trunk and upper extremity (U/E) strength, and seated reaching capability and to establish which ones of these variables best predict performance at these tests. Methods. 15 individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) performed the three wheelchair propulsion tests prior to discharge from inpatient SCI rehabilitation. Trunk and U/E strength and seated reaching capability with unilateral hand support were also measured. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses allowed determining the best determinants and predictors, respectively. Results. The performance at the three tests was moderately or strongly correlated with anterior and lateral flexion trunk strength, anterior seated reaching distance, and the shoulder, elbow, and handgrip strength measures. Shoulder adductor strength-weakest side explained 53% of the variance on the 20-meter propulsion test-maximum velocity. Shoulder adductor strength-strongest side and forward seated reaching distance explained 71% of the variance on the slalom test. Handgrip strength explained 52% of the variance on the 6-minute propulsion test. Conclusion. Performance at the manual wheelchair propulsion tests is explained by a combination of factors that should be considered in rehabilitation.

  12. Characteristics of Glottic Closure Reflex in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ju Wan; Kim, Kwang-Moon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The most important function of the larynx is airway protection which is provided through a polysynaptic reflex closure triggered by the receptors in the glottic and supraglottic mucosa, evoking the reflex contraction of the laryngeal muscles especially by strong adduction of vocal cords. Based on the hypotheses that central facilitation is essential for this bilateral adductor reflex and that its disturbance can result in weakened laryngeal closure, we designed this study to elucidate the effect of central facilitation on this protective reflex. Materials and Methods Seven adult, 20 kg mongrel dogs underwent evoked response laryngeal electromyography under 0.5 to 1.0 MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) isoflurane anesthesia. The internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve was stimulated through bipolar platinum-iridium electrodes, and recording electrodes were positioned in the ipsilateral and contralateral thyroarytenoid muscles. Results Ipsilateral reflex closure was consistantly recorded regardless of anesthetic levels. However, contralateral reflex responses disappeared as anesthetic levels were deepened. Additionally, late responses (R2) were detected in one animal at lower level of anesthesia. Conclusions Deepened level of anesthesia affects central facilitation and results in the loss of the crossed adductor reflex, predisposing to a weakened glottic closure response. Precise understanding of this effect may possibly provide a way to prevent aspiration in unconscious patients. PMID:19568600

  13. Neuromuscular control of fundamental frequency and glottal posture at phonation onset

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Neubauer, Juergen; Berry, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The laryngeal neuromuscular mechanisms for modulating glottal posture and fundamental frequency are of interest in understanding normal laryngeal physiology and treating vocal pathology. The intrinsic laryngeal muscles in an in vivo canine model were electrically activated in a graded fashion to investigate their effects on onset frequency, phonation onset pressure, vocal fold strain, and glottal distance at the vocal processes. Muscle activation plots for these laryngeal parameters were evaluated for the interaction of following pairs of muscle activation conditions: (1) cricothyroid (CT) versus all laryngeal adductors (TA/LCA/IA), (2) CT versus LCA/IA, (3) CT versus thyroarytenoid (TA) and, (4) TA versus LCA/IA (LCA: lateral cricoarytenoid muscle, IA: interarytenoid). Increases in onset frequency and strain were primarily affected by CT activation. Onset pressure correlated with activation of all adductors in activation condition 1, but primarily with CT activation in conditions 2 and 3. TA and CT were antagonistic for strain. LCA/IA activation primarily closed the cartilaginous glottis while TA activation closed the mid-membranous glottis. PMID:22352513

  14. The effects of a lateral in-flight perturbation on lower extremity biomechanics during drop landings.

    PubMed

    Yom, Jae P; Simpson, Kathy J; Arnett, Scott W; Brown, Cathleen N

    2014-10-01

    One potential ACL injury situation is due to contact with another person or object during the flight phase, thereby causing the person to land improperly. Conversely, athletes often have flight-phase collisions but do land safely. Therefore, to better understand ACL injury causation and methods by which people typically land safely, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an in-flight perturbation on the lower extremity biomechanics displayed by females during typical drop landings. Seventeen collegiate female recreational athletes performed baseline landings, followed by either unexpected laterally-directed perturbation or sham (nonperturbation) drop landings. We compared baseline and perturbation trials using paired-samples t tests (P < .05) and 95% confidence intervals for lower-extremity joint kinematics and kinetics and GRF. The results demonstrated that perturbation landings compared with baseline landings exhibited more extended joint positions of the lower extremity at initial contact; and, during landing, greater magnitudes for knee abduction and hip adduction displacements; peak magnitudes of vertical and medial GRF; and maximum moments of ankle extensors, knee extensors, and adductor and hip adductors. We conclude that a lateral in-flight perturbation leads to abnormal GRF and angular motions and joint moments of the lower extremity. PMID:25010630

  15. Chronic hypoxia and low salinity impair anti-predatory responses of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youji; Hu, Menghong; Cheung, S G; Shin, P K S; Lu, Weiqun; Li, Jiale

    2012-06-01

    The effects of chronic hypoxia and low salinity on anti-predatory responses of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were investigated. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from hypoxic to normoxic (1.5 ± 0.3 mg l(-1), 3.0 ± 0.3 mg l(-1) and 6.0 ± 0.3 mg l(-1)), and salinities were selected within the variation during the wet season in Hong Kong coastal waters (15‰, 20‰, 25‰ and 30‰). The dissolved oxygen and salinity significantly affected some anti-predatory responses of mussel, including byssus production, shell thickness and shell weight, and the adductor diameter was only significantly affected by salinity. Besides, interactive effects of dissolved oxygen and salinity on the byssus production and shell thickness were also observed. In hypoxic and low salinity conditions, P. viridis produced fewer byssal threads, thinner shell and adductor muscle, indicating that hypoxia and low salinity are severe environmental stressors for self-defence of mussel, and their interactive effects further increase the predation risk. PMID:22405812

  16. Neural correlates of abnormal sensory discrimination in laryngeal dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Ramdhani, Ritesh A.; Battistella, Giovanni; Rubien-Thomas, Estee; Choy, Melissa; Farwell, Ian M.; Velickovic, Miodrag; Blitzer, Andrew; Frucht, Steven J.; Reilly, Richard B.; Hutchinson, Michael; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Simonyan, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant sensory processing plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dystonia; however, its underpinning neural mechanisms in relation to dystonia phenotype and genotype remain unclear. We examined temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds in patients with isolated laryngeal form of dystonia (LD), who exhibited different clinical phenotypes (adductor vs. abductor forms) and potentially different genotypes (sporadic vs. familial forms). We correlated our behavioral findings with the brain gray matter volume and functional activity during resting and symptomatic speech production. We found that temporal but not spatial discrimination was significantly altered across all forms of LD, with higher frequency of abnormalities seen in familial than sporadic patients. Common neural correlates of abnormal temporal discrimination across all forms were found with structural and functional changes in the middle frontal and primary somatosensory cortices. In addition, patients with familial LD had greater cerebellar involvement in processing of altered temporal discrimination, whereas sporadic LD patients had greater recruitment of the putamen and sensorimotor cortex. Based on the clinical phenotype, adductor form-specific correlations between abnormal discrimination and brain changes were found in the frontal cortex, whereas abductor form-specific correlations were observed in the cerebellum and putamen. Our behavioral and neuroimaging findings outline the relationship of abnormal sensory discrimination with the phenotype and genotype of isolated LD, suggesting the presence of potentially divergent pathophysiological pathways underlying different manifestations of this disorder. PMID:26693398

  17. Morphological and functional relationships with ultrasound measured muscle thickness of the lower extremity: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Ultrasound is a potential method for assessing muscle size of the extremity and trunk. In a large muscle, however, a single image from portable ultrasound measures only muscle thickness (MT), not anatomical muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) or muscle volume (MV). Thus, it is important to know whether MT is related to anatomical CSA and MV in an individual muscle of the extremity and trunk. In this review, we summarize previously published articles in the lower extremity demonstrating the relationships between ultrasound MT and muscle CSA or MV as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. The relationship between MT and isometric and isokinetic joint performance is also reviewed. A linear relationship is observed between MT and muscle CSA or MV in the quadriceps, adductor, tibialis anterior, and triceps surae muscles. Intrarater correlation coefficients range from 0.90 to 0.99, except for one study. It would appear that anterior upper-thigh MT, mid-thigh MT and posterior thigh MT are the best predictors for evaluating adductor, quadriceps, and hamstrings muscle size, respectively. Despite a limited number of studies, anterior as well as posterior lower leg MT appear to reflect muscle CSA and MV of the lower leg muscles. Based on previous studies, ultrasound measured anterior thigh MT may be a valuable predictor of knee extension strength. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to clarify the relationship between lower extremity function and MT. PMID:27433253

  18. Molecular cloning of the heat shock protein 20 gene from Paphia textile and its expression in response to heat shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiakai; Wu, Xiangwei; Tan, Jing; Zhao, Ruixiang; Deng, Lingwei; Liu, Xiande

    2015-07-01

    P. textile is an important aquaculture species in China and is mainly distributed in Fujian, Guangdong, and Guangxi Provinces. In this study, an HSP20 cDNA designated PtHSP20 was cloned from P. textile. The full-length cDNA of PtHSP20 is 1 090 bp long and contains a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 93 bp, a 3' UTR of 475 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 522 bp. The PtHSP20 cDNA encodes 173 amino acid residues and has a molecular mass of 20.22 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.2. Its predicted amino acid sequence shows that PtHSP20 contains a typical α-crystallin domain (residues 77-171) and three polyadenylation signal-sequences at the C-terminus. According to an amino acid sequence alignment, PtHSP20 shows moderate homology to other mollusk sHSPs. PtHSP20 mRNA was present in all of the test tissues including the heart, digestive gland, adductor muscle, gonad, gill, and mantle, with the highest concentration found in the gonad. Under the stress of high temperature, the expression of PtHSP20 mRNA was down-regulated in all of the tissues except the adductor muscle and gonad.

  19. Perinatal development of laryngeal function.

    PubMed

    Harding, R

    1984-06-01

    The resistance of the upper airway is strongly influenced by the action of opposing sets of laryngeal muscles. Expiratory airflow may be retarded by active adduction of the arytenoid cartilages or by a reduction in the activity of abductor muscles. In developing sheep the adductor muscles appear to represent the principal means by which lung recoil is opposed. This mechanism, which is most pronounced during non-rapid-eye-movement sleep, is regulated by afferent traffic from the lungs. In fetal sheep the laryngeal muscles are also influenced by breathing movements and sleep states. The adductor muscles are normally tonically active during non-rapid-eye-movement sleep when rhythmical breathing movements are absent. It is possible that this activity is at least partially responsible for elevated tracheal pressures and depressed flow of tracheal fluid during fetal apnea. This hypothesis has been tested by observing the effects of fetal paralysis and recurrent laryngeal nerve section. These experiments suggest that in the fetus near term the larynx makes a major contribution to upper airway resistance and hence to the maintenance of pulmonary expansion which has been shown to influence lung development. PMID:6747226

  20. Is chronic groin pain a Bermuda triangle of sports medicine?

    PubMed

    Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Vencel Čuljak; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncer- tain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes with chronic groin pain resistant to conservative therapy were treated surgically. In 109 athletes with sports hernia, we performed nerve neurolysis along with resection of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve and we also reinforced the posterior wall of inguinal canal using a modified Shouldice technique. In 26 athletes that had concomitant adductor tendinosis and in 5 athletes with isolated tendinosis we performed tenotomy. Eighty-one of 83 patients with isolated sports hernia returned to sports within a mean of 4.4 (range, 3-16) weeks. Thirty-one athletes with adductor tenotomy returned to sports activity within a mean of 11.8 (range, 10-15) weeks. If carefully diagnosed using detailed history taking, physical examination and correct imaging techniques, chronic groin pain can be treated very successfully and quickly, so it need not be a Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. PMID:25868316

  1. US in pubalgia

    PubMed Central

    Balconi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable confusion over the word “pubalgia” with regard to the definition and the etiological causes of this condition. The term pubalgia should be used to indicate disabling pain affecting the pubic region in people who practise sports. Pubalgia affects 10% of those who practise sports and it is particularly prevalent in football players. According to the literature, about 40% of cases of pubalgia are caused by overuse of the symphysis pubis with progressive lesions affecting the rectus abdominal muscles, adductors (rectal-adductor syndrome) and the symphysis itself (osteitis pubis and joint injury). An initial study of the tendons is carried out by ultrasound (US) whereas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed to study the bones and joints. Another 40% of cases of pubalgia are caused by "sports hernia" defined as anteroinferior abdominal wall insufficiency. These alterations can only be identified at dynamic US examination. About 20% of cases of pubalgia are caused by diseases of the neighboring structures or joints such as diseases of the hip, iliopsoas, hamstring, sacred iliac or nerves, or by urogenital diseases. PMID:23396870

  2. [Pubalgia in sportsmen].

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, F; Frot, B; Sterin, P; Tubiana, J M

    1995-01-01

    Pubalgia is a painful syndrome of the groin which particularly affects young athletes. Although soccer players are the athletes most often affected, they are not alone. Also included in this group are fencers, tennis players and rugbymen. This ailment is associated with varying degrees of lesions of the muscles of the lower frontal abdomen, pubic symphysis and adductor muscles. The clinical diagnosis is confirmed by standard X-rays which can show radiological anomalies of the pubic symphysis in cases of microtraumatic pubic osteo-arthropathy or insertion tendinitis. Scintigraphic anomalies occur earlier than radiological anomalies and return to normal before them; thus allowing confirmation of healing even when the radiographs are still abnormal. Sonogram and MRI can be advantageous in the detection of a lesion of the abdominal muscles or adductor muscles. MRI can also detect a lesion of the pubic symphysis. The principal differential diagnosis is pubic osteitis. Treatment is medical and combines rest, analgesics and anti-inflammatories. Surgery, namely Nesovic's operation, is reserved for those forms resistant to medical treatment, and must be bilateral. PMID:8787303

  3. US in pubalgia.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    There is considerable confusion over the word "pubalgia" with regard to the definition and the etiological causes of this condition. The term pubalgia should be used to indicate disabling pain affecting the pubic region in people who practise sports. Pubalgia affects 10% of those who practise sports and it is particularly prevalent in football players. According to the literature, about 40% of cases of pubalgia are caused by overuse of the symphysis pubis with progressive lesions affecting the rectus abdominal muscles, adductors (rectal-adductor syndrome) and the symphysis itself (osteitis pubis and joint injury). An initial study of the tendons is carried out by ultrasound (US) whereas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed to study the bones and joints.Another 40% of cases of pubalgia are caused by "sports hernia" defined as anteroinferior abdominal wall insufficiency. These alterations can only be identified at dynamic US examination.About 20% of cases of pubalgia are caused by diseases of the neighboring structures or joints such as diseases of the hip, iliopsoas, hamstring, sacred iliac or nerves, or by urogenital diseases. PMID:23396870

  4. Diagnostics in athletes with long-standing groin pain.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J A C G; Mens, J M A; Backx, F J G; Stam, H J

    2008-12-01

    Chronic adductor dysfunction, osteitis pubis and abdominal wall deficiency are mentioned as pathologies explaining long-standing groin pain (LGP) in athletes. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of diagnostic tests used to identify these pathologies in athletic OKE. Additionally, starting points for intervention were searched for. A systematic literature search was performed to retrieve all relevant diagnostic studies and studies describing risk factors. The methodological quality of the identified studies was evaluated. Seventeen studies provided an insight into pathologies; eight provided relevant information for intervention. Adduction provocation tests are moderately valid for osteitis pubis. A pelvic belt might provide some insight into the role of the pubic symphysis during adduction provocation. Palpation can be used for provocation of adductors and symphysis. Roentgen, bone scan and herniography show poor validity. Bilateral abdominal abnormalities on ultrasound appear to be a valid marker for LGP. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can visualize edema and other abnormalities, although the relation to groin pain is not unambiguous. The methodological quality of the studies ranged from poor to good. MRI and ultrasound should be the primary diagnostic tools after clinical examination. PMID:18980608

  5. How human gait responds to muscle impairment in total knee arthroplasty patients: Muscular compensations and articular perturbations.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Marzieh M; Moazen, Mehran

    2016-06-14

    Post-surgical muscle weakness is prevalent among patients who undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We conducted a probabilistic multi-body dynamics (MBD) to determine whether and to what extent habitual gait patterns of TKA patients may accommodate strength deficits in lower extremity muscles. We analyzed muscular and articular compensations in response to various muscle impairments, and the minimum muscle strength requirements needed to preserve TKA gait patterns in its habitual status. Muscle weakness was simulated by reducing the strength parameter of muscle models in MBD analysis. Using impaired models, muscle and joint forces were calculated and compared versus those from baseline gait i.e. TKA habitual gait before simulating muscle weakness. Comparisons were conducted using a relatively new statistical approach for the evaluation of gait waveforms, i.e. Spatial Parameter Mapping (SPM). Principal component analysis was then conducted on the MBD results to quantify the sensitivity of every joint force component to individual muscle impairment. The results of this study contain clinically important, although preliminary, suggestions. Our findings suggested that: (1) hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor muscles compensated for hip extensor weakness; (2) hip extensor, hip adductor and ankle plantar flexor muscles compensated for hip flexor weakness; (3) hip and knee flexor muscles responded to hip abductor weakness; (4) knee flexor and hip abductor balanced hip adductor impairment; and (5) knee extensor and knee flexor weakness were compensated by hip extensor and hip flexor muscles. Future clinical studies are required to validate the results of this computational study. PMID:27063251

  6. Assimilation, Accumulation, and Metabolism of Dinophysistoxins (DTXs) and Pectenotoxins (PTXs) in the Several Tissues of Japanese Scallop Patinopecten yessoensis

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ryoji; Uchida, Hajime; Nagai, Satoshi; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi; Kaneniwa, Masaki; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Japanese scallops, Patinopecten yessoensis, were fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis fortii to elucidate the relative magnitude of assimilation, accumulation, and metabolism of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) and pectenotoxins (PTXs). Three individual scallops were separately exposed to cultured D. fortii for four days. The average cell number of D. fortii assimilated by each individual scallop was 7.7 × 105. Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and their metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and the toxin content in individual tissues (digestive gland, adductor muscle, gill, gonad, mantle, and the others), feces and the seawater medium were quantified. Toxins were almost exclusively accumulated in the digestive gland with only low levels being detected in the gills, mantles, gonads, and adductor muscles. DTX1 and PTX2 were the dominant toxins in the D. fortii cells fed to the scallops, whereas the dominant toxins detected in the digestive gland of scallops were PTX6 and esterified acyl-O-DTX1 (DTX3). In other tissues PTX2 was the dominant toxin observed. The ratio of accumulated to assimilated toxins was 21%–39% and 7%–23% for PTXs and DTXs respectively. Approximately 54%–75% of PTX2 and 52%–70% of DTX1 assimilated by the scallops was directly excreted into the seawater mainly without metabolic transformation. PMID:26633503

  7. EMG activity across gait and incline: The impact of muscular activity on human morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wall-Scheffler, Cara M.; Chumanov, Elizabeth; Steudel-Numbers, Karen; Heiderscheit, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The study of human evolution depends upon a fair assessment of the ability of hominin individuals to gain access to necessary resources. We expect that the morphology of extant and extinct populations represents a successful locomotory system that allowed individuals to move across the environment gaining access to food, water and mates while still maintaining excess energy to allocate to reproduction. Our assessment of locomotor morphology must then incorporate tests of fitness within realistic environments—environments that themselves vary in terrain and whose negotiation requires a variety of gait and speeds. This study assesses muscular activity (measured as the integrated signal from surface electromyography) of seven thigh and hip muscle groups during walking and running across a wide range of speeds and inclines, in order to systematically assess the role that morphology can play in minimizing muscular activity and thus energy expenditure. Our data suggest that humans are better adapted to walking than running at any slope, as evidenced by small confidence intervals and even trends across speed and incline. We find that while increasing task intensity unsurprisingly increases muscular activity in the lower limb, individuals with longer limbs show significantly reduced activity during both walking and running, especially in the hip adductors, gluteus maximus and hamstring muscles. People with a broader pelvis show significantly reduced activity while walking in the hip adductor and hamstring muscles. PMID:20623603

  8. Stairway to Heaven: Evaluating Levels of Biological Organization Correlated with the Successful Ascent of Natural Waterfalls in the Hawaiian Stream Goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Maie, Takashi; Moody, Kristine N.; Lesteberg, Kelsey E.; Blob, Richard W.; Schoenfuss, Tonya C.

    2013-01-01

    Selective pressures generated by locomotor challenges act at the level of the individual. However, phenotypic variation among individuals that might convey a selective advantage may occur across any of multiple levels of biological organization. In this study, we test for differences in external morphology, muscle mechanical advantage, muscle fiber type and protein expression among individuals of the waterfall climbing Hawaiian fish Sicyopterus stimpsoni collected from sequential pools increasing in elevation within a single freshwater stream. Despite predictions from previous laboratory studies of morphological selection, few directional morphometric changes in body shape were observed at successively higher elevations. Similarly, lever arm ratios associated with the main pelvic sucker, central to climbing ability in this species, did not differ between elevations. However, among climbing muscles, the adductor pelvicus complex (largely responsible for generating pelvic suction during climbing) contained a significantly greater red muscle fiber content at upstream sites. A proteomic analysis of the adductor pelvicus revealed two-fold increases in expression levels for two respiratory chain proteins (NADH:ubiquinone reductase and cytochrome b) that are essential for aerobic respiration among individuals from successively higher elevations. Assessed collectively, these evaluations reveal phenotypic differences at some, but not all levels of biological organization that are likely the result of selective pressures experienced during climbing. PMID:24386424

  9. Stairway to heaven: evaluating levels of biological organization correlated with the successful ascent of natural waterfalls in the Hawaiian stream goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    PubMed

    Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Maie, Takashi; Moody, Kristine N; Lesteberg, Kelsey E; Blob, Richard W; Schoenfuss, Tonya C

    2013-01-01

    Selective pressures generated by locomotor challenges act at the level of the individual. However, phenotypic variation among individuals that might convey a selective advantage may occur across any of multiple levels of biological organization. In this study, we test for differences in external morphology, muscle mechanical advantage, muscle fiber type and protein expression among individuals of the waterfall climbing Hawaiian fish Sicyopterus stimpsoni collected from sequential pools increasing in elevation within a single freshwater stream. Despite predictions from previous laboratory studies of morphological selection, few directional morphometric changes in body shape were observed at successively higher elevations. Similarly, lever arm ratios associated with the main pelvic sucker, central to climbing ability in this species, did not differ between elevations. However, among climbing muscles, the adductor pelvicus complex (largely responsible for generating pelvic suction during climbing) contained a significantly greater red muscle fiber content at upstream sites. A proteomic analysis of the adductor pelvicus revealed two-fold increases in expression levels for two respiratory chain proteins (NADH:ubiquinone reductase and cytochrome b) that are essential for aerobic respiration among individuals from successively higher elevations. Assessed collectively, these evaluations reveal phenotypic differences at some, but not all levels of biological organization that are likely the result of selective pressures experienced during climbing. PMID:24386424

  10. Swimming performance, metabolic rates, and their correlates in the Iceland scallop Chlamys islandica.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Isabelle; Guderley, Helga E; Frechette, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    The dramatic escape response of some scallops is modified by reproductive investment and by acclimation temperature. Despite considerable knowledge of the physiology of the escape response, functional links between escape response performance, organismal rates of oxygen uptake, and tissue metabolic capacities are little known. We measured oxygen consumption rates (standard, maximal, and aerobic scope), escape behavior (initial and repeat performance), tissue mass, condition index, protein content, and tissue metabolic capacities in the Iceland scallop Chlamys islandica to examine links between these parameters. Postexercise oxygen consumption rates were positively linked to contraction rate (repeat test) and to pyruvate kinase activity in the adductor muscle but negatively linked to digestive gland wet mass. Swimming behavior was mainly related to activity of glycolytic enzymes, and enzymatic activities were related to anatomic parameters. Scallop behavior and physiology change with size, both within our samples and on a larger scale. Small scallops showed more intense swimming activity and had higher arginine kinase activities but lower glycolytic enzyme activities in their adductor muscle than larger scallops. This corresponds to the ontogenetic change in susceptibility to predation and in habitat use observed in C. islandica. PMID:17041870

  11. Control of the lateral abdominal muscles during walking.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hai; Meijer, Onno G; Hodges, Paul W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Strijers, Rob L; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B; van Royen, Barend J; Wu, Wen Hua; Xia, Chun; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2012-08-01

    Transversus abdominis (TA), obliquus internus (OI), and obliquus externus (OE) are involved in multiple functions: breathing, control of trunk orientation, and stabilization of the pelvis and spine. How these functions are coordinated has received limited attention. We studied electromyographic (EMG) activity of right-sided muscles and 3-dimensional moments during treadmill walking at six different speeds (1.4-5.4 km/h) in sixteen healthy young women. PCA revealed time series of trunk moments to be consistent across speeds and subjects though somewhat less in the sagittal plane. All three muscles were active during ≥75% of the stride cycle, indicative of a stabilizing function. Clear phasic modulations were observed, with TA more active during ipsilateral, and OE during contralateral swing, while OI activity was largely symmetrical. Fourier analysis revealed four main frequencies in muscle activity: respiration, stride frequency, step frequency, and a triphasic pattern. With increasing speed, the absolute power of all frequencies remained constant or increased; the relative power of respiration and stride-related activities decreased, while that of step-related activity and the triphasic pattern increased. Effects of speed were gradual, and EMG linear envelopes had considerable common variance (>70%) across speeds within subjects, suggesting that the same functions were performed at all speeds. Maximum cross-correlations between moments and muscle activity were 0.2-0.6, and further analyses in the time domain revealed both simultaneous and consecutive task execution. To deal with conflicting constraints, the activity of the three muscles was clearly coordinated, with co-contraction of antagonists to offset unwanted mechanical side-effects of each individual muscle. PMID:22119422

  12. A spiking Basal Ganglia model of synchrony, exploration and decision making

    PubMed Central

    Mandali, Alekhya; Rengaswamy, Maithreye; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    To make an optimal decision we need to weigh all the available options, compare them with the current goal, and choose the most rewarding one. Depending on the situation an optimal decision could be to either “explore” or “exploit” or “not to take any action” for which the Basal Ganglia (BG) is considered to be a key neural substrate. In an attempt to expand this classical picture of BG function, we had earlier hypothesized that the Indirect Pathway (IP) of the BG could be the subcortical substrate for exploration. In this study we build a spiking network model to relate exploration to synchrony levels in the BG (which are a neural marker for tremor in Parkinson's disease). Key BG nuclei such as the Sub Thalamic Nucleus (STN), Globus Pallidus externus (GPe) and Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) were modeled as Izhikevich spiking neurons whereas the Striatal output was modeled as Poisson spikes. The model is cast in reinforcement learning framework with the dopamine signal representing reward prediction error. We apply the model to two decision making tasks: a binary action selection task (similar to one used by Humphries et al., 2006) and an n-armed bandit task (Bourdaud et al., 2008). The model shows that exploration levels could be controlled by STN's lateral connection strength which also influenced the synchrony levels in the STN-GPe circuit. An increase in STN's lateral strength led to a decrease in exploration which can be thought as the possible explanation for reduced exploratory levels in Parkinson's patients. Our simulations also show that on complete removal of IP, the model exhibits only Go and No-Go behaviors, thereby demonstrating the crucial role of IP in exploration. Our model provides a unified account for synchronization, action section, and explorative behavior. PMID:26074761

  13. Rat Globus Pallidus Neurons: Functional Classification and Effects of Dopamine Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Karain, Brad; Xu, Dan; Bellone, John A.; Hartman, Richard E.; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The rat globus pallidus (GP) is homologous to the primate GP externus. Studies with injectable anesthetics suggest that GP neurons can be classified into Type-I and Type-II cells based on extracellularly recorded spike shape, or positively coupled (PC), negatively coupled (NC), and uncoupled (UC) cells based on functional connectivity with the cortex. In this study, we examined the electrophysiology of rat GP neurons using the inhalational anesthetic isoflurane which offers more constant and easily regulated levels of anesthesia than injectable anesthetics. In 130 GP neurons recorded using small-tip glass electrodes (<1 μm), all but one fired Type-II spikes (positive/negative waveform). Type-I cells were unlikely to be inhibited by isoflurane since all GP neurons also fired Type-II spikes under ketamine-induced anesthesia. When recorded with large-tip electrodes (~2 μm), however, over 70% of GP neurons exhibited Type-I spikes (negative/positive waveform). These results suggest that the spike shape, recorded extracellularly, varies depending on the electrode used and is not reliable in distinguishing Type-I and Type-II neurons. Using dual-site recording, 40% of GP neurons were identified as PC cells, 17.5% NC cells, and 42.5% UC cells. The three subtypes also differed significantly in firing rate and pattern. Lesions of dopamine neurons increased the number of NC cells, decreased that of UC cells, and significantly shifted the phase relationship between PC cells and the cortex. These results support the presence of GP neuron subtypes and suggest that each subtype plays a different role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25196543

  14. Four-bar linkage modelling in teleost pharyngeal jaws: computer simulations of bite kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Grubich, Justin R; Westneat, Mark W

    2006-01-01

    The pharyngeal arches of the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) possess large toothplates and a complex musculoskeletal design for biting and crushing hard prey. The morphology of the pharyngeal apparatus is described from dissections of six specimens, with a focus on the geometric conformation of contractile and rotational elements. Four major muscles operate the rotational 4th epibranchial (EB4) and 3rd pharyngobranchial (PB3) elements to create pharyngeal bite force, including the levator posterior (LP), levator externus 3/4 (LE), obliquus posterior (OP) and 3rd obliquus dorsalis (OD). A biomechanical model of upper pharyngeal jaw biting is developed using lever mechanics and four-bar linkage theory from mechanical engineering. A pharyngeal four-bar linkage is proposed that involves the posterior skull as the fixed link, the LP muscle as input link, the epibranchial bone as coupler link and the toothed pharyngobranchial as output link. We used a computer model to simulate contraction of the four major muscles, with the LP as the dominant muscle, the length of which determined the position of the linkage. When modelling lever mechanics, we found that the effective mechanical advantages of the pharyngeal elements were low, resulting in little resultant bite force. By contrast, the force advantage of the four-bar linkage was relatively high, transmitting approximately 50% of the total muscle force to the bite between the toothplates. Pharyngeal linkage modelling enables quantitative functional morphometry of a key component of the fish feeding system, and the model is now available for ontogenetic and comparative analyses of fishes with pharyngeal linkage mechanisms. PMID:16822272

  15. Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorous caddisflies in subalpine wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wissinger, S.A.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.; Steltzer, H.

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data from subalpine wetlands in Colorado indicate that larvae of the limnephilid caddisflies, Asynarchus nigriculus and Limnephilus externus, are reciprocally abundant among habitats - Limnephilus larvae dominate in permanent waters, whereas Asynarchus larvae dominate in temporary basins. The purpose of this paper is to report on field and laboratory experiments that link this pattern of abundance to biotic interactions among larvae. In the first field experiment, growth and survival were compared in single and mixed species treatments in littoral enclosures. Larvae, which eat mainly vascular plant detritus, grew at similar rates among treatments in both temporary and permanent habitats suggesting that exploitative competition is not important under natural food levels and caddisfly densities. However, the survival of Limnephilus larvae was reduced in the presence of Asynarchus larvae. Subsequent behavioral studies in laboratory arenas revealed that Asynarchus larvae are extremely aggressive predators on Limnephilus larvae. In a second field experiment we manipulated the relative sizes of larvae and found that Limnephilus larvae were preyed on only when Asynarchus larvae had the same size advantage observed in natural populations. Our data suggest that the dominance of Asynarchus larvae in temporary habitats is due to asymmetric intraguild predation (IGP) facilitated by a phenological head start in development. These data do not explain the dominance of Limnephilus larvae in permanent basins, which we show elsewhere to be an indirect effect of salamander predation. Behavioral observations also revealed that Asynarchus larvae are cannibalistic. In contrast to the IGP on Limnephilus larvae, Asynarchus cannibalism occurs among same-sized larvae and often involves the mobbing of one victim by several conspecifics. In a third field experiment, we found that Asynarchus cannibalism was not density-dependent and occurred even at low larval densities. We

  16. Abdominal muscle size and symmetry at rest and during abdominal hollowing exercises in healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mannion, A F; Pulkovski, N; Toma, V; Sprott, H

    2008-01-01

    The symmetry of, and physical characteristics influencing, the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles at rest and during abdominal exercises were examined in 57 healthy subjects (20 men, 37 women; aged 22–62 years). M-mode ultrasound images were recorded from the abdominal muscles at rest and during abdominal hollowing exercises in hook-lying. The fascial lines bordering the transvs. abdominis, obliquus internus and obliquus externus were digitized and the absolute thickness, relative thickness (% of total lateral thickness) and contraction ratio (thickness during hollowing/thickness at rest), as well as the asymmetry (difference between sides expressed as a percent of the smallest value for the two sides) for each of these parameters were determined for each muscle. Both at rest and during hollowing, obliquus internus was the thickest and transvs. abdominis the thinnest muscle. There were no significant differences between left and right sides for group mean thicknesses of any muscle; however, individual asymmetries were evident, with mean values for the different muscles ranging from 11% to 26%; asymmetry was much less for the contraction ratios (mean % side differences, 5–14% depending on muscle). Body mass was the most significant positive predictor of absolute muscle thickness, for all muscles at rest and during hollowing, accounting for 30–44% variance. Body mass index explained 20–30% variance in transvs. abdominis contraction ratio (negative relationship). The influence of these confounders must be considered in comparative studies of healthy controls and back pain patients, unless groups are very carefully matched. Asymmetries observed in patients should be interpreted with caution, as they are also common in healthy subjects. PMID:19172732

  17. Balance recovery is compromised and trunk muscle activity is increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle D; Chang, Angela T; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Increased respiration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires greater abdominal muscle activation, which may impact on contribution of the trunk to postural control. This study aimed to determine whether recovery of balance from postural perturbations and trunk muscle activity differs in people with and without COPD before and/or after exercise. Electromyography (EMG) of the obliquus internus (OI) and externus (OE) abdominis, rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES) and deltoid muscles was recorded with surface electrodes during rapid shoulder flexion and extension. Time taken to regain baseline centre of pressure velocity (vCOP) and the number of postural adjustments following arm movement was calculated from force plate data. Time to recover balance in the direction of postural disturbance (anteroposterior vCOP) was longer in COPD, particularly more severe COPD, than controls. Mediolateral vCOP (perpendicular to the perturbation) and the number of postural adjustments did not differ between groups, but people with more severe COPD were less successful at returning their mediolateral vCOP to baseline. Abdominal muscle EMG was similar between groups, but controls had greater ES EMG during arm movements. Individuals with more severe COPD had greater OE and RA EMG both before and during arm movement compared to those with less severe COPD and controls. Following exercise, OE and ES EMG increased in people with less severe COPD. This study shows that severe COPD is associated with impaired ability to recover balance and greater trunk muscle activity during postural challenges. Augmented trunk muscle activity may limit the contribution of trunk movements to balance recovery and could contribute to increased falls risk. PMID:26471324

  18. Differential activity of regions of transversus abdominis during trunk rotation.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Donna M; Hodges, Paul W

    2005-05-01

    The role of the abdominal muscles in trunk rotation is not comprehensively understood. This study investigated the electromyographic (EMG) activity of anatomically distinct regions of the abdominal muscles during trunk rotation in six subjects with no history of spinal pain. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted into the right abdominal wall; upper region of transversus abdominis (TrA), middle region of TrA, obliquus internus abdominis (OI) and obliquus externus abdominis (OE), and lower region of TrA and OI. Surface electrodes were placed over right rectus abdominis (RA). Subjects performed trunk rotation to the left and right in sitting by rotating their pelvis relative to a fixed thorax. EMG activity was recorded in relaxed supine and sitting, and during an isometric hold at end range. TrA was consistently active during trunk rotation, with the recruitment patterns of the upper fascicles opposite to that of the middle and lower fascicles. During left rotation, there was greater activity of the lower and middle regions of contralateral TrA and the lower region of contralateral OI. The upper region of ipsilateral TrA and OE were predominately active during right rotation. In contrast, there was no difference in activity of RA and middle OI between directions (although middle OI was different between directions for all but one subject). This study indicates that TrA is active during trunk rotation, but this activity varies between muscle regions. These normative data will assist in understanding the role of TrA in lumbopelvic control and movement, and the effect of spinal pain on abdominal muscle recruitment. PMID:15940481

  19. Comparative Biomechanical Modeling of Metatherian and Placental Saber-Tooths: A Different Kind of Bite for an Extreme Pouched Predator

    PubMed Central

    Wroe, Stephen; Chamoli, Uphar; Parr, William C. H.; Clausen, Philip; Ridgely, Ryan; Witmer, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Questions surrounding the dramatic morphology of saber-tooths, and the presumably deadly purpose to which it was put, have long excited scholarly and popular attention. Among saber-toothed species, the iconic North American placental, Smilodon fatalis, and the bizarre South American sparassodont, Thylacosmilus atrox, represent extreme forms commonly forwarded as examples of convergent evolution. For S. fatalis, some consensus has been reached on the question of killing behaviour, with most researchers accepting the canine-shear bite hypothesis, wherein both head-depressing and jaw closing musculatures played a role in delivery of the fatal bite. However, whether, or to what degree, T. atrox may have applied a similar approach remains an open question. Here we apply a three-dimensional computational approach to examine convergence in mechanical performance between the two species. We find that, in many respects, the placental S. fatalis (a true felid) was more similar to the metatherian T. atrox than to a conical-toothed cat. In modeling of both saber-tooths we found that jaw-adductor-driven bite forces were low, but that simulations invoking neck musculature revealed less cranio-mandibular stress than in a conical-toothed cat. However, our study also revealed differences between the two saber-tooths likely reflected in the modus operandi of the kill. Jaw-adductor-driven bite forces were extremely weak in T. atrox, and its skull was even better-adapted to resist stress induced by head-depressors. Considered together with the fact that the center of the arc described by the canines was closer to the jaw-joint in Smilodon, our results are consistent with both jaw-closing and neck musculature playing a role in prey dispatch for the placental, as has been previously suggested. However, for T. atrox, we conclude that the jaw-adductors probably played no major part in the killing bite. We propose that the metatherian presents a more complete commitment to the already

  20. Sevoflurane enhances neuromuscular blockade by increasing the sensitivity of skeletal muscle to neuromuscular blockers

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ling; Zuo, Yunxia; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Pingliang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on skeletal muscle contractility. In the first part, twenty-two American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA I-II) female adult patients undergoing elective hysterectomy surgery inhaled sevoflurane 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 minimum alveolar concentrations (MAC) in succession. Neuromuscular function was assessed at each dose. In the second part, forty-four ASA I-II female adult patients were randomized into four groups: group 1 (propofol + atracurium, sevoflurane 0 MAC), and groups 2 to 4 (atracurium + sevoflurane 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 MAC, respectively). In group 1, patients were anesthetized by propofol. Then 0.01 mg/kg atracurium was injected into the tested arm intravenously after the arterial blood flow was blocked using a tourniquet. For the other 3 groups, patients inhaled 1.0 MAC, 1.5 MAC, or 2.0 MAC of sevoflurane. Then 0.01 mg/kg atracurium was injected. Neuromuscular function was recorded for the 4 groups. Neuromuscular function was assessed by acceleromyography measurement of evoked responses to train-of four (TOF) stimuli (2 Hz for 2 s applied every 12 s) at the adductor pollicis using a TOF-GuardTM neuromuscular transmission monitor. Amplitudes of first response (T1) in each TOF sequence and the ratios of fourth TOF response (T4) to the first were similar at 1.0 MAC, 1.5 MAC, and 2.0 MAC sevoflurane. Compared to baseline, there was no significant change in the TOF value after inhaling 1.0 MAC, 1.5 MAC, or 2.0 MAC sevoflurane. Compared to group 1, there was no significant difference in atracurium onset time (time to reach TOF ratio = 0.25) in group 2 ( 5.6 ± 1.8 min vs. 6.5 ± 1.7 min, P>0.05), or degree of adductor pollicis block (subject number with TOF ratio = 0, 5 vs. 2 subjects, p = 0.3). However, inhaling 1.5 or 2.0 MAC sevoflurane decreased atracurium onset time (4.6 ± 1.5 min and 4.0 ± 1.3 min vs. 6.5 ± 1.7 min, P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively), and enhanced the block degree (9 and 10 vs. 2

  1. Prevalence of caries among preschool-aged children in a central Anatolian population

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Damla; Dülgergil, Çoruh T.; Mutluay, Abidin T.; Yıldırım, Işıl; Hamidi, Mehmet M.; Çolak, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a particularly destructive form of tooth decay that afflicts young children. The etiology and associated factors of ECC should be studied adequately to overcome this health hazard. The aim of this study was to determine caries prevalence and its consequences in toddlers in an Anatolian city, Kırıkkale. Materials and Methods: Examinations were performed in family medicine centers by three calibrated dentists during a period of 6 months. The status of dental caries was recorded according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. We recorded the clinical indexes of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft; upper-case letters refer to permanent and lower-case letters to primary teeth), and decayed, missed, and filled surfaces (DMFS). Results: Totally 3171 toddlers were included (52% males and 48% females). The mean age was 25.8 ± 10.1 months. The prevalence of ECC in preschool children was 17.3%, while the mean df(t) was 0.63 ± 1.79. ECC increased significantly with age. Dental caries were mostly observed in primary maxillary central teeth. Occlusal and buccal surfaces were the most affected sites. The difference in distribution of caries between maxilla and mandibula was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: When compared to other data obtained from various epidemiologic studies, the toddlers living in Kırıkkale city center had a significant caries level. This observation had clearly suggested that early preventive measures should urgently be put into effect all over the city. PMID:24082726

  2. Bone Marrow Transplantation Improves Autoinflammation and Inflammatory Bone Loss in SH3BP2 Knock-In Cherubism Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitaka, Teruhito; Kittaka, Mizuho; Ishida, Shu; Mizuno, Noriyoshi; Mukai, Tomoyuki; Ueki, Yasuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cherubism (OMIM#118400) is a genetic disorder in children characterized by excessive jawbone destruction with proliferation of fibro-osseous lesions containing a large number of osteoclasts. Mutations in the SH3-domain binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) are responsible for cherubism. Analysis of the knock-in (KI) mouse model of cherubism showed that homozygous cherubism mice (Sh3bp2KI/KI) spontaneously develop systemic autoinflammation and inflammatory bone loss and that cherubism is a TNF-α-dependent hematopoietic disorder. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is effective for the treatment of inflammation and bone loss in Sh3bp2KI/KI mice. Bone marrow (BM) cells from wild-type (Sh3bp2+/+) mice were transplanted to 6-week-old Sh3bp2KI/KI mice with developing inflammation and to 10-week-old Sh3bp2KI/KI mice with established inflammation. Six-week-old Sh3bp2KI/KI mice transplanted with Sh3bp2+/+ BM cells exhibited improved body weight loss, facial swelling, and survival rate. Inflammatory lesions in the liver and lung as well as bone loss in calvaria and mandibula were ameliorated at 10 weeks after BMT compared to Sh3bp2KI/KI mice transplanted with Sh3bp2KI/KI BM cells. Elevation of serum TNF-α levels was not detected after BMT. BMT was effective for up to 20 weeks in 6-week-old Sh3bp2KI/KI mice transplanted with Sh3bp2+/+ BM cells. BMT also ameliorated the inflammation and bone loss in 10-week-old Sh3bp2KI/KI mice. Thus our study demonstrates that BMT improves the inflammation and bone loss in cherubism mice. BMT may be effective for the treatment of cherubism patients. PMID:25445458

  3. [Frey syndrome secondary to submaxillectomy and botulinic treatment].

