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Sample records for adductor muscle scar

  1. Extraction and Identification of the Pigment in the Adductor Muscle Scar of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lei; Li, Jian; Li, Zhonghu; Wang, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, UV (ultraviolet) and IR (infrared radiation) spectral analysis were integrated to identify the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The pigment was extracted from the adductor muscle scars of cleaned oyster shells that were pulverized, hydrolyzed in hot hydrochloric acid, purified with diethyl ether, and dissolved in 0.01 mL/L NaOH. The maximum absorption of the pigment in the UV absorption spectrum within the range of 190–500 nm was observed between 210–220 nm. The UV absorbance decreased with increasing wavelength which was consistent with the UV spectral absorption characteristics of melanin. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy scanning revealed characteristic absorption peaks that emerged near 3440 cm-1 and 1630 cm-1, which was consistent with infrared scanning features of eumelanin (a type of melanin). This study has demonstrated for the first time that the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster is melanin, hinting that the adductor muscle could be another organ pigmenting the mollusc shell with melanin other than mantle. PMID:26555720

  2. Adductor muscle strains in sport.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Stephen J; Tyler, Timothy F

    2002-01-01

    An in-season adductor muscle strain may be debilitating for the athlete. Furthermore, an adductor strain that is treated improperly could become chronic and career threatening. Any one of the six muscles of the adductor group could be involved. The degree of injury can range from a minor strain (Grade I), where minimal playing time is lost, to a severe strain (Grade III) in which there is complete loss of muscle function. Ice hockey and soccer players seem particularly susceptible to adductor muscle strains. In professional ice hockey players throughout the world, approximately 10% of all injuries are groin strains. These injuries, which have been linked to hip muscle weakness, previous injuries to that area, preseason practice sessions and level of experience, may be preventable if such risk factors can be addressed before each season. Hip-strengthening exercises were shown to be an effective method of reducing the incidence of adductor strains in one closely followed National Hockey League ice hockey team. Despite the identification of risk factors and strengthening intervention for ice hockey players, adductor strains continue to occur throughout sport. Clinicians feel an active training programme, along with completely restoring the strength of the adductor muscle group, is the key to successful rehabilitation. Surgical intervention is available if nonoperative treatment fails for 6 months or longer. Adductor release and tenotomy was reported to have limited success in athletes. PMID:11929360

  3. Isokinetic imbalance of adductor-abductor hip muscles in professional soccer players with chronic adductor-related groin pain.

    PubMed

    Belhaj, K; Meftah, S; Mahir, L; Lmidmani, F; Elfatimi, A

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to compare the isokinetic profile of hip abductor and adductor muscle groups between soccer players suffering from chronic adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), soccer players without ARGP and healthy volunteers from general population. Study included 36 male professional soccer players, who were randomly selected and followed-up over two years. Of the 21 soccer players eligible to participate in the study, 9 players went on to develop chronic ARGP and 12 players did not. Ten healthy male volunteers were randomly selected from the general population as a control group. Comparison between the abductor and adductor muscle peak torques for players with and without chronic ARGP found a statistically significant difference on the dominant and non-dominant sides (p < .005), with the abductor muscle significantly stronger than the adductor muscle. In the group of healthy volunteers, the adductor muscle groups were significantly stronger than the abductor muscle groups on both dominant and non-dominant sides (p < .05). For the group of players who had developed chronic ARGP, abductor-adductor torque ratios were significantly higher on the affected side (p = .008). The adductor muscle strength was also significantly decreased on the affected side. This imbalance appears to be a risk factor for adductor-related groin injury. Therefore, restoring the correct relationship between these two agonist and antagonist hip muscles may be an important preventative measure that should be a primary concern of training and rehabilitation programmes. PMID:27017973

  4. Diagnosing adductor muscle avulsion at the symphysis pubis with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, David J; Caldera, Franklin E; Kim, Woojin

    2014-04-01

    A 58-yr-old woman presented after experiencing left hip and groin pain for 1 mo. She denies any history of trauma, falls or any bruising, or history of sports injury or extreme physical exertion before her symptoms. On ultrasonography, she was found to have an avulsion tear at the origin of the adductor muscles, predominantly involving the adductor longus and brevis muscles. The treatment course was conservative: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain control and physical therapy for muscle strengthening and balance improvement. Upon follow-up, she demonstrated significant improvement and resolution of her pain. PMID:24196970

  5. Diagnosing adductor muscle avulsion at the symphysis pubis with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, David J; Caldera, Franklin E; Kim, Woojin

    2014-04-01

    A 58-yr-old woman presented after experiencing left hip and groin pain for 1 mo. She denies any history of trauma, falls or any bruising, or history of sports injury or extreme physical exertion before her symptoms. On ultrasonography, she was found to have an avulsion tear at the origin of the adductor muscles, predominantly involving the adductor longus and brevis muscles. The treatment course was conservative: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain control and physical therapy for muscle strengthening and balance improvement. Upon follow-up, she demonstrated significant improvement and resolution of her pain.

  6. Morphological and confocal laser scanning microscopic investigations of the adductor muscle-shell interface in scallop.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Che; Ren, Luquan; Liu, Qingping; Liu, Taoran

    2015-09-01

    The challenge of joining dissimilar advanced materials has led researchers around the world to search for new and more efficient solutions. This way, we can highlight the muscle-shell attachment in mollusk, which possessed high strength and toughness. In order to make clear how this "bi-material interface" derives its superior mechanical properties, the morphological features of the adductor muscle scar in Patinopecten yessoensis was investigated by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This scar area was found to consist of a myostracum with many evenly distributed pit structures and a fracture section with a parallel arranged prism-like structure. The measured values of the distribution density, diameter, and depth of those pit structures were 24 ± 4/49,152 μm2, 7.36 ± 2.47 μm, and 1 ± 0.31 μm respectively. Profile of each pit wall was arc curve without closed angle. Furthermore, CLSM micrographs showed that considerable micro pits (0.1-0.9 μm in diameter) distribute round the pit wall and on the pit bottom. This special micromorphology is the first report on the adductor muscle scar in scallop. In addition, the mineral state and mechanical property of the scar surface was analyzed by XRD and nanoindentation test respectively. In general, the study results presented in this work elucidated that the adductor muscle of P. yessoensis was attached to the shell by insertion of collagen fibers and fibril bundles branched from themselves into pits on the myostracum. This specific connection mechanism can increase the strength of the interface without compromising its ductility and toughness. PMID:26202606

  7. Preferential denervation of the adductor muscles of the equine larynx. I: Muscle pathology.

    PubMed

    Duncan, I D; Amundson, J; Cuddon, P A; Sufit, R; Jackson, K F; Lindsay, W A

    1991-03-01

    The laryngeal muscles of 18 horses were examined histologically. The neurogenic changes found in each muscle were scored by four reviewers and the results evaluated statistically. Fifteen of these horses had endoscopic evidence of abnormal laryngeal function, three of which were defined as having adductor paralysis. Measurement of muscle fibre area in two horses with idiopathic laryngeal hemiplegia (ILH) was performed. In the quantitative study of neurogenic change, the adductor muscles were more significantly affected than the abductor muscle. This was also true in the clinical cases of ILH where measurement of muscle fibre area demonstrated that the lateral cricoarytenoid (adductor) muscles showed a wider range of pathological changes than the dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle (abductor). Those horses with the most severe muscle pathology also had the most abnormal endoscopic findings. The propensity for denervation of the adductor muscles should provide clues as to the pathogenesis and natural history of horses with sub-clinical laryngeal disease and ILH.

  8. On the central muscle attachment scar pattern of Suchonella Spizharsky 1939

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    The fortuitous spalling of a carapace of the nonmarine Permian Suchonella typica Spizharsky 1939 disclosed the adductor muscle attachment scar as well as two accessory scars on both the right side of the steinkern and the inside of the spalled right valve. This central muscle field is illustrated and discussed. An objective list of species described in or referred to Suchonella Spizharsky 1939 is appended.

  9. Heat treatment of scallop adductor muscle using superheated steam.

    PubMed

    Abe, T; Miyashita, K

    2007-08-01

    Scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) adductor muscles were heated using superheated steam (150 and 200 degrees C), boiling (98 degrees C), and normal steaming (95 degrees C). The amounts of amino acids, water-soluble peptides, and nucleotides, expressed as extractive nitrogen in scallop products, are very important elements of quality and taste. After 15-min heating of scallop muscles with normal steaming and boiling, respective losses of 50% and 64% of the extractive nitrogen were observed. However, most extractive nitrogen (> 86%) remained in the scallop muscles treated with superheated steam at 150 and 200 degrees C. Protective effects of superheated steam against elution loss of nitrogen compounds were also observed in amino acid analyses of the heated products. The scallop-muscle surface temperature during treatment with superheated steam increased more quickly than that with normal steaming and boiling. The rapid water loss and the surface protein denaturation engendered formation of a 30-mum-thick film covering the surface, which prevented extractive nitrogen loss from internal tissues. Superheated steam treatment at 200 degrees C caused browning, surface shrinkage, and 47% weight loss. In marked contrast, the appearance and the weight loss of sample treated at 150 degrees C were almost the same as those of normal steaming and boiling-treated samples. These results suggested that superheated steaming at 150 degrees C is an optimal heat treatment of scallop adductor muscles.

  10. Heat treatment of scallop adductor muscle using superheated steam.

    PubMed

    Abe, T; Miyashita, K

    2007-08-01

    Scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) adductor muscles were heated using superheated steam (150 and 200 degrees C), boiling (98 degrees C), and normal steaming (95 degrees C). The amounts of amino acids, water-soluble peptides, and nucleotides, expressed as extractive nitrogen in scallop products, are very important elements of quality and taste. After 15-min heating of scallop muscles with normal steaming and boiling, respective losses of 50% and 64% of the extractive nitrogen were observed. However, most extractive nitrogen (> 86%) remained in the scallop muscles treated with superheated steam at 150 and 200 degrees C. Protective effects of superheated steam against elution loss of nitrogen compounds were also observed in amino acid analyses of the heated products. The scallop-muscle surface temperature during treatment with superheated steam increased more quickly than that with normal steaming and boiling. The rapid water loss and the surface protein denaturation engendered formation of a 30-mum-thick film covering the surface, which prevented extractive nitrogen loss from internal tissues. Superheated steam treatment at 200 degrees C caused browning, surface shrinkage, and 47% weight loss. In marked contrast, the appearance and the weight loss of sample treated at 150 degrees C were almost the same as those of normal steaming and boiling-treated samples. These results suggested that superheated steaming at 150 degrees C is an optimal heat treatment of scallop adductor muscles. PMID:17995678

  11. Influence of electrical stimulation on hip joint adductor muscle activity during maximum effort

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Sota; Wada, Chikamune

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether hip adductor activity was influenced by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata muscle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 nondisabled males. Each subject was asked to adduct the hip joint with maximum effort. The electromyogram of the adductor longus was recorded under two experimental conditions, with and without electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. [Results] In the presence of electrical stimulation, muscle activity decreased to 72.9% (57.8–89.3%) of that without stimulation. [Conclusion] These results suggested that inactivation of the adductor group was promoted by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. PMID:27313387

  12. The hip adductor muscle group in caviomorph rodents: anatomy and homology.

    PubMed

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M

    2015-06-01

    Anatomical comparative studies including myological data of caviomorph rodents are relatively scarce, leading to a lack of use of muscular features in cladistic and morphofunctional analyses. In rodents, the hip adductor muscles constitute an important group of the hindlimb musculature, having an important function during the beginning of the stance phase. These muscles are subdivided in several distinct ways in the different clades of rodents, making the identification of their homologies hard to establish. In this contribution we provide a detailed description of the anatomical variation of the hip adductor muscle group of different genera of caviomorph rodents and identify the homologies of these muscles in the context of Rodentia. On this basis, we identify the characteristic pattern of the hip adductor muscles in Caviomorpha. Our results indicate that caviomorphs present a singular pattern of the hip adductor musculature that distinguishes them from other groups of rodents. They are characterized by having a single m. adductor brevis that includes solely its genicular part. This muscle, together with the m. gracilis, composes a muscular sheet that is medial to all other muscles of the hip adductor group. Both muscles probably have a synergistic action during locomotion, where the m. adductor brevis reinforces the multiple functions of the m. gracilis in caviomorphs. Mapping of analyzed myological characters in the context of Rodentia indicates that several features are recovered as potential synapomorphies of caviomorphs. Thus, analysis of the myological data described here adds to the current knowledge of caviomorph rodents from anatomical and functional points of view, indicating that this group has features that clearly differentiate them from other rodents. PMID:25911542

  13. Thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle in nutritional assessment of surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Katarina Papera; Silva, Naira Marceli Fraga; Faioli, Amanda Barcelos; Barreto, Marina Abelha; de Moraes, Rafael Araújo Guedes; Guandalini, Valdete Regina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the correlation between thickness of the muscle adductor pollicis and anthropometric measurements, body mass index and Subjective Global Assessment in the nutritional assessment of surgical patients. Methods The study population comprised patients admitted to the general and reconstructive surgery unit of a university hospital in the city of Vitória (ES), Brazil. The inclusion criteria were patients evaluated in the first 48 hours of admission, aged ≥20 years, hemodynamically stable, with no edema or ascites. Data analysis was performed using the software Statistical Package for Social Science 21.0, significance level of 5%. Results The sample consisted of 150 patients that were candidates to surgery, mean age of 42.7±12.0 years. The most common reasons for hospitalization were surgical procedures, gastrintestinal diseases and neoplasm. Significant association was observed between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and Subjective Global Assessment (p=0.021) and body mass index (p=0.008) for nutritional risk. Significant correlation was found between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and arm muscle circumference, corrected arm muscle area, calf circumference and body mass index. There were no significant correlations between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and triceps skinfold and age. Conclusion The use of thickness of adductor pollicis muscle proved to be an efficient method to detect malnutrition in surgical patients and it should be added to the screening process of hospitalized patients, since it is easy to perform, inexpensive and noninvasive. PMID:27074229

  14. Preferential denervation of the adductor muscles of the equine larynx. II: Nerve pathology.

    PubMed

    Duncan, I D; Reifenrath, P; Jackson, K F; Clayton, M

    1991-03-01

    The terminal branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) of three normal ponies and six horses with sub-clinical laryngeal disease were examined qualitatively and quantitatively in an attempt to explain the preferential denervation of the laryngeal adductor muscles in the neuropathy of idiopathic laryngeal hemiplegia (ILH). The myelinated fibre spectra of all the motor nerve fibres in the left and right abductor and adductor branches of the RLN in three normal ponies were measured. The density of myelinated fibres was also calculated. There was no significant difference between the larger group of myelinated fibres in the adductor or abductor branches. In the six horses with laryngeal hemiparesis, however, there was a marked preferential loss of the medium/large size myelinated fibres in the left adductor branch, although nerve fibre densities were not significantly different. While no simple morphometrical feature was found to explain the selective muscle denervation, the greater loss of large diameter myelinated fibres in the adductor branches confirms the earlier observation of adductor muscle susceptibility in the neuropathy of ILH.

  15. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in adductor pollicis muscle: case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Yee-Suk; Chung, Ung-Seo

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the adductor pollicis that was confirmed by measuring elevated compartment pressure. Specific finding of magnetic resonance imaging, increased T2 signal intensity in the involved compartment, was also useful for the diagnosis. Pain was relieved by fasciotomy through a volar approach. PMID:23040640

  16. The Jaw Adductor Muscle Complex in Teleostean Fishes: Evolution, Homologies and Revised Nomenclature (Osteichthyes: Actinopterygii)

    PubMed Central

    Datovo, Aléssio; Vari, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The infraclass Teleostei is a highly diversified group of bony fishes that encompasses 96% of all species of living fishes and almost half of extant vertebrates. Evolution of various morphological complexes in teleosts, particularly those involving soft anatomy, remains poorly understood. Notable among these problematic complexes is the adductor mandibulae, the muscle that provides the primary force for jaw adduction and mouth closure and whose architecture varies from a simple arrangement of two segments to an intricate complex of up to ten discrete subdivisions. The present study analyzed multiple morphological attributes of the adductor mandibulae in representatives of 53 of the 55 extant teleostean orders, as well as significant information from the literature in order to elucidate the homologies of the main subdivisions of this muscle. The traditional alphanumeric terminology applied to the four main divisions of the adductor mandibulae – A1, A2, A3, and Aω – patently fails to reflect homologous components of that muscle across the expanse of the Teleostei. Some features traditionally used as landmarks for identification of some divisions of the adductor mandibulae proved highly variable across the Teleostei; notably the insertion on the maxilla and the position of muscle components relative to the path of the ramus mandibularis trigeminus nerve. The evolutionary model of gain and loss of sections of the adductor mandibulae most commonly adopted under the alphanumeric system additionally proved ontogenetically incongruent and less parsimonious than a model of subdivision and coalescence of facial muscle sections. Results of the analysis demonstrate the impossibility of adapting the alphanumeric terminology so as to reflect homologous entities across the spectrum of teleosts. A new nomenclatural scheme is proposed in order to achieve congruence between homology and nomenclature of the adductor mandibulae components across the entire Teleostei. PMID

  17. Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of painful adductor muscle contracture after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Santamato, Andrea; Ranieri, Maurizio; Panza, Francesco; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Frisardi, Vincenza; Lapenna, Luisa Maria; Moretti, Biagio; Fiore, Pietro

    2009-10-01

    Painful adductor muscle contracture is an important cause of failure during rehabilitation following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Adductor muscle contracture may be caused by postoperative muscle retractions, adhesive capsulitis, postoperative leg-length inequalities caused by implant failure, or preexisting hip pathologies. A 34-year-old woman experienced a persistent painful contracture into the left adductor magnus muscle after THA. She had no leg-length inequalities and, according to the Medical Research Council scale (grades 0-5), muscle strength of the quadriceps was 5/5 for the right side and 3/5 for the left. The degree of functionality according to the Harris hip score (HHS) was 16/100 in the left hip. The pain level, measured with the visual analog scale (VAS), was 7/10. The patient was unable to fully adhere to the rehabilitation program and walked with a limp during the stance phase of gait. After 7 days of treatment with injections of botulinum toxin type A into the left adductor magnus muscle (dose, 150 UM) and subsequent rehabilitation, a great reduction of painful contracture was observed (VAS score, 2/10). The procedure was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted. After 20 days, hip articular range of motion and gait had improved (HHS score, 75/100). The clinical effects of botulinum toxin type A were present at 2-month follow-up. This treatment may be a viable alternative for the management of painful adductor muscle contracture after THA, without significant side effects. PMID:19824593

  18. [Traumatic muscle and tendon ruptures of the lower extremities in sport: adductor muscles, M. rectus femoris and M. biceps femoris].

    PubMed

    Krüger-Franke, M

    2010-12-01

    Ruptures of the adductor muscles, the M. rectus femoris or the M. biceps femoris are sports injuries which need quick and reliable diagnostic management. Treatment of muscle injuries is mostly conservative; complete tendon ruptures or avulsion fractures of the tendons are treated operatively according to the dislocation and the functional loss.

  19. Relationship between adductor pollicis muscle thickness and subjective global assessment in a cardiac intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Karst, Fernanda Pickrodt; Vieira, Renata Monteiro; Barbiero, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To verify the relationship between the adductor pollicis muscle thickness test and the subjective global assessment and to correlate it with other anthropometric methods. Methods This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in the intensive care unit of a cardiology hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The hospitalized patients underwent subjective global assessment and adductor pollicis muscle thickness tests on both hands, along with measurement of the right calf circumference. Laboratory parameters, length of stay, vital signs and electronic medical record data and tests were all collected. Results The study population included 83 patients, of whom 62% were men. The average age was 68.6 ± 12.5 years. The most common reason for hospitalization was acute myocardial infarction (34.9%), and the most common pathology was systolic blood pressure (63.9%), followed by diabetes mellitus (28.9%). According to subjective global assessment classifications, 62.7% of patients presented no nutritional risk, 20.5% were moderately malnourished and 16.9% were severely malnourished. Women had a higher nutritional risk, according to both the subjective global assessment and the adductor pollicis muscle thickness test, the cutoff for which was < 6.5mm (54.8%; p = 0.001). The pathology presenting the greatest nutritional risk was congestive heart failure (p = 0.001). Evaluation of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between adductor pollicis muscle thickness and subjective global assessment showed the accuracy of the former, with an area of 0.822. Conclusion Adductor pollicis muscle thickness proved to be a good method for evaluating nutritional risk. PMID:26761475

  20. Effects of ankle extensor muscle afferent inputs on hip abductor and adductor activity in the decerebrate walking cat.

    PubMed

    Bolton, D A E; Misiaszek, J E

    2012-12-01

    Electrical stimulation of the lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LGS) nerve at group I afferent strength leads to adaptations in the amplitude and timing of extensor muscle activity during walking in the decerebrate cat. Such afferent feedback in the stance leg might result from a delay in stance onset of the opposite leg. Concomitant adaptations in hip abductor and adductor activity would then be expected to maintain lateral stability and balance until the opposite leg is able to support the body. As many hip abductors and adductors are also hip extensors, we hypothesized that stimulation of the LGS nerve at group I afferent strength would produce increased activation and prolonged burst duration in hip abductor and adductor muscles in the premammillary decerebrate walking cat. LGS nerve stimulation during the extensor phase of the locomotor cycle consistently increased burst amplitude of the gluteus medius and adductor femoris muscles, but not pectineus or gracilis. In addition, LGS stimulation prolonged the burst duration of both gluteus medius and adductor femoris. Unexpectedly, long-duration LGS stimulus trains resulted in two distinct outcomes on the hip abductor and adductor bursting pattern: 1) a change of burst duration and timing similar to medial gastrocnemius; or 2) to continue rhythmically bursting uninterrupted. These results indicate that activation of muscle afferents from ankle extensors contributes to the regulation of activity of some hip abductor and adductor muscles, but not all. These results have implications for understanding the neural control of stability during locomotion, as well as the organization of spinal locomotor networks. PMID:22972967

  1. Coordination among thigh muscles including the vastus intermedius and adductor magnus at different cycling intensities.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akira; Watanabe, Kohei; Akima, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Although many studies have been focused on muscle synergies in the lower limbs, synergies of the thigh muscles during cycling have not been investigated in detail. We examined synergies of the thigh muscles including the vastus intermedius (VI) and adductor magnus (AM) while cycling. Eight healthy men pedaled at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of maximal aerobic power output at a constant cadence of 60 rpm. Surface electromyography (EMG) recorded signals from the deep VI and the three superficial quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles, the two hamstrings and the AM. The root mean square of the EMG signal was averaged every 2° of crank rotation and normalized by the peak value for each muscle. We used factor analysis to assess normalized EMG recordings while cycling and to identify thigh muscle synergies. The VI, the superficial QF muscles and the AM dominated the first muscle synergy at all power output levels. The AM also formed a second synergy with the two hamstrings at all power output levels. These results suggest that the VI coordinates with the other QF and AM muscles, and that the AM coordinates with the QF and hamstring muscles while cycling.

  2. Force depression following muscle shortening in sub-maximal voluntary contractions of human adductor pollicis.

    PubMed

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical properties of skeletal muscles are often studied for controlled, electrically induced, maximal, or supra-maximal contractions. However, many mechanical properties, such as the force-length relationship and force enhancement following active muscle stretching, are quite different for maximal and sub-maximal, or electrically induced and voluntary contractions. Force depression, the loss of force observed following active muscle shortening, has been observed and is well documented for electrically induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Since sub-maximal voluntary contractions are arguably the most important for everyday movement analysis and for biomechanical models of skeletal muscle function, it is important to study force depression properties under these conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine force depression following sub-maximal, voluntary contractions. Sets of isometric reference and isometric-shortening-isometric test contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary effort were performed with the adductor pollicis muscle. All reference and test contractions were executed by controlling force or activation using a feedback system. Test contractions included adductor pollicis shortening over 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees of thumb adduction. Force depression was assessed by comparing the steady-state isometric forces (activation control) or average electromyograms (EMGs) (force control) following active muscle shortening with those obtained in the corresponding isometric reference contractions. Force was decreased by 20% and average EMG was increased by 18% in the shortening test contractions compared to the isometric reference contractions. Furthermore, force depression was increased with increasing shortening amplitudes, and the relative magnitudes of force depression were similar to those found in electrically stimulated and maximal contractions. We conclude from these results that force depression occurs in sub

  3. Absolute reliability of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to verify the absolute reliability of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer (HHD). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 33 healthy college students. The measurements were made three times with the HHD fixed using a belt (BFHHD) or with the examiner's hand (conventional method; HFHHD). The absolute reliability of measurements was verified using Bland-Altman analysis, both in the all subjects group and a group of subjects showing measurements less than a fixed limit of 30 kgf. [Results] In the <30 kgf group, a systematic bias was not observed, and BFHHD values were greater than HFHHD values. BFHHD values in the all subjects group showed a systematic bias; the 3rd measurement value was less than the maximum value obtained during the 1st and 2nd measurements. [Conclusion] For obtaining an acceptable value during clinical measurements of horizontal adductor muscle strength, single measurements obtained using an HFHHD in the case of a <30 kgf group and the maximum value of two measurements obtained using a BFHHD are reliable. PMID:26311938

  4. Hip adductor muscle strength is reduced preceding and during the onset of groin pain in elite junior Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Crow, Justin F; Pearce, Alan J; Veale, James P; VanderWesthuizen, Dan; Coburn, Paul T; Pizzari, Tania

    2010-03-01

    Groin pain is a condition with a high prevalence in young Australian football players. It is considered that early identification of this condition allows for optimal management. Eighty-six players from two elite under-age Australian football sides were screened weekly for hip adductor muscle strength, using a hand-held dynamometer and for the onset of groin pain. The maximum variation in the average hip adductor muscle strength values of the sample was a 2.6% decrease from baseline in week 7 of the study. Twelve players (14% of the sample studied) reported groin pain for two consecutive weeks and were considered to have an onset of groin injury. The mean hip adductor muscle strength of these players was decreased significantly from baseline by an average of 11.75+/-2.50% at the week of pain onset (F=264.76 (1,11), p<0.001), and 5.82+/-5.16% in the week preceding the onset of pain (F=14.03 (1,10), p=0.004). These results confirm that hip adductor muscle strength is decreased both preceding and during the onset of groin injury in elite under-age Australian footballers. PMID:19546030

  5. Responses of Electromyogram Activity in Adductor Longus Muscle of Rats to the Altered Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Takashi; Wang, Xiao Dong; Terada, Masahiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Higo, Yoko; Nakai, Naoya; Ochiai, Toshimasa; Gyotoku, Jyunichirou; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Ogura, Akihiko; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2008-06-01

    Responses of electromyogram (EMG) activities in the rostral and caudal regions of adductor longus (AL) muscle to altered gravity levels during parabolic flight of a jet airplane, as well as hindlimb suspension, were investigated in adult rats. Tonic EMGs in both regions were noted when the rats were exposed to hyper-G, as well as 1-G. The hip joints were adducted and the sedental quadrupedal position was maintained at these G levels. However, the EMG activities in these regions decreased and became phasic, when the hip joints were abducted and extended backward in μ-G environment. Such changes of joint angles caused passive shortening of sarcomeres only in the caudal region of AL. Atrophy and shift toward fast-twitch type were noted in fibers of the caudal region after 16-day unloading. Although fiber transformation was also induced in the rostral region, no atrophy was seen in fast-twitch fibers. The data may suggest that the atrophy and shift of phenotype caused by gravitational unloading in fibers of the caudal region may be related to the decrease in the neural and mechanical activities. Fiber type transformation toward fast-twitch type may be also related to the change of muscle activity from tonic to phasic patterns, which are the typical characteristics of fast-twitch muscle. However, the responses to unloading in fibers of rostral region were not related to the reduction of mechanical load.

  6. Gene expression analyses of essential catch factors in the smooth and striated adductor muscles of larval, juvenile and adult great scallop (Pecten maximus).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Øivind; Torgersen, Jacob S; Pagander, Helene H; Magnesen, Thorolf; Johnston, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    The scallop adductor muscle consists of striated fibres responsible for the fast closure of the shells, and smooth fibres able to maintain tension in a prolonged state of contraction called catch. Formation of the force-bearing catch linkages has been demonstrated to be initiated by dephosphorylation of the key catch-regulating factor twitchin by a calcineurin-like phosphatase, while the involvement of other thick filament proteins is uncertain. Here we report on the development of catchability of the adductor smooth muscle in the great scallop (Pecten maximus) by analysing the spatio-temporal gene expression patterns of the myosin regulatory light chain (MLCr), twitchin, myorod and calcineurin using whole mount in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative PCR. The MLCr signal was identified in the retractor and adductor muscles of the pediveliger larvae, and the juvenile and adult scallop displayed abundant mRNA levels of MLCr in the smooth and striated adductor muscles. Twitchin was mainly expressed in the smooth adductor muscle during metamorphosis, whereas the adult striated adductor muscle contained seven-folds higher twitchin mRNA levels compared to the smooth portion. Calcineurin expression predominated in the gonads and in the smooth adductor, and five-folds higher mRNA levels were measured in the smooth than in the striated fibres at the adult stage. In contrast to the other genes examined, the expression of myorod was confined to the smooth adductor muscle suggesting that myorod plays a permissive role in the molluscan catch muscles, which are first required at the vulnerable settlement stage as a component of the predator defence system.

  7. The adductor pollicis muscle: a poor predictor of clinical outcome in ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Leong Shu-Fen, Claudia; Ong, Venetia; Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Ling, Teh Ai; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Henry, Jeya

    2015-01-01

    No nutrition assessment tools specifically tailored for intensive care unit (ICU) patients have been developed and validated in Singapore. Studies conducted in Brazilian populations suggest that the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle (TAPM) may be used to assess nutritional status and predict mortality of critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to determine if TAPM can be used as a predictive indicator of mortality in Singapore ICU patients. TAPM values were obtained using skinfold calipers in 229 patients admitted to the medical ICU. TAPM measured in both hands showed no significant correlation with either the primary outcome (28-day mortality) or secondary outcomes (hospital outcome and hospital length of stay). This study demonstrated that TAPM does not predict 28-day mortality and hospital outcome, and is not correlated to length of stay in Singapore ICU patients. More studies are necessary to validate the use of TAPM as an anthropometric indicator of ICU outcome in other regions of the world. PMID:26693744

  8. The colour of the adductor muscle as a predictor of pork quality in the loin.

    PubMed

    Warriss, P D; Brown, S N; Paściak, P

    2006-08-01

    The relation between measurements of colour made in the m. adductor (AD) at 45min or 20 h post mortem and the quality, assessed subjectively in terms of colour and waterholding capacity, of the m. longissimus (LD) in the loin was examined. The study used data from 100 pig carcasses exhibiting a wide range of meat quality from extreme PSE (pale, soft and exudative) to extreme DFD (dark, firm and dry). The subjective assessments were confirmed by objective measures of paleness (reflectance) and waterholding capacity (drip loss in storage) in the LD. Lightness (L(∗)) measured at 20h post mortem in the AD was the best potential predictor of loin muscle quality, explaining 59% of the variation in subjective and objective quality measures. Comparable measurements at 45min post mortem explained between 21% and 44% of the variation. The equation that described the relation between AD Lightness (L(∗)) and subjectively assessed LD quality was derived. This could be used to transpose the AD L(∗) values from a population of slaughtered pigs into nominal subjective scores for the LD, allowing the frequency of the five subjective quality groups (extremely DFD, slightly DFD, normal, slightly PSE, and extremely PSE) in the population of carcasses to be defined.

  9. Mandibular corpus strain in primates: further evidence for a functional link between symphyseal fusion and jaw-adductor muscle force.

    PubMed

    Hylander, W L; Ravosa, M J; Ross, C F; Johnson, K R

    1998-11-01

    Previous work indicates that compared to adult thick-tailed galagos, adult long-tailed macaques have much more bone strain on the balancing-side mandibular corpus during unilateral isometric molar biting (Hylander [1979a] J. Morphol. 159:253-296). Recently we have confirmed in these same two species the presence of similar differences in bone-strain patterns during forceful mastication. Moreover, we have also recorded mandibular bone strain patterns in adult owl monkeys, which are slightly smaller than the galago subjects. The owl monkey data indicate the presence of a strain pattern very similar to that recorded for macaques, and quite unlike that recorded for galagos. We interpret these bone-strain pattern differences to be importantly related to differences in balancing-side jaw-adductor muscle force recruitment patterns. That is, compared to galagos, macaques and owl monkeys recruit relatively more balancing-side jaw-adductor muscle force during forceful mastication. Unlike an earlier study (Hylander [1979b] J. Morphol. 160:223-240), we are unable to estimate the actual amount of working-side muscle force relative to balancing-side muscle force (i.e., the W/B muscle force ratio) in these species because we have no reliable estimate of magnitude, direction, and precise location of the bite force during mastication. A comparison of the mastication data with the earlier data recorded during isometric molar biting, however, supports the hypothesis that the two anthropoids have a small W/B jaw-adductor muscle force ratio in comparison to thick-tailed galagos. These data also support the hypothesis that increased recruitment of balancing-side jaw-adductor muscle force in anthropoids is functionally linked to the evolution of symphyseal fusion or strengthening. Moreover, these data refute the hypothesis that the recruitment pattern differences between macaques and thick-tailed galagos are due to allometric factors. Finally, although the evolution of symphyseal fusion

  10. Five myofibrillar lesion types in eccentrically challenged, unloaded rat adductor longus muscle--a test model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. L.; Balog, E. M.; Fitts, R. H.; Riley, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Sarcomere disruptions are observed in the adductor longus (AL) muscles following voluntary reloading of spaceflown and hindlimb suspension unloaded (HSU) rat, which resemble lesions in eccentrically challenged muscle. We devised and tested an eccentric contraction (ECCON) test system for the 14-day HSU rat AL. Six to 7 hours following ECCON, ALs were fixed to allow immunostaining and electron microscopy (EM). Toluidine blue-stained histology semithin sections were screened for lesion density (#/mm2). Serial semithin sections from the ECCON group were characterized for myosin immunointensity of lesions. Five myofibrillar lesion types were identified in histological semithin sections: focal contractions; wide A-bands; opaque areas; missing A-bands; and hyperstretched sarcomeres. Lesion density by type was greater for ECCON than NonECCON ALs (P< or =0.05; focal contractions and opaque regions). Lesion density (#-of-all-five-types/mm2) was significantly different (ECCON: 23.91+/-10.58 vs. NonECCON: 5.48+/-1.28, P< or =0.05; ECCON vs. SHAM: 0.00+/-0.00; P< or = 0.025). PostECCON optimal tension decreased (Poi-drop, 17.84+/-4.22%) and was correlated to lesion density (R2=0.596), but prestretch tension demonstrated the highest correlation with lesion density (R2=0.994). In lesions, the darkly staining A-band lost the normally organized thick filament alignment to differing degrees across the different lesion types. Ranking the five lesion types by a measure of lesion length deformation (hypercontracted to hyperstretched) at the light microscopy level, related to the severity of thick filament registry loss across the lesion types at the electron microscopic level. This ranking suggested that the five lesion types seen in semithin sections at the light level represented a lesion progression sequence and paralleled myosin immunostaining loss as the distorted A-band filaments spread across the hyperlengthening lesion types. Lesion ultrastructure indicated damage involved

  11. Cranial muscles of the anurans Leiopelma hochstetteri and Ascaphus truei and the homologies of the mandibular adductors in Lissamphibia and other gnathostomes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The frogs Ascaphus truei and Leiopelma hochstetteri are members of the most basal lineages of extant anurans. Their cranial muscles have not been previously described in full and are investigated here by dissection. Comparison of these taxa is used to review a controversy regarding the homologies of the jaw adductor muscles in Lissamphibia, to place these homologies in a wider gnathostome context, and to define features that may be useful for cladistic analysis of Anura. A new muscle is defined in Ascaphus and is designated m. levator anguli oris. The differences noted between Ascaphus and Leiopelma are in the penetration of the jaw adductor muscles by the mandibular nerve (V3). In the traditional view of this anatomy, the paths of the trigeminal nerve branches define homologous muscles. This scheme results in major differences among frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. The alternative view is that the topology of origins, insertions, and fiber directions are defining features, and the nerves penetrate the muscle mass in a variable way. The results given here support the latter view. A new model is proposed for Lissamphibia, whereby the adductor posterior (levator articularis) is a separate entity, and the rest of the adductor mass is configured around it as a folded sheet. This hypothesis is examined in other gnathostomes, including coelacanth and lungfish, and a possible sequence for the evolution of the jaw muscles is demonstrated. In this system, the main jaw adductor in teleost fish is not considered homologous with that of tetrapods. This hypothesis is consistent with available data on the domain of expression of the homeobox gene engrailed 2, which has previously not been considered indicative of homology. Terminology is discussed, and "adductor mandibulae" is preferred to "levator mandibulae" to align with usage in other gnathostomes.

  12. Cranial muscles of the anurans Leiopelma hochstetteri and Ascaphus truei and the homologies of the mandibular adductors in Lissamphibia and other gnathostomes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The frogs Ascaphus truei and Leiopelma hochstetteri are members of the most basal lineages of extant anurans. Their cranial muscles have not been previously described in full and are investigated here by dissection. Comparison of these taxa is used to review a controversy regarding the homologies of the jaw adductor muscles in Lissamphibia, to place these homologies in a wider gnathostome context, and to define features that may be useful for cladistic analysis of Anura. A new muscle is defined in Ascaphus and is designated m. levator anguli oris. The differences noted between Ascaphus and Leiopelma are in the penetration of the jaw adductor muscles by the mandibular nerve (V3). In the traditional view of this anatomy, the paths of the trigeminal nerve branches define homologous muscles. This scheme results in major differences among frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. The alternative view is that the topology of origins, insertions, and fiber directions are defining features, and the nerves penetrate the muscle mass in a variable way. The results given here support the latter view. A new model is proposed for Lissamphibia, whereby the adductor posterior (levator articularis) is a separate entity, and the rest of the adductor mass is configured around it as a folded sheet. This hypothesis is examined in other gnathostomes, including coelacanth and lungfish, and a possible sequence for the evolution of the jaw muscles is demonstrated. In this system, the main jaw adductor in teleost fish is not considered homologous with that of tetrapods. This hypothesis is consistent with available data on the domain of expression of the homeobox gene engrailed 2, which has previously not been considered indicative of homology. Terminology is discussed, and "adductor mandibulae" is preferred to "levator mandibulae" to align with usage in other gnathostomes. PMID:21845732

  13. Impact of Retropubic vs. Transobturator Slings for Urinary Incontinence on Myofascial Structures of the Pelvic Floor, Adductor and Abdominal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Beilecke, K; Soeder, S; Hufenbach, E; Tunn, R

    2014-01-01

    Suburethral tension-free slings (tapes or bands) are an essential component in the operative treatment of urinary incontinence. In the present contribution the influence of the type of suburethral sling (retropubic vs. transobturator) on the myofascial structures of the abdominal, adductor and pelvic floor muscles is examined. For this purpose, 70 patients were prospectively observed clinically and physiotherapeutically. Significant differences were seen in the improvement of the pelvic floor musculature (strength, endurance, speed) after placement of a suburethral sling, irrespective of whether it was of the retropubic or the transobturator type. Thus, after surgical treatment patients should be encouraged to undertake further pelvic floor exercising or this should be prescribed for them. There were no significant changes in the abdominal and adductor muscles but there were slight increases with regard to pain level, pain on palpation, and trigger points after placement of both types of sling; thus this is not a criterion in the decision as to which type of sling to use. PMID:24741121

  14. Intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer for geriatric and stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori; Kawaguchi, Saori; Uemura, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the appropriate number of measurements and the intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer (HHD) for geriatric and stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 inpatients, who were divided into two groups: 20 stroke patients in the stroke group (SG), and 20 geriatric patients in the no-stroke group (N-SG). Measurements were performed three times using an HHD with a belt. The reliability was verified using Bland-Altman analysis and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). [Results] ICC (1, 1) was >0.9. A systematic bias was not observed between the first and second measurement values except for the right side in N-SG. A systematic bias between the maximum value obtained during the first and second measurements and third measurement value was observed on the left side in N-SG, and on the non-paralyzed side in SG: the third measurement values were small in both cases. [Conclusion] Intrarater reliabilities were high for shoulder horizontal adductor strength measurements using an HHD with a belt for geriatric and stroke patients. Taking the systematic bias into consideration, these findings suggest that the required number of measurements is two. PMID:26957727

  15. Lower values of handgrip strength and adductor pollicis muscle thickness are associated with hepatic encephalopathy manifestations in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Augusti, L; Franzoni, L C; Santos, L A A; Lima, T B; Ietsugu, M V; Koga, K H; Moriguchi, S M; Betting, L E; Caramori, C A; Silva, G F; Romeiro, F G

    2016-08-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a late complication of liver cirrhosis and is clearly associated with poor outcomes. Chronic liver insufficiency leads to progressive muscle wasting, impairing ammonia metabolism and thus increasing the risk for HE. Given the association between lean mass and adductor pollicis muscle thickness (APMT), it has been used to predict outcome and complications in many conditions, but not yet in cirrhotic patients. Therefore, this article aimed to study the association between HE manifestations and measures related to muscle mass and strength. This cross-sectional study included 54 cirrhotic outpatients with HE varying from subclinical to grade II according to the West-Haven criteria, who were submitted to neuropsychometric tests, electroencephalogram, brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), anthropometric measurements, handgrip strength (HGS) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry exam (DXA). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between body composition measures and HE grade. Analysis of the area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) curve revealed the values related to neurological manifestations (HE grades I and II). Reductions in APMT and HGS were associated with higher HE grades, suggesting a big impact caused by the loss of muscle mass and function on HE severity. The link between HE manifestations and anthropometric measures, namely APMT and HGS, point to a significant relation concerning skeletal muscles and the neurological impairment in this population. PMID:27131802

  16. Potential use of fatty acid profiles of the adductor muscle of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) for traceability of collection site.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Moreira, Ana S P; Rey, Felisa; Coimbra, Manuel A; Rosário Domingues, M; Domingues, Pedro; Costa Leal, Miguel; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-06-18

    Geographic traceability of seafood is key for controlling its quality and safeguarding consumers' interest. The present study assessed if the fatty acid (FA) profile of the adductor muscle (AM) of fresh cockles (Cerastoderma edule) can be used to discriminate the origin of specimens collected in different bivalve capture/production areas legally defined within a coastal lagoon. Results suggest that this biochemical approach holds the potential to trace sampling locations with a spatial resolution <10 Km, even for areas with identical classification for bivalve production. Cockles further away from the inlet, i.e. in areas exposed to a higher saline variation, exhibited lower levels of saturated fatty acids, which are key for stabilizing the bilayer structure of cell membranes, and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which enhance bilayer fluidity. Results suggest that the structural nature of the lipids present in the AM provides a stable fatty acid signature and holds potential for tracing the origin of bivalves to their capture/production areas.