    PubMed

    Báez, Alejandra; Paleari, Julieta; Durán, María Nöel; Rudy, Tamara; Califano, Ines; Barbosa, Nicolas; Parera, Ignacio Casas

    2007-01-01

    A case of Frey syndrome (FS) secondary to submaxillar gland exeresis is presented and the results of the treatment with botulinum toxin (BTX) type A. FS is a condition of sweating cheek and preauricular area during realtime as a sequel detected in about 20-60% of patients after parotidectomy. The clinical symptoms include swelling, flushing and hyperhidrosis. The treatment choice for this condition is intracutaneous injection of BTX type A which blocks acetylcholine release at the sweat glands. A 30-year-old man, with thyroid medullar carcinoma diagnosed in 2002 received 6 cicles of cisplatin plus doxorubicin previous to the thyroidectomy with anterolateral neck dissection. During surgery the left ramus marginalis mandibulae was damaged. Two years later the patient referred sweating in submaxillar region during meals. CT scan demonstrated the absence of left submaxillar gland. Minor's test disclosed the affected area and BTX type A was injected (2.5 U/cm2/17 points). A twenty-one-day control showed a 95% reduction of the affected skin area. Persistent efficacy was observed up to one year follow-up time when he was reinjected. The FS, also known as "gustatory hyperhidrosis", was probably first reported by M. Duphenix in 1757. Lucja Frey considered its physiopathology as a disorder of both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. In our case the FS was caused by a misdirected regeneration of postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers that arrised from the nervus lingualis rami ganglionares of the nervus trigeminus. After nerve injury the colinergic parasympathetic fibers seek out colinergic receptors--sympathetic receptors of the skin--innervating sweat glands and small skin vessels. All previous cases were located at masseter region post-parotidectomy. We have not found any description of FS in the submaxillary region. The self-assessed efficacy of the treatment with a hyperhidrosis disease severity scale revealed a very satisfied patient at 20 months follow

  4. Effect of unloading on muscle volume with and without resistance training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akima, Hiroshi; Ushiyama, Jun-ichi; Kubo, Junjiro; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2007-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of resistance training on the volume of four muscle groups and/or 17 individual muscles of the human lower limb during 20 days of 6∘ head-down tilt bed rest. Twelve healthy men were divided into two groups: the resistance training group: BR-Tr (n=6) and the control group: BR-Cont (n=6). The volumes of the knee extensor, knee flexor, adductor, plantar flexor, and dorsiflexor muscle groups and their individual muscles were calculated. After the bed rest, the BR-Tr subjects showed no significant change in the volume in almost all tested muscles; in contrast, the volumes of the four muscle groups significantly decreased in the BR-Cont group ( -12% to -8%). These results suggest that resistance training during bed rest can prevent the deteriorating of thigh muscles and calf muscles.

  5. Augmentation of transfers for a quadriplegic patient using an implanted FNS system. Case report.

    PubMed

    Marsolais, E B; Scheiner, A; Miller, P C; Kobetic, R; Daly, J J

    1994-08-01

    A 22 year old man with incomplete quadriplegia (C6-7) was unable to perform either a sliding or a pivot transfer. He was instrumented with an implanted functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) system, radio frequency-linked to a belt-worn controller. The system activated eight muscles selected from among quadriceps, hamstrings, posterior portion of the adductor magnus, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae, bilaterally. The two-stage implantation procedure included electrode implantation with percutaneous leads followed by stimulator implantation and removal of the percutaneous leads. All implants were well tolerated with no adverse effects. The subject was able independently to put on the external controller portion of the system and to perform a standing pivot transfer with only standby assistance. An unexpected outcome of the FNS system use was increased voluntary upper body strength that resulted in improvement of the sliding transfer from 'inability' to 'independent'. PMID:7970864

  6. Necrotising fasciitis due to an infected sebaceous cyst

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, W M P F; Brekelmans, W; Verduijn, P S; Borger van der Burg, B L S; Ritchie, E D

    2014-01-01

    The current case presents a patient who was admitted to our hospital with the diagnosis of cellulitis of the right groin. In the following days, the patient's condition deteriorated and developed a septic shock. Exploration in the operating room showed a necrotising fasciitis of the adductor muscles, with an infected sebaceous cyst in the inguinal crest as port d'entrée. After extensive surgical debridement, antibiotic therapy, haemodynamic and respiratory support, the patient recovered. Necrotising fasciitis is a rare but very lethal condition, which necessitates aggressive surgical therapy and antibiotic support. The current case report is the first report to show a necrotising fasciitis due to an infected sebaceous cyst. PMID:24789153

  7. MRI in DNM2-related centronuclear myopathy: evidence for highly selective muscle involvement.

    PubMed

    Schessl, Joachim; Medne, Livija; Hu, Ying; Zou, Yaqun; Brown, Mark J; Huse, Jason T; Torigian, Drew A; Jungbluth, Heinz; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Bönnemann, Carsten G

    2007-01-01

    Dynamin 2 has recently been recognized as a causative gene for the autosomal dominant form of centronuclear myopathy (dominant centronuclear myopathy). Here we report an affected father and daughter with dynamin 2 related AD CNM with predominantly distal onset of weakness. In addition to the diagnostic central location of myonuclei the muscle biopsy also showed core-like structures. Muscle MRI in the lower leg revealed prominent involvement of the soleus, but also of the gastrocnemius and the tibialis anterior whereas in the thigh there was a consistent pattern of selective involvement of adductor longus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, and vastus intermedius with relative sparing of vastus lateralis and medialis, sartorius, gracilis, and partly of the semitendinosus. These characteristic findings on muscle MRI confirm similar findings reported for CT imaging in dynamin 2 related dominant centronuclear myopathy and may help to differentiate this disorder from central core disease and other myopathies. PMID:17134899

  8. [Preliminary treatment of congenital hip dislocation using physical therapy based on neurophysiology].

    PubMed

    Niethard, F U

    1987-01-01

    Adductor tightness is a typical symptom in CDH. In cases of subluxation and complete dislocation even a rigid abduction contracture can occur, preventing reduction and favouring redislocation. The contracture of the hip joint is the result of neurophysiological disorders, which can be treated by an exercise program on a neurophysiological basis. 62 children with 73 severely contracted and 5 hypotonic hip dislocations have been treated by the so-called "Vojta-program" before reduction. In a prospective study over 5 years this kind of treatment has been very successful: the incidence of necrosis of the femoral head could be reduced to 4%, long-lasting traction was not necessary anymore and the rigid hip joints required open reduction only in 2 cases. PMID:3577341

  9. Muscle sarcomere lesions and thrombosis after spaceflight and suspension unloading

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.A.; Ellis, S.; Giometti, C.S.; Hoh, J.F.Y.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.I.; Oganov, V.S.; Slocum, G.R.; Bain, J.L.W.; Sedlak, F.R. )

    1992-08-01

    Extended exposure of humans to spaceflight produces a progressive loss of skeletal muscle strength. This process must be understood to design effective countermeasures. The present investigation examined hindlimb muscles from flight rats killed as close to landing as possible. Spaceflight and tail suspension-hindlimb unloading (unloaded) produced significant decreases in fiber cross-sectional areas of the adductor longus (AL), a slow-twitch antigravity muscle. However, the mean wet weight of the flight AL muscles was near normal, whereas that of the suspension unloaded AL muscles was significantly reduced. Interstitial edema within the flight AL, but not in the unloaded AL, appeared to account for this apparent disagreement.In both conditions, the slow-twitch oxidative fibers atrophied more than the fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibers. Microcirculation was also compromised by spaceflight, such that there was increased formation of thrombi in the postcapillary venules and capillaries.

  10. Antioxidant properties of plum concentrates and powder in precooked roast beef to reduce lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Nuñez de Gonzalez, M T; Hafley, B S; Boleman, R M; Miller, R K; Rhee, K S; Keeton, J T

    2008-12-01

    Boneless beef roasts (Semimembranosus+Adductor) were injected (20%) with a brine containing (1) no plum ingredient (control), (2) 2.5 or 5% fresh plum juice concentrate (FP), (3) 2.5 or 5% dried plum juice concentrate (DP), or (4) 2.5 or 5% spray dried plum powder (PP). Whole roasts were cooked, vacuum-packaged and stored at <4.0°C for 10wk. At 2wk intervals, evaluations were performed on sliced product to determine vacuum-packaged purge, Allo-Kramer shear force, lipid oxidation (TBARS), color space values, and sensory attributes. All plum ingredients reduced TBARS values and had minimal effects on tenderness, sensory characteristics, color and appearance. Small changes in purge, color values, TBARS and some sensory properties were found during storage. These results indicate that 2.5% FP or DP could be incorporated into precooked beef roasts to reduce lipid oxidation and potentially, warmed-over flavor (WOF). PMID:22063828

  11. Morphology of the Jaw-Closing Musculature in the Common Wombat (Vombatus ursinus) Using Digital Dissection and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Alana C.; Trusler, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Wombats are unique among marsupials in having one pair of upper incisors, and hypsodont molars for processing tough, abrasive vegetation. Of the three extant species, the most abundant, the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), has had the least attention in terms of masticatory muscle morphology, and has never been thoroughly described. Using MRI and digital dissection to compliment traditional gross dissections, the major jaw adductor muscles, the masseter, temporalis and pterygoids, were described. The masseter and medial pterygoid muscles are greatly enlarged compared to other marsupials. This, in combination with the distinctive form and function of the dentition, most likely facilitates processing a tough, abrasive diet. The broad, flat skull and large masticatory muscles are well suited to generate a very high bite force. MRI scans allow more detail of the muscle morphology to be observed and the technique of digital dissections greatly enhances the knowledge obtained from gross dissections. PMID:25707001

  12. Morphology of the jaw-closing musculature in the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus) using digital dissection and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Alana C; Trusler, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    Wombats are unique among marsupials in having one pair of upper incisors, and hypsodont molars for processing tough, abrasive vegetation. Of the three extant species, the most abundant, the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), has had the least attention in terms of masticatory muscle morphology, and has never been thoroughly described. Using MRI and digital dissection to compliment traditional gross dissections, the major jaw adductor muscles, the masseter, temporalis and pterygoids, were described. The masseter and medial pterygoid muscles are greatly enlarged compared to other marsupials. This, in combination with the distinctive form and function of the dentition, most likely facilitates processing a tough, abrasive diet. The broad, flat skull and large masticatory muscles are well suited to generate a very high bite force. MRI scans allow more detail of the muscle morphology to be observed and the technique of digital dissections greatly enhances the knowledge obtained from gross dissections. PMID:25707001

  13. Cross-innervation of the thyroarytenoid muscle by a branch from the external division of the superior laryngeal nerve.

    PubMed

    Nasri, S; Beizai, P; Ye, M; Sercarz, J A; Kim, Y M; Berke, G S

    1997-07-01

    The neuroanatomy of the larynx was explored in seven dogs to assess whether there is motor innervation to the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle from the external division of the superior laryngeal nerve (ExSLN). In 3 animals, such innervation was identified. Electrical stimulation of microelectrodes applied to the ExSLN resulted in contraction of the TA muscle, indicating that this nerve is motor in function. This was confirmed by electromyographic recordings from the TA muscle. Videolaryngostroboscopy revealed improvement in vocal fold vibration following stimulation of the ExSLN compared to without it. Previously, the TA muscle was thought to be innervated solely by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. This additional pathway from the ExSLN to the TA muscle may have important clinical implications in the treatment of neurologic laryngeal disorders such as adductor spasmodic dysphonia. PMID:9228862

  14. Profile of biochemical traits influencing tenderness of muscles from the beef round.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M J; Lonergan, S M; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Binning, J M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to define the biochemical differences that govern tenderness and palatability of economically important muscles from the beef round using cuts with known tenderness differences. At 24h postmortem, the longissimus dorsi (LD), gracillus (GR), adductor (AD), semimembranosus (SM), sartorius (SAR), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles were removed from ten market weight beef cattle. Sensory and biochemical characteristics were determined in each cut and compared with the LD. The GR, SAR and VI had sensory traits similar to the LD while the SM, AD and VL differed. The GR, SAR, AD, and SM all had multiple biochemical characteristics similar to the LD, while the VI and AD had numerous biochemical differences. While no one biochemical characteristic can be used to predict tenderness across all muscles, analysis of the biochemical characteristics revealed that in most beef round cuts postmortem proteolysis provided a good indication of the tenderization occurring during aging. PMID:22386323

  15. Late recurrence of developmental dysplasia of the hip following Pavlik harness treatment until normal ultrasound appearance

    PubMed Central

    David, Michael; Robb, Curtis; Jawanda, Sandeep; Bache, Christopher; Bradish, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Establish whether recurrent dysplasia once a dysplastic hip has been treated to ultrasonographic normality is possible. Methods 370 babies were referred to a hip ultrasound clinic from June 2005 to 2007 to assess for dysplasia. 96 dysplastic hips underwent appropriate treatment until normal hip morphology achieved on follow-up ultrasounds. Minimum further 12 months follow-up. Results 3 children (4%) developed late recurrence of dysplasia. Two required a plaster hip spica. One had an additional adductor tenotomy. One required late pelvic osteotomy. Conclusion This study highlights the need for long-term follow-up of dysplastic hips with an early pelvic X-ray at around six months. PMID:25972698

  16. Saxitoxins and okadaic acid group: accumulation and distribution in invertebrate marine vectors from Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; Pérez, Francisco; Contreras, Cristóbal; Figueroa, Diego; Barriga, Andrés; López-Rivera, Américo; Araneda, Oscar F; Contreras, Héctor R

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algae blooms (HABs) are the main source of marine toxins in the aquatic environment surrounding the austral fjords in Chile. Huichas Island (Aysén) has an history of HABs spanning more than 30 years, but there is limited investigation of the bioaccumulation of marine toxins in the bivalves and gastropods from the Region of Aysén. In this study, bivalves (Mytilus chilenses, Choromytilus chorus, Aulacomya ater, Gari solida, Tagelus dombeii and Venus antiqua) and carnivorous gastropods (Argobuccinum ranelliformes and Concholepas concholepas) were collected from 28 sites. Researchers analysed the accumulation of STX-group toxins using a LC with a derivatisation post column (LC-PCOX), while lipophilic toxins (OA-group, azapiracids, pectenotoxins and yessotoxins) were analysed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionisation (+/-) in visceral (hepatopancreas) and non-visceral tissues (mantle, adductor muscle, gills and foot). Levels of STX-group and OA-group toxins varied among individuals from the same site. Among all tissue samples, the highest concentrations of STX-group toxins were noted in the hepatopancreas in V. antiqua (95 ± 0.1 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)), T. dombeii (148 ± 1.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and G. solida (3232 ± 5.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p < 0.05); in the adductor muscle in M. chilensis (2495 ± 6.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p < 0.05) and in the foot in C. concholepas (81 ± 0.7 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and T. dombeii (114 ± 1.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)). The highest variability of toxins was detected in G. solida, where high levels of carbamate derivatives were identified (GTXs, neoSTX and STX). In addition to the detected hydrophilic toxins, OA-group toxins were detected (OA and DTX-1) with an average ratio of ≈1:1. The highest levels of OA-group toxins were in the foot of C. concholepas, with levels of 400.3 ± 3.6 μg OA eq kg(-1) (p < 0.05) and with a toxic profile composed of 90% OA. A wide range of OA-group toxins was detected in M. chilensis with a

  17. Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries for Zhikong Scallop Chlamys farreri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Scheuring, Chantel F.; Zhang, Hongbin; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2008-05-01

    Two Large-insert genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri were constructed to promote our genetic and genomic research. High-quality megabase-sized DNA was isolated from the adductor muscle of the scallop and partially digested by BamH I and Mbo I, respectively. The BamH I library consisted of 53 760 clones while the Mbo I library consisted of 7 680clones. Approximately 96 % of the clones in BamH I library contained nuclear DNA inserts in average size of 100 kb, providing a coverage of 5.3 haploid genome equivalents. Similarly, the Mbo I library with an average insert of 145 kb and no insert-empty clones, thus providing a genome coverage of 1.1 haploid genome equivalents.

  18. Nonlinear dynamic mechanism of vocal tremor from voice analysis and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2008-09-01

    Nonlinear dynamic analysis and model simulations are used to study the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of vocal folds with vocal tremor, which can typically be characterized by low-frequency modulation and aperiodicity. Tremor voices from patients with disorders such as paresis, Parkinson's disease, hyperfunction, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia show low-dimensional characteristics, differing from random noise. Correlation dimension analysis statistically distinguishes tremor voices from normal voices. Furthermore, a nonlinear tremor model is proposed to study the vibrations of the vocal folds with vocal tremor. Fractal dimensions and positive Lyapunov exponents demonstrate the evidence of chaos in the tremor model, where amplitude and frequency play important roles in governing vocal fold dynamics. Nonlinear dynamic voice analysis and vocal fold modeling may provide a useful set of tools for understanding the dynamic mechanism of vocal tremor in patients with laryngeal diseases.

  19. Hip resurfacing after iliofemoral distraction for type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip a case report.

    PubMed

    Sambri, A; Cadossi, M; Mazzotti, A; Faldini, C; Giannini, S

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip is a surgical challenge because of the modified anatomy of the acetabulum which is deficient in its shape with poor bone quality, torsional deformities of the femur and the altered morphology of femoral head. Particularly in Crowe type III and IV, additional surgical challenges are present, such as limb-length discrepancy and adductor muscle contractures. This is a bilateral hip dysplasia case where bilateral hip replacement was indicated, on the left side with a resurfacing one and on the other side a two stage procedure using a iliofemoral external fixator to restore equal leg length with a lower risk of complications. This case report shows both the negative clinical outcome of the left and the excellent one of the right hip where the dysplasia was much more severe. Patient selection and implant positioning are crucial in determining long-term results. PMID:27218252

  20. Sonographic diagnosis of an acute Stener lesion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Ross; Welk, Aaron B; Battaglia, Patrick J; Scali, Frank; Nunez, Mero; Kettner, Norman W

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the use of diagnostic ultrasound to diagnose a Stener lesion in a patient who presented for conservative care of thumb pain following a fall on an outstretched hand. Conventional radiographic images demonstrated an avulsion fracture at the ulnar aspect of the base of the first proximal phalanx. Diagnostic ultrasound revealed a torn ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb that was displaced proximal to the adductor aponeurosis, consistent with a Stener lesion. Dynamic imaging with ultrasound confirmed displacement of the fully torn ligament. Surgical repair followed the diagnosis. Diagnostic ultrasound in this case provided an accurate diagnosis obviating further imaging. This allowed an optimal outcome due to early intervention. PMID:27298646

  1. Identification of a Mycobacterium sp. as the causative agent of orange nodular lesions in the Atlantic sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Catherine; Huntsberger, Carl; Markey, Kathryn; Inglis, Susan; Smolowitz, Roxanna

    2016-03-30

    The Atlantic sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus is an economically important species in the offshore fisheries on the east coast of the USA. Recently, animals collected from waters ranging from Massachusetts to Maryland have shown variably sized (up to 1 cm in diameter) orange nodular foci, predominantly in the adductor muscle tissue, but also in other organs. Histological evaluation of the nodular lesions showed rod-shaped bacteria that stain acid-fast positive and Gram-positive. PCR methodology was employed to identify the causative organism of the nodules as a Mycobacterium sp. using analysis of the partial 16S gene and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. Based upon genotypic findings, the causative bacterium fits well into the genus Mycobacterium. PMID:27025312

  2. A physiologically based toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic model links the tissue distribution of benzo[a]pyrene and toxic effects in the scallop Chlamys farreri.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Pan, Luqing; Yang, Huizan; Wang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic (PBTK-TD) model was developed for benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in scallop Chlamys farreri. The PBTK model structure consisted of gill, digestive gland, adductor muscle, hemolymph and other tissues. In TD modeling, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity assay, comet assay, protein carbonyl measurement and lipid peroxidation level determination in digestive gland were used as biomarkers to reflect toxic effects. We integrated B[a]P concentration and biomarkers by using sigmoid Emax model in digestive gland. The PBTK-TD model predicted the B[a]P concentrations within each organ compartment and the toxic effects in digestive gland. The results showed that the predicted and measured data in different organs were in good agreement and comet assay was considered as the best biomarker. This model would serve as a useful tool for pollution monitoring and food security. PMID:24561533

  3. Mapping Regional Laryngopharyngeal Mechanoreceptor Response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To map mechanoreceptor response in various regions of the laryngopharynx. Methods Five patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux and six healthy control subjects underwent stimulation of mechanoreceptors in the hypopharynx, interarytenoid area, arytenoids, aryepiglottic folds, and pyriform sinuses. The threshold stimuli evoking sensation and eliciting laryngeal adductor reflex were recorded. Results In controls, an air pulse with 2 mmHg pressure evoked mechanoreceptor response in all regions, except bilateral aryepiglottic folds of one control. In patients, stimulus intensity to elicit mechanoreceptor response ranged between 2 mmHg and 10 mmHg and varied among the regions. Air pulse intensity differed between right and left sides of laryngopharyngeal regions in the majority of patients. Conclusion Laryngopharyngeal mechanoreceptor response was uniform among regions and subjects in the healthy group. Patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux showed inter- and intra-regional variations in mechanoreceptor response. Laryngopharyngeal sensory deficit in patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux is not limited to aryepiglottic folds. PMID:25436053

  4. Biokinetics of cesium in Perna viridis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.K.N.; Lam, P.K.S.; Ng, B.K.P.; Li, A.M.Y.

    2000-02-01

    The biokinetics of Cs in four compartments in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, namely, gill, viscera, adductor muscle, and foot, were studied. First-order linear differential equations were set up for these four compartments, and their solutions were used to fit the experimental data. The parameters governing the biokinetics, which depend on the elimination rate from each compartment and the transfer coefficient between compartments, were found. These are useful in understanding the physiology of Perna viridis, in predicting the activity of cesium in each compartment of Perna viridis from a contamination history, or in using Perna viridis as a sentinel organism for surveying and monitoring radioactive contamination. The results showed that the viscera should be represented by more than one compartment. Concentration factors for the four compartments and for Perna viridis were also determined, and these agreed well with reported values in the literature.

  5. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Athletic Pubalgia and Core Muscle Injury.

    PubMed

    Coker, Dana J; Zoga, Adam C

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care imaging modality for a difficult, often misunderstood spectrum of musculoskeletal injury termed athletic pubalgia or core muscle injury. Armed with a dedicated noncontrast athletic pubalgia protocol and a late model phased array receiver coil, the musculoskeletal imager can play a great role in effective diagnosis and treatment planning for lesions, including osteitis pubis, midline pubic plate lesions, and rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis injury. Beyond these established patterns of MRI findings, there are many confounders and contributing pathologies about the pelvis in patients with activity related groin pain, including internal and periarticular derangements of the hip. The MRI is ideally suited to delineate the extent of expected injury and to identify the unexpected visceral and musculoskeletal lesions. PMID:26244616

  6. Spectrum of MRI findings in clinical athletic pubalgia.

    PubMed

    Zajick, Donald C; Zoga, Adam C; Omar, Imran M; Meyers, William C

    2008-03-01

    Athletic pubalgia is a frequently encountered syndrome for clinicians who treat active patients participating in a wide variety of athletic endeavors worldwide. Pathologies associated with this clinical scenario span anatomically from the pubic symphysis to the hip and include a myriad of poorly understood and incompletely described musculoskeletal entities, many of which are centered about the pubic symphysis and its tendinous attachments. In this article, we discuss the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology for the most frequently encountered of these disorders, using magnetic resonance (MR) images as a guide. We describe an MR imaging protocol tailored to clinical athletic pubalgia. We then review reproducible MRI patterns of pathology about the pubic symphysis, the rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis and the inguinal ring, as well as a group of clinically confounding entities remote from the symphysis but visible by MRI. PMID:18382940

  7. Osteitis pubis in athletes.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Osteitis pubis is one of many etiologies of groin pain in athletes. It is a painful overuse injury of the pubic symphysis and the parasymphyseal bone that typically is found in athletes whose sports involve kicking, rapid accelerations, decelerations, and abrupt directional changes. Athletes most commonly present with a complaint of anterior and/or medial groin pain but also can present with lower abdominal, adductor, inguinal, perineal, and/or scrotal pain. Symptoms can be severe and can limit participation in sport until treatment is instituted. Imaging is useful for ruling out other etiologies of groin pain, identifying concomitant pathology, and confirming the diagnosis itself. Treatment is varied but usually includes nonoperative measures of rest, rehabilitation, and/or pharmacotherapy and also may include injections and/or surgical procedures. A high clinical suspicion should exist when evaluating soccer, rugby, or American football players and distance runners who present with complaints of groin pain. PMID:22410702

  8. Perivascular Inflammatory Reaction After Percutaneous Placement of Covered Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Johann; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Brossmann, Joachim; Steffens, Johann C.; Heller, Martin

    1996-09-15

    A 52-year-old woman with an extensive superficial femoral artery occlusion was treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Because of extensive dissections, two covered stents were placed percutaneously. The intervention was successful with respect to vessel patency, but local pain and fever developed 5 hr after the intervention. Swelling of the thigh occurred, but deep venous thrombosis was excluded. MRI revealed pronounced soft-tissue edema in the adductor canal that persisted for 4 weeks. The fever responded to antiinflammatory medication, but the pain remained for 4 weeks. The vessel was patent at the last follow-up, 8 weeks after graft placement. Soft-tissue edema after percutaneous placement of covered stents has been reported previously. The cause of the inflammatory reaction is unclear.

  9. Muscular weakness represents the main limiting factor of walk, functional independence and quality of life of myelopathy patients associated to HTLV-1.

    PubMed

    Caiafa, Renata Costa; Orsini, Marco; Felicio, Lilian R; Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy is a progressive disabling disease associated with gait abnormalities. Objective To identify and quantify the main muscles affected by weakness and spasticity, their impact on gait, functional capacity and on quality of life of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy patients. Method We evaluated lower limbs muscular strength according to the Medical Research Council scale, spasticity according to the modified Ashworth scale, daily activities according to the Barthel Index and quality of life according to the Short-Form Health Survey-36 of 26 HTLV-1-associated myelopathy patients. Results The muscles most affected by weakness included the dorsal flexors and knee flexors. Spasticity predominated in the hip adductor muscles and in plantar flexors. Assistance for locomotion, minimal dependence in daily activities, limitations in functional capacity and physical aspects were the most common findings. Conclusion The impairment of gait, functional dependence and quality of life were predominantly a consequence of intense muscle weakness in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy patients. PMID:27096999

  10. Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA for Akazara scallop troponin T.

    PubMed

    Inoue, A; Ojima, T; Nishita, K

    1996-10-01

    A cDNA clone encoding troponin T of Akazara scallop (Chlamys nipponensis akazara) striated adductor muscle has been isolated and sequenced. The complete sequence deduced consists of 314 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 37,206. Akazara scallop troponin T contains 55 amino acid residues more and 82 residues fewer than rabbit skeletal muscle troponin T and Drosophila melanogaster troponin T, respectively, showing almost the lowest sequence homology with rabbit troponin T (26%) but the highest homology with Drosophila troponin T (33%). Further, high sequence homology was seen in the functional regions: residues 33-120 and 174-227, corresponding respectively to residues 71-158 and 197-250 of rabbit troponin T (tropomyosin-binding regions); and residues 200-204, corresponding to 223 227 of rabbit troponin T (troponin I-binding region). In residues 1-70 (tropomyosin-binding region), however, only six residues are identical with rabbit troponin T. PMID:8947849

  11. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  12. Surgical Treatment of Pediatric Upper Limb Spasticity: The Shoulder.

    PubMed

    Seruya, Mitchel; Johnson, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    The shoulder joint is essential for placing the hand in a functional position for reach and overhead activities. This depends on the delicate balance between abductor/adductor and internal/external rotator muscles. Spasticity alters this equilibrium, limiting the interaction of the upper limb with the environment. Classically, pediatric patients with upper limb spasticity present with an adduction and internal rotation contracture of the shoulder. These contractures are typically secondary to spasticity of the pectoralis major and subscapularis muscles and sometimes attributed to the latissimus dorsi muscle. Fractional lengthening, Z-step lengthening, or tendon release of the contributing muscle groups may help correct the adduction and internal rotation contractures. With proper diagnosis, a well-executed surgical plan, and a consistent hand rehabilitation regimen, successful surgical outcomes can be achieved. PMID:26869863

  13. De Novo Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis in 9-Year-Old Soccer Player Presenting With Knee Pain.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Jérôme; Jevremovic, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old boy presented to our outpatient specialized sport and exercise medicine clinic complaining of a subacute onset of unilateral knee pain, after an increased level of soccer training. His knee examination was unremarkable. However, he demonstrated significant tenderness on palpation of his ipsilateral hip flexor and adductor tendons. Abnormalities in muscle tone and difficulty in relaxing and resisting the examiner properly were noted and lead to a complete neurological examination. It demonstrated multiple abnormalities such as increased tone and deep tendon reflexes, greater in lower than upper extremities, and abnormal patterning. A mild form of spastic diplegia was suspected and the patient was referred to a pediatric neurologist who confirmed our initial diagnosis. This case draws attention to the importance of maintaining a high level of suspicion for milder forms of diseases that can go unnoticed for years. PMID:25831409

  14. Strength, Endurance, Throwing Velocity and in-Water Jump Performance of Elite German Water Polo Players

    PubMed Central

    Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy; Krueger, Malte; Focke, Tim; Reed, Jennifer; Mester, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: 1) to assess the eggbeater kick and throwing performance using a number of water polo specific tests, 2) to explore the relation between the eggbeater kick and throwing performance, and 3) to investigate the relation between the eggbeater kick in the water and strength tests performed in a controlled laboratory setting in elite water polo players. Fifteen male water polo players of the German National Team completed dynamic and isometric strength tests for muscle groups (adductor, abductor, abdominal, pectoralis) frequently used during water polo. After these laboratory strength tests, six water polo specific in-water tests were conducted. The eggbeater kick assessed leg endurance and agility, maximal throwing velocity and jump height. A 400 m test and a sprint test examined aerobic and anaerobic performance. The strongest correlation was found between jump height and arm length (p < 0.001, r = 0.89). The laboratory diagnostics of important muscles showed positive correlations with the results of the in-water tests (p < 0.05, r = 0.52–0.70). Muscular strength of the adductor, abdominal and pectoralis muscles was positively related to in-water endurance agility as assessed by the eggbeater kick (p < 0.05; r = 0.53–0.66). Findings from the current study emphasize the need to assess indices of water polo performance both in and out of the water as well as the relation among these parameters to best assess the complex profile of water polo players. PMID:25964818

  15. Development of a Knee-gap Force Measurement Device to Evaluate Quantitative Lower Limb Muscular Strength of the Elderly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Imaizumi, Kazuya; Iwakami, Yumi; Sato, Mitsuru; Nakajima, Sawako; Ino, Shuichi; Koyama, Hironori; Kawasumi, Masashi; Ifukube, Toru

    Falling is one of the most serious problems for the elderly. It is thought that lower limb muscular strength greatly affects falls of the elderly. The aim of this study is to develop a safe, easy-to-use and quantitative device of knee-gap force measurement for evaluation of the lower limb muscular strength, and additionally, we examined it for efficiency. We examined from the three viewpoints. In the results, 1. the knee-gap force is clearly associated with the strength of muscle contraction estimated by electromyogram in each muscle for the hip joint adductors. Therefore, the proposed device for the measurement of knee-gap force correctly estimates the activity of the hip joint adductors, which is closely related with the activities of daily living. 2.The results of knee-gap force measured from 170 people aging from middle age to elderly, including some persons who are suffering from physical frailness on a clinical estimation. In the group of healthy elderly knee-gap force was decreased by 16%, while that of the physically frail elderly was decreased by 34% in comparison to middle age.3. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient between the knee-gap force and 10m obstacle walking time was found to be -0.57 (negative correlation). It means that the ambulatory ability is decreased along with the knee-gap force being decreased. This indicates a possibility easily to estimate risk of falling by the knee-gap force, because the decrease of lower limb muscular strength and ambulatory ability is a factor of increased falling risk.

  16. Performance Characteristics of AOAC Method 2005.06 for the Determination of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Manila Clams, European Otter Clams, Grooved Carpet Shell Clams, Surf Clams, and Processed King Scallops.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Alison; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    An approach was developed for the verification of method performance of the AOAC 2005.06 LC-fluorescence detector (FLD) method for determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve shellfish. This was developed following advice published by the Analytical Laboratory Accreditation Criteria Committee and applied to shellfish species that had not been previously subjected to a full single-laboratory validation scheme. The refined approach was developed following the need to assess performance in a number of shellfish species infrequently monitored through the UK statutory monitoring program, while reducing the impact and cost of the studies, most notably in terms of the use of valuable reference standards. The species assessed were manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), European otter clams (Lutraria lutraria), grooved carpet shell clams (R. decussatus), surf clams (Spisula solida), and king scallops (Pecten maximus) presented as adductor only or adductor plus roe. The method was assessed for sensitivity in terms of LOD and LOQ, toxin recovery, and method precision in each species. It incorporated the PSP toxins deemed toxic and/or prevalent in UK samples and commercially available as certified reference standards. The toxins studied included GTX1-5, dcSTX, STX, C1&2, and NEO. The toxins dcGTX2&3 were included for surf clams due to the prevalence of these toxins in this species as a result of toxin decarbamoylation. Method performance targets were met for each of the characteristics investigated. Consequently, the method was deemed fit for purpose for the screening and quantification of these clam and scallop species for PSP toxins by AOAC Method 2005.06 LC-FLD. PMID:26024751

  17. Interactive effects of growth hormone and exercise on muscle mass in suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grossman, Elena J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Jiang, Bian; Pierotti, David J.; Rudolph, Ingrid

    1994-01-01

    Measures to attenuate muscle atrophy in rats in response to simulated microgravity (hindlimb suspension (HS)) have been only partially successful. In the present study, hypophysectomized rats were in HS for 7 days, and the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (GH), exercise (Ex), or GH+Ex on the weights, protein concentrations, and fiber cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of hindlimb muscles were determined. The weights of four extensor muscles, i.e., the soleus (Sol), medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius, and plantaris (Plt), and one adductor, i.e., the adductor longus (AL), were decreased by 10-22% after HS. Fiber CSAs were decreased by 34% in the Sol and by 1 17% in the MG after HS. In contrast, two flexors, i.e., the tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), did not atrophy. In HS rats, GH treatment alone maintained the weights of the fast extensors (MG, LG, Plt) and flexors (TA, EDL) at or above those of control rats. This effect was not observed in the slow extensor (Sol) or AL. Exercise had no significant effect on the weight of any muscle in HS rats. A combination of GH and Ex treatments yielded a significant increase in the weights of the fast extensors and in the CSA of both fast and slow fibers of the MG and significantly increased Sol weight and CSA of the slow fibers of the Sol. The AL was not responsive to either GH or Ex treatments. Protein concentrations of the Sol and MG were higher only in the Sol of Ex and GH+Ex rats. These results suggest that while GH treatment or intermittent high intensity exercise alone have a minimal effect in maintaining the mass of unloaded muscle, there is a strong interactive effect of these two treatments.