  17. Aggressive Lymphoma "Sarcoma Mimicker" Originating in the Gluteus and Adductor Muscles: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Elkourashy, Sarah A; Nashwan, Abdulqadir J; Alam, Syed I; Ammar, Adham A; El Sayed, Ahmed M; Omri, Halima El; Yassin, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal lymphoma (ENL) occurs in approximately 30%-40% of all patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and has been described in almost all organs and tissues. However, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common histological subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primarily arising in the retroperitoneal region. In this article, we report a rare case of an adult male diagnosed with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the gluteal and adductor muscles with aggressive bone involvement. All appropriate radiological and histopathological studies were done for diagnosis and staging. After discussion with the lymphoma multidisciplinary team, it was agreed to start on R-CHOP protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine (Oncovin®), and prednisone) as the standard of care, which was later changed to R-CODOX-M/R-IVAC protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin®), doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate alternating with rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine) due to inadequate response. Due to the refractory aggressive nature of the disease, subsequent decision of the multidisciplinary team was salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. The aim of this case report was to describe and evaluate the clinical presentation and important radiological features of extranodal lymphoma affecting the musculoskeletal system. PMID:27398038

  18. Aggressive Lymphoma “Sarcoma Mimicker” Originating in the Gluteus and Adductor Muscles: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Elkourashy, Sarah A.; Nashwan, Abdulqadir J.; Alam, Syed I.; Ammar, Adham A.; El Sayed, Ahmed M.; Omri, Halima El; Yassin, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal lymphoma (ENL) occurs in approximately 30%–40% of all patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and has been described in almost all organs and tissues. However, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common histological subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primarily arising in the retroperitoneal region. In this article, we report a rare case of an adult male diagnosed with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the gluteal and adductor muscles with aggressive bone involvement. All appropriate radiological and histopathological studies were done for diagnosis and staging. After discussion with the lymphoma multidisciplinary team, it was agreed to start on R-CHOP protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine (Oncovin®), and prednisone) as the standard of care, which was later changed to R-CODOX-M/R-IVAC protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin®), doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate alternating with rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine) due to inadequate response. Due to the refractory aggressive nature of the disease, subsequent decision of the multidisciplinary team was salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. The aim of this case report was to describe and evaluate the clinical presentation and important radiological features of extranodal lymphoma affecting the musculoskeletal system. PMID:27398038

  19. Potential use of fatty acid profiles of the adductor muscle of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) for traceability of collection site.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Moreira, Ana S P; Rey, Felisa; Coimbra, Manuel A; Rosário Domingues, M; Domingues, Pedro; Costa Leal, Miguel; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Geographic traceability of seafood is key for controlling its quality and safeguarding consumers' interest. The present study assessed if the fatty acid (FA) profile of the adductor muscle (AM) of fresh cockles (Cerastoderma edule) can be used to discriminate the origin of specimens collected in different bivalve capture/production areas legally defined within a coastal lagoon. Results suggest that this biochemical approach holds the potential to trace sampling locations with a spatial resolution <10 Km, even for areas with identical classification for bivalve production. Cockles further away from the inlet, i.e. in areas exposed to a higher saline variation, exhibited lower levels of saturated fatty acids, which are key for stabilizing the bilayer structure of cell membranes, and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which enhance bilayer fluidity. Results suggest that the structural nature of the lipids present in the AM provides a stable fatty acid signature and holds potential for tracing the origin of bivalves to their capture/production areas. PMID:26084395

  20. Potential use of fatty acid profiles of the adductor muscle of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) for traceability of collection site

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Moreira, Ana S. P.; Rey, Felisa; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Rosário Domingues, M.; Domingues, Pedro; Costa Leal, Miguel; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Geographic traceability of seafood is key for controlling its quality and safeguarding consumers’ interest. The present study assessed if the fatty acid (FA) profile of the adductor muscle (AM) of fresh cockles (Cerastoderma edule) can be used to discriminate the origin of specimens collected in different bivalve capture/production areas legally defined within a coastal lagoon. Results suggest that this biochemical approach holds the potential to trace sampling locations with a spatial resolution <10 Km, even for areas with identical classification for bivalve production. Cockles further away from the inlet, i.e. in areas exposed to a higher saline variation, exhibited lower levels of saturated fatty acids, which are key for stabilizing the bilayer structure of cell membranes, and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which enhance bilayer fluidity. Results suggest that the structural nature of the lipids present in the AM provides a stable fatty acid signature and holds potential for tracing the origin of bivalves to their capture/production areas. PMID:26084395

  1. What are the stimulation parameters that affect the extent of twitch force potentiation in the adductor pollicis muscle?

    PubMed

    Mettler, Joni A; Griffin, Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Muscle force potentiation affects force output during electrical stimulation. Few studies have examined stimulation train parameters that influence potentiation such as pulse number, stimulation frequency, train duration, and force-time integral and peak force produced during the train. Pulse-matched trains (100 pulses) at 7.5, 15, 25, 30, 50, and 100 Hz, and trains of varying pulse number (50, 100, and 200 pulses) at 30 and 50 Hz were delivered to the ulnar nerve of 10 (5 male, 5 female; 23.4 ± 0.9 years), healthy individuals in random order. Single twitches of the adductor pollicis muscle were elicited before and after each train with a rest interval of at least 5 min between each train. No differences in potentiation occurred across the pulse-matched trains at frequencies of 15-50 Hz (38.9 ± 5.4-44.6 ± 5.5%). Twitch force potentiation following the highest (100 Hz) and lowest (7.5 Hz) frequency trains were not significantly different and were lower than the other 100 pulse-matched trains. As pulse number increased, potentiation increased for both the 30 and 50-Hz trains. There was a significant positive correlation between force potentiation and force-time integral produced by the stimulation train, r = 0.70. The results indicate that potentiation magnitude is dependent on the force-time integral produced during the test train and the number of pulses delivered, independent of stimulation frequency. PMID:20737164

  2. Influence and interactions of laryngeal adductors and cricothyroid muscles on fundamental frequency and glottal posture control

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Neubauer, Juergen; Sofer, Elazar; Berry, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles (ILMs) in controlling fundamental frequency (F0) and glottal posture remain unclear. In an in vivo canine model, three sets of intrinsic laryngeal muscles—the thyroarytenoid (TA), cricothyroid (CT), and lateral cricoarytenoid plus interarytenoid (LCA/IA) muscle complex—were independently and accurately stimulated in a graded manner using distal laryngeal nerve stimulation. Graded neuromuscular stimulation was used to independently activate these paired intrinsic laryngeal muscles over a range from threshold to maximal activation, to produce 320 distinct laryngeal phonatory postures. At phonation onset these activation conditions were evaluated in terms of their vocal fold strain, glottal width at the vocal processes, fundamental frequency (F0), subglottic pressure, and airflow. F0 ranged from 69 to 772 Hz and clustered into chest-like and falsetto-like groups. CT activation was always required to raise F0, but could also lower F0 at low TA and LCA/IA activation levels. Increasing TA activation first increased then decreased F0 in all CT and LCA/IA activation conditions. Increasing TA activation also facilitated production of high F0 at a lower onset pressure. Independent control of membranous (TA) and cartilaginous (LCA/IA) glottal closure enabled multiple pathways for F0 control via changes in glottal posture. PMID:25235003

  3. NMR-based metabolomic investigations on the differential responses in adductor muscles from two pedigrees of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Cadmium and Zinc.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Yu, Junbao

    2011-01-01

    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important economic species in shellfishery in China due to its wide geographic distribution and high tolerance to environmental changes (e.g., salinity, temperature). In addition, Manila clam is a good biomonitor/bioindicator in "Mussel Watch Programs" and marine environmental toxicology. However, there are several pedigrees of R. philippinarum distributed in the marine environment in China. No attention has been paid to the biological differences between various pedigrees of Manila clams, which may introduce undesirable biological variation in toxicology studies. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to detect the biological differences in two main pedigrees (White and Zebra) of R. philippinarum and their differential responses to heavy metal exposures (Cadmium and Zinc) using adductor muscle as a target tissue to define one sensitive pedigree of R. philippinarum as biomonitor for heavy metals. Our results indicated that there were significant metabolic differences in adductor muscle tissues between White and Zebra clams, including higher levels of alanine, glutamine, hypotaurine, phosphocholine and homarine in White clam muscles and higher levels of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine), succinate and 4-aminobutyrate in Zebra clam muscles, respectively. Differential metabolic responses to heavy metals between White and Zebra clams were also found. Overall, we concluded that White pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator/biomonitor in marine toxicology studies and for marine heavy metals based on the relatively high sensitivity to heavy metals. PMID:22131959

  4. Hip adductors' strength, flexibility, and injury risk.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2009-08-01

    The hip adductor muscle group plays an important role in both movement and stability at the hip joint in many athletic pursuits. Injury to this muscle group has been reported in a number of sports, among them, ice hockey, soccer, Australian football, and swimming. The identification of muscle characteristics that predispose a muscle to injury is an important step in developing conditioning programs to reduce injury risk. Muscle strength and range of motion are 2 parameters that may influence injury risk. The aim of this review was to examine the relationship between hip adductors' strength, flexibility, and injury risk. Strength testing has involved isokinetic or hand-held dynamometry. Flexibility has usually been assessed by goniometry during maximal hip abduction. An association has been reported between adductor strength deficits and injury for ice hockey players. Low adductor flexibility has also been identified as a risk factor for injury in soccer players. An intervention program that strengthened the hip adductors had some success in reducing injury risk for ice hockey players. There is some low- to moderate-level evidence from cohort studies to suggest that flexibility and strength are related to injury risk in particular sports and that an intervention program may be effective in reducing injury risk. Higher level evidence from randomized controlled trials is required to firmly establish the link between hip adductor flexibility, strength, and injury. PMID:19620912

  5. The correlation of in vivo burn scar contraction with the level of α-smooth muscle actin expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Kravchuk, Olena; Winterford, Clay; Kimble, Roy M

    2011-12-01

    This study describes the direct association of in vivo burn scar contraction with the level of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in scar tissue, in a porcine burn model. The expression of α-SMA was investigated in 100 biopsies from 44 6-week old burn scars and in 85 biopsies from 16 2-week old burn wounds. Statistical analysis showed that the levels of α-SMA in 6-week old scars were significantly negatively correlated to scar size (r=-0.68) and the higher levels of α-SMA were observed in smaller scars. Moreover, α-SMA was also found to be significantly positively correlated to re-epithelialisation time (r=0.57) and scar thickness (r=0.58) and higher levels of α-SMA were detected in thicker scars with delayed wound closure. Further statistical analysis revealed that scar contraction can be explained best by the level of α-SMA expression and partially by scar thickness. Other variables, such as different dressings and individual pig, may also partly contribute to scar contraction. At week 2 after-burn, the level of α-SMA expression in 16 burn wounds was significantly related to the depth of burns and wound healing outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide in vivo evidence of the association of α-SMA expression with scar contraction, scar thickness, re-epithelialisation time and the depth of burn in a large animal burn model with scars similar to human hypertrophic scar.

  6. Laparoscopic correction of the uterine muscle loss in the scar after a Caesarean section delivery

    PubMed Central

    Jakiel, Grzegorz; Słabuszewska-Jóźwiak, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Caesarean section is the most frequently conducted surgery in modern obstetrics. It involves a significant risk of complications; also disorders in the area of the scar after hysterotomy may lead to menstrual disorders, pain and secondary infertility. In light of the presented facts the significance of a good uterus muscle correction method is high. We present a case of a 28-year-old patient after Caesarean section with further reproductive plans. In the ultrasonographic examination the residual thickness of the uterine wall was approx. 2.5–3 mm. The patient was operated on using laparoscopy and the fibrotic scar tissue was removed. During the follow-up examination in transvaginal ultrasonography the uterine muscularis was continuous on the whole surface. Laparoscopic treatment ensures the appropriate visibility which makes the risk of damage to the adjacent organs lower, and the time of convalescence is short. It provides repetitive good results from the anatomical and functional points of view. PMID:24501605

  7. Role and expression of cry1 in the adductor muscle of the oyster Crassostrea gigas during daily and tidal valve activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    Mat, Audrey M; Perrigault, Mickael; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Tran, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are flavin- and pterin-containing photoreceptors of the cryptochrome/photolyase family. They play critical roles in organisms, among are which light-dependent and light-independent roles in biological rhythms. The present work aimed at describing a cryptochrome gene in the oyster Crassostrea gigas by (i) a characterization and phylogenetic analysis and (ii) by studying its expression in the relationship to rhythmic valve behavior in different entrainment regimes. Cryptochrome expression was focused on the adductor muscle of the oyster, the effector of the valve behavior. The results suggest involvement of Cgcry1 in oyster rhythmicity as a sensor of environmental zeitgebers, associated with circadian rhythms and potentially to tidal activity. The characterized gene belongs to type 1 cryptochrome/insect-type cry. Additionally, Cgcry1 presented a daily oscillation under L:D entrainment, which disappeared in constant darkness. Transcript expression of Cgcry1 also oscillated at tidal frequency under tidal entrainment and in constant darkness. Finally, exposure of tidally entrained oysters to saxitoxin (STX)-producing alga Alexandrium minutum induced a dose effect response in oysters by first altering Cgcry1 expression and then the behavior of oysters with increasing concentrations of toxins. This study initiates the characterization of the molecular clock in the oyster C. gigas and its interactions with environmental zeitgebers. PMID:27246263

  8. Surgical technique for treatment of recalcitrant adductor longus tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gill, Thomas J; Carroll, Kaitlin M; Makani, Amun; Wall, Andrew J; Dumont, Guillaume D; Cohn, Randy M

    2014-04-01

    Chronic groin pain in the athlete can be a difficult problem to manage. Adductor dysfunction is the most common cause of groin pain in athletes, with the adductor longus being the tendon most commonly involved. The most reproducible finding for adductor longus tendinopathy is tenderness along the tendon with passive abduction and resisted hip adduction in extension. Magnetic resonance imaging and injection of a corticosteroid and anesthetic into the proximal muscle-tendon junction are both helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Nonoperative treatment may consist of protected weight bearing, ice application, ultrasonography, electrical stimulation, and gentle stretching with progressive strengthening. However, nonoperative management is not always successful. In these instances, surgical treatment can be quite effective. We present the indications, surgical technique, and rehabilitation protocol of adductor tenotomy for chronic tendinopathy. This can prove a useful tool for the treatment of recalcitrant groin pain attributable to the adductor longus. PMID:24904780

  9. Surgical technique for treatment of recalcitrant adductor longus tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gill, Thomas J; Carroll, Kaitlin M; Makani, Amun; Wall, Andrew J; Dumont, Guillaume D; Cohn, Randy M

    2014-04-01

    Chronic groin pain in the athlete can be a difficult problem to manage. Adductor dysfunction is the most common cause of groin pain in athletes, with the adductor longus being the tendon most commonly involved. The most reproducible finding for adductor longus tendinopathy is tenderness along the tendon with passive abduction and resisted hip adduction in extension. Magnetic resonance imaging and injection of a corticosteroid and anesthetic into the proximal muscle-tendon junction are both helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Nonoperative treatment may consist of protected weight bearing, ice application, ultrasonography, electrical stimulation, and gentle stretching with progressive strengthening. However, nonoperative management is not always successful. In these instances, surgical treatment can be quite effective. We present the indications, surgical technique, and rehabilitation protocol of adductor tenotomy for chronic tendinopathy. This can prove a useful tool for the treatment of recalcitrant groin pain attributable to the adductor longus.

  10. Effects of spaceflight in the adductor longus muscle of rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. A study employing neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and conventional morphological techniques (light and electron microscopy)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Daunton, N. G.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the "slow" muscle adductor longus were examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leukocytes and mononuclear cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity (N-CAM-IR) was seen on the myofiber surface and in regenerating myofibers. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with apparent preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles replaced by microtubules and neurofilaments, degeneration of axon terminals, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. The present observations suggest that alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  11. Acne Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... scars. Cryosurgery : This treatment freezes the scar tissue. Freezing the tissue causes it to die and gradually ... et al . “Which Type of Atrophic Acne Scar (Ice-pick, Boxcar, or Rolling) Responds to Nonablative Fractional ...

  12. Swimming away or clamming up: the use of phasic and tonic adductor muscles during escape responses varies with shell morphology in scallops.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Isabelle; Guderley, Helga E; Himmelman, John H

    2012-12-01

    The simple locomotor system of scallops facilitates the study of muscle use during locomotion. We compared five species of scallops with different shell morphologies to see whether shell morphology and muscle use change in parallel or whether muscle use can compensate for morphological constraints. Force recordings during escape responses revealed that the use of tonic and phasic contractions varied markedly among species. The active species, Amusium balloti, Placopecten magellanicus and Pecten fumatus, made more phasic contractions than the more sedentary species, Mimachlamys asperrima and Crassadoma gigantea. Tonic contractions varied considerably among these species, with the two more sedentary species often starting their response to the predator with a tonic contraction and the more active species using shorter tonic contractions between series of phasic contractions. Placopecten magellanicus made extensive use of short tonic contractions. Pecten fumatus mounted an intense series of phasic contractions at the start of its response, perhaps to overcome the constraints of its unfavourable shell morphology. Valve closure by the more sedentary species suggests that their shell morphology protects them against predation, whereas swimming by the more active species relies upon intense phasic contractions together with favourable shell characteristics. PMID:22972884

  13. Bone scanning in the adductor insertion avulsion syndrome ("thigh splints").

    PubMed

    Charkes, N D; Siddhivarn, N; Schneck, C D

    1987-12-01

    Shin splints is a defined clinical entity resulting from extreme tension on muscles inserting on the tibia, resulting in periosteal elevation which is detectable by bone scanning. The clinical equivalent in the thigh has been described. We found scintigraphic changes in the femurs of seven short, female, basic trainees at the Fort Dix Army base, most of whom were referred for stress fractures elsewhere in the lower extremities. The scan findings were generally noted in the upper or mid femurs, always involved the anteromedial cortex, and were bilateral in five of the seven subjects. The abnormalities were linear and suggested periosteal elevation, and did not have the typical appearance of stress fracture. Since the findings correspond to the insertion of one or more adductor muscle groups, the descriptive term "adductor insertion avulsion syndrome" or "thigh splints" is proposed for this entity.

  14. Isolated paralysis of the adductor pollicis: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Maio, F; Bisicchia, S; Farsetti, P; Ippolito, E

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of isolated paralysis of the right adductor pollicis in a 30-year-old woman. Electromyographic study showed involvement of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve. A ganglion and an anomalous muscle were both ruled out clinically and by MRI as a possible cause of the paralysis. At surgical exploration, we found a fibrous band joining the pisiform and the hook of the hamate bone that compressed the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve. The fibrous band was excised, and a neurolysis of the motor branch of the ulnar nerve was performed. At followup, eight months later, the patient had fully recovered strength of the adductor muscle. PMID:21991410

  15. The abductor and adductor strength characteristics of professional baseball pitcherse.

    PubMed

    Wilk, K E; Andrews, J R; Arrigo, C A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish a data base regarding the isokinetic muscular performance characteristics of the abductor and adductor muscles of professional baseball pitchers. Eighty-three healthy professional baseball pitchers (mean age, 22.6 years; mean weight, 199 pounds) were evaluated by use of a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Isokinetic tests were performed concentrically at 180 and 300 deg/sec for both the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders. The testing protocol and test repetitions were standardized for each subject. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test. Determination of the correlation coefficient was made at the P < 0.05 level of significance. Test results for bilateral comparisons of mean peak torque for the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders demonstrated a significant difference in adductor values between the dominant and nondominant shoulders at both test speeds. There were no significant differences between extremities for the shoulder abductor muscles. The abductor-to-adductor muscle ratios between the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders were also statistically significant at both test speeds. Throwing arm values were 82.5% at 180 deg/sec and 93.8% at 300 deg/sec compared with only 66.0% and 70.3%, respectively, for the nonthrowing shoulders.

  16. The effect of isokinetic testing speed on the reliability of muscle fatigue indicators during a hip abductor-adductor fatigue protocol.

    PubMed

    Gautrey, C N; Watson, T; Mitchell, A

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of fatigue indicators calculated from peak torque and total work during isokinetic speeds of 60, 90, 120 and 180° · s-1 during a hip fatigue protocol. 10 males suffering from a history of unilateral functional ankle instability and 10 male healthy controls performed 5 maximal concentric contractions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Following a 4 min rest period subjects were instructed to perform repeated maximal concentric contractions to fatigue, which was defined as 3 consecutive repetitions below 50% of the maximum peak torque value. Each testing speed was randomised with 24 h between speeds. The subjects were asked to return to the laboratory 7 days later to repeat the 4 speeds, with 24 h between speeds. Muscle fatigue was determined for each testing speed by the fatigue index, the percent decrease in performance and the slope of the regression equation. The most reliable fatigue determination method was the slope of the regression equation, when testing at a speed of 120° · s-1. It is recommended that future investigators examine and plot their data before choosing the slope of the regression equation as their fatigue indicator, as a linear model is required. PMID:23549692

  17. Scarring alopecia.

    PubMed

    Newton, R C; Hebert, A A; Freese, T W; Solomon, A R

    1987-07-01

    The scarring alopecias are a diverse group of diseases characterized by the combination of follicular destruction and dermal scarring. In this article we divide scarring alopecias into three broad categories, pediatric diseases, perifollicular lymphocytic diseases, and folliculopustular diseases, and discuss selected entities from each category. PMID:3301117

  18. Hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Vincent

    2011-05-01

    Hypertrophic scars are common complications of burn injury and other soft tissue injuries. Excessive extracellular matrix combined with inadequate remodeling of scar tissue results in an aesthetically and functionally unsatisfactory, painful, pruritic scar that can impair function. Treatment options are available to rehabilitation practitioners, but none are entirely satisfactory. An interdisciplinary clinical program is necessary for best outcomes. Challenges to be met by the rehabilitation community include research into the quantification of burn scar measurement, the effects of mechanical forces on wound healing and scar management, and the best combination of surgical, pharmacologic, and therapy interventions to maximize outcome from reconstructive procedures. PMID:21624722

  19. Extensibility of hip adductors in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lespargot, A; Renaudin, E; Khouri, N; Robert, M

    1994-11-01

    The passive extension of relaxed hip adductor muscles was measured in 20 normal children and 10 children (aged nine to 13 years) with cerebral palsy (CP) by a method that could distinguish between shortening of the muscle body and tendon. No muscle-body contracture occurred in the children with CP during treatment (physiotherapy plus moderate stretching on an apparatus for six hours a day); only the tendons were short. However, four children showed signs of muscle-body contracture after interrupting treatment for six to eight weeks. It is possible that muscle-body contracture can be prevented by non-surgical methods, although tendon shortening can, at present, only be treated surgically.

  20. Intrarater Reliability of the Adductor Squeeze Test in Gaelic Games Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Delahunt, Eamonn; McEntee, Barry L.; Kennelly, Colm; Green, Brian S.; Coughlan, Garrett F.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Groin pain is commonly experienced by athletes involved in field-based sports and is particularly prevalent in Gaelic Games athletes. The adductor squeeze test is commonly used in the assessment of groin pain and injuries. To date, no evidence in the literature provides the reliability of the adductor squeeze test using a sphygmomanometer in assessing the adductor muscle integrity of Gaelic Games athletes. Given the high proportion of groin pain encountered in Gaelic Games athletes, establishing the reliability of the adductor squeeze test will allow clinicians to monitor injury responses and to assess return-to-play criteria. Objective: To evaluate the intrarater reliability of a commercially available sphygmomanometer for measuring adductor squeeze values in Gaelic Games athletes and to determine if different squeeze values are associated with the 3 commonly used test positions. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: University clinical skills laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen male Gaelic Games athletes without any previous or current history of groin or pelvic pain. Intervention(s): Each participant performed the adductor squeeze test in 3 positions of hip joint flexion (0°, 45°, and 90°) on 2 test days separated by at least 1 week. Main Outcome Measure(s): Adductor squeeze test values (mm Hg) quantified by a commercially available sphygmomanometer. Results: Intrarater reliability intraclass correlation values ranged from 0.89 to 0.92 (intraclass correlation coefficients were 0°, 0.89; 45°, 0.92; and 90°, 0.90). The highest squeeze values were recorded in the 45° of hip flexion test position, and these values differed from those demonstrated in the 0° and 90° hip flexion test positions (P < .05). Conclusions: A commercially available sphygmomanometer is a reliable device for measuring adductor squeeze test values. PMID:21669092

  1. [Spasm of the adductor muscles, pre-dislocations and dislocations of the hip joints in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Clinical observations on aetiology, pathogenesis, therapy and rehabilitation. Part II. The importance of the iliopsoas tendon, its tenotomy, of the coxa valga antetorta, and correction through osteotomy turning the hip into varus (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fettweis, E

    1979-02-01

    The following factors besides spasm and contraction of the adductor muscles contribute to the occurrence of dislocations of the hip in spastic paralysis: Spasm and contraction of the iliopsoas muscle and enhanced valgus position and antetorsion. The author holds the opinion that in case of malformation of the proximal end of the femur, it is not only the indirect action of the spastic musculature via the proximal femur-epiphyseal cartilage which is responsible for this phenomen in accordance with the law on functional adaption through longitudinal growth (Pauwels), but also the direct traction of the iliopsoas tendon. A clue in this direction is the often very pronounced elongation or enlargement of the trochanter minor. The author demonstrates the pathogenetic importance of iliopsoas contracture and malpositioning of the neck of the femur by means of analyses of the course in two patients. The following principles of treatment are postulated for spastic dislocation of the hip: Elimination of the pathogenetic factors through myotenotomy of the adductor muscles and complete resection of the obturator nerve, with observation of strict aftertreatment criteria, tenotomy of the iliopsoas, repositioning and osteotomy with turning into varus. Osteotomy without previous elimination of the pathogenetically acting muscular forces does not appear useful. Likewise, permanent re-positioning by means of muscle-relaxing operation cannot be sufficiently safe-guarded without additional osteotomy once the dislocation has taken place. In twelve patients with spastic dislocation of the hip, treated in accordance with these guidelines (two without osteotomy) aged 6 6/12 and 19 5/12 years, a roentgenologically good result was obtained in half of the cases, whereas the functional result was satisfactory not only with these patients but also with part of the other patients. If surgical treatment is instituted early enough, and if the experiences described here are taken into consideration

  2. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut maneuvers in compression shorts: Implications for return to sport after groin injury

    PubMed Central

    CHAUDHARI, AJIT M. W.; JAMISON, STEVEN T.; MCNALLY, MICHAEL P.; PAN, XUELIANG; SCHMITT, LAURA C.

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut maneuvers in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all p<0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858

  3. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut manoeuvres in compression shorts: implications for return to sport after groin injury.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Jamison, Steven T; McNally, Michael P; Pan, Xueliang; Schmitt, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention of or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large, eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography (EMG) of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut manoeuvres in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all P < 0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858

  4. Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, I H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with overcorrected strabismus (and several patients with undercorrection after extraocular muscle resection) underwent exploration of previously operated muscles, with the intention of advancing their tendons to prevent the need for surgery on additional muscles. Unexpectedly, it was found that, in many cases, an elongated scar segment of variable length was interposed between the muscle and its insertion site on the sclera. Laboratory investigations were carried out to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) and to create an animal model of the disorder. METHODS: Lengthened scars were repaired on 198 muscles during 134 procedures performed on 123 patients. The scars consisted of amorphous connective tissue interposed between the globe and normal tendon. Repair was accomplished by excision of the scar and reattachment of the muscle to sclera, using absorbable sutures in 64 cases and nonabsorbable sutures in 70 cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on 82 clinical specimens, and tissue culture studies were performed on 7 specimens. To develop an animal model, 10 New Zealand white rabbits underwent bilateral superior rectus resection. Half of the eyes received sub-Tenon's injections of collagenase over the operative site during weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6 postoperatively; the other half received saline solution injections on the same schedule. At 10 weeks, half the sites were studied histologically, and the other half underwent collagen creep analysis. In a second study, the use of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures was compared in the rabbit model. RESULTS: In the clinical cases, the mean length of the elongated scar segments was 4.2 mm. A total of 105 of the 134 repair procedures were judged successful. Thirty-one procedures resulted in recurrence of the original overcorrection; 7 of these had documented restretches. Factors that distinguished patients with stretched scars from patients with classic slipped muscles included minimal or no

  5. Scar revision

    MedlinePlus

    ... natural skin folds. Skin grafting involves taking a thin layer of skin from another part of the body and placing it over the injured area. Skin flap surgery involves moving ... injury, when a thin scar will not heal, and when the main ...

  6. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 1; A Study Employing Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules (N-CAM) Immunocytochemistry and Conventional Morphological Techniques (Light and Electron Microscopy)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, N. G.; DAmelio, F.; Wu, L.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Krasnov, I. B.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the 'slow' muscle adductor longus was examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. Three groups - synchronous, vivarium and basal served as controls. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, N-CAM immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy, contraction bands and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leucocytes and mononuclear cells. N-CAM immunoreactivity was seen (N-CAM-IR) on the myofiber surface, satellite cells and in regenerating myofibers reminiscent of myotubes. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments that displayed varied distributive patterns. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions consisted of a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degeneration of axon terminals, increased number of microtubules, vacant axonal spaces and axonal sprouting. The present observations indicate that major alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  7. Evaluation of the thoraco-laryngeal reflex ('slap test') as an indicator of laryngeal adductor myopathy in the horse.

    PubMed

    Newton-Clarke, M J; Divers, T J; Valentine, B A

    1994-09-01

    A study was conducted over a 12 month period to assess the accuracy of the 'slap test' in the diagnosis of laryngeal adductor myopathy. The thoraco-laryngeal reflexes of 15 horses with no clinical signs of idiopathic laryngeal hemiplegia (ILH) were recorded using a video-endoscope. These 'slap test' responses were examined independently by 3 assessors. The horses were subsequently subjected to euthanasia and samples taken from the cricoarytenoideus lateralis (CAL) muscles for histopathological examination and assessment of denervation atrophy. Despite normal adductory responses, moderate to severe atrophy of the left CAL muscles was seen in 5 horses. The remaining horses had varying degrees of adductor myopathy, invariably worse in the left side of the larynx. The 'slap test' as performed in this study was therefore unable to differentiate between horses with moderate to severe muscle changes and those without, making it useless as a diagnostic test for adductor myopathy. The reason for the preservation in adductor function despite advanced histological atrophy of the muscle may lie in the degree of reinnervation found in the muscles.

  8. Three dimensional digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of the extinct marsupial giant Diprotodon optatum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The morphology and arrangement of the jaw adductor muscles in vertebrates reflects masticatory style and feeding processes, diet and ecology. However, gross muscle anatomy is rarely preserved in fossils and is, therefore, heavily dependent on reconstructions. An undeformed skull of the extinct marsupial, Diprotodon optatum, recovered from Pleistocene sediments at Bacchus Marsh in Victoria, represents the most complete and best preserved specimen of the species offering a unique opportunity to investigate functional anatomy. Computed tomography (CT) scans and digital reconstructions make it possible to visualise internal cranial anatomy and predict location and morphology of soft tissues, including muscles. This study resulted in a 3D digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of Diprotodon, revealing that the arrangement of muscles is similar to that of kangaroos and that the muscle actions were predominantly vertical. 3D digital muscle reconstructions provide considerable advantages over 2D reconstructions for the visualisation of the spatial arrangement of the individual muscles and the measurement of muscle properties (length, force vectors and volume). Such digital models can further be used to estimate muscle loads and attachment sites for biomechanical analyses. PMID:25165628

  9. Speech Intelligibility in Severe Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Brenda K.; Cannito, Michael P.; Murry, Thomas; Woodson, Gayle E.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared speech intelligibility in nondisabled speakers and speakers with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (Botox) injection. Standard speech samples were obtained from 10 speakers diagnosed with severe ADSD prior to and 1 month following Botox injection, as well as from 10 age- and gender-matched…

  10. Unique use of botulinum toxin to decrease adductor tone and allow surgical excision of vulvar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Shin, K

    2004-01-01

    Here, we present the case of an 86-year-old woman with vulvar carcinoma requiring surgical resection and with Parkinson's disease with severe spasticity and contractures of the lower extremities. Because of the patient's severe contractures and spasticity (her knees could only be separated by 2 cm with sustained abducting force), surgical positioning and access to the vulva were impossible. The patient was admitted, intending to undergo surgery after injection with botulinum toxin (BTX) to hip adductors and intensive physical therapy. After confirmed healed hip arthroplasty, the patient underwent BTX injection (400 U) to her bilateral adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, and semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles on day 2 of her hospital stay. On day 3, a physical therapist began a twice-a-day stretching program. An adjustable abduction brace was custom-made to provide sustained stretching. On day 9, the patient underwent wide local excision of vulvar carcinoma with the abductor brace in place. The patient tolerated the surgery well and was discharged home on day 11 with continuous physical therapy. Upon discharge, the distance between the patient's knees was 14 cm. This unique case demonstrated a new indication for BTX treatment in the preoperative setting to allow surgical positioning and access.

  11. Evolutionary Trends in the Jaw Adductor Mechanics of Ornithischian Dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Nabavizadeh, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Jaw mechanics in ornithischian dinosaurs have been widely studied for well over a century. Most of these studies, however, use only one or few taxa within a given ornithischian clade as a model for feeding mechanics across the entire clade. In this study, mandibular mechanical advantages among 52 ornithischian genera spanning all subclades are calculated using 2D lever arm methods. These lever arm calculations estimate the effect of jaw shape and difference in adductor muscle line of action on relative bite forces along the jaw. Results show major instances of overlap between taxa in tooth positions at which there was highest mechanical advantage. A relatively low bite force is seen across the tooth row among thyreophorans (e.g., stegosaurs and ankylosaurs), with variation among taxa. A convergent transition occurs from a more evenly distributed bite force along the jaw in basal ornithopods and basal marginocephalians to a strong distal bite force in hadrosaurids and ceratopsids, respectively. Accordingly, adductor muscle vector angles show repeated trends from a mid-range caudodorsal orientation in basal ornithischians to a decrease in vector angles indicating more caudally oriented jaw movements in derived taxa (e.g., derived thyreophorans, basal ornithopods, lambeosaurines, pachycephalosaurs, and derived ceratopsids). Analyses of hypothetical jaw morphologies were also performed, indicating that both the coronoid process and lowered jaw joint increase moment arm length therefore increasing mechanical advantage of the jaw apparatus. Adaptive trends in craniomandibular anatomy show that ornithischians evolved more complex feeding apparatuses within different clades as well as morphological convergences between clades. PMID:26692539

  12. Saphenous and Infrapatellar Nerves at the Adductor Canal: Anatomy and Implications in Regional Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulou, Sofia; Anagnostis, George; Saranteas, Theodosios; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Paraskeuopoulos, Tilemachos

    2016-01-01

    Conflicting data exist regarding the anatomical relationship of the saphenous and infrapatellar nerves at the adductor canal and the location of the superior foramen of the canal. Therefore, the authors performed a cadaveric study to detail the relationship and course of the saphenous and infrapatellar nerves and the level of the superior foramen of the canal. The adductor canal and subsartorial compartment were dissected in 17 human cadavers. The distance between the superior foramen of the canal and the mid-distance (MD) between the base of the patella and the anterior superior iliac crest were measured; the course of the saphenous and infrapatellar nerves and the level of origin of the infrapatellar branch were detailed. In 13 of 17 specimens, the superior foramen of the adductor canal was distal to the MD (mean, 6.5 cm); in the remaining specimens, it was proximal to the MD. In 12 of 17 specimens, the infrapatellar branch exited the canal separately from the saphenous nerve; in the remaining specimens, it originated caudally to the canal. In all dissections, the infrapatellar branch had a constant course in close proximity to the saphenous nerve within the canal and between the sartorious muscle and femoral artery caudally to the canal. Most commonly, the superior foramen of the adductor canal is located caudally to the MD; the infrapatellar branch originates from the saphenous nerve within the canal and has a constant course in close proximity to the saphenous nerve. These observations should be considered for regional anesthesia techniques at the adductor canal.

  13. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment ... face like the eyes or lips. A facial plastic surgeon has many options for treating and improving ...

  14. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review.

    PubMed

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  15. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review

    PubMed Central

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Summary Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  16. Activation-induced force enhancement in human adductor pollicis.

    PubMed

    Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter

    2009-10-01

    It has been known for a long time that the steady-state isometric force after muscle stretch is bigger than the corresponding force obtained in a purely isometric contraction for electrically stimulated and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Recent studies using sub-maximal voluntary contractions showed that force enhancement only occurred in a sub-group of subjects suggesting that force enhancement for sub-maximal voluntary contractions has properties different from those of electrically-induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Specifically, force enhancement for sub-maximal voluntary contractions may contain an activation-dependent component that is independent of muscle stretching. To address this hypothesis, we tested for force enhancement using (i) sub-maximal electrically-induced contractions and stretch and (ii) using various activation levels preceding an isometric reference contraction at 30% of MVC (no stretch). All tests were performed on human adductor pollicis muscles. Force enhancement following stretching was found for all subjects (n=10) and all activation levels (10%, 30%, and 60% of MVC) for electrically-induced contractions. In contrast, force enhancement at 30% of MVC, preceded by 6s of 10%, 60%, and 100% of MVC was only found in a sub-set of the subjects and only for the 60% and 100% conditions. This result suggests that there is an activation-dependent force enhancement for some subjects for sub-maximal voluntary contractions. This activation-dependent force enhancement was always smaller than the stretch-induced force enhancement obtained at the corresponding activation levels. Active muscle stretching increased the force enhancement in all subjects, independent whether they showed activation dependence or not. It appears that post-activation potentiation, and the associated phosphorylation of the myosin light chains, might account for the stretch-independent force enhancement observed here.