  18. Pubic apophysitis: a previously undescribed clinical entity of groin pain in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sailly, Matthieu; Whiteley, Rod; Read, John W; Giuffre, Bruno; Johnson, Amanda; Hölmich, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background Sport-related pubalgia is often a diagnostic challenge in elite athletes. While scientific attention has focused on adults, there is little data on adolescents. Cadaveric and imaging studies identify a secondary ossification centre located along the anteromedial corner of pubis beneath the insertions of symphysial joint capsule and adductor longus tendon. Little is known about this apophysis and its response to chronic stress. Aim We report pubic apophysitis as a clinically relevant entity in adolescent athletes. Methods The clinical and imaging findings in 26 highly trained adolescent football players (15.6 years±1.3) who complained of adductor-related groin pain were reviewed. The imaging features (X-ray 26/26, US 9/26, MRI 11/26, CT 7/26) of the pubic apophyses in this symptomatic group were compared against those of a comparison group of 31 male patients (age range 9–30 years) with no known history of groin pain or pelvic trauma, who underwent pelvic CT scans for unrelated medical reasons. Results All symptomatic subjects presented with similar history and physical findings. The CT scans of these patients demonstrated open pubic apophyses with stress-related physeal changes (widening, asymmetry and small rounded cyst-like expansions) that were not observed in the comparison group. No comparison subject demonstrated apophyseal maturity before 21 years of age, and immaturity was seen up to the age of 26 years. Conclusions This retrospective case series identifies pubic apophyseal stress (or ‘apophysitis’) as an important differential consideration in the adolescent athlete who presents with groin pain. PMID:26031648

  19. Cranial biomechanics, bite force and function of the endocranial sinuses in Diprotodon optatum, the largest known marsupial.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Alana C; Rich, Thomas H

    2016-06-01

    The giant extinct marsupial Diprotodon optatum has unusual skull morphology for an animal of its size, consisting of very thin bone and large cranial sinuses that occupy most of the internal cranial space. The function of these sinuses is unknown as there are no living marsupial analogues. The finite element method was applied to identify areas of high and low stress, and estimate the bite force of Diprotodon to test hypotheses on the function of the extensive cranial sinuses. Detailed three-dimensional models of the cranium, mandible and jaw adductor muscles were produced. In addition, manipulations to the Diprotodon cranial model were performed to investigate changes in skull and sinus structure, including a model with no sinuses (sinuses 'filled' with bone) and a model with a midsagittal crest. Results indicate that the cranial sinuses in Diprotodon significantly lighten the skull while still providing structural support, a high bite force and low stress, indicating the cranium may have been able to withstand higher loads than those generated during feeding. Data from this study support the hypothesis that pneumatisation is driven by biomechanical loads and occurs in areas of low stress. The presence of sinuses is likely to be a byproduct of the separation of the outer surface of the skull from the braincase due to the demands of soft tissue including the brain and the large jaw adductor musculature, especially the temporalis. In very large species, such as Diprotodon, this separation is more pronounced, resulting in extensive cranial sinuses due to a relatively small brain compared with the size of the skull. PMID:26939052

  20. Spectroscopic and ITC study of the conformational change upon Ca{sup 2+}-binding in TnC C-lobe and TnI peptide complex from Akazara scallop striated muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Yumoto, Fumiaki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Koji; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Ojima, Takao; Tanokura, Masaru

    2008-04-25

    Akazara scallop (Chlamys nipponensis akazara) troponin C (TnC) of striated adductor muscle binds only one Ca{sup 2+} ion at the C-terminal EF-hand motif (Site IV), but it works as the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent regulator in adductor muscle contraction. In addition, the scallop troponin (Tn) has been thought to regulate muscle contraction via activating mechanisms that involve the region spanning from the TnC C-lobe (C-lobe) binding site to the inhibitory region of the TnI, and no alternative binding of the TnI C-terminal region to TnC because of no similarity between second TnC-binding regions of vertebrate and the scallop TnIs. To clarify the Ca{sup 2+}-regulatory mechanism of muscle contraction by scallop Tn, we have analyzed the Ca{sup 2+}-binding properties of the complex of TnC C-lobe and TnI peptide, and their interaction using isothermal titration microcalorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that single Ca{sup 2+}-binding to the Site IV leads to a structural transition not only in Site IV but also Site III through the structural network in the C-lobe of scallop TnC. We therefore assumed that the effect of Ca{sup 2+}-binding must lead to a change in the interaction mode between the C-lobe of TnC and the TnI peptide. The change should be the first event of the transmission of Ca{sup 2+} signal to TnI in Tn ternary complex.

  1. New Insights into Muscle Function during Pivot Feeding in Seahorses

    PubMed Central

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Dries, Billy; Herrel, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses, pipefish and their syngnathiform relatives are considered unique amongst fishes in using elastic recoil of post-cranial tendons to pivot the head extremely quickly towards small crustacean prey. It is known that pipefish activate the epaxial muscles for a considerable time before striking, at which rotations of the head and the hyoid are temporarily prevented to allow energy storage in the epaxial tendons. Here, we studied the motor control of this system in seahorses using electromyographic recordings of the epaxial muscles and the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscles with simultaneous high-speed video recordings of prey capture. In addition we present the results from a stimulation experiment including the muscle hypothesised to be responsible for the locking and triggering of pivot feeding in seahorses (m. adductor arcus palatini). Our data confirmed that the epaxial pre-activation pattern observed previously for pipefish also occurs in seahorses. Similar to the epaxials, the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscle complex shows prolonged anticipatory activity. Although a considerable variation in displacements of the mouth via head rotation could be observed, it could not be demonstrated that seahorses have control over strike distance. In addition, we could not identify the source of the kinematic variability in the activation patterns of the associated muscles. Finally, the stimulation experiment supported the previously hypothesized role of the m. adductor arcus palatini as the trigger in this elastic recoil system. Our results show that pre-stressing of both the head elevators and the hyoid retractors is taking place. As pre-activation of the main muscles involved in pivot feeding has now been demonstrated for both seahorses and pipefish, this is probably a generalized trait of Syngnathidae. PMID:25271759

  2. Osteological Observations on the Alytid Anura Latonia nigriventer with Comments on Functional Morphology, Biogeography, and Evolutionary History.

    PubMed

    Biton, Rebecca; Boistel, Renaud; Rabinovich, Rivka; Gafny, Sarig; Brumfeld, Vlad; Bailon, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    The Hula Painted Frog (Latonia nigriventer) is a rare frog species endemic to the Hula Valley, Israel. The species is the sole relict of a clade that was widespread mainly in Europe from the Oligocene until the beginning of the Pleistocene. The osteological characteristics of L. nigriventer are described based on X-ray microtomography scans of extant specimens and Pleistocene bones from the Hula Valley, to elucidate the evolutionary history of Alytidae and more specifically of Latonia. Based on the osteological description of L. nigriventer, we now better understand the differences, between Latonia and its sister taxon Discoglossus. They differ mainly in their cranial structure with the reinforced skull of Latonia having powerful jaws. Latonia nigriventer can achieve great force while closing its jaws, due to increased adductor muscle insertion surfaces as expressed by the presence of an additional paracoronoid process and an enlarged upper margin of the postero-lateral wall of the lower jaw. In addition, a wider pterygoid fossa and higher canthus postero-lateralis of the frontoparietal, compared to that of Discoglossus, also suggest the presence of well-developed adductor muscles. Furthermore, L. nigriventer have particularly strong skulls as expressed by: long articulations between different skull elements, interdigitation in the contact area between the nasals and between nasals and the frontoparietals, and fused frontoparietals. Both males and females L. nigriventer have very robust forelimbs, as indicated by well-developed medial crests of the humerus. Based on limited eastern Mediterranean paleontological data, we can only suspect that the dispersal of Latonia into the Levant from Asia Minor occurred at some point during the Miocene or later. The first appearance of L. nigriventer in the Hula Valley, its current habitat, dates to approximately 780 thousand years ago at the archaeological site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov. J. Morphol. 277:1131-1145, 2016. © 2016

  3. Osteitis Pubis Syndrome in the Professional Soccer Athlete: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Antonio; Lima, Horacio; Heinrichs, Kristinn

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To describe the pathomechanics, diagnostic procedures, classification, and conservative management of the osteitis pubis syndrome in the elite soccer athlete. Background: Groin injuries can be the most difficult sport injuries to accurately diagnose and treat. Osteitis pubis is a painful, chronic syndrome that affects the symphysis pubis, adductor and abdominal muscles, and surrounding fascia. If misdiagnosed or mismanaged, osteitis pubis can run a prolonged and disabling course. The abdominal and adductor muscles have attachments to the symphysis pubis but act antagonistically to each other, predisposing the symphysis pubis to mechanical traction microtrauma and resulting in osteitis pubis. These antagonistic forces are most prevalent in kicking sports, such as soccer or football. Description: We provide a retrospective review of the demographics, diagnostic criteria and procedures, and conservative management of osteitis pubis in a professional soccer team. Osteitis pubis represented 3% to 5% of all injuries sustained by our professional soccer team between 1989 and 1997; 71.4% of those presenting with osteitis pubis were classified as having stage I disease, with a mean recovery time of 26.7 days. Midfielders were most affected by the syndrome (42.8%), whereas defenders and forwards exhibited equal incidences (25.7%) of osteitis pubis. Conservative management included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, electric stimulation, ultrasound, laser, cryomassage, and a progressive rehabilitation program. Clinical Advantages: Athletes who participated in this conservative management program appeared to return to full sport participation earlier and with fewer restrictions than the current literature seems to suggest. A 4-stage diagnostic criteria system was helpful in determining the course of treatment. PMID:12937486

  4. Which factors differentiate athletes with hip/groin pain from those without? A systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mosler, Andrea B; Agricola, Rintje; Weir, Adam; Hölmich, Per; Crossley, Kay M

    2015-01-01

    Background Hip and groin injuries are common in many sports. Understanding the factors differentiating athletes with hip/groin pain from those without these injuries could facilitate management and prevention. Objective Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on factors differentiating athletes with and without hip/groin pain. Methods The review was registered as PROSPERO CRD42014007416 and a comprehensive, systematic search was conducted in June 2014. Inclusion criteria were: cross-sectional, cohort or case–control study designs of n>10 that examined outcome measures differentiating athletes with and without hip/groin pain. Two authors independently screened search results, assessed study quality, and performed data extraction. Methodological heterogeneity was determined and data pooled for meta-analysis when appropriate. A best evidence synthesis was performed on the remaining outcome measures. Results Of 2251 titles identified, 17 articles were included of which 10 were high quality. Sixty two different outcome measures were examined, 8 underwent meta-analysis. Pooled data showed strong evidence that athletes with hip/groin pain demonstrated: pain and lower strength on the adductor squeeze test, reduced range of motion in hip internal rotation and bent knee fall out; however, hip external rotation range was equivalent to controls. Strong evidence was found that lower patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores, altered trunk muscle function, and moderate evidence of bone oedema and secondary cleft sign were associated with hip/groin pain. Conclusions PROs, pain and reduced strength on the adductor squeeze test, reduced range of motion in internal rotation and bent knee fall out are the outcome measures that best differentiate athletes with hip/groin pain from those without this pain. PMID:26031646

  5. Toxicological responses to acute mercury exposure for three species of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum by NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Linbao; You, Liping; Cong, Ming; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng; Li, Chenghua; Liu, Dongyan; Yu, Junbao

    2011-03-01

    The Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) has been considered a good sentinel species for metal pollution monitoring in estuarine tidal flats. Along the Bohai coast of China, there are dominantly distributed three species of clams (White, Liangdao Red and Zebra in Yantai population) endowed with distinct tolerances to environmental stressors. In this study, adductor muscle samples were collected from both control and acute mercury exposed White, Liangdao Red and Zebra clams, and the extracts were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics to compare the metabolic profiles and responses to the acute mercury exposure to determine the most sensitive clam species capable of acting as abioindicator for heavy metal pollution monitoring. The major abundant metabolites in the White clam sample were branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine), lactate, arginine, aspartate, acetylcholine, homarine and ATP/ADP, while the metabolite profile of Zebra clam sample comprised high levels of glutamine, acetoacetate, betaine, taurine and one unidentified metabolite. For the Liangdao Red clam sample, the metabolite profile relatively exhibited high amount of branched-chain amino acids, arginine, glutamate, succinate, acetylcholine, homarine and two unassigned metabolites. After 48h exposure of 20μgL(-1) Hg(2+), the metabolic profiles showed significant differences between three clam species, which included increased lactate, succinate, taurine, acetylcholine, betaine and homarine and decreased alanine, arginine, glutamine, glutamate, acetoacetate, glycine and ATP/ADP in White clam samples, and elevated succinate, taurine and acetylcholine, and declined glutamine, glycine, and aspartate in Liangdao Red clam samples, while the increased branched-chain amino acids, lactate, succinate, acetylcholine and homarine, and reduced alanine, acetoacetate, glycine and taurine were observed in the Zebra clam samples. Overall, our findings showed that White clams could be a preferable

  6. Groin Pain and Muscular Imbalance of Quadriceps and Hamstrings in an Elite Soccer Player - A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, O; Kelm, J

    2016-08-01

    Soccer and football players are exposed to a high risk of groin pain. In some cases, the pubic symphysis is the origin of the problems.This article presents a case report of a young elite soccer player who, over a period of two years, suffered from pain in the groin and symphysis area. The right leg was the kicking leg. Imaging techniques did not reveal pathological findings. Sports hernia, osteomyelitis, enthesopathy, adductor tendonitis, and muscle sprains, as well as rheumatic or urogenital disorders were excluded.A 3 D posture analysis was performed to examine the statics of the body and pelvis. The maximum isometric strength of the left and right leg adductors and abductors, as well as the knee flexors and extensors were measured.We found a muscular imbalance resulting from the type of sport the athlete engaged in with an unfavourable ratio between the right knee extensor and flexor muscles. Comparing sides, an imbalance was also identified between the right and left knee extensor. This imbalance resulted in a one-sided forward tilt of the right hemi-pelvis. This pelvic torsion may lead to an increase in shear forces in the pubic symphysis, which we suspected to be the reason for the recurring problems.After three months of specific training exercises, the pelvic position was harmonised and the muscular imbalances were significantly reduced. Even 6 months after completion of the specific training exercises, the player remained without complaints despite his unvaried soccer training intensity.Causal treatment of functional pain in the groin or symphysis area should take into account the ipsilateral and contralateral strength ratios of the knee extensors and flexors as well as the three-dimensional position of the pelvis. PMID:27490356

  7. Mechanisms underlying parallel reductions in aerobic capacity in non-migratory threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Anne C; Ou, Michelle; Schulte, Patricia M

    2012-03-01

    Non-migratory, stream-resident populations of threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, have a lower maximum oxygen consumption ((O(2),max)) than ancestral migratory marine populations. Here, we examined laboratory-bred stream-resident and marine crosses from two locations (West and Bonsall Creeks) to determine which steps in the oxygen transport and utilization cascade evolved in conjunction with, and thus have the potential to contribute to, these differences in (O(2),max). We found that West Creek stream-resident fish have larger muscle fibres (not measured in Bonsall fish), Bonsall Creek stream-resident fish have smaller ventricles, and both stream-resident populations have evolved smaller pectoral adductor and abductor muscles. However, many steps of the oxygen cascade did not evolve in stream-resident populations (gill surface area, hematocrit, mean cellular hemoglobin content and the activities of mitochondrial enzymes per gram ventricle and pectoral muscle), arguing against symmorphosis. We also studied F1 hybrids to determine which traits in the oxygen cascade have a genetic architecture similar to that of (O(2),max). In West Creek, (O(2),max), abductor and adductor size all showed dominance of marine alleles, whereas in Bonsall Creek, (O(2),max) and ventricle mass showed dominance of stream-resident alleles. We also found genetically based differences among marine populations in hematocrit, ventricle mass, pectoral muscle mass and pectoral muscle pyruvate kinase activity. Overall, reductions in pectoral muscle mass evolved in conjunction with reductions in (O(2),max) in both stream-resident populations, but the specific steps in the oxygen cascade that have a genetic basis similar to that of (O(2),max), and are thus predicted to have the largest impact on (O(2),max), differ among populations. PMID:22323197

  8. Managing a Female Patient with Left Low Back Pain and Sacroiliac Joint Pain with Therapeutic Exercise: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this case study is to describe the management of a female patient with chronic left low back pain and sacroiliac joint pain (LBP/SIJP) using unique unilateral exercises developed by the Postural Restoration Institute (PRI) to address pelvic asymmetry and left hip capsule restriction, which is consistent with a Right Handed and Left Anterior Interior Chain pattern of postural asymmetry. Client Description: The client was 65-year-old woman with a 10-month history of constant left LBP/SIJP and leg pain. Intervention: The patient was seen six times to correct pelvic position/posture and left hip posterior capsule restriction via (1) muscle activation (left hamstrings, adductor magnus, and anterior gluteus medius) and (2) left hip adduction to lengthen the left posterior capsule/ischiofemoral ligament. Stabilization exercises included bilateral hamstrings, gluteus maximus, adductors, and abdominals to maintain pelvic position/posture. Measures and Outcome: Left Ober's test (initially positive) was negative at discharge. Pain as measured on the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (initially 1/10 at best and 8/10 at worst) was 0/10–0/10 at discharge. Oswestry Disability Index score (initially 20%) was 0% at discharge. The patient no longer had numbness in her left leg, and sexual intercourse had become pain free. Implications: Interventions to restore and maintain the optimal position of pelvis and hip (femoral head in the acetabulum) may be beneficial for treating patients with chronic LBP/SIJP. The patient's pain was eliminated 13 days after she first performed three exercises to reposition the pelvis and restore left posterior hip capsule extensibility and internal rotation. PMID:22379254

  9. Predictors for the benefit of selective dorsal rhizotomy.

    PubMed

    Funk, Julia F; Panthen, Amelie; Bakir, M Sinan; Gruschke, Franziska; Sarpong, Akosua; Wagner, Christiane; Lebek, Susanne; Haberl, Ernst Johannes

    2015-02-01

    Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a spasticity reducing treatment option for children with spastic cerebral palsy. Selection criteria for this procedure are inconclusive to date. Clinical relevance of the achieved functional improvements and side effects like the negative impact on muscle strength are discussed controversially. In this prospective cohort study one and two year results of 54 children with a mean age of 6.9 (±2.9) years at the time of SDR are analyzed with regard to gross motor function and factors affecting the functional benefit. Only ambulatory children who were able to perform a gross motor function measure test (GMFM-88) were included in this study. Additionally, the modified Ashworth scale (MAS), a manual muscle strength test (MFT), and the body mass index (BMI) were evaluated as possible outcome predictors. MAS of hip adductors and hamstrings decreased significantly (p<0.001) and stayed reduced after two years, while GMFM improved significantly from 79% to 84% 12 months after SDR (p<0.001) and another 2% between 12 and 24 months (p=0.002). Muscle strength did improve significantly concerning knee extension (p=0.008) and ankle dorsiflexion (p=0.006). The improvement of function correlated moderately with age at surgery and preoperative GMFM and weakly with the standard deviation score of the BMI, the dorsiflexor and plantarflexor strength preoperatively as well as with the reduction of spasticity of the hamstrings and the preoperative spasticity of the adductors and hamstrings. Correctly indicated SDR reduces spasticity and increases motor skills sustainably in children with spastic cerebral palsy corresponding to clinically relevant changes of GMFM without compromising muscular strength. Outcome correlates to GMFM and age rather than to MAS and maximal strength testing. The data of this evaluation suggest that children who benefit the most from SDR are between 4 and 7 years old and have a preoperative GMFM between 65% and 85%. PMID:25460226

  10. Cranial myology and bite force performance of Erlikosaurus andrewsi: a novel approach for digital muscle reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of bite force and bite performance in fossil and extinct animals is a challenging subject in palaeontology and is highly dependent on the reconstruction of the cranial myology. Furthermore, the morphology and arrangement of the adductor muscles considerably affect feeding processes and mastication and thus also have important dietary and ecological ramifications. However, in the past, the reconstruction of the (cranial) muscles was restricted to the identification of muscle attachment sites or simplified computer models. This study presents a detailed reconstruction of the adductor musculature of the Cretaceous therizinosaur Erlikosaurus andrewsi based on a stepwise and iterative approach. The detailed, three-dimensional models of the individual muscles allow for more accurate measurements of the muscle properties (length, cross-section, attachment angle and volume), from which muscle and bite force estimates are calculated. Bite force estimations are found to be the lowest at the tip of the snout (43–65 N) and respectively higher at the first (59–88 N) and last tooth (90–134 N) position. Nevertheless, bite forces are comparatively low for E. andrewsi, both in actual numbers as well as in comparison with other theropod dinosaurs. The results further indicate that the low bite performance was mainly used for leaf-stripping and plant cropping, rather than active mastication or chewing processes. Muscle and thus bite force in E. andrewsi (and most likely all therizinosaurs) is considerably constrained by the cranial anatomy and declines in derived taxa of this clade. This trend is reflected in the changes of dietary preferences from carnivory to herbivory in therizinosaurs. PMID:23061752

  11. Changes in Activation of Abdominal Muscles at Selected Angles During Trunk Exercise by Using Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Dong; Bae, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Jong-Gil; Han, Nami; Eom, Mi-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of activation of the abdominal muscles depending on exercise angles and whether the activation of rectus abdominis differs according to the location, during curl up and leg raise exercises, by measuring the thickness ratio of abdominal muscles using ultrasonography. Methods We examined 30 normal adults without musculoskeletal problems. Muscle thickness was measured in the upper rectus abdominis (URA), lower rectus abdominis (LRA), obliquus externus (EO), obliquus internus (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA), at pre-determined angles (30°, 60°, 90°) and additionally at the resting angle (0°). Muscle thickness ratio was calculated by dividing the resting (0°) thickness for each angle, and was used as reflection of muscle activity. Results The muscle thickness ratio was significantly different depending on the angles in URA and LRA. For curl up-URA p=0 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°>90°), p=0.44 (30°<90°) and LRA p=0.01 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°>90°), p=0.44 (30°>90°), respectively, by one-way ANOVA test-and for leg raise-URA p=0 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°<90°), p=0 (30°<90°) and LRA p=0.01 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°<90°), p=0 (30°<90°), respectively, by one-way ANOVA test-exercises, but not in the lateral abdominal muscles (EO, IO, and TrA). Also, there was no significant difference in the muscle thickness ratio of URA and LRA during both exercises. In the aspect of muscle activity, there was significant difference in the activation of RA muscle by selected angles, but not according to location during both exercises. Conclusion According to this study, exercise angle is thought to be an important contributing factor for strengthening of RA muscle; however, both the exercises are thought to have no property of strengthening RA muscle selectively based on the location. PMID:26798609

  12. Surgically Relevant Bony and Soft Tissue Anatomy of the Proximal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Philippon, Marc J.; Michalski, Max P.; Campbell, Kevin J.; Goldsmith, Mary T.; Devitt, Brian M.; Wijdicks, Coen A.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hip endoscopy facilitates the treatment of extra-articular disorders of the proximal femur. Unfortunately, current knowledge of proximal femur anatomy is limited to qualitative descriptions and lacks surgically relevant landmarks. Purpose: To provide a quantitative and qualitative analysis of proximal femur anatomy in reference to surgically relevant bony landmarks. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Fourteen cadaveric hemipelvises were dissected. A coordinate measuring device measured dimensions and interrelationships of the gluteal muscles, hip external rotators, pectineus, iliopsoas, and joint capsule in reference to osseous landmarks. Results: The vastus tubercle, superomedial border of the greater trochanter, and femoral head-neck junction were distinct and reliable osseous landmarks. The anteroinferior tip of the vastus tubercle was 17.1 mm (95% CI: 14.5, 19.8 mm) anteroinferior to the center of the gluteus medius lateral insertional footprint and was 22.9 mm (95% CI: 20.1, 25.7 mm) inferolateral to the center of the gluteus minimus insertional footprint. The insertions of the piriformis, conjoint tendon of the hip (superior gemellus, obturator internus, and inferior gemellus), and obturator externus were identified relative to the superomedial border of the greater trochanter. The relationship of the aforementioned footprints were 49% (95% CI: 43%, 54%), 42% (95% CI: 33%, 50%), and 64% (95% CI: 59%, 69%) from the anterior (0%) to posterior (100%) margins of the superomedial border of the greater trochanter, respectively. The hip joint capsule attached distally on the proximal femur 18.2 mm (95% CI: 14.2, 22.2 mm) from the head-neck junction medially on average. Conclusion: The vastus tubercle, superomedial border of the greater trochanter, and the femoral head-neck junction were reliable osseous landmarks for the identification of the tendinous and hip capsular insertions on the proximal femur. Knowledge of the

  13. Foraging trade-offs along a predator-permanence gradient in subalpine wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wissinger, S.A.; Whiteman, H.H.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a series of field and laboratory experiments to determine the direct and indirect effects of a top predator, the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum), on larvae of two species of limnephilid caddisflies (Limnephilus externus and Asynarchus nigriculus) in subalpine wetlands in central Colorado. Asynarchus larvae predominate in temporary wetlands and are aggressive intraguild predators on Limnephilus larvae, which only predominate in permanent basins with salamanders. We first conducted a field experiment in mesocosms (cattle tanks) to quantify the predatory effects of different life stages of salamanders on the two caddisfly species. Two life stages of the salamanders (larvae and paedomorphs) preferentially preyed on Asynarchus relative to Limnephilus. Subsequent laboratory experiments revealed that high Asynarchus activity rates and relatively ineffective antipredatory behaviors led to higher salamander detection and attack rates compared to Limnephilus. In a second field experiment (full factorial for presence and absence of each of the three species), we found that salamander predation on Asynarchus had an indirect positive effect on Limnephilus: survival was higher in the presence of salamanders + Asynarchus than with just Asynarchus. In the laboratory we compared the predatory effects of salamanders with and without their mouths sewn shut and found the observed indirect positive effect on Limnephilus survival to be mainly the result of reduced numbers of Asynarchus rather than salamander-induced changes in Asynarchus behavior. We argue that indirect effects of predator-predator interactions on shared prey will be mainly density-mediated and not trait-mediated when one of the predators (in this case, Asynarchus) is under strong selection for rapid growth and therefore does not modify foraging behaviors in response to the other predator. The reciprocal dominance of Limnephilus and Asynarchus in habitats with and without salamanders

  14. Spinal Motion and Muscle Activity during Active Trunk Movements – Comparing Sheep and Humans Adopting Upright and Quadrupedal Postures

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Stephanie; Licka, Theresia F.

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are used as models for the human spine, yet comparative in vivo data necessary for validation is limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare spinal motion and trunk muscle activity during active trunk movements in sheep and humans. Three-dimensional kinematic data as well as surface electromyography (sEMG) of spinal flexion and extension was compared in twenty-four humans in upright (UR) and 4-point kneeling (KN) postures and in 17 Austrian mountain sheep. Kinematic markers were attached over the sacrum, posterior iliac spines, and spinous and transverse processes of T5, T8, T11, L2 and L5 in humans and over the sacrum, tuber sacrale, T5, T8, T12, L3 and L7 in sheep. The activity of erector spinae (ES), rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus externus (OE), and obliquus internus (OI) were collected. Maximum sEMG (MOE) was identified for each muscle and trial, and reported as a percentage (MOE%) of the overall maximally observed sEMG from all trials. Spinal range of motion was significantly smaller in sheep compared to humans (UR / KN) during flexion (sheep: 6–11°; humans 12–34°) and extension (sheep: 4°; humans: 11–17°). During extension, MOE% of ES was greater in sheep (median: 77.37%) than UR humans (24.89%), and MOE% of OE and OI was greater in sheep (OE 76.20%; OI 67.31%) than KN humans (OE 21.45%; OI 19.34%), while MOE% of RA was lower in sheep (21.71%) than UR humans (82.69%). During flexion, MOE% of RA was greater in sheep (83.09%) than humans (KN 47.42%; UR 41.38%), and MOE% of ES in sheep (45.73%) was greater than KN humans (14.45%), but smaller than UR humans (72.36%). The differences in human and sheep spinal motion and muscle activity suggest that caution is warranted when ovine data are used to infer human spine biomechanics. PMID:26741136

  15. 3D-MRI rendering of the anatomical structures related to acupuncture points of the Dai mai, Yin qiao mai and Yang qiao mai meridians within the context of the WOMED concept of lateral tension: implications for musculoskeletal disease

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Rudisch, Ansgar; Kremser, Christian; Moncayo, Helga

    2007-01-01

    Background A conceptual model of lateral muscular tension in patients presenting thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) has been recently described. Clinical improvement has been achieved by using acupuncture on points belonging to the so-called extraordinary meridians. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical structures related to these acupuncture points by means of 3D MRI image rendering relying on external markers. Methods The investigation was carried out the index case patient of the lateral tension model. A licensed medical acupuncture practitioner located the following acupuncture points: 1) Yin qiao mai meridian (medial ankle): Kidney 3, Kidney 6, the plantar Kidney 6 (Nan jing description); 2) Yang qiao mai meridian (lateral ankle): Bladder 62, Bladder 59, Bladder 61, and the plantar Bladder 62 (Nan jing description); 3) Dai mai meridian (wait): Liver 13, Gall bladder 26, Gall bladder 27, Gall bladder 28, and Gall bladder 29. The points were marked by taping a nitro-glycerin capsule on the skin. Imaging was done on a Siemens Magnetom Avanto MR scanner using an array head and body coil. Mainly T1-weighted imaging sequences, as routinely used for patient exams, were used to obtain multi-slice images. The image data were rendered in 3D modus using dedicated software (Leonardo, Siemens). Results Points of the Dai mai meridian – at the level of the waist – corresponded to the obliquus externus abdominis and the obliquus internus abdominis. Points of the Yin qiao mai meridian – at the medial side of the ankle – corresponded to tendinous structures of the flexor digitorum longus as well as to muscular structures of the abductor hallucis on the foot sole. Points of the Yang qiao mai meridian – at the lateral side of the ankle – corresponded to tendinous structures of the peroneus brevis, the peroneous longus, and the lateral surface of the calcaneus and close to the foot sole to the abductor digiti minimi. Conclusion This non

  16. In Vivo Electroporation of Constitutively Expressed HIF-1α Plasmid DNA Improves Neovascularization in a Mouse Model of Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Ouma, Geoffrey O.; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Muthumani, Karuppiah; Weiner, David B.; Wilensky, Robert L.; Mohler, Emile R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that stimulates angiogenesis during tissue ischemia. In vivo electroporation (EP) enhances tissue DNA transfection. We hypothesized that in vivo EP of plasmid DNA encoding a constitutively expressed HIF-1α gene enhances neovascularization compared to intramuscular (IM) injection alone. Methods Left femoral artery ligation was performed in mice assigned to three groups: (1) HIF-EP (n=13); (2) HIF-IM (n=14); and (3) pVAX-EP (n=12). A single dose of HIF-1α or empty plasmid (pVAX) DNA (20 μl of 5 μg/μl each) was injected into the ischemic adductor muscle followed by EP (group 1 & 3). Mice in group 2 received IM injection of HIF-1α plasmid DNA alone. From pre-ligation to days 0, 3, 7, 14, & 21 post ligation, limb perfusion recovery quantified by Laser Doppler Perfusion Imager (LDPI), limb function and limb necrosis were measured. On day 21, the surviving mice (4 – 5 per group) were sacrificed and adductor muscle tissues stained for necrosis using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E); capillary density (anti-CD31 antibodies); and collateral vessels via anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibodies. Results In vivo EP of HIF-1α DNA significantly improved limb perfusion (HIF-EP: 1.03 ± 0.15 vs. HIF-IM: 0.78 ± 0.064; P < .05, vs. pVAX-EP: 0.41 ± 0.019; P < .001), limb functional recovery (HIF-EP: 3.5 ± 0.58 vs. HIF-IM, 2.4 ± 1.14; p < 0.05, vs. pVAX-EP: 2.4 ± 1.14; P < .001) and limb auto-amputation on day 21 (HIF-EP: 77% ± 12% vs. HIF-IM: 43% ± 14%; P <.05 vs. pVAX-EP: 17% ± 11%; P < .01). Adductor muscle tissue necrosis decreased (HIF-EP: 20.7% ± 1.75% vs. HIF-IM: 44% ± 3.73; P < .001, vs. pVAX-EP: 60.05% ± 2.17%; P < .0001), capillary density increased (HIF-EP: 96.83 ± 5.72 vessels/hpf vs. HIF-IM: 62.87 ± 2.0 vessels/hpf; P < .001, vs. pVAX-EP: 39.37 ± 2.76 vessels/hpf; P < .0001), collateral vessel formation increased (HI-EP: 76.33 ± 1.94 vessels/hpf vs. HIF-IM: 37.5 ± 1

  17. Nonlinear dynamical model and response of avian cranial kinesis.

    PubMed

    Meekangvan, Preeda; A Barhorst, Alan; Burton, Thomas D; Chatterjee, Sankar; Schovanec, Lawrence

    2006-05-01

    All modern birds have kinetic skulls in which the upper bill can move relative to the braincase, but the biomechanics and motion dynamics of cranial kinesis in birds are poorly understood. In this paper, we model the dynamics of avian cranial kinesis, such as prokinesis and proximal rhynchokinesis in which the upper jaw pivots around the nasal-frontal (N-F) hinge. The purpose of this paper is to present to the biological community an approach that demonstrates the application of sophisticated predictive mathematical modeling tools to avian kinesis. The generality of the method, however, is applicable to the advanced study of the biomechanics of other skeletal systems. The paper begins with a review of the relevant biological literature as well as the essential morphology of avian kinesis, especially the mechanical coupling of the upper and lower jaw by the postorbital ligament. A planar model of the described bird jaw morphology is then developed that maintains the closed kinematic topology of the avian jaw mechanism. We then develop the full nonlinear equations of motion with the assumption that the M. protractor pterygoideus and M. depressor mandibulae act on the quadrate as a pure torque, and the nasal frontal hinge is elastic with damping. The mechanism is shown to be a single degree of freedom device due to the holonomic constraints present in the quadrate-jugal bar-upper jaw-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain as well as the quadrate-lower jaw-postorbital ligament-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain. The full equations are verified via simulation and animation using the parameters of a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). Next we develop a simplified analytical model of the equations by power series expansion. We demonstrate that this model reproduces the dynamics of the full model to a high degree of fidelity. We proceed to use the harmonic balance technique to develop the frequency response characteristics of the jaw mechanism. It is shown that this avian cranial

  18. Effects of Hypercapnic Hypoxia on Inactivation and Elimination of Vibrio campbellii in the Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica▿

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Brett M.; Achilihu, Ikenna O.; Burnett, Karen G.; Burnett, Louis E.

    2008-01-01

    The Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, inhabits shallow coastal waters that frequently experience periods of low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) and elevated CO2 (hypercapnia) levels. Bacteria are extremely abundant in these environments and accumulate in large numbers in filter-feeding oysters, which can act as passive carriers of human pathogens. Although hypercapnic hypoxia (HH) can affect certain specific immune mechanisms, its direct effect on the inactivation, degradation and elimination of bacteria in oysters is unknown. This research was conducted to determine whether exposure to HH reduces the ability of C. virginica to inactivate and eliminate Vibrio campbellii following its injection into the adductor muscle. Oysters were held in fully air-saturated (normoxic; partial O2 pressure [PO2] = 20.7 kPa, CO2 < 0.06 kPa, pH 7.8 to 8.0) or HH (PO2 = 4 kPa, CO2 = 1.8 kPa, pH 6.5 to 6.8) seawater at 25°C for 4 h before being injected in the adductor muscle with 105 live Vibrio campbellii bacteria and remained under these conditions for the remainder of the experiment (up to 24 h postinjection). Real-time PCR was used to quantify the number of intact V. campbellii bacteria, while selective plating was used to quantify the number of injected bacteria remaining culturable in whole-oyster tissues, seawater, and feces/pseudofeces at 0, 1, 4, and 24 h postinjection. We found that oysters maintained under normoxic conditions were very efficient at inactivating and degrading large numbers of injected bacteria within their tissues. Moreover, a small percentage (∼10%) of injected bacteria were passed into the surrounding seawater, while less than 1% were recovered in the feces/pseudofeces. In contrast, HH increased the percentage of culturable bacteria recovered from the tissues of oysters, suggesting an overall decrease in bacteriostasis. We suggest that poor water quality may increase the risk that oysters will harbor and transmit bacterial pathogens hazardous to human

  19. Spatial and temporal dynamics of biotic and abiotic features of temperate coastal ecosystems as revealed by a combination of ecological indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grangeré, K.; Lefebvre, S.; Blin, J.-L.