  17. Treatment of acne scarring.

    PubMed

    Alam, M; Dover, J S

    Acne scarring is common but surprisingly difficult to treat. Scars can involve textural change in the superficial and deep dermis, and can also be associated with erythema, and less often, pigmentary change. In general, treatment of acne scarring is a multistep procedure. First, examination of the patient is necessary to classify the subtypes of scarring that are present. Then, the patient's primary concerns are elicited, and the patient is offered a menu of procedures that may address the various components of the scarring process. It is important to emphasize to the patient that acne scarring can be improved but never entirely reversed. PMID:17180246

  18. Periostin induces fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast persistence in hypertrophic scarring.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Justin; Nygard, Karen; Gan, Bing Siang; O'Gorman, David Brian

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is characterized by the excessive development and persistence of myofibroblasts. These cells contract the surrounding extracellular matrix resulting in the increased tissue density characteristic of scar tissue. Periostin is a matricellular protein that is abnormally abundant in fibrotic dermis, however, its roles in hypertrophic scarring are largely unknown. In this report, we assessed the ability of matrix-associated periostin to promote the proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation of dermal fibroblasts isolated from the dermis of hypertrophic scars or healthy skin. Supplementation of a thin type-I collagen cell culture substrate with recombinant periostin induced a significant increase in the proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts but not normal dermal fibroblasts. Periostin induced significant increases in supermature focal adhesion formation, α smooth muscle actin levels and collagen contraction in fibroblasts cultured from hypertrophic scars under conditions of increased matrix tension in three-dimensional type-I collagen lattices. Inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase activity significantly attenuated the effects of matrix-associated periostin on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Depletion of endogenous periostin expression in hypertrophic scar myofibroblasts resulted in a sustained decrease in α smooth muscle actin levels under conditions of reducing matrix tension, while matrix-associated periostin levels caused the cells to retain high levels of a smooth muscle actin under these conditions. These findings indicate that periostin promotes Rho-associated protein kinase-dependent proliferation and myofibroblast persistence of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and implicate periostin as a potential therapeutic target to enhance the resolution of scars.

  19. Successful return to high-level sports following early surgical repair of combined adductor complex and rectus abdominis avulsion.

    PubMed

    Tansey, R J; Benjamin-Laing, H; Jassim, S; Liekens, K; Shankar, A; Haddad, F S

    2015-11-01

    Hip and groin injuries are common in athletes who take part in high level sports. Adductor muscle tendon injuries represent a small but important number of these injuries. Avulsion of the tendons attached to the symphysis pubis has previously been described: these can be managed both operatively and non-operatively. We describe an uncommon variant of this injury, namely complete avulsion of the adductor sleeve complex: this includes adductor longus, pectineus and rectus abdominis. We go on to describe a surgical technique which promotes a full return to the pre-injury level of sporting activity. Over a period of ten years, 15 high-level athletes with an MRI-confirmed acute adductor complex avulsion injury (six to 34 days old) underwent surgical repair. The operative procedure consisted of anatomical re-attachment of the avulsed tissues in each case and mesh reinforcement of the posterior inguinal wall in seven patients. All underwent a standardised rehabilitation programme, which was then individualised to be sport-specific. One patient developed a superficial wound infection, which was successfully treated with antibiotics. Of the 15 patients, four complained of transient local numbness which resolved in all cases. All patients (including seven elite athletes) returned to their previous level of participation in sport.

  20. Elbow joint adductor moment arm as an indicator of forelimb posture in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Hutchinson, John R

    2012-07-01

    Forelimb posture has been a controversial aspect of reconstructing locomotor behaviour in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods. This is partly owing to the qualitative and subjective nature of typical methods, which focus on bony articulations that are often ambiguous and unvalidated postural indicators. Here we outline a new, quantitatively based forelimb posture index that is applicable to a majority of extant tetrapods. By determining the degree of elbow joint adduction/abduction mobility in several tetrapods, the carpal flexor muscles were determined to also play a role as elbow adductors. Such adduction may play a major role during the stance phase in sprawling postures. This role is different from those of upright/sagittal and sloth-like creeping postures, which, respectively, depend more on elbow extensors and flexors. Our measurements of elbow muscle moment arms in 318 extant tetrapod skeletons (Lissamphibia, Synapsida and Reptilia: 33 major clades and 263 genera) revealed that sprawling, sagittal and creeping tetrapods, respectively, emphasize elbow adductor, extensor and flexor muscles. Furthermore, scansorial and non-scansorial taxa, respectively, emphasize flexors and extensors. Thus, forelimb postures of extinct tetrapods can be qualitatively classified based on our quantitative index. Using this method, we find that Triceratops (Ceratopsidae), Anhanguera (Pterosauria) and desmostylian mammals are categorized as upright/sagittally locomoting taxa.

  1. Relativistic Quantum Scars

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Liang; Lai Yingcheng; Ferry, David K.; Goodnick, Stephen M.; Akis, Richard

    2009-07-31

    The concentrations of wave functions about classical periodic orbits, or quantum scars, are a fundamental phenomenon in physics. An open question is whether scarring can occur in relativistic quantum systems. To address this question, we investigate confinements made of graphene whose classical dynamics are chaotic and find unequivocal evidence of relativistic quantum scars. The scarred states can lead to strong conductance fluctuations in the corresponding open quantum dots via the mechanism of resonant transmission.

  2. Scar revision via resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Bradley, D T; Park, S S

    2001-11-01

    Numerous techniques exist to treat noticeable facial scars. Techniques range from surgical excision to resurfacing. In this review of dermabrasion and laser resurfacing, we address the clinical considerations, techniques, adjuncts, and peri-operative management of scar resurfacing. Dermabrasion offers the advantage of being a tried-and-true technique familiar to surgeons. Recent advances in laser technology have resulted in the increased use of pulsed-dye lasers (PDLs), erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) lasers, and CO(2) lasers. PDLs are effective for hypertrophic scars and show lower rates of recurrence compared with erbium:YAG and CO2 lasers. In contrast, erbium:YAG and CO(2) lasers are well suited to treating atrophic and acne scars. Chemical peels play a minor role in scar resurfacing and function primarily as an adjunct. Scar resurfacing is an integral part of scar camouflage and is often used in conjunction with excision and irregularization techniques.

  3. RESULTS OF ADDUCTORS MUSCLE TENOTOMY IN SPASTIC CEREBRAL PALSY

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmetti, Luiz Gabriel Betoni; Santos, Ruy Mesquita Maranhao; Mendonça, Rodrigo Góes Medea de; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Assumpçao, Rodrigo Montezuma César de; Fucs, Patricia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Radiographic evaluation of the evolution of hips that underwent soft-tissue release. Methods: This was a retrospective evaluation on 101 spastic cerebral palsy patients who underwent soft-tissue release between 1991 and 2006. Forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria: 23 boys and 21 girls; 34 diparetic and 10 quadriparetic. Functionally, 29 were non-walkers, five were able to walk at home and 10 were able to walk within the community. Reimers' index (RI) and the acetabular index (AI) were measured on pre and postoperative radiographs, with a minimum follow-up of three years. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.4 years. Results: The results were considered good if the RI had reduced, or had increased by less than 10%. This was found in 52% of this study. We observed a clear improvement in IR, along with worse results in patients with more than five years of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion: Soft-tissue release should be performed as early as possible, regardless of age, walking condition, clinical type, RI, AI or sex, and as soon as the patient clinically presents less than 30° abduction, because of the benefits relating to walking, prevention and treatment of subluxation, hygiene and pain relief. PMID:27022574

  4. The growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Helmi, C; Cracraft, J

    1977-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles of the chicken relative to the functional-biomechanical demands of increasing body size. The biceps femoris, a bipennate non-postural muscle, grew relatively faster in terms of wet and dry weight than did the parallel-fibred adductor superficialis or the unipennate adductor profundus, both postural muscles. All three muscles exhibited positive allometry (relative to body weight) in muscle length but only biceps femoris and adductor profundus showed positive allometry in cross sectional area adductor superficialis having isometric growth in this parameter. In biceps femoris and adductor superficialis the lengths of the longest and shortest fasciculi grew at equal rates, whereas in adductor profundus the shortest fasciculi grew faster than the longest. We conclude that muscle weight alone is an insufficient indicator of changing function in growing muscle. Hence, growth studies should include other functionally relevant parameters such as cross sectional area, which is proportional to the force-producing capabilities of the muscle, or fibre (fasciculus) length, which is indicative of the absolute amount of stretching or shortening that is possible and of the contraction velocity.

  5. The growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles in the chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Helmi, C; Cracraft, J

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles of the chicken relative to the functional-biomechanical demands of increasing body size. The biceps femoris, a bipennate non-postural muscle, grew relatively faster in terms of wet and dry weight than did the parallel-fibred adductor superficialis or the unipennate adductor profundus, both postural muscles. All three muscles exhibited positive allometry (relative to body weight) in muscle length but only biceps femoris and adductor profundus showed positive allometry in cross sectional area adductor superficialis having isometric growth in this parameter. In biceps femoris and adductor superficialis the lengths of the longest and shortest fasciculi grew at equal rates, whereas in adductor profundus the shortest fasciculi grew faster than the longest. We conclude that muscle weight alone is an insufficient indicator of changing function in growing muscle. Hence, growth studies should include other functionally relevant parameters such as cross sectional area, which is proportional to the force-producing capabilities of the muscle, or fibre (fasciculus) length, which is indicative of the absolute amount of stretching or shortening that is possible and of the contraction velocity. PMID:885779

  6. Anatomy and function of the thenar muscles.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Salil; Michelsen-Jost, Heidi

    2012-02-01

    The four thenar muscles make up the intrinsic muscles of the thumb. They include the abductor pollicis, adductor pollicis, opponens pollicis, and flexor pollicis brevis. Thumb motion is facilitated through the coordination of these intrinsic muscles. The thumb musculature dynamically allows for precision pinching ad power gripping. PMID:22117918

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase 14 overexpression reduces corneal scarring.

    PubMed

    Galiacy, S D; Fournié, P; Massoudi, D; Ancèle, E; Quintyn, J-C; Erraud, A; Raymond-Letron, I; Rolling, F; Malecaze, F

    2011-05-01

    Once a corneal scar develops, surgical management remains the only option for visual rehabilitation. Corneal transplantation is the definitive treatment for a corneal scar. In addition to the challenges posed by graft rejections and other postoperative complications, the lack of high-quality donor corneas can limit the benefits possible with keratoplasty. The purpose of our study was to evaluate a new therapeutic strategy for treating corneal scarring by targeting collagen deposition. We overexpressed a fibril collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14)) to prevent collagen deposition in the scar tissue. We demonstrated that a single and simple direct injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus-based vector expressing murine MMP14 can modulate gene expression of murine stromal keratocytes. This tool opens new possibilities with regard to treatment. In a mouse model of corneal full-thickness incision, we observed that MMP14 overexpression reduced corneal opacity and expression of the major genes involved in corneal scarring, especially type III collagen and α-smooth muscle actin. These results represent proof of concept that gene transfer of MMP14 can reduce scar formation, which could have therapeutic applications after corneal trauma.

  8. Diaphanous regulates SCAR complex localization during Drosophila myoblast fusion.

    PubMed

    Deng, Su; Bothe, Ingo; Baylies, Mary

    2016-10-01

    From Drosophila to man, multinucleated muscle cells form through cell-cell fusion. Using Drosophila as a model system, researchers first identified, and then demonstrated, the importance of actin cytoskeletal rearrangements at the site of fusion. These actin rearrangements at the fusion site are regulated by SCAR and WASp mediated Arp2/3 activation, which nucleates branched actin networks. Loss of SCAR, WASp or both leads to defects in myoblast fusion. Recently, we have found that the actin regulator Diaphanous (Dia) also plays a role both in organizing actin and in regulating Arp2/3 activity at the fusion site. In this Extra View article, we provide additional data showing that the Abi-SCAR complex accumulates at the fusion site and that excessive SCAR activity impairs myoblast fusion. Using constitutively active Dia constructs, we provide additional evidence that Dia functions upstream of SCAR activity to regulate actin dynamics at the fusion site and to localize the Abi-SCAR complex.

  9. Rupture of adductor longus tendon due to ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Mouzopoulos, George; Stamatakos, Mihalis; Vasiliadis, George; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2005-12-01

    We present a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the adductor longus tendon induced by ciprofloxacin. A 35-year-old man was diagnosed with pneumonia and was recommended ciprofloxacin 500 mg iv twice a day for 7 days. Three days after receiving the initial dose, he developed discomfort in his left medial thigh, and pain and swelling in the same area followed ten days later. He consulted us when he noted a palpable mass on the medial side of his left thigh, and MRI study revealed adductor longus tendon rupture. There was no obvious underlying disease or other factor causing fragility of his adductor longus tendon. We review the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to fluoroquinolone-related tendon rupture as well as the risk factors and discuss proper management.

  10. Laser Scar Management Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ohshiro, Toshio; Sasaki, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: Scars are common and cause functional problems and psychological morbidity. Recent advances in optical technologies have produced various laser systems capable of revising the appearance of scars from various etiologies to optimize their appearance. Methods: Laser treatment can commence as early as the time of the initial injury and as late as several years after the injury. Several optical technologies are currently available and combined laser/light treatments are required for treatment of scars. Since 2006, we have set up a scar management department in our clinic and more than 2000 patients have been treated by our combined laser irradiation techniques. Herein, we review several available light technologies for treatment of surgical, traumatic, and inflammatory scars, and discuss our combined laser treatment of scars, based upon our clinical experience. Results and Conclusions: Because scars have a variety of potential aetiologies and take a number of forms, no single approach can consistenty provide good scar treatment and management. The combination of laser and devices is essential, the choice of wavelength and approach being dictated by each patient as an individual. PMID:24511202

  11. Atrophic Acne Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Emmy M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scarring is an unfortunate and frequent complication of acne, resulting in significant psychological distress for patients. Fortunately, numerous treatment options exist for acne scarring. Objectives: To extensively review the literature on treatment options for atrophic acne scarring. Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on the following topics: dermabrasion, subcision, punch techniques, chemical peels, tissue augmentation, and lasers. Results: The literature supports the use of various treatment modalities; superior results may be achieved when multiple modalities are combined for a multi-step approach to scarring. Conclusion: The safety and efficacy of various treatment devices for acne scarring is well established, but there is a paucity of split-face trials comparing modalities. PMID:25610524

  12. Vocal aging and adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Response to botulinum toxin injection

    PubMed Central

    Cannito, Michael P; Kahane, Joel C; Chorna, Lesya

    2008-01-01

    Aging of the larynx is characterized by involutional changes which alter its biomechanical and neural properties and create a biological environment that is different from younger counterparts. Illustrative anatomical examples are presented. This natural, non-disease process appears to set conditions which may influence the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection and our expectations for its success. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia, a type of laryngeal dystonia, is typically treated using botulinum toxin injections of the vocal folds in order to suppress adductory muscle spasms which are disruptive to production of speech and voice. A few studies have suggested diminished response to treatment in older patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This retrospective study provides a reanalysis of existing pre-to-post treatment data as function of age. Perceptual judgments of speech produced by 42 patients with ADSD were made by two panels of professional listeners with expertise in voice or fluency of speech. Results demonstrate a markedly reduced positive response to botulinum toxin treatment in the older patients. Perceptual findings are further elucidated by means of acoustic spectrography. Literature on vocal aging is reviewed to provide a specific set of biological mechanisms that best account for the observed interaction of botulinum toxin treatment with advancing age. PMID:18488884

  13. The Results of Adductor Magnus Tenodesis in Adolescents with Recurrent Patellar Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Malecki, Krzysztof; Fabis, Jaroslaw; Flont, Pawel; Niedzielski, Kryspin Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent dislocation of the patella is a common orthopaedic problem which occurs in about 44% of cases after first-time dislocation. In most cases of first-time patellar dislocation, the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) becomes damaged. Between 2010 and 2012, 33 children and adolescents (39 knees) with recurrent patellar dislocation were treated with MPFL reconstruction using the adductor magnus tendon. The aim of our study is to assess the effectiveness of this surgical procedure. The outcomes were evaluated functionally (Lysholm knee scale, the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale, and isokinetic examination) and radiographically (Caton index, sulcus angle, congruence angle, and patellofemoral angle). Four patients demonstrated redislocation with MPFL graft failure, despite the fact that patellar tracking was found to be normal before the injury, and the patients had not reported any symptoms. Statistically significant improvements in Lysholm and Kujala scales, in patellofemoral and congruence angle, were seen (P < 0.001). A statistically significant improvement in the peak torque of the quadriceps muscle and flexor was observed for 60°/sec and 180°/sec angular velocities (P = 0.01). Our results confirm the efficacy of MPFL reconstruction using the adductor magnus tendon in children and adolescents with recurrent patellar dislocation. PMID:25785271

  14. Peak torque, reaction time, and rate of torque development of hip abductors and adductors of older women.

    PubMed

    Morcelli, Mary Hellen; Rossi, Denise Martineli; Karuka, Aline Harumi; Crozara, Luciano Fernandes; Hallal, Camilla Zamfolini; Marques, Nise Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Mauro; Navega, Marcelo Tavella

    2016-01-01

    Impaired muscle function at the hip has been implicated to be a major factor related to falls in older adults. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the rate of torque development (RTD), reaction time (RT), and peak torque (PT) of hip abductors and hip adductors in young women (YW), older women nonfallers (ONF), and older women fallers (OF). Eighteen YW and 44 older women divided among OF (n = 20) and ONF (n = 24) performed maximum isometric hip abductor and adduction contractions on a dynamometer. YW had 40% greater PT and 61.5% greater RTD for hip abductors than the ONF. Compared with OF, YW had 47.5% greater PT and 68% greater RTD. OF showed less RTD at 150 ms (31%) and 200 ms (34.5%) than ONF for hip abductors. PT of hip adductors was 52% greater in YW than in the two older groups, whereas RTD was 71% greater. OF showed less RTD than ONF for hip abductors according to standardized effect sizes. No RT differences were observed between the three groups. We conclude that older women (OF and ONF) have less strength and ability to develop force rapidly than YW for hip abductors and adductors. Low hip strength and slowed force development in ONF during hip abduction may increase fall risk in older women.

  15. Keloid scar (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Keloids are an overgrowth of scar tissue at the site of a healed skin injury. They often create a thick, puckered effect simulating a tumor. Keloids may be reduced in size by freezing (cryotherapy), ...

  16. Scar revision - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery to revise scars is done while the patient is awake, sleeping (sedated), or deep asleep and pain-free (local anesthesia or general anesthesia). Massive injuries (such as burns) can cause loss of a large area of ...

  17. Primary scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Stamatios, Gregoriou; Ioannides, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Scarring alopecia or cicatricial alopecia results from follicular damage that is sufficient to cause the destruction and replacement of pilosebaceous structures by scar tissue. Primary scarring alopecias represent a group of disorders that primarily affect the hair follicles, as opposed to secondary scarring alopecias, which affect the dermis and secondarily cause follicular destruction. Inflammation may predominantly involve lymphocytes or neutrophils. Cicatricial alopecias that mainly involve lymphocytic inflammation include discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia, central centrifugal alopecia, and pseudopelade (Brocq). Cicatricial alopecias that are due to predominantly neutrophilic inflammation include folliculitis decalvans, tufted folliculitis, and dissecting cellulitis of the scalp. Folliculitis keloidalis is a cicatricial alopecia with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate. PMID:26370646

  18. Robot-assisted removal of a lymphocyst causing severe neuralgic pain and adductor atrophy.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Giorgio; Borgfeldt, Christer; Wallengren, Nils-Olof; Persson, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Following a robot-assisted radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for early-stage cervical cancer, a 53-year-old woman was diagnosed with a 50-mm right-sided pelvic lymphocyst by the use of vaginal ultrasonography. She gradually developed intermittent increasingly severe neuralgic pain mimicking a meralgia paresthetica. A neurolysis was proposed by the neurosurgeons. Awaiting this intervention, a pelvic MRI revealed a partial atrophy of the ipsilateral adductor muscles and a probable entrapment of the obturator nerve by the lymphocyst as an alternative cause of the pain. Using a four-arm da Vinci-S-HD robot the lymphocyst, located deep in the right obturator fossa and surrounding the obturator nerve, was completely removed, sparing the partially atrophic obturator nerve. No bleeding occurred. The surgery time was 95 min. At 10 months' follow-up the patient was relieved of her pain with no signs of a new lymphocyst. PMID:27628122

  19. Historical approaches to the treatment of Adductor-Type Spasmodic Dysphonia (ADSD): review and tutorial.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Erin J; Sapienza, Christine M

    2003-01-01

    Adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) is a voice disorder of uncertain, though likely neurogenic origin. Symptoms of the disorder include mild to profound "strain and strangle" sensations during voiced speech tasks that, in the most severe form, are physically and psychologically debilitating. Over the years, treatment approaches have evolved from behavioral attempts at voice modification, to surgical and, most recently, pharmacological treatments involving partial and temporary paralysis of muscle fibers within the larynx following injection of botulinum toxin or Botox. The most current research hints at the potential benefits of a multi-faceted approach to symptom management, combining behavioral with pharmacological treatments. The following is intended as a review and tutorial of treatment approaches for ADSD. The tutorial is intended for practicing clinical professionals with an interest in the treatment of neurogenic disorders of voice and speech.

  20. Differential regulation of the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes with skeletal muscle type in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kimura, Sayaka; Kitashiro, Ayana; Tsuchii, Nami; Tsuchihashi, Tatsuya; Inui, Mariko; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    The regulatory mechanisms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are known to differ among skeletal muscle types in mammals. For example, glycolytic muscles prefer glucose as an energy source, whereas oxidative muscles prefer fatty acids (FA). We herein demonstrated differences in the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the pectoralis major (a glycolytic twitch muscle), adductor superficialis (an oxidative twitch muscle), and adductor profound (a tonic muscle) of 14-day-old chicks. Under ad libitum feeding conditions, the mRNA levels of muscle type phosphofructokinase-1 were markedly lower in the adductor superficialis muscle, suggesting that basal glycolytic activity is very low in this type of muscle. In contrast, high mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36) in the adductor superficialis muscle suggest that FA uptake is high in this type of muscle. The mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) were significantly higher in the adductor profound muscle than in other muscles, suggesting that basal lipolytic activity is high in this type of muscle. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor δ and CPT1b were significantly increased in the adductor superficialis muscle, but not in other muscles, after 24h of fasting. Therefore, the availability of FA in the oxidative twitch muscles in growing chickens appears to be upregulated by fasting. Our results suggest that lipid metabolism-related genes are upregulated under both basal and fasting conditions in the adductor superficialis in growing chickens. PMID:26188321

  1. Differential regulation of the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes with skeletal muscle type in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kimura, Sayaka; Kitashiro, Ayana; Tsuchii, Nami; Tsuchihashi, Tatsuya; Inui, Mariko; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    The regulatory mechanisms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are known to differ among skeletal muscle types in mammals. For example, glycolytic muscles prefer glucose as an energy source, whereas oxidative muscles prefer fatty acids (FA). We herein demonstrated differences in the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the pectoralis major (a glycolytic twitch muscle), adductor superficialis (an oxidative twitch muscle), and adductor profound (a tonic muscle) of 14-day-old chicks. Under ad libitum feeding conditions, the mRNA levels of muscle type phosphofructokinase-1 were markedly lower in the adductor superficialis muscle, suggesting that basal glycolytic activity is very low in this type of muscle. In contrast, high mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36) in the adductor superficialis muscle suggest that FA uptake is high in this type of muscle. The mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) were significantly higher in the adductor profound muscle than in other muscles, suggesting that basal lipolytic activity is high in this type of muscle. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor δ and CPT1b were significantly increased in the adductor superficialis muscle, but not in other muscles, after 24h of fasting. Therefore, the availability of FA in the oxidative twitch muscles in growing chickens appears to be upregulated by fasting. Our results suggest that lipid metabolism-related genes are upregulated under both basal and fasting conditions in the adductor superficialis in growing chickens.

  2. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef.

    PubMed

    Nanami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing). The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight) defined as the grazing ability index (GAI). There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni). Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate) was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests the

  3. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing). The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight) defined as the grazing ability index (GAI). There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni). Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate) was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests the

  4. [Abnormal adductor movement of the vocal cords in spasmodic dysphonia].

    PubMed

    Shibusawa, M

    1993-04-01

    Adductor movement of the vocal cords in initial/ke/phonation was recorded using a laryngeal fiberscope, CCD camera, and videocassette recorder. Three patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (SD), a 53 year old male and 48 and 52 year old females, and 7 normal volunteers participated in this study. During the examination, the subject sat on a chair holding a microphone about 20 cm away from his or her lips. A laryngeal fiberscope was inserted through either side of the nostril. The tip of the fiberscope was positioned just caudal to the tip of the epiglottis to get a complete view of both sides of the vocal cords. The examiner told the subject to make the speech sound/ke/repeatedly, and to insert a sufficient inspiratory period between each phonation. The vocal cord images were recorded at 30 frames per second and printed successively from several frames ahead of the beginning of adductor movement to the frame of initial adjustment of the membranous part of the vocal cords following a time code indicator. The tips of both sides of the vocal processes and anterior commissure were marked, then, scanned and transported to a personal computer. An imaginary line connecting the vocal process and anterior commissure was drawn on the screen of the computer, which was done on both sides of the vocal cords. Then, an angle made by the two lines was measured in degrees and stored. The time and speed of adductor movement varied among subjects. Normal subjects, however, never failed to finish making the explosive sound in /ke/ before initial vocal cord adjustment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The dependence of force enhancement on activation in human adductor pollicis.

    PubMed

    Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter

    2006-09-01

    It has been well recognized that the steady-state isometric force after active muscle/fiber stretch is greater than the corresponding isometric force for electrically stimulated muscles and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). However, recent evidence obtained for sub-MVC suggests that force enhancement properties are different from those observed for electrically induced and MVC. Specifically, it appears that force enhancement is activation-dependent and that there is a subject-specific threshold for force enhancement in sub-MVC. To address these suggestions, the relationship between force enhancement and voluntary activation during stretch was investigated in 11 healthy subjects. Human adductor pollicis muscles were studied and force enhancement was measured while muscle activation during the steady-state isometric phase was controlled at a level of 30% of MVC. In order to study the effects of activation on force enhancement, subjects performed stretch contractions at 0, 10, 30, 60, and 100% of maximal voluntary effort while the steady-state isometric force after stretch, obtained at 30% of activation in all cases, was compared to the corresponding values measured in the isometric reference contractions. There was no force enhancement if muscle stretching occurred passively but all subjects showed force enhancement when muscle stretching occurred at maximal voluntary effort. When increasing the level of activation during the stretch phase, force enhancement increased, and the number of subjects who showed force enhancement increased as well. We conclude from these results that force enhancement during voluntary contractions is activation-dependent with a threshold that is subject-specific.

  6. Scar Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Madhuri Arvind

    2015-12-01

    Scar ectopic pregnancy is the rarest form of ectopic pregnancy and has been increasingly diagnosed all over the world. This is a life-threatening form of abnormal implantation of embryo within the myometrium and fibrous tissues in a previous scar on the uterus, especially following caesarean section. With the increasing rate of caesarean section, there is a substantial increase in this condition with better understanding of this disease. The early and accurate diagnosis with timely management can prevent pregnancy complications such as haemorrhage, uterine rupture and can preserve fertility.

  7. Can Acne Scars Be Removed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Can Acne Scars Be Removed? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can Acne ... eliminarse las marcas de acne? Different Types of Acne Scars from acne can seem like double punishment — ...

  8. Surgical Scar Revision: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Dahiya, Naveen; Gupta, Somesh

    2014-01-01

    Scar formation is an inevitable consequence of wound healing from either a traumatic or a surgical intervention. The aesthetic appearance of a scar is the most important criteria to judge the surgical outcome. An understanding of the anatomy and wound healing along with experience, meticulous planning and technique can reduce complications and improve the surgical outcome. Scar revision does not erase a scar but helps to make it less noticeable and more acceptable. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques, used either alone or in combination can be used for revising a scar. In planning a scar revision surgeon should decide on when to act and the type of technique to use for scar revision to get an aesthetically pleasing outcome. This review article provides overview of methods applied for facial scar revision. This predominantly covers surgical methods. PMID:24761092

  9. Emerging Therapies for Scar Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Block, Lisa; Gosain, Ankush; King, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: There are ∼12 million traumatic lacerations treated in the United States emergency rooms each year, 250 million surgical incisions created worldwide every year, and 11 million burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment worldwide. In the United States, over $20 billion dollars per year are spent on the treatment and management of scars. Recent Advances: Investigations into the management of scar therapies over the last decade have advanced our understanding related to the care of cutaneous scars. Scar treatment methods are presented including topical, intralesional, and mechanical therapies in addition to cryotherapy, radiotherapy, and laser therapy. Critical Issues: Current treatment options for scars have significant limitations. This review presents the current and emerging therapies available for scar management and the scientific evidence for scar management is discussed. Future Directions: Based upon our new understanding of scar formation, innovative scar therapies are being developed. Additional research on the basic science of scar formation will lead to additional advances and novel therapies for the treatment of cutaneous scars. PMID:26487979

  10. Update on hypertrophic scar treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rabello, Felipe Bettini; Souza, Cleyton Dias; Júnior, Jayme Adriano Farina

    2014-01-01

    Scar formation is a consequence of the wound healing process that occurs when body tissues are damaged by a physical injury. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are pathological scars resulting from abnormal responses to trauma and can be itchy and painful, causing serious functional and cosmetic disability. The current review will focus on the definition of hypertrophic scars, distinguishing them from keloids and on the various methods for treating hypertrophic scarring that have been described in the literature, including treatments with clearly proven efficiency and therapies with doubtful benefits. Numerous methods have been described for the treatment of abnormal scars, but to date, the optimal treatment method has not been established. This review will explore the differences between different types of nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars, focusing on the indications, uses, mechanisms of action, associations and efficacies of the following therapies: silicone, pressure garments, onion extract, intralesional corticoid injections and bleomycin. PMID:25141117

  11. Update on hypertrophic scar treatment.

    PubMed

    Rabello, Felipe Bettini; Souza, Cleyton Dias; Farina Júnior, Jayme Adriano

    2014-08-01

    Scar formation is a consequence of the wound healing process that occurs when body tissues are damaged by a physical injury. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are pathological scars resulting from abnormal responses to trauma and can be itchy and painful, causing serious functional and cosmetic disability. The current review will focus on the definition of hypertrophic scars, distinguishing them from keloids and on the various methods for treating hypertrophic scarring that have been described in the literature, including treatments with clearly proven efficiency and therapies with doubtful benefits. Numerous methods have been described for the treatment of abnormal scars, but to date, the optimal treatment method has not been established. This review will explore the differences between different types of nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars, focusing on the indications, uses, mechanisms of action, associations and efficacies of the following therapies: silicone, pressure garments, onion extract, intralesional corticoid injections and bleomycin. PMID:25141117

  12. Bone Scanning in the Adductor Insertion Avulsion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Madhuri Shimpi

    2013-01-01

    A thigh splint (adductor insertion avulsion syndrome) is a relatively uncommon diagnosis analogous to shin splints. This article reports a 19-year-old female patient NOT a regular athlete who presented with groin pain. Physical examination was non-specific; magnetic resonance imaging pelvis did not reveal any abnormality. Patient referred for whole body bone scan, especially to locate any abnormality in the spine. This study highlights the role of whole body bone scan in the evaluation of groin pain and importance of evaluation of whole lower extremity. PMID:25126001

  13. Update on Postsurgical Scar Management.

    PubMed

    Commander, Sarah Jane; Chamata, Edward; Cox, Joshua; Dickey, Ryan M; Lee, Edward I

    2016-08-01

    Postoperative scar appearance is often a significant concern among patients, with many seeking advice from their surgeons regarding scar minimization. Numerous products are available that claim to decrease postoperative scar formation and improve wound healing. These products attempt to create an ideal environment for wound healing by targeting the three phases of wound healing: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. With that said, preoperative interventions, such as lifestyle modifications and optimization of medical comorbidities, and intraoperative interventions, such as adherence to meticulous operative techniques, are equally important for ideal scarring. In this article, the authors review the available options in postoperative scar management, addressing the benefits of multimodal perioperative intervention. Although numerous treatments exist, no single modality has been proven superior over others. Therefore, each patient should receive a personalized treatment regimen to optimize scar management.

  14. Scallops show that muscle metabolic capacities reflect locomotor style and morphology.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Isabelle; Guderley, Helga E

    2014-01-01

    Although all scallops swim using their adductor muscle to close their valves, scallop species differ considerably in how they use their muscle during escape responses, in parallel with the striking interspecific differences in shell morphology. This provides an excellent opportunity to study links between muscle metabolic capacities and animal performance. We found that the capacity for anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic metabolism, as well as phosphoarginine levels in the phasic adductor muscle, differ with escape response strategy. Phosphoarginine contents were high in species that rely on phasic contractions (Amusium balloti, Placopecten magellanicus, and Pecten fumatus). Arginine kinase activities reflect reliance on rapid initial bursts of phasic contractions. Scallops that maintain their valves in a closed position for prolonged periods (P. fumatus, Mimachlamys asperrima, and Crassadoma gigantea) have high activities of enzymes of anaerobic glycolysis in their phasic adductor muscle. Myosin ATPase activity was lower in the nonswimming scallop, C. gigantea, than in swimming scallops. The different patterns and roles of swimming are reflected in interspecific differences in the biochemical attributes of the phasic adductor muscle. These patterns suggest coevolution of muscle metabolic capacities, patterns of adductor muscle use, and shell morphology in scallops. PMID:24642541

  15. Dune Avalanche Scars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    05 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows large, low albedo (dark) sand dunes in Kaiser Crater near 47.2oS, 340.4oW. The dunes are--ever so slowly--moving east to west (right to left) as sand avalanches down the steeper, slip face slopes of each. Avalanching sand in the Kaiser dune field has left deep scars on these slopes, suggesting that the sand is not loose but is instead weakly cemented. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  16. A case of scar sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young Chul; Han, Sang Hoon; Lee, Yang Deok; Cho, Yong Seon; Han, Min Soo

    2008-01-01

    Infiltration of sarcoid granuloma in old cutaneous scars is one of the uncommon cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis. Here, we report the case of a 47-year-old female who presented with swelling and irritation in 5 old scars. She had acquired these scars 9 years ago in a traffic accident. An incisional scar biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomas consistent with sarcoidosis. High-resolution CT (HRCT) revealed right paratracheal, both hilar, paraaortic, and subcarinal lymphadenopathy without any nodular densities in both lung fields. Successful regression of cutaneous inflammation was achieved using a short course of oral steroids. PMID:19119259

  17. Changes in Adductor Strength After Competition in Academy Rugby Union Players.

    PubMed

    Roe, Gregory A B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben L; Read, Dale B; Weakley, Jonathon J; Darrall-Jones, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    This study determined the magnitude of change in adductor strength after a competitive match in academy rugby union players and examined the relationship between locomotive demands of match-play and changes in postmatch adductor strength. A within-subject repeated measures design was used. Fourteen academy rugby union players (age, 17.4 ± 0.8 years; height, 182.7 ± 7.6 cm; body mass, 86.2 ± 11.6 kg) participated in the study. Each player performed 3 maximal adductor squeezes at 45° of hip flexion before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hours postmatch. Global positioning system was used to assess locomotive demands of match-play. Trivial decreases in adductor squeeze scores occurred immediately (-1.3 ± 2.5%; effect size [ES] = -0.11 ± 0.21; likely, 74%) and 24 hours after match (-0.7 ± 3%; ES = -0.06 ± 0.25; likely, 78%), whereas a small but substantial increase occurred at 48 hours (3.8 ± 1.9%; ES = 0.32 ± 0.16; likely, 89%) before reducing to trivial at 72 hours after match (3.1 ± 2.2%; ES = 0.26 ± 0.18; possibly, 72%). Large individual variation in adductor strength was observed at all time points. The relationship between changes in adductor strength and distance covered at sprinting speed (VO2max ≥ 81%) was large immediately postmatch (p = 0.056, r = -0.521), moderate at 24 hours (p = 0.094, r = -0.465), and very large at 48 hours postmatch (p = 0.005, r = -0.707). Players who cover greater distances sprinting may suffer greater adductor fatigue in the first 48 hours after competition. The assessment of adductor strength using the adductor squeeze test should be considered postmatch to identify players who may require additional rest before returning to field-based training.

  18. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...

  19. New innovations in scar management.

    PubMed

    Widgerow, A D; Chait, L A; Stals, R; Stals, P J

    2000-01-01

    As current aesthetic surgical techniques become more standardized and results more predictable, a fine scar may be the demarcating line between acceptable and unacceptable aesthetic results. With this in mind, a scar management program has been adopted based on the modalities of wound support, hydration, and hastened maturity, all factors gleaned from scientific evidence published over the past 25 years. Tension on a scar in one axis will result in a stretched scar, probably initiated by neutrophils and their neutral proteases [18,26]. Tension on a scar from many directions or intermittently will result in a hypertrophic scar, possibly initiated by lymphocytes but definitely related to a prolongation of the inflammatory process, with increased fibroblast activity and overabundant extracellular matrix secretion [24,26]. The common initiating factor is the tension on the scar, and the critical element needed to counteract this tension is scar support. Clinical experience has shown us that the most reliable way to support a scar is by using microporous tape. Hydration is a second beneficial influence on scar control and is the basis of the use of silicone sheeting and gel [7,29,36]. Alpha Centella cream has two main components. The first is an extract from the plant Bulbine frutescens. This increases hydration under the tape by leaving a layer of fatty vesicles of glycoprotein on the skin surface. This also has antibacterial properties. The second component is the principal terpenoids extracted from the Centella asiatica plant. These include asiatic acid, madecassic acid, and asiaticoside. Centella asiatica has been documented to aid wound healing in a large number of scientific reports [5,12,21,22,33,34,40]. The most beneficial effect appears to be the stimulation of maturation of the scar by the production of type I collagen [4,19] and the resulting decrease in the inflammatory reaction and myofibroblast production. Thus these components have been incorporated into

  20. Cutaneous Scarring: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard; Urso-Baiarda, Fulvio; Linge, Claire; Grobbelaar, Adriaan

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous scarring can cause patients symptoms ranging from the psychological to physical pain. Although the process of normal scarring is well described the ultimate cause of pathological scarring remains unknown. Similarly, exactly how early gestation fetuses can heal scarlessly remains unsolved. These questions are crucial in the search for a preventative or curative antiscarring agent. Such a discovery would be of enormous medical and commercial importance, not least because it may have application in other tissues. In the clinical context the assessment of scars is becoming more sophisticated and new physical, medical and surgical therapies are being introduced. This review aims to summarise some of the recent developments in scarring research for non-specialists and specialists alike. PMID:20585482

  1. A corneal scarring model.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Daniel J; Schultz, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Corneal opacification (i.e., haze) following a non-denaturing acute injury to the cornea is a process which takes about 5 days to manifest itself, indicating that it is the consequence of cellular and molecular biological processes. In order to obtain a better understanding of the haze development process, and to test candidate anti-haze therapies, we use a corneal scarring model whereby we create an excimer laser wound in the center of rabbit corneas. The primary data generated by this model are (1) changes in corneal thickness with time; (2) wound closure rates, or re-epithelialization; (3) changes in the location and density of corneal sub-epithelial haze; and (4) molecular and histological changes leading up to, during, and following the formation of haze. While the use of excimer lasers to generate consistent wounds in rabbit corneas is not a novel protocol for the study of corneal haze, the photographic technique presented here for the more objective recording and quantification of corneal haze is. At present, a qualitative, semiquantitative, grading system is employed whereby the amount of iris detail discernible through the scar is assigned a value between 0 and 4. Such a system makes direct comparisons amongst reported anti-haze trials nearly impossible. Furthermore, the additional "geographic" detail provided by the image provides a new layer of information about the formation of haze and the ability to troubleshoot dosing regimens. Altogether, with the information present herein, we believe that the study of corneal haze formation and the ability to compare and contrast candidate therapies are both greatly improved.

  2. Rating the resolving hypertrophic scar: comparison of the Vancouver Scar Scale and scar volume.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, B; Shankowsky, H A; Tredget, E E

    2000-01-01

    The increased focus of research interests and clinical documentation on outcomes demands that evaluation tools provide reliable and valid data. The Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) was developed to provide a more objective measurement of burn scars; however, the validity (a test's ability to measure the phenomenon for which it was designed) of the VSS has not been tested. To examine the construct validity of the VSS, we compared it with scar volume, which has established face validity. Burn scars were evaluated monthly for a minimum of 7 months. Three scar volume measurements were performed on each scar. In addition, 3 independent examiners completed the VSS for the same scar. The data generated by these 2 measurements were used to establish the following: (1) the interrater agreement estimated by interclass correlation coefficient, (2) convergence validity, (3) the sensitivity of the assessments to discriminate changes in the scar over time, and (4) the prevalence of related parameters that are not currently being captured by the VSS. In an attempt to address some of the deficiencies of the VSS, we propose several modifications. We anticipate that these changes will increase the reliability and validity of the VSS through an increase in the awareness that training in the use of this scale is required, through improvement in the quality of the subscales, and through the documentation of additional pertinent information.

  3. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing). The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight) defined as the grazing ability index (GAI). There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni). Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate) was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests the

  4. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef.

    PubMed

    Nanami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing). The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight) defined as the grazing ability index (GAI). There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni). Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate) was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests the

  5. Topical treatments for hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Zurada, Joanna M; Kriegel, David; Davis, Ira C

    2006-12-01

    Hypertrophic scars represent an abnormal, exaggerated healing response after skin injury. In addition to cosmetic concern, scars may cause pain, pruritus, contractures, and other functional impairments. Therapeutic modalities include topical medications, intralesional corticosteroids, laser therapy, and cryosurgery. Topical therapies, in particular, have become increasingly popular because of their ease of use, comfort, noninvasiveness, and relatively low cost. This review will discuss the properties and effectiveness of these agents, including pressure therapy, silicone gel sheeting and ointment, polyurethane dressing, onion extract, imiquimod 5% cream, and vitamins A and E in the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scars. PMID:17097399

  6. [The scars of Andy Warhol].

    PubMed

    Scholz, A

    1996-02-01

    The biographical and artistic documents describing to the attempted assassination of the artist Andy Warhol are reviewed. The visible scars are interpreted as symbols of the damaged integrity of the skin. PMID:8868460

  7. [Dermatological laser- and light treatments of scars].

    PubMed

    Karmisholt, Katrine; Borch, Jakob E; Omland, Silje Haukali; Hædersdal, Merete

    2016-08-01

    Many patients struggle with tender, rigid and erythematous scars. Various modalities are used to treat cutaneous scars and in recent years, laser treatments are emerging as promising procedures. This article describes laser systems used for scar treatment according to scar type, evaluates the highest available level of evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and introduces a guideline for laser treatment of scars. Twelve RCTs documented effect on acne, burn and surgical scars. It is recommended that laser- and light-based treatments are considered according to the scar type. PMID:27507028

  8. Homology of the jaw muscles in lizards and snakes-a solution from a comparative gnathostome approach.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Homology or shared evolutionary origin of jaw adductor muscles in lizards and snakes has been difficult to establish, although snakes clearly arose within the lizard radiation. Lizards typically have temporal adductors layered lateral to medial, and in snakes the muscles are arranged in a rostral to caudal pattern. Recent work has suggested that the jaw adductor group in gnathostomes is arranged as a folded sheet; when this theory is applied to snakes, homology with lizard morphology can be seen. This conclusion revisits the work of S.B. McDowell, J Herpetol 1986; 20:353-407, who proposed that homology involves identity of m. levator anguli oris and the loss of m. adductor mandibulae externus profundus, at least in "advanced" (colubroid) snakes. Here I advance the folded sheet hypothesis across the whole snake tree using new and literature data, and provide a solution to this homology problem.

  9. Fillers for the improvement in acne scars

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Acne is a common inflammatory disease. Scarring is an unwanted end point of acne. Both atrophic and hypertrophic scar types occur. Soft-tissue augmentation aims to improve atrophic scars. In this review, we will focus on the use of dermal fillers for acne scar improvement. Therefore, various filler types are characterized, and available data on their use in acne scar improvement are analyzed. PMID:26491364

  10. Abnormal motor cortex excitability during linguistic tasks in adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Suppa, A; Marsili, L; Giovannelli, F; Di Stasio, F; Rocchi, L; Upadhyay, N; Ruoppolo, G; Cincotta, M; Berardelli, A

    2015-08-01

    In healthy subjects (HS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied during 'linguistic' tasks discloses excitability changes in the dominant hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). We investigated 'linguistic' task-related cortical excitability modulation in patients with adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ASD), a speech-related focal dystonia. We studied 10 ASD patients and 10 HS. Speech examination included voice cepstral analysis. We investigated the dominant/non-dominant M1 excitability at baseline, during 'linguistic' (reading aloud/silent reading/producing simple phonation) and 'non-linguistic' tasks (looking at non-letter strings/producing oral movements). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral hand muscles. We measured the cortical silent period (CSP) length and tested MEPs in HS and patients performing the 'linguistic' tasks with different voice intensities. We also examined MEPs in HS and ASD during hand-related 'action-verb' observation. Patients were studied under and not-under botulinum neurotoxin-type A (BoNT-A). In HS, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited larger MEPs during 'reading aloud' than during the other 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. Conversely, in ASD, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited increased-amplitude MEPs during 'reading aloud' and 'syllabic phonation' tasks. CSP length was shorter in ASD than in HS and remained unchanged in both groups performing 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. In HS and ASD, 'linguistic' task-related excitability changes were present regardless of the different voice intensities. During hand-related 'action-verb' observation, MEPs decreased in HS, whereas in ASD they increased. In ASD, BoNT-A improved speech, as demonstrated by cepstral analysis and restored the TMS abnormalities. ASD reflects dominant hemisphere excitability changes related to 'linguistic' tasks; BoNT-A returns these excitability changes to normal.

  11. Changes in Adductor Strength After Competition in Academy Rugby Union Players.

    PubMed

    Roe, Gregory A B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben L; Read, Dale B; Weakley, Jonathon J; Darrall-Jones, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    This study determined the magnitude of change in adductor strength after a competitive match in academy rugby union players and examined the relationship between locomotive demands of match-play and changes in postmatch adductor strength. A within-subject repeated measures design was used. Fourteen academy rugby union players (age, 17.4 ± 0.8 years; height, 182.7 ± 7.6 cm; body mass, 86.2 ± 11.6 kg) participated in the study. Each player performed 3 maximal adductor squeezes at 45° of hip flexion before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hours postmatch. Global positioning system was used to assess locomotive demands of match-play. Trivial decreases in adductor squeeze scores occurred immediately (-1.3 ± 2.5%; effect size [ES] = -0.11 ± 0.21; likely, 74%) and 24 hours after match (-0.7 ± 3%; ES = -0.06 ± 0.25; likely, 78%), whereas a small but substantial increase occurred at 48 hours (3.8 ± 1.9%; ES = 0.32 ± 0.16; likely, 89%) before reducing to trivial at 72 hours after match (3.1 ± 2.2%; ES = 0.26 ± 0.18; possibly, 72%). Large individual variation in adductor strength was observed at all time points. The relationship between changes in adductor strength and distance covered at sprinting speed (VO2max ≥ 81%) was large immediately postmatch (p = 0.056, r = -0.521), moderate at 24 hours (p = 0.094, r = -0.465), and very large at 48 hours postmatch (p = 0.005, r = -0.707). Players who cover greater distances sprinting may suffer greater adductor fatigue in the first 48 hours after competition. The assessment of adductor strength using the adductor squeeze test should be considered postmatch to identify players who may require additional rest before returning to field-based training. PMID:26815174

  12. A clinimetric overview of scar assessment scales.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, M B A; Verhaegen, P D H M; Middelkoop, E; van Zuijlen, P P M

    2012-01-01

    Standardized validated evaluation instruments are mandatory to increase the level of evidence in scar management. Scar assessment scales are potentially suitable for this purpose, but the most appropriate scale still needs to be determined. This review will elaborate on several clinically relevant scar features and critically discuss the currently available scar scales in terms of basic clinimetric requirements. Many current scales can produce reliable measurements but seem to require multiple observers to obtain these results reliably, which limits their feasibility in clinical practice. The validation process of scar scales is hindered by the lack of a "gold standard" in subjective scar assessment or other reliable objective instruments which are necessary for a good comparison. The authors conclude that there are scar scales available that can reliably measure scar quality. However, further research may lead to improvement of their clinimetric properties and enhance the level of evidence in scar research worldwide.

  13. Delayed quadriceps weakness after continuous adductor canal block for total knee arthroplasty: a case report.

    PubMed

    Veal, Christopher; Auyong, David B; Hanson, Neil A; Allen, Cindy J; Strodtbeck, Wyndam

    2014-03-01

    Adductor canal catheters have been shown to improve analgesia while maintaining quadriceps strength after total knee arthroplasty. We describe a patient who underwent total knee arthroplasty that likely had delayed quadriceps weakness as a result of a standard continuous 0.2% ropivacaine infusion at 8 ml/h within the adductor canal. On the day of surgery, the patient was able to stand and ambulate with minimal assistance. On the first post-operative day after surgery, approximately 20 h after starting the ropivacaine infusion, profound weakness of the quadriceps was noted with no ability to stand. Contrast subsequently injected through the adductor canal catheter under fluoroscopy revealed proximal spread approaching the common femoral nerve with as little as 2 ml of volume. This rare case of profound quadriceps weakness after a continuous adductor canal block reveals that local anaesthetic at the adductor canal can spread in a retrograde fashion towards the common femoral nerve, potentially resulting in quadriceps weakness. PMID:24372058

  14. The connective tissue of the adductor canal--a morphological study in fetal and adult specimens.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Flavia; de Vasconcellos Fontes, Ricardo Bragança; da Silva Baptista, Josemberg; Mayer, William Paganini; de Campos Boldrini, Silvia; Liberti, Edson Aparecido

    2009-03-01

    The adductor canal is a conical or pyramid-shaped pathway that contains the femoral vessels, saphenous nerve and a varying amount of fibrous tissue. It is involved in adductor canal syndrome, a claudication syndrome involving young individuals. Our objective was to study modifications induced by aging on the connective tissue and to correlate them to the proposed pathophysiological mechanism. The bilateral adductor canals and femoral vessels of four adult and five fetal specimens were removed en bloc and analyzed. Sections 12 microm thick were obtained and the connective tissue studied with Sirius Red, Verhoeff, Weigert and Azo stains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs of the surfaces of each adductor canal were also analyzed. Findings were homogeneous inside each group. The connective tissue of the canal was continuous with the outer layer of the vessels in both groups. The pattern of concentric, thick collagen type I bundles in fetal specimens was replaced by a diffuse network of compact collagen bundles with several transversal fibers and an impressive content of collagen III fibers. Elastic fibers in adults were not concentrated in the thick bundles but dispersed in line with the transversal fiber system. A dynamic compression mechanism with or without an evident constricting fibrous band has been proposed previously for adductor canal syndrome, possibly involving the connective tissue inside the canal. The vessels may not slide freely during movement. These age-related modifications in normal individuals may represent necessary conditions for this syndrome to develop.

  15. The connective tissue of the adductor canal – a morphological study in fetal and adult specimens

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Flavia; de Vasconcellos Fontes, Ricardo Bragança; da Silva Baptista, Josemberg; Mayer, William Paganini; de Campos Boldrini, Silvia; Liberti, Edson Aparecido

    2009-01-01

    The adductor canal is a conical or pyramid-shaped pathway that contains the femoral vessels, saphenous nerve and a varying amount of fibrous tissue. It is involved in adductor canal syndrome, a claudication syndrome involving young individuals. Our objective was to study modifications induced by aging on the connective tissue and to correlate them to the proposed pathophysiological mechanism. The bilateral adductor canals and femoral vessels of four adult and five fetal specimens were removed en bloc and analyzed. Sections 12 µm thick were obtained and the connective tissue studied with Sirius Red, Verhoeff, Weigert and Azo stains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs of the surfaces of each adductor canal were also analyzed. Findings were homogeneous inside each group. The connective tissue of the canal was continuous with the outer layer of the vessels in both groups. The pattern of concentric, thick collagen type I bundles in fetal specimens was replaced by a diffuse network of compact collagen bundles with several transversal fibers and an impressive content of collagen III fibers. Elastic fibers in adults were not concentrated in the thick bundles but dispersed in line with the transversal fiber system. A dynamic compression mechanism with or without an evident constricting fibrous band has been proposed previously for adductor canal syndrome, possibly involving the connective tissue inside the canal. The vessels may not slide freely during movement. These age-related modifications in normal individuals may represent necessary conditions for this syndrome to develop. PMID:19245505

  16. Restoration of pinch in intrinsic muscles of the hand.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steve K; Wisser, Jamie R

    2012-02-01

    The primary intrinsic muscles responsible for key and tip pinch are the adductor pollicis, first dorsal interosseous and flexor pollicis brevis muscles. Numerous conditions can lead to their dysfunction. Non-operative treatment consists of exercises of the compensating extensor pollicis longus and flexor pollicis longus muscles and use of adaptive devices, such as larger grips. Operative treatments include tendon transfers and joint fusions. The most common tendon transfer procedures include transfering of the extensor carpi radialis brevis to the adductor pollicis muscle or transfering of the abductor pollicis longus to the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Both require use of extension tendon grafts. In cases of joint instability or arthrosis, arthrodesis of the thumb and index finger MP or IP joints, alone or in combination, may be indicated. PMID:22117923

  17. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1989-12-15

    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  18. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1989-12-15

    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  19. A retrospective comparative provider workload analysis for femoral nerve and adductor canal catheters following knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michael; Kim, Eugenia; Kim, T Edward; Howard, Steven K; Mudumbai, Seshadri; Giori, Nicholas J; Woolson, Steven; Ganaway, Toni; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-04-01

    Adductor canal catheters preserve quadriceps strength better than femoral nerve catheters and may facilitate postoperative ambulation following total knee arthroplasty. However, the effect of this newer technique on provider workload, if any, is unknown. We conducted a retrospective provider workload analysis comparing these two catheter techniques; all other aspects of the clinical pathway remained the same. The primary outcome was number of interventions recorded per patient postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included infusion duration, ambulation distance, opioid consumption, and hospital length of stay. Adductor canal patients required a median (10-90th percentiles) of 0.0 (0.0-2.6) interventions compared to 1.0 (0.3-3.0) interventions for femoral patients (p < 0.001); 18/23 adductor canal patients (78 %) compared to 2/22 femoral patients (9 %) required no interventions (p < 0.001). Adductor canal catheter infusions lasted 2.0 (1.4-2.0) days compared to 1.5 (1.0-2.7) days in the femoral group (p = 0.016). Adductor canal patients ambulated further [mean (SD)] than femoral patients on postoperative day 1 [24.5 (21.7) vs. 11.9 (14.6) meters, respectively; p = 0.030] and day 2 [44.9 (26.3) vs. 22.0 (22.2) meters, respectively; p = 0.003]. Postoperative opioid consumption and length of stay were similar between groups. We conclude that adductor canal catheters offer both patient and provider benefits when compared to femoral nerve catheters. PMID:25217117

  20. Muscle strain injuries.

    PubMed

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  1. Adductor pollicis jamming injuries in the professional baseball player: 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Grant G; Ruchelsman, David E; Belsky, Mark R; Graham, Thomas; Asnis, Peter; Leibman, Matthew I

    2013-06-01

    We characterize a mechanism of injury, injury pattern, and treatment algorithm for adductor pollicis myotendinous injuries in 2 professional baseball players. Similar to myotendinous eccentric injuries in other anatomical areas, the adductor pollicis sustains a sudden forceful eccentric load during a jammed swing, resulting in intramuscular strain or tendon rupture. Based on the reported injury mechanism, and magnetic resonance imaging features of these myotendinous injuries, the thumb of the top hand during a jammed swing was suddenly and forcefully eccentrically abducted from a contracted and adducted position, resulting in injury patterns. PMID:23707017

  2. Adductor pollicis longus strain in a professional baseball player: case report and review of thenar pain.

    PubMed

    Pinkowsky, Gregory J; Roberts, John; Allred, Jeff; Pujalte, George G; Gallo, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    Thenar pain can represent a significant morbidity for a baseball player who relies on manual dexterity for gripping a bat and precise and accurate throws. While osseous, ligamentous, and neurovascular pathologies are commonly considered, musculotendinous injuries are often neglected in the differential diagnosis of thenar pain. We present a case of adductor pollicis longus strain as a cause of acute thenar pain in a baseball player. Adductor pollicis longus strains should be considered in any baseball player sustaining a hyperabduction force to the thumb.

  3. Adductor pollicis jamming injuries in the professional baseball player: 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Grant G; Ruchelsman, David E; Belsky, Mark R; Graham, Thomas; Asnis, Peter; Leibman, Matthew I

    2013-06-01

    We characterize a mechanism of injury, injury pattern, and treatment algorithm for adductor pollicis myotendinous injuries in 2 professional baseball players. Similar to myotendinous eccentric injuries in other anatomical areas, the adductor pollicis sustains a sudden forceful eccentric load during a jammed swing, resulting in intramuscular strain or tendon rupture. Based on the reported injury mechanism, and magnetic resonance imaging features of these myotendinous injuries, the thumb of the top hand during a jammed swing was suddenly and forcefully eccentrically abducted from a contracted and adducted position, resulting in injury patterns.

  4. A Second Trimester Caesarean Scar Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Pooja; Suri, Vanita; Chopra, Seema; Aggarwal, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Caesarean scar pregnancy, where conceptus is implanted on previous scar, is a rare entity. We present one such case of scar pregnancy presenting to us in the second trimester and was managed with methotrexate and uterine artery embolization, followed by hysterotomy. Uterus could be conserved and hysterectomy could be avoided. PMID:24782936

  5. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on...

  6. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on...

  7. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on...

  8. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on...

  9. Acoustic Variations in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia as a Function of Speech Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapienza, Christine M.; Walton, Suzanne; Murry, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic phonatory events were identified in 14 women diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), a focal laryngeal dystonia that disturbs phonatory function, and compared with those of 14 age-matched women with no vocal dysfunction. Findings indicated ADSD subjects produced more aberrant acoustic events than controls during tasks of…

  10. Physiological Implications of Myocardial Scar Structure.

    PubMed

    Richardson, William J; Clarke, Samantha A; Quinn, T Alexander; Holmes, Jeffrey W

    2015-10-01

    Once myocardium dies during a heart attack, it is replaced by scar tissue over the course of several weeks. The size, location, composition, structure, and mechanical properties of the healing scar are all critical determinants of the fate of patients who survive the initial infarction. While the central importance of scar structure in determining pump function and remodeling has long been recognized, it has proven remarkably difficult to design therapies that improve heart function or limit remodeling by modifying scar structure. Many exciting new therapies are under development, but predicting their long-term effects requires a detailed understanding of how infarct scar forms, how its properties impact left ventricular function and remodeling, and how changes in scar structure and properties feed back to affect not only heart mechanics but also electrical conduction, reflex hemodynamic compensations, and the ongoing process of scar formation itself. In this article, we outline the scar formation process following a myocardial infarction, discuss interpretation of standard measures of heart function in the setting of a healing infarct, then present implications of infarct scar geometry and structure for both mechanical and electrical function of the heart and summarize experiences to date with therapeutic interventions that aim to modify scar geometry and structure. One important conclusion that emerges from the studies reviewed here is that computational modeling is an essential tool for integrating the wealth of information required to understand this complex system and predict the impact of novel therapies on scar healing, heart function, and remodeling following myocardial infarction. PMID:26426470

  11. Physiological Implications of Myocardial Scar Structure

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, WJ; Clarke, SA; Quinn, TA; Holmes, JW

    2016-01-01

    Once myocardium dies during a heart attack, it is replaced by scar tissue over the course of several weeks. The size, location, composition, structure and mechanical properties of the healing scar are all critical determinants of the fate of patients who survive the initial infarction. While the central importance of scar structure in determining pump function and remodeling has long been recognized, it has proven remarkably difficult to design therapies that improve heart function or limit remodeling by modifying scar structure. Many exciting new therapies are under development, but predicting their long-term effects requires a detailed understanding of how infarct scar forms, how its properties impact left ventricular function and remodeling, and how changes in scar structure and properties feed back to affect not only heart mechanics but also electrical conduction, reflex hemodynamic compensations, and the ongoing process of scar formation itself. In this article, we outline the scar formation process following an MI, discuss interpretation of standard measures of heart function in the setting of a healing infarct, then present implications of infarct scar geometry and structure for both mechanical and electrical function of the heart and summarize experiences to date with therapeutic interventions that aim to modify scar geometry and structure. One important conclusion that emerges from the studies reviewed here is that computational modeling is an essential tool for integrating the wealth of information required to understand this complex system and predict the impact of novel therapies on scar healing, heart function, and remodeling following myocardial infarction. PMID:26426470

  12. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  13. Measurement of muscle strength in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Edward A; Martyn, Jeevendra A; George, Edward; Frontera, Walter R; Eikermann, Matthias

    2009-10-01

    Traditional (indirect) techniques, such as electromyography and nerve conduction velocity measurement, do not reliably predict intensive care unit-acquired muscle weakness and its clinical consequences. Therefore, quantitative assessment of skeletal muscle force is important for diagnosis of intensive care unit-acquired motor dysfunction. There are a number of ways for assessing objectively muscle strength, which can be categorized as techniques that quantify maximum voluntary contraction force and those that assess evoked (stimulated) muscle force. Important factors that limit the repetitive evaluation of maximum voluntary contraction force in intensive care unit patients are learning effects, pain during muscular contraction, and alteration of consciousness.The selection of the appropriate muscle is crucial for making adequate predictions of a patient's outcome. The upper airway dilators are much more susceptible to a decrease in muscle strength than the diaphragm, and impairment of upper airway patency is a key mechanism of extubation failure in intensive care unit patients. Data suggest that the adductor pollicis muscle is an appropriate reference muscle to predict weakness of muscles that are typically affected by intensive care unit-acquired weakness, i.e., upper airway as well as extremity muscles. Stimulated (evoked) force of skeletal muscles, such as the adductor pollicis, can be assessed repetitively, independent of brain function, even in heavily sedated patients during high acuity of their disease. PMID:20046117

  14. Influence of hip external rotation on hip adductor and rectus femoris myoelectric activity during a dynamic parallel squat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Glauber Ribeiro; Leporace, Gustavo; Chagas, Daniel das Virgens; Furtado, Luis F L; Praxedes, Jomilto; Batista, Luiz A

    2010-10-01

    This study sought to compare the myoelectric activity of the hip adductors (HAs) and rectus femoris (RF) when the hip was in a neutral position or externally rotated by 30° or 50° (H0, H30, and H50, respectively) during a parallel squat. Ten healthy subjects performed 10 repetitions of squats in each of the 3 hip positions and the myoelectric activities of the HAs and RF were recorded. The signal was then divided into categories representing concentric (C) and eccentric (E) contractions in the following ranges of motion: 0-30° (C1 and E1), 30-60° (C2 and E2), and 60-90° (C3 and E3) of knee flexion. From those signals, an root mean square (RMS) value for each range of motion in each hip position was obtained. All values were normalized to those obtained during maximum voluntary isometric contraction. We found that HAs showed a significant increase in myoelectric activity during C3 and E3 in the H30 and H50 positions, as compared with H0. Meanwhile, RF activity did not significantly differ between hip positions. Both muscles showed higher activation during 60-90° (C3 and E3) of knee flexion, as compared with 0-30° (C1 and E1) and 30-60° (C2 and E2). The results suggest that if the aim is to increase HA activity despite the low percentage of muscle activation, squats should be performed with 30° of external rotation and at least 90° of knee flexion. PMID:20651607

  15. Acne Scars: Pathogenesis, Classification and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Annunziata, M. C.; D'Arco, V.; De Vita, V.; Lodi, G.; Mauriello, M. C.; Pastore, F.; Monfrecola, G.

    2010-01-01

    Acne has a prevalence of over 90% among adolescents and persists into adulthood in approximately 12%–14% of cases with psychological and social implications. Possible outcomes of the inflammatory acne lesions are acne scars which, although they can be treated in a number of ways, may have a negative psychological impact on social life and relationships. The main types of acne scars are atrophic and hypertrophic scars. The pathogenesis of acne scarring is still not fully understood, but several hypotheses have been proposed. There are numerous treatments: chemical peels, dermabrasion/microdermabrasion, laser treatment, punch techniques, dermal grafting, needling and combined therapies for atrophic scars: silicone gels, intralesional steroid therapy, cryotherapy, and surgery for hypertrophic and keloidal lesions. This paper summarizes acne scar pathogenesis, classification and treatment options. PMID:20981308

  16. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    PubMed Central

    Jfri, Abdulhadi; Rajeh, Nawal; Karkashan, Eman

    2015-01-01

    Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body. PMID:26351423

  17. Scar Revision Surgery: The Patient's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Anna Y; Butler, Daniel P; Cussons, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Background Insufficient satisfaction outcome literature exists to assist consultations for scar revision surgery; such outcomes should reflect the patient's perspective. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate scar revision patient satisfaction outcomes, according to specified patient-selection criteria. Methods Patients (250) were randomly selected for telephone contacting regarding scar revisions undertaken between 2007-2011. Visual analogue scores were obtained for scars pre- and post-revision surgery. Surgery selection criteria were; 'presence' of sufficient time for scar maturation prior to revision, technical issues during or wound complications from the initial procedure that contributed to poor scarring, and 'absence' of site-specific or patient factors that negatively influence outcomes. Patient demographics, scar pathogenesis (elective vs. trauma), underlying issue (functional/symptomatic vs. cosmetic) and revision surgery details were also collected with the added use of a real-time, hospital database. Results Telephone contacting was achieved for 211 patients (214 scar revisions). Satisfaction outcomes were '2% worse, 16% no change, and 82% better'; a distribution maintained between body sites and despite whether surgery was functional/symptomatic vs. cosmetic. Better outcomes were reported by patients who sustained traumatic scars vs. those who sustained scars by elective procedures (91.80% vs. 77.78%, P=0.016) and by females vs. males (85.52% vs. 75.36%, P<0.05), particularly in the elective group where males (36.17%) were more likely to report no change or worse outcomes versus females (16.04%) (P<0.01). Conclusions Successful scar revision outcomes may be achieved using careful patient selection. This study provides useful information for referring general practitioners, and patient-surgeon consultations, when planning scar revision. PMID:26618120

  18. Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  19. [Surgical controversy. Limiting postoperative scarring].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2005-06-01

    Postoperative follow-up of glaucoma surgery must be rigorous and carried out over the long term. Data acquired on the make-up of the filtering bleb justifies using postoperative anti-inflammatory drugs, even if the eye is clinically quiet. When using antimetabolites, the risk factors for failure must be well known and either 5-fluorouracile or mitomycin should be chosen depending on the level of risk of scarring. Their use in needle revision must be adapted case by case. anti-TGF-beta-2 antibody, currently being investigated, may prove advantageous in the very near future. PMID:16208245

  20. Effective Treatments of Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bingrong

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic scarring is often an unfortunate and permanent complication of acne vulgaris. It has high prevalence, significant impact on quality of life, and therapeutic challenge for dermatologists. The treatment of atrophic acne scars varies depending on the types of acne scars and the limitations of the treatment modalities in their ability to improve scars. Therefore, many options are available for the treatment of acne scarring, including chemical peeling, dermabrasion, laser treatment, punch techniques, fat transplantation, other tissue augmenting agents, needling, subcision, and combined therapy. Various modalities have been used to treat scars, but limited efficacy and problematic side effects have restricted their application. In order to optimally treat a patient’s scar, we need to consider which treatment offers the most satisfactory result. There are also promising procedures in the future, such as stem cell therapy. In this article, the authors review the different treatment options of atrophic acne scars. This may be useful for selecting the best therapeutic strategy, whether it be single or combined therapy, in the treatment of atrophic acne scars while reducing or avoiding the side effects and complications. PMID:26029333

  1. Effect of hindlimb suspension and clenbuterol treatment on polyamine levels in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abukhalaf, Imad K.; von Deutsch, Daniel A.; Wineski, Lawrence E.; Silvestrov, Natalia A.; Abera, Saare A.; Sahlu, Sinafikish W.; Potter, David E.; Thierry-Palmer, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Polyamines are unbiquitous, naturally occurring small aliphatic, polycationic, endogenous compounds. They are involved in many cellular processes and may serve as secondary or tertiary messengers to hormonal regulation. The relationship of polyamines and skeletal muscle mass of adductor longus, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius under unloading (hindlimb suspension) conditions was investigated. Unloading significantly affected skeletal muscle polyamine levels in a fiber-type-specific fashion. Under loading conditions, clenbuterol treatment increased all polyamine levels, whereas under unloading conditions, only the spermidine levels were consistently increased. Unloading attenuated the anabolic effects of clenbuterol in predominately slow-twitch muscles (adductor longus), but had little impact on clenbuterol's action as a countermeasure in fast- twitch muscles such as the extensor digitorum longus. Spermidine appeared to be the primary polyamine involved in skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Isokinetic Testing of the Shoulder Abductors and Adductors: Windowed vs Nonwindowed Data Collection.

    PubMed

    Wilk, K E; Arrigo, C A; Andrews, J R

    1992-01-01

    Presented at the Sports Physical Therapy Section Team Concept Meeting, December 1991, New Orleans, LA The manner of acquiring strength-testing data may influence the results of an investigation. The purpose of this study was to determine if a significant difference exists between windowed and unwindowed data collection during isokinetic testing of the shoulder abductors/adductors. Fifty healthy professional baseball pitchers participated in this study. Testing was performed on a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer at 180 and 300 degrees /sec for both the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders. Testing procedures regarding testing protocol, repetitions, positioning, and stabilization followed established guidelines for each subject. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test with a p < 0.01 level of significance. Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between windowed and unwindowed mean peak torque data for both shoulders at both test speeds. The results indicated an average nonthrowing arm difference of 20.2 ft/lbs at 180 degrees /sec and 51.7 ft/lbs at 300 degrees / sec for the abductors. In each instance, the unwindowed mean peak torque values were higher than the windowed values, and significant end range torque spikes were elicited during unwindowed data collection. The nonthrowing adductors exhibited an average of 39.3 and 48.3 ft/lb differences at 180 and 300 degrees /sec, respectively. The throwing shoulder demonstrated average abductor differences of 25.6 ft/lbs at 180 degrees /sec and 47.7 ft/lbs at 300 degrees /sec. The average throwing adductor difference was 24.4 ft/lbs and 54.6 ft/lbs, respectively, at both test speeds. This investigation offers clinical relevance for those using isokinetic testing of the shoulder abductors/adductors in demonstrating the significant differences between windowed and unwindowed data, identifying torque spike data misinterpretation, and describing a clinical means of controlling aberrant torque

  3. The cost of post-burn scarring.

    PubMed

    Mirastschijski, U; Sander, J T; Zier, U; Rennekampff, H O; Weyand, B; Vogt, P M

    2015-09-30

    Deep burns lead to scarring and contractures for which there is little or no published data on treatment costs. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap by analysing treatment costs for burn sequelae. To do this, German-DRG for in-patient treatment was collected from the Burn Centre Lower Saxony. DRG-related T95.-coding served as a tool for burn-associated sequelae. Data on scar occurrence, plastic-reconstructive surgery and sick leave were collected by a questionnaire. The findings showed that 44.6% patients reported post-burn scarring and 31% needed surgical intervention. The expected risk for readmission was significantly higher (p=0.0002) with scars compared to without. Significantly higher costs for pressure garments were noted for scarred patients (p=0.04). No differences were found for ointments, silicone dressings or pain medication. Treatment costs for patients with scars were 5.6 times higher compared with no scar assessed by G-DRG. No differences were stated subsuming multiple readmissions for post-burn treatment per individual. Significantly higher costs (p=0.03) were noted for patients with burn sequelae other than scars with regard to individual readmissions. It has been revealed that treatment of scars causes higher costs than for other burn sequelae because of multiple surgical interventions. To reduce post-burn scarring and costs, specialized burn centres provide optimal and state-of-the-art treatment. As well as this, more emphasis should be laid on promoting research for the development of novel anti-scarring therapies. PMID:27279810

  4. Laryngeal Adductor Function in Experimental Models of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Paniello, Randal C.; Rich, Jason T.; Debnath, Nick L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Most patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis experience some degree of spontaneous reinnervation, which depends upon the type and severity of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury. After partial recovery, the paretic vocal fold may or may not adduct adequately to allow glottic closure, which in turn affects phonatory and swallowing outcomes. This process was studied in a series of canine laryngeal nerve injury models. Study Design Animal (canine) experiments. Methods Maximum stimulable laryngeal adductor pressure (LAP) was measured pre-treatment (baseline) and at 6 months following experimental RLN injuries (total n=59). The 9 study groups were designed to simulate a range of severities of RLN injury. Results The greatest LAP recovery, at 108% of original baseline, was seen in a 50% transection model; the least recovery was seen when the RLN underwent complete transection with repair, at 56% with precise alignment and 50% with alignment reversed. Intermediate models (partial RLN injuries) gave intermediate results. Crush models recovered 105% of LAP, while a half-transection, half-crush injury recovered 72% and cautery injuries recovered 61%. Controls (complete transection without repair) had no measurable recovery. Conclusions The injured RLN has a strong tendency to recover. Restoration of adductor strength, as determined by the LAP, was predictably related to the severity of RLN injury. The model RLN injuries studied provide a range of expected outcomes that can be used for future experiments exploring interventions that may improve post-injury adductor function. PMID:25283381

  5. Effect of diet and temperature upon muscle metabolic capacities and biochemical composition of gonad and muscle in Argopecten purpuratus Lamarck 1819.

    PubMed

    Martínez; Brokordt; Aguilera; Soto; Guderley

    2000-04-26

    Recently spawned Argopecten purpuratus broodstock were conditioned at two temperatures and fed three different diets (microalgae, microalgae mixed with lipids and microalgae mixed with carbohydrates) to examine changes in the biochemical composition of gonad and muscle as well as muscle metabolic capacities. During one experiment, scallops were fed at 3% of their dry mass per day whereas during a second experiment, they were fed at 6% of their dry mass per day. During both experiments, total gonadal levels of lipids and protein increased markedly during conditioning with the two mixed diets at 16 degrees C. These increases were less pronounced at 20 degrees C. Carbohydrate gonadal levels only increased during the second experiment at both temperatures and with the three diets. Of the major biochemical components of the adductor muscle, carbohydrate levels changed most during conditioning. Whereas muscle protein levels increased slightly with gonadal maturation, carbohydrate levels dropped considerably. Despite the marked drop in the levels of glycolytic substrates, only the activities of octopine dehydrogenase in the adductor muscle of the scallops conditioned at 16 degrees C consistently decreased. Muscle levels of glycogen phosphorylase were higher in mature than in recently spawned (control) scallops, suggesting a role in the transfer of glucose equivalents from the adductor muscle to other tissues. PMID:10727686

  6. Eccentric and Isometric Hip Adduction Strength in Male Soccer Players With and Without Adductor-Related Groin Pain

    PubMed Central

    Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Nielsen, Martin Peter; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adductor-related pain is the most common clinical finding in soccer players with groin pain and can be a long-standing problem affecting physical function and performance. Hip adductor weakness has been suggested to be associated with this clinical entity, although it has never been investigated. Purpose: To investigate whether isometric and eccentric hip strength are decreased in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer controls. The hypothesis was that players with adductor-related groin pain would have lower isometric and eccentric hip adduction strength than players without adductor-related groin pain. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Male elite and subelite players from 40 teams were contacted. In total, 28 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain and 16 soccer players without adductor-related groin pain (asymptomatic controls) were included in the study. In primary analysis, the dominant legs of 21 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain (≥4 weeks duration) were compared with the dominant legs of 16 asymptomatic controls using a cross-sectional design. The mean age of the symptomatic players was 24.5 ± 2.5 years, and the mean age of the asymptomatic controls was 22.9 ± 2.4 years. Isometric hip strength (adduction, abduction, and flexion) and eccentric hip strength (adduction) were assessed with a handheld dynamometer using reliable test procedures and a blinded assessor. Results: Eccentric hip adduction strength was lower in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain in the dominant leg (n = 21) compared with asymptomatic controls (n = 16), namely 2.47 ± 0.49 versus 3.12 ± 0.43 N·m/kg, respectively (P < .001). No other hip strength differences were observed between symptomatic players and asymptomatic controls for the dominant leg (P = .35-.84). Conclusion: Large eccentric hip adduction strength deficits were found in soccer players with adductor

  7. The Northwestern Abdominoplasty Scar Model: A Novel Human Model for Scar Research and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Steven T.; Liu, Jing; Chavez-Munoz, Claudia; Mustoe, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: There is a growing interest in the development and evaluation of therapeutic agents that improve the cosmetic appearance of scars. Existing nonhuman animal models to study scarring, while valuable, have well-acknowledged limitations, as it is accepted that the biology of human scarring differs significantly from scarring in other species. Moreover, human clinical trials of scarring require large numbers of subjects to achieve statistical power and are plagued by inherent intersubject variability because of the complex nature of wound healing in human beings. As a better alternative, we have developed the Northwestern Abdominoplasty Scar Model—a novel human clinical model that permits analysis of up to 20 cutaneous scars in a single subject and allows for not only visual scar comparison, but also histologic and molecular analyses of factors involved in scarring and wound healing. We have utilized this model in 5 early phase clinical trials designed to test the safety and efficacy of a variety of scar therapeutics without any complications to date. The model not only is applicable to scar therapeutics, but also can be utilized for other applications, such as the testing of implantable biomaterials, injectable products, therapies such as lasers, or even for in vivo study of wound healing processes in humans. PMID:27757332

  8. SCAR/WAVE: A complex issue.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Andrew J; Insall, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    The SCAR/WAVE complex drives the actin polymerisation that underlies protrusion of the front of the cell and thus drives migration. However, it is not understood how the activity of SCAR/WAVE is regulated to generate the infinite range of cellular shape changes observed during cell motility. What are the relative roles of the subunits of the SCAR/WAVE complex? What signaling molecules do they interact with? And how does the complex integrate all this information in order to control the temporal and spatial polymerisation of actin during protrusion formation? Unfortunately, the interdependence of SCAR complex members has made genetic dissection hard. In our recent paper,(1) we describe stabilization of the Dictyostelium SCAR complex by a small fragment of Abi. Here we summarize the main findings and discuss how this approach can help reveal the inner workings of this impenetrable complex.

  9. First observation of a muscle spindle in fish.

    PubMed

    Maeda, N; Miyoshi, S; Toh, H

    1983-03-01

    In many groups of vertebrates, the muscle spindle is a specialized sensory organ for the detection of muscle stretching. The structure of the spindle varies among vertebrate classes. Moreover, Barker has asserted that Amphibia are the most primitive vertebrates to possess muscle spindles. Extensive studies, made mainly on the locomotor myotome, seem to show that the muscle receptors of fish are less specialized than those of more advanced animals, and that muscle spindles are absent. However, little attention has been paid to the jaw-closing muscle. We report here our finding of a very simple muscle spindle with a single intrafusal fibre in the well-developed jaw-closing muscle, adductor mandibulae, in a primitive teleostean, Oncorhynchus masou (Brevoort).