    2012-08-01

    Coastal ecosystems exhibit complex spatio-temporal patterns due to their position at the interface between land and sea. This is particularly the case of temperate ecosystems where exploitation of coastal resources (fisheries and aquaculture) and intensive agricultural use of watersheds further complicate our understanding of their dynamics. The aim of the present study was to unravel the spatio-temporal dynamics of contrasted megatidal coastal ecosystems located at the same regional scale (i.e. under the same regional climate), but under different kinds of human pressure. Two kinds of ecological indicators were assessed over a period of four years at 11 locations along the coast of the Cotentin peninsula (Normandy, France). A first set of hydrobiological variables (dissolved nutrients, Chl a, temperature, salinity, etc.) was measured fortnightly in the water column. These data were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). A second set of variables were the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of the adductor muscles of cultured Crassostrea gigas introduced every year to typify the bentho-pelagic coupling at each location. Food sources were also investigated using a mixing model with data on the isotopic composition of the food sources obtained previously. To identify which environmental variables played a significant role in determining the oyster diet, the contributions of oyster food sources were combined with environmental variables in a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Isotopic values of adductor muscles varied significantly between -20.12‰ and -16.79‰ for δ13C and between 8.28‰ and 11.87‰ for δ15N. The PCA distinguished two groups of coastal ecosystems that differed in their coastal hydrology, nutrient inputs, and the size of their respective watershed, irrespective of the year. In each zone, different spatial patterns in the measured variables were observed depending on the year showing that local impacts differed temporally

  20. Osteitis pubis in athletes. Infection, inflammation or injury?

    PubMed

    Fricker, P A; Taunton, J E; Ammann, W

    1991-10-01

    Medical records of 59 patients (9 females and 50 males), who presented to sports medicine clinics at the Australian Institute of Sport and the University of British Columbia between 1985 and 1990 and who were diagnosed as suffering osteitis pubis, were reviewed and comparison of data obtained was made with the literature. Women average 35.5 years of age (30 to 59 years) and men 30.3 years (13 to 61 years). Sports most frequently involved were running, soccer, ice hockey and tennis. Clinical presentations of osteitis pubis fell into 4 main groups. 'Mechanical' (sport-related) was the largest group (n = 48), followed by 'obstetric' (n = 5), 'inflammatory' (n = 4) and 'other' (n = 2). Period of follow-up averaged 10.3 months (1 to 20 months) in women and 17.5 months (2 to 96 months) in men. Full recovery, when documented, averaged 9.5 months in men and 7.0 months in women. Osteitis pubis recurred in 25% of these men and none of these women at follow-up. The most frequent symptoms were pubic pain and adductor pain. Men also presented with lower abdominal, hip and perineal or scrotal pain; women with hip pain. Most common signs were tenderness of the pubic symphysis and tenderness of adductor longus muscle origin. Men also revealed tenderness of one or both the superior pubic rami and evidence of decreased hip rotation (unilateral or bilateral). Evidence of pelvic malalignment and/or sacroiliac dysfunction was frequently seen in both men and women. There was poor correlation between radiographic and isotope bone scan findings and the site and duration of symptoms and signs. Femoral head ratios were estimated on 30 hips in the series and 2 were judged to be at the upper limit of normal, perhaps indicating a form of epiphysiolysis producing tilt deformity of the head of the femur. It is clear that osteitis pubis in athletes is not uncommon and that factors such as loss of rotation of hips and previous obstetric history are important in the aetiology and management of this

  1. “Target” and “Sandwich” Signs in Thigh Muscles have High Diagnostic Values for Collagen VI-related Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun; Zheng, Yi-Ming; Jin, Su-Qin; Yi, Jun-Fei; Liu, Xiu-Juan; Lyn, He; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Jiang-Xi; Yuan, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Collagen VI-related myopathies are autosomal dominant and recessive hereditary myopathies, mainly including Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and Bethlem myopathy (BM). Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to diagnosis muscular disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of thigh muscles MRI for collagen VI-related myopathies. Methods: Eleven patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies were enrolled in this study. MRI of the thigh muscles was performed in all patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies and in 361 patients with other neuromuscular disorders (disease controls). T1-weighted images were used to assess fatty infiltration of the muscles using a modified Mercuri's scale. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the MRI features of collagen VI-related myopathies. The relationship between fatty infiltration of muscles and specific collagen VI gene mutations was also investigated. Results: Eleven patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies included six UCMD patients and five BM patients. There was no significant difference between UCMD and BM patients in the fatty infiltration of each thigh muscle except sartorius (P = 0.033); therefore, we combined the UCMD and BM data. Mean fatty infiltration scores were 3.1 and 3.0 in adductor magnus and gluteus maximus, while the scores were 1.3, 1.3, and 1.5 in gracilis, adductor longus, and sartorius, respectively. A “target” sign in rectus femoris (RF) was present in seven cases, and a “sandwich” sign in vastus lateralis (VL) was present in ten cases. The “target” and “sandwich” signs had sensitivities of 63.6% and 90.9% and specificities of 97.3% and 96.9% for the diagnosis of collagen VI-related myopathies, respectively. Fatty infiltration scores were 2.0–3.0 in seven patients with mutations in the triple-helical domain, and 1.0–1.5 in three of four patients with

  2. Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injection technique for the iliopsoas muscle.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, Bettina; Seller, Konrad; Wild, Alexander; Jaeger, Marcus; Krauspe, Ruediger

    2003-12-01

    an injection programme which also includes other muscles like the adductors and the medial hamstrings) for pain relief, reducing care difficulties and, possibly, prevention of further decentration (Porta 2000, Foster et al. 2001, Deleplanque et al. 2002, Lubik et al. 2002). In Perthes disease, BTX-A injections in the iliopsoas muscle and the adductors may prevent a fixed deformity, which is a negative prognostic factor. PMID:14667075

  3. Sub-lethal effects of cadmium and copper on RNA/DNA ratio and energy reserves in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jamius W Y; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to test if RNA/DNA ratio and various energy reserve parameters (i.e., glycogen, lipid, protein content and total energy reserves) are sensitive biomarkers for indicating stresses induced by metal contaminants in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, a common organism for biomonitoring in Southeast Asia. This study was, therefore, designed to examine the effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on these potential biomarkers in two major energy storage tissues, adductor muscle (AM) and hepatopancreas (HP), of P. viridis after sub-lethal exposure to either metal for 10 days. The results showed that neither Cd nor Cu treatments affected the RNA/DNA ratio, glycogen and protein contents in AM and HP. As the most sensitive biomarker in P. viridis, the total lipid content in both AM and HP was significantly decreased in the treatment of 5μg Cu/L and 0.01-0.1μgCd/L, respectively. However, soft-tissue body burdens of Cu or Cd did not significantly correlate with each of the four biomarkers regardless of the tissue type. In addition, AM generally stored more glycogen than HP, whereas HP stored more lipids than AM. We proposed that multiple biomarkers may be employed as an integrated diagnostic tool for monitoring the health condition of the mussels. PMID:27262215

  4. Resistance to atracurium-induced neuromuscular blockade in patients with intractable seizure disorders treated with anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Tempelhoff, R; Modica, P A; Jellish, W S; Spitznagel, E L

    1990-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that, with the exception of atracurium, resistance to the neuromuscular blocking effects of various muscle relaxants develops in patients receiving anticonvulsant therapy. We studied the effects of 0.5 mg/kg IV atracurium in 53 neurosurgical patients: 21 nonepileptic patients receiving no anticonvulsant therapy (MED = 0); 14 epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine for years (MED = 1); and 18 epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine plus either phenytoin or valproic acid for years (MED = 2). The evoked compound electromyogram of the adductor pollicis brevis was recorded, and results were analyzed using analysis of covariance, with weight and age as covariables. The onset time was not significantly different among the three groups. Times for recovery of baseline and train-of-four responses to stimuli were significantly shorter in the MED = 1 and MED = 2 groups than in control patients (MED = 0). The recovery index (time between 25% and 75% recovery of baseline electromyogram values) was progressively shorter in the three groups (MED = 0: 8.02 min; MED = 1: 5.93 min; MED = 2: 1.96 min; P less than 0.001). This study demonstrates that atracurium, when used on epileptic patients requiring long-term (that is, years of) anticonvulsant therapy, has a shorter duration of action than when used in nonepileptic patients. PMID:2240640

  5. The head of the finch: the anatomy of the feeding system in two species of finches (Geospiza fortis and Padda oryzivora)

    PubMed Central

    Genbrugge, Annelies; Herrel, Anthony; Boone, Matthieu; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Podos, Jeffrey; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter; Dominique, Adriaens

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies devoted to the evolution of beak shape in Darwin's finches, surprisingly little is known about the morphology of the skull and jaw musculature in these birds. Moreover, it remains currently unclear whether Darwin's finches are unusual in their cranial morphology compared with other seed-cracking birds. Here, we provide a detailed description of the morphology of the cranial system in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) and compare it with that of another seed-cracking bird of similar overall size and appearance, the Java finch (Padda oryzivora). Our data show an overall similarity in beak size and cranial morphology. Yet, differences in the jaw adductor size and corresponding attachments to the cranium and mandible are prominent, with the medium ground finch having much more robust jaw-closing muscles. This is reflected in differences in bite forces, with the medium ground finch biting much harder than the Java finch. These data suggest similarities in the evolution of the feeding system in birds specializing in the cracking of hard seeds, but also show the uniqueness of the cranial morphology and bite force of the medium ground finch compared with other seed-cracking birds. PMID:21999913

  6. Development of Screening Method for an Frail Elderly by Measurement Quantitative Lower Limb Muscular Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Iwakami, Yumi; Imaizumi, Kazuya; Sato, Mitsuru; Nakajima, Sawako; Ino, Shuichi; Kawasumi, Masashi; Ifukube, Tohru

    Falling is one of the most serious problems for the elderly. The aim of this study was to develop a screening method for identifying factors that increase the risk of falling among the elderly, particularly with regard to lower limb muscular strength. Subjects were 48 elderly volunteers, including 25 classed as healthy and 23 classed as frail. All subjects underwent measurement of lower limb muscular strength via toe gap force and measurement of muscle strength of the hip joint adductor via knee gap force. In the frail group, toe gap force of the right foot was 20% lower than that in the healthy group; toe gap force of the left foot in the frail group was 23% lower than that in the healthy group, while knee gap force was 20% lower. Furthermore, we found that combining left toe gap force and knee gap force gave the highest odds ratio (6.05) with 82.6% sensitivity and 56.0% specificity when the toe gap force was 24 N and the knee gap force was 100 N. Thus, lower limb muscular strength can be used for simple and efficient screening, and approaches to prevent falls can be based on quantitative data such as lower limb muscular strength.

  7. MytiBase: a knowledgebase of mussel (M. galloprovincialis) transcribed sequences

    PubMed Central

    Venier, Paola; De Pittà, Cristiano; Bernante, Filippo; Varotto, Laura; De Nardi, Barbara; Bovo, Giuseppe; Roch, Philippe; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Pallavicini, Alberto; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo

    2009-01-01

    Background Although Bivalves are among the most studied marine organisms due to their ecological role, economic importance and use in pollution biomonitoring, very little information is available on the genome sequences of mussels. This study reports the functional analysis of a large-scale Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequencing from different tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis (the Mediterranean mussel) challenged with toxic pollutants, temperature and potentially pathogenic bacteria. Results We have constructed and sequenced seventeen cDNA libraries from different Mediterranean mussel tissues: gills, digestive gland, foot, anterior and posterior adductor muscle, mantle and haemocytes. A total of 24,939 clones were sequenced from these libraries generating 18,788 high-quality ESTs which were assembled into 2,446 overlapping clusters and 4,666 singletons resulting in a total of 7,112 non-redundant sequences. In particular, a high-quality normalized cDNA library (Nor01) was constructed as determined by the high rate of gene discovery (65.6%). Bioinformatic screening of the non-redundant M. galloprovincialis sequences identified 159 microsatellite-containing ESTs. Clusters, consensuses, related similarities and gene ontology searches have been organized in a dedicated, searchable database . Conclusion We defined the first species-specific catalogue of M. galloprovincialis ESTs including 7,112 unique transcribed sequences. Putative microsatellite markers were identified. This annotated catalogue represents a valuable platform for expression studies, marker validation and genetic linkage analysis for investigations in the biology of Mediterranean mussels. PMID:19203376

  8. A cineradiographic and electromyographic study of mastication in Tenrec ecaudatus.

    PubMed

    Oron, U; Crompton, A W

    1985-08-01

    Regular chewing was studied in the specialized Malagasy insectivore Tenrec ecaudatus with the aid of precisely correlated electromyography of the main adductors, digastrics, and two hyoid muscles and cineradiography for which metallic markers were placed in the mandibles, tongue, and hyoid bone. During the power stroke the body of the mandible moves dorsally and medially. The medially directed component of movement at this time is greatly increased by simultaneous rotation of the mandible about its longitudinal axis. The highly mobile symphysis, spherical dentary condyle, loss of superficial masseter muscle and zygoma, and the simplified zalamnodont molars all appear to be related to the large amount of mandibular rotation that occurs during occlusion. The balancing side lateral pterygoid muscle (inferior head) apparently shifts the working side mandible laterally during the last part of opening and the first part of closing. The working side temporalis and the superficial masseter muscle are both responsible for the shift back to the midline. The temporalis is usually active to the same extent on the working and balancing sides during the power stroke. The level of activity (amplitude) of the temporalis and duration of the power stroke increase with harder foods. Whenever soft foods are chewed, the superficial masseter is only active on the working side; whenever foods of increasing hardness are chewed, its level of activity on the balancing side increases to approach that of the working side. Mandibular rotation is greatly reduced when hard foods are chewed. PMID:4057264

  9. The adaptational strategies of the hindlimb muscles in the Tenrecidae species including the aquatic web-footed tenrec (Limnogale mergulus).

    PubMed

    Endo, Hideki; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Rakotondraparany, Felix; Sasaki, Motoki; Hasegawa, Masami

    2006-07-01

    The hindlimb muscles in four species of Tenrecidae (Oryzoryctinae: Talazac long-tailed tenrec and web-footed tenrec, Tenrecinae: lesser hedgehog tenrec, and streaked tenrec), were examined macroscopically. The weight ratios of the muscles to the body in the oryzoryctinid species are larger than those in Tenrecinae, since the Oryzoryctinae species have an obviously smaller body from the evolutionary point of view. It can be primarily pointed out that the adaptation of the body size is different between the two subfamilies, and secondarily, that functional adaptation to locomotion is complete within each subfamily. The weight data and the morphological findings demonstrate that the web-footed tenrec possesses an extraordinary large M. semimembranosus in comparison to the Talazac long-tailed tenrec in their weight ratios. This muscle may act as a strong flexor motor in the knee joint during the aquatic locomotion of the web-footed tenrec. Since the other muscles of the web-footed tenrec are similar to those of the Talazac long-tailed tenrec regards weight ratio data, we think that the web-footed tenrec may have derived from a terrestrial ancestor such as the long-tailed tenrecs. In Tenrecinae the streaked tenrec is equipped with larger Mm. adductores, M. semimembranosus and M. triceps surae than the lesser hedgehog tenrec. This species is adapted to fossorial life derived from non-specialized ancestors within the evolutionary lines of the spiny tenrecs. PMID:16856604

  10. Retrodeformation and muscular reconstruction of ornithomimosaurian dinosaur crania

    PubMed Central

    Rayfield, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Ornithomimosaur dinosaurs evolved lightweight, edentulous skulls that possessed keratinous rhamphothecae. Understanding the anatomy of these taxa allows for a greater understanding of “ostrich-mimic” dinosaurs and character change during theropod dinosaur evolution. However, taphonomic processes during fossilisation often distort fossil remains. Retrodeformation offers a means by which to recover a hypothesis of the original anatomy of the specimen, and 3D scanning technologies present a way to constrain and document the retrodeformation process. Using computed tomography (CT) scan data, specimen specific retrodeformations were performed on three-dimensionally preserved but taphonomically distorted skulls of the deinocheirid Garudimimus brevipes Barsbold, 1981 and the ornithomimids Struthiomimus altus Lambe, 1902 and Ornithomimus edmontonicus Sternberg, 1933. This allowed for a reconstruction of the adductor musculature, which was then mapped onto the crania, from which muscle mechanical advantage and bite forces were calculated pre- and post-retrodeformation. The extent of the rhamphotheca was varied in each taxon to represent morphologies found within modern Aves. Well constrained retrodeformation allows for increased confidence in anatomical and functional analysis of fossil specimens and offers an opportunity to more fully understand the soft tissue anatomy of extinct taxa. PMID:26213655

  11. The effect of forage type on lamb carcass traits, meat quality and sensory traits.

    PubMed

    De Brito, Gerlane F; McGrath, Shawn R; Holman, Benjamin W B; Friend, Michael A; Fowler, Stephanie M; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forage-types on lamb carcass, meat quality and sensory attributes. Sixty-two, White Dorper lambs finished on bladder clover, brassica, chicory+arrowleaf clover, lucerne+phalaris or lucerne, were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. At 24h post-mortem, the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) was removed from the left side and sliced into three equal sub-samples, vacuum packaged and randomly assigned to ageing periods (5, 12 or 40days) and the right side was aged for 5days. The m. semimembranosus and m. adductor femoris were removed and, the former was then aged for 40days. Lambs fed chicory+arrowleaf clover or lucerne had a higher dressing percentage and fat depth. Bladder clover gave the highest level of glycogen in the LL. No sensory or other meat quality trait differences were found between the treatments. In general, no treatments showed any unfavourable effect on the traits examined. PMID:27155319

  12. Relative Importance of Four Muscle Groups for Indoor Rock Climbing Performance.

    PubMed

    Deyhle, Michael R; Hsu, Hung-Sheng; Fairfield, Timothy J; Cadez-Schmidt, Taryn L; Gurney, Burke A; Mermier, Christine M

    2015-07-01

    Little research is available to guide training programs for rock climbers. To help meet this need, we sought to determine the relative importance of 4 muscle groups for rock climbing performance. Eleven male climbers were familiarized with an indoor climbing route before 5 separate days of testing. On testing days, subjects were randomly assigned to climb with no prefatiguing exercise (control climb) or after a prefatiguing exercise designed to specifically target the digit flexors (DF), shoulder adductors (SA), elbow flexors (EF), or lumbar flexors (LF). Immediately after the prefatiguing exercise, the subject climbed the route as far as possible without rest until failure. The number of climbing moves was recorded for each climb. Surface electromyography of the target muscles was recorded during the prefatigue. Fewer climbing moves were completed after prefatigue of the DF (50 ± 18%) and EF (78 ± 22%) (p ≤ 0.05) compared with the control climb. The number of moves completed after prefatigue of the LF and SA were not statistically significant compared with the control climb (p > 0.05). The short time lapse between the end of prefatiguing exercise and the start of climbing (transit time), which may have allowed for some recovery, was not different among trials (p > 0.05). Electromyography median frequency was reduced from beginning to end of each prefatiguing exercise. These results suggest that among the muscle groups studied in men, muscular endurance of DF and EF muscle groups is especially important for rock climbing on 40° overhanging terrain. PMID:25574609

  13. Test-retest reliability of innovated strength tests for hip muscles.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christophe; Corten, Kristoff; Wesseling, Mariska; Peers, Koen; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    The burden of hip muscles weakness and its relation to other impairments has been well documented. It is therefore a pre-requisite to have a reliable method for clinical assessment of hip muscles function allowing the design and implementation of a proper strengthening program. Motor-driven dynamometry has been widely accepted as the gold-standard for lower limb muscle strength assessment but is mainly related to the knee joint. Studies focusing on the hip joint are less exhaustive and somewhat discrepant with regard to optimal participants position, consequently influencing outcome measures. Thus, we aimed to develop a standardized test setup for the assessment of hip muscles strength, i.e. flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors, with improved participant stability and to define its psychometric characteristics. Eighteen participants performed unilateral isokinetic and isometric contractions of the hip muscles in the sagittal and coronal plane at two separate occasions. Peak torque and normalized peak torque were measured for each contraction. Relative and absolute measures of reliability were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error of measurement, respectively. Results from this study revealed higher levels of between-day reliability of isokinetic/isometric hip abduction/flexion peak torque compared to existing literature. The least reliable measures were found for hip extension and adduction, which could be explained by a less efficient stabilization technique. Our study additionally provided a first set of reference normalized data which can be used in future research. PMID:24260550

  14. Digital dissection - using contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning to elucidate hard- and soft-tissue anatomy in the Common Buzzard Buteo buteo.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Bright, Jen A; Rayfield, Emily J

    2014-04-01

    Gross dissection has a long history as a tool for the study of human or animal soft- and hard-tissue anatomy. However, apart from being a time-consuming and invasive method, dissection is often unsuitable for very small specimens and often cannot capture spatial relationships of the individual soft-tissue structures. The handful of comprehensive studies on avian anatomy using traditional dissection techniques focus nearly exclusively on domestic birds, whereas raptorial birds, and in particular their cranial soft tissues, are essentially absent from the literature. Here, we digitally dissect, identify, and document the soft-tissue anatomy of the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) in detail, using the new approach of contrast-enhanced computed tomography using Lugol's iodine. The architecture of different muscle systems (adductor, depressor, ocular, hyoid, neck musculature), neurovascular, and other soft-tissue structures is three-dimensionally visualised and described in unprecedented detail. The three-dimensional model is further presented as an interactive PDF to facilitate the dissemination and accessibility of anatomical data. Due to the digital nature of the data derived from the computed tomography scanning and segmentation processes, these methods hold the potential for further computational analyses beyond descriptive and illustrative proposes. PMID:24350638

  15. Digital dissection – using contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning to elucidate hard-and soft-tissue anatomy in the Common Buzzard Buteo buteo

    PubMed Central

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Bright, Jen A; Rayfield, Emily J

    2014-01-01

    Gross dissection has a long history as a tool for the study of human or animal soft-and hard-tissue anatomy. However, apart from being a time-consuming and invasive method, dissection is often unsuitable for very small specimens and often cannot capture spatial relationships of the individual soft-tissue structures. The handful of comprehensive studies on avian anatomy using traditional dissection techniques focus nearly exclusively on domestic birds, whereas raptorial birds, and in particular their cranial soft tissues, are essentially absent from the literature. Here, we digitally dissect, identify, and document the soft-tissue anatomy of the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) in detail, using the new approach of contrast-enhanced computed tomography using Lugol's iodine. The architecture of different muscle systems (adductor, depressor, ocular, hyoid, neck musculature), neurovascular, and other soft-tissue structures is three-dimensionally visualised and described in unprecedented detail. The three-dimensional model is further presented as an interactive PDF to facilitate the dissemination and accessibility of anatomical data. Due to the digital nature of the data derived from the computed tomography scanning and segmentation processes, these methods hold the potential for further computational analyses beyond descriptive and illustrative proposes. PMID:24350638

  16. Adaptive plasticity in mammalian masticatory joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravosa, Matthew J.; Kunwar, Ravinder; Nicholson, Elisabeth K.; Klopp, Emily B.; Pinchoff, Jessie; Stock, Stuart R.; Stack, M. Sharon; Hamrick, Mark W.

    2006-08-01

    Genetically similar white rabbits raised on diets of different mechanical properties, as well as wild-type and myostatin-deficient mice raised on similar diets, were compared to assess the postweaning effects of elevated masticatory loads due to increased jaw-adductor muscle and bite forces on the proportions and properties of the mandibular symphysis and temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Microcomputed tomography (microCT) was used to quantify bone structure at a series of equidistant external and internal sites in coronal sections for a series of joint locations. Discriminant function analyses and non-parametric ANOVAs were used to characterize variation in biomineralization within and between loading cohorts. In both species, long-term excessive loading results in larger joint proportions, thicker articular and cortical bone, and increased biomineralization of hard tissues. Such adaptive plasticity appears designed to maintain the postnatal integrity of masticatory joint systems for a primary loading environment(s). This behavioral signal may be increasingly mitigated in older organisms by the interplay between adaptive and degradative joint tissue responses.

  17. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the forelimb

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Barton, Michael; Holmgren, Jennifer; Tang, Samuel Y

    2009-01-01

    Within the order Carnivora, the phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is contentious, with morphological and molecular studies supporting a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for the forelimb of Ailurus, based on the dissection of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA. The red panda forelimb is characterized by a number of primitive features, including the lack of m. rhomboideus profundus, a humeral insertion for m. cleidobrachialis, the presence of mm. brachioradialis, articularis humeri and coracobrachialis, a single muscle belly for m. extensor digitorum lateralis with tendons to digits III–V, four mm. lumbricales, and the presence of mm. flexor digitorum brevis manus, adductores digiti I, II and V, and abductor digiti I and V. Red pandas resemble Ailuropoda, mustelids and some procyonids in possessing a soft tissue origin of m. flexor digitorum superficialis. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and procyonids in having a variable presence of m. biceps brachii caput breve. Furthermore, Ailurus and some ursids lack m. rhomboideus capitis. The forelimb muscle maps from this study represent a valuable resource for analyzing the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids and some notes on the Miocene ailurid, Simocyon batalleri, are presented. PMID:19930516

  18. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the forelimb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Barton, Michael; Holmgren, Jennifer; Tang, Samuel Y

    2009-12-01

    Within the order Carnivora, the phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is contentious, with morphological and molecular studies supporting a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for the forelimb of Ailurus, based on the dissection of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA. The red panda forelimb is characterized by a number of primitive features, including the lack of m. rhomboideus profundus, a humeral insertion for m. cleidobrachialis, the presence of mm. brachioradialis, articularis humeri and coracobrachialis, a single muscle belly for m. extensor digitorum lateralis with tendons to digits III-V, four mm. lumbricales, and the presence of mm. flexor digitorum brevis manus, adductores digiti I, II and V, and abductor digiti I and V. Red pandas resemble Ailuropoda, mustelids and some procyonids in possessing a soft tissue origin of m. flexor digitorum superficialis. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and procyonids in having a variable presence of m. biceps brachii caput breve. Furthermore, Ailurus and some ursids lack m. rhomboideus capitis. The forelimb muscle maps from this study represent a valuable resource for analyzing the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids and some notes on the Miocene ailurid, Simocyon batalleri, are presented. PMID:19930516

  19. Electromyographic analysis of the hip and knee during the golf swing.

    PubMed

    Bechler, J R; Jobe, F W; Pink, M; Perry, J; Ruwe, P A

    1995-07-01

    As golf increases in popularity, more golfers seek the proper mechanics necessary for the perfect golf swing. Surprisingly little scientific work has been published on the contribution of the hip and knee muscles during the golf swing even though most professionals have recognized their vital contribution. Recent studies have described the electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity of the shoulder, back, and trunk during the golf swing. The purpose of this study was to describe the electrical muscle activity in seven hip and knee muscles of both the left (lead) and right (trail) leg in competitive golfers while performing the golf swing. Sixteen golfers were studied with indwelling electrodes and high-speed cinematography. The EMG was synchronized with the film to discern five phases of the golf swing. Means, SDs, and t-tests were done. The results revealed that the trail hip extensors and abductors in conjunction with the lead adductor magus initiated pelvic rotation during forward swing. The lead hamstrings maintained a flexed knee and provided a stable base on which pelvic rotation took place. The peak EMG muscle activity recorded in the hips and knees occurred in an earlier phase than that measured previously in the trunk and shoulder. This confirmed the sequential firing pattern of the hip and knee muscles that takes place during the competitive golf swing. Information gained from this study can be used by players and coaches to optimize performance and to minimize injury. PMID:7670971

  20. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of high energy phosphates and pH in human muscle fatigue. Comparison of aerobic and anaerobic exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R G; Boska, M D; Moussavi, R S; Carson, P J; Weiner, M W

    1988-01-01

    The goal of these experiments was to investigate the relationship of ATP, phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), monobasic phosphate (H2PO4-), and pH to human muscle fatigue. Phosphates and pH were measured in adductor pollicis using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance at 2.0 Tesla. The force of muscle contraction was simultaneously measured with a force transducer. The effects of aerobic and anaerobic exercise were compared using two exercise protocols: 4 min sustained maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 40 min of repeated intermittent contractions (75% MVC). The sustained maximal contraction produced a rapid decline of MVC and PCr, and was accompanied by a rapid rise of Pi, H+, and H2PO4-. Intermittent exercise produced steady state changes of MVC, pH, and phosphates. No significant changes of ATP were found in either protocol. During fatiguing exercise, PCr and Pi had a nonlinear relationship with MVC. H+ showed a more linear correlation, while H2PO4- showed the best correlation with MVC. Furthermore, the correlations between MVC and H2PO4- were similar in sustained (r = 0.70) and intermittent (r = 0.73) exercise. The highly significant linear relationship between increases of H+ and H2PO4- and the decline of MVC strongly suggests that both H+ and H2PO4- are important determinants of human muscle fatigue. PMID:3350969

  1. Muscle imaging in muscle dystrophies produced by mutations in the EMD and LMNA genes.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Alejaldre, Aida; González, Laura; Olivé, Montse; Gómez-Andrés, David; Muelas, Nuria; Vílchez, Juan José; Llauger, Jaume; Carbonell, Pilar; Márquez-Infante, Celedonio; Fernández-Torrón, Roberto; Poza, Juan José; López de Munáin, Adolfo; González-Quereda, Lidia; Mirabet, Sonia; Clarimon, Jordi; Gallano, Pía; Rojas-García, Ricard; Gallardo, Eduard; Illa, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the mutated gene that produces a particular muscle dystrophy is difficult because different genotypes may share a phenotype and vice versa. Muscle MRI is a useful tool to recognize patterns of muscle involvement in patients with muscle dystrophies and to guide the diagnosis process. The radiologic pattern of muscle involvement in patients with mutations in the EMD and LMNA genes has not been completely established. Our objective is to describe the pattern of muscle fatty infiltration in patients with mutations in the EMD and in the LMNA genes and to search for differences between the two genotypes that could be helpful to guide the genetic tests. We conducted a national multicenter study in 42 patients, 10 with mutations in the EMD gene and 32 with mutations in the LMNA gene. MRI or CT was used to study the muscles from trunk to legs. Patients had a similar pattern of fatty infiltration regardless of whether they had the mutation in the EMD or LMNA gene. The main muscles involved were the paravertebral, glutei, quadriceps, biceps, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, adductor major, soleus, and gastrocnemius. Involvement of peroneus muscle, which was more frequently affected in patients with mutations in the EMD gene, was useful to differentiate between the two genotypes. Muscle MRI/CT identifies a similar pattern of muscle fatty infiltration in patients with mutations in the EMD or the LMNA genes. The involvement of peroneus muscles could be useful to conduct genetic analysis in patients with an EDMD phenotype. PMID:26573435

  2. Electromyographic analysis of thigh muscles during track cycling on a velodrome.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Sato, Takayuki; Mukaimoto, Takahiro; Takashima, Wataru; Yamagishi, Michio; Nishiyama, Tetsunari

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate neuromuscular activation of thigh muscles during track cycling at various speeds. Eight male competitive cyclists volunteered to participate in this study. Surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and adductor magnus muscles of the bilateral legs was recorded during track cycling on velodromes with a 250-m track. The participants were instructed to maintain three different lap times: 20, 18 and 16 s. The average rectified value (ARV) was calculated from the sampled surface electromyography. Significantly higher ARVs were observed in the right compared to left leg for the biceps femoris muscle during both straight and curved sections at 18- and 16-s lap times (P < 0.05). In the biceps femoris muscle, significant changes in ARVs during the recovery phase with an increase in speed were seen in the right leg only (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in ARVs between the straight and curved sections for all three muscles (P > 0.05). From our findings, it was suggested that during track cycling on a velodrome the laterality of the biceps femoris muscle activity is a key strategy to regulate the speed, and fixed neuromuscular strategies are adopted between straight and curved sections for thigh muscles. PMID:26571039

  3. The effect of temperature and salinity on the elimination of enrofloxacin in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Ai-Xin; Li, Jian; Liu, Ping

    2012-03-01

    The effect of temperature and salinity on the elimination of enrofloxacin (EF) in Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum was investigated. The clams, cultured under different temperatures and salinities (16 degrees C and 30 per thousand, 22 degrees C and 30 per thousand, or 22 degrees C and 20 per thousand), were exposed to EF at 5 microg/mL of water in a medicated bath. After a 24-h exposure, the concentration of EF in various tissues was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and the elimination rate of EF in those tissues was investigated by regression analysis. After the treatment, the initial concentrations of EF among tissues were (in decreasing order) plasma > gill > visceral mass > foot > adductor muscle. In all tissues the elimination half-life (t1/2) of EF in the clams cultured at 22 degrees C and 20 per thousand and 16 degrees C and 30 per thousand were markedly longer than in those cultured at 22 degrees C and 30 per thousand, and the t1/2 at 16 degrees C and 30 per thousand was slightly longer than that at 22 degrees C and 20 per thousand. Slight differences were also observed in t1/2 values among various tissues. These data indicate that both temperature and salinity had significant effects on the elimination of EF in the Manila clams and that lower temperature or salinity could result in slower elimination. PMID:22779209

  4. Force, work and power output of lower limb muscles during human maximal-effort countermovement jumping.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Akinori; Komura, Taku; Fukashiro, Senshi; Himeno, Ryutaro

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to simulate human maximal-effort countermovement jumping with a three-dimensional neuromusculoskeletal model. The specific aim was to investigate muscle force, work and power output of major lower limb muscles during the motion. A neuromusculoskeletal model that has nine rigid body segments, 20 degrees of freedom, 32 Hill-type lower limb muscles was developed. The neural activation input signal was represented by a series of step functions with step duration of 0.05 s. The excitation-contraction dynamics of the contractile element, the tissues around the joints to limit the joint range of motion, as well as the foot-ground interaction were implemented. A simulation was started from a standing posture. Optimal pattern of the activation input signal was searched through numerical optimization with a goal of maximizing the height reached by the mass center of body after jumping up. As a result, feasible kinematics, ground reaction force profile and muscle excitation profile were generated. It was found that monoarticular muscles had major contributions of mechanical work and power output, whereas biarticular muscles had minor contributions. Hip adductors, abductors and external rotator muscles were vigorously activated, although their mechanical work and power output was minor because of their limited length change during the motion. Joint flexor muscles such as m. iliopsoas, m. biceps femoris short head and m. tibialis anterior were activated in the beginning of the motion with an effect of facilitating the generation of a countermovement. PMID:15811607

  5. History dependence of the electromyogram: Implications for isometric steady-state EMG parameters following a lengthening or shortening contraction.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexis A; Power, Geoffrey A; Herzog, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Residual force enhancement (RFE) and force depression (FD) refer to an increased or decreased force following an active lengthening or shortening contraction, respectively, relative to the isometric force produced at the same activation level and muscle length. Our intent was to determine if EMG characteristics differed in the RFE or FD states compared with a purely isometric reference contraction for maximal and submaximal voluntary activation of the adductor pollicis muscle. Quantifying these alterations to EMG in history-dependent states allows for more accurate modeling approaches for movement control in the future. For maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), RFE was 6-15% (P<0.001) and FD was 12-19% (P<0.001). The median frequency of the EMG was not different between RFE, FD and isometric reference contractions for the 100% and 40% MVC intensities (P>0.05). However, root mean square EMG (EMGRMS) amplitude for the submaximal contractions was higher in the FD and lower in the RFE state, respectively (P<0.05). For maximal contractions, EMGRMS was lower for the FD state but was the same for the RFE state compared to the isometric reference contractions (P>0.05). Neuromuscular efficiency (NME; force/EMG) was lower in the force depressed state and higher in the force enhanced state (P<0.05) compared to the isometric reference contractions. EMG spectral properties were not altered between the force-enhanced and depressed states relative to the isometric reference contractions, while EMG amplitude measures were. PMID:26891078

  6. Appropriate dosing of sugammadex to reverse deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in morbidly obese patients.

    PubMed

    Loupec, T; Frasca, D; Rousseau, N; Faure, J-P; Mimoz, O; Debaene, B

    2016-03-01

    In morbidly obese patients, the speed of reversal of neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex based on ideal body weight is still matter of debate. In this single-center, randomised, double-blinded study, neuromuscular blockade was monitored in 50 patients using acceleromyography at the adductor pollicis. At the end of surgery with deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade, patients randomly received sugammadex 4 mg.kg(-1) (high dose group), 2 mg.kg(-1) (middle dose group), or 1 mg.kg(-1) (low dose group) of ideal body weight. After administration of the first dose of sugammadex, the mean (SD) recovery time (censored at 600 s) from deep neuromuscular blockade was significantly shorter (p < 0.001) in the high-dose group (n = 14; 255 (63) s) vs the middle-dose group (n = 13; 429 (102) s), or low-dose group (n = 4; 581 (154) s). Success rate from neuromuscular blockade reversal defined by a train-of-four ≥ 0.9 within 10 min after sugammadex administration, were 93%, 77% and 22% for these high, middle and low-dose groups respectively (p < 0.05 vs low-dose group). In morbidly obese patients, 4 mg.kg(-1) of ideal body weight of sugammadex allows suitable reversal of deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. Monitoring remains essential to detect residual curarisation or recurarisation. PMID:26685122

  7. Functional anatomy of incisal biting in Aplodontia rufa and sciuromorph rodents - part 1: masticatory muscles, skull shape and digging.

    PubMed

    Druzinsky, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, rodents have been grouped into suborders distinguished largely on the basis of characteristics of the jaw adductor muscles and other features of the masticatory apparatus. The three classic suborders are: Sciuromorpha (squirrels), Myomorpha (rats and mice), and Hystricomorpha (porcupines and the South American caviomorph rodents). Protrogomorph rodents are thought to represent the primitive condition of rodent masticatory muscles. Aplodontia rufa, the mountain beaver, is the only living protrogomorphous rodent. The present work is a detailed comparison of the masticatory apparatus in A. rufa and Marmota monax, the woodchuck. But the mandibular region of A. rufa appears remarkable, unlike anything found in other rodents. Is A. rufa a reasonable representative of the primitive, protrogomorphous condition? A.rufa is a member of the aplodontoid-sciuroid clade with a wide and flat skull. The large temporalis and mandibular apophyses of A. rufa are features related to its relatively wide skull. Such features are found in less dramatic forms in other sciuromorphous species and the basic arrangement of the masticatory muscles of A. rufa is similar to the arrangement seen in sciuromorphs. PMID:20160428

  8. Comparison of lower limb muscle activation with ballet movements (releve and demi-plie) and general movements (heel rise and squat) in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Joong-Hwi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to demonstrate therapeutic grounds for rehabilitation exercise approach by comparing and analyzing muscular activities of Ballet movements: the releve movement (RM) and the demi-plie movement (DM). [Methods] Four types of movements such as RM vs. heel rise (HM) and DM vs. squat movement (SM) were randomized and applied in 30 healthy male and female individuals while measuring 10-s lower limb muscular activities (gluteus maximus [GMa], gluteus medius [GMe], rectus femoris [RF], adductor longus [AL], medial gastrocnemius [MG], and lateral gastrocnemius [LG]) by using surface electromyography (EMG). [Results] Significant differences were found in GMa, GMe, AL and MG activities for DM and in all of the six muscles for RM, in particular when the two groups were compared (RM vs HM and DM vs SM). [Conclusion] The RM and DM have a greater effect on lower limb muscular force activities compared to HM and SM and could be recommended as clinical therapeutic exercises for lower limb muscle enhancement. PMID:26957762

  9. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J.; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on–1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on–3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased “voluntary activation.” In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT.

  10. Qualitative effects of fresh and dried plum ingredients on vacuum-packaged, sliced hams.

    PubMed

    Nuñez de Gonzalez, M T; Hafley, B S; Boleman, R M; Miller, R M; Rhee, K S; Keeton, J T

    2009-09-01

    Boneless ham muscles (Semimembranosus+Adductor) were injected (20% w/w) with a curing brine containing no plum ingredient (control), fresh plum juice concentrate (FP), dried plum juice concentrate (DP), or spray dried plum powder (PP) at 2.5% or 5%. Hams were cooked, vacuum-packaged, stored at<4°C and evaluated at 2-week intervals over 10 week. Evaluations were performed on sliced product to determine cook loss, vacuum-package purge, Allo-Kramer shear force, 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), proximate analysis, objective color, sensory panel color and sensory attributes. FP, DP and 2.5% PP increased (P<0.05) cook loss by 2% to 7% depending on treatment and level, but the highest cook loss (17.7%) was observed in hams with 5% PP. Shear force values increased as the level of plum ingredient increased (P<0.05) from 2.5% to 5%, and the highest shear values were observed in hams containing 5% FP. There were no differences (P>0.05) in lipid oxidation among treatments as determined by TBARS and sensory evaluation. FP and PP ham color was similar to the control, but DP had a more intense atypical color of cured ham. Minimal changes in physical, chemical and sensory properties were observed during storage of all treatments. PMID:20416628

  11. Posterior cricoarytenoid myoplasty with medialization thyroplasty in the management of refractory abductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gary Y; Sechtem, Phillip R; Rideout, Benji

    2003-04-01

    Of the approximately 100,000 Americans with primary (idiopathic) laryngeal dystonia, 10% to 15% are thought to havethe abductor form. Botulinum A toxin injected into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle and/or cricothyroid muscle has been employed as the "gold standard" for therapeutic management; however, successful results are significantly less frequent than with injections for the adductor form. This report describes a new phonosurgical procedure, posterior cricoarytenoid myoplasty with medialization thyroplasty, designed for these refractory patients. Posterior cricoarytenoid myoplasty with medialization thyroplasty has been performed on 3 patients with abductor laryngeal dystonia. All patients had failed at least 5 previous botulinum A injections to the posterior cricoarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles. All patients underwent preoperative and 3 postoperative (2 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year) phonatory analyses. Analysis consisted of recording an aloud reading of a standard passage while a blinded trained speech pathologist counted prolonged voiceless consonants. The patients also completed a satisfaction survey at 1 year. The results demonstrated significant, long-lasting, uniform reduction in breathy breaks in all subjects. The participants all judged their symptoms as greatly improved. Bilateral procedures may be necessary, but should be staged to prevent possible airway compromise. When applied appropriately, posterior cricoarytenoid myoplasty with medialization thyroplasty is a viable tool in the management of refractory abductor laryngeal dystonia. PMID:12731624

  12. Laryngeal reflex responses are not modulated during human voice and respiratory tasks

    PubMed Central

    Henriquez, Victor M; Schulz, Geralyn M; Bielamowicz, Steven; Ludlow, Christy L

    2007-01-01

    The laryngeal adductor response (LAR) is a protective reflex that prevents aspiration and can be elicited either by electrical stimulation of afferents in the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) or by deflection of mechanoreceptors in the laryngeal mucosa. We hypothesized that because this reflex is life-sustaining, laryngeal muscle responses to sensory stimuli would not be suppressed during volitional laryngeal tasks when compared to quiet respiration. Unilateral electrical superior laryngeal nerve stimulation was used to elicit early (R1) and late (R2) responses in the ipsilateral thyroarytenoid muscle in 10 healthy subjects. The baseline levels of muscle activity before stimulation, R1 and R2 response occurrence and the integrals of responses were measured during each task: quiet inspiration, prolonged vowels, humming, forced inhalation and effort closure. We tested whether R1 response integrals during tasks were equal to either: (1) baseline muscle activity during the task added to the response integral at rest; (2) the response integral at rest minus the baseline muscle activity during the task; or (3) the response integral at rest. R1 response occurrence was not altered by task from rest while fewer R2 responses occurred only during effort closure and humming compared to rest. Because the R1 response integrals did not change from rest, task increases in motor neuron firing did not alter the LAR. These findings demonstrate that laryngeal motor neuron responses to sensory inputs are not gated during volitional tasks confirming the robust life-sustaining protective mechanisms provided by this airway reflex. PMID:17962327

  13. Efficacy of Laryngeal Botulinum Toxin Injection: Comparison of Two Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Susan L.; Merati, Albert L.; Blumin, Joel H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives It is hypothesized that there is no difference in the effectiveness of botulinum toxin(BTX) injection between electromyography (EMG) guided and non-EMG guided ‘point-touch’ techniques in treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD). Study Design Retrospective chart review. Methods Patients selected for evaluation underwent sequential treatment by one or both of the senior authors utilizing two different injection techniques with similar BTX dilution & preparation. Data gathered included dose injected, injection effect, presence and duration of breathiness and dysphagia after injection. Statistical analysis was performed used a generalized estimating equations model. Results Four hundred seventeen injections in sixty-four patients were analyzed. There was no difference in the rate of successful injections between the EMG guidance group and the non-EMG guidance group (94.4% and 93.2%, respectively; p = 0.7). Conclusions This unique study demonstrates that efficacy of BTX does not necessarily depend on the method of injection utilized. In experienced hands, excellent clinical results can be achieved with either EMG or non-EMG guided injection techniques. PMID:22024846

  14. Bilateral thyroarytenoid denervation: a new treatment for laryngeal hyperadduction disorders studied in the canine.

    PubMed

    Sercarz, J A; Berke, G S; Ming, Y; Rothschiller, J; Graves, M C

    1992-11-01

    Adductor spasmodic dysphonia is a vocal disorder of uncertain etiology with no satisfactory long-term treatment. Recently, injection of botulinum toxin (Botax) into the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle has been used as an effective temporary treatment. A surgical counterpart to bilateral TA Botox injection is described in this article. Bilateral thyroarytenoid denervation was performed through a window in the thyroid cartilage in seven canines, including four that were studied 3 months after the procedure. No serious complications occurred in the animals, each maintaining full vocal fold abduction and adduction. In all cases, anticipated physiologic changes in laryngeal function were observed, including the inability to generate high subglottic pressures during high levels of laryngeal nerve (RLN) stimulation. In two of the surviving animals, the ansa cervicalis was used to reinnervate the TA muscle, thereby preventing the possibility of reinnervation from the proximal RLN stump while limiting TA atrophy and fibrosis. Bilateral TA denervation represents a hopeful new long-term approach to spasmodic dysphonia treatment. PMID:1437204

  15. Proteomic Changes in Rat Thyroarytenoid Muscle Induced by Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection

    PubMed Central

    Welham, Nathan V.; Marriott, Gerard; Tateya, Ichiro; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection into the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle is a commonly performed medical intervention for adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The mechanism of action of BoNT at the neuromuscular junction is well understood, however, aside from reports focused on myosin heavy chain isoform abundance, there is a paucity of data addressing the effects of therapeutic BoNT injection on the TA muscle proteome. In this study, 12 adult Sprague Dawley rats underwent unilateral TA muscle BoNT serotype A injection followed by tissue harvest at 72 hrs, 7 days, 14 days, and 56 days post-injection. Three additional rats were reserved as controls. Proteomic analysis was performed using 2D SDS-PAGE followed by MALDI-MS. Vocal fold movement was significantly reduced by 72 hrs, with complete return of function by 56 days. Twenty-five protein spots demonstrated significant protein abundance changes following BoNT injection, and were associated with alterations in energy metabolism, muscle contractile function, cellular stress response, transcription, translation, and cell proliferation. A number of protein abundance changes persisted beyond the return of gross physiologic TA function. These findings represent the first report of BoNT induced changes in any skeletal muscle proteome, and reinforce the utility of applying proteomic tools to the study of system-wide biological processes in normal and perturbed TA muscle function. PMID:18442174

  16. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles. PMID:26716007

  17. Bioconcentration and depuration of (14) C-labeled 17α-ethinyl estradiol and 4-nonylphenol in individual organs of the marine bivalve Mytilus edulis L. .

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Karen L; Poynton, Helen C; Duphily, Brian J; Blalock, Bonnie J; Robinson, William E

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), including 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), enter coastal environments primarily in effluents of wastewater treatment facilities and have become ubiquitous in marine surface waters, sediments, and biota. Although EE2 and 4-NP have been detected in marine shellfish, the kinetics of bioconcentration and their tissue distribution have not been thoroughly investigated. The authors performed bioconcentration and depuration experiments in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, with 3.37 nM EE2 (0.999 μg/L) and 454 nM 4-NP (100.138 µg/L). Mussels and seawater were sampled throughout a 38-d exposure and a 35-d depuration period, and 6 tissues were individually assayed. Uptake of EE2 and 4-NP was curvilinear throughout exposure and followed a similar uptake pattern: digestive gland > gill ≥ remaining viscera > gonad > adductor > plasma. Depuration varied, however, with half-lives ranging from 2.7 d (plasma) to 92 d (gill) for EE2 and 15 d (plasma) to 57 d (gill) for 4-NP. An innovative modeling approach, with 3 coupled mathematical models, was developed to differentiate the unique roles of the gill and plasma in distributing the EDCs to internal tissues. Plasma appears pivotal in regulating EDC uptake and depuration within the whole mussel. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:863-873. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26126666

  18. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles. PMID:26716007

  19. Characterization, expression and function analysis of DAX1 gene of scallop ( Chlamys farreri jones and preston 1904) during its gametogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Liu, Jianguo; Huang, Xiaoting; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2014-08-01

    DAX1, a member of nuclear receptor superfamily, has a function in the sex determination and gonadal differentiation of several vertebrate species. However, little information about DAX1 of invertebrates is available. Here we cloned a homolog of scallop ( Chlamys farreri Jones and Preston 1904) dax1, Cf-dax1, and determined its expression characteristics at mRNA and protein levels. The cDNA sequence of Cf-dax1 was 2093 bp in length, including 1404 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 467 amino acids. Unlike those of vertebrates, no conserved LXXLL-related motif was found in the putative DNA binding region of Cf-DAX1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that Cf-dax1 located on the short arm of a pair of subtelocentric chromosomes. Tissue distribution analysis using semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that Cf-dax1 expressed widely in adult scallop tissues, with the highest expression level found in adductor muscle, moderate level in mantle, gill and testis, and low level in kidney, ovary and hepatopancreas. The result of quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the expression of Cf-dax1 was significantly higher ( P<0.05) in testis than in ovary at the same stage, showing a sex-dimorphic expression pattern. Furthermore, immunohistochemical detection found that Cf-DAX1 mainly located in spermatogonia and spermatocytes of testis and in oogonia and oocytes of ovary, implying that DAX1 may involve in gametogenesis of bivalves.

  20. Botulinum toxin assessment, intervention and aftercare for paediatric and adult niche indications including pain: international consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Rawicki, B; Sheean, G; Fung, V S C; Goldsmith, S; Morgan, C; Novak, I

    2010-08-01

    Evidence is emerging for the use of botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) for niche indications including pain independent of spasticity. Pain indications such as chronic nociceptive back pain, piriformis syndrome, chronic myofascial pain, pelvic pain, complex regional pain syndrome, facial pain and neuropathic pain are outlined in this paper. Of these, class I evidence is available for the treatment of chronic nociceptive low back pain, piriformis syndrome, myofascial pain, facial pain, neuropathic pain and plantar fasciitis. Peri-operative use of BoNT-A is emerging, with indications including planning for surgery and facilitating surgery, as well as healing and improving analgesia post-operatively. Evidence is limited, although there are some reports that clinicians are successfully using BoNT-A peri-operatively. There is class I evidence showing pre-operative use of BoNT-A has a beneficial effect on outcomes following adductor-release surgery. The use of BoNT for treatment of tremor, other than neck tremor in the setting of cervical dystonia, including evidence for upper limb tremor, cranial tremor and non-dystonic neck tremor is reviewed. The evidence is variable at this stage, and further study is required to develop definitive recommendations for the clinical utility of BoNT-A for these indications. PMID:20633183

  1. Total hip arthroplasty in paralytic dislocation from poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Rafael; Barrientos, Jesús

    2008-02-01

    This article presents a case of a patient with degenerative hip disease in paralytic dislocation by poliomyelitis. Poliomyelitis is an acute infection disease caused by a group of neurotrophic viruses, which has a special affinity by the anterior horns cells of the spinal cord and for certain motor nuclei of the brain stem. Paralysis is a flaccid type and characteristically paralysis is asymmetrical. It is said that the joints of the affected limb by poliomyelitis are protected from the development of osteoarthritis. Hip dislocation in poliomyelitis is an acquired deformity caused by flaccid paralysis and the resulting muscular imbalance. In young children, when the gluteus maximus and medius muscles are paralyzed and the hip flexors and adductors are of normal strength, eventual luxation of the hip is almost inevitable. Hip osteoarthritis in a limb with poliomyelitis is an unusual entity because these limbs do not support excessive loads. In patients who present with the residual effects of poliomyelitis including degenerative disease and hip dysplastic, surgery is one of the most difficult challenges faced by reconstructive surgeons. In such cases, surgeons should attempt to optimize the component position and choice, surgical approach, and soft tissue tensioning because stability of the prosthesis can be problematic. PMID:19292189

  2. Variability of the Pharyngeal Phase of Swallow in the Cat

    PubMed Central

    Spearman, Daniel G.; Poliacek, Ivan; Rose, Melanie J.; Bolser, Donald C.; Pitts, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective The pharyngeal phase of swallow has been thought to be a stereotypical motor behavior. Study Design This is a prospective, preclinical, hypothesis driven, one group by three-task design. Methods We sought to compare the effects of pharyngeal swabbing, water only, and water plus punctate mechanical stimulation on the spatiotemporal features of the pharyngeal phase of swallow in the cat. Swallow was elicited under these three conditions in six anaesthetized cats. Electromyographic activity was recorded from seven muscles used to evaluate swallow: mylohyoid, geniohyoid, thyrohyoid, thyroarytenoid, thyropharyngeus, cricopharyngeus, and parasternal. Results Pharyngeal swabbing in comparison to the other stimulus conditions, results in decreases in post-swallow cricopharyngeus activity (upper esophageal sphincter); a significant increase in parasternal (schluckatmung; swallow breath) activity; and increases in thyrohyoid (laryngeal elevator), thyroarytenoid (laryngeal adductor) and parasternal muscles burst duration. Pearson correlations were found of moderate strength between 19% of burst duration comparisons and weak to moderate relationships between 29% of burst amplitude comparisons. However, there were no positive significant relationships between phase durations and electromyogram amplitudes between any of the muscles studied during swallow. Conclusions The results support the concept that a stereotypical behavior, such as pharyngeal swallowing in animal models, can be modified by sensory feedback from pharyngeal mucosal mechanoreceptors. Furthermore, differences in swallow phase durations and amplitudes provide evidence that separate regulatory mechanisms exist which regulate spatial and temporal aspects of the behavior. PMID:25171095

  3. Retrodeformation and muscular reconstruction of ornithomimosaurian dinosaur crania.

    PubMed

    Cuff, Andrew R; Rayfield, Emily J

    2015-01-01

    Ornithomimosaur dinosaurs evolved lightweight, edentulous skulls that possessed keratinous rhamphothecae. Understanding the anatomy of these taxa allows for a greater understanding of "ostrich-mimic" dinosaurs and character change during theropod dinosaur evolution. However, taphonomic processes during fossilisation often distort fossil remains. Retrodeformation offers a means by which to recover a hypothesis of the original anatomy of the specimen, and 3D scanning technologies present a way to constrain and document the retrodeformation process. Using computed tomography (CT) scan data, specimen specific retrodeformations were performed on three-dimensionally preserved but taphonomically distorted skulls of the deinocheirid Garudimimus brevipesBarsbold, 1981 and the ornithomimids Struthiomimus altusLambe, 1902 and Ornithomimus edmontonicusSternberg, 1933. This allowed for a reconstruction of the adductor musculature, which was then mapped onto the crania, from which muscle mechanical advantage and bite forces were calculated pre- and post-retrodeformation. The extent of the rhamphotheca was varied in each taxon to represent morphologies found within modern Aves. Well constrained retrodeformation allows for increased confidence in anatomical and functional analysis of fossil specimens and offers an opportunity to more fully understand the soft tissue anatomy of extinct taxa. PMID:26213655

  4. lower limbs kinematic assessment of the effect of a gym and hydrotherapy rehabilitation protocol after knee megaprosthesis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lovecchio, Nicola; Sciumè, Luciana; Zago, Matteo; Panella, Lorenzo; Lopresti, Maurizio; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] To quantitatively assess the effect of a personalized rehabilitation protocol after knee megaprosthesis. [Subject and Methods] The gait patterns of a 33-year-old male patient with knee synovial sarcoma were assessed by a computerized analysis before and after 40 rehabilitation sessions. [Results] The rehabilitation protocol improved the gait pattern. After rehabilitation, hip flexion was nearly symmetric, with normalized affected limb hip flexion, and improved ankle flexion. Ankle in/eversion was asymmetric and did not improve after physiotherapy. Before physiotherapy, the hip flexion on the affected side anticipated the movement but nearly normalized in the follow-up assessment. Hip abduction range of motion increased, with wider movements and good balance. Knee range of motion nearly symmetrized, but maintained an anticipated behavior, without shock absorption at heel-strike. [Conclusion] Instrumental gait analysis allowed us to gain evidence about the training and how to expand rehabilitative interventions to improve efficacy. In particular, we recommend quadriceps and gastrocnemius eccentric contraction training (to improve the shock absorption phase, preventing early failures of the prosthesis); one-leg standing performance (to improve the support phase of the affected limb); adductor strength training (to aid in hip control during the swing phase); and peroneus strength training (to increase ankle joint stabilization). PMID:27134413

  5. Regulation of glycolysis during acclimation of scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis Jay) to anaerobiosis.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, T; Nakao, C; Ohyama, H

    2000-09-01

    Some glycolytic metabolites in the adductor muscle were measured after transfer of scallops from aerobic to anaerobic saltwater for 12 h. The level of octopine increased gradually during the initial 3 h incubation, and thereafter the level increased rapidly up to 12 h. The ATP level also did not show any significant change for the initial 3 h, and then decreased rapidly. The fructose 2,6-biphosphate (Fru 2,6-BP) level increased drastically during the initial 3 h incubation, but thereafter the level did not show any significant change up to 12 h. In the short-term effects of anaerobiosis for 90 min, the level of fructose 6-phosphate (Fru 6-P) increased just after transfer to anaerobiosis, and then its level decreased. In contrast, the fructose 1,6-biphosphate (Fru 1,6-BP) level increased greatly, at the time when both glucose 6-phosphate (Glc 6-P) and Fru 6-P decreased. The Fru 2,6-BP level did not any significant change during the initial 15 min incubation, but thereafter the level increased gradually up to 90 min. Scallop 6-phosphofructo 1-kinase (EC 2.7.1.11) (PFK1) was strongly activated by 1 microM Fru 2,6-BP when 0.2 mM Fru 6-P was used as a substrate, but the activity was not affected at 5 mM Fru 6-P. In view of these results, the regulation mechanism of glycolysis is discussed. PMID:11126751

  6. The neurotrophin receptor p75NTR triggers endothelial cell apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis: implications for diabetes-induced impairment of reparative neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Caporali, Andrea; Pani, Elisabetta; Horrevoets, Anton J. G.; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Sala-Newby, Graciela B.; Meloni, Marco; Cristofaro, Brunella; Graiani, Gallia; Leroyer, Aurelie; Boulanger, Chantal; Herman, Andrew; Spinetti, Gaia; Yoon, Sung Ok; Madeddu, Paolo; Emanueli, Costanza

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes compromises endothelial function and inhibits reparative neovascularization. The neurotrophin receptor p75NTR is scarcely present in healthy endothelial cells (EC), but diabetes induces p75NTR in capillary EC of ischemic limb muscles. Here, we show that forced p75NTR expression impairs survival, proliferation, migration, and adhesion capacities of EC and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and inhibits EC tube formation. In EC, p75NTR depresses the VEGF-A/Akt/eNOS/NO pathway and reduces VEGF-A, ITGB1, BIRC5, PTTG1, and VEZF1 mRNA levels. Moreover, both diabetes and p75NTR transfer down-regulate VEGF-A, ITGB1, and VEZF1 in adductor muscles. Forced p75NTR expression by ischemic limb muscles impairs post-ischemic neovascularization and blood flow recovery in normoglycemic mice. Conversely, p75NTR inhibition in diabetic muscles restores proper post-ischemic neovascularization and prevents apoptosis of muscular capillary EC and bone marrow-resident Sca-1+Lin- progenitor cells. Collectively, our data identify the anti-angiogenic action of p75NTR and suggests the therapeutic potential of p75NTR inhibition to combat diabetes-induced microvascular liabilities. PMID:18566344

  7. Effects of pelvic suspension of beef carcasses on quality and physical traits of five muscles from four gender-age groups.

    PubMed

    Ahnström, Maria Lundesjö; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2012-03-01

    Pelvic and Achilles suspension methods for beef carcasses were compared for four gender-age groups (24month bulls, 34month bulls, heifers, and cows) and five muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. adductor (AD), M. psoas major (PM), and M. gluteus medius (GM)]. Pelvic suspension increased muscle and sarcomere lengths in the SM, LD, GM, and AD muscles. The following effects were significant (p<0.05). Peak force was reduced by pelvic suspension in the LD and GM of bulls-24 and bulls-34, but not heifers and cows. Furthermore, peak forces decreased for the SM after pelvic suspension in bulls-24, bulls-34, and heifers. For the AD, the only decrease in peak force was for bulls-34. Water-holding capacity increased and purge in vacuum bags decreased for pelvic suspension of all muscles except the PM. Although the effects of pelvic suspension varied somewhat between gender-age groups and muscles, this method of hanging carcasses merits industrial consideration because it improves muscle yields, tenderness, and reduces variation within muscles. PMID:22077997

  8. Prey processing in amniotes: biomechanical and behavioral patterns of food reduction.

    PubMed

    Reilly, S M; McBrayer, L D; White, T D

    2001-03-01

    In this paper we examine the biomechanics of prey processing behavior in the amniotes. Whether amniotes swallow prey items whole or swallow highly processed slurries or boluses of food, they share a common biomechanical system where hard surfaces (teeth or beaks) are brought together on articulated jaws by the actions of adductor muscles to grasp and process food. How have amniotes modified this basic system to increase the chewing efficiency of the system? To address this question we first examine the primitive condition for prey processing representative of many of the past and present predatory amniotes. Because herbivory is expected to be related to improved prey processing in the jaws we review patterns of food processing mechanics in past and present herbivores. Herbivory has appeared numerous times in amniotes and several solutions to the task of chewing plant matter have appeared. Birds have abandoned jaw chewing in favor of a new way to chew--with the gut--so we will detour from the jaws to examine the appearance of gut chewing in the archosaurs. We will then fill in the gaps among amniote taxa with a look at some new data on patterns of prey processing behavior and jaw mechanics in lizards. Finally, we examine evolutionary patterns of amniote feeding mechanism and how correlates of chewing relate to the need to increase the efficiency of prey processing in order to facilitate increased metabolic rate and activity. PMID:11246036

  9. Non-Lethal Heat Shock of the Asian Green Mussel, Perna viridis, Promotes Hsp70 Synthesis, Induces Thermotolerance and Protects Against Vibrio Infection.

    PubMed

    Aleng, Nor Afiqah; Sung, Yeong Yik; MacRae, Thomas H; Abd Wahid, Mohd Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Mild heat stress promotes thermotolerance and protection against several different stresses in aquatic animals, consequences correlated with the accumulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). The purpose of this study was to determine if non-lethal heat shock (NLHS) of the Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, an aquatic species of commercial value, promoted the production of Hsp70 and enhanced its resistance to stresses. Initially, the LT50 and LHT for P. viridis were determined to be 42°C and 44°C, respectively, with no heat shock induced death of mussels at 40°C or less. Immunoprobing of western blots revealed augmentation of constitutive (PvHsp70-1) and inducible (PvHsp70-2) Hsp70 in tissue from adductor muscle, foot, gill and mantel of P. viridis exposed to 38°C for 30 min followed by 6 h recovery, NLHS conditions for this organism. Characterization by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that PvHsp70-1 and PvHsp70-2 respectively corresponded most closely to Hsp70 from P. viridis and Mytilus galloprovincialis. Priming of adult mussels with NLHS promoted thermotolerance and increased resistance to V. alginolyticus. The induction of Hsp70 in parallel with enhanced thermotolerance and improved protection against V. alginolyticus, suggests Hsp70 functions in P. viridis as a molecular chaperone and as a stimulator of the immune system. PMID:26288319

  10. Identification of candidate genes for congenital splay leg in piglets by alternative analysis of DNA microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Maak, Steffen; Boettcher, Diana; Tetens, Jens; Wensch-Dorendorf, Monika; Nürnberg, Gerd; Wimmers, Klaus; Swalve, Hermann H.; Thaller, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The congenital splay leg syndrome in piglets is characterized by a temporarily impaired functionality of the hind leg muscles immediately after birth. Etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms for the disease are still not well understood. We compared genome wide gene expression of three hind leg muscles (M. adductores, M. gracilis and M. sartorius) between affected piglets and their healthy littermates with the GeneChip® Porcine Genome Array (Affymetrix) in order to identify candidate genes for the disease. Data analysis with standard algorithms revealed no significant differences between both groups. By application of an alternative approach, we identified 63 transcripts with differences in two muscles and 5 genes differing between the groups in three muscles. The expression of six selected genes (SQSTM1, SSRP1, DDIT4, ENAH, MAF, and PDK4) was investigated with SYBRGreen RT - Real time PCR. The differences obtained with the microarray analysis could be confirmed and demonstrate the validity of the alternative approach to microarray data analysis. Four genes with different expression levels in at least two muscles (SQSTM1, SSRP1, DDIT4, and MAF) are assigned to transcriptional cascades related to cell death and may thus indicate pathways for further investigations on congenital splay leg in piglets. PMID:19421343

  11. Muscles of chondrichthyan paired appendages: comparison with osteichthyans, deconstruction of the fore-hindlimb serial homology dogma, and new insights on the evolution of the vertebrate neck.

    PubMed

    Diogo, R; Ziermann, J M

    2015-03-01

    Here we present the first study comparing all the paired appendages muscles of representatives of each major extant gnathostome group. We address a crucial and enigmatic question in evolutionary and comparative anatomy: Why are the pelvic and pectoral appendages of gnathostomes, and particularly of tetrapods, in general so similar to each other? We argue that an integrative analysis of the new myological data and the information from the literature contradicts the idea that the forelimbs and hindlimbs are serial homologues. The data show that many of the strikingly similar fore- and hindlimb muscles of extant tetrapods evolved independently in each appendage because the ancestors of extant gnathostomes and osteichthyans only had an adductor and an abductor in each fin. Therefore, these data contradict the idea that at least some muscles present in the tetrapod fore- and hindlimbs were already present in some form in the first fishes with pectoral and pelvic appendages, as the result of an ancestral duplication of the paired appendages leading to a true serial homology. The origin of the pectoral girdle was instead likely related to head evolution, as illustrated by the cucullaris of gnathostomes such as chondrichthyans inserting onto both the branchial arches and pectoral girdle. Only later in evolution the cucullaris became differentiated into the levatores arcuum branchialium and protractor pectoralis, which gave rise to the amniote neck muscles trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus. These changes therefore contributed to an evolutionary trend toward a greater anatomical and functional independence of the pectoral girdle from head movements. PMID:25205543

  12. Fiber-type susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage of hindlimb-unloaded rat AL muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijayan, K.; Thompson, J. L.; Norenberg, K. M.; Fitts, R. H.; Riley, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Slow oxidative (SO) fibers of the adductor longus (AL) were predominantly damaged during voluntary reloading of hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats and appeared explainable by preferential SO fiber recruitment. The present study assessed damage after eliminating the variable of voluntary recruitment by tetanically activating all fibers in situ through the motor nerve while applying eccentric (lengthening) or isometric contractions. Muscles were aldehyde fixed and resin embedded, and semithin sections were cut. Sarcomere lesions were quantified in toluidine blue-stained sections. Fibers were typed in serial sections immunostained with antifast myosin and antitotal myosin (which highlights slow fibers). Both isometric and eccentric paradigms caused fatigue. Lesions occurred only in eccentrically contracted control and HU muscles. Fatigue did not cause lesions. HU increased damage because lesioned- fiber percentages within fiber types and lesion sizes were greater than control. Fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG) fibers were predominantly damaged. In no case did damaged SO fibers predominate. Thus, when FOG, SO, and hybrid fibers are actively lengthened in chronically unloaded muscle, FOG fibers are intrinsically more susceptible to damage than SO fibers. Damaged hybrid-fiber proportions ranged between these extremes.

  13. Anatomical distribution of heavy metals in the scallop Pecten maximus.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Y; Gonzalez, A; Blanco, J

    2008-11-01

    This paper studied the anatomical distribution of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), silver (Ag), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the scallop Pecten maximus and the possible implications in terms of shellfish management. Six organs were analysed: mantle, gills, foot, digestive gland, kidney and gonad. On the basis of their anatomical distribution, two groups of metals were able to be distinguished: the first included Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn and Ag; and the second comprised the four other metals studied. The metals in the first group preferentially accumulated in the kidney (except for Pb), with generally much lower concentrations in the other organs. The metals in the second group accumulated mainly in the digestive gland. As and Cu were included in the second group, but they also had particular inter-organ distribution characteristics. Among the edible organs of the scallop only the adductor muscle contained important proportions of one metal, As (which is very likely accumulated as a non-toxic derivative). A selective evisceration of the metal rich non-edible organs may therefore be considered a reliable measure to be taken with a view to reduce the metal content of scallops used for human consumption. This could be especially relevant for Cd, which is accumulated in high concentrations in the digestive gland. PMID:19680841

  14. Longitudinal study of arteriogenesis with swept source optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Kristin M.; Patil, Chetan A.; Nelson, Christopher E.; McCormack, Devin R.; Madonna, Megan C.; Duvall, Craig L.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2014-03-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic disease of the extremities that leads to high rates of myocardial infarction and stroke, increased mortality, and reduced quality of life. PAD is especially prevalent in diabetic patients, and is commonly modeled by hind limb ischemia in mice to study collateral vessel development and test novel therapies. Current techniques used to assess recovery cannot obtain quantitative, physiological data non-invasively. Here, we have applied hyperspectral imaging and swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) to study longitudinal changes in blood oxygenation and vascular morphology, respectively, intravitally in the diabetic mouse hind limb ischemia model. Additionally, recommended ranges for controlling physiological variability in blood oxygenation with respect to respiration rate and body core temperature were determined from a control animal experiment. In the longitudinal study with diabetic mice, hyperspectral imaging data revealed the dynamics of blood oxygenation recovery distally in the ischemic footpad. In diabetic mice, there is an early increase in oxygenation that is not sustained in the long term. Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology obtained from Hessian-filtered speckle variance OCT volumes revealed temporal dynamics in vascular density, total vessel length, and vessel diameter distribution in the adductor muscle of the ischemic limb. The combination of hyperspectral imaging and speckle variance OCT enabled acquisition of novel functional and morphological endpoints from individual animals, and provides a more robust platform for future preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for PAD.

  15. Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D’Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate ‘space-frame’ skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics. PMID:18510503

  16. The mechanical consequences of dynamic frontal plane limb alignment for non-contact ACL injury.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ajit M; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanical consequences of differences in dynamic frontal plane alignment of the support limb and the influence of anticipatory muscle activation at the hip and ankle on reducing the potential for non-contact ACL injury during single-limb landing. A frontal plane, three-link passive dynamic model was used to estimate an ACL non-contact injury threshold. This threshold was defined as the maximum axial force that the knee could sustain before the joint opened 8 degrees either medially or laterally, which was deemed sufficient to cause injury. The limb alignment and hip and ankle muscle contractions were varied to determine their effects on the ACL injury threshold. Valgus or varus alignment reduced the injury threshold compared to neutral alignment, but increasing the anticipatory contraction of hip abduction and adduction muscle groups increased the injury threshold. Increasing anticipatory ankle inversion/eversion muscle contraction had no effect. This study provides a mechanical rationale for the conclusion that a neutral limb alignment (compared to valgus or varus) during landing and increasing hip muscle contraction (abductors/adductors) prior to landing can reduce the possibility of ACL rupture through a valgus or varus opening mechanism. PMID:16321635

  17. lower limbs kinematic assessment of the effect of a gym and hydrotherapy rehabilitation protocol after knee megaprosthesis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lovecchio, Nicola; Sciumè, Luciana; Zago, Matteo; Panella, Lorenzo; Lopresti, Maurizio; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To quantitatively assess the effect of a personalized rehabilitation protocol after knee megaprosthesis. [Subject and Methods] The gait patterns of a 33-year-old male patient with knee synovial sarcoma were assessed by a computerized analysis before and after 40 rehabilitation sessions. [Results] The rehabilitation protocol improved the gait pattern. After rehabilitation, hip flexion was nearly symmetric, with normalized affected limb hip flexion, and improved ankle flexion. Ankle in/eversion was asymmetric and did not improve after physiotherapy. Before physiotherapy, the hip flexion on the affected side anticipated the movement but nearly normalized in the follow-up assessment. Hip abduction range of motion increased, with wider movements and good balance. Knee range of motion nearly symmetrized, but maintained an anticipated behavior, without shock absorption at heel-strike. [Conclusion] Instrumental gait analysis allowed us to gain evidence about the training and how to expand rehabilitative interventions to improve efficacy. In particular, we recommend quadriceps and gastrocnemius eccentric contraction training (to improve the shock absorption phase, preventing early failures of the prosthesis); one-leg standing performance (to improve the support phase of the affected limb); adductor strength training (to aid in hip control during the swing phase); and peroneus strength training (to increase ankle joint stabilization). PMID:27134413

  18. Coronary arteries angiogenesis in ischemic myocardium: biocompatibility and biodegradability of various hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaodong; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi; Takamori, Atsushi

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and biodegradability of various hydrogels and choose suitable hydrogels for the coronary arteries angiogenesis in ischemic myocardium, we synthesized six kinds of hyaluronan hydrogels, fibrin hydrogel, poly(vinyl alcohol)-chitosan hydrogel, and obtained elastin hydrogels. We examined their degradation rates and cytotoxicity in vitro. Then, hydrogels were implanted into rat adductor muscles for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Hydrogels and surrounding tissues were resected, followed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining, and immunohistochemical staining for measurements of degradation, immune response, and angiogenesis. 2-Iminothiolane grafted hyaluronan hydrogel and periodate oxidated hyaluronan hydrogel presented rapid degradation rates, low quantity of inflammation-mediating cells (12 +/- 3 and 12 +/- 4 per 2.5 x 10(-3) mm(2), respectively, at week 2), thin fibrous capsules (scores were 3.8 +/- 0.1 and 4.0 +/- 0.3 per 0.33 mm(2), respectively, at week 2) with dense blood vessels in the areas surrounding the implanted hydrogels. 2-Iminothiolane grafted hyaluronan and periodate oxidated hyaluronan hydrogels with appropriate degradation rates and low immune responses were suitable for coronary arteries angiogenesis in ischemic myocardium. PMID:19681839

  19. Ocean acidification increases cadmium accumulation in marine bivalves: a potential threat to seafood safety

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Zhao, Xinguo; Han, Yu; Che, Zhumei; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-01

    To date, the effects of ocean acidification on toxic metals accumulation and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown in marine bivalve species. In the present study, the effects of the realistic future ocean pCO2 levels on the cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills, mantle and adductor muscles of three bivalve species, Mytilus edulis, Tegillarca granosa, and Meretrix meretrix, were investigated. The results obtained suggested that all species tested accumulated significantly higher Cd (p < 0.05) in the CO2 acidified seawater during the 30 days experiment and the health risk of Cd (based on the estimated target hazard quotients, THQ) via consumption of M. meretrix at pH 7.8 and 7.4 significantly increased 1.21 and 1.32 times respectively, suggesting a potential threat to seafood safety. The ocean acidification-induced increase in Cd accumulation may have occurred due to (i) the ocean acidification increased the concentration of Cd and the Cd2+/Ca2+ in the seawater, which in turn increased the Cd influx through Ca channel; (ii) the acidified seawater may have brought about epithelia damage, resulting in easier Cd penetration; and (iii) ocean acidification hampered Cd exclusion. PMID:26795597

  20. Hoffmann's syndrome with unusually long duration: Report on clinical, laboratory and muscle imaging findings in two cases.

    PubMed

    Nalini, Atchayaram; Govindaraju, C; Kalra, Pramila; Kadukar, Prashanth

    2014-04-01

    Two adult men presented with the rare Hoffmann's syndrome (HS). Case 1: A 35-year-old male patient had progressive stiffness of lower limbs of 13 years and generalized muscle hypertrophy and myalgia of 3 years duration. Had periorbital edema, dry skin, generalized muscle hypertrophy and spastic dysarthria with hoarseness. Muscle power was normal. Jaw jerk and deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated. Case 2: A 24-year-old male patient presented with muscle hypertrophy from childhood, slowness in motor activities and hearing impairment. For 6 months, he had severe muscle pains, cramps and further increase in hypertrophy. He had yellow tinged, dry skin, hoarseness of voice, gross muscle hypertrophy and minimal weakness. Both had markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels and high thyroid stimulating hormone, low free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels. Levothyroxine treatment demonstrated remarkable reduction in muscle bulk at 2 months in both and no symptoms at 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of lower limbs in both cases revealed almost identical features with involvement of the muscles of posterior and adductor compartment of thighs and posterior and lateral compartments of the legs. Differential diagnosis of long duration muscle pseudohypertrophy and elevated CK levels should include HS. PMID:25024579

  1. Comparison of lower limb muscle activation with ballet movements (releve and demi-plie) and general movements (heel rise and squat) in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Joong-Hwi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to demonstrate therapeutic grounds for rehabilitation exercise approach by comparing and analyzing muscular activities of Ballet movements: the releve movement (RM) and the demi-plie movement (DM). [Methods] Four types of movements such as RM vs. heel rise (HM) and DM vs. squat movement (SM) were randomized and applied in 30 healthy male and female individuals while measuring 10-s lower limb muscular activities (gluteus maximus [GMa], gluteus medius [GMe], rectus femoris [RF], adductor longus [AL], medial gastrocnemius [MG], and lateral gastrocnemius [LG]) by using surface electromyography (EMG). [Results] Significant differences were found in GMa, GMe, AL and MG activities for DM and in all of the six muscles for RM, in particular when the two groups were compared (RM vs HM and DM vs SM). [Conclusion] The RM and DM have a greater effect on lower limb muscular force activities compared to HM and SM and could be recommended as clinical therapeutic exercises for lower limb muscle enhancement. PMID:26957762

  2. The role of the zygomatic arch in the statics of the skull and its adaptive shape.

    PubMed

    Witzel, U; Preuschoft, H; Sick, H

    2004-01-01

    The zygomatic arch of mammals is usually considered a phylogenetic relic of the fenestrations of the skull roof which may be observed in morphological sequences of primitive vertebrate skulls. If this concept is correct, the element is comparable (though not homologous) to the jugal arches of diapsid reptiles. Two major questions then remain unanswered: why different elements are maintained in reptiles and mammals during evolution, and why the arches are maintained as relics of ancestral forms. It is tempting to respond to the latter question with a very simple answer, namely that the elements function in order to sustain mechanical stresses. In this paper, we raise the questions which quality of stresses occurs in a primate skull within the zygomatic arches and what relationship these stresses hold to the morphology of these bony elements. An answer has been sought by means of finite element stress analysis. We found that the zygomatic arch in primate skulls represents a structure which carries, under all biologically relevant conditions, either compressive or tensile stresses. In a very simple model of the human skull under bite forces, a strip of stresses occurs lateral to the orbits, which seems roughly comparable to the zygomatic arch. Once such a structure exists and is used as an insertion of adductor muscles, it will be exposed to bending stress in side view and in frontal view. Morphological details of the zygomatic arch (curvature, profile, suture) are well suited to sustain the evoked stresses by a minimum of material. PMID:15316151

  3. Selection of optimal muscle set for 16-channel standing neuroprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gartman, Steven J.; Audu, Musa L.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Triolo, Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    The Case Western Reserve University/Department of Veterans Affairs 8-channel lower-limb neuroprosthesis can restore standing to selected individuals with paraplegia by application of functional electrical stimulation. The second generation of this system will include 16 channels of stimulation and a closed-loop control scheme to provide automatic postural corrections. This study used a musculoskeletal model of the legs and trunk to determine which muscles to target with the new system in order to maximize the range of postures that can be statically maintained, which should increase the system’s ability to provide adequate support to maintain standing when the user’s posture moves away from a neutral stance, either by an external disturbance or a volitional change in posture by the user. The results show that the prime muscle targets should be the medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, semimembranosus, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, adductor magnus, and erector spinae. This set of 16 muscles supports 42 percent of the standing postures that are attainable by the nondisabled model. Coactivation of the lateral gastrocnemius and peroneus longus with the medial gastrocnemius and of the peroneus tertius with the tibialis anterior increased the percentage of feasible postures to 71 percent. PMID:16847793

  4. Effect of isoflurane and sevoflurane on the magnitude and time course of neuromuscular block produced by vecuronium, pancuronium and atracurium.