  10. Development of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles in the zebrafish: homologies and evolution of these muscles within bony fishes and tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Rui; Hinits, Yaniv; Hughes, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Background During vertebrate head evolution, muscle changes accompanied radical modification of the skeleton. Recent studies have suggested that muscles and their innervation evolve less rapidly than cartilage. The freshwater teleostean zebrafish (Danio rerio) is the most studied actinopterygian model organism, and is sometimes taken to represent osteichthyans as a whole, which include bony fishes and tetrapods. Most work concerning zebrafish cranial muscles has focused on larval stages. We set out to describe the later development of zebrafish head muscles and compare muscle homologies across the Osteichthyes. Results We describe one new muscle and show that the number of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles found in four day-old zebrafish larvae is similar to that found in the adult. However, the overall configuration and/or the number of divisions of these muscles change during development. For example, the undivided adductor mandibulae of early larvae gives rise to the adductor mandibulae sections A0, A1-OST, A2 and Aω, and the protractor hyoideus becomes divided into dorsal and ventral portions in adults. There is not always a correspondence between the ontogeny of these muscles in the zebrafish and their evolution within the Osteichthyes. All of the 13 mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles present in the adult zebrafish are found in at least some other living teleosts, and all except the protractor hyoideus are found in at least some extant non-teleost actinopterygians. Of these muscles, about a quarter (intermandibularis anterior, adductor mandibulae, sternohyoideus) are found in at least some living tetrapods, and a further quarter (levator arcus palatini, adductor arcus palatini, adductor operculi) in at least some extant sarcopterygian fish. Conclusion Although the zebrafish occupies a rather derived phylogenetic position within actinopterygians and even within teleosts, with respect to the mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles it

  11. Effect of reproduction on escape responses and muscle metabolic capacities in the scallop Chlamys islandica Müller 1776.

    PubMed

    Brokordt; Himmelman; Guderley

    2000-08-30

    In scallops, gametogenesis leads to mobilization of glycogen and proteins from the adductor muscle towards the gonad. This mobilization is likely to diminish the metabolic capacities of the adductor muscle and thereby the scallops' escape response. We examined the escape response in terms of number of valve claps until exhaustion, rate of clapping and the recovery during and after valve closure in adult scallops, Chlamys islandica, sampled at different stages in the reproductive cycle (immature, mature, before and after spawning). In parallel, we measured muscle glycogen, protein and phosphoarginine contents, the oxidative capacity of mitochondria isolated from the adductor muscle and levels of muscle enzymes which are active during exercise and recovery. The number of claps (24-26), rate of clapping ( approximately 13 clapsmin(-1)) and phosphoarginine and arginine kinase levels were similar during the different reproductive stages. All immature scallops responded to restimulation immediately after opening their valves, while only 62% of mature, 82% of prespawned and 38% of spawned scallops responded. Immature animals completely recovered their initial swimming capacity within 4 h of opening their valves, but mature, prespawned and spawned scallops needed 18, 12 and 18 h, respectively. Overall phasic adductor muscle from mature, prespawned and spawned animals showed decreased glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase (except for prespawned), octopine dehydrogenase and citrate synthase levels, a deterioration of the oxidative capacity of mitochondria and a marked decrease in glycogen content compared to immature scallops. Therefore, during gonadal maturation and spawning, C. islandica did not change its clapping capacity, but slowed its recuperation from exhausting burst exercise, both during and after valve closure, likely due to the decreased metabolic capacity of the adductor muscle. PMID:10960615

  12. Phase and Texture Characterizations of Scar Collagen Second-Harmonic Generation Images Varied with Scar Duration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guannan; Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-08-01

    This work developed a phase congruency algorithm combined with texture analysis to quantitatively characterize collagen morphology in second-harmonic generation (SHG) images from human scars. The extracted phase and texture parameters of the SHG images quantified collagen directionality, homogeneity, and coarseness in scars and varied with scar duration. Phase parameters showed an increasing tendency of the mean of phase congruency with scar duration, indicating that collagen fibers are better oriented over time. Texture parameters calculated from local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) and Haar wavelet transform, demonstrated that the LD-LBP variance decreased and the energy of all subimages increased with scar duration. It implied that collagen has a more regular pattern and becomes coarser with scar duration. In addition, the random forest regression was used to predict scar duration, demonstrating reliable performance of the extracted phase and texture parameters in characterizing collagen morphology in scar SHG images. Results indicate that the extracted parameters using the proposed method can be used as quantitative indicators to monitor scar progression with time and can help understand the mechanism of scar progression.

  13. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. Objective To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Methods Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Results Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p-values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. Conclusion In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion. PMID:27746642

  14. Microneedling Therapy for Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Manal; Awad, Sherif; Medhat, Walid; El-Fakahany, Hasan; Farag, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of acne scarring is always a challenge. Microneedling therapy or percutaneous collagen induction is a new addition to the treatment modalities for such scars and has been reported to be simple and effective in atrophic acne scar treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effect and objectively quantify the histological changes of acne scarring in response to skin microneedling. Design: A prospective clinical study. Participants: Ten patients with different types of atrophic acne scars were subjected to three months of skin microneedling treatment (six sessions at two-week intervals). Measurements: Patients were photographed, and skin biopsies were obtained at baseline as well as one and three months from the start of treatment. Histometry for epidermal thickness and quantitative evaluation of total elastin; newly synthesized tropoelastin; collagen types I, III, and VII; and newly synthesized collagen were performed for all biopsies. Results: Compared to the baseline, patients’ evaluations revealed noticeable clinical improvement in atrophic post-acne scars in response to skin microneedling. There was a statistically significant increase (p<0.05) in the mean of collagen types I, III, and VII and newly synthesized collagen, while total elastin was significantly decreased (p<0.05) after the end of treatment. Conclusions: Multiple minimally invasive sessions of skin microneedling are an effective treatment for post-acne atrophic scars as it stimulates the repair processes with the advantage of being a relatively risk-free, in-office procedure with minimal patient recovery time. PMID:26203319

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the embrace Advanced Scar Therapy Device to Reduce Incisional Scar Formation

    PubMed Central

    Longaker, Michael T.; Rohrich, Rod J.; Greenberg, Lauren; Furnas, Heather; Wald, Robert; Bansal, Vivek; Seify, Hisham; Tran, Anthony; Weston, Jane; Korman, Joshua M.; Chan, Rodney; Kaufman, David; Dev, Vipul R.; Mele, Joseph A.; Januszyk, Michael; Cowley, Christy; McLaughlin, Peggy; Beasley, Bill; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scarring represents a significant biomedical burden in clinical medicine. Mechanomodulation has been linked to scarring through inflammation, but until now a systematic approach to attenuate mechanical force and reduce scarring has not been possible. Methods The authors conducted a 12-month, prospective, open-label, randomized, multicenter clinical trial to evaluate abdominoplasty scar appearance following postoperative treatment with the embrace Advanced Scar Therapy device to reduce mechanical forces on healing surgical incisions. Incisions from 65 healthy adult subjects were randomized to receive embrace treatment on one half of an abdominoplasty incision and control treatment (surgeon's optimal care methods) on the other half. The primary endpoint for this study was the difference between assessments of scar appearance for the treated and control sides using the visual analogue scale scar score. Results Final 12-month study photographs were obtained from 36 subjects who completed at least 5 weeks of dressing application. The mean visual analogue scale score for embrace-treated scars (2.90) was significantly improved compared with control-treated scars (3.29) at 12 months (difference, 0.39; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.66; p = 0.027). Both subjects and investigators found that embrace-treated scars demonstrated significant improvements in overall appearance at 12 months using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale evaluation (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the embrace device significantly reduces scarring following abdominoplasty surgery. To the authors’ knowledge, this represents the first level I evidence for postoperative scar reduction. PMID:24804638

  16. The evidence for natural therapeutics as potential anti-scarring agents in burn-related scarring.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M; Branford, O A; Rolfe, K J

    2016-01-01

    Though survival rate following severe thermal injuries has improved, the incidence and treatment of scarring have not improved at the same speed. This review discusses the formation of scars and in particular the formation of hypertrophic scars. Further, though there is as yet no gold standard treatment for the prevention or treatment of scarring, a brief overview is included. A number of natural therapeutics have shown beneficial effects both in vivo and in vitro with the potential of becoming clinical therapeutics in the future. These natural therapeutics include both plant-based products such as resveratrol, quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate as examples and includes the non-plant-based therapeutic honey. The review also includes potential mechanism of action for the therapeutics, any recorded adverse events and current administration of the therapeutics used. This review discusses a number of potential 'treatments' that may reduce or even prevent scarring particularly hypertrophic scarring, which is associated with thermal injuries without compromising wound repair. PMID:27574685

  17. The evidence for natural therapeutics as potential anti-scarring agents in burn-related scarring.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M; Branford, O A; Rolfe, K J

    2016-01-01

    Though survival rate following severe thermal injuries has improved, the incidence and treatment of scarring have not improved at the same speed. This review discusses the formation of scars and in particular the formation of hypertrophic scars. Further, though there is as yet no gold standard treatment for the prevention or treatment of scarring, a brief overview is included. A number of natural therapeutics have shown beneficial effects both in vivo and in vitro with the potential of becoming clinical therapeutics in the future. These natural therapeutics include both plant-based products such as resveratrol, quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate as examples and includes the non-plant-based therapeutic honey. The review also includes potential mechanism of action for the therapeutics, any recorded adverse events and current administration of the therapeutics used. This review discusses a number of potential 'treatments' that may reduce or even prevent scarring particularly hypertrophic scarring, which is associated with thermal injuries without compromising wound repair.

  18. Curvilinear transformation of z-shaped upper lip scar by diamond-shaped excision in secondary cleft lip deformities: a photogrammetric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihwan; Jeong, Hoijoon; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Jun Hyung; Son, Daegu

    2015-03-01

    Purpose : The visible Z-shaped upper lip scar that occurs after the Tennison and Randall triangular flap technique remains a cleft stigma. Herein, we present our curvilinear transformation technique for the Z-shaped upper lip scar by diamond-shaped excision and evaluate the results using photogrammetric analyses. Patients and Methods : From 1997 to 2006, 23 patients with secondary cleft lip deformity with the visible Z-shaped upper lip scar underwent correction with the technique. The scar was excised in the diamond shape above the muscle. After curvilinear closure, the elongated length of the upper lip was excised just below the nostril sill, as the measured Cupid's bow height discrepancy. The result was assessed by the authors' standardized photogrammetry technique. Results : There was a statistically significant decrease between the preoperative central limb of the Z-shaped scar and the width of the postoperative curvilinear upper lip scar. The pre- and postoperative Cupid's bow height differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions : The curvilinear transformation of the Z-shaped scar is an efficient procedure that provides (1) a significant decrease in the width of an upper lip scar to make it less conspicuous, (2) incorporation of the scar into the philtral column, (3) a biconcave natural philtral column shape in frontal view, and (4) formation of the natural concave philtral contour in profile view. PMID:25714266

  19. Curvilinear transformation of z-shaped upper lip scar by diamond-shaped excision in secondary cleft lip deformities: a photogrammetric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihwan; Jeong, Hoijoon; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Jun Hyung; Son, Daegu

    2015-03-01

    Purpose : The visible Z-shaped upper lip scar that occurs after the Tennison and Randall triangular flap technique remains a cleft stigma. Herein, we present our curvilinear transformation technique for the Z-shaped upper lip scar by diamond-shaped excision and evaluate the results using photogrammetric analyses. Patients and Methods : From 1997 to 2006, 23 patients with secondary cleft lip deformity with the visible Z-shaped upper lip scar underwent correction with the technique. The scar was excised in the diamond shape above the muscle. After curvilinear closure, the elongated length of the upper lip was excised just below the nostril sill, as the measured Cupid's bow height discrepancy. The result was assessed by the authors' standardized photogrammetry technique. Results : There was a statistically significant decrease between the preoperative central limb of the Z-shaped scar and the width of the postoperative curvilinear upper lip scar. The pre- and postoperative Cupid's bow height differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions : The curvilinear transformation of the Z-shaped scar is an efficient procedure that provides (1) a significant decrease in the width of an upper lip scar to make it less conspicuous, (2) incorporation of the scar into the philtral column, (3) a biconcave natural philtral column shape in frontal view, and (4) formation of the natural concave philtral contour in profile view.

  20. Modulation of Wound Healing and Scar Formation by MG53 Protein-mediated Cell Membrane Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haichang; Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui; Zhao, Li; Fan, Zhaobo; Tan, Tao; Zhou, Xinyu; Sun, Mingzhai; Fu, Minghuan; Orange, Matthew; Sermersheim, Matthew; Ma, Hanley; He, Duofen; Steinberg, Steven M.; Higgins, Robert; Zhu, Hua; John, Elizabeth; Zeng, Chunyu; Guan, Jianjun; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-01-01

    Cell membrane repair is an important aspect of physiology, and disruption of this process can result in pathophysiology in a number of different tissues, including wound healing, chronic ulcer and scarring. We have previously identified a novel tripartite motif family protein, MG53, as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Here we report the functional role of MG53 in the modulation of wound healing and scarring. Although MG53 is absent from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, remarkable defects in skin architecture and collagen overproduction are observed in mg53−/− mice, and these animals display delayed wound healing and abnormal scarring. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein, encapsulated in a hydrogel formulation, facilitates wound healing and prevents scarring in rodent models of dermal injuries. An in vitro study shows that rhMG53 protects against acute injury to keratinocytes and facilitates the migration of fibroblasts in response to scratch wounding. During fibrotic remodeling, rhMG53 interferes with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblast differentiation. The resulting down-regulation of α smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to reduced scarring. Overall, these studies establish a trifunctional role for MG53 as a facilitator of rapid injury repair, a mediator of cell migration, and a modulator of myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing. Targeting the functional interaction between MG53 and TGF-β signaling may present a potentially effective means for promoting scarless wound healing. PMID:26306047

  1. Modulation of wound healing and scar formation by MG53 protein-mediated cell membrane repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Haichang; Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui; Zhao, Li; Fan, Zhaobo; Tan, Tao; Zhou, Xinyu; Sun, Mingzhai; Fu, Minghuan; Orange, Matthew; Sermersheim, Matthew; Ma, Hanley; He, Duofen; Steinberg, Steven M; Higgins, Robert; Zhu, Hua; John, Elizabeth; Zeng, Chunyu; Guan, Jianjun; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-10-01

    Cell membrane repair is an important aspect of physiology, and disruption of this process can result in pathophysiology in a number of different tissues, including wound healing, chronic ulcer and scarring. We have previously identified a novel tripartite motif family protein, MG53, as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Here we report the functional role of MG53 in the modulation of wound healing and scarring. Although MG53 is absent from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, remarkable defects in skin architecture and collagen overproduction are observed in mg53(-/-) mice, and these animals display delayed wound healing and abnormal scarring. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein, encapsulated in a hydrogel formulation, facilitates wound healing and prevents scarring in rodent models of dermal injuries. An in vitro study shows that rhMG53 protects against acute injury to keratinocytes and facilitates the migration of fibroblasts in response to scratch wounding. During fibrotic remodeling, rhMG53 interferes with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblast differentiation. The resulting down-regulation of α smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to reduced scarring. Overall, these studies establish a trifunctional role for MG53 as a facilitator of rapid injury repair, a mediator of cell migration, and a modulator of myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing. Targeting the functional interaction between MG53 and TGF-β signaling may present a potentially effective means for promoting scarless wound healing.

  2. Assessing the Effectiveness of Massage Therapy for Bilateral Cleft Lip Reconstruction Scars

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Bilateral cleft lips occur when the bones that form the upper lip fail to fuse at birth. Surgical reconstruction creates scars, which may lead to the following impairments: adhesions, decreased oral range of motion, decreased strength of orbicularis oris muscle, and asymmetry of oral region leading to poor self-esteem. The purpose of this case study is to determine the effectiveness of massage therapy in its ability to improve these impairments. Methods A five-week treatment plan consisting of fascial release, kneading, and intraoral techniques. Subjective information was assessed on two scales: restriction of scar and clients attitudes and acceptance of scar. Objective information was cataloged through photographs, a palpatory chart, and a self-created “Pen Test”. Results Results included increase range of motion and strength, decrease restrictions (palpable and subjective), and increase of symmetry. Client’s perceived confidence of scar and its appearance increased. Conclusions The evidence suggests that massage therapy helped with the impairments associated with scars formed by bilateral cleft lip reconstruction. PMID:24920967

  3. Medical makeup for concealing facial scars.

    PubMed

    Mee, Donna; Wong, Brian J F

    2012-10-01

    Surgical, laser, and pharmacological therapies are all used to correct scars and surgical incisions, though have limits with respect to how well facial skin can be restored or enhanced. The use of cosmetics has long been a relevant adjunct to all scar treatment modalities. In recent years, technical advancements in the chemistry and composition of cosmetic products have provided the patient with a broader range of products to employ for concealing scars. This review will provide an overview of contemporary methods for concealing facial scars, birthmarks, and pigmentary changes without the use of traditional/dated, heavy appearing camouflage products. Additionally, general guidelines and information will be provided with respect to identifying competent makeup artists for care of the medical patient. The article by no means is meant to be a tutorial, but rather serves as a starting point in this allied field of medicine.

  4. Stromal corneal scar following YAG capsulotomy.

    PubMed

    Bailey, L; Donzis, P B; Kastl, P R

    1988-05-01

    The case of a 70-year-old patient who suffered inadvertant YAG laser burns to the central corneal stroma is presented. Although focal stromal scarring resulted, no endothelial damage or corneal decompensation was noted, and the patient was asymptomatic.

  5. SCAR-A Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-19

    ... (SCAR-A) data include physical and chemical components of the Earth's surface, the atmosphere and the radiation field collected in the eastern part of the United States with an emphasis in air pollution. Discipline:  ...

  6. An idiosyncratic history of burn scars.

    PubMed

    Petro, Jane A

    2015-03-01

    The history of burn scars can best be found in military medical history. The care of wounded soldiers documented in the Illiad reflected the trauma of the weapons of war, arrow, spear, sword, and ax. The introduction of gunpowder in the 14th century, increasingly sophisticated explosives, and in modern times, petroleum-driven vehicles, including airplanes, created a new subset of wounds requiring attention and post-survival scars challenging the quality of survival. This article selects from among a myriad of examples of modern military treatments as they relate to those survivors. Larrey, with Napolean's Grand Army, Sir Harold Gilles during and following World War I, and the Boston area preparation and response to the Cocoanut Grove Fire in 1942 are the principle topics examined. Recent modern interventions, related to the survival of horrific blast and burn injuries, with modern wound care and scar manipulation techniques provide context to the current ability to modify healing and scars.

  7. Proceedings of the SCAR Conference, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) team analyzed six major topics: (1) aerodynamics, (2) stability and control, (3) propulsion, (4) environmental factor, (5) airframe structures and materials, and (6) design integration.

  8. Hyperpigmented scar due to minocycline therapy.

    PubMed

    Patterson, James W; Wilson, Barbara; Wick, Mark R; Heath, Candrice

    2004-11-01

    A 20-year-old woman presented with a heavily pigmented scar on the left lower abdomen following excision of a benign compound nevus. Reexcision showed an organizing scar with pronounced hemosiderinlike pigment deposition and no residual melanocytic lesion. Results of further histopathologic workup showed positive staining with both Perls stain for iron and Fontana-Masson stain. These findings led to further questioning of the patient, which revealed a history of minocycline therapy--information that had not been provided during her initial evaluation. Hyperpigmented scars may result from minocycline ingestion. We present a review of the literature, with particular regard to the possible mechanisms of minocycline hyperpigmentation and the differential diagnosis of hyperpigmented scars.

  9. Frequency of placenta previa in previously scarred and non scarred uterus

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008– December 2011. Results: Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. Conclusion: A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus. PMID:26101491

  10. The "Sea" should not be operated on in scar revision for "Island-Like" scars.

    PubMed

    Nagasao, Tomohisa; Hamamoto, Yusuke; Tamai, Motoki; Kudo, Hiroo; Ensako, Toshiya; Kogure, Tetsukuni; Takano, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshio

    2015-08-01

    Scars developing on body surfaces not only restrict body movement, but are also problematic from a cosmetic standpoint. Hence, revision is conducted by removing the scar and re-suturing the resultant defects. In performing scar revision, care should be taken to prevent the re-sutured wounds from developing hypertrophy again. Scars often present a pattern where hard, red parts are separated by soft parts in between. As the hard and soft parts may be analogized as islands and seas respectively, we call this the "Island-Like" scar. Two strategies can be taken to treat scars of this type. The first is to remove the entire scar-including both hard and soft parts; the second is to remove only the hard parts and leave the soft parts untouched. The authors conducted a biomechanical study using finite element analyses and found that as a body moves, greater stresses occur in the peri-wound regions with the first strategy than with the second strategy. A wound's likelihood to develop hypertrophy increases as the stresses working on it increase. Hence, it is hypothesized that the second strategy carries less risk of the operated wounds developing re-hypertrophy than the first strategy. Based on this logic, in performing scar revision for scars consisting of hard and soft parts, it is recommended only to remove only hard parts and not to operate on soft parts in between.

  11. Outcome after burns: an observational study on burn scar maturation and predictors for severe scarring.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, Martijn B A; Vloemans, Jos F P M; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; van de Ven, Peter; van Unen, Ella; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Middelkoop, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in relation to the depth, etiology of the burn wound and age of the patient. Burn scars of 474 patients were subjected to a scar assessment protocol 3, 6, and 12 months postburn. Three different age groups were defined (≤5, 5-18, and ≥18 years). The observer part of the patient and observer scar assessment scale revealed a significant (p < 0.001) improvement in scar quality at 12 months compared with the 3- and 6-month data. Predictors for severe scarring are depth of the wound (p < 0.001) and total body surface area burned (p < 0.001). Etiology (p = 0.753) and age (p > 0.230) have no significant influence on scar quality when corrected for sex, total body surface area burned, time, and age or etiology, respectively.

  12. Do postsurgical interventions optimize ultimate scar cosmesis.

    PubMed

    Viera, M H; Amini, S; Konda, S; Berman, B

    2009-06-01

    Keloids and other scars are different manifestations of the normal wound healing process. If located in visible areas, scars may have a psychological impact that could affect the quality of life of the scar-bearing population. Good preoperatory planning including hiding incisions in natural anatomical landmarks or placing them parallel to relaxed skin tension lines are among the techniques used to improve the cosmesis of scars. Once a prominent or noticeable scar has developed, multiple therapeutic modalities can be applied including surgical excision, although high recurrence rates precludes its use as monotherapy. Several advanced surgical correction techniques including Z-plasty and W-plasty may be useful in repositioning scars. Other modalities that have been reported to improve scar cosmesis include cryosurgery, radiotherapy, lasers, and skin substitute grafts. Adjuvant postsurgical treatment modalities have reduced dramatically the recurrence rates associated with the removal of the scar. In this review of the literature the authors discuss evidence based data related to the abovementioned modalities and other topical and intralesional therapies including occlusion, compression, silicone, corticosteroids, interferons, imiquimod, resiquimod, tacrolimus, 5-fluorouracil, retinoids, as well as the role of several over-the-counter agents such as onion extract, vitamin E and the combination of hydrocortisone, vitamin E and silicone. Finally, they address newer modalities including vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, transforming growth factor-3, interleukin-10, mannose-6-phosphate, UVA-1, narrowband UVB, intense pulsed light and photodynamic therapy. Ultimately, the decision of choosing the most appropriate postexcisional management treatment should be taken by physicians on a case-by-case basis in order to obtain the best cosmetically acceptable results. PMID:19528906

  13. Morphological and functional relationships with ultrasound measured muscle thickness of the lower extremity: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Ultrasound is a potential method for assessing muscle size of the extremity and trunk. In a large muscle, however, a single image from portable ultrasound measures only muscle thickness (MT), not anatomical muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) or muscle volume (MV). Thus, it is important to know whether MT is related to anatomical CSA and MV in an individual muscle of the extremity and trunk. In this review, we summarize previously published articles in the lower extremity demonstrating the relationships between ultrasound MT and muscle CSA or MV as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. The relationship between MT and isometric and isokinetic joint performance is also reviewed. A linear relationship is observed between MT and muscle CSA or MV in the quadriceps, adductor, tibialis anterior, and triceps surae muscles. Intrarater correlation coefficients range from 0.90 to 0.99, except for one study. It would appear that anterior upper-thigh MT, mid-thigh MT and posterior thigh MT are the best predictors for evaluating adductor, quadriceps, and hamstrings muscle size, respectively. Despite a limited number of studies, anterior as well as posterior lower leg MT appear to reflect muscle CSA and MV of the lower leg muscles. Based on previous studies, ultrasound measured anterior thigh MT may be a valuable predictor of knee extension strength. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to clarify the relationship between lower extremity function and MT. PMID:27433253

  14. Decorin reduces hypertrophic scarring through inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway in a rat osteomyelitis model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Xiangyan; Xu, Peng; Lu, Jialiang; Wang, Runze; Mu, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Chronic osteomyelitis is a bone infection that results in hypertrophic scarring of the soft tissue surrounding the infected bone. This scarring can create functional problems and its treatment is challenging. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of decorin in treating scar formation in osteomyelitis and the underlying mechanism of its action. A rat osteomyelitis model was used, and animals were divided into three groups, as follows: Group A (control), group B (osteomyelitis model) and group C (decorin-treated). X-ray scans, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and Masson's trichrome staining were performed to observe changes in femur and muscle tissue. In order to assess the role of the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad signaling pathway in scar formation in osteomyelitis, alterations in muscle tissue morphology and in the activation of key members of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway were investigated in groups A and B. According to the results of H&E staining, evident fibrosis in muscle tissue were observed at days 14 and 28 in group B. Simultaneously, the expression levels of key members of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway were increased. Subsequent to treatment with decorin in group C, scarring was reduced, and significant downregulation of collagen I, TGF-β1, phosphorylated (p)Smad2 and pSmad3 protein expression levels was observed at days 14 and 28 compared with the osteomyelitis group. In conclusion, these results suggest that activation of TGF-β1 may serve an important role in the formation of scars in osteomyelitis and that decorin can reduce scar formation in an osteomyelitis rat model through inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. PMID:27698699

  15. Decorin reduces hypertrophic scarring through inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway in a rat osteomyelitis model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Xiangyan; Xu, Peng; Lu, Jialiang; Wang, Runze; Mu, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Chronic osteomyelitis is a bone infection that results in hypertrophic scarring of the soft tissue surrounding the infected bone. This scarring can create functional problems and its treatment is challenging. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of decorin in treating scar formation in osteomyelitis and the underlying mechanism of its action. A rat osteomyelitis model was used, and animals were divided into three groups, as follows: Group A (control), group B (osteomyelitis model) and group C (decorin-treated). X-ray scans, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and Masson's trichrome staining were performed to observe changes in femur and muscle tissue. In order to assess the role of the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad signaling pathway in scar formation in osteomyelitis, alterations in muscle tissue morphology and in the activation of key members of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway were investigated in groups A and B. According to the results of H&E staining, evident fibrosis in muscle tissue were observed at days 14 and 28 in group B. Simultaneously, the expression levels of key members of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway were increased. Subsequent to treatment with decorin in group C, scarring was reduced, and significant downregulation of collagen I, TGF-β1, phosphorylated (p)Smad2 and pSmad3 protein expression levels was observed at days 14 and 28 compared with the osteomyelitis group. In conclusion, these results suggest that activation of TGF-β1 may serve an important role in the formation of scars in osteomyelitis and that decorin can reduce scar formation in an osteomyelitis rat model through inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.

  16. [Desmoid in a laparatomy scar].

    PubMed

    Amin, F M; Bolanca, M; Urbanke, A

    1977-01-01

    A patient, aged 55, three years after having undergone abdominal histerectomy and adnexectomy for a myoma, developed a hard swelling near the surgical cut in the abdominal wall. A similar swelling appeared also in another patient, aged 33, as early as three months following salpingectomy for tubal pregnancy. In both cases these hard tumours radially permeating the facia and muscles were surgically removed and histologically verified as desmoids.

  17. Differences between scar and dermal cultured fibroblasts derived from a patient with recurrent abdominal incision wound herniation.

    PubMed

    Boemi, L; Allison, G M; Graham, W P; Krummel, T M; Ehrlich, H P

    1999-10-01

    Fibroblasts were derived from dermis and scar of a 47-year-old white man with a recurrent incisional hernia as a result of fractured ribs. The scar was thin and stretched, suggesting a defect in the maturation of granulation tissue. After surgical repair, biopsy specimens of discarded scar and skin were used to generate fibroblast cell lines. Fibroblasts maintained in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotic were studied between their third and eighth passage. By phase contrast microscopy, no structural differences were obvious, but it was noted that to pass scar fibroblasts, a more aggressive trypsin regimen was required. Immunohistologic and Western blot analysis of patient scar fibroblasts showed (1) more a smooth muscle actin within stress fibers, (2) increased expression of the vitronectin integrin receptor alpha(v) (CD 51), and (3) reduced expression of the collagen integrin receptor alpha2 (CD 49b). The expression of vinculin from focal adhesions or a tubulin from microtubules was the same among cell lines. Contractions of scar and dermal fibroblast-populated collagen lattice were compared. At 24 hours, contractions were 69 percent with newborn fibroblasts (normal); 68 percent for patient dermal fibroblasts; and only 48 percent for patient scar fibroblasts. The retarded contraction of scar fibroblast-populated collagen lattice was significant (p > or = 0.002). Myosin ATPase activity, critical for lattice contraction, and cell migration were equivalent among all cell lines. A plausible mechanism for the retardation of scar lattice contraction is disruption of fibroblasts and collagen interactions, for which the attachment of cells to collagen is altered. It is proposed that either the decrease in the expression of collagen integrin receptor alpha2 (CD 49b), an increase in the expression of the vitronectin receptor alpha(v) (CD 51), or a combination of both is responsible for disruption of collagen fibroblast interactions.

  18. Comparison of Adductor Canal Block and Femoral Nerve Block for Postoperative Pain in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Cui-Cui; Dong, Shu-Ling; He, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has always been associated with moderate-to-severe pain. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pain control of adductor canal block (ACB) and femoral nerve block (FNB) after TKA. Relevant literatures about the ACB and FNB after TKA for reducing pain were searched from Medline (1996-January, 2015), Embase (1980-January, 2015), PubMed (1980-January, 2015), Web of Science (1980-January, 2015), and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. High-quality RCTs and non-RCTs were picked to evaluate the visual analogue scale (VAS) and other outcome. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the PRISMA statement criteria. The software RevMan 5.30 was used for the meta-analysis. Eight literatures fitted into the inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences in VAS score with rest or mobilization at 4, 24, and 48 h between ACB group and FNB group. There were also no significant differences in the strength of quadriceps and adductor, the length of hospital stay, and complications of vomiting and nausea. Present meta-analysis indicated that ACB shows no superiority than FNB group. Both of them can reduce the pain score after TKA. As referred to which method to adopt, it is determined by the preference of the surgeons and anesthesiologists. PMID:27015172

  19. MR imaging of sports-related muscle injuries.

    PubMed

    Yang, C W; Liu, G C; Chen, H Y; Wang, M L; Lin, M B; Kuo, Y T

    1994-04-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the thighs of 26 baseball athletes and one softball athlete were studied to evaluate muscle injuries. We documented the abnormalities present in MR imaging after a muscle injury and evaluated the role of MR imaging in muscle injuries. Fifteen of the athletes showed muscle abnormalities in MR images. These include muscle strains without tear, muscle tear, scar and chronic tendon injury. Having the advantages of high tissue contrast and multiplanar display capability, MR allowed direct visualization of the injured muscles and characterization of traumatic lesions. We conclude that MR could be a good imaging modality for evaluating muscle injuries.

  20. Equine laryngeal hemiplegia. Part IV. Muscle pathology.

    PubMed

    Cahill, J I; Goulden, B E

    1986-11-01

    This study confirmed that neurogenic muscle pathology exists in intrinsic laryngeal muscles supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerves in horses subclinically and clinically affected with laryngeal hemiplegia. An important additional observation was the occurrence in three out of four laryngeal hemiplegic horses of neurogenic muscle changes in a hindlimb muscle, the extensor digitorum longus, a muscle supplied by another long peripheral nerve. This finding suggests that a polynenropathy exists in laryngeal hemiplegic horses, and supports the classification of this disease as a distal axonopathy. Comparison of the degree of pathology in the intrinsic laryngeal muscles and that of the recurrent laryngeal nerves innervating them, demonstrated a strong correlation between the extent of damage in the distal left recurrent laryngeal nerve and the overall degree of muscle pathology. The muscle damage in clinically affected horses is a reflection of the nerve damage present in the most distal portion of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. The more variable pathological changes found in proximal levels of the left and right recurrent laryngeal nerves probably reflects the ongoing nature of the pathological process affecting nerve fibres. The existence of a subclinically affected group of horses, the earliest involvement of an adductor, the left cricoarytenoideus lateralis muscle, and the presence of changes in the right intrinsic laryngeal muscles all confirmed the findings of previous workers.

  1. Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat-kangaroos (marsupialia: macropodoidea).

    PubMed

    Warburton, Natalie Marina

    2009-06-01

    The jaw muscles were studied in seven genera of macropodoid marsupials with diets ranging from mainly fungi in Potorous to grass in Macropus. Relative size, attachments, and lamination within the jaw adductor muscles varied between macropodoid species. Among macropodine species, the jaw adductor muscle proportions vary with feeding type. The relative mass of the masseter is roughly consistent, but grazers and mixed-feeders (Macropus and Lagostrophus) had relatively larger medial pterygoids and smaller temporalis muscles than the browsers (Dendrolagus, Dorcopsulus, and Setonix). Grazing macropods show similar jaw muscle proportions to "ungulate-grinding" type placental mammals. The internal architecture of the jaw muscles also varies between grazing and browsing macropods, most significantly, the anatomy of the medial pterygoid muscle. Potoroines have distinctly different jaw muscle proportions to macropodines. The masseter muscle group, in particular, the superficial masseter is enlarged, while the temporalis group is relatively reduced. Lagostrophus fasciatus is anatomically distinct from other macropods with respect to its masticatory muscle anatomy, including enlarged superficial medial pterygoid and deep temporalis muscles, an anteriorly inflected masseteric process, and the shape of the mandibular condyle. The enlarged triangular pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, in particular, is distinctive of Lagsotrophus.

  2. The embrace Device Significantly Decreases Scarring following Scar Revision Surgery in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Angeline F.; Weintraub, Jennifer; Kaplan, Ernest N.; Januszyk, Michael; Cowley, Christy; McLaughlin, Peggy; Beasley, Bill; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mechanically offloading or shielding an incision significantly reduces scarring in both animal and first-in-human studies. Whether or not this strategy would be effective following scar revision surgery was previously unknown. In this article, the authors report that the embrace device, which uses principles of mechanomodulation, significantly improves aesthetic outcomes following scar revision surgery. Methods A prospective, open-label, randomized, single-center study was conducted to evaluate the appearance of scars following revision and embrace treatment. Revision surgery was performed on 12 patients, each acting as his or her own control, and outcomes were assessed at 6 months. A visual analogue scale was used to evaluate each scar, rated by four independent surgeons who were not involved in the study. Results Evaluation of 6-month scar images by four independent surgeons using the visual analogue scale demonstrated a highly significant improvement in scar appearance following embrace treatment (p < 0.005). Conclusion The embrace device represents a powerful new technology for significantly improving scar appearance following revision surgery. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic, II. PMID:24105084

  3. Reflectance confocal microscopy for scarring and non-scarring alopecia real-time assessment.

    PubMed

    Ardigò, Marco; Agozzino, Marina; Franceschini, Chiara; Donadio, Carlo; Abraham, Leonardo Spagnol; Barbieri, Luca; Sperduti, Isabella; Berardesca, Enzo; González, Salvador

    2016-07-01

    Clinical management of alopecia represents one of the major issues in dermatology. Scalp biopsies are not easily accepted because of the high bleeding and sensitive anatomical area. Trichoscopy is routinely used for diagnosis of alopecia, but in several cases lack to provide sufficient information on the status of the disease. Recently, reflectance confocal microscopy demonstrated its usefulness for the evaluation of several inflammatory skin condition and preliminary reports about alopecia have been proposed in the literature. The aim was to identify the confocal features characterizing scarring and non-scarring alopecia. Reflectance confocal microscopy from 86 patients affected by scarring (28 lichen planopilaris and 9 lupus erythematosus) and non-scarring alopecia (30 androgenic alopecia and 19 alopecia areata), were retrospectively, blinded evaluated. Good concordance between different readers on the confocal criteria has been assessed. Statistical significant features, specific for scarring alopecia and non-scarring alopecia have been identified. In this study, data on reflectance confocal microscopy features useful for the differential diagnosis between scarring and non-scarring alopecia have been identified. Further studies focusing on the use of this non-invasive technique in the therapeutic follow-up and distinction of sub-entities of alopecia are still required.

  4. Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Anil; Zywiel, Michael G; Ulrich, Slif D; McGrath, Mike S; Seyler, Thorsten M; Marker, David R; Delanois, Ronald E; Mont, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of hip adductor, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris muscle contractures following total hip arthroplasties are quite common, with some patients failing to improve despite treatment with a variety of non-operative modalities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of and patient outcomes of botulinum toxin injections as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty. Methods Ten patients (14 hips) who had hip adductor, abductor, and/or flexor muscle contractures following total arthroplasty and had been refractory to physical therapeutic efforts were treated with injection of botulinum toxin A. Eight limbs received injections into the adductor muscle, 8 limbs received injections into the tensor fascia lata muscle, and 2 limbs received injection into the rectus femoris muscle, followed by intensive physical therapy for 6 weeks. Results At a mean final follow-up of 20 months, all 14 hips had increased range in the affected arc of motion, with a mean improvement of 23 degrees (range, 10 to 45 degrees). Additionally all hips had an improvement in hip scores, with a significant increase in mean score from 74 points (range, 57 to 91 points) prior to injection to a mean of 96 points (range, 93 to 98) at final follow-up. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion Botulinum toxin A injections combined with intensive physical therapy may be considered as a potential treatment modality, especially in difficult cases of muscle tightness that are refractory to standard therapy. PMID:19709429

  5. Isokinetic imbalance of hip muscles in soccer players with osteitis pubis.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Walaa Sayed; Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa; Elhafez, Salam Mohamed; Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Nassif, Nagui Sobhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the isokinetic torques of hip flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors in soccer players suffering from osteitis pubis (OP), with normal soccer players. Twenty soccer male athletes with OP and 20 normal soccer athletes were included in this study. Peak torque/body weight (PT/BW) was recorded from hip flexor/extensor and abductor/adductor muscles during isokinetic concentric contraction modes at angular velocity of 2.1 rad · s(-1), for both groups. The results showed a significant difference between the normal and OP groups for hip flexors (P < 0.05). The normal group had significant, lower PT/BW value than the OP group for their hip flexors (P < 0.05). The hip flexor/extensor PT ratio of OP affected and non-affected limbs was significantly different from that of normal dominant and non-dominant limbs. There were no significant differences between the normal and OP groups for hip extensor, adductor and abductor muscles (P > 0.05). Regarding the hip adductor/abductor PT ratio, there was no significant difference between the normal and OP groups of athletes (P > 0.05). The OP group displayed increase in hip flexor strength that disturbed the hip flexor/extensor torque ratio of OP. Therefore, increasing the hip extensor strength should be part of rehabilitation programmes of patients with OP. PMID:24499182

  6. Evaluating evidence for atrophic scarring treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    McGrouther, Duncan; Chakrabarty, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction Atrophic scars cause significant patient morbidity. Whilst there is evidence to guide treatment, there does not appear to be a systematic review to analyse the efficacy of treatment options. Objectives To retrieve all evidence relating to atrophic scar treatment and evaluate using the Clinical Evidence GRADE score in order to allow clinicians to make evidence-based treatment choices. Method Searches were performed in Medline, EMBASE, CINHL and Cochrane to identify all English studies published evaluating treatment of atrophic scars on adults excluding journal letters. Each study was allocated a GRADE score based on type of study, quality, dose response, consistency of results and significance of results. The end score allowed categorisation of evidence into high, moderate, low or very low quality. Results A total of 41 studies were retrieved from searches including randomised controlled trials, observational studies, retrospective analyses and case reports of which 7% were allocated a high-quality score, 10% a moderate score, 7% a low score and 75% a very low score. Treatment modalities included ablative laser therapy, non-ablative laser therapy, autologous fat transfer, dermabrasion, chemical peels, injectables, subcision, tretinoin iontophoresis and combination therapy. Conclusion There is a paucity of good-quality clinical evidence evaluating treatment modalities for atrophic scarring. Evidence supports efficacy of laser, surgery and peel therapy. Further biomolecular research is required to identify targeted treatment options and more randomised controlled trials would make the evidence base for atrophic scar treatment more robust. PMID:25352991

  7. How human gait responds to muscle impairment in total knee arthroplasty patients: Muscular compensations and articular perturbations.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Marzieh M; Moazen, Mehran

    2016-06-14

    Post-surgical muscle weakness is prevalent among patients who undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We conducted a probabilistic multi-body dynamics (MBD) to determine whether and to what extent habitual gait patterns of TKA patients may accommodate strength deficits in lower extremity muscles. We analyzed muscular and articular compensations in response to various muscle impairments, and the minimum muscle strength requirements needed to preserve TKA gait patterns in its habitual status. Muscle weakness was simulated by reducing the strength parameter of muscle models in MBD analysis. Using impaired models, muscle and joint forces were calculated and compared versus those from baseline gait i.e. TKA habitual gait before simulating muscle weakness. Comparisons were conducted using a relatively new statistical approach for the evaluation of gait waveforms, i.e. Spatial Parameter Mapping (SPM). Principal component analysis was then conducted on the MBD results to quantify the sensitivity of every joint force component to individual muscle impairment. The results of this study contain clinically important, although preliminary, suggestions. Our findings suggested that: (1) hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor muscles compensated for hip extensor weakness; (2) hip extensor, hip adductor and ankle plantar flexor muscles compensated for hip flexor weakness; (3) hip and knee flexor muscles responded to hip abductor weakness; (4) knee flexor and hip abductor balanced hip adductor impairment; and (5) knee extensor and knee flexor weakness were compensated by hip extensor and hip flexor muscles. Future clinical studies are required to validate the results of this computational study. PMID:27063251

  8. Segmentation of scarred and non-scarred myocardium in LG enhanced CMR images using intensity-based textural analysis.

    PubMed

    Kotu, Lasya Priya; Engan, Kjersti; Eftestøl, Trygve; Ørn, Stein; Woie, Leik

    2011-01-01

    The Late Gadolinium (LG) enhancement in Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) imaging is used to increase the intensity of scarred area in myocardium for thorough examination. Automatic segmentation of scar is important because scar size is largely responsible in changing the size, shape and functioning of left ventricle and it is a preliminary step required in exploring the information present in scar. We have proposed a new technique to segment scar (infarct region) from non-scarred myocardium using intensity-based texture analysis. Our new technique uses dictionary-based texture features and dc-values to segment scarred and non-scarred myocardium using Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) based Bayes classification. Texture analysis aided with intensity values gives better segmentation of scar from myocardium with high sensitivity and specificity values in comparison to manual segmentation by expert cardiologists.