    PubMed

    Vanlinthout, L E; Booij, L H; van Egmond, J; Robertson, E N

    1996-03-01

    We have compared the ability of equipotent concentrations of isoflurane and sevoflurane to enhance the effect of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs. Ninety ASA I and II patients of both sexes, aged 18-50 yr, were stratified into three blocker groups (Vec, Pan and Atr), to undergo neuromuscular block with vecuronium (n = 30), pancuronium (n = 30) or atracurium (n = 30), respectively. Within each group, patients were allocated randomly to one of three anaesthetic subgroups to undergo maintenance of anaesthesia with: (1) alfentanil-nitrous oxide-oxygen (n = 10); (2) alfentanil-nitrous oxide-oxygen-isoflurane (n = 10); or (3) alfentanil-nitrous oxide-oxygen-sevoflurane (n = 10) anaesthesia. During maintenance of anaesthesia, end-tidal concentrations of isoflurane, sevoflurane and nitrous oxide were 0.95, 1.70 and 70%, respectively. Both the evoked integrated electromyogram and mechanomyogram of the adductor pollicis brevis muscle were measured simultaneously. In the Vec and Pan groups, a total dose of 40 micrograms kg-1 of vecuronium or pancuronium, respectively, was given, and in the Atr group a total dose of atracurium 100 micrograms kg-1. Each blocker was given in four equal doses and administered cumulatively. We showed that 0.95% isoflurane and 1.70% sevoflurane (corresponding to 0.8 MAC of each inhalation anaesthetic, omitting the MAC contribution of nitrous oxide) augmented and prolonged the neuromuscular block produced by vecuronium, pancuronium and atracurium to a similar degree. PMID:8785139

  5. Factors affecting magnitude and time course of neuromuscular block produced by suxamethonium.

    PubMed

    Vanlinthout, L E; van Egmond, J; de Boo, T; Lerou, J G; Wevers, R A; Booij, L H

    1992-07-01

    This study was designed to identify factors that significantly alter the magnitude and duration of suxamethonium-induced neuromuscular block in patients with an apparently normal genotype for pseudocholinesterase. One hundred and fifty-six adults (ages 18-65 yr) were allocated to 13 subgroups. Patients in each subgroup received suxamethonium 50-2000 micrograms kg-1. The mechanographic response of the adductor pollicis brevis muscle to ulnar nerve stimulation was recorded. The ED50 was found to be 167 micrograms kg-1, ED90 was 316 micrograms kg-1 and ED95 was 392 micrograms kg-1. The duration of action (delta t) was in agreement with earlier published results. The magnitude of block was dose-related and decreased with increasing onset time (ton) and pseudocholinesterase activity (PChA). Neither age nor gender affected the degree of suxamethonium-induced block. Delta t was dose-related, decreased with increasing PChA, and was shorter for women. Age and ton had no effect on delta t. PMID:1637599

  6. Hoffmann's syndrome with unusually long duration: Report on clinical, laboratory and muscle imaging findings in two cases

    PubMed Central

    Nalini, Atchayaram; Govindaraju, C.; Kalra, Pramila; Kadukar, Prashanth

    2014-01-01

    Two adult men presented with the rare Hoffmann's syndrome (HS). Case 1: A 35-year-old male patient had progressive stiffness of lower limbs of 13 years and generalized muscle hypertrophy and myalgia of 3 years duration. Had periorbital edema, dry skin, generalized muscle hypertrophy and spastic dysarthria with hoarseness. Muscle power was normal. Jaw jerk and deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated. Case 2: A 24-year-old male patient presented with muscle hypertrophy from childhood, slowness in motor activities and hearing impairment. For 6 months, he had severe muscle pains, cramps and further increase in hypertrophy. He had yellow tinged, dry skin, hoarseness of voice, gross muscle hypertrophy and minimal weakness. Both had markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels and high thyroid stimulating hormone, low free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels. Levothyroxine treatment demonstrated remarkable reduction in muscle bulk at 2 months in both and no symptoms at 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of lower limbs in both cases revealed almost identical features with involvement of the muscles of posterior and adductor compartment of thighs and posterior and lateral compartments of the legs. Differential diagnosis of long duration muscle pseudohypertrophy and elevated CK levels should include HS. PMID:25024579

  7. Experimental validation of environmental controls on the δ13C of Arctica islandica (ocean quahog) shell carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirne, Erin C.; Wanamaker, Alan D.; Feindel, Scott C.

    2012-05-01

    The marine bivalve species, Arctica islandica, was reared under experimental conditions for 29 weeks in the Gulf of Maine in order to determine the relationship between the carbon isotope composition of shell carbonate (δ13CS) and ambient seawater dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC), as well as to approximate the metabolic contribution (CM) to shell material. Three experimental environments were compared: two flow-through tanks (one at ambient seawater conditions, one with a supplemental food source) and an in situ cage. Each environment contained 50 juveniles and 30 adults. Both juvenile (2-3 years) and adult (19-64 years) specimens displayed average percent CM of less than or equal to 10% when using three different proxies of respired carbon: digestive gland, adductor muscle and sediment. Hence, the primary control on δ13CS values is ambient DIC. The relationship between δ13CDIC and δ13CS for 114 individuals used in the study was: δ13C=δ13C-1.0‰(±0.3‰) No ontogenetic effect on δ13CS was observed, and growth rates did not generally impact δ13CS values. Based on the results of this study, shell material derived from the long-lived ocean quahog (A. islandica) constitutes a viable proxy for paleo-DIC from the extratropical Atlantic Ocean.

  8. Review of spaceflight and hindlimb suspension unloading induced sarcomere damage and repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Thompson, J. L.; Krippendorf, B. B.; Slocum, G. R.

    1995-01-01

    Hindlimb suspension unloading (HSU) and spaceflight microgravity induce atrophy of the slow adductor longus muscle fibers which, following reloading, exhibit eccentric contraction (EC)-like lesions (abnormal widening of sarcomeres with A band disruption and excessively wavy, extracted Z lines). These lesions are similar morphologically to those produced in normal muscles after strenuous eccentric exercise. It appears that atrophic muscles exhibit increased susceptibility to eccentric damage because lesions are produced during nonstressful voluntary movements upon return to weightbearing. The EC-like lesions are absent in the unweighted conditions, but appear in HSU rats 15-60 minutes after reloading and in space-flown rates about 4 hrs after landing. By 12 hours, many EC-like lesioned sarcomeres are fully covered by longitudinal patches of Z line-like material which increases in density by 48 hours, producing the so-called "Z line streaming" morphology. In this case, Z line streaming is indicative of rapid repair of damaged sarcomeres rather than the onset of sarcomere breakdown. Immunoelectron microscopy is necessary to determine the composition of this dense material. By 9 days of reloading at 1 gravity, sarcomeres have regained normal structure, except for very rare persistence of faint Z patches. The morphological data indicate that Z patches serve at least two functions: 1) to permit contractile force to be transmitted across the damaged sarcomeres and 2) to provide a scaffold upon which sarcomeres are reconstructed in an active functional muscle.

  9. Residual force enhancement following shortening is speed-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Rafael; Power, Geoffrey A.; Mende, Esther; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Herzog, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The steady-state isometric force following active muscle shortening or lengthening is smaller (force depression; FD) or greater (residual force enhancement; RFE) than a purely isometric contraction at the corresponding length. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not explained within the context of the cross-bridge theory and are rarely studied in concert. Previous studies have shown RFE to be speed-independent. In the present study, we investigated if RFE preceded by active shortening is time-dependent by electrically evoking RFE in the human adductor pollicis muscle. The results shown that a slow stretch following FD fully re-established RFE compared to higher speeds of stretch. The mechanism(s) responsible for the recovery of RFE following a preceding shortening contraction (FD) might be associated with the recovery of cross-bridge based force and/or the re-engagement of a passive structural element (titin). Voluntary interaction with one’s environment involves highly coordinated shortening and lengthening muscle contractions. Therefore comprehending these history-dependent muscle properties in the context of movement control is paramount in understanding the behavior of in vivo motor control. PMID:26869508

  10. Changes in motor cortical excitability during human muscle fatigue.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J L; Butler, J E; Allen, G M; Gandevia, S C

    1996-01-01

    1. The excitability of the motor cortex was investigated during fatiguing con of the elbow flexors in human subjects. During sustained contractions at 30 and 1 voluntary force (MVC), the short-latency electromyographic responses (EMG) evoke brachii and brachioradialis by transcranial magnetic stimulation increased in si EMG in the elbow flexors following the evoked muscle potential (silent period), duration during a sustained MVC but not during 30% MVCs nor during a sustained M muscle (adductor pollicis). 2. When the blood supply to brachioradialis was blocked with sphygmomanometer cuff sustained MVC, the changes in EMG responses to transcranial stimulation rapidly control values, This suggests that changes in these responses during fatigue wer small-diameter muscle afferents. 3. Tendon vibration during sustained MVCs indicated that the changes in the resp cortial stimulation were not mediated by reduced muscle spindle inputs. 4. Muscle action potentials evoked in brachioradialis by electrical stimulation cervicomedullary junction did not increase in size during sustained MVCs. Thus, cortically evoked responses during sustained MVCs reflects a change in cortical Although the silent period following cervicomedullary stimulation lengthened, it substantially shorter than the cortically evoked silent period. 5. The altered EMG responses to transcranial stimulation during fatigue suggest exitation and increased inhibition in the motor cortex. As these changes were un manipulation of afferent input they presumably result from intrinsic cortical pr altered voluntary drive to the motor cortex. Images Figure 1 PMID:8821148

  11. Sexual dimorphism and feeding ecology of Diamond-backed Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Underwood, Elizabeth B.; Bowers, Sarah; Guzy, Jacquelyn C.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Taylor, Carole A.; Gibbons, J. Whitfield; Dorcas, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Natural and sexual selection are frequently invoked as causes of sexual size dimorphism in animals. Many species of turtles, including the Diamond-backed Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), exhibit sexual dimorphism in body size, possibly enabling the sexes to exploit different resources and reduce intraspecific competition. Female terrapins not only have larger body sizes but also disproportionately larger skulls and jaws relative to males. To better understand the relationship between skull morphology and terrapin feeding ecology, we measured the in-lever to out-lever ratios of 27 male and 33 female terrapin jaws to evaluate biomechanics of the trophic apparatus. In addition, we measured prey handling times by feeding Fiddler Crabs (Uca pugnax), a natural prey item, to 24 terrapins in the laboratory. Our results indicate that although females have disproportionately larger heads, they have similar in:out lever ratios to males, suggesting that differences in adductor muscle mass are more important in determining bite force than jaw in:out lever ratios. Females also had considerably reduced prey handling times. Understanding the factors affecting terrapin feeding ecology can illuminate the potential roles male and female terrapins play as top-down predators that regulate grazing of Periwinkle Snails (Littorina irrorata) on Cord Grass (Spartina alterniflora).

  12. Functional anatomy and feeding biomechanics of a giant Upper Jurassic pliosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from Weymouth Bay, Dorset, UK

    PubMed Central

    Foffa, Davide; Cuff, Andrew R; Sassoon, Judyth; Rayfield, Emily J; Mavrogordato, Mark N; Benton, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Pliosaurs were among the largest predators in Mesozoic seas, and yet their functional anatomy and feeding biomechanics are poorly understood. A new, well-preserved pliosaur from the Kimmeridgian of Weymouth Bay (UK) revealed cranial adaptations related to feeding. Digital modelling of computed tomography scans allowed reconstruction of missing, distorted regions of the skull and of the adductor musculature, which indicated high bite forces. Size-corrected beam theory modelling showed that the snout was poorly optimised against bending and torsional stresses compared with other aquatic and terrestrial predators, suggesting that pliosaurs did not twist or shake their prey during feeding and that seizing was better performed with post-symphyseal bites. Finite element analysis identified biting-induced stress patterns in both the rostrum and lower jaws, highlighting weak areas in the rostral maxillary-premaxillary contact and the caudal mandibular symphysis. A comparatively weak skull coupled with musculature that was able to produce high forces, is explained as a trade-off between agility, hydrodynamics and strength. In the Kimmeridgian ecosystem, we conclude that Late Jurassic pliosaurs were generalist predators at the top of the food chain, able to prey on reptiles and fishes up to half their own length. PMID:24925465

  13. Upper Extremity Muscle Volumes and Functional Strength After Resistance Training in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E.; Eggebeen, Joel D.; Simpson, W. Greg; Miller, Michael E.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p < .01 for all exercises). Compared with controls, randomization to RT led to greater functional pulling strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions. PMID:22952203

  14. Effect of anesthesia on glucose production and utilization in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Penicaud, L.; Ferre, P.; Kande, J.; Leturque, A.; Issad, T.; Girard, J.

    1987-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of pentobarbital anesthesia (50 mg/kg ip) on glucose kinetics and individual tissue glucose utilization in vivo, in chronically catheterized rats. Glucose turnover studies were carried out using (3-/sup 3/H) glucose as tracer. A transient hyperglycemia and an increased glucose production were observed 3 min after induction of anesthesia. However, 40 min after induction of anesthesia, glycemia returned to the level observed in awake animals, whereas glucose turnover was decreased by 30% as compared with unanesthetized rats. These results are discussed with regard to the variations observed in plasma insulin, glucagon, and catecholamine levels. Glucose utilization by individual tissues was studied by the 2-(1-/sup 3/H) deoxyglucose technique. A four- to fivefold decrease in glucose utilization was observed in postural muscles (soleus and adductor longus), while in other nonpostural muscles (epitrochlearis, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and diaphragm) and other tissues (white and brown adipose tissues) anesthesia did not modify the rate of glucose utilization. A decrease in glucose utilization was also observed in the brain.

  15. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury. PMID:25290103

  16. Mechanics of biting in great white and sandtiger sharks.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, T L; Clausen, P; Huber, D R; McHenry, C R; Peddemors, V; Wroe, S

    2011-02-01

    Although a strong correlation between jaw mechanics and prey selection has been demonstrated in bony fishes (Osteichthyes), how jaw mechanics influence feeding performance in cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) remains unknown. Hence, tooth shape has been regarded as a primary predictor of feeding behavior in sharks. Here we apply Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to examine form and function in the jaws of two threatened shark species, the great white (Carcharodon carcharias) and the sandtiger (Carcharias taurus). These species possess characteristic tooth shapes believed to reflect dietary preferences. We show that the jaws of sandtigers and great whites are adapted for rapid closure and generation of maximum bite force, respectively, and that these functional differences are consistent with diet and dentition. Our results suggest that in both taxa, insertion of jaw adductor muscles on a central tendon functions to straighten and sustain muscle fibers to nearly orthogonal insertion angles as the mouth opens. We argue that this jaw muscle arrangement allows high bite forces to be maintained across a wider range of gape angles than observed in mammalian models. Finally, our data suggest that the jaws of sub-adult great whites are mechanically vulnerable when handling large prey. In addition to ontogenetic changes in dentition, further mineralization of the jaws may be required to effectively feed on marine mammals. Our study is the first comparative FEA of the jaws for any fish species. Results highlight the potential of FEA for testing previously intractable questions regarding feeding mechanisms in sharks and other vertebrates. PMID:21129747

  17. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte

    2012-03-01

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) are a valuable resource for commercial shellfish production and may also have uses as a tool in habitat improvement, because mussel beds can increase habitat diversity and complexity. A prerequisite for both commercial mussel production and habitat improvement is the availability of seed mussels collected with minimum impact on the benthic ecosystem. To examine whether mussels collected in suspended cultures can be used for bottom culture production and as tool in habitat improvement, the differences in predatory defence responses between suspended and bottom mussels exposed to the predatory shore crab ( Carcinus maenas L.) were tested in laboratory experiments and in the field. Predatory defence responses (byssal attachment and aggregation) and morphological traits were tested in laboratory, while growth and mortality were examined in field experiments. Suspended mussels had an active response in relation to the predator by developing a significantly firmer attachment to the substrate and a closer aggregated structure. Bottom mussels had a passive strategy by having a thicker shell and larger relative size of the adductor muscle. In a field experiment mussels originated from suspended cultures had a higher length increment and lower mortality when compared to bottom mussels. It is concluded that suspended mussels potentially are an alternative resource to bottom culture and can be used in habitat improvement of mussel beds, but that the use of suspended mussels has to be tested further in large-scale field experiments.

  18. Rerouting extensor pollicis longus tendon transfer.

    PubMed

    Colantoni Woodside, Julie; Bindra, Randip R

    2015-04-01

    Following radial nerve palsy, loss of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL), abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons results in loss of thumb extension and radial abduction. Multiple tendon transfers are described to address the loss of thumb extension following radial palsy utilizing the palmaris longus or flexor digitorum sublimis transferred to the EPL tendon. Owing to its ulnar vector of pull, the EPL tendon is a secondary adductor of the thumb, and in order to mitigate the tendency for thumb adduction, the EPL tendon is divided at the wrist and brought subcutaneously to the radial side of the wrist for repair to the donor tendon to improve the line of pull for the donor tendon. We describe the use of a technique to reroute the EPL tendon through the first compartment in a retrograde fashion prior to repair with the donor tendon on the radial side of the wrist. The use of the first dorsal compartment provides a pulley to maintain the position of the transfer and to prevent potential bowstringing of the tendon as wrist flexion and thumb extension are attempted. because the repair is performed proximal to the extensor retinaculum, the donor tendon length is not compromised. Because the tendon is redirected through the first dorsal compartment and inserts into the distal phalanx, a single transfer attempts to restores both thumb extension and radial abduction. PMID:25746145

  19. Unique muscularity in cyclists' thigh and trunk: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ema, R; Wakahara, T; Yanaka, T; Kanehisa, H; Kawakami, Y

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the influence of regular training in competitive cycling on individual muscle volume of the thigh and psoas major cross-sectionally and longitudinally. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of the trunk and right thigh were obtained from eight experienced varsity male cyclists (experience: > 4 years) and 10 untrained men (experiment 1), and from 12 (10 males, two females) varsity cyclists before and after competitive cycling training for 6 months (experiment 2). From the MR images, the volumes of each of the quadriceps femoris and hamstrings, total adductors, gracilis, sartorius, and psoas major were determined. The volumes of the monoarticular thigh muscles, semitendinosus, and psoas major muscles were significantly greater in the experienced cyclists than in the untrained men (experiment 1), and increased significantly after the competitive training for 6 months (experiment 2). In contrast, the volumes of the other biarticular thigh muscles were similar among the experienced cyclists and untrained men (experiment 1), and did not change by competitive cycling training (experiment 2). The results indicate that competitive cycling training induces muscle-specific hypertrophy of the synergistic muscles, especially between the monoarticular and biarticular muscles, leading to quantitative profiles of the musculature in experienced cyclists. PMID:26148051

  20. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  1. Anatomic considerations in botulinum toxin type A therapy for spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, P F; Gates, G A; Esselman, G; Song, F; Vannier, M W; Kuo, M

    1994-06-01

    Chemodenervation by injection of botulinum toxin type A into the vocal fold(s) has become the preferred treatment for patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Injection may be done either perorally or transcutaneously; each method has its advocates and advantages. The authors have used the transcutaneous transcricothyroid membrane route exclusively with satisfactory results in more than 50 patients. Temporary breathliness and aspiration are common. The preferred injection site should be as close as possible to the motor end plates of the affected muscle. The thyroarytenoid muscle end plates are distributed throughout the muscle, whereas in the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle they are located in band in the center of the muscle. The transcutaneous injection site is below and posterior to the midpoint of the vibrating vocal fold as visualized by indirect laryngoscopy. The proximity of this site to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle suggests that postinjection breathiness and aspiration may be related to spread of botulinum toxin type A to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle. However, it is likely that thyroarytenoid muscle paresis is mainly responsible for this side effect and that the rapid clearing of the breathy dysphonia in the face of prolonged relief of spasmodic dysphonia symptoms suggests the action of an adaptive neural response, such as axonal sprouting. Further research of this subject is warranted. PMID:8196438

  2. Accumulation, Biotransformation, Histopathology and Paralysis in the Pacific Calico Scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the Paralyzing Toxins of the Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo-Lozano, Amada Y.; Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Contreras, Gerardo; Alonso-Rodriguez, Rosalba

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of algal cells was measured in closed systems. Histopathological preparations were microscopically analyzed. Paralysis was observed and the time of recovery recorded. Accumulation and possible biotransformation of toxins were measured by HPLC analysis. Feeding activity in treated scallops showed that scallops produced pseudofeces, ingestion rates decreased at 8 h; approximately 60% of the scallops were paralyzed and melanin production and hemocyte aggregation were observed in several tissues at 15 h. HPLC analysis showed that the only toxins present in the dinoflagellates and scallops were the N-sulfo-carbamoyl toxins (C1, C2); after hydrolysis, the carbamate toxins (epimers GTX2/3) were present. C1 and C2 toxins were most common in the mantle, followed by the digestive gland and stomach-complex, adductor muscle, kidney and rectum group, and finally, gills. Toxin profiles in scallop tissue were similar to the dinoflagellate; biotransformations were not present in the scallops in this short-term feeding experiment. PMID:22822356

  3. Influence of Asymmetric Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Stimulation on Vibration, Acoustics, and Aerodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Neubauer, Juergen; Sofer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Evaluate the influence of asymmetric recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) stimulation on the vibratory phase, acoustics and aerodynamics of phonation. Study Design Basic science study using an in vivo canine model. Methods The RLNs were symmetrically and asymmetrically stimulated over eight graded levels to test a range of vocal fold activation conditions from subtle paresis to paralysis. Vibratory phase, fundamental frequency (F0), subglottal pressure, and airflow were noted at phonation onset. The evaluations were repeated for three levels of symmetric superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) stimulation. Results Asymmetric laryngeal adductor activation from asymmetric left-right RLN stimulation led to a consistent pattern of vibratory phase asymmetry, with the more activated vocal fold leading in the opening phase of the glottal cycle and in mucosal wave amplitude. Vibratory amplitude asymmetry was also observed, with more lateral excursion of the glottis of the less activated side. Onset fundamental frequency was higher with asymmetric activation because the two RLNs were synergistic in decreasing F0, glottal width, and strain. Phonation onset pressure increased and airflow decreased with symmetric RLN activation. Conclusion Asymmetric laryngeal activation from RLN paresis and paralysis has consistent effects on vocal fold vibration, acoustics, and aerodynamics. This information may be useful in diagnosis and management of vocal fold paresis. PMID:24913182

  4. Experiment K-6-09. Morphological and biochemical investigation of microgravity-induced nerve and muscle breakdown. Part 1: Investigation of nerve and muscle breakdown during spaceflight; Part 2: Biochemical analysis of EDL and PLT muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J.; Sedlak, F.; Slocum, G.; Oganov, V.

    1990-01-01

    The present findings on rat hindlimb muscles suggest that skeletal muscle weakness induced by prolonged spaceflight can result from a combination of muscle fiber atrophy, muscle fiber segmental necrosis, degeneration of motor nerve terminals and destruction of microcirculatory vessels. Damage was confined to the red adductor longus (AL) and soleus muscles. The midbelly region of the AL muscle had more segmental necrosis and edema than the ends. Macrophages and neutrophils were the major mononucleated cells infiltrating and phagocytosing the cellular debris. Toluidine blue-positive mast cells were significantly decreased in Flight AL muscles compared to controls; this indicated that degranulation of mast cells contributed to tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils may have promoted myofilament degradation. Overall, mitochondria content and SDH activity were normal, except for a decrease in the subsarcolemmal region. The myofibrillar ATPase activity shifted toward the fast type in the Flight AL muscles. Some of the pathological changes may have occurred or been exacerbated during the 2 day postflight period of readaptation to terrestrial gravity. While simple atrophy should be reversible by exercise, restoration of pathological changes depends upon complex processes of regeneration by stem cells. Initial signs of muscle and nerve fiber regeneration were detected. Even though regeneration proceeds on Earth, the space environment may inhibit repair and cause progressive irreversible deterioration during long term missions. Muscles obtained from Flight rats sacrificed immediately (within a few hours) after landing are needed to distinguish inflight changes from postflight readaptation.

  5. Ocean acidification increases cadmium accumulation in marine bivalves: a potential threat to seafood safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Zhao, Xinguo; Han, Yu; Che, Zhumei; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-01

    To date, the effects of ocean acidification on toxic metals accumulation and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown in marine bivalve species. In the present study, the effects of the realistic future ocean pCO2 levels on the cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills, mantle and adductor muscles of three bivalve species, Mytilus edulis, Tegillarca granosa, and Meretrix meretrix, were investigated. The results obtained suggested that all species tested accumulated significantly higher Cd (p < 0.05) in the CO2 acidified seawater during the 30 days experiment and the health risk of Cd (based on the estimated target hazard quotients, THQ) via consumption of M. meretrix at pH 7.8 and 7.4 significantly increased 1.21 and 1.32 times respectively, suggesting a potential threat to seafood safety. The ocean acidification-induced increase in Cd accumulation may have occurred due to (i) the ocean acidification increased the concentration of Cd and the Cd2+/Ca2+ in the seawater, which in turn increased the Cd influx through Ca channel; (ii) the acidified seawater may have brought about epithelia damage, resulting in easier Cd penetration; and (iii) ocean acidification hampered Cd exclusion.

  6. In situ assessment of genotoxicity using caged freshwater mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Black, M.C.; Westerfield, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years a decline in mussel populations has been documented in many areas, particularly in contaminated environments. Mussels are particularly vulnerable to exposure to xenobiotics in sediment and/or water because of their modes of feeding and respiration and close association with sediments. Because of this potential for exposure, their apparent sensitivity to xenobiotics, and their ease in collection and handling, mussels are an excellent species for in situ biomonitoring. Recently the authors have adapted an electrophoretic assay for detecting DNA strand breakage in freshwater mussels. Using this assay DNA damage was quantified in selected tissues in two mussel species, Quadrula quadrula and Anodonta grandis, following subchronic laboratory exposures to lead and benzo[a]pyrene. Current experiments involve exposing mussels in situ in polyethylene cages and exposure racks in several environments containing genotoxic agents, including a fly ash settling pond and a site contaminated with mercury. Mussels will be exposed for 1 week to 3 months and sampled at 2 to 4week intervals. Upon removal mussels will be dissected, and mantle, adductor muscle, and foot tissue will be analyzed for DNA strand breakage and xenobiotic residues. These data will be compared with laboratory exposures to single compounds conducted over the same exposure durations.

  7. Differential diagnosis of pain around the hip joint.

    PubMed

    Tibor, Lisa M; Sekiya, Jon K

    2008-12-01

    The differential diagnosis of hip pain is broad and includes intra-articular pathology, extra-articular pathology, and mimickers, including the joints of the pelvic ring. With the current advancements in hip arthroscopy, more patients are being evaluated for hip pain. In recent years, our understanding of the functional anatomy around the hip has improved. In addition, because of advancements in magnetic resonance imaging, the diagnosis of soft tissue causes of hip pain has improved. All of these advances have broadened the differential diagnosis of pain around the hip joint and improved the treatment of these problems. In this review, we discuss the causes of intra-articular hip pain that can be addressed arthroscopically: labral tears, loose bodies, femoroacetabular impingement, capsular laxity, tears of the ligamentum teres, and chondral damage. Extra-articular diagnoses that can be managed arthroscopically are also discussed, including: iliopsoas tendonitis, "internal" snapping hip, "external" snapping hip, iliotibial band and greater trochanteric bursitis, and gluteal tendon injury. Finally, we discuss extra-articular causes of hip pain that are often managed nonoperatively or in an open fashion: femoral neck stress fracture, adductor strain, piriformis syndrome, sacroiliac joint pain, athletic pubalgia, "sports hernia," "Gilmore's groin," and osteitis pubis. PMID:19038713

  8. Abdominal musculature abnormalities as a cause of groin pain in athletes. Inguinal hernias and pubalgia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D C; Meyers, W C; Moylan, J A; Lohnes, J; Bassett, F H; Garrett, W E

    1991-01-01

    There has been increasing interest within the European sports medicine community regarding the etiology and treatment of groin pain in the athlete. Groin pain is most commonly caused by musculotendinous strains of the adductors and other muscles crossing the hip joint, but may also be related to abdominal wall abnormalities. Cases may be termed "pubalgia" if physical examination does not reveal inguinal hernia and there is an absence of other etiology for groin pain. We present nine cases of patients who underwent herniorrhaphies for groin pain. Two patients had groin pain without evidence of a hernia preoperatively (pubalgia). In the remaining seven patients we determined the presence of a hernia by physical examination. At operation, eight patients were found to have inguinal hernias. One patient had no hernia but had partial avulsion of the internal oblique fibers from their insertion at the public tubercle. The average interval from operation to return to full activity was 11 weeks. All patients returned to full activity within 3 months of surgery. One patient had persistent symptoms of mild incisional tenderness, but otherwise there were no recurrences, complications, or persistence of symptoms. Abnormalities of the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernias and microscopic tears or avulsions of the internal oblique muscle, can be an overlooked source of groin pain in the athlete. Operative treatment of this condition with herniorrhaphy can return the athlete to his sport within 3 months. PMID:1831010

  9. Athletic osteitis pubis.

    PubMed

    Hiti, Corey J; Stevens, Kathryn J; Jamati, Moira K; Garza, Daniel; Matheson, Gordon O

    2011-05-01

    Athletic osteitis pubis is a painful and chronic condition affecting the pubic symphysis and/or parasymphyseal bone that develops after athletic activity. Athletes with osteitis pubis commonly present with anterior and medial groin pain and, in some cases, may have pain centred directly over the pubic symphysis. Pain may also be felt in the adductor region, lower abdominal muscles, perineal region, inguinal region or scrotum. The pain is usually aggravated by running, cutting, hip adduction and flexion against resistance, and loading of the rectus abdominis. The pain can progress such that athletes are unable to sustain athletic activity at high levels. It is postulated that osteitis pubis is an overuse injury caused by biomechanical overloading of the pubic symphysis and adjacent parasymphyseal bone with subsequent bony stress reaction. The differential diagnosis for osteitis pubis is extensive and includes many other syndromes resulting in groin pain. Imaging, particularly in the form of MRI, may be helpful in making the diagnosis. Treatment is variable, but typically begins with conservative measures and may include injections and/or surgical procedures. Prolotherapy injections of dextrose, anti-inflammatory corticosteroids and a variety of surgical procedures have been reported in the literature with varying efficacies. Future studies of athletic osteitis pubis should attempt to define specific and reliable criteria to make the diagnosis of athletic osteitis pubis, empirically define standards of care and reduce the variability of proposed treatment regimens. PMID:21510714

  10. Acute and sub-acute effects of repetitive kicking on hip adduction torque in injury-free elite youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jesper; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Hip adduction strength is important for kicking and acceleration in soccer players. Changes in hip adduction strength may therefore have an effect on soccer players' athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-acute effects of a kicking drill session on hip strength, concerning isometric hip adduction, abduction and flexion torque of the kicking leg and the supporting leg. Ten injury-free male elite soccer players, mean ± s age of 15.8 ± 0.4 years participated. All players underwent a specific 20 min kicking drill session, comprising 45 kicks. The players were tested the day before, 15 min after and 24 h after the kicking drill session by a blinded tester using a reliable test procedure. The isometric hip-action and leg-order were randomized. For the kicking leg, hip adduction torque increased from 2.45 (2.19-2.65) Nm ∙ kg(-1), median (25th-75th percentiles), at pre-kicking to 2.65 (2.55-2.81) Nm ∙ kg(-1) (P = 0.024) 24 h post-kicking. This may have implications for the soccer player's ability to maximally activate the hip adductors during kicking and acceleration, and thereby improve performance the day after a kicking drill session. PMID:24669834

  11. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin-xing; Bao, Lin-fei; Fan, Mei-hua; Li, Xiao-min; Wu, Chang-wen; Xia, Shu-wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment. PMID:26218932

  12. Brown muscle disease (BMD), an emergent pathology affecting Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in Arcachon Bay (SW France).

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Gonzalez, Patrice; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Caill-Milly, Nathalie

    2008-08-01

    We describe an emerging pathology, brown muscle disease (BMD), which specifically affects the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in Arcachon Bay (France). BMD induces a transformation of the posterior adductor muscle, which becomes infused by conchiolin and calcified, reducing the ability of clams to bury. The disease affects both types of muscular tissue, with striated muscle becoming affected to a higher degree than smooth muscle. Two indices were created to quantify the symptoms: the Muscle Print Index, used for empty and live shells, and the Final Disease Index, utilized for live clams only. Histological sections were made and observed under light microscopy to examine the muscular damage and to investigate a causal agent. Sections revealed an important inflammatory response with a large invasion of hemocytes into tissues and a heavy necrosis of muscular fibers. Additionally, molecular biology analyses were carried out to search for bacteria and protozoan agents using generic primers. In both histological and molecular assays, bacteria and protozoans were discounted. We monitored 4 sites scattered around the bay over 2 yr. The mean prevalence was <12% without seasonal variation in 3 sites against 30% and a winter peak in 1 site. The latter site was accurately surveyed and revealed that clams at the sediment surface (abnormal position) were affected 3 times more frequently than buried clams (normal position). PMID:18814547

  13. Caudal medullary pathways to lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups in the cat: evidence for direct projections possibly representing the final common pathway for lordosis.

    PubMed

    Vanderhorst, V G; Holstege, G

    1995-08-28

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) projects to distinct brainstem and cervical and thoracic cord motoneuronal cell groups. The present paper describes NRA projections to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in the lumbar enlargement. Lumbosacral injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were made to localize and quantify the retrogradely labeled neurons in the caudal medullary lateral tegmentum. These injections were combined with spinal hemisections to distinguish between neurons having ipsi-or contralaterally descending axons. The NRA-lumbosacral fibers descend almost exclusively contralaterally, but neurons in areas surrounding the NRA project mainly ipsilaterally. In an anterograde tracing study, injections of WGA-HRP or tritiated leucine were made in the region of the NRA to determine the NRA targets in the lumbosarcral cord. Hemisections in C2 made it possible to distinguish between NRA projections and projections from neurons in the adjoining lateral tegmentum. The results show delicate NRA projections to distinct lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups innervating specific hindlimb muscles (iliopsoas, adductors, and hamstrings) as well as axial muscles (medial longissimus and proximal tail muscles). The projection is bilateral, with a contralateral predominance. Ipsilaterally terminating fibers are derived from NRA neurons whose axons cross the midline at the level of the obex, descend through the contralateral spinal white matter, and recross at the level of termination. A conceptual description is presented in which the periaqueductal gray-NRA-lumbosacral projections form the final common pathway for lordosis in the cat. PMID:7499541

  14. Molecular Imaging of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Survival and Homing in Murine Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    van der Bogt, Koen E.A.; Hellingman, Alwine A.; Lijkwan, Maarten A.; Bos, Ernst-Jan; de Vries, Margreet R.; Fischbein, Michael P.; Quax, Paul H.; Robbins, Robert C.; Hamming, Jaap F.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow mononuclear cell (MNC) therapy is a promising treatment for peripheral artery disease (PAD). This study aims to provide insight into cellular kinetics using molecular imaging following different transplantation methods. Methods and Results MNCs were isolated from F6 transgenic mice (FVB background) that express firefly luciferase (Fluc) and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Male FVB and C57Bl6 mice (n=50) underwent femoral artery ligation and were randomized into 4 groups receiving: (1) single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of 2×106 MNC; (2) four weekly i.m. injections of 5×105 MNC; (3) 2×106 MNCs intravenously (i.v.); and (4) PBS. Cellular kinetics, measured by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI), revealed near-complete donor cell death 4 weeks after i.m. transplantation. Following i.v. transplantation, BLI monitored cells homed in on the injured area in the limb, as well as to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Ex vivo BLI showed presence of MNCs in the scar tissue and adductor muscle. However, no significant effects on neovascularisation were observed as monitored by Laser-Doppler-Perfusion-Imaging and histology. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to assess kinetics of transplanted MNCs in PAD using in vivo molecular imaging. MNC survival is short lived and MNCs do not significantly stimulate perfusion in this model. PMID:22239892

  15. Spasmodic dysphonia follow-up with videolaryngoscopy and voice spectrography during treatment with botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marcello; Dubbioso, R; Apisa, P; Allocca, R; Santoro, L; Cesari, U

    2015-09-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a focal dystonia of laryngeal muscles seriously impairing quality of voice. Adductor SD (ADSD) is the most common presentation of this disorder that can be identified by specialized phoniatricians and neurologists firstly on a clinical evaluation and then confirmed by videolaryngoscopy (VL). Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection with electromyographic guidance in muscles around vocal cords is the most effective treatment. Voice Handicap Index (VHI) questionnaire is the main tool to assess dysphonia and response to treatment. Objective of this study is to perform VL and voice spectrography (VS) to confirm the efficacy of BTX injections over time. 13 patients with ADSD were studied with VHI, VL and VS before and after 4 consecutive treatment with onobotulinumtoxin-A. For each treatment vocal improvement was proved by a significant reduction of VHI score and increase of maximum time phonation and harmonic-to-noise ratio while VL showed the absence of spasm in most of patients. No change of the response to BTX was found between injections. This study supports the efficacy of the treatment of SD with BTX with objective measurements and suggests that the efficacy of recurring treatments is stable over time. PMID:25966878

  16. Morphology of the feeding system in agamid lizards: ecological correlates.

    PubMed

    Herrel, A; Aerts, P; Fret, J; de Vree, F

    1999-04-01

    The interaction of organismal design with ecology, and its evolutionary development are the subject of many functional and ecomorphological studies. Many studies have shown that the morphology and mechanics of the masticatory apparatus in mammals are adapted to diet. To investigate the relations between diet and the morphological and physiological properties of the lizard jaw system, a detailed analysis of the structure of the jaw apparatus was undertaken in the insectivorous lizard Plocederma stellio and in closely related herbivorous lizards of the genus Uromastix. The morphological and physiological properties of the jaw system in P. stellio and U. aegyptius were studied by means of dissections, light microscopy, histochemical characterisations, and in vivo stimulation experiments. The skull of Uromastix seems to be built for forceful biting (high, short snout). Additionally, the pterygoid muscle is modified in P. stellio, resulting in an additional force component during static biting. Stimulation experiments indicate that jaw muscles in both species are fast, which is supported by histochemical stainings. However, the oxidative capacity of the jaw muscles is larger in Uromastix. Contraction characteristics and performance of the feeding system (force output) are clearly thermally dependent. We conclude that several characteristics of the jaw system (presence of extra portion of the pterygoid muscle, large oxidative capacity of jaw muscles) in Uromastix may be attributed to its herbivorous diet. Jaw muscles, however, are still faster than expected. This is presumably the result of trade-offs between the thermal characteristics of the jaw adductors and the herbivorous lifestyle of these animals. PMID:10203257

  17. Case report: Physiotherapy strategies for a woman with symphysis pubis diastasis occurring during labour.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Duck-Won

    2012-03-01

    This case report demonstrates a therapeutic exercise program as a noninvasive functional treatment for symphysis pubis diastasis (SPD) and reports its results. A 32-year-old primigravida with SPD during labour received a specific functional exercise program, which consisted of abdominal stabilization and strengthening of the pelvic floor muscles, hip adductors, and extensors; training for bed mobility; and walking training with suitable aids. The program was performed for 1-hour per session, twice a day, for 2 weeks. Before the intervention, the patient was totally dependent on others for performing her daily activities owing to severe pain in the pelvic region. After the 2-week intervention, however, the interpubic distance was reduced by 36% (from 22 mm to 14 mm), and pain and functional disability were remarkably improved. Moreover, the patient could walk independently for 30 m with a pelvic corset. Our results suggest that a systematically designed functional rehabilitation program may be beneficial in the functional recovery of patients suffering from SPD related to pregnancy. PMID:22265390