  9. Inflammation and cutaneous nervous system involvement in hypertrophic scarring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shao-hua; Yang, Heng-lian; Xiao, Hu; Wang, Yi-bing; Wang, De-chang; Huo, Ran

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to use a mouse model of hypertrophic scarring by mechanical loading on the dorsum of mice to determine whether the nervous system of the skin and inflammation participates in hypertrophic scarring. Results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that inflammation contributed to the formation of a hypertrophic scar and increased the nerve density in scar tissue.Western blot assay verified that interleukin-13 expression was increased in scar tissue. These findings suggest that inflammation and the cutaneous nervous system play a role in hypertrophic scar formation. PMID:26692869

  10. Disseminated scar sarcoidosis may predict pulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Su, Ozlem; Onsun, Nahide; Topukçu, Buğçe; Ozçelik, Hatice Kutbay; Cakıter, Alkım Unal; Büyükpınarbaşılı, Nur

    2013-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic, inflammatory, multi-organ disease of unknown origin that is characterized by non-caseating granuloma formation in affected organs. Cutaneous involvement is reported in 25% of patients with sarcoidosis. Scar sarcoidosis is rare but is clinically specific for skin sarcoidosis. Systemic involvement is seen in most patients with scar sarcoidosis. We present a case of scar sarcoidosis in a 30-year-old male that developed infiltrated nodules on old scars, including on his penile shaft, which is rare, and that also had pulmonary involvement. Scar sarcoidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of changes in all scar areas and should be investigated for systemic involvement.

  11. Early second trimester uterine scar rupture.

    PubMed

    Bharatnur, Sunanda; Hebbar, Shripad; Shyamala, G

    2013-12-10

    Spontaneous uterine scar rupture can be lethal in pregnant women. A spontaneous uterine scar rupture in the early mid-trimester is rare and difficult to diagnose. This is a case of a 30-year-old woman (G2P1L1) at 19 weeks of gestation and having undergone a previous caesarean section presented with acute abdomen in shock. Laparotomy revealed a uterine scar rupture, which was resutured after evacuation of products of conception. This case merits that the uterine rupture should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pregnant women presenting with acute abdomen. In this case, although there was uterine rupture in the second trimester and a complete placental separation, fetus was alive which is quite unusual in patients presenting with rupture uterus.

  12. Fraxelated radiofrequency device for acne scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Babar K.; Khokher, Sairah

    2012-09-01

    Acne scars can be improved with various treatments such as topical creams, chemical peels, dermal fillers, microdermabrasion, laser, and radiofrequency devices. Some of these treatments especially lasers and deep chemical peels can have significant side effects such as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in darker skin types. Fraxelated RF Laser devices have been reported to have lower incidence of side effects in all skin phototypes. Nine patients between ages 18 and 35 of various skin phototypes were selected from a private practice and treated with a RF fraxelated device (E-matrix) for acne scars. Outcomes were measured by physician observation, subjective feedback received by patients, and comparison of before and after photographs. In this small group of patients with various skin phototypes, fraxelated radiofrequency device improved acne scars with minimal side effects and downtime.

  13. Femoral nerve block versus adductor canal block for postoperative pain control after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A randomized controlled double blind study

    PubMed Central

    El Ahl, Mohamed Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the postoperative pain control using adductor canal block (ACB) compared that using the femoral nerve block (FNB) in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLR). Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty-eight patients who had been scheduled to patellar graft ACLR were included in this double blind study, and were randomly allocated into two groups; group ACB and group FNB (64 patients each). All patients received general anesthesia. At the end of the surgery, patients in group FNB received a FNB and those in group ACB received an ACB. The postoperative pain (visual analog scale [VAS]) and muscle weakness were assessed in the postoperative care unit and every 6 h thereafter for 24 h. The total morphine requirements were also recorded. Results: Patients in group ACB had significantly higher VAS (at 18 h and 24 h), higher morphine consumption, but significantly less quadriceps weakness than those in group FNB. Conclusion: In patients with patellar graft ACLR, the ACB can maintain a higher quadriceps power, but with lesser analgesia compared with the FNB. PMID:26240546

  14. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles Print A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are ...

  15. Laryngeal muscle activity in giggle: a damped oscillation model.

    PubMed

    Titze, Ingo R; Finnegan, Eileen M; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Fuja, Megan; Hoffman, Henry

    2008-11-01

    The acoustic properties of giggle, a mild form of laughter, were studied. The purpose was to determine if there is some uniqueness to the frequency and number of vocalization bursts in giggle. The underlying hypothesis was that a neuromechanical oscillator serves as an activator for rhythmic vocalizations, as in vibrato, with a pair of agonist-antagonist adductor muscles alternating in a 180 degrees phase relationship. Electromyographic activity of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle was always measured, in conjunction with either lateral cricoarytenoid or thyroarytenoid muscle activity. Results indicate that muscle activations do alternate and that these activations do not diminish during successive bursts, even though the amplitude and duty ratio of the bursts decreases. It is reasoned that reduced lung pressure and lung volume limit the number of bursts and their duty ratio, while speed of intrinsic laryngeal muscle contraction dictates the burst frequency. PMID:17509825

  16. Muscle sarcomere lesions and thrombosis after spaceflight and suspension unloading

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.A.; Ellis, S.; Giometti, C.S.; Hoh, J.F.Y.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.I.; Oganov, V.S.; Slocum, G.R.; Bain, J.L.W.; Sedlak, F.R. )

    1992-08-01

    Extended exposure of humans to spaceflight produces a progressive loss of skeletal muscle strength. This process must be understood to design effective countermeasures. The present investigation examined hindlimb muscles from flight rats killed as close to landing as possible. Spaceflight and tail suspension-hindlimb unloading (unloaded) produced significant decreases in fiber cross-sectional areas of the adductor longus (AL), a slow-twitch antigravity muscle. However, the mean wet weight of the flight AL muscles was near normal, whereas that of the suspension unloaded AL muscles was significantly reduced. Interstitial edema within the flight AL, but not in the unloaded AL, appeared to account for this apparent disagreement.In both conditions, the slow-twitch oxidative fibers atrophied more than the fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibers. Microcirculation was also compromised by spaceflight, such that there was increased formation of thrombi in the postcapillary venules and capillaries.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of rabbit corneal scars.

    PubMed

    Cintron, C; Szamier, R B; Hassinger, L C; Kublin, C L

    1982-07-01

    Central full-thickness perforating excision wounds were made in rabbit corneas and were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy at various times after wounding to study the three-dimensional morphologic changes in the tissue during healing and remodeling. Formation of a fibrin clot soon after wounding seals the hole and functions as a substrate for the healing epithelium. Changes in the histologic appearance of the fibrin lot immediately below the new epithelium are followed by migration of adjacent stromal cells under the epithelium, parallel to the basal surface of this tissue. Further healing is characterized by the organization of stromal fibroblasts into several layers parallel to the corneal surface and the deposition of collagen as a matted meshwork of fibrils tangential to the cell surface. Although remodeling of the collagenous matrix of corneal scar is evident and the scar eventually appears less opaque, the lamellae of the scar are narrower and shorter than normal. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that the orientation of the fibroblasts in healing tissues is determined by the organization of the newly formed epithelium. Furthermore, our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that collagen fibrils are deposited parallel to the flat surface of the fibroblasts during scar formation. Subsequent reorganization of this collagenous matrix approaches the normal lamellar appearance, but the matrix fails to regenerate even after 2 years.

  18. Computationally efficient method to construct scar functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revuelta, F.; Vergini, E. G.; Benito, R. M.; Borondo, F.

    2012-02-01

    The performance of a simple method [E. L. Sibert III, E. Vergini, R. M. Benito, and F. Borondo, New J. Phys.NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/10/5/053016 10, 053016 (2008)] to efficiently compute scar functions along unstable periodic orbits with complicated trajectories in configuration space is discussed, using a classically chaotic two-dimensional quartic oscillator as an illustration.

  19. Effect of unloading on muscle volume with and without resistance training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akima, Hiroshi; Ushiyama, Jun-ichi; Kubo, Junjiro; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2007-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of resistance training on the volume of four muscle groups and/or 17 individual muscles of the human lower limb during 20 days of 6∘ head-down tilt bed rest. Twelve healthy men were divided into two groups: the resistance training group: BR-Tr (n=6) and the control group: BR-Cont (n=6). The volumes of the knee extensor, knee flexor, adductor, plantar flexor, and dorsiflexor muscle groups and their individual muscles were calculated. After the bed rest, the BR-Tr subjects showed no significant change in the volume in almost all tested muscles; in contrast, the volumes of the four muscle groups significantly decreased in the BR-Cont group ( -12% to -8%). These results suggest that resistance training during bed rest can prevent the deteriorating of thigh muscles and calf muscles.

  20. Combination Therapy in the Management of Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Baveja, Sukriti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atrophic acne scars are difficult to treat. The demand for less invasive but highly effective treatment for scars is growing. Objective: To assess the efficacy of combination therapy using subcision, microneedling and 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peel in the management of atrophic scars. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with atrophic acne scars were graded using Goodman and Baron Qualitative grading. After subcision, dermaroller and 15% TCA peel were performed alternatively at 2-weeks interval for a total of 6 sessions of each. Grading of acne scar photographs was done pretreatment and 1 month after last procedure. Patients own evaluation of improvement was assessed. Results: Out of 16 patients with Grade 4 scars, 10 (62.5%) patients improved to Grade 2 and 6 (37.5%) patients improved to Grade 3 scars. Out of 22 patients with Grade 3 scars, 5 (22.7%) patients were left with no scars, 2 (9.1%) patients improved to Grade 1and 15 (68.2%) patients improved to Grade 2. All 11 (100%) patients with Grade 2 scars were left with no scars. There was high level of patient satisfaction. Conclusion: This combination has shown good results in treating not only Grade 2 but also severe Grade 4 and 3 scars. PMID:24761094

  1. Scar formation and revision after the removal of orthodontic miniscrews

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Dong-Won; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Many clinicians expect complete healing after the removal of temporary anchorage devices, but clinical examination may reveal scar-like tissue. This report presents the typical features of scarring detected after the removal of miniscrews, and the clinical outcome of scar revision along with its pathologic features. PMID:26023543

  2. The Use of Silicone Adhesives for Scar Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Bleasdale, Benjamin; Finnegan, Simon; Murray, Kathyryn; Kelly, Sean; Percival, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: This article discusses the history and developments of silicone gel sheeting (SGS) scar therapy. Furthermore, we review a breadth of literature to gain an insight into how and why topical silicone gels remain the favored treatment of medical experts in scar management. We also analyze an ever increasing number of alternative therapies claiming to provide enhanced scar reduction performance. Recent Advances: Topical silicone gel treatments seem to remain the first point of clinical recommendation in scar management. SGS has been used in scar therapy for over 30 years, during which its efficacy has been the subject of numerous clinical evaluations. Critical Issues: While the exact mechanisms by which SGS improves hypertrophic scars, keloid development and recovery are yet to be fully agreed upon, its ability to do so remains largely undisputed at present. However, there still is ongoing deliberation over the exact mechanism of action of silicone in improving a scar. At present it is likely that through occlusion of the scar site and hydration of the wound bed, the overactivity of scar-related cells is suppressed, and their activity normalized. Future Direction: The clinical support of topical silicone gel products, relative to all alternative scar therapies, is considered the internationally recommended first-line form of scar management, and favored by consensus among healthcare professionals. However, there still remains the need for further clinical evidence and a better understanding of the mechanism behind the benefit of silicone gel for use in the prevention of abnormal scarring. PMID:26155385

  3. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  4. Quantifying the aging response and nutrient composition for muscles of the beef round.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C L; Woerner, D R; Tokach, R J; Chapman, P L; Engle, T E; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P < 0.05) between individual muscle and postmortem aging period. The WBSF of all muscles except the superficial digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All

  5. Quantifying the aging response and nutrient composition for muscles of the beef round.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C L; Woerner, D R; Tokach, R J; Chapman, P L; Engle, T E; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P < 0.05) between individual muscle and postmortem aging period. The WBSF of all muscles except the superficial digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All

  6. The effects of horseback riding simulator exercises on the muscle activity of the lower extremities according to changes in arm posture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of horseback riding simulator exercise on the muscle activities of the lower extremities according to changes in arm posture. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 normal adult males and females. [Methods] The horseback riding simulator exercise used a horseback riding simulator device; two arm postures were used, posture 1 (holding the handle of the device) and posture 2 (crossing both arms, with both hands on the shoulders). Electromyography was used to compare the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and hip adductors in the lower extremities. [Results] Posture 2 had significantly higher muscle activity than posture 1. [Conclusion] Posture 2, which entailed crossing both arms with both hands on the shoulders, was an effective intervention for improved muscle activity in the hip adductors. PMID:26504280

  7. Biology and principles of scar management and burn reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tredget, Edward E; Levi, Benjamin; Donelan, Matthias B

    2014-08-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is extremely common and is the source of most morbidity related to burns. The biology of hypertrophic healing is complex and poorly understood. Multiple host and injury factors contribute, but protracted healing of partial thickness injury is a common theme. Hypertrophic scarring and heterotopic ossification may share some basic causes involving marrow-derived cells. Several traditional clinical interventions exist to modify hypertrophic scar. All have limited efficacy. Laser interventions for scar modification show promise, but as yet do not provide a definitive solution. Their efficacy is only seen when used as part of a multimodality scar management program. PMID:25085089

  8. A histological study on the effect of pressure therapy on the activities of myofibroblasts and keratinocytes in hypertrophic scar tissues after burn.

    PubMed

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Feng, Beibei; Huang, Lin; Liu, Xusheng; Shu, Bin; Chan, Yvonne T Y; Cheung, Kwok-Kuen

    2015-08-01

    Although pressure therapy (PT) has been widely used as the first-line treatment for hypertrophic scars (HS), the histopathological changes involved have seldom been studied. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal effect of PT on the histopathological changes in HS. Ten scar samples were selected from six patients with HS after burn and they were given a standardized PT intervention for 3 months while 16 scar samples were obtained on those without PT. The scar biopsies were collected pre-treatment, 1 and 3 months post-intervention for both clinical and histopathological examinations. Clinical assessments demonstrated significant improvement in the thickness and redness of the scars after PT. Histological examination revealed that cell density in the dermal layer was markedly reduced in the 3-months post-pressurized scar tissues, while the arrangement of the collagen fiber was changed from nodular to wave-like pattern. The α-smooth muscle actin immunoreactivity was significantly decreased after 1-month pressure treatment. There was a significant reduction of myofibroblasts population and a concomitant increase in the apoptotic index in the dermal layer in the 3-months' post-pressurized scars. A significant negative correlation was found between the myofibroblasts population and the apoptotic index. The keratinocyte proliferation was found inhibited after PT. Results demonstrated that PT appeared to promote HS maturation by inhibiting the keratinocyte proliferation and suppressing myofibroblasts population, the latter possibly via apoptosis.

  9. Assessment of anti-scarring therapies in ex vivo organ cultured rabbit corneas.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Sriniwas; Gibson, Daniel J; Robinson, Paulette; Pi, Liya; Tuli, Sonal; Lewin, Alfred S; Schultz, Gregory

    2014-08-01

    The effects of a triple combination of siRNAs targeting key scarring genes were assessed using an ex vivo organ culture model of excimer ablated rabbit corneas. The central 6 mm diameter region of fresh rabbit globes was ablated to a depth of 155 microns with an excimer laser. Corneas were excised, cultured at the air-liquid interface in defined culture medium supplemented with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1), and treated with either 1% prednisolone acetate or with 22.5 μM cationic nanoparticles complexed with a triple combination of siRNAs (NP-siRNA) targeting TGFB1, TGFB Receptor (TGFBR2) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Scar formation was measured using image analysis of digital images and levels of smooth muscle actin (SMA) were assessed in ablated region of corneas using qRT-PCR and immunostaining. Ex vivo cultured corneas developed intense haze-like scar in the wounded areas and levels of mRNAs for pro-fibrotic genes were significantly elevated 3-8 fold in wounded tissue compared to unablated corneas. Treatment with NP-siRNA or steroid significantly reduced quantitative haze levels by 55% and 68%, respectively, and reduced SMA mRNA and immunohistostaining. This ex vivo corneal culture system reproduced key molecular patterns of corneal scarring and haze formation generated in rabbits. Treatment with NP-siRNAs targeting key scarring genes or an anti-inflammatory steroid reduced corneal haze and SMA mRNA and protein.

  10. Current options for the treatment of pathological scarring.

    PubMed

    Poetschke, Julian; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-05-01

    Scarring is the consequence of surgery, trauma or different skin diseases. Apart from fresh, immature scars,that transform into mature scars over the course of would healing and that do not require further treatment,linear hypertrophic scars, widespread hypertrophic scars, keloids and atrophic scars exist. Symptoms like pruritusand pain, stigmatization as well as functional and aesthetic impairments that are very disturbing for the affected patients can bethe basis for the desire for treatment. Today, a multitude of options for the treatment and prevention of scars exists. Topical agents based on silicone or onion extract, intralesional injections of cristalline glucocorticoids (oftentimes in combinationwith cryotherapy) or 5-Fluorouracil as well as ablative and nonablative laser treatment are used. Current guidelines summarize the multitude of available treatment options and the currently available datafor the treating physicians, allowing them to make clear therapy recommendations for every single scar type. Relieving patients of their discomfort and doing their aesthetic demands justice is thus possible. Apart from scar prevention becoming more and more important, the increased use of modernlaser treatment options constitutes a key point in clinical scar treatment. At the same time the attention is turned to evaluating current therapeutic options with the help of contemporary study designs so as to graduallyimprove the level of evidence in scar treatment. PMID:27119465

  11. Suppressed inflammatory gene expression during human hypertrophic scar compared to normotrophic scar formation.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lenie J; van der Veer, Willem M; de Jong, Etty H; Gibbs, Susan; Niessen, Frank B

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrophic scar formation is a result of adverse cutaneous wound healing. The pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar formation is still poorly understood. A problem next to the lack of suitable animal models is that often normal skin is compared to hypertrophic scar (HTscar) and not to normotrophic scar (NTscar) tissue. Another drawback is that often only one time period after wounding is studied, while scar formation is a dynamic process over a period of several months. In this study, we compared the expression of genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and also macrophage infiltration in biopsies obtained before and up to 52 weeks after standard surgery in five patients who developed HTscar and six patients who developed NTscar. It was found that HTscar formation coincided with a prolonged decreased expression of inflammatory genes (TNFα, IL-1α, IL-1RN, CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, CXCR2, C3 and IL-10) and an extended increased expression of ECM-related genes (PLAU, Col3A1, TGFβ3). This coincided with a delayed but prolonged infiltration of macrophages (type 2) in HTscar tissue compared to NTscar tissue. These findings were supported by immunohistochemical localization of proteins coding for select genes named above. Our study emphasizes that human cutaneous wound healing is a dynamic process that is needed to be studied over a period of time rather than a single point of time. Taken together, our results suggest innate immune stimulatory therapies may be a better option for improving scar quality than the currently used anti-inflammatory scar therapies. PMID:25939875

  12. Evaluation of muscle metabolic activity in the lower limb of a transfemoral amputee using a prosthesis by using (18)F-FDG PET imaging--an application of PET imaging to rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Keiko; Yamaji, Takehiko; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Inoue, Tomio; Takagishi, Kenji; Endo, Keigo

    2004-07-01

    This study used FDG PET to evaluate the lower limb muscles metabolic activities of transfemoral amputees during walking with prostheses. As a preliminary study, FDG PET was applied for two normal adult volunteers to evaluate muscle activity in the lower extremities after gait exercise. This same method was applied for two amputee volunteers with prostheses. We found that FDG accumulated more in both gluteus medius muscles after gait exercise compared to other muscles in normal adult volunteers. In the skilled amputee volunteer, FDG uptake increased in the adductor and gluteus medius in the amputated side, while in the unskilled the adductor, gluteus maximus, and gluteus medius showed increased FDG uptake only in the normal side. This result suggests that basic metabolic changes such as an increase in oxidative metabolism and less reliance on glycolytic activity would occur as a result of skeletal muscle training in amputees. PMID:15183449

  13. Umbilical scarring in hatchling American alligators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiebe, J.J.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Buckland, J.E.; Anderson, S.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Umbilical scarring is the presence of excess scar tissue deposited between abdominal dermal layers at the site of yolk sac absorption in hatchling American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). The presence of this dermal condition plays a key evaluatory role in the overall quality and subsequent value for various commercial leather products. Despite the prevalent nature of this condition, currently the industry has no standardized protocols for its quantification. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between hatchling weight and age and incidence of umbilical scarring and to develop a quantifiable and reproducible technique to measure this dermal condition in hatchling American alligators. Thirty eggs from each of nine clutches were incubated in two separate incubators at different facilities and hatchling umbilical scarring was measured at 2 and 10 days of age using digital calipers. Umbilical area was calculated by multiplying umbilical length times umbilical width. There was a significant effect of both age and clutch on umbilical area (overall decline of 64%) by 10 days post-hatch. However, only five of the nine clutches utilized expressed a noticeable decline in the size of this dermal condition (range 67-74%). We had hypothesized that larger hatchlings would have larger umbilical areas and a slower rate of improvement in this condition during the first few days post-hatch. The differences in umbilical area and percent decline with age across clutches, however, were not associated with differences in initial hatchling weights. Within clutches and time periods, hatchling weight had no significant effect on the size and/or rate of decline of this condition. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Digital imaging analysis to assess scar phenotype.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian J; Nidey, Nichole; Miller, Steven F; Moreno Uribe, Lina M; Baum, Christian L; Hamilton, Grant S; Wehby, George L; Dunnwald, Martine

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the link between the genetic background of patients and wound clinical outcomes, it is critical to have a reliable method to assess the phenotypic characteristics of healed wounds. In this study, we present a novel imaging method that provides reproducible, sensitive, and unbiased assessments of postsurgical scarring. We used this approach to investigate the possibility that genetic variants in orofacial clefting genes are associated with suboptimal healing. Red-green-blue digital images of postsurgical scars of 68 patients, following unilateral cleft lip repair, were captured using the 3dMD imaging system. Morphometric and colorimetric data of repaired regions of the philtrum and upper lip were acquired using ImageJ software, and the unaffected contralateral regions were used as patient-specific controls. Repeatability of the method was high with intraclass correlation coefficient score > 0.8. This method detected a very significant difference in all three colors, and for all patients, between the scarred and the contralateral unaffected philtrum (p ranging from 1.20(-05) to 1.95(-14) ). Physicians' clinical outcome ratings from the same images showed high interobserver variability (overall Pearson coefficient = 0.49) as well as low correlation with digital image analysis results. Finally, we identified genetic variants in TGFB3 and ARHGAP29 associated with suboptimal healing outcome.

  15. Digital imaging analysis to assess scar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brian J.; Nidey, Nichole; Miller, Steven F.; Moreno, Lina M.; Baum, Christian L.; Hamilton, Grant S.; Wehby, George L.; Dunnwald, Martine

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the link between the genetic background of patients and wound clinical outcomes, it is critical to have a reliable method to assess the phenotypic characteristics of healed wounds. In this study, we present a novel imaging method that provides reproducible, sensitive and unbiased assessments of post-surgical scarring. We used this approach to investigate the possibility that genetic variants in orofacial clefting genes are associated with suboptimal healing. Red-green-blue (RGB) digital images of post-surgical scars of 68 patients, following unilateral cleft lip repair, were captured using the 3dMD image system. Morphometric and colorimetric data of repaired regions of the philtrum and upper lip were acquired using ImageJ software and the unaffected contralateral regions were used as patient-specific controls. Repeatability of the method was high with interclass correlation coefficient score > 0.8. This method detected a very significant difference in all three colors, and for all patients, between the scarred and the contralateral unaffected philtrum (P ranging from 1.20−05 to 1.95−14). Physicians’ clinical outcome ratings from the same images showed high inter-observer variability (overall Pearson coefficient = 0.49) as well as low correlation with digital image analysis results. Finally, we identified genetic variants in TGFB3 and ARHGAP29 associated with suboptimal healing outcome. PMID:24635173

  16. Influences of laryngeal afferent inputs on intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization in the cat.

    PubMed

    Shiba, K; Yoshida, K; Nakajima, Y; Konno, A

    1997-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the possible role of the laryngeal afferent inputs in the regulation of intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization. We studied the influences of airflow and/or pressure applied to the larynx on intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization in ketamine-anesthetized cats. Vocalization was induced by airflow applied to the upper airway, which was isolated from the lower airway, during pontine call site stimulation. When the upper airway was open to the atmosphere through the nostrils and mouth, the airflow increased not only the vocal fold adductor and tensor activities but also the duration of these activities. The adductor and tensor activities were increased suddenly at a critical subglottic pressure level equivalent to the subglottic pressure threshold for vocalization. These effects were significantly reduced by sectioning of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve or by lidocaine application to the laryngeal mucosa. Sustained pressure applied to the isolated upper airway, when the mouth and nostrils were occluded, did not affect adductor or tensor activities. These results indicate that the afferent inputs evoked by vocal fold stretching or vibration play an important role in the motor control of intralaryngeal and respiratory muscles during vocalization.

  17. Supersonic shear imaging provides a reliable measurement of resting muscle shear elastic modulus.

    PubMed

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Nordez, Antoine

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of shear elastic modulus measurements performed using supersonic shear imaging (SSI) in nine resting muscles (i.e. gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachioradialis, adductor pollicis obliquus and abductor digiti minimi) of different architectures and typologies. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to the intra-session reliability (n = 20), inter-day reliability (n = 21) and the inter-observer reliability (n = 16) experiments. Muscle shear elastic modulus ranged from 2.99 (gastrocnemius medialis) to 4.50 kPa (adductor digiti minimi and tibialis anterior). On the whole, very good reliability was observed, with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4.6% to 8%, except for the inter-operator reliability of adductor pollicis obliquus (CV = 11.5%). The intraclass correlation coefficients were good (0.871 ± 0.045 for the intra-session reliability, 0.815 ± 0.065 for the inter-day reliability and 0.709 ± 0.141 for the inter-observer reliability). Both the reliability and the ease of use of SSI make it a potentially interesting technique that would be of benefit to fundamental, applied and clinical research projects that need an accurate assessment of muscle mechanical properties.

  18. Effect of passive muscle stretching in osteoarthritis of the hip.

    PubMed

    Leivseth, G; Torstensson, J; Reikerås, O

    1989-01-01

    1. Twenty-five minute daily muscle stretching, perpendicular to the fibre direction of the adductor muscles without movement of the hip, was performed in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. 2. Before and after treatment hip abduction was measured and muscle biopsies were taken for analysis of fibre cross-sectional areas of type 1 and type 2 fibres as well as adenosine 5'-triphosphate, creatine phosphate and glycogen contents. 3. From the results it is concluded that passive muscle stretching leads to a significant increase in hip abduction of 8.3 degrees (P less than 0.05). There was also a significant increase of type 1 and type 2 fibre cross-sectional area and of glycogen content after the treatment period (P less than 0.05), but the concentrations of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and creatine phosphate did not change significantly.

  19. Progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a muscle magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhu; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Xiao, Jiangxi; Yuan, Yun

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the degree of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of 171 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mean age, 6.09 ± 2.30 years). Fatty infiltration was assigned using a modified Mercuri's scale 0-5 (normal-severe). The gluteus maximus and adductor magnus were affected in patients less than two years old, followed by the biceps femoris. Quadriceps and semimembranosus were first affected at the age of five to six years; the sartorius, gracilis and adductor longus remained apparently unaffected until seven years of age. Fatty infiltration of all the thigh muscles developed rapidly after seven years of age. The standard deviation of the fatty infiltration scores ranged from 2.41 to 4.87 before five years old, and from 6.84 to 11.66 between six and ten years old. This study provides evidence of highly variable degrees of fatty infiltration in children of different ages with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and indicates that fatty infiltration progresses more quickly after seven years of age. These findings may be beneficial for the selection of therapeutic regimens and the analysis of future clinical trials.

  20. Everyday listeners' impressions of speech produced by individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Kathleen F; Eadie, Tanya L; Yorkston, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) have reported that unfamiliar communication partners appear to judge them as sneaky, nervous or not intelligent, apparently based on the quality of their speech; however, there is minimal research into the actual everyday perspective of listening to ADSD speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impressions of listeners hearing ADSD speech for the first time using a mixed-methods design. Everyday listeners were interviewed following sessions in which they made ratings of ADSD speech. A semi-structured interview approach was used and data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Three major themes emerged: (1) everyday listeners make judgments about speakers with ADSD; (2) ADSD speech does not sound normal to everyday listeners; and (3) rating overall severity is difficult for everyday listeners. Participants described ADSD speech similarly to existing literature; however, some listeners inaccurately extrapolated speaker attributes based solely on speech samples. Listeners may draw erroneous conclusions about individuals with ADSD and these biases may affect the communicative success of these individuals. Results have implications for counseling individuals with ADSD, as well as the need for education and awareness about ADSD.

  1. Effects of step exercise on muscle damage and muscle Ca2+ content in men and women.

    PubMed

    Fredsted, Anne; Clausen, Torben; Overgaard, Kristian

    2008-07-01

    Eccentric exercise often produces severe muscle damage, whereas concentric exercise of a similar load elicits a minor degree of muscle damage. The cellular events initiating muscle damage are thought to include an increase in cytosolic Ca. It was hypothesized that eccentric muscle activity in humans would lead to a larger degree of cell damage and increased intracellular Ca accumulation in skeletal muscle than concentric activity would. Furthermore, possible differences between men and women in muscle damage were investigated following step exercise. Thirty-three healthy subjects (18 men and 15 women) participated in a 30-minute step exercise protocol involving concentric contractions with 1 leg and eccentric contractions with the other leg. Muscle Ca content, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and muscle enzymes in the plasma were measured. In a subgroup of the subjects, T2 relaxation time was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. No significant changes were found in muscle Ca content in vastus lateralis biopsy specimens in women or in men. Following step exercise, MVC decreased in both legs of both genders. The women had a significantly larger strength decrease in the eccentric leg than the men had on postexercise day 2 (p < 0.01). Plasma creatine kinase increased following step exercise, with a sevenfold higher response in women than in men on day 3 (p < 0.001). The women, but not the men, had an increase in T2 relaxation time in the eccentrically working adductor magnus muscle, peaking on day 3 (75%) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, step exercise does not lead to Ca accumulation in the vastus lateralis but does induce muscle damage preferentially in the eccentrically working muscles, considerably more in women than in men. This indicates that gender-specific step training programs may be warranted to avoid excessive muscle damage. PMID:18545196

  2. Muscle Injuries in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Delos, Demetris; Maak, Travis G.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Muscle injuries are extremely common in athletes and often produce pain, dysfunction, and the inability to return to practice or competition. Appropriate diagnosis and management can optimize recovery and minimize time to return to play. Evidence Acquisition: Contemporary papers, both basic science and clinical medicine, that investigate muscle healing were reviewed. A Medline/PubMed search inclusive of years 1948 to 2012 was performed. Results: Diagnosis can usually be made according to history and physical examination for most injuries. Although data are limited, initial conservative management emphasizing the RICE principles and immobilization of the extremity for several days for higher grade injuries are typically all that is required. Injection of corticosteroids may clinically enhance function after an acute muscle strain. Additional adjunctive treatments (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, platelet-rich plasma, and others) to enhance muscle healing and limit scar formation show promise but need additional data to better define their roles. Conclusion: Conservative treatment recommendations will typically lead to successful outcomes after a muscle injury. There is limited evidence to support most adjunctive treatments. PMID:24459552

  3. Early postoperative treatment of thyroidectomy scars using botulinum toxin: a split-scar, double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn Sung; Lee, Hyun Joo; Cho, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jeong Deuk; Kim, Hei Sung

    2014-01-01

    Operational scars, especially those located on the exposed parts of the body, can be distressing. Despite high demand for an early intervention to minimize surgical scars, there is yet no universal consensus on optimal treatment. A split-scar, double-blind randomized controlled trial was held to assess the safety and efficacy of early postoperative botulinum toxin type A (BTA) injection in surgical scars. A single session of treatment was performed where BTA was allocated to one half of the scar and 0.9% saline to the control half. Scars were assessed using the modified Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale (SBSES) with standardized photographs. Fifteen patients completed the study, and their data were analyzed. At 6 months' follow-up, a significant improvement in SBSES score was noted for the BTA-treated halves of the scars (p < 0.001), with minimal change on the saline-treated side (p = 0.785). The mean calculated difference in SBSES scores (final/initial) between the BTA-treated side and the saline-treated side was also significant (p < 0.001). Early postoperative BTA injection was safe and effective in modulating thyroidectomy scars and may be a promising option for scar prevention.

  4. Scar Management in the Pediatric and Adolescent Populations.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Andrew C; Totri, Christine R; Donelan, Matthias B; Shumaker, Peter R

    2016-02-01

    For most children and adolescents who have developed symptomatic scars, cosmetic concerns are only a portion of the motivation that drives them and their caregivers to obtain treatment. In addition to the potential for cosmetic disfigurement, scars may be associated with a number of physical comorbidities including hypertrichosis, dyshidrosis, tenderness/pain, pruritus, dysesthesias, and functional impairments such as contractures, all of which may be compounded by psychosocial factors. Although a plethora of options for treating scars exists, specific management guidelines for the pediatric and adolescent populations do not, and evidence must be extrapolated from adult studies. New modalities such as the scar team approach, autologous fat transfer, and ablative fractional laser resurfacing suggest a promising future for children who suffer symptomatically from their scars. In this state-of-the-art review, we summarize cutting-edge scar treatment strategies as they relate to the pediatric and adolescent populations. PMID:26743819

  5. Soil respiration from a boreal forest fire scar chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D.; Kaduk, J.; Balzter, H.; Wooster, M.; Mottram, G.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change predictions suggest that warming is to be most pronounced at high latitudes, with a possibility of boreal forest warming of 4-6°C in the next 50-100 years. This has lead to the suggestion that changes in boreal forest soil carbon (C) storage could significantly alter the global soil C balance. Fire is the most significant factor controlling succession in the boreal forest biome and it is possible that climate change will lead to an increase in fire regime e.g. size, frequency, intensity, or any combination of these. Our research is investigating C flux dynamics in a Canadian boreal forest jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) dominated fire scar chronosequence. Fieldwork is carried out at Sharpsand Creek experimental burn site, near Thessalon, Ontario, Canada, where there are numerous fire scars of different ages. In June 2006 soil respiration (Rs), soil temperature (Ts) and soil moisture (Ms) were measured on three replicate scars selected from plot last burnt in 1948 and 1991. Rs values were later adjusted for Ts using a Q10 value of 2. There was no significant difference in mean adjusted Rs between the two scar age categories. It is likely that sample sizes were not large enough here to detect significant differences. In May 2007, large areas of the field site burnt as a result of wildfire; this provided an opportunity to take a large number of Rs measurements from recently burnt fire scars, as well as from those areas unaffected by the burn. Rs, Ts and Ms measurements were taken from 1948, 1975 and 1991 scar age categories (three replicate scars each) that were burnt in 2007, as well as a 1948 and 1991 fire scar that was unaffected by the wildfire. Soil samples were taken from three locations per fire scar surveyed and analysed in the laboratory for total C content. There was a significant difference in mean Rs adjusted for Ts and Ms (Rsadj) between the three pre-2007 fire scar age categories 1948, 1975 and 1991, that were all burnt in 2007. Mean

  6. Dermal tunneling: a proposed treatment for depressed scars*

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Emerson Vasconcelos de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Depressed facial scars are still a challenge in medical literature, despite the wide range of proposed treatments. Subcision is a technique that is frequently performed to improve this type of lesions. This article proposes a new method to release depressed scars, reported and named by the author as dermal tunneling. This study presents a simple and didactic manner to perform this method. The results in 17 patients with facial scars were considered promising. Thus, the technique was deemed to be safe and reproducible.

  7. Uterine rupture following termination of pregnancy in a scarred uterus.

    PubMed

    Bika, O; Huned, D; Jha, S; Selby, K

    2014-02-01

    We present a series of two cases complicated by uterine rupture following termination of pregnancy (TOP) in the 1st and 2nd trimesters using misoprostol in women with caesarean section scar. Current literature and practise have also been reviewed on ruptured uterus in women with caesarean section scar undergoing TOP using misoprostol; the diagnosis of adherent placenta in the 1st and 2nd trimesters in women with previous caesarean uterine scar; and likely implications of a ruptured uterus.

  8. Analysis of state of vehicular scars on Arctic Tundra, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathram, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    Identification on ERTS images of severe vehicular scars in the northern Alaska tundra suggests that, if such scars are of an intensity or have spread to a dimension such that they can be resolved by ERTS sensors (20 meters), they can be identified and their state monitored by the use of ERTS images. Field review of the state of vehicular scars in the Umiat area indicates that all are revegetating at varying rates and are approaching a stable state.

  9. Scar Endometriosis: a Case Report with Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pratiksha; Gupta, Sangeeta

    2015-12-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis can sometimes occur in a previous surgical scar. Scar endometriosis is rare and difficult to diagnose. It mostly follows obstetrical and gynecological surgeries. This condition is often confused with other surgical conditions. We are reporting one case of scar endometriosis involving rectus sheath following cesarean section. The patient required wide surgical excision of the lesion. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare condition are being discussed.

  10. The effect of p38MAPK on cyclic stretch in human facial hypertrophic scar fibroblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Du, Qi-cui; Zhang, Dai-zun; Chen, Xiu-juan; Lan-Sun, Gui; Wu, Min; Xiao, Wen-lin

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS), the excessive deposition of scar tissue by fibroblasts, is one of the most common skin disorders. Fibroblasts derived from surgical scar tissue produce high levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). However, the molecular mechanisms for this phenomenon is poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of HTS and their potential therapeutic implications. Fibroblasts derived from skin HTS were cultured and characterized in vitro. The fibroblasts were synchronized and randomly assigned to two groups: cyclic stretch and cyclic stretch pre-treated with SB203580 (a p38MAPK inhibitor). Cyclic stretch at 10% strain was applied at a loading frequency of 10 cycles per minute (i.e. 5 seconds of tension and 5 seconds of relaxation) for 0 h, 6 h and 12 h. Cyclic stretch on HTS fibroblasts led to an increase in the expression of α-SMA and TGF-β1 mRNA and protein and the phosphorylation of p38MAPK. SB203580 reversed these effects and caused a decrease in matrix contraction. Furthermore, HTS fibroblast growth was partially blocked by p38MAPK inhibition. Therefore, the mechanism of cyclic stretch involves p38 MAPK, and its inhibition is suggested as a novel therapeutic strategy for HTS.

  11. [Participation of the primary motor cortex in programming of muscle activity during catching of falling object].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Lipshits, M I

    2011-01-01

    Object fell into the cup that sitting subject held between thumb and index fingers. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex was performed early before and during anticipatory grip force increasing. Comparison of current EMG activity of adductor pollicis brevis and first dorsal interosseous muscles and responses of these muscles on TMS showed that responses were increased before the raising of muscle activity. From the other side only slight augmentation of responses was observed during subsequent strong muscle activation. It is assumed that the increasing of the TMS responses that occurred before the initiation of muscle activity reflects the enhancement ofthe motor cortex excitability associated to specific processes related to the motor cortex participation in programming of the muscles activities. PMID:22117465

  12. Anti-Fibrotic Actions of Interleukin-10 against Hypertrophic Scarring by Activation of PI3K/AKT and STAT3 Signaling Pathways in Scar-Forming Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weixia; Bai, Xiaozhi; Fang, Xiaobing; Hu, Xiaolong; Wang, Yaojun; Wang, Hongtao; Zheng, Zhao; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai; Zhu, Xiongxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background The hypertrophic scar (HS) is a serious fibrotic skin condition and a major clinical problem. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been identified as a prospective scar-improving compound based on preclinical trials. Our previous work showed that IL-10 has anti-fibrotic effects in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated fibroblasts, as well as potential therapeutic benefits for the prevention and reduction of scar formation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying IL-10-mediated anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement actions. Objective To explore the expression of the IL-10 receptor in human HS tissue and primary HS fibroblasts (HSFs), and the molecular mechanisms contributing to the anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement capabilities of IL-10. Methods Expression of the IL-10 receptor was assessed in HS tissue and HSFs by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Primary HSFs were treated with IL-10, a specific phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) or a function-blocking antibody against the IL-10 receptor (IL-10RB). Next, Western blot analysis was used to evaluate changes in the phosphorylation status of AKT and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 3, as well as the expression levels of fibrosis-related proteins. Results HS tissue and primary HSFs were characterized by expression of the IL-10 receptor and by high expression of fibrotic markers relative to normal controls. Primary HSFs expressed the IL-10 receptor, while IL-10 induced AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation in these cells. In addition, LY294002 blocked AKT and STAT phosphorylation, and also up-regulated expression levels of type I and type III collagen (Col 1 and Col 3) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in IL-10-treated cells. Similarly, IL-10RB reduced STAT3/AKT phosphorylation and blocked the IL-10-mediated mitigation of fibrosis in HSFs. Conclusion IL-10 apparently inhibits

  13. [How I treat...fibroproliferative scars].

    PubMed

    Smeets, L; Grandjean, F X; Nickers, P; Deleuze, J P; Schmitz, C; Heymans, O

    2006-01-01

    Following a skin injury like burn, surgery or a trauma, fibroproliferatives scars are responsible of cosmetic, psychologic and symptomatic disorders. Keloids are benign and occur secondary to an imbalance between the synthesis of extracellular matrix and its degradation. There is a lot of therapeutic modalities available. Despite this, recurrence and sometimes increasing lesions are the major complications. Surgery with adjuvant therapy like steroids injections, radiotherapy, silicone materials seems today the best therapeutic choice. A best physiopatholgy's comprehension is at the base of new treatments, but their efficacity still need to be demonstrate in larger studies.

  14. Repair of acne scars with Dermicol-P35.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin C

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a prevalent skin condition that can cause disfiguring residual scarring. While the complete removal of acne scars is unlikely, several treatments exist that can improve the appearance of acne scars. Dermal fillers offer a simple, nonsurgical corrective procedure that can provide improved skin texture. Dermicol-P35 (Evolence [Ortho Dermatologics, Skillman, NJ]) is a new, highly purified, ribose cross-linked, porcine collagen-based dermal filler that has demonstrated low immunogenicity and results that persist for at least 12 months. This article presents the aesthetic results of a male patient treated with Dermicol-P35 for severe facial acne scars.

  15. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Sarah; Heath, Rebecca; Shah, Mamta

    2012-01-01

    Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options. PMID:23162241

  16. Repair of acne scars with Dermicol-P35.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin C

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a prevalent skin condition that can cause disfiguring residual scarring. While the complete removal of acne scars is unlikely, several treatments exist that can improve the appearance of acne scars. Dermal fillers offer a simple, nonsurgical corrective procedure that can provide improved skin texture. Dermicol-P35 (Evolence [Ortho Dermatologics, Skillman, NJ]) is a new, highly purified, ribose cross-linked, porcine collagen-based dermal filler that has demonstrated low immunogenicity and results that persist for at least 12 months. This article presents the aesthetic results of a male patient treated with Dermicol-P35 for severe facial acne scars. PMID:19577176

  17. Interactive visualization for scar transmurality in cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiml, Sabrina; Toth, Daniel; Panayiotou, Maria; Fahn, Bernhard; Karim, Rashed; Behar, Jonathan M.; Rinaldi, Christopher A.; Razavi, Reza; Rhode, Kawal S.; Brost, Alexander; Mountney, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Heart failure is a serious disease affecting about 23 million people worldwide. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is used to treat patients suffering from symptomatic heart failure. However, 30% to 50% of patients have limited clinical benefit. One of the main causes is suboptimal placement of the left ventricular lead. Pacing in areas of myocardial scar correlates with poor clinical outcomes. Therefore precise knowledge of the individual patient's scar characteristics is critical for delivering tailored treatments capable of improving response rates. Current research methods for scar assessment either map information to an alternative non-anatomical coordinate system or they use the image coordinate system but lose critical information about scar extent and scar distribution. This paper proposes two interactive methods for visualizing relevant scar information. A 2-D slice based approach with a scar mask overlaid on a 16 segment heart model and a 3-D layered mesh visualization which allows physicians to scroll through layers of scar from endocardium to epicardium. These complementary methods enable physicians to evaluate scar location and transmurality during planning and guidance. Six physicians evaluated the proposed system by identifying target regions for lead placement. With the proposed method more target regions could be identified.

  18. [Hypertrophic scars and keloids: which therapeutic options today?].

    PubMed

    Gailloud-Matthieu, M C; Raffoul, W; Egloff, D V

    1999-09-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids are a hyperproliferative response of connective tissue to trauma. Histologically the difference between the two is that keloids invade normal tissue whereas hypertrophic scars remain confined within the original wound. A variety of treatments have been proposed, which we will review according to their efficiency. Prevention of pathological scarring will also be discussed, and we will present our current attitude to treat these scars. As a surgical treatment for keloids, we have been using the intralesional technique which we think gives better results.

  19. Suppression of Thyroarytenoid Muscle Responses During Repeated Air Pressure Stimulation of the Laryngeal Mucosa in Awake Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Pamela Reed; Poletto, Christopher J.; Mann, Eric A.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Repeated stimulation of the laryngeal mucosa occurs during speech. Single stimuli, however, can elicit laryngeal adductor responses (LAR). Our hypothesis was that the LAR to repeated rapid air pressure stimuli are centrally suppressed in humans. Hooked wire electrodes were inserted into the thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles bilaterally and into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle on one side. Pairs of air puff stimuli were presented to the mucosa over the arytenoids at pressure levels three times threshold with inter-stimulus intervals from 250 to 5000 ms. Bilateral thyroarytenoid responses occurred at around 150 ms to over 70% of initial stimuli. With repeated presentation at intervals of 2 seconds or less, the percent occurrence decreased to less than 40% and response amplitudes were reduced by 50%. Central suppression of adductor responses to repeated air puff stimuli may allow speakers to produce voice without eliciting reflexive spasms which could disrupt speech. PMID:15895780

  20. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  1. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  2. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy: disuse and neurogenic. Disuse atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough . This type of atrophy can often be ...

  3. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the removal of a small piece of muscle tissue for examination. ... dystrophy Myopathic changes (destruction of the muscle) Necrosis (tissue death) of muscle Necrotizing vasculitis Traumatic muscle damage Polymyositis Additional conditions ...

  4. Vocal outcome after endoscopic thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sachin; Remacle, Marc; Mishra, Prasun; Desai, Vrushali

    2014-12-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) remains one of the most difficult of laryngeal pathologies to treat. With limited role for speech therapy, various surgical modalities have been tried with various success rates. The objective of the study is to report the results of vocal outcome after thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy in patients of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ASD). 15 patients of ASD were selected. GRBAS, and voice handicap index (VHI) were used for perceptual evaluation of voice. Thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy was performed by vaporizing the muscular layer of the vocal fold with CO2 laser, at an intensity of 6 W with 1.2 mm diameter in scanner mode. Voice analysis was repeated at 12, 24 and 48 months follow-up. Preoperative GRBAS scores and VHI score of all the patients were poor. At 12 months 12/15 (80 %) patients having strain score of 0. There was marked improvement in VHI scores at 6 months. 10/15 (67 %) patients have been followed up for 24 months. 5/10 (50 %) patients have strain (S) value of 0. VHI scoring of 5/10 (50 %) patients was <30. Two of the four patients completed 48 months follow-up had a strain (S) value of 0, one patient has strain value of 1 and one patient had strain value of 2. 2/4 patients had VHI score of <30; one patient had that of 40. Trans-oral CO2 laser thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy shows significant long-term improvement in voice quality in terms of reduced speech brakes, effort and strain in voice.

  5. New Insights into Muscle Function during Pivot Feeding in Seahorses

    PubMed Central

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Dries, Billy; Herrel, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses, pipefish and their syngnathiform relatives are considered unique amongst fishes in using elastic recoil of post-cranial tendons to pivot the head extremely quickly towards small crustacean prey. It is known that pipefish activate the epaxial muscles for a considerable time before striking, at which rotations of the head and the hyoid are temporarily prevented to allow energy storage in the epaxial tendons. Here, we studied the motor control of this system in seahorses using electromyographic recordings of the epaxial muscles and the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscles with simultaneous high-speed video recordings of prey capture. In addition we present the results from a stimulation experiment including the muscle hypothesised to be responsible for the locking and triggering of pivot feeding in seahorses (m. adductor arcus palatini). Our data confirmed that the epaxial pre-activation pattern observed previously for pipefish also occurs in seahorses. Similar to the epaxials, the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscle complex shows prolonged anticipatory activity. Although a considerable variation in displacements of the mouth via head rotation could be observed, it could not be demonstrated that seahorses have control over strike distance. In addition, we could not identify the source of the kinematic variability in the activation patterns of the associated muscles. Finally, the stimulation experiment supported the previously hypothesized role of the m. adductor arcus palatini as the trigger in this elastic recoil system. Our results show that pre-stressing of both the head elevators and the hyoid retractors is taking place. As pre-activation of the main muscles involved in pivot feeding has now been demonstrated for both seahorses and pipefish, this is probably a generalized trait of Syngnathidae. PMID:25271759

  6. Fractal heterogeneity in minimal matrix models of scars modulates stiff-niche stem-cell responses via nuclear exit of a mechanorepressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingal, P. C. Dave P.; Bradshaw, Andrew M.; Cho, Sangkyun; Raab, Matthew; Buxboim, Amnon; Swift, Joe; Discher, Dennis E.

    2015-09-01

    Scarring is a long-lasting problem in higher animals, and reductionist approaches could aid in developing treatments. Here, we show that copolymerization of collagen I with polyacrylamide produces minimal matrix models of scars (MMMS), in which fractal-fibre bundles segregate heterogeneously to the hydrogel subsurface. Matrix stiffens locally--as in scars--while allowing separate control over adhesive-ligand density. The MMMS elicits scar-like phenotypes from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs): cells spread and polarize quickly, increasing nucleoskeletal lamin-A yet expressing the `scar marker' smooth muscle actin (SMA) more slowly. Surprisingly, expression responses to MMMS exhibit less cell-to-cell noise than homogeneously stiff gels. Such differences from bulk-average responses arise because a strong SMA repressor, NKX2.5, slowly exits the nucleus on rigid matrices. NKX2.5 overexpression overrides rigid phenotypes, inhibiting SMA and cell spreading, whereas cytoplasm-localized NKX2.5 mutants degrade in well-spread cells. MSCs thus form a `mechanical memory' of rigidity by progressively suppressing NKX2.5, thereby elevating SMA in a scar-like state.

  7. Fractal heterogeneity in minimal matrix models of scars modulates stiff-niche stem-cell responses via the nuclear exit of a mechanorepressor

    PubMed Central

    P. Dingal, P. C. Dave; Bradshaw, Andrew M.; Cho, Sangkyun; Raab, Matthew; Buxboim, Amnon; Swift, Joe; Discher, Dennis E.

    2015-01-01

    Scarring is a long-lasting problem in higher animals, and reductionist approaches could aid in developing treatments. Here, we show that co-polymerization of collagen-I with polyacrylamide produces minimal matrix models of scars (MMMS), in which fractal-fiber bundles segregate heterogeneously to the hydrogel subsurface. Matrix stiffens locally – as in scars – while allowing separate control over adhesive-ligand density. The MMMS elicits scar-like phenotypes from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs): cells spread and polarize quickly, increasing nucleoskeletal lamin-A yet expressing the ‘scar marker’, smooth muscle actin (SMA) more slowly. Surprisingly, expression responses to MMMS exhibit less cell-to-cell noise than homogeneously stiff gels. Such differences from bulk-average responses arise because a strong SMA repressor, NKX2.5, slowly exits the nucleus on rigid matrices. NKX2.5 overexpression overrides rigid phenotypes, inhibiting SMA and cell spreading, while cytoplasm-localized NKX2.5 mutants degrade in well-spread cells. MSCs thus form a ‘mechanical memory’ of rigidity by progressively suppressing NKX2.5, thereby elevating SMA in a scar-like state. PMID:26168347

  8. miR-145 Is a Promising Therapeutic Target to Prevent Cornea Scarring.

    PubMed

    Ratuszny, Dominica; Gras, Christiane; Bajor, Anna; Börger, Ann-Kathrin; Pielen, Amelie; Börgel, Martin; Framme, Carsten; Blasczyk, Rainer; Figueiredo, Constança

    2015-10-01

    Corneal scarring is an expected outcome of corneal injury or infection and is one of the major causes for visual loss. The formation of light-scattering myofibroblasts is thought to be the underlying cause of corneal haze formation. Recently, microRNA (miRNA) gene therapies have been proposed as novel approach for complex processes such as fibrosis and scarring. In this study, we focused on the role of miR-145 in corneal myofibroblast differentiation and function. Analysis of human corneal scar tissue and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced corneal myofibroblasts showed a 13- and 4-fold increase of miR-145, respectively, compared with healthy cornea and nonstimulated fibroblasts (p<0.01). Furthermore, myofibroblasts showed an increase in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and a decreased expression of Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). These results indicated that TGF-β1 increases miR-145 expression, which indirectly induces α-SMA expression via downregulation of KLF4, a known negative regulator of α-SMA. Consistently, miR-145 silencing in corneal myofibroblasts using a specific antimiR resulted in increased KLF4 and strongly decreased α-SMA expression. In addition, miR-145 inhibition also significantly decreased myofibroblast contractility, migratory capacity, and TGF-β1 secretion, which are all thought to contribute to corneal scarring. Hence, miR-145 plays an important role in TGF-β1-stimulated corneal myofibroblast differentiation and activation, which can be reversed by miR-145 silencing. Therefore, we suggest miR-145 as a promising therapeutic target for miRNA-based gene therapy to prevent or treat visual loss caused by corneal fibrosis.

  9. Autologous Graft Thickness Affects Scar Contraction and Quality in a Porcine Excisional Wound Model

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Lloyd F.; Wu, Jesse C.; Tucker, David I.; Chan, Maren M.; Christy, Robert J.; Hale, Robert G.; Leung, Kai P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Texture, color, and durability are important characteristics to consider for skin replacement in conspicuous and/or mobile regions of the body such as the face, neck, and hands. Although autograft thickness is a known determinant of skin quality, few studies have correlated the subjective and objective characters of skin graft healing with their associated morphologic and cellular profiles. Defining these relationships may help guide development and evaluation of future skin replacement strategies. Methods: Six-centimeter-diameter full-thickness wounds were created on the back of female Yorkshire pigs and covered by autografts of variable thicknesses. Skin quality was assessed on day 120 using an observer scar assessment score and objective determinations for scar contraction, erythema, pigmentation, and surface irregularities. Histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical assessments were performed. Results: Thick grafts demonstrated lower observer scar assessment score (better quality) and decreased erythema, pigmentation, and surface irregularities. Histologically, thin grafts resulted in scar-like collagen proliferation while thick grafts preserves the dermal architecture. Increased vascularity and prolonged and increased cellular infiltration were observed among thin grafts. In addition, thin grafts contained predominately dense collagen fibers, whereas thick grafts had loosely arranged collagen. α-Smooth muscle actin staining for myofibroblasts was observed earlier and persisted longer among thinner grafts. Conclusions: Graft thickness is an important determinant of skin quality. High-quality skin replacements are associated with preserved collagen architecture, decreased neovascularization, and decreased inflammatory cellular infiltration. This model, using autologous skin as a metric of quality, may give a more informative analysis of emerging skin replacement strategies. PMID:26301157

  10. The effects of lower extremity muscle activation and passive range of motion on single leg squat performance.

    PubMed

    Mauntel, Timothy C; Begalle, Rebecca L; Cram, Tyler R; Frank, Barnett S; Hirth, Christopher J; Blackburn, Troy; Padua, Darin A

    2013-07-01

    Knee valgus is a potential risk factor for lower extremity (LE) injuries. Clinical movement screenings and passive range of motion (PROM) measurements may help identify neuromuscular patterns, which contribute to knee valgus. The purpose of this study was to compare LE muscle activation and PROM between subjects who display visual medial knee displacement (MKD) during a single leg squat (SLS) and those who do not. We hypothesized that muscular activation and PROM would differ between the groups. Forty physically active adults (20 controls, 20 MKDs) participated in this study. Subjects completed 10 LE PROM assessments and performed 5 SLS trials while electromyography (EMG) data were collected from 8 LE muscles. Three separate multivariate analysis of variance were used to identify group differences in EMG data, muscle coactivation, and PROM. Results during the SLS indicated hip coactivation ratios revealed smaller gluteus medius to hip adductor (GMed:Hip Add) (p = 0.028) and gluteus maximus to hip adductor (GMax:Hip Add) coactivation ratios (p = 0.007) compared with the control group. Also, the MKD group displayed significantly less passive ankle dorsiflexion with the knee extended (p = 0.047) and flexed (p = 0.034), and greater talar glide motion (p = 0.012). The findings of this study indicate that MKD during a SLS seems to be influenced by decreased coactivation of the gluteal to the hip adductor muscles and restricted dorsiflexion. Therefore, conditioning, rehabilitation, and injury prevention programs should focus on decreasing hip adductor activity, increasing hip abductor and external rotator activity, and increasing ankle dorsiflexion in hopes to decrease the incidence of these injuries. PMID:23096063

  11. Latest Mississippian (Namurian A) nonmarine ostracodes from West Virginia and Virginia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.

    1985-01-01

    Nonmarine ostracodes occur as partly exfoliated carapaces and internal molds at the base of the Bramwell Member of the Bluestone Formation, which represents the uppermost Mississippian (Namurian A), stratigraphic subdivision in West Virginia and Virginia. These specimens are important in that they permit the determination of a variety of adductor-muscle-attachment scars. The adductor-muscle-attachment scar patterns illustrated herein for the first time are the oldest recorded in North America for nonmarine ostracodes. The new family Carbonitidae and superfamily Carbonitacea are established on the basis of the pattern of adductor-muscle-attachment scars. The following nonmarine genera in this unit are illustrated in open nomenclature: Carbonita Strand, 1928; Whipplella? Holland, 1934; Gutschickia Scott, 1944; Pruvostina? Scott and Summerson, 1943; Darwinula Brady and Robertson, 1885; and two steinkerns of geisinid ostracodes, 'Pseudo-ornamentation' on molds is illustrated.-Author

  12. Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser in Treatment of Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Andrej; Pljakovska, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scars appear as a result of skin damage during the process of the skin healing. There are two types of acne scars, depending on whether there is a loss or accumulation of collagen: atrophic and hypertrophic. In 80-90% it comes to scars with loss of collagen compared to smaller number of hypertrophic scars and keloids. AIM: The aim of the study was to determine efficiency and safety of fractional carbon dioxide laser in the treatment of acne scars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in Acibadem Sistina Clinical Hospital, Skopje at the Department of Dermatovenerology, with a total of 40 patients treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser (Lutronic eCO2). The study included patients with residual acne scars of a different type. RESULTS: Comedogenic and papular acne in our material were proportionately presented in 50% of cases, while the other half were the more severe clinical forms of acne - pustular inflammatory acne and nodulocystic acne that leave residual lesions in the form of second, third and fourth grade of scars. CONCLUSION: The experiences of our work confirm the world experiences that the best result with this method is achieved in dotted ice pick or V-shaped acne scars. PMID:27275326

  13. A case of spontaneous tubal pregnancy with caesarean scar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Shen, Yue-Ying; Zhao, Yu-Qing; Lin, Ru; Fang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Tubal pregnancy with caesarean scar pregnancy is rare. Early, accurate diagnosis and treatment for this kind of ectopic pregnancy can lead to a decrease of maternal morbidity and mortality. Here, we report a rare case of spontaneous tubal pregnancy co-existing with caesarean scar pregnancy. After timely emergency laparoscopy and curettage, the patient was cured.

  14. Topical modalities for treatment and prevention of postsurgical hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Foo, Chong Wee; Tristani-Firouzi, Payam

    2011-08-01

    There is no universally accepted treatment regimen and no evidence-based literature to guide management of hypertrophic scars. This article summarizes the existing literature regarding topical treatments such as silicone gel sheeting and ointment, onion extract, vitamin E, pressure garment therapy, massage therapy, and topical imiquimod 5% cream in the management of hypertrophic scars.

  15. Topical modalities for treatment and prevention of postsurgical hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Foo, Chong Wee; Tristani-Firouzi, Payam

    2011-08-01

    There is no universally accepted treatment regimen and no evidence-based literature to guide management of hypertrophic scars. This article summarizes the existing literature regarding topical treatments such as silicone gel sheeting and ointment, onion extract, vitamin E, pressure garment therapy, massage therapy, and topical imiquimod 5% cream in the management of hypertrophic scars. PMID:21856542

  16. Endostatin inhibits hypertrophic scarring in a rabbit ear model*

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hai-tao; Hu, Hang; Li, Yuan; Jiang, Hong-fei; Hu, Xin-lei; Han, Chun-mao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to use an in vivo rabbit ear scar model to investigate the efficacy of systemic administration of endostatin in inhibiting scar formation. Methods: Eight male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to two groups. Scar model was established by making six full skin defect wounds in each ear. For the intervention group, intraperitoneal injection of endostatin was performed each day after the wound healed (about 15 d post wounding). For the control group, equal volume of saline was injected. Thickness of scars in each group was measured by sliding caliper and the scar microcirculatory perfusion was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry on Days 15, 21, 28, and 35 post wounding. Rabbits were euthanatized and their scars were harvested for histological and proteomic analyses on Day 35 post wounding. Results: Macroscopically, scars of the control group were thicker than those of the intervention group. Significant differences between the two groups were observed on Days 21 and 35 (p<0.05). Scar thickness, measured by scar elevation index (SEI) at Day 35 post wounding, was significantly reduced in the intervention group (1.09±0.19) compared with the controls (1.36±0.28). Microvessel density (MVD) observed in the intervention group (1.73±0.94) was significantly lower than that of the control group (5.63±1.78) on Day 35. The distribution of collagen fibers in scars treated with endostatin was relatively regular, while collagen fibers in untreated controls were thicker and showed disordered alignment. Western blot analysis showed that the expressions of type I collagen and Bcl-2 were depressed by injection of endostatin. Conclusions: Our results from the rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model indicate that systemic application of endostatin could inhibit local hypertrophic scar formation, possibly through reducing scar vascularization and angiogenesis. Our results indicated that endostatin may promote the apoptosis of

  17. Causes of shell scarring in dog cockles Glycymeris glycymeris L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, K.; Richardson, C. A.; Kaiser, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    Experimental studies were conducted to investigate the possible causes of shell scars in the bivalve mollusc Glycymeris glycymeris, including fishing disturbance, predator attacks and burrowing activity. Individuals collected from an area of sea bed experimentally fished once by a scallop dredge 12 months previously did not display significantly more shell scars than those collected before fishing or from a control area. In the laboratory, Glycymeris offered to the predatory crab Cancer pagurus had a significantly higher incidence of scars seen in acetate peels of shell cross-sections than control shells. However, scarring on Glycymeris excavated from the sediment and left to reburrow was not significantly different from those in an undisturbed control group. Currently, it is not possible in G. glycymeris to differentiate between scars caused by fishing disturbance or natural disturbances, either on the grounds of visual appearance or position of damage.

  18. Two pregnancy cases of uterine scar dehiscence after laparoscopic myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Song, Soo-Youn; Yoo, Hee-Jun; Kang, Byung-Hun; Ko, Young-Bok; Lee, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Mina

    2015-11-01

    Uterine scar dehiscence following laparoscopic myomectomy rarely occurs but can compromise both maternal and fetal well-being in subsequent pregnancy. We here present two cases of pregnancy complicated by preterm birth that resulted from uterine scar dehiscence following laparoscopic myomectomy. First case was a nulligravida who had scar dehiscence at 26 weeks of gestation after having a laparoscopic myomectomy 3 months prior to conception. Two weeks later, we observed her fetal leg protruding through the defect. The other case was a primigravida with a history of prior cesarean delivery, whose sonography revealed myomectomy scar dehiscence at 31 weeks of gestation. Within a few hours after observing, the patient complained of abdominal pain that was aggravating as fetal leg protruded through the defect. In both cases, babies were born by emergency cesarean section. Conservative management can be one of treatment options for myomectomy scar dehiscence in preterm pregnancy. However, clinicians should always be aware of the possibility of obstetric emergencies. PMID:26623418

  19. Drosophila Kette coordinates myoblast junction dissolution and the ratio of Scar-to-WASp during myoblast fusion.

    PubMed

    Hamp, Julia; Löwer, Andreas; Dottermusch-Heidel, Christine; Beck, Lothar; Moussian, Bernard; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Önel, Susanne-Filiz

    2016-09-15

    The fusion of founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs) is crucial for muscle formation in Drosophila Characteristic events of myoblast fusion include the recognition and adhesion of myoblasts, and the formation of branched F-actin by the Arp2/3 complex at the site of cell-cell contact. At the ultrastructural level, these events are reflected by the appearance of finger-like protrusions and electron-dense plaques that appear prior to fusion. Severe defects in myoblast fusion are caused by the loss of Kette (a homolog of Nap1 and Hem-2, also known as NCKAP1 and NCKAP1L, respectively), a member of the regulatory complex formed by Scar or WAVE proteins (represented by the single protein, Scar, in flies). kette mutants form finger-like protrusions, but the electron-dense plaques are extended. Here, we show that the electron-dense plaques in wild-type and kette mutant myoblasts resemble other electron-dense structures that are known to function as cellular junctions. Furthermore, analysis of double mutants and attempts to rescue the kette mutant phenotype with N-cadherin, wasp and genes of members of the regulatory Scar complex revealed that Kette has two functions during myoblast fusion. First, Kette controls the dissolution of electron-dense plaques. Second, Kette controls the ratio of the Arp2/3 activators Scar and WASp in FCMs. PMID:27521427

  20. Three-dimensional graphene foams loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing with reduced scarring.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhonghua; Wang, Haiqin; Yang, Bo; Sun, Yukai; Huo, Ran

    2015-12-01

    The regeneration of functional skin remains elusive, due to poor engraftment, deficient vascularization, and excessive scar formation. Aiming to overcome these issues, the present study proposed the combination of a three-dimensional graphene foam (GF) scaffold loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to improve skin wound healing. The GFs demonstrated good biocompatibility and promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. Meanwhile, the GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in animal model. The dermis formed in the presence of the GF structure loaded with MSCs was thicker and possessed a more complex structure at day 14 post-surgery. The transplanted MSCs correlated with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which may lead to neo-vascularization. Additionally, an anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of the 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs, as evidenced by a downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) together with an increase of TGF-β3. Altogether, the GF scaffold could guide the wound healing process with reduced scarring, and the MSCs were crucial to enhance vascularization and provided a better quality neo-skin. The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs possesses necessary bioactive cues to improve wound healing with reduced scarring, which may be of great clinical significance for skin wound healing.

  1. Drosophila Kette coordinates myoblast junction dissolution and the ratio of Scar-to-WASp during myoblast fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hamp, Julia; Löwer, Andreas; Dottermusch-Heidel, Christine; Beck, Lothar; Moussian, Bernard; Flötenmeyer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The fusion of founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs) is crucial for muscle formation in Drosophila. Characteristic events of myoblast fusion include the recognition and adhesion of myoblasts, and the formation of branched F-actin by the Arp2/3 complex at the site of cell–cell contact. At the ultrastructural level, these events are reflected by the appearance of finger-like protrusions and electron-dense plaques that appear prior to fusion. Severe defects in myoblast fusion are caused by the loss of Kette (a homolog of Nap1 and Hem-2, also known as NCKAP1 and NCKAP1L, respectively), a member of the regulatory complex formed by Scar or WAVE proteins (represented by the single protein, Scar, in flies). kette mutants form finger-like protrusions, but the electron-dense plaques are extended. Here, we show that the electron-dense plaques in wild-type and kette mutant myoblasts resemble other electron-dense structures that are known to function as cellular junctions. Furthermore, analysis of double mutants and attempts to rescue the kette mutant phenotype with N-cadherin, wasp and genes of members of the regulatory Scar complex revealed that Kette has two functions during myoblast fusion. First, Kette controls the dissolution of electron-dense plaques. Second, Kette controls the ratio of the Arp2/3 activators Scar and WASp in FCMs. PMID:27521427

  2. Drosophila Kette coordinates myoblast junction dissolution and the ratio of Scar-to-WASp during myoblast fusion.

    PubMed

    Hamp, Julia; Löwer, Andreas; Dottermusch-Heidel, Christine; Beck, Lothar; Moussian, Bernard; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Önel, Susanne-Filiz

    2016-09-15

    The fusion of founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs) is crucial for muscle formation in Drosophila Characteristic events of myoblast fusion include the recognition and adhesion of myoblasts, and the formation of branched F-actin by the Arp2/3 complex at the site of cell-cell contact. At the ultrastructural level, these events are reflected by the appearance of finger-like protrusions and electron-dense plaques that appear prior to fusion. Severe defects in myoblast fusion are caused by the loss of Kette (a homolog of Nap1 and Hem-2, also known as NCKAP1 and NCKAP1L, respectively), a member of the regulatory complex formed by Scar or WAVE proteins (represented by the single protein, Scar, in flies). kette mutants form finger-like protrusions, but the electron-dense plaques are extended. Here, we show that the electron-dense plaques in wild-type and kette mutant myoblasts resemble other electron-dense structures that are known to function as cellular junctions. Furthermore, analysis of double mutants and attempts to rescue the kette mutant phenotype with N-cadherin, wasp and genes of members of the regulatory Scar complex revealed that Kette has two functions during myoblast fusion. First, Kette controls the dissolution of electron-dense plaques. Second, Kette controls the ratio of the Arp2/3 activators Scar and WASp in FCMs.

  3. The molecular basis of hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhensen; Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are caused by dermal injuries such as trauma and burns to the deep dermis, which are red, raised, itchy and painful. They can cause cosmetic disfigurement or contractures if craniofacial areas or mobile region of the skin are affected. Abnormal wound healing with more extracellular matrix deposition than degradation will result in HTS formation. This review will introduce the physiology of wound healing, dermal HTS formation, treatment and difference with keloids in the skin, and it also review the current advance of molecular basis of HTS including the involvement of cytokines, growth factors, and macrophages via chemokine pathway, to bring insights for future prevention and treatment of HTS. PMID:27574672

  4. Treatment Efficacy of Electromyography versus Fiberscopy-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injection in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Patients: A Prospective Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Wook; Park, Jae Hong; Park, Ki Nam; Lee, Seung Won

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This study prospectively evaluates and compares the treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin injection under electromyography guidance (EMG group) and percutaneous botulinum toxin injection under flexible fiberscopic guidance (fiberscopy group). Methods. Thirty patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), who had never received treatment, were randomly allocated into EMG- or fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injections between March 2008 and February 2010. We assessed acoustic and aerodynamic voice parameters, and the voice handicap index (VHI) before injection and at 1, 3, and 6 months after injection. Results. The mean total dosage of botulinum toxin was similar for both groups: 1.7 ± 0.5 U for the EMG group and 1.8 ± 0.4 U for the fiberscopy group (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in either the duration of effectiveness or complications such as breathy voice and aspiration. Conclusion. Botulinum toxin injection under fiberscopic guidance is a viable alternative to EMG-guided botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia when EMG equipment is unavailable. PMID:25383369

  5. Entrapment of the saphenous nerve at the adductor canal affecting the infrapatellar branch – a report on two cases

    PubMed Central

    Porr, Jason; Chrobak, Karen; Muir, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To present 2 cases of entrapment of the saphenous nerve at the adductor canal affecting the infrapatellar branch, and to provide insight into the utilization of nerve tension testing for the diagnosis of nerve entrapments in a clinical setting. Rationale: Saphenous nerve entrapments are a very rare condition within today’s body of literature, and the diagnosis remains controversial. Clinical Features: Two cases of chronic knee pain that were unresponsive to previous treatment. The patients were diagnosed with an entrapment of the saphenous nerve at the adductor canal affecting the infrapatellar branch using nerve tension techniques along with a full clinical examination. Intervention and Outcome: Manual therapy and rehabilitation programs were initiated including soft tissue therapy, nerve gliding techniques and gait retraining which resulted in 90% improvement in one case and complete resolution of symptoms in the second. Conclusion: Nerve tension testing may prove to be an aid in the diagnosis of saphenous nerve entrapments within a clinical setting in order to decrease time to diagnosis and proper treatment. PMID:24302782

  6. Immediate effect of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on hip adductor flexibility in female ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Ercole C; Souza, Andréa C; Mello, Mônica L; Bacurau, Reury F P; Cabral, Leonardo F; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the immediate effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on the flexibility of hip adductors in female ballet dancers. Forty-five subjects (age: 28.5 ± 8.0 years; minimum two years of ballet training) were randomly assigned to three groups: PNF (contract-release technique), Static, and Control. Subjects in the PNF and Static groups performed four sets of 30 second stretching with an interval of 30 seconds between sets. The control group stayed at rest for the same time spent by the PNF and Static groups during the stretching sessions. Maximal range of motion was measured before and immediately after the experimental and control protocols in all groups. The results indicated significant differences between pre- and post-stretching flexibility in both PNF and Static groups (p < 0.0001; effect size = 0.24 and 0.39, respectively), whereas no change was identified in the Control group (p = 0.265). However, no differences in post-exercise flexibility were found between PNF and Static groups (p = 0.235). It is concluded that static and PNF stretching methods provoked similar post-exercise acute effects on the maximal range of motion of hip adductors in highly flexible female ballet dancers.

  7. Determination of inter-rater reliability in pediatric burn scar assessment using a modified version of the Vancouver Scar Scale.

    PubMed

    Forbes-Duchart, Lisa; Marshall, Sheryle; Strock, Anne; Cooper, Juliette E

    2007-01-01

    The Vancouver Scar Scale is too subjective for our needs and is not culturally sensitive to our Aboriginal clients. The VSS was modified by developing a color scale to aid with vascularity rating. This study was designed to measure the inter-rater reliability of the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (MVSS). Three raters assessed 14 pediatric patients, resulting in a total of 32 scars. Data were analyzed using a Spearman Rank Order Correlation, intraclass correlation coefficient, and the kappa statistic. All subtests were shown to have significant (P < .05) correlations except for the pigmentation subtest. Because the pigmentation subtest has poor reliability, its inclusion in scar assessment should be questioned. Results indicate that only total scores of the MVSS should be used when determining burn scar outcomes because individual subtest scores appear to have little reliability. Further modifications to the MVSS followed by additional research with greater numbers of subjects are warranted.

  8. Individual muscle contributions to circular turning mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-04-13

    Turning is an activity of daily living that involves both the acceleration of the body center-of-mass (COM) towards the center of curvature and rotation of the pelvis towards the new heading. The purpose of this study was to understand which muscles contribute to turning using experimentation, musculoskeletal modeling and simulation. Ten healthy adults consented to walk around a 1-m radius circular path at their self-selected walking speed and then along a straight line at the same speed. Forward dynamics simulations of the individual subjects during the turning and straight-line walking tasks were generated to identify the contributions of individual muscle groups to the body mediolateral and anterior-posterior COM acceleration impulse and to the pelvis angular acceleration impulse. The stance leg gluteus medius and ankle plantarflexor muscles and the swing leg adductor muscles were the primary contributors to redirect the body's COM relative to straight-line walking. In some cases, contributions to mediolateral COM acceleration were modulated through changes in leg orientation rather than through changes in muscle force. While modulation of the muscle contributions generally occurred in both the inner and outer legs, greater changes were observed during inner single-leg support than during outer single-leg support. Total pelvis angular acceleration was minimal during the single-support phase, but the swing leg muscles contributed significantly to balancing the internal and external rotation of the pelvis. The understanding of which muscles contribute to turning the body during walking may help guide the development of more effective locomotor therapies for those with movement impairments.

  9. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  10. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Wang, Su-Juan; Chen, Jian-Yu; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars. PMID:25861351

  11. Astrocyte scar formation aids central nervous system axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark A; Burda, Joshua E; Ren, Yilong; Ao, Yan; O'Shea, Timothy M; Kawaguchi, Riki; Coppola, Giovanni; Khakh, Baljit S; Deming, Timothy J; Sofroniew, Michael V

    2016-04-14

    Transected axons fail to regrow in the mature central nervous system. Astrocytic scars are widely regarded as causal in this failure. Here, using three genetically targeted loss-of-function manipulations in adult mice, we show that preventing astrocyte scar formation, attenuating scar-forming astrocytes, or ablating chronic astrocytic scars all failed to result in spontaneous regrowth of transected corticospinal, sensory or serotonergic axons through severe spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions. By contrast, sustained local delivery via hydrogel depots of required axon-specific growth factors not present in SCI lesions, plus growth-activating priming injuries, stimulated robust, laminin-dependent sensory axon regrowth past scar-forming astrocytes and inhibitory molecules in SCI lesions. Preventing astrocytic scar formation significantly reduced this stimulated axon regrowth. RNA sequencing revealed that astrocytes and non-astrocyte cells in SCI lesions express multiple axon-growth-supporting molecules. Our findings show that contrary to the prevailing dogma, astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents central nervous system axon regeneration. PMID:27027288

  12. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  13. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  14. Nonlinear optics for the study of human scar tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, D. P.; Vieira-Damiani, G.; Adam, R. L.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, Konradin

    2012-03-01

    Collagen fibers are an essential component of the dynamic process of scarring, which accompanies various diseases. Scar tissue may reveal different morphologic expressions, such as hypertrophic scars or keloids. Collagen fibers can be visualized by fluorescent light when stained with eosin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) creates a non linear signal that occurs only in molecules without inversion symmetry and is particularly strong in the collagen fibers arranged in triple helices. The aim of this study was to describe the methodology for the analysis of the density and texture of collagen in keloids, hypertrophic scars and conventional scars. Samples were examined in the National Institute of Science and Technology on Photonics Applied to Cell Biology (INFABIC) at the State University of Campinas. The images were acquired in a multiphoton microscopy LSM 780-NLO Zeiss 40X. Both signals, two-photon fluorescence (TPEF) and SHG, were excited by a Mai-Tai Ti:Sapphire laser at 940 nm. We used a LP490/SP485 NDD filter for SHG, and a BP565-610 NDD filter for fluorescence In each case, ten images were acquired serially (512×512 μm) in Z-stack and joined together to one patchwork-image . Image analysis was performed by a gliding-box-system with in-house made software. Keloids, hypertrophic scars and normal scar tissue show different collagen architecture. Inside an individual case differences of the scar process may be found between central and peripheral parts. In summary, the use of nonlinear optics is a helpful tool for the study of scars tissue.