  18. Effect of attending to a ball during a side-cut maneuver on lower extremity biomechanics in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Fedie, Rebecca; Carlstedt, Kristen; Willson, John D; Kernozek, Thomas W

    2010-09-01

    Many sports associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury require athletes attend to a ball during participation. We investigated effects of attending to a ball on lower extremity mechanics during a side-cut maneuver and if these effects are consistent for males and females. Sagittal and frontal plane hip and knee kinematics and joint moments were measured during side-cut maneuvers in 19 male and 19 female National Collegiate Athletic Association division III basketball players. Participants also experienced two side-cut conditions that required attention to a ball. Our results did not indicate that the effect of attention varies with gender. However, during side-cut conditions while attending to a ball, internal knee adductor moment was 20% greater (p = 0.03) and peak knee flexion angle was 4 degrees larger (p < 0.01). Females demonstrated 5 degrees less hip flexion (p = 0.046), 12 degrees less knee flexion (p < 0.01), and 4 degrees more knee abduction (p = 0.026) at initial contact during all side-cut conditions than males. Attention to a ball may affect lower extremity mechanics relevant to ACL injury. The validity of laboratory studies of lower extremity mechanics for sports that include attention to a ball may be increased if participants are required to attend to a ball during the task. PMID:21162362

  19. Ocean acidification increases cadmium accumulation in marine bivalves: a potential threat to seafood safety.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Zhao, Xinguo; Han, Yu; Che, Zhumei; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-01

    To date, the effects of ocean acidification on toxic metals accumulation and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown in marine bivalve species. In the present study, the effects of the realistic future ocean pCO2 levels on the cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills, mantle and adductor muscles of three bivalve species, Mytilus edulis, Tegillarca granosa, and Meretrix meretrix, were investigated. The results obtained suggested that all species tested accumulated significantly higher Cd (p < 0.05) in the CO2 acidified seawater during the 30 days experiment and the health risk of Cd (based on the estimated target hazard quotients, THQ) via consumption of M. meretrix at pH 7.8 and 7.4 significantly increased 1.21 and 1.32 times respectively, suggesting a potential threat to seafood safety. The ocean acidification-induced increase in Cd accumulation may have occurred due to (i) the ocean acidification increased the concentration of Cd and the Cd(2+)/Ca(2+) in the seawater, which in turn increased the Cd influx through Ca channel; (ii) the acidified seawater may have brought about epithelia damage, resulting in easier Cd penetration; and (iii) ocean acidification hampered Cd exclusion. PMID:26795597

  20. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Balius, Ramon; Pedret, Carles; Pacheco, Laura; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Vives, Joan; Escoda, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball. PMID:24198573

  1. Ecomorphology of the moray bite: relationship between dietary extremes and morphological diversity.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rita S

    2009-01-01

    The pharyngeal jaws of moray eels function exclusively to transport prey from the oral jaws into the esophagus. This functional innovation in the moray pharyngeal jaw system occurred through the loss of some ancestral functions that presumably included prey processing. Therefore, the oral jaws of morays are used to capture and process prey. Dietary accounts suggest that morays can be categorized as either piscivorous or durophagous in feeding habits. These extreme feeding specializations that select for conflicting biomechanical demands on the oral jaws should result in two discrete clusters of cranial form and diet in morphospace. When functional characters underlying the oral jaws were examined for 10 muraenid species, piscivorous and durophagous morays occupied distinct areas of morphospace. Piscivores exhibited longer jaws, narrower heads, and long recurved teeth, while durophagous morays exhibited shorter jaws, greater dentary depths, and short blunt teeth. Durophagous morays process prey in their oral jaws, and their jaw-opening and jaw-closing ratios, along with their enlarged adductors, revealed jaws modified for force transmission. Pharyngeal jaw characters also separated moray species into different areas of morphospace. For example, Gymnomuraena zebra, a molluscivore, had more teeth on its pharyngobranchials than all other morays, and these teeth were long and thin compared with those of piscivores. The overall patterns of morphological variation corresponded well with moray dietary breadth. In addition, the range of jaw-opening and jaw-closing ratios revealed that for a clade of obligate carnivores, morays exhibit diverse biting behaviors. PMID:19053846

  2. Using "Mighty Mouse" to understand masticatory plasticity: myostatin-deficient mice and musculoskeletal function.

    PubMed

    Ravosa, Matthew J; López, Elisabeth K; Menegaz, Rachel A; Stock, Stuart R; Stack, M Sharon; Hamrick, Mark W

    2008-09-01

    Knockout mice lacking myostatin (Mstn), a negative regulator of the growth of skeletal muscle, develop significant increases in the relative mass of masticatory muscles as well as the ability to generate higher maximal muscle forces. Wild-type and Mstn-deficient mice were compared to investigate the postnatal influence of elevated masticatory loads due to increased jaw-adductor and bite forces on the biomineralization of mandibular articular and cortical bone, the internal structure of the jaw joints, and the composition of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) articular cartilage. To provide an interspecific perspective on the long-term responses of mammalian jaw joints to altered loading conditions, the findings on mice were compared to similar data for growing rabbits subjected to long-term dietary manipulation. Statistically significant differences in joint proportions and bone mineral density between normal and Mstn-deficient mice, which are similar to those observed between rabbit loading cohorts, underscore the need for a comprehensive analysis of masticatory tissue plasticity vis-à-vis altered mechanical loads, one in which variation in external and internal structure are considered. Differences in the expression of proteoglycans and type-II collagen in TMJ articular cartilage between the mouse and rabbit comparisons suggest that the duration and magnitude of the loading stimulus will significantly affect patterns of adaptive and degradative responses. These data on mammals subjected to long-term loading conditions offer novel insights regarding variation in ontogeny, life history, and the ecomorphology of the feeding apparatus. PMID:21669797

  3. A new psittacosaur from Inner Mongolia and the parrot-like structure and function of the psittacosaur skull

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Paul C.; Xijin, Zhao; Lin, Tan

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new species of psittacosaur, Psittacosaurus gobiensis, from the Lower Cretaceous of Inner Mongolia and outline a hypothesis of chewing function in psittacosaurs that in many respects parallels that in psittaciform birds. Cranial features that accommodate increased bite force in psittacosaurs include an akinetic skull (both cranium and lower jaws) and differentiation of adductor muscle attachments comparable to that in psittaciform birds. These and other features, along with the presence of numerous large gastroliths, suggest that psittacosaurs may have had a high-fibre, nucivorous (nut-eating) diet. Psittacosaurs, alone among ornithischians, generate oblique wear facets from tooth-to-tooth occlusion without kinesis in either the upper or lower jaws. This is accomplished with a novel isognathous jaw mechanism that combines aspects of arcilineal (vertical) and propalinal (horizontal) jaw movement. Here termed clinolineal (inclined) jaw movement, the mechanism uses posteriorly divergent tooth rows, rather than kinesis, to gain the added width for oblique occlusion. As the lower tooth rows are drawn posterodorsally into occlusion, the increasing width between the upper tooth rows accommodates oblique shear. With this jaw mechanism, psittacosaurs were able to maintain oblique shearing occlusion in an akinetic skull designed to resist high bite forces. PMID:19535376

  4. Phylogenetic and morphological characterisation of the green algae infesting blue mussel Mytilus edulis in the North and South Atlantic oceans.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisco; Feist, Stephen W; Guillou, Laure; Harkestad, Lisbeth S; Bateman, Kelly; Renault, Tristan; Mortensen, Stein

    2008-09-24

    Blue mussels Mytilus edulis with shell deformations and green pustules containing parasitic algae were collected at 3 coastal sites (Burøy, Norway; Bockholm, Denmark; Goose Green, Falkland Islands). A comparative study, including mussel histopathology, algal morphology, ultrastructure and phylogenetic position was performed. Green pustules were mainly located in the posterior portion of the mantle and gonad tissues and the posterior adductor muscle. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of algal cells with similar morphology to Coccomyxa parasitica. Algae were oval shaped with a single nucleus and chloroplast, 1 or 2 mitochondria and a dense granular cytoplasm with a lipid inclusion body, Golgi apparatus and small vesicles. Partial small subunit (SSU) rRNA phylogeny confirmed the inclusion of parasitic algae into the Coccomyxa clade. However, the sequence identity between almost full SSU rRNA sequences of parasitic algae and others in this clade yielded an unexpected result. Green algae from mussels were distant from C. parasitica Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP) strain 216/18 (94% identity), but very similar (99% identity) to C. glaronensis (a lichen endosymbiont) and green endophytes from the tree Ginkgo biloba. The CCAP strain 216/18 was a sister sequence to Nannochloris algae, far from the Coccomyxa clade. These results suggest a misidentification or outgrowth of the original CCAP strain 216/18 by a different 'Nannochloris-like' trebouxiophycean organism. In contrast, our sequences directly obtained from infested mussels could represent the true C. parasitica responsible for the green pustules in blue mussels. PMID:18998587

  5. Unusual scapular winging - A case report.

    PubMed

    Dori, Zohar; Sarig Bahat, Hilla

    2016-08-01

    Scapular mobility has a central role in maintaining normal upper limb function. Scapular winging is characterized by a failure in the dynamic stabilization of the scapula against the thoracic wall resulting in a condition in which the medial border of the scapula is prominent. The following case describes a patient who was referred to physiotherapy due to abnormal scapular protrusion. The main findings of the physical examination showed weakness of the scapular stabilizers more prominent on the right side than of the left. Additionally, the physical examination demonstrated weakness of the abdominal muscles, hip adductors, and ankle dorsi-flexors, as well as some facial muscles. The electromyography results were inconclusive. Further examination led to clinical suspicion of Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy (FSHD) as a diagnosis, which was confirmed by genetic testing. Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy is characterized by symptoms related to motor function and in most cases becomes evident in patients in their 20s and 30s. The disease signs and symptoms are often identified in a clinical setting. Currently, there are no reports describing an effective treatment for the disease. However, physiotherapy, moderate physical exercise, counselling, and use of suitable aids and orthoses may help improve functionality and mobility. This case report aims to increase the awareness of musculoskeletal physiotherapists to this unique dystrophy, when encountering complex presentations with scapular winging. PMID:26759220

  6. MicroRNA, Pm-miR-2305, Participates in Nacre Formation by Targeting Pearlin in Pearl Oyster Pinctada martensii

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yu; Zheng, Zhe; Tian, Rongrong; Du, Xiaodong; Wang, Qingheng; Huang, Ronglian

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNA molecules that function as negative regulators of target genes. In our previous research, 258 pm-miRNAs were identified in Pinctada martensii by Solexa deep sequencing. Pm-miR-2305 was one of the identified pm-miRNAs with a potential function in biomineralization. In the present study, the precursor of pm-miR-2305 was predicted with 96 bp, containing a characteristic hairpin structure. Stem-loop qRT-PCR analysis indicated that pm-miR-2305 was constitutively expressed in all the tissues (adductor muscle, gill, mantle, hepatopancreas, foot, and gonad) of P. martensii and was highly expressed in the foot. After the over-expression of pm-miR-2305 in the mantle by mimics injection into the muscle of P. martensii, nacre demonstrated disorderly growth, as detected by scanning electron microscopy. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay indicated that pm-miR-2305 mimics could significantly inhibit the luciferase activity of the reporter containing the 3′UTR of the pearlin gene. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the protein expression of pearlin was down-regulated in the mantle tissue after the over-expression of pm-miR-2305. Therefore, our data showed that pm-miR-2305 participated in nacre formation by targeting pearlin in P. martensii. PMID:26370972

  7. Molecular characteristics and expression of calmodulin cDNA from the freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis schlegelii.

    PubMed

    Zeng, L-G; Wang, J-H; Li, Y-J; Sheng, J-Q; Gu, Q; Hong, Y-J

    2012-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a multifunctional intracellular calcium ion receptor protein that participates in a range of cellular processes, including calcium metabolism in mussels. To investigate the role of CaM in freshwater mollusk shell calcium metabolism, the full-length CaM cDNA was isolated from the freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis schlegelii (referred to as hsCaM) using SMART RACE technology. The full-length hsCaM was 855 bp in size, containing a 70-bp 5'-untranslated sequence, a 447-bp open reading frame, a 309-bp 3'-untranslated sequence, and a 26-nucleotide long poly(A) tail. The hsCaM mRNA expression in different mussel tissues was examined using real-time PCR. The hsCaM mRNA was found to be ubiquitously expressed, but far more abundant in the gill, foot, and mantle than in the posterior adductor muscle. Real-time PCR was also used to determine hsCaM mRNA expression levels in mantle tissues of H. schlegelii at different ages. No significant differences between one-, two-, and three-year-old mussels were detected, but expression increased in four-year-old mussels and then decreased in five-year-old mussels. CaM appears to be involved in calcium regulation of the mantle in four-year-old mussels, which may secrete more mother of pearl during pearl culture. PMID:22290464

  8. Nutritional assessment of institutionalized elderly

    PubMed Central

    Volpini, Milena Maffei; Frangella, Vera Silvia

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To define the nutritional profile of institutionalized elderly individuals. Methods: Comparative correlation and quantitative field study conducted in a Long-Stay Institution in Sao Paulo (SP), Brazil, between December 2010 and January 2012. To define nutritional diagnosis, data were collected from patient files, such as body mass index, circumferences, triceps skinfold, muscle area of the arm, thickness of the adductor pollicis, handgrip strength, and biochemical test results. The anthropometric variables were presented as mean, standard deviation, and percentages, and were grouped by gender and stratified by age. The level of statistical significance was p<0.05. Results: One hundred and two elderly individuals were selected, and 84 were females. Excess weight was the most common anthropometric diagnosis in men (n=11; 61%), with the detection of protein depletion in those aged 70 years, and possible cases of sarcopenic obesity. All women were in good health conditions (n=84; 100%). However, in 27% (n=23) of them, protein depletion was evident. Conclusion: More anthropometric studies are necessary which would allow a definition of local reference standards, stratified by gender and age group. The difference between populations and factors, such as inclusion and exclusion criteria, and methodological characteristics, limit the use of international standards, interfering in the reliability of the nutritional diagnosis. PMID:23579741

  9. Residual force enhancement following shortening is speed-dependent.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Rafael; Power, Geoffrey A; Mende, Esther; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Herzog, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The steady-state isometric force following active muscle shortening or lengthening is smaller (force depression; FD) or greater (residual force enhancement; RFE) than a purely isometric contraction at the corresponding length. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not explained within the context of the cross-bridge theory and are rarely studied in concert. Previous studies have shown RFE to be speed-independent. In the present study, we investigated if RFE preceded by active shortening is time-dependent by electrically evoking RFE in the human adductor pollicis muscle. The results shown that a slow stretch following FD fully re-established RFE compared to higher speeds of stretch. The mechanism(s) responsible for the recovery of RFE following a preceding shortening contraction (FD) might be associated with the recovery of cross-bridge based force and/or the re-engagement of a passive structural element (titin). Voluntary interaction with one's environment involves highly coordinated shortening and lengthening muscle contractions. Therefore comprehending these history-dependent muscle properties in the context of movement control is paramount in understanding the behavior of in vivo motor control. PMID:26869508

  10. [Ionic composition of mollusk cells--evolutionary and ecologic aspects].

    PubMed

    Natochin, Iu V; Berger, V Ia

    1979-01-01

    Marine molluscs exhibit relative constancy in intracellular potassium at the back ground of significant changes in intracellular sodium during acclimation to differen salinities. These changes, which were observed in cells of the adductor muscle and hepa topancreas, result mainly from active extrusion of sodium (possibly, of chloride as well) from the cell at low salinities and accumulation of these ions within the cell during the increase in salinity. Changes in intracellular concentration of sodium and chloride ions serve presumably as one of the main mechanisms of volume stabilization of cells, which together with the amino acid regulation alleviates the hydration of cells at different salinities. The capacity of cells to keep their potassium accounts for the maintenance of Ki/Ko ratio during changes in cellular volume induced by osmotic effects. These data are discussed in relation to two alternative hypotheses of the decreased and close to the present salinity of ocean at the initial stages of formation of the ionic composition of cells. PMID:473987

  11. [Monitoring of neuromuscular blocking].

    PubMed

    Chamorro, C; Silva, J A

    2008-02-01

    Neuromuscular blockade monitoring aims should be based on effectiveness criteria, that is, to administer the lowest effective dose, and on security criteria, avoiding overdosage and detecting possible residual blockade before patient extubation. A neuromuscular blockade monitoring and usage protocol should be available with predefined objectives for each patient to achieve the minimum effective doses. Maintenance of a light blockade level probably influences the decrease in complications associated with these drugs' use. Train-of-four monitoring, along with muscular movement detection allow adjustment to meet these aims. Ulnar nerve stimulation with response detection in the adductor pollicis muscle is the recommended neurostimulation in critically ill patients, while facial neurostimulation is recommended in situations where edema or skin temperature prevent correct ulnar nerve stimulation. Ensuring adequate sedation and analgesia in a paralysed patient is essential. An inadequately sedated but paralysed patient may subsequently suffer serious psychological and emotional stress. Bispectral index monitoring with sedative doses adjusted to 40-60 values assures, in most situations, correct sedation. PMID:18405539

  12. Skeletal muscle fiber, nerve, and blood vessel breakdown in space-flown rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J. L.; Slocum, G. R.; Sedlak, F. R.

    1990-01-01

    Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were performed postflight on hind limb skeletal muscles of rats orbited for 12.5 days aboard the unmanned Cosmos 1887 biosatellite and returned to Earth 2 days before sacrifice. The antigravity adductor longus (AL), soleus, and plantaris muscles atrophied more than the non-weight-bearing extensor digitorum longus, and slow muscle fibers were more atrophic than fast fibers. Muscle fiber segmental necrosis occurred selectively in the AL and soleus muscles; primarily, macrophages and neutrophils infiltrated and phagocytosed cellular debris. Granule-rich mast cells were diminished in flight AL muscles compared with controls, indicating the mast cell secretion contributed to interstitial tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils implicated ubiquitin in myofilament degradation. Mitochondrial content and succinic dehydrogenase activity were normal, except for subsarcolemmal decreases. Myofibrillar ATPase activity of flight AL muscle fibers shifted toward the fast type. Absence of capillaries and extravasation of red blood cells indicated failed microcirculation. Muscle fiber regeneration from activated satellite cells was detected. About 17% of the flight AL end plates exhibited total or partial denervation. Thus, skeletal muscle weakness associated with spaceflight can result from muscle fiber atrophy and segmental necrosis, partial motor denervation, and disruption of the microcirculation.

  13. A rare sequence variant in intron 1 of THAP1 is associated with primary dystonia.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Satya R; Xiao, Jianfeng; Zhao, Yu; Bastian, Robert W; Perlmutter, Joel S; Racette, Brad A; Paniello, Randal C; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Uitti, Ryan J; Van Gerpen, Jay A; Hedera, Peter; Truong, Daniel D; Blitzer, Andrew; Rudzińska, Monika; Momčilović, Dragana; Jinnah, Hyder A; Frei, Karen; Pfeiffer, Ronald F; LeDoux, Mark S

    2014-05-01

    Although coding variants in THAP1 have been causally associated with primary dystonia, the contribution of noncoding variants remains uncertain. Herein, we examine a previously identified Intron 1 variant (c.71+9C>A, rs200209986). Among 1672 subjects with mainly adult-onset primary dystonia, 12 harbored the variant in contrast to 1/1574 controls (P < 0.01). Dystonia classification included cervical dystonia (N = 3), laryngeal dystonia (adductor subtype, N = 3), jaw-opening oromandibular dystonia (N = 1), blepharospasm (N = 2), and unclassified (N = 3). Age of dystonia onset ranged from 25 to 69 years (mean = 54 years). In comparison to controls with no identified THAP1 sequence variants, the c.71+9C>A variant was associated with an elevated ratio of Isoform 1 (NM_018105) to Isoform 2 (NM_199003) in leukocytes. In silico and minigene analyses indicated that c.71+9C>A alters THAP1 splicing. Lymphoblastoid cells harboring the c.71+9C>A variant showed extensive apoptosis with relatively fewer cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Differentially expressed genes from lymphoblastoid cells revealed that the c.71+9C>A variant exerts effects on DNA synthesis, cell growth and proliferation, cell survival, and cytotoxicity. In aggregate, these data indicate that THAP1 c.71+9C>A is a risk factor for adult-onset primary dystonia. PMID:24936516

  14. Effectiveness of Selected Fitness Exercises on Stress of Femoral Neck using Musculoskeletal Dynamics Simulations and Finite Element Model.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jing-Guang; Li, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Hong; Bian, Rong; Zhang, Songning

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the study was to establish a dynamics model and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model to analyze loading characteristics of femoral neck during walking, squat, single-leg standing, and forward and lateral lunges. One male volunteer performed three trials of the five movements. The 3D kinematic data were captured and imported into the LifeMOD to establish a musculoskeletal dynamics model to obtain joint reaction and muscle forces of iliacus, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, psoas major and adductor magnus. The loading data LfeMOD were imported and transformed into a hip finite-element model. The results of the finite element femur model showed that stress was localized along the compression arc and the tension arc. In addition, the trabecular bone and tension lines of the Ward's triangle also demonstrated high stress. The compact bone received the greatest peak stress in the forward lunge and the least stress in the squat. However, the spongy bone in the femoral neck region had the greatest stress during the walk and the least stress in the squat. The results from this study indicate that the forward lunge may be an effective method to prevent femoral neck fractures. Walking is another effective and simple method that may improve bone mass of the Ward's triangle and prevent osteoporosis and femoral neck fracture. PMID:25114732

  15. Hormone Therapy and Skeletal Muscle Strength: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Greising, Sarah M.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Warren, Gordon L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the research literature that compared muscle strength in postmenopausal women who were and were not on estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT). Methods Twenty-three relevant studies were found. Effect sizes (ESs) were calculated as the standardized mean difference, and meta-analyses were completed using a random effects model. Results HT was found to result in a small beneficial effect on muscle strength in postmenopausal women (overall ES = 0.23; p = .003) that equated to an ∼5% greater strength for women on HT. Among the 23 studies, various muscle groups were assessed for strength, and those that benefitted the most were the thumb adductors (ES = 1.14; p < .001). Ten studies that compared muscle strength in rodents that were and were not estradiol deficient were also analyzed. The ES for absolute strength was moderate but not statistically significant (ES = 0.44; p = .12), whereas estradiol had a large effect on strength normalized to muscle size (ES = 0.66; p = .03). Conclusion Overall, estrogen-based treatments were found to beneficially affect strength. PMID:19561145

  16. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yercan, Hüseyin Serhat; Kale, Gürler; Erkan, Serkan; Özalp, Taçkın; Okcu, Güvenir

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the clinical outcome after medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction for patellofemoral instability in skeletally immature patients. Methods: Study participants were 8 patients ( median age, 10 years; range, 5-14 and one male , others female) who had suffered from persistent patellofemoral instability. Our technique preserves femoral and patellar insertion anatomy of MPFL using a free semitendinosus autograft, together with tenodesis to the adductor magnus tendon thus sparing the open physis of distal femur and the patellar attachment of MPFL. The clinical results were evaluated preoperatively and the final follow-up period using the Kujala patellofemoral score. Patellar shift, tilt and height were measured preoperatively and on the latest follow-up on plain radiographs. Results: At average 42 months follow-up ( range, 16 to 56), %80 of patients were satisfied with the treatment. Redislocation or instability symptoms occurred in two patients. No apprehension signs or redislocations were seen in the remanining six patients. A significant improvement (p‹0.05) in Kujala score (from 36 to 77) was found. Patellar shift & tilt decreased to anatomic values in six patients but patella alta persisted. Conclusion: The result of this study show that MPFL reconstruction with our technique seems to be an effective treatment for recurrent and habitual patellofemoral dislocation in skeletally immature patients; leading to significant increases in stability and functionality.

  17. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Kent; SUZUKI, Satoshi; KOYABU, Daisuke; KIMURA, Junpei; HAN, Sung-Yong; ENDO, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  18. A rare sequence variant in intron 1 of THAP1 is associated with primary dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Vemula, Satya R; Xiao, Jianfeng; Zhao, Yu; Bastian, Robert W; Perlmutter, Joel S; Racette, Brad A; Paniello, Randal C; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Uitti, Ryan J; Van Gerpen, Jay A; Hedera, Peter; Truong, Daniel D; Blitzer, Andrew; Rudzińska, Monika; Momčilović, Dragana; Jinnah, Hyder A; Frei, Karen; Pfeiffer, Ronald F; LeDoux, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Although coding variants in THAP1 have been causally associated with primary dystonia, the contribution of noncoding variants remains uncertain. Herein, we examine a previously identified Intron 1 variant (c.71+9C>A, rs200209986). Among 1672 subjects with mainly adult-onset primary dystonia, 12 harbored the variant in contrast to 1/1574 controls (P < 0.01). Dystonia classification included cervical dystonia (N = 3), laryngeal dystonia (adductor subtype, N = 3), jaw-opening oromandibular dystonia (N = 1), blepharospasm (N = 2), and unclassified (N = 3). Age of dystonia onset ranged from 25 to 69 years (mean = 54 years). In comparison to controls with no identified THAP1 sequence variants, the c.71+9C>A variant was associated with an elevated ratio of Isoform 1 (NM_018105) to Isoform 2 (NM_199003) in leukocytes. In silico and minigene analyses indicated that c.71+9C>A alters THAP1 splicing. Lymphoblastoid cells harboring the c.71+9C>A variant showed extensive apoptosis with relatively fewer cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Differentially expressed genes from lymphoblastoid cells revealed that the c.71+9C>A variant exerts effects on DNA synthesis, cell growth and proliferation, cell survival, and cytotoxicity. In aggregate, these data indicate that THAP1 c.71+9C>A is a risk factor for adult-onset primary dystonia. PMID:24936516

  19. Spasmodic Dysphonia: a Laryngeal Control Disorder Specific to Speech

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2016-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a rare neurological disorder that emerges in middle age, is usually sporadic, and affects intrinsic laryngeal muscle control only during speech. Spasmodic bursts in particular laryngeal muscles disrupt voluntary control during vowel sounds in adductor SD and interfere with voice onset after voiceless consonants in abductor SD. Little is known about its origins; it is classified as a focal dystonia secondary to an unknown neurobiological mechanism that produces a chronic abnormality of laryngeal motor neuron regulation during speech. It develops primarily in females and does not interfere with breathing, crying, laughter, and shouting. Recent postmortem studies have implicated the accumulation of clusters in the parenchyma and perivascular regions with inflammatory changes in the brainstem in one to two cases. A few cases with single mutations in THAP1, a gene involved in transcription regulation, suggest that a weak genetic predisposition may contribute to mechanisms causing a nonprogressive abnormality in laryngeal motor neuron control for speech but not for vocal emotional expression. Research is needed to address the basic cellular and proteomic mechanisms that produce this disorder to provide intervention that could target the pathogenesis of the disorder rather than only providing temporary symptom relief. PMID:21248101

  20. MR Imaging in Postreduction Assessment of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: Goals and Obstacles.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Daniel G; Servaes, Sabah; Bogner, Eric A; Jaramillo, Diego; Mintz, Douglas N

    2016-01-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip is a spectrum disorder of hip development that ranges in severity from abnormal acetabular morphology to complete hip dislocation. While treatment with a Pavlik harness is highly effective in infants younger than 6 months, older infants and children and those with orthotic failure often warrant surgical reduction and placement of a spica cast, which limits subsequent imaging evaluation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been described in the evaluation of the adequacy of hip reduction for more than 2 decades, but the practice is still not widespread and is performed routinely at relatively few centers. MR imaging is a robust tool for outcome assessment after hip reduction and placement of a spica cast, facilitating multiplanar confirmation of concentric reduction independent of an ossific nucleus or orthopedic hardware. Excellent image contrast of soft tissues allows identification of obstacles to concentric reduction, which may be extra-articular or intra-articular. Extra-articular obstacles include tightening of the adductor muscles and tightening of the iliopsoas tendon with constriction of the joint capsule. Intra-articular obstacles include limbus formation, labral inversion, an enlarged pulvinar, and hypertrophy of the ligamentum teres and/or the transverse acetabular ligament. Intravenous contrast material administration may demonstrate altered epiphyseal blood flow and help identify patients at risk for early ischemia. Imaging technique and image interpretation can be optimized to facilitate the performance of postreduction MR imaging studies where they may be of benefit. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27035836

  1. A Time Course Study of Different Methods of Extraneural Scar Induction in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, Leila Oriady; Firouzi, Masoumeh; Nabian, Mohammad Hossein; Zadegan, Shayan Abdollah; Nategh, Mohsen; Erfanian, Reza; Ashtiani, Ahmad Mohebbi; Kamrani, Reza Shahryar

    2016-05-01

    Background Extraneural scar formation is a challenging problem in nerve repair. Rodent models of scar induction, with their high regenerative capacity, suffer from lack of comparable similarities with human cases. In this study, we attempted to find a reliable and reproducible method of extraneural scarring with a significant impact on the peripheral nerve function. Methods A total of 60 rats were divided into three scar induction groups: abrasion (with a small piece of compressed steel wool), mincing (with extracorporeal mincing of adductor muscle and a 5-mm wide strip of the anterior border of the biceps femoris), and electrocoagulation (with a bipolar coagulator). Extraneural scarring was evaluated macroscopically and histologically during 8 weeks. The tibial functional index was used for behavioral analysis. Results Among three different physical methods of scar induction that were applied, electrocoagulation had the most functional impairment (p < 0.001, two-way analysis of variance); whereas mincing produced the most adhesive and intensive scar, morphologically (p < 0.001). Conclusion We conclude that: (1) the impact of the extraneural scar on the nerve is morphologically and functionally different, based on the method of scarring; (2) to achieve a scar model comparable to the human situation, a method in which the involved nerve is functionally impaired, is preferred over the ones that merely produce a bulky scar. PMID:26848565

  2. Non-Lethal Heat Shock of the Asian Green Mussel, Perna viridis, Promotes Hsp70 Synthesis, Induces Thermotolerance and Protects Against Vibrio Infection

    PubMed Central

    Aleng, Nor Afiqah; Sung, Yeong Yik; MacRae, Thomas H.; Abd Wahid, Mohd Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Mild heat stress promotes thermotolerance and protection against several different stresses in aquatic animals, consequences correlated with the accumulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). The purpose of this study was to determine if non-lethal heat shock (NLHS) of the Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, an aquatic species of commercial value, promoted the production of Hsp70 and enhanced its resistance to stresses. Initially, the LT50 and LHT for P. viridis were determined to be 42°C and 44°C, respectively, with no heat shock induced death of mussels at 40°C or less. Immunoprobing of western blots revealed augmentation of constitutive (PvHsp70-1) and inducible (PvHsp70-2) Hsp70 in tissue from adductor muscle, foot, gill and mantel of P. viridis exposed to 38°C for 30 min followed by 6 h recovery, NLHS conditions for this organism. Characterization by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that PvHsp70-1 and PvHsp70-2 respectively corresponded most closely to Hsp70 from P. viridis and Mytilus galloprovincialis. Priming of adult mussels with NLHS promoted thermotolerance and increased resistance to V. alginolyticus. The induction of Hsp70 in parallel with enhanced thermotolerance and improved protection against V. alginolyticus, suggests Hsp70 functions in P. viridis as a molecular chaperone and as a stimulator of the immune system. PMID:26288319

  3. Virus-like particles associated with mass mortalities of the pen shell Atrina pectinata in Japan.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Yukio; Yurimoto, Tatsuya; Nasu, Hiroshi; Ito, Shiro; Aishima, Noboru; Matsuyama, Tomomasa; Kamaishi, Takashi; Oseko, Norihisa; Watanabe, Yasunori

    2006-07-25

    Mass mortalities of the pen shell Atrina pectinata occurred in the fishing grounds of Ariake Bay, in southwestern Japan, during late spring and summer in 2003 and 2004. Histological examination revealed extensive necrosis in the epithelial cells of the kidney and gill, and impairment of the endothelial cells of the mantle arteria. Although cestode larvae belonging to the genus Tylocephalum were found in the mantle, adductor muscle, kidney, and digestive gland, their prevalence and the intensity of infection were low. Examinations of moribund pen shells for Haplosporidium spp. infection using PCR analysis and for Perkinsus spp. infection using Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium were negative. Unenveloped virus-like particles were detected by transmission electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of affected kidney and gill cells of moribund pen shells. They were icosahedral spherical and 50 to 55 nm in diameter. These virus-like particles found in moribund pen shells are different from those described in other marine mollusks, and may be the causative agent of the mass mortalities of pen shells. PMID:16956065

  4. Effectiveness of Selected Fitness Exercises on Stress of Femoral Neck using Musculoskeletal Dynamics Simulations and Finite Element Model

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing-Guang; Li, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Hong; Bian, Rong; Zhang, Songning

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish a dynamics model and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model to analyze loading characteristics of femoral neck during walking, squat, single-leg standing, and forward and lateral lunges. One male volunteer performed three trials of the five movements. The 3D kinematic data were captured and imported into the LifeMOD to establish a musculoskeletal dynamics model to obtain joint reaction and muscle forces of iliacus, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, psoas major and adductor magnus. The loading data LfeMOD were imported and transformed into a hip finite-element model. The results of the finite element femur model showed that stress was localized along the compression arc and the tension arc. In addition, the trabecular bone and tension lines of the Ward’s triangle also demonstrated high stress. The compact bone received the greatest peak stress in the forward lunge and the least stress in the squat. However, the spongy bone in the femoral neck region had the greatest stress during the walk and the least stress in the squat. The results from this study indicate that the forward lunge may be an effective method to prevent femoral neck fractures. Walking is another effective and simple method that may improve bone mass of the Ward’s triangle and prevent osteoporosis and femoral neck fracture. PMID:25114732

  5. Seasonal variation of biochemical components in clam ( Saxidomus purpuratus Sowerby 1852) in relation to its reproductive cycle and the environmental condition of Sanggou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jinhong; Li, Qi; Zhang, Xinjun; Zhang, Zhixin; Tian, Jinling; Xu, Yushan; Liu, Wenguang

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal variation of biochemical components in clam ( Saxidomus purpuratus Sowerby 1852) was investigated from March 2012 to February 2013 in relation to environmental condition of Sanggou Bay and the reproductive cycle of clam. According to the histological analysis, the reproductive cycle of S. purpuratus includes two distinctive phases: a total spent and inactive stage from November to January, and a gametogenesis stage, including ripeness and spawning, during the rest of the year. Gametes were generated at a low temperature (2.1°C) in February. Spawning took place once a year from June to October. The massive spawning occurred in August when the highest water temperature and chlorophyll a level could be observed. The key biochemical components (glycogen, protein and lipid) in five tissues (gonad, foot, mantle, siphon and adductor muscle) were analyzed. The glycogen content was high before gametogenesis, and decreased significantly during the gonad development in the gonad, mantle and foot of both females and males, suggesting that glycogen was an important energy source for gonad development. The protein and lipid contents increased in the ovary during the gonad development, demonstrating that they are the major organic components of oocytes. The lipid and protein contents decreased in the testis, implying that they can provide energy and material for spermatogenesis. The results also showed that protein stored in the mantle and foot could support the reproduction after the glycogen was depleted.

  6. Stress detection in bivalve mollusk using non-invasive bioelectric monitoring of myoneural behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, E.L.; Hardison, B.S.; Dawson, V.K.; Waller, D.; Waller, W.T.; Dickson, K.L.; Allen, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    Few studies have demonstrated cause-and-effect linkages between extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic bioelectric action potentials of bivalve mollusk using non-invasive, non-destructive approaches. A non-invasive, external probe configuration and detection system, similar to one used previously with native unionids, was developed for continuously monitoring bioelectric activities of clams and mussels. Using remote probes and differential amplifiers, bioelectric activities were recorded for cardiac, adductor, siphon and foot responses using a computer equipped with integrating software. To test if remote, non-invasive probes would detect similar information to that recorded by invasive needle electrodes, two individuals of zebra mussel (Dreissenia polymorpha), and Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) were each configured with two sets of probes. One set was inserted between the valves and along the inside surface of the shelf; the other set was positioned remotely about the outside margins of the valves. Signal validation was made by simultaneously recording bioelectric responses for the same animal from both sets of probes. In preliminary stress tests monitored bivalves were subjected to changes in temperatures over 2 to 3 hr intervals from ambient to potentially lethal levels (20 to 30 C for zebra, 25 C to 40 C for corbicula). Dramatic increases resulted in both number and amplitude of cardiac events as temperature increased. Planned studies will use this approach to evaluate bivalve myoneural behavior patterns in response to chemical and non-chemical stimuli.

  7. Modeling three-dimensional sculptures of australopithecines (Australopithecus afarensis) for the Museum of Natural History of Vienna (Austria): the post-cranial hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Berge, C; Daynes, E

    2001-12-01

    In March 1999, E. Daynes, a sculptor specializing in fossil hominid reconstruction, asked C. Berge to take over the scientific supervision of the reconstruction of two australopithecine post-crania. The heads had been modeled from two skulls found in Hadar (AL 444-2, AL 417). The sculptures were to be represented in a walking stance. The female proportions (AL 417) are estimated from the skeleton of 'Lucy' (AL 288), and the male proportions (AL 444-2) extrapolated from the female ones. Biomechanical and anatomical data (comparison with great apes and humans) are used to reconstruct both dynamic equilibrium and muscular systems. The reconstruction suggests that the fossils moved the pelvis and shoulders extensively when they walked. The hindlimb muscles (such as adductors, gluteal muscles and calf) are fleshy and not or very little tendinous. As indicated by the Laetoli step prints (belonging to a close and contemporaneous species), the foot is adducted during the walk and the support is internal just before take off. In spite of inevitable approximations, such a reconstruction appears to be particularly helpful to bring out morphological and functional traits of the first hominids which are both close to and different from modern humans. PMID:11733173

  8. The pectoral fin muscles of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae: Functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Tsutomu; Kumamoto, Minayori; Iwata, Masamitsu; Sato, Ryuichi; Okabe, Masataka; Koie, Hiroshi; Kumai, Nori; Fujii, Kenichi; Matsuzaki, Koji; Nakamura, Chiho; Yamauchi, Shinya; Yoshida, Kosuke; Yoshimura, Kohtaroh; Komoda, Akira; Uyeno, Teruya; Abe, Yoshitaka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the morphology and evolutionary origin of muscles in vertebrate limbs, we conducted anatomical dissections, computed tomography and kinematic analyses on the pectoral fin of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. We discovered nine antagonistic pairs of pronators and supinators that are anatomically and functionally distinct from the abductor and adductor superficiales and profundi. In particular, the first pronator and supinator pair represents mono- and biarticular muscles; a portion of the muscle fibers is attached to ridges on the humerus and is separated into two monoarticular muscles, whereas, as a biarticular muscle, the main body is inserted into the radius by crossing two joints from the shoulder girdle. This pair, consisting of a pronator and supinator, constitutes a muscle arrangement equivalent to two human antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod between the shoulder and elbow joints. Our recent kinesiological and biomechanical engineering studies on human limbs have demonstrated that two antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod (1) coordinately control output force and force direction at the wrist and ankle and (2) achieve a contact task to carry out weight-bearing motion and maintain stable posture. Therefore, along with dissections of the pectoral fins in two lungfish species, Neoceratodus forsteri and Protopterus aethiopicus, we discuss the functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods. Anat Rec, 299:1203-1223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27343022

  9. Response of a benthic suspension feeder ( Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) to three centuries of anthropogenic eutrophication in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Michael X.; Miller, Henry M.

    2005-03-01

    Biogenic reefs built by oysters and other suspension feeders are vital components of estuarine ecosystems. By consuming phytoplankton, suspension feeders act to suppress accumulation of organic matter in the water column. Nutrient loading increases the rate of primary production, thereby causing eutrophication. As suspension feeders consume more organic matter from increasing abundance of phytoplankton, their rate of growth should also increase if they are food limited. We show here that the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), from St. Mary's and Patuxent rivers, Chesapeake Bay, grew faster during anthropogenic eutrophication relative to C. virginica before eutrophication. Growth of shell height, shell thickness and adductor muscle increased after eutrophication began in the late 18th century. After 1860, growth decreased, perhaps reflecting the negative effects of hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, disease and fishing on oyster growth. These results are consistent with the view that an increasing supply of phytoplankton resulting from eutrophication enhanced growth of C. virginica between 1760 and 1860, before oyster reefs were degraded by destructive fishing practices between 1870 and 1930. Alternative factors, such as changes in water temperature, salinity, and fishing are less likely to be responsible for this pattern. These results have implications for restoration of oyster reefs in order to mitigate the effects of eutrophication in estuaries, as well as the paleoecological relationship between suspension feeders and paleoproductivity.

  10. Dynamic light-scattering evidence for the flexibility of native muscle thin filaments.

    PubMed

    Newman, J; Carlson, F D

    1980-01-01

    We have obtained clear evidence for the flexibility of native scallop adductor thin filaments by studying the temperature and ionic strength dependence of the average decay constants obtained from intensity fluctuation spectroscopic (IFS) measurements. The low-angle (10-25 degrees ), average decay constants obtained from time autocorrelation functions of scattered light were independent of concentration (0.08-1.3 mg/ml), scaled with the ratio of temperature to solvent viscosity, T/eta, over a range of 4-45 degrees C, and yielded a value for the translational diffusion coefficient of D(T) (5 degrees C) = (1.24 +/- 0.06) x 10(-8) cm(2)/s. From this value and the Broersma relation for rigid rods, we find an average filament length of 1.06 +/- 0.06 mum. Quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that at high temperatures (> 35 degrees C) or in 0.6 M NaCl, tropomyosin completely dissociates from native thin filaments. Decay constants from high-angle (60-150 degrees C) IFS temperature dependence measurements do not scale with T/eta and hence do not show the temperature dependence expected for rigid rods. The differences are not due to any change in length distribution of filaments with temperature or to the free tropomyosin in solution, but are attributed to nonrigid motions of the filaments. Similar experiments on samples in high- and low-salt solvents gave results consistent with this interpretation. PMID:6894870

  11. Exercise program for prevention of groin pain in football players: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hölmich, P; Larsen, K; Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C

    2010-12-01

    Groin injuries cause major problems in sports and particularly in football. Exercise is effective in treating adductor-related groin pain, but no trials have been published regarding the specific prevention of groin pain or prevention specifically targeting overuse injuries in sport using exercise programs. We performed a cluster-randomized trial including 55 football clubs representing 1211 players. The clubs were randomized to an exercise program aimed at preventing groin injuries (n=27) or to a control group training as usual (n=28). The intervention program consisted of six exercises including strengthening (concentric and eccentric), coordination, and core stability exercises for the muscles related to the pelvis. Physiotherapists assigned to each club registered all groin injuries. Twenty-two clubs in each group completed the study, represented by 977 players. There was no significant effect of the intervention (HR=0.69, 95% CI 0.40-1.19). The risk of a groin injury was reduced by 31%, but this reduction was not significant. A univariate analysis showed that having had a previous groin injury almost doubles the risk of developing a new groin injury and playing at a higher level almost triples the risk of developing a groin injury. PMID:19883386

  12. Understanding Vrikshasana using body mounted sensors: A statistical approach

    PubMed Central

    Yelluru, Suhas Niranjan; Shanbhag, Ranjith Ravindra; Omkar, SN

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A scheme for understanding how the human body organizes postural movements while performing Vrikshasana is developed in the format of this paper. Settings and Design: The structural characteristics of the body and the geometry of the muscular actions are incorporated into a graphical representation of the human movement mechanics in the frontal plane. A series of neural organizational hypotheses enables us to understand the mechanics behind the hip and ankle strategy: (1) Body sway in the mediolateral direction; and (2) influence of hip and ankle to correct instabilities caused in body while performing Vrikshasana. Materials and Methods: A methodological study on 10 participants was performed by mounting four inertial measurement units on the surface of the trapezius, thoracolumbar fascia, vastus lateralis, and gastrocnemius muscles. The kinematic accelerations of three mutually exclusive trials were recorded for a period of 30 s. Results: The results of every trial were processed using two different approaches namely statistical signal processing (variance and cross-correlation). Conclusions obtained from both these studies were in favor of the initial hypothesis. Conclusions: This study enabled us to understand the role of hip abductors and adductors, and ankle extensions and flexions in correcting the posture while performing Vrikshasana. PMID:26865765

  13. Doha agreement meeting on terminology and definitions in groin pain in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Adam; Brukner, Peter; Delahunt, Eamonn; Ekstrand, Jan; Griffin, Damian; Khan, Karim M; Lovell, Greg; Meyers, William C; Muschaweck, Ulrike; Orchard, John; Paajanen, Hannu; Philippon, Marc; Reboul, Gilles; Robinson, Philip; Schache, Anthony G; Schilders, Ernest; Serner, Andreas; Silvers, Holly; Thorborg, Kristian; Tyler, Timothy; Verrall, Geoffrey; de Vos, Robert-Jan; Vuckovic, Zarko; Hölmich, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background Heterogeneous taxonomy of groin injuries in athletes adds confusion to this complicated area. Aim The ‘Doha agreement meeting on terminology and definitions in groin pain in athletes’ was convened to attempt to resolve this problem. Our aim was to agree on a standard terminology, along with accompanying definitions. Methods A one-day agreement meeting was held on 4 November 2014. Twenty-four international experts from 14 different countries participated. Systematic reviews were performed to give an up-to-date synthesis of the current evidence on major topics concerning groin pain in athletes. All members participated in a Delphi questionnaire prior to the meeting. Results Unanimous agreement was reached on the following terminology. The classification system has three major subheadings of groin pain in athletes: 1. Defined clinical entities for groin pain: Adductor-related, iliopsoas-related, inguinal-related and pubic-related groin pain. 2. Hip-related groin pain. 3. Other causes of groin pain in athletes. The definitions are included in this paper. Conclusions The Doha agreement meeting on terminology and definitions in groin pain in athletes reached a consensus on a clinically based taxonomy using three major categories. These definitions and terminology are based on history and physical examination to categorise athletes, making it simple and suitable for both clinical practice and research. PMID:26031643

  14. The retro-articular process, streptostyly and the caecilian jaw closing system.

    PubMed

    Summers, Adam P; Wake, Marvalee H

    2005-01-01

    Caecilians have two functionally separate sets of jaw closing muscles. The jaw adductor muscles are parallel fibered muscles positioned close to the jaw joint and their lever mechanics suggests they are well suited to rapidly closing the jaws. A second set of muscles, the hypaxial interhyoideus posterior (IHP), levers the jaws closed by pulling on the retro-articular process (RA) of the lower jaw. Models of the lower jaw point out that the angle and length of the RA has a profound effect on the closure force exerted by the IHP. The caecilian skull is streptostylic - the quadrate-squamosal apparatus (QSA) moves relative to the rest of the skull, a condition that seems at odds with a well-ossified cranium. Modeling the contribution of this streptostylic suspension of the lower jaw shows that rotational freedom of the QSA amplifies the force of the IHP by redirecting force applied along the low axis of the lower jaw. Measurements from several species and life stages of preserved caecilians reveal a large variation in predicted bite force (as a multiple of IHP force) with age and phylogeny. PMID:16351979

  15. [Skeletal muscle magnetic resonance imaging study in a patient with diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Nozomu; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    A 63-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus developed deep aching and numbness in the right hip and lower extremity with rapid body weight loss. Neurological examination revealed weakness of the right hamstrings, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus muscles with diminished ankle tendon reflex. We diagnosed him with diabetic lumbosacral radicuoloplexus neuropathy (DLRPN) based on neurological, radiological, and neurophysiological findings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of skeletal muscles showed high intensity signals on T2-weighted images in bilateral hamstrings, adductor magnus and right tensor fasciae latae, and lower leg extensor muscles. The MRI findings suggested muscle edema caused by acute denervation. DLRPN, or diabetic amyotrophy, is known to be caused by ischemic axonal degeneration. Our patient showed good functional recovery, and abnormal MRI signals in the involved muscles mostly disappeared in parallel to the clinical course. Distribution of the denervated muscles suggested that our patient had either patchy lesions in the lumbosacaral plexus or mononeuropathy multiplex in the nerve branches. The current study highlights the potential of skeletal muscle MRI for clinical evaluation of DLRPN. PMID:25283832

  16. The Effects of Biting and Pulling on the Forces Generated during Feeding in the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis)

    PubMed Central

    D'Amore, Domenic C.; Moreno, Karen; McHenry, Colin R.; Wroe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In addition to biting, it has been speculated that the forces resulting from pulling on food items may also contribute to feeding success in carnivorous vertebrates. We present an in vivo analysis of both bite and pulling forces in Varanus komodoensis, the Komodo dragon, to determine how they contribute to feeding behavior. Observations of cranial modeling and behavior suggest that V. komodoensis feeds using bite force supplemented by pulling in the caudal/ventrocaudal direction. We tested these observations using force gauges/transducers to measure biting and pulling forces. Maximum bite force correlates with both body mass and total body length, likely due to increased muscle mass. Individuals showed consistent behaviors when biting, including the typical medial-caudal head rotation. Pull force correlates best with total body length, longer limbs and larger postcranial motions. None of these forces correlated well with head dimensions. When pulling, V. komodoensis use neck and limb movements that are associated with increased caudal and ventral oriented force. Measured bite force in Varanus komodoensis is similar to several previous estimations based on 3D models, but is low for its body mass relative to other vertebrates. Pull force, especially in the ventrocaudal direction, would allow individuals to hunt and deflesh with high success without the need of strong jaw adductors. In future studies, pull forces need to be considered for a complete understanding of vertebrate carnivore feeding dynamics. PMID:22028837

  17. The effects of biting and pulling on the forces generated during feeding in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Domenic C; Moreno, Karen; McHenry, Colin R; Wroe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In addition to biting, it has been speculated that the forces resulting from pulling on food items may also contribute to feeding success in carnivorous vertebrates. We present an in vivo analysis of both bite and pulling forces in Varanus komodoensis, the Komodo dragon, to determine how they contribute to feeding behavior. Observations of cranial modeling and behavior suggest that V. komodoensis feeds using bite force supplemented by pulling in the caudal/ventrocaudal direction. We tested these observations using force gauges/transducers to measure biting and pulling forces. Maximum bite force correlates with both body mass and total body length, likely due to increased muscle mass. Individuals showed consistent behaviors when biting, including the typical medial-caudal head rotation. Pull force correlates best with total body length, longer limbs and larger postcranial motions. None of these forces correlated well with head dimensions. When pulling, V. komodoensis use neck and limb movements that are associated with increased caudal and ventral oriented force. Measured bite force in Varanus komodoensis is similar to several previous estimations based on 3D models, but is low for its body mass relative to other vertebrates. Pull force, especially in the ventrocaudal direction, would allow individuals to hunt and deflesh with high success without the need of strong jaw adductors. In future studies, pull forces need to be considered for a complete understanding of vertebrate carnivore feeding dynamics. PMID:22028837

  18. Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D'Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor

    2008-06-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate 'space-frame' skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics. PMID:18510503

  19. Recovery from mivacurium-induced neuromuscular blockade is not affected by anticonvulsant therapy.

    PubMed

    Jellish, W S; Thalji, Z; Brundidge, P K; Tempelhoff, R

    1996-01-01

    Long-term chronic anticonvulsant therapy produces a resistance to the effects of all nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents studied to date. Since the metabolism of mivacurium is unique among the nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents, the effect of anticonvulsants on its recovery parameters was examined. Forty-five patients were separated into three groups based on the number of chronic anticonvulsant medications the subjects were taking: subjects in group 1, the control group, took no anticonvulsant medication; group 2 subjects took one medication; and group 3 subjects took two medications. Mivacurium, 0.15 mg/kg i.v., was administered after induction of general anesthesia with thiopental sodium, 4-6 mg/kg, and fentanyl 2-4 micrograms/kg i.v. Maintenance anesthesia consisted of N2O in O2. 0.2-0.3% end-tidal isoflurane, and a fentanyl infusion. The evoked compound electromyograph (ECEMG) of the adductor pollicis-brevis muscle was measured for time of onset, T-1 (time at which ECEMG signal reaches 5, 25, 50, and 75% of baseline), TR (TOF ratio), and recovery index. T-1 at 25% was 18.2 +/- 1.8, 20.7 +/- 1.9, and 21.5 +/- 1.4 min for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with TR at 25% being 23.7 +/- 2.3, 26.9 +/- 2.4, and 27.3 +/- 2.3 min. No significant differences were noted in neuromuscular recovery between groups at any time point. These results fail to demonstrate the resistance to the nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockade of mivacurium that has been observed with other nondepolarizing agents. PMID:8719185

  20. Validation of the flooding dose technique to determine fractional rates of protein synthesis in a model bivalve species, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.).

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Ian D; Nicholls, Ruth; Malham, Shelagh K; Whiteley, Nia M

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, use of the flooding dose technique using (3)H-Phenylalanine is validated for measuring whole-animal and tissue-specific rates of protein synthesis in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (61mm shell length; 4.0g fresh body mass). Following injection, the phenylalanine-specific radioactivities in the gill, mantle and whole-animal free pools were elevated within one hour and remained elevated and stable for up to 6h following injection of (3)H-phenylalanine into the posterior adductor muscle. Incorporation of (3)H-phenylalanine into body protein was linear over time following injection and the non-significant intercepts for the regressions suggested incorporation into body protein occurred rapidly after injection. These results validate the technique for measuring rates of protein synthesis in mussels. There were no differences in the calculated rates following 1-6h incubation in gill, mantle or whole-animal and fractional rates of protein synthesis from the combined time course data were 9.5±0.8%d(-1) for the gill, 2.5±0.3%d(-1) for the mantle and 2.6±0.3%d(-1) for the whole-animal, respectively (mean values±SEM). The whole-animal absolute rate of protein synthesis was calculated as 18.9±0.6mg protein day(-1). The use of this technique in measuring one of the major components of maintenance metabolism and growth will provide a valuable and convenient tool in furthering our understanding of the protein metabolism and energetics of this keystone marine invertebrate and its ability to adjust and respond to fluctuations, such as that expected as a result of climate change. PMID:26497279

  1. From fish to modern humans--comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral and forelimb musculature.

    PubMed

    Diogo, R; Abdala, V; Aziz, M A; Lonergan, N; Wood, B A

    2009-05-01

    In a recent study Diogo & Abdala [(2007) J Morphol 268, 504-517] reported the results of the first part of a research project on the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish and tetrapods). That report mainly focused on actinopterygian fish but also compared these fish with certain non-mammalian sarcopterygians. This study, which reports the second part of the research project, focuses mainly on sarcopterygians and particularly on how the pectoral and forelimb muscles have evolved during the transitions from sarcopterygian fish and non-mammalian tetrapods to monotreme and therian mammals and humans. The data obtained by our own dissections of all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of representative members of groups as diverse as sarcopterygian fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes and therian mammals such as rodents, tree-shrews, colugos and primates, including humans, are compared with the information available in the literature. Our observations and comparisons clearly stress that, with regard to the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles, the most striking transition within sarcopterygian evolutionary history was that leading to the origin of tetrapods. Whereas extant sarcopterygian fish have an abductor and adductor of the fin and a largely undifferentiated hypaxial and epaxial musculature, extant salamanders such as Ambystoma have more than 40 pectoral and forelimb muscles. There is no clear increase in the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles within the evolutionary transition that led to the origin of mammals and surely not to that leading to the origin of primates and humans. PMID:19438764

  2. Evolutionary origin of the turtle skull.

    PubMed

    Bever, G S; Lyson, Tyler R; Field, Daniel J; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S

    2015-09-10

    Transitional fossils informing the origin of turtles are among the most sought-after discoveries in palaeontology. Despite strong genomic evidence indicating that turtles evolved from within the diapsid radiation (which includes all other living reptiles), evidence of the inferred transformation between an ancestral turtle with an open, diapsid skull to the closed, anapsid condition of modern turtles remains elusive. Here we use high-resolution computed tomography and a novel character/taxon matrix to study the skull of Eunotosaurus africanus, a 260-million-year-old fossil reptile from the Karoo Basin of South Africa, whose distinctive postcranial skeleton shares many unique features with the shelled body plan of turtles. Scepticism regarding the status of Eunotosaurus as the earliest stem turtle arises from the possibility that these shell-related features are the products of evolutionary convergence. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate strong cranial support for Eunotosaurus as a critical transitional form in turtle evolution, thus fortifying a 40-million-year extension to the turtle stem and moving the ecological context of its origin back onto land. Furthermore, we find unexpected evidence that Eunotosaurus is a diapsid reptile in the process of becoming secondarily anapsid. This is important because categorizing the skull based on the number of openings in the complex of dermal bone covering the adductor chamber has long held sway in amniote systematics, and still represents a common organizational scheme for teaching the evolutionary history of the group. These discoveries allow us to articulate a detailed and testable hypothesis of fenestral closure along the turtle stem. Our results suggest that Eunotosaurus represents a crucially important link in a chain that will eventually lead to consilience in reptile systematics, paving the way for synthetic studies of amniote evolution and development. PMID:26331544

  3. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Elrod, Clay; Hicks, Michelle

    2008-11-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered carnivore living in the temperate forests of the Himalayas and southern China. The phylogeny of the red panda has been the subject of much debate. Morphological and molecular studies have supported a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids, and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for Ailurus. The hindlimbs of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park were dissected. Red pandas retain a number of muscles lost in other carnivore groups, including muscles and tendons related to their robust and weight-bearing hallux. Three features, including a single-bellied m. sartorius, a proximal insertion for m. abductor digiti V, and an absent m. articularis coxae, are found in all terrestrial arctoids, including Ailurus. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and canids in lacking a caudal belly of m. semitendinosus, while they resemble procyonids and mustelids in the degree of fusion observed between mm. gluteus medius and piriformis. Furthermore, Ailurus and procyonids are characterized by numerous subdivisions within the adductor compartment, while red pandas and raccoons share a variable m. semimembranosus, composed of one, two, or three bellies. Lastly, a deep plantar muscle inserting onto the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux is described for Ailurus. This muscle has not been previously described and is given the name m. flexor hallucis profundus. Additional dissections of the forelimb and axial musculature of red pandas may shed further light on the phylogeny of this species. In addition, the muscle maps presented here offer a valuable resource for interpreting the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids. PMID:19014366

  4. Thermal Reaction Norms and the Scale of Temperature Variation: Latitudinal Vulnerability of Intertidal Nacellid Limpets to Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Morley, Simon A.; Martin, Stephanie M.; Day, Robert W.; Ericson, Jess; Lai, Chien-Houng; Lamare, Miles; Tan, Koh-Siang; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Peck, Lloyd S.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal reaction norms of 4 closely related intertidal Nacellid limpets, Antarctic (Nacella concinna), New Zealand (Cellana ornata), Australia (C. tramoserica) and Singapore (C. radiata), were compared across environments with different temperature magnitude, variability and predictability, to test their relative vulnerability to different scales of climate warming. Lethal limits were measured alongside a newly developed metric of “duration tenacity”, which was tested at different temperatures to calculate the thermal reaction norm of limpet adductor muscle fatigue. Except in C. tramoserica which had a wide optimum range with two break points, duration tenacity did not follow a typical aerobic capacity curve but was best described by a single break point at an optimum temperature. Thermal reaction norms were shifted to warmer temperatures in warmer environments; the optimum temperature for tenacity (Topt) increased from 1.0°C (N. concinna) to 14.3°C (C. ornata) to 18.0°C (an average for the optimum range of C. tramoserica) to 27.6°C (C. radiata). The temperature limits for duration tenacity of the 4 species were most consistently correlated with both maximum sea surface temperature and summer maximum in situ habitat logger temperature. Tropical C. radiata, which lives in the least variable and most predictable environment, generally had the lowest warming tolerance and thermal safety margin (WT and TSM; respectively the thermal buffer of CTmax and Topt over habitat temperature). However, the two temperate species, C. ornata and C. tramoserica, which live in a variable and seasonally unpredictable microhabitat, had the lowest TSM relative to in situ logger temperature. N. concinna which lives in the most variable, but seasonally predictable microhabitat, generally had the highest TSMs. Intertidal animals live at the highly variable interface between terrestrial and marine biomes and even small changes in the magnitude and predictability of their

  5. Congruence between muscle activity and kinematics in a convergently derived prey-processing behavior.

    PubMed

    Konow, Nicolai; Camp, Ariel L; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2008-08-01

    Quantification of anatomical and physiological characteristics of the function of a musculoskeletal system may yield a detailed understanding of how the organizational levels of morphology, biomechanics, kinematics, and muscle activity patterns (MAPs) influence behavioral diversity. Using separate analyses of these organizational levels in representative study taxa, we sought patterns of congruence in how organizational levels drive behavioral modulation in a novel raking prey-processing behavior found in teleosts belonging to two evolutionarily distinct lineages. Biomechanically divergent prey (elusive, robust goldfish and sedentary, malleable earthworms) were fed to knifefish, Chitala ornata (Osteoglossomorpha) and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Salmoniformes). Electromyography recorded MAPs from the hyoid protractor, jaw adductor, sternohyoideus, epaxialis, and hypaxialis musculature, while sonomicrometry sampled deep basihyal kinesis and contractile length dynamics in the basihyal protractor and retractor muscles. Syntheses of our results with recent analyses of cranial morphology and raking kinematics showed that raking in Salvelinus relies on an elongated cranial out lever, extensive cranial elevation and a curved cleithrobranchial ligament (CBL), and that both raking MAPs and kinematics remain entirely unmodulated-a highly unusual trait, particularly among feeding generalists. Chitala had a shorter CBL and a raking power stroke involving increased retraction of the elongated pectoral girdle during raking on goldfish. The raking MAP was also modulated in Chitala, involving an extensive overlap between muscle activity of the preparatory and power stroke phases, driven by shifts in hypaxial timing and recruitment of the hyoid protractor muscle. Sonomicrometry revealed that the protractor hyoideus muscle stored energy from retraction of the pectoral girdle for ca. 5-20 ms after onset of the power stroke and then hyper-extended. This mechanism of elastic

  6. Change in pitching biomechanics in the late-inning in Taiwanese high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Pei-Hsi Chou, Paul; Huang, Yen-Po; Gu, Yi-Hsuan; Liu, Chiang; Chen, Shen-Kai; Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Lin, Hwai-Ting

    2015-06-01

    Repetitive overhead throwing may result in overuse injuries and a change in the pitching mechanics of a baseball pitcher. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to quantify the changes in the muscle strength and pitching motion kinematics in the late-innings stage of a baseball game. Sixteen healthy baseball pitchers (16.77 ± 0.73 years) recruited from a high school, which won the National High School Baseball Championship in Taiwan in 2011; each performed 100 pitches in a bullpen throwing session. Isometric muscle strength measurements and joint kinematic data were obtained before and after the throwing session. The mean Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion index was found to have a value of 14.14, indicating a medium-to-large degree of perceived tiredness. The results showed that the ball velocity and horizontal abduction angle decreased significantly as the pitchers became tired. Moreover, the upper torso forward tilt and knee flexion angle both increased significantly at the moment of ball release. Finally, the muscle strength of the upper extremity remained decreased 2 days after the bullpen throwing session. Overall, the results suggest that an adequate amount of rest and specific strengthening programs for the shoulder external rotator, shoulder internal rotator, shoulder flexor, shoulder extensor, shoulder adductor, and shoulder abductor muscles are recommended to the coaches and for adolescent baseball pitchers. In addition, the changes in pitching mechanics noted in this study should be carefully monitored during the course of a baseball game to minimize the risk for overuse injuries. PMID:25474340

  7. Analysis of ipsilateral and bilateral ratios in male amateur golfers.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Yoon; Park, Jae-Wan; Lee, Chan-Bok; Eun, Denny; Jang, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Jin; Hyun, Gwang-Suk; Park, Jung-Min; Cha, Jun-Youl; Cho, Nam-Heung; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jin, Jun-Jang; Jin, Yong-Yun; Ham, Do-Woong; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-04-01

    The number of injuries that force golfers to quit is also increasing. In particular, the upper body injuries are concerns for amateur golfers. This study was conducted not only to investigate muscular balance, such as ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the upper body, but to also evaluate the possible problems of muscular joints in amateur golfers. Male golfers (n=10) and a healthy control group (n=10) were recruited for the assessment of muscular function in the upper body, which was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/sec. The tested parts were trunk, wrist, forearm, elbow, and shoulder joints. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the significance of the differences between groups. The ipsilateral ratios of peak torque or work per repetition (WR) of trunk flexor and extensor in the golfers were not significantly different compared to those of the control group. These results were similar to the shoulder horizontal abductor and adductor. However, there were significant differences in the ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the wrist, forearm, and elbow joints. Especially, the WR of the wrist flexor, forearm pronator, and elbow flexor on the left side of amateur golfers showed imbalances in bilateral ratios. Moreover, the WR of the wrist and elbow flexors on the left side of amateur golfers were lower than those of the wrist and elbow extensors. Therefore, amateur golfers should strive to prevent injuries of the wrist, forearm, and elbow joints and to reinforce the endurance on those parts of the left side. PMID:27162771

  8. Individual muscle contributions to circular turning mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-04-13

    Turning is an activity of daily living that involves both the acceleration of the body center-of-mass (COM) towards the center of curvature and rotation of the pelvis towards the new heading. The purpose of this study was to understand which muscles contribute to turning using experimentation, musculoskeletal modeling and simulation. Ten healthy adults consented to walk around a 1-m radius circular path at their self-selected walking speed and then along a straight line at the same speed. Forward dynamics simulations of the individual subjects during the turning and straight-line walking tasks were generated to identify the contributions of individual muscle groups to the body mediolateral and anterior-posterior COM acceleration impulse and to the pelvis angular acceleration impulse. The stance leg gluteus medius and ankle plantarflexor muscles and the swing leg adductor muscles were the primary contributors to redirect the body's COM relative to straight-line walking. In some cases, contributions to mediolateral COM acceleration were modulated through changes in leg orientation rather than through changes in muscle force. While modulation of the muscle contributions generally occurred in both the inner and outer legs, greater changes were observed during inner single-leg support than during outer single-leg support. Total pelvis angular acceleration was minimal during the single-support phase, but the swing leg muscles contributed significantly to balancing the internal and external rotation of the pelvis. The understanding of which muscles contribute to turning the body during walking may help guide the development of more effective locomotor therapies for those with movement impairments. PMID:25700608

  9. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate attenuates cytokine response during sustained military training.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Gepner, Yiftach; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Mattan W; Ben-Dov, Daniel; Funk, Shany; Daimont, Ido; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Church, David D; Shelef, Ilan; Rosen, Philip; Avital, Guy; Chen, Yacov; Frankel, Hagai; Ostfeld, Ishay

    2016-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that of 23 days of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation can maintain muscle mass and attenuate the immune and inflammatory response in combat soldiers during highly intense military training. Soldiers were randomly assigned to either a HMB (n = 6) or placebo (PL; n = 7) group and provided with 3 g · day(-1) of either HMB or PL. During the final week of supplementation soldiers participated in extreme physical training, which included night navigation of 6-8 hours across difficult terrain carrying heavy loads combined with sleep deprivation (3.8 ± 3.0 h per night). Blood draws were performed prior to and following the supplementation period. Magnetic resonance imaging, which included diffusion tensor imaging sequence, was used for muscle fiber tracking analysis. Data was analyzed using a two-way mixed factorial analysis of variance. Magnitude-based inferences were used to provide inferences on the true effects that HMB may have had on the dependent variables compared to PL, calculated from 90% confidence intervals. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-α for HMB (-3.9 ± 8.2 pg · mL(-1)) were significantly lower (P = .043) compared to the change in PL (+4.0 ± 3.7 pg · mL(-1)). HMB ingestion was also very likely (92%-95% Likelihood) to lower granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin 10 compared to PL. In addition, HMB supplementation was likely (78%-87% likelihood) to reduce interferon-γ, interleukin 8, CX3CL1, and increase muscle volume for the adductor magnus (77% likelihood) compared to PL. In summary, the results of this study provides evidence that HMB supplementation may attenuate the inflammatory response to high intense military training, and maintain muscle quality. PMID:27188901

  10. Finite element analysis of performance in the skulls of marmosets and tamarins

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Elizabeth R; Davis, Julian L; Grosse, Ian R; Burrows, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Reliance on plant exudates is a relatively rare dietary specialization among mammals. One well-studied example of closely related exudate feeders is the New World marmosets and tamarins. Whereas marmosets actively gouge tree bark with their incisors to stimulate the flow of sap, tamarins are opportunistic exudate feeders that do not gouge bark. Several studies of the dentaries and jaw adductors indicate that marmosets exhibit specializations for increased gape at the expense of bite force. Few studies, however, have looked to the cranium of marmosets for evidence of functional specializations. Using 3D finite element models of the marmoset Callithrix jacchus and the tamarin Saguinus fuscicollis, we investigated the performance of the cranium under loading regimes that mimicked unilateral molar biting and bark-gouging. We investigated three measures of performance: the efficiency with which muscle force is transferred to bite force, the extent to which the models are stressed (a predictor of failure), and the work expended by muscles as they deform the skull (total strain energy). We found that during molar biting the two models exhibited similar levels of performance, though the Saguinus model had slightly higher mechanical efficiency, a slightly lower state of stress, and expended more energy on deformation. In contrast, under the bark-gouging load, Callithrix exhibited much higher mechanical efficiency than Saguinas, but did so at the expense of more work and higher levels of von Mises stress. This analysis illustrates that differences in the shapes of the skulls of Callithrix and Saguinus confer differences in performance. Whether these aspects of performance are targets of selection awaits broader comparative analyses. PMID:20572898

  11. Physiological attributes of vocal fatigue and their acoustic effects: a synthesis of findings for a criterion-based prevention of acquired voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Victor J; Ayad, Tareck

    2010-05-01

    The lack of a physiological definition of "vocal fatigue" is a central problem in prevention research that seeks to identify effects of voice effort and acoustic signs of potential vocal fold lesions. This report presents a three-part synthesis of electromyographic (EMG) and acoustic observations from a study that served to define physiological features of vocal fatigue. The study used a technique of EMG to show that, contrary to views that laryngeal tissues are largely nonfatiguable, voice effort induces spectral compression in the contraction potentials of glottal adductors typically associated with muscle fatigue. In subsequent analyses, these observable attributes served to identify, in seven subjects with widely differing profiles, consistent signs of voice tremor and effects of vocal loading on the voice apparatus. Given the novel character of this criterion-based approach, the first part (section "The Rationale of Electromyographic Observations of Fatigue") describes the EMG technique and its usefulness in observing in vivo effects of vocal loading. The second part (section "Acoustic Signs of Fatigue in Muscles Involved in Voicing") summarizes the results of a test that served to determine whether the identified signs of tremor reflect muscle fatigue induced by voice effort or by "general fatigue" associated with waking hours. The third part (section "Compensatory Stabilization of Tremor and Effects of 'Critical Fatigue'") presents the results of analyses of compensatory effects in three laryngeal muscles by reference to EMG observations of one subject in conditions of vocal loading. Taken together, the results illustrate the benefits of an approach based on objective criterion changes in muscle fatigue and show that valid tremor signs may, nonetheless, be sporadic, given the varying compensatory behavior of muscles in fatiguing conditions. PMID:19321298

  12. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  13. Effects of microgravity on muscle and cerebral cortex: a suggested interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Wu, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.

    The ``slow'' antigravity muscle adductor longus was studied in rats after 14 days of spaceflight (SF). The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light and electron microscopy revealed myofiber atrophy, segmental necrosis and regenerative myofibers. Regenerative myofibers were N-CAM immunoreactive (N-CAM-IR). The neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degenerative changes, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. No alterations of muscle spindles was seen either by light or electron microscopy. These observations suggest that muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight. In a separate study, GABA immunoreactivity (GABA-IR) was evaluated at the level of the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension (``simulated'' microgravity). A reduction in number of GABA-immunoreactive cells with respect to the control animals was observed in layer Va and Vb. GABA-IR terminals were also reduced in the same layers, particularly those terminals surrounding the soma and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer Vb. On the basis of previous morphological and behavioral studies of the neuromuscular system after spaceflight and hindlimb suspension it is suggested that after limb unloading there are alterations of afferent signaling and feedback information from intramuscular receptors to the cerebral cortex due to modifications in the reflex organization of hindlimb muscle groups. We propose that the changes observed in GABA immunoreactivity of cells and terminals is an expression of changes in their modulatory activity to compensate for the alterations in the afferent information.

  14. Giant Upper Cretaceous oysters from the Gulf coast and Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Norman F.; Kauffman, Erle G.

    1964-01-01

    Two unusually massive ostreid species, representing the largest and youngest Mesozoic members of their respective lineages, occur in Upper Cretaceous sediment of the gulf coast and Caribbean areas. Their characteristics and significance, as well as the morphologic terminology of ostreids in general, are discussed. Crassostrea cusseta Sohl and Kauffman n. sp. is the largest known ostreid from Mesozoic rocks of North America; it occurs sporadically in the Cusseta Sand and rarely in the Blufftown Formation of the Chattahoochee River region in Georgia and Alabama. It is especially notable in that it lacks a detectable posterior adductor muscle scar on large adult shells. C. cusseta is the terminal Cretaceous member of the C. soleniscus lineage in gulf coast sediments; the lineage continues, however, with little basic modification, throughout the Cenozoic, being represented in the Eocene by C. gigantissima (Finch) and probably, in modern times, by C. virginica (Gmelin). The C. soleniscus lineage is the first typically modern crassostreid group recognized in the Mesozoic. Arctostrea aguilerae (Böse) occurs in Late Campanian and Early Maestrichtian sediments of Alabama, Mississippi, Texas(?), Mexico, and Cuba. The mature shell of this species is larger and more massive than that of any other known arctostreid. Arctostrea is well represented throughout the Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous of Europe, but in North America, despite the great numbers and diversity of Cretaceous oysters, only A. aguilerae and the Albian form A. carinata are known. The presence of A. aquilerae in both the Caribbean and gulf coast faunas is exceptional, as the Late Cretaceous faunas of these provinces are generally distinct and originated in different faunal realms.

  15. The 6-minute walk test, motor function measure and quantitative thigh muscle MRI in Becker muscular dystrophy: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dirk; Hafner, Patricia; Rubino, Daniela; Schmid, Maurice; Neuhaus, Cornelia; Jung, Hans; Bieri, Oliver; Haas, Tanja; Gloor, Monika; Fischmann, Arne; Bonati, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) has an incidence of 1 in 16 000 male births. This cross-sectional study investigated the relation between validated functional scores and quantitative MRI (qMRI) of thigh muscles in 20 ambulatory BMD patients, aged 18.3-60 years (mean 31.2; SD 11.1). Clinical assessments included the motor function measure (MFM) and its subscales, as well as timed function tests such as the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and the timed 10-m run/walk test. Quantitative MRI of the thigh muscles included the mean fat fraction (MFF) using a 2-point Dixon (2-PD) technique, and transverse relaxation time (T2) measurements. The mean MFM value was 80.4%, SD 9.44 and the D1 subscore 54.5%, SD 19.9. The median 6MWT was 195m, IQR 160-330.2. The median 10-m run/walk test was 7.4 seconds, IQR 6.1-9.3. The mean fat fraction of the thigh muscles was 55.6%, SD 17.4%, mean T2 relaxation times of all muscles: 69.9 ms, SD 14.4. The flexors had the highest MFF and T2 relaxation times, followed by the extensors and the adductors. MFF and global T2 relaxation times were highly negatively correlated with the MFM total, D1-subscore and 6MWT, and positively correlated with the 10 m run/walk test time (p < 0.01). Age was not correlated with MFF, global T2 relaxation time or clinical assessments. Both MFF and T2 measures in the thigh muscle were well correlated with clinical function in BMD and may serve as a surrogate outcome measure in clinical trials. PMID:27209345

  16. Knee kinetics during walking at different speeds in people who have undergone total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Jodie A; Webster, Kate E; Feller, Julian A; Menz, Hylton B

    2010-06-01

    Previous research suggests that most people who have undergone total knee replacement (TKR) walk with a sagittal knee moment profile and peak knee moments that are different from normal. However, most previous research has consisted of small samples of patients with prostheses that are no longer in use. The aim of this study was to compare the peak knee moments and patterns of the moment waveforms of walking at different speeds between a large cohort of TKR patients with the Genesis-II PS prosthesis (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, USA) and matched control participants. Forty patients 12months following TKR and 40 control participants were assessed during walking at self-selected comfortable and fast speeds using motion analysis. Individual sagittal plane knee moment graphs were assessed for the presence of a biphasic pattern. Peak sagittal and coronal plane knee moments were compared between groups using a univariate ANOVA with walking speed as a covariate. A biphasic moment pattern was present in 87% and 92% of TKR patients when walking at comfortable and fast speeds, respectively. The knee flexor (p<0.001 at both speeds), extensor (p=0.004 at comfortable speed and p<0.001 at fast speed) and adductor (p<0.001 at both speeds) moments were reduced in the TKR patients. The high proportion of TKR patients with biphasic moment patterns was unexpected, but suggests that modern prostheses can result in more normal outcomes. Nonetheless, the peak knee moments of patients were reduced compared to controls. Although these reductions may be beneficial to the survival of the prosthesis, these abnormalities may also indicate suboptimal functional outcome from TKR. PMID:20510613

  17. Femoral strain during walking predicted with muscle forces from static and dynamic optimization.

    PubMed

    Edwards, W Brent; Miller, Ross H; Derrick, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical strain plays an important role in skeletal health, and the ability to accurately and noninvasively quantify bone strain in vivo may be used to develop preventive measures that improve bone quality and decrease fracture risk. A non-invasive estimation of bone strain requires combined musculoskeletal - finite element modeling, for which the applied muscle forces are usually obtained from static optimization (SO) methods. In this study, we compared finite element predicted femoral strains in walking using muscle forces obtained from SO to those obtained from forward dynamics (FD) simulation. The general trends in strain distributions were similar between FD and SO derived conditions and both agreed well with previously reported in vivo strain gage measurements. On the other hand, differences in peak maximum (εmax) and minimum (εmin) principal strain magnitudes were as high as 32% between FD (εmax/εm