  15. Analysis of hypertrophic and normal scar gene expression with cDNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Tsou, R; Cole, J K; Nathens, A B; Isik, F F; Heimbach, D M; Engrav, L H; Gibran, N S

    2000-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar is one form of abnormal wound healing. Previous studies have suggested that hypertrophic scar formation results from altered gene expression of extracellular matrix molecules. A broadscale evaluation of gene expression in hypertrophic scars has not been reported. To better understand abnormalities in hypertrophic scar gene expression, we compared messenger RNA expression in hypertrophic scars, normal scars, and uninjured skin with the use of complementary (c)DNA microarrays. Total RNA was extracted from freshly excised human hypertrophic scars, normal scars, or uninjured skin and reverse transcribed into cDNA with the incorporation of [33P] deoxycytidine triphosphate. The resulting radioactive cDNA probes were hybridized onto cDNA microarrays of 4000 genes. Hybridization signals were normalized and analyzed. In the comparison of tissue samples, mean intensities were calculated for each gene within each group (hypertrophic scars, normal scars, and uninjured skin). Ratios of the mean intensities of hypertrophic scars to normal scars, hypertrophic scars to uninjured skin, and normal scars to uninjured skin were generated. A ratio that was greater than 1 indicated upregulation of any particular gene and a ratio that was less than 1 indicated downregulation of any particular gene. Our data indicated that 142 genes were overexpressed and 50 genes were underexpressed in normal scars compared with uninjured skin, 107 genes were overexpressed and 71 were underexpressed in hypertrophic scars compared with uninjured skin, and 44 genes were overexpressed and 124 were underexpressed in hypertrophic scars compared with normal scars. Our analysis of collagen, growth factor, and metalloproteinase gene expression confirmed that our molecular data were consistent with published biochemical and clinical observations of normal scars and hypertrophic scars. cDNA microarray analysis provides a powerful tool for the investigation of differential gene expression in

  16. Defect Scars on Flexible Surfaces with Crystalline Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, Tamotsu; Gompper, Gerhard

    2007-05-01

    The crystallography of two-dimensional particle packings on flexible surfaces of spherical topology is investigated. Examples are viral capsids and crystalline vesicles. Computer simulations of dynamically triangulated surfaces are employed to study the shape and structure of lattice defects as a function of the Föppl von Kármán number γ. We find that grain-boundary scars become much more fuzzy with increasing temperature, that the size of grain-boundary scars saturates with increasing vesicle radius, and that the buckling transition shifts to higher values of γ due to the presence of scars.

  17. Efficacy and safety of mitomycin C as an agent to treat corneal scarring in horses using an in vitro model

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Dylan G.; Sharma, Ajay; Giuliano, Elizabeth A.; Mohan, Rajiv R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Mitomycin C (MMC) is used clinically to treat corneal scarring in human patients. We investigated the safety and efficacy of MMC to treat corneal scarring in horses by examining its effects at the early and late stages of disease using an in-vitro model. Procedure An in-vitro model of equine corneal fibroblast (ECF) developed was used. The equine corneal fibroblast or myofibroblast cultures were produced by growing primary ECF in the presence or absence of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) under serum-free conditions. The MMC dose for the equine cornea was defined with dose-dependent trypan blue exclusion and MTT [(3-4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assays after applying MMC to the cultures once for 2 minutes. The efficacy of MMC to control corneal scarring in horses was determined by measuring mRNA and protein expression of corneal scarring markers (α-smooth muscle actin and F-actin) with western blotting, immunocytochemistry and/or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. Results A single 2 minutes treatment of 0.02% or less MMC did not alter ECF phenotype, viability, or cellular proliferation whereas 0.05% or higher MMC doses showed mild-to-moderate cellular toxicity. The TGFβ1 at 1ng/ml showed significant myofibroblast formation in ECF under serum-free conditions. A single 2 minute, 0.02% MMC treatment 24 hours (early) after TGFβ1 stimulation significantly reduced conversion of ECF to myofibroblasts, however, a single 0.02% MMC treatment 11 days after TGFβ1 stimulation showed moderate myofibroblast inhibition. Conclusions That MMC safely and effectively reduced scarring in ECF by reducing the degree of transdifferentiation of corneal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts in vitro. Further clinical in-vivo investigations are warranted using MMC in horses. PMID:20618797

  18. Protection against TGF-β1-induced fibrosis effects of IL-10 on dermal fibroblasts and its potential therapeutics for the reduction of skin scarring.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-Hong; Guan, Hao; Shi, Shan; Cai, Wei-Xia; Bai, Xiao-Zhi; Hu, Xiao-Long; Fang, Xiao-Bin; Liu, Jia-Qi; Tao, Ke; Zhu, Xiong-Xiang; Tang, Chao-Wu; Hu, Da-Hai

    2013-05-01

    Scarring, tightly associated with fibrosis, is a significant symptomatic clinical problem. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) has been identified as a candidate scar-improving therapy based on preclinical studies. However, the molecular mechanism of IL-10 in scar improvement is still uncertain. In this study, human dermal fibroblasts stimulated with TGF-β1 were treated with IL-10 to analyze the mRNA and some of proteins' expression levels of type I collagen (Col1), type III collagen (Col3), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1), MMP2, MMP8 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), TIMP2 by real-time PCR and Western blot, to observe α-SMA-positive fibroblasts by immunocytochemistry. The contracture and improvement of fibroblast-populated collagen lattice (FPCL) and a murine model of wound healing were used to evaluate the scar-improving effects by histological staining. The results showed that IL-10 can significantly down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression levels of Col1, Col3, α-SMA, and up-regulate the mRNA expression levels of MMP1 and MMP8, and decrease α-SMA-positive fibroblasts. FPCL analysis showed that the IL-10 (20 ng/ml) can significantly inhibit the contracture, improve the architecture of FPCL. Wounds injected with IL-10 demonstrated that the appearance of scar was improved, the wound margin of scarring was narrow, and the deposition of collagens (Col1 and Col3) in regenerated tissue was relieved. These results provide direct evidences that IL-10 has the inhibitory effects on the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition, and show that IL-10 has the potential therapy in prevention and reduction of skin scarring.

  19. Experiment K-6-09. Morphological and biochemical investigation of microgravity-induced nerve and muscle breakdown. Part 1: Investigation of nerve and muscle breakdown during spaceflight; Part 2: Biochemical analysis of EDL and PLT muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J.; Sedlak, F.; Slocum, G.; Oganov, V.

    1990-01-01

    The present findings on rat hindlimb muscles suggest that skeletal muscle weakness induced by prolonged spaceflight can result from a combination of muscle fiber atrophy, muscle fiber segmental necrosis, degeneration of motor nerve terminals and destruction of microcirculatory vessels. Damage was confined to the red adductor longus (AL) and soleus muscles. The midbelly region of the AL muscle had more segmental necrosis and edema than the ends. Macrophages and neutrophils were the major mononucleated cells infiltrating and phagocytosing the cellular debris. Toluidine blue-positive mast cells were significantly decreased in Flight AL muscles compared to controls; this indicated that degranulation of mast cells contributed to tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils may have promoted myofilament degradation. Overall, mitochondria content and SDH activity were normal, except for a decrease in the subsarcolemmal region. The myofibrillar ATPase activity shifted toward the fast type in the Flight AL muscles. Some of the pathological changes may have occurred or been exacerbated during the 2 day postflight period of readaptation to terrestrial gravity. While simple atrophy should be reversible by exercise, restoration of pathological changes depends upon complex processes of regeneration by stem cells. Initial signs of muscle and nerve fiber regeneration were detected. Even though regeneration proceeds on Earth, the space environment may inhibit repair and cause progressive irreversible deterioration during long term missions. Muscles obtained from Flight rats sacrificed immediately (within a few hours) after landing are needed to distinguish inflight changes from postflight readaptation.

  20. Effect of exercise intervention on thigh muscle volume and anatomical cross-sectional areas--quantitative assessment using MRI.

    PubMed

    Hudelmaier, Martin; Wirth, Wolfgang; Himmer, Maria; Ring-Dimitriou, Susanne; Sänger, Alexandra; Eckstein, Felix

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the location-specific magnitudes of an exercise intervention on thigh muscle volume and anatomical cross-sectional area, using MRI. Forty one untrained women participated in strength, endurance, or autogenic training for 12 weeks. Axial MR images of the thigh were acquired before and after the intervention, using a T1-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence (10 mm sections, 0.78 mm in-plane resolution). The extensor, flexor, adductor, and sartorius muscles were segmented between the femoral neck and the rectus femoris tendon. Muscle volumes were determined, and anatomical cross-sectional areas were derived from 3D reconstructions at 10% (proximal-to-distal) intervals. With strength training, the volume of the extensors (+3.1%), flexors (+3.5%), and adductors (+3.9%) increased significantly (P < 0.05) between baseline and follow-up, and with endurance training, the volume of the extensor (+3.7%) and sartorius (+5.1%) increased significantly (P < 0.05). No relevant or statistically significant change was observed with autogenic training. The greatest standardized response means were observed for the anatomical cross-sectional area in the proximal aspect (10-30%) of the thigh and generally exceeded those for muscle volumes. The study shows that MRI can be used to monitor location-specific effects of exercise intervention on muscle cross-sectional areas, with the proximal aspect of the thigh muscles being most responsive. PMID:20665894

  1. Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. Hypertrophic scarring: the greatest unmet challenge after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G; Branski, Ludwik K; Barret, Juan P; Dziewulski, Peter; Herndon, David N

    2016-10-01

    Improvements in acute burn care have enabled patients to survive massive burns that would have once been fatal. Now up to 70% of patients develop hypertrophic scars after burns. The functional and psychosocial sequelae remain a major rehabilitative challenge, decreasing quality of life and delaying reintegration into society. Approaches to optimise healing potential of burn wounds use targeted wound care and surgery to minimise the development of hypertrophic scarring. Such approaches often fail, and modulation of the established scar is continued although the optimal indication, timing, and combination of therapies have yet to be established. The need for novel treatments is paramount, and future efforts to improve outcomes and quality of life should include optimisation of wound healing to attenuate or prevent hypertrophic scarring, well-designed trials to confirm treatment efficacy, and further elucidation of molecular mechanisms to allow development of new preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  3. [Scar tissue cancer: observations and results of 23 cases].

    PubMed

    Scharnagl, E; Smola, M G; Hellbom, B A; Pierer, G; Hoflehner, H

    1991-01-01

    The scar tissue carcinoma is a rare disease which arises from the floor of unstable scars, chronic fistulae, ulcera and radiation injuries. The clinical pictures of 23 cases between 1976 and September 1990 have been elucidated. Compared to earlier findings it must now be stated that the development of cancer in stasis ulcera is more frequent than in burn scars or X-ray cancer. Generally, the number of scar tissue carcinomas seems to decrease. Since surgical and adjuvant therapies are--like in any other cancers--limited, prevention and early diagnosis have become of major importance. Though the cancer grows mainly on the body surface and could, therefore, be easily recognised, we still found tumours of remarkable dimension and disturbance, which were either shown to the physician too late or remained unrecognised by the diagnostician.

  4. Effects of scars on crystalline shell pressure stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Duanduan; Sknepnek, Rastko; Bowick, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Thomson problem is the prototypical example of a crystal on a sphere. For high number of particles in the ground state of the Thomson problem one finds scars - freely-terminating grain boundary arrays of dislocations. Here we analyze how scars affect the mechanical stability of a spherical crystalline shell, like a viral capsid, under external hydrostatic pressure. We use elastic continuum theory to model the shell. Its energy contains both stretching and bending energies. Furthermore, using Monte Carlo simulations, we compare how shells with and without scars deform under external pressure in a quasi-static process. We find that presence of scars always lowers the critical pressure at which the shell collapses. We acknowledge support from Soft Matter Program, Syracuse University.

  5. Anatomopathological findings in scars: comparative study between different specimens.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Andrada Despina; Bedereag, Ştefan Iulian; NiŢescu, Cristian; Florescu, Ioan Petre

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the remarkable progress science and medicine have experienced, many facts concerning healing processes and pathological scars are still unknown or incompletely explained. This paper is part of a larger study (research for a PhD thesis) concerning new approaches in the prevention and treatment of pathological post-burn scars. We present and analyze the cases of some patients who developed abnormal scars in order to understand and point out the characteristics, that different types of pathological scars have in common and how we can differentiate them. Knowing what issue to address is the key to any successful therapy. Thus, the information we obtained will help us in applying more appropriate and efficient methods of treatment and in our further research: comparing the efficiency of newer therapies to that of older ones. PMID:25826518

  6. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles.

    PubMed

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on-1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on-3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased "voluntary activation." In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT.

  7. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J.; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on–1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on–3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased “voluntary activation.” In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT. PMID:27445844

  8. Laser treatment of acne, psoriasis, leukoderma, and scars.

    PubMed

    Railan, Divya; Alster, Tina S

    2008-12-01

    Lasers frequently are used by dermatologists for their multiple aesthetic applications, but they also can be used to treat a variety of medical dermatology conditions. Conditions such as acne vulgaris, psoriasis, and vitiligo can all be successfully treated with laser, thereby providing the patient with additional therapeutic options. Lasers have also been used for years to improve the appearance of scars. The newer fractionated lasers have been especially effective in enhancing the clinical outcomes of scar revision. PMID:19150300

  9. Cesarean scar pregnancy: diagnosis, management, and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Fatma; Uysal, Ahmet; Adam, Gürhan

    2013-07-01

    Cesarean scar pregnancy is a very rare form of pregnancy and a life-threatening situation. It has become an important and serious problem over the last 10 years, as a result of the worldwide increase in cesarean births. In this retrospective series, the diagnosis of cesarean scar pregnancy, management, treatment methods, risk factors, and possibility of subsequent normal pregnancy are discussed, and case descriptions are presented.

  10. Suppression of scarring in peripheral nerve implants by drug elution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGerald, James J.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Medical implants made of non-biological materials provoke a chronic inflammatory response, resulting in the deposition of a collagenous scar tissue (ST) layer on their surface, that gradually thickens over time. This is a critical problem for neural interfaces. Scar build-up on electrodes results in a progressive decline in signal level because the scar tissue gradually separates axons away from the recording contacts. In regenerative sieves and microchannel electrodes, progressive scar deposition will constrict and may eventually choke off the sieve hole or channel lumen. Interface designs need to address this issue if they are to be fit for long term use. This study examines a novel method of inhibiting the formation and thickening of the fibrous scar. Approach. Research to date has mainly focused on methods of preventing stimulation of the foreign body response by implant surface modification. In this paper a pharmacological approach using drug elution to suppress chronic inflammation is introduced. Microchannel implants made of silicone doped with the steroid drug dexamethasone were implanted in the rat sciatic nerve for periods of up to a year. Tissue from within the microchannels was compared to that from control devices that did not release any drug. Main results. In the drug eluting implants the scar layer was significantly thinner at all timepoints, and unlike the controls it did not continue to thicken after 6 months. Control implants supported axon regeneration well initially, but axon counts fell rapidly at later timepoints as scar thickened. Axon counts in drug eluting devices were initially much lower, but increased rather than declined and by one year were significantly higher than in controls. Significance. Drug elution offers a potential long term solution to the problem of performance degradation due to scarring around neural implants.

  11. Scar Functions, Barriers for Chemical Reactivity, and Vibrational Basis Sets.

    PubMed

    Revuelta, F; Vergini, E; Benito, R M; Borondo, F

    2016-07-14

    The performance of a recently proposed method to efficiently calculate scar functions is analyzed in problems of chemical interest. An application to the computation of wave functions associated with barriers relevant for the LiNC ⇄ LiCN isomerization reaction is presented as an illustration. These scar functions also constitute excellent elements for basis sets suitable for quantum calculation of vibrational energy levels. To illustrate their efficiency, a calculation of the LiNC/LiCN eigenfunctions is also presented.

  12. Effects of Noscarna™ on hypertrophic scarring in the rabbit ear model: histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Won; Ku, Sae Kwang; Cho, Hyuk Jun; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Hiep, Tran Tuan; Han, Sang Duk; Kim, Bo Gyun; Kang, Min Kyung; Do, Eui Seon; Jun, Joon Ho; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Mi-Won; Sohn, Young Taek; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of silicone-based gel on the healing of hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear model. After 4-week application of silicone-based gel containing allantoin, dexpanthenol and heparin (Noscarna™) to scars in a rabbit ear model of hypertrophic scarring, significant improvements in hypertrophic scar healing and a great loss of skin pigment were observed compared to the non-treated control, base or silicone control-treated scars. Furthermore, histological analysis of Noscarna™-treated scars revealed a significant reduction in scar elevation index (SEI), anterior skin and epithelial thicknesses, inflammatory cells, vessels, collagen disorganization and fibroblasts compared to all control hypertrophic scars. Furthermore, Noscarna™ showed more favorable effects on hypertrophic scars than a commercial product, Contractubex®. Therefore, these results clearly demonstrated that the newly developed silicone-based gel, Noscarna™, could be a promising formulation as an effective therapeutic agent for hypertrophic scars. PMID:23212642

  13. Short and long-term cosmesis of cervical thyroidectomy scars.

    PubMed

    Dordea, M; Aspinall, S R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple surgical approaches to the thyroid gland have been described via cervical or extracervical routes. Improved cosmesis, patient satisfaction, reduced pain (procedure dependent) and early discharge have all been reported for minimally invasive approaches with similar safety profiles and long-term outcomes to conventional surgery. This review summarises the current evidence base for improved cosmesis with minimally invasive cervical approaches to the thyroid gland compared with conventional surgery. Methods A systematic review was undertaken. The MEDLINE(®), Embase™ and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant articles. Results A total of 57 papers thyroid papers were identified. Of those, 20 reported some form of cosmetic outcome assessment. There were 6 randomised controlled trials with 412 patients (evidence level 2B), 7 cohort studies with 3,073 patients (level 3B) and 7 non-comparative case series with 1,575 patients (level 4). There was significant heterogeneity between studies in terms of wound closure technique, timing of scar assessment and scar assessment scales (validated and non-validated). Most studies performed early scar assessments, some using non-validated scar assessment tools. Conclusions Assessment of cosmesis is complex and requires rigorous methodology. Evidence from healing/remodelling studies suggests scar maturation is a long-term process. This calls into question the value of early scar assessment. Current evidence does not support minimally invasive surgical approaches to the thyroid gland if improved long-term cosmesis is the goal. PMID:26688393

  14. Topical rosiglitazone is an effective anti-scarring agent in the cornea.

    PubMed

    Huxlin, Krystel R; Hindman, Holly B; Jeon, Kye-Im; Bühren, Jens; MacRae, Scott; DeMagistris, Margaret; Ciufo, David; Sime, Patricia J; Phipps, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Corneal scarring remains a major cause of blindness world-wide, with limited treatment options, all of which have side-effects. Here, we tested the hypothesis that topical application of Rosiglitazone, a Thiazolidinedione and ligand of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), can effectively block scar formation in a cat model of corneal damage. Adult cats underwent bilateral epithelial debridement followed by excimer laser ablation of the central corneal stroma to a depth of ~160 µm as a means of experimentally inducing a reproducible wound. Eyes were then left untreated, or received 50 µl of either 10 µM Rosiglitazone in DMSO/Celluvisc, DMSO/Celluvisc vehicle or Celluvisc vehicle twice daily for 2 weeks. Cellular aspects of corneal wound healing were evaluated with in vivo confocal imaging and post-mortem immunohistochemistry for alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA). Impacts of the wound and treatments on optical quality were assessed using wavefront sensing and optical coherence tomography at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-operatively. In parallel, cat corneal fibroblasts were cultured to assess the effects of Rosiglitazone on TGFβ-induced αSMA expression. Topical application of Rosiglitazone to cat eyes after injury decreased αSMA expression and haze, as well as the induction of lower-order and residual, higher-order wavefront aberrations compared to vehicle-treated eyes. Rosiglitazone also inhibited TGFβ-induced αSMA expression in cultured corneal fibroblasts. In conclusion, Rosiglitazone effectively controlled corneal fibrosis in vivo and in vitro, while restoring corneal thickness and optics. Its topical application may represent an effective, new avenue for the prevention of corneal scarring with distinct advantages for pathologically thin corneas.

  15. A rabbit vocal fold laser scarring model for testing lamina propria tissue engineering therapies

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Ted; Du, Mindy; Xu, Chet C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To develop a vocal fold scarring model using an ablative laser in the rabbit as a platform for testing bioengineered therapies for missing or damaged lamina propria. Study Design Prospective controlled animal study. Methods An optimal laser energy level was first determined by assessing the depths of vocal fold injury created by a Holmium:YAG laser at various energy levels on fresh cadaveric rabbit larynges. The selected energy level was then used to create controlled unilateral injuries in vocal folds of New Zealand white rabbits, with the contralateral folds serving as uninjured controls. After 4 weeks, the larynges were harvested and subjected to excised-larynx phonation with high-speed imaging and immunohistochemical staining for collagen types I and III, elastin, and hyaluronic acid (HA) with quantitative histological analysis. Results 1.8 joules produced full-thickness injury of the lamina propria without extensive muscle injury. After 4 weeks, the injured vocal folds vibrated with reduced amplitude (P = 0.036) in excised-larynx phonation compared to normal vocal folds. The injured vocal folds contained a higher relative density of collagen type I (P = 0.004), higher elastin (P = 0.022), and lower HA (P = 0.030) compared to normal controls. Collagen type III was unchanged. Conclusions With its potential for higher precision of injury, this laser vocal fold scarring model may serve as an alternative to scarring produced by cold instruments for studying the effects of vocal fold lamina propria bioengineered therapies. Level of Evidence N/A. PMID:24715695

  16. Finite-element modelling reveals force modulation of jaw adductors in stag beetles.

    PubMed

    Goyens, J; Soons, J; Aerts, P; Dirckx, J

    2014-12-01

    Male stag beetles carry large and heavy mandibles that arose through sexual selection over mating rights. Although the mandibles of Cyclommatus metallifer males are used in pugnacious fights, they are surprisingly slender. Our bite force measurements show a muscle force reduction of 18% for tip biting when compared with bites with the teeth located halfway along the mandibles. This suggests a behavioural adaptation to prevent failure. We confirmed this by constructing finite-element (FE) models that mimic both natural bite situations as well as the hypothetical situation of tip biting without muscle force modulation. These models, based on micro-CT images, investigate the material stresses in the mandibles for different combinations of bite location and muscle force. Young's modulus of the cuticle was experimentally determined to be 5.1 GPa with the double indentation method, and the model was validated by digital image correlation on living beetles. FE analysis proves to be a valuable tool in the investigation of the trade-offs of (animal) weapon morphology and usage. Furthermore, the demonstrated bite force modulation in male stag beetles suggests the presence of mechanosensors inside the armature.

  17. Finite-element modelling reveals force modulation of jaw adductors in stag beetles

    PubMed Central

    Goyens, J.; Soons, J.; Aerts, P.; Dirckx, J.

    2014-01-01

    Male stag beetles carry large and heavy mandibles that arose through sexual selection over mating rights. Although the mandibles of Cyclommatus metallifer males are used in pugnacious fights, they are surprisingly slender. Our bite force measurements show a muscle force reduction of 18% for tip biting when compared with bites with the teeth located halfway along the mandibles. This suggests a behavioural adaptation to prevent failure. We confirmed this by constructing finite-element (FE) models that mimic both natural bite situations as well as the hypothetical situation of tip biting without muscle force modulation. These models, based on micro-CT images, investigate the material stresses in the mandibles for different combinations of bite location and muscle force. Young's modulus of the cuticle was experimentally determined to be 5.1 GPa with the double indentation method, and the model was validated by digital image correlation on living beetles. FE analysis proves to be a valuable tool in the investigation of the trade-offs of (animal) weapon morphology and usage. Furthermore, the demonstrated bite force modulation in male stag beetles suggests the presence of mechanosensors inside the armature. PMID:25297317

  18. Scar prevention by laser-assisted scar healing (LASH) using thermal post-conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossé, Alban; Iarmarcovai, Gwen; Capon, Alexandre; Cornil, Alain; Mordon, Serge

    2009-02-01

    An 810-nm diode laser system was developed to accelerate and improve the healing process in surgical scars. Using thermal post-conditioning, the laser system provides a localised moderate heating whose maximum temperature is controlled to prevent tissue damage and stimulate the heat shock proteins (HSP) synthesis. The 810-nm wavelength allows a deep penetration of the light into the dermis, without damaging the epidermis. The time along which surgical incision is treated (continuous wave) must therefore be selected carefully with respect to the temperature precision achieved within the heated volume. A top-hat profile is preferred to a Gaussian profile in order to ensure the skin surface temperature is homogenised, as is the temperature of the heated volume. The spot shape will depend on the medical indication. The treatment should be made safe and controlled by means of a safety strip containing an RFID chip which will transmit the various operating settings to the laser device. A clinical trial aims at evaluating the 810 nm-diode laser in surgical incisions, with only one laser treatment immediately after skin closure, of patients with Fitzpatrick skin types I to IV. Surgical incisions were divided into two fields, with only portions randomly selected receiving laser treatment. At the final scar analysis (12 months) of the pilot study, the treated portion scored significantly better for both surgeon (P = 0.046) and patients (P = 0.025). Further studies may be warranted to better understand the cellular mechanisms leading to Laser-Assisted Skin Healing (LASH).

  19. Cesarean Scar Pregnancy Managed with Conservative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Boza, Aysen; Boza, Barıs; Api, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is a rare, but life-threatening type of ectopic pregnancy. An exact and early diagnosis of CSP is very important for prognosis. The aim of the present study was to describe 4 women with CSP and discuss their clinical presentations, diagnoses, and various management options along with the published literature. Four women with a suspicion of CSP or cervical pregnancy were referred to our hospital between August 2013 and January 2014. All the patients were counseled about medical management options. After the treatment, serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) levels were followed weekly until they reached <5 mIU/mL. All the patients were diagnosed at the first trimester, with the average gestational age of 6.4±0.9 weeks. Treatment was systemic methotrexate (MTX) treatment in 3 of the 4 women, requiring no further intervention. The remaining 1 woman was treated with an intragestational administration of MTX. The mean time passed until ß-hCG reached <5 mIU/mL was 10.2±2.9 (range, 8–14) weeks, and the mean time passed until the gestational sac resolved was 21.5±3.5 (range, 18–25) weeks. Based on this limited number of case-series experience, it seems that CSP should be treated conservatively even if there are visible fetal cardiac activity, fetal poles, large gestational sacs, and high initial ß-hCG levels. Although the complete remission of the lesion takes a relatively long time, medical management via a noninvasive approach and follow-up should be tried as the first choice of therapy. PMID:27582596

  20. Cesarean Scar Pregnancy Managed with Conservative Treatment.

    PubMed

    Boza, Aysen; Boza, Barıs; Api, Murat

    2016-09-01

    Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is a rare, but life-threatening type of ectopic pregnancy. An exact and early diagnosis of CSP is very important for prognosis. The aim of the present study was to describe 4 women with CSP and discuss their clinical presentations, diagnoses, and various management options along with the published literature. Four women with a suspicion of CSP or cervical pregnancy were referred to our hospital between August 2013 and January 2014. All the patients were counseled about medical management options. After the treatment, serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) levels were followed weekly until they reached <5 mIU/mL. All the patients were diagnosed at the first trimester, with the average gestational age of 6.4±0.9 weeks. Treatment was systemic methotrexate (MTX) treatment in 3 of the 4 women, requiring no further intervention. The remaining 1 woman was treated with an intragestational administration of MTX. The mean time passed until ß-hCG reached <5 mIU/mL was 10.2±2.9 (range, 8-14) weeks, and the mean time passed until the gestational sac resolved was 21.5±3.5 (range, 18-25) weeks. Based on this limited number of case-series experience, it seems that CSP should be treated conservatively even if there are visible fetal cardiac activity, fetal poles, large gestational sacs, and high initial ß-hCG levels. Although the complete remission of the lesion takes a relatively long time, medical management via a noninvasive approach and follow-up should be tried as the first choice of therapy. PMID:27582596

  1. Mitomycin C: a promising agent for the treatment of canine corneal scarring

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rangan; Yarnall, Benjamin W.; Giuliano, Elizabeth A.; Kanwar, Jagat R.; Buss, Dylan G.; Mohan, Rajiv R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of mitomycin C (MMC) in prevention of canine corneal scarring. Methods With an in vitro approach using healthy canine corneas, cultures of primary canine corneal fibroblasts or myofibroblasts were generated. Primary canine corneal fibroblasts were obtained by growing corneal buttons in minimal essential medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Canine corneal myofibroblasts were produced by growing cultures in serum-free medium containing transforming growth factor β1 (1 ng/mL). Trypan blue assay and phase-contrast microscopy were used to evaluate the toxicity of three doses of MMC (0.002%, 0.02% and 0.04%). Real-time PCR, immunoblot, and immunocytochemistry techniques were used to determine MMC efficacy to inhibit markers of canine corneal scarring. Results A single 2-min treatment of 0.02% or less MMC did not alter canine corneal fibroblast or keratocyte phenotype, viability, or growth. The 0.02% dose substantially reduced myofibroblast formation (up to 67%; P < 0.001), as measured by the change in RNA and protein expression of fibrosis biomarkers (α-smooth muscle actin and F-actin). Conclusion This in vitro study suggests that a single 2-min 0.02% MMC treatment to the canine corneal keratocytes is safe and may be useful in decreasing canine corneal fibrous metaplasia. In vivo studies are warranted. PMID:21929607

  2. Blood-derived small Dot cells reduce scar in wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Wuyi Li Shaowei; Longaker, Michael T.; Lorenz, H. Peter

    2008-04-15

    Wounds in fetal skin heal without scar, however the mechanism is unknown. We identified a novel group of E-cadherin positive cells in the blood of fetal and adult mice and named them 'Dot cells'. The percentage of Dot cells in E16.5 fetal mice blood is more than twenty times higher compared to adult blood. Dot cells also express integrin {beta}1, CD184, CD34, CD13{sup low} and Sca1{sup low}, but not CD45, CD44, and CD117. Dot cells have a tiny dot shape between 1 and 7 {mu}m diameters with fast proliferation in vitro. Most of the Dot cells remain positive for E-cadherin and integrin {beta}1 after one month in culture. Transplantation of Dot cells to adult mice heals skin wounds with less scar due to reduced smooth muscle actin and collagen expression in the repair tissue. Tracking GFP-positive Dot cells demonstrates that Dot cells migrate to wounds and differentiate into dermal cells, which also express strongly to FGF-2, and later lose their GFP expression. Our results indicate that Dot cells are a group of previously unidentified cells that have strong wound healing effect. The mechanism of scarless wound healing in fetal skin is due to the presence of a large number of Dot cells.

  3. Scar prevention and remodeling: a review of the medical, surgical, topical and light treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Kerwin, Leonard Y; El Tal, Abdel Kader; Stiff, Mark A; Fakhouri, Tarek M

    2014-08-01

    Cosmetic, functional, and structural sequelae of scarring are innumerable, and measures exist to optimize and ultimately minimize these sequelae. To evaluate the innumerable methods available to decrease the cosmetic, functional, and structural repercussions of scarring, pubMed search of the English literature with key words scar, scar revision, scar prevention, scar treatment, scar remodeling, cicatrix, cicatrix treatment, and cicatrix remodeling was done. Original articles and reviews were examined and included. Seventy-nine manuscripts were reviewed. Techniques, comparisons, and results were reviewed and tabulated. Overall, though topical modalities are easier to use and are usually more attractive to the patient, the surgical approaches still prove to be superior and more reliable. However, advances in topical medications for scar modification are on the rise and a change towards medical treatment of scars may emerge as the next best approach. Comparison studies of the innumerable specific modalities for scar revision and prevention are impossible. Standardization of techniques is lacking. Scarring, the body's natural response to a wound, can create many adverse effects. At this point, the practice of sound, surgical fundamentals still trump the most advanced preventative methods and revision techniques. Advances in medical approaches are available, however, to assist the scarring process, which even the most advanced surgical fundamentals will ultimately lead to. Whether through newer topical therapies, light treatment, or classical surgical intervention, our treatment armamentarium of scars has expanded and will allow us to maximize scar prevention and to minimize scar morbidity.

  4. Scar prevention and remodeling: a review of the medical, surgical, topical and light treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Kerwin, Leonard Y; El Tal, Abdel Kader; Stiff, Mark A; Fakhouri, Tarek M

    2014-08-01

    Cosmetic, functional, and structural sequelae of scarring are innumerable, and measures exist to optimize and ultimately minimize these sequelae. To evaluate the innumerable methods available to decrease the cosmetic, functional, and structural repercussions of scarring, pubMed search of the English literature with key words scar, scar revision, scar prevention, scar treatment, scar remodeling, cicatrix, cicatrix treatment, and cicatrix remodeling was done. Original articles and reviews were examined and included. Seventy-nine manuscripts were reviewed. Techniques, comparisons, and results were reviewed and tabulated. Overall, though topical modalities are easier to use and are usually more attractive to the patient, the surgical approaches still prove to be superior and more reliable. However, advances in topical medications for scar modification are on the rise and a change towards medical treatment of scars may emerge as the next best approach. Comparison studies of the innumerable specific modalities for scar revision and prevention are impossible. Standardization of techniques is lacking. Scarring, the body's natural response to a wound, can create many adverse effects. At this point, the practice of sound, surgical fundamentals still trump the most advanced preventative methods and revision techniques. Advances in medical approaches are available, however, to assist the scarring process, which even the most advanced surgical fundamentals will ultimately lead to. Whether through newer topical therapies, light treatment, or classical surgical intervention, our treatment armamentarium of scars has expanded and will allow us to maximize scar prevention and to minimize scar morbidity. PMID:24697346

  5. Biologic-free mechanically induced muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cezar, Christine A.; Roche, Ellen T.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Duda, Georg N.; Walsh, Conor J.; Mooney, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Severe skeletal muscle injuries are common and can lead to extensive fibrosis, scarring, and loss of function. Clinically, no therapeutic intervention exists that allows for a full functional restoration. As a result, both drug and cellular therapies are being widely investigated for treatment of muscle injury. Because muscle is known to respond to mechanical loading, we investigated instead whether a material system capable of massage-like compressions could promote regeneration. Magnetic actuation of biphasic ferrogel scaffolds implanted at the site of muscle injury resulted in uniform cyclic compressions that led to reduced fibrous capsule formation around the implant, as well as reduced fibrosis and inflammation in the injured muscle. In contrast, no significant effect of ferrogel actuation on muscle vascularization or perfusion was found. Strikingly, ferrogel-driven mechanical compressions led to enhanced muscle regeneration and a ∼threefold increase in maximum contractile force of the treated muscle at 2 wk compared with no-treatment controls. Although this study focuses on the repair of severely injured skeletal muscle, magnetically stimulated bioagent-free ferrogels may find broad utility in the field of regenerative medicine. PMID:26811474

  6. Non-volitional assessment of skeletal muscle strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Man, W; Soliman, M; Nikoletou, D; Harris, M; Rafferty, G; Mustfa, N; Polkey, M; Moxham, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Although quadriceps weakness is well recognised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the aetiology remains unknown. In disabled patients the quadriceps is a particularly underused muscle and may not reflect skeletal muscle function as a whole. Loss of muscle function is likely to be equally distributed if the underlying pathology is a systemic abnormality. Conversely, if deconditioning and disuse are the principal aetiological factors, weakness would be most marked in the lower limb muscles. Methods: The non-volitional technique of supramaximal magnetic stimulation was used to assess twitch tensions of the adductor pollicis, quadriceps, and diaphragm muscles (TwAP, TwQ, and TwPdi) in 22 stable non-weight losing COPD patients and 18 elderly controls. Results: Mean (SD) TwQ tension was reduced in the COPD patients (7.1 (2.2) kg v 10.0 (2.7) kg; 95% confidence intervals (CI) -4.4 to -1.4; p<0.001). Neither TwAP nor TwPdi (when corrected for lung volume) differed significantly between patients and controls (mean (SD) TwAP 6.52 (1.90) N for COPD patients and 6.80 (1.99) N for controls (95% CI -1.5 to 0.97, p=0.65; TwPdi 23.0 (5.6) cm H2O for COPD patients and 23.5 (5.2) cm H2O for controls (95% CI -4.5 to 3.5, p=0.81). Conclusions: The strength of the adductor pollicis muscle (and the diaphragm) is normal in patients with stable COPD whereas quadriceps strength is substantially reduced. Disuse may be the principal factor in the development of skeletal muscle weakness in COPD, but a systemic process preferentially affecting the proximal muscles cannot be excluded. PMID:12885979

  7. Postmastectomy radiotherapy with integrated scar boost using helical tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rong Yi; Yadav, Poonam; Welsh, James S.; Fahner, Tasha; Paliwal, Bhudatt

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate helical tomotherapy dosimetry in postmastectomy patients undergoing treatment for chest wall and positive nodal regions with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in the scar region using strip bolus. Six postmastectomy patients were scanned with a 5-mm-thick strip bolus covering the scar planning target volume (PTV) plus 2-cm margin. For all 6 cases, the chest wall received a total cumulative dose of 49.3-50.4 Gy with daily fraction size of 1.7-2.0 Gy. Total dose to the scar PTV was prescribed to 58.0-60.2 Gy at 2.0-2.5 Gy per fraction. The supraclavicular PTV and mammary nodal PTV received 1.7-1.9 dose per fraction. Two plans (with and without bolus) were generated for all 6 cases. To generate no-bolus plans, strip bolus was contoured and overrode to air density before planning. The setup reproducibility and delivered dose accuracy were evaluated for all 6 cases. Dose-volume histograms were used to evaluate dose-volume coverage of targets and critical structures. We observed reduced air cavities with the strip bolus setup compared with what we normally see with the full bolus. The thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) in vivo dosimetry confirmed accurate dose delivery beneath the bolus. The verification plans performed on the first day megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image verified that the daily setup and overall dose delivery was within 2% accuracy compared with the planned dose. The hotspot of the scar PTV in no-bolus plans was 111.4% of the prescribed dose averaged over 6 cases compared with 106.6% with strip bolus. With a strip bolus only covering the postmastectomy scar region, we observed increased dose uniformity to the scar PTV, higher setup reproducibility, and accurate dose delivered beneath the bolus. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a strip bolus over the scar using tomotherapy for SIB dosimetry in postmastectomy treatments.

  8. Twitch interpolation: superimposed twitches decline progressively during a tetanic contraction of human adductor pollicis.

    PubMed

    Gandevia, S C; McNeil, C J; Carroll, T J; Taylor, J L

    2013-03-01

    The assessment of voluntary activation of human muscles usually depends on measurement of the size of the twitch produced by an interpolated nerve or cortical stimulus. In many forms of fatiguing exercise the superimposed twitch increases and thus voluntary activation appears to decline. This is termed 'central' fatigue. Recent studies on isolated mouse muscle suggest that a peripheral mechanism related to intracellular calcium sensitivity increases interpolated twitches. To test whether this problem developed with human voluntary contractions we delivered maximal tetanic stimulation to the ulnar nerve (≥60 s at physiological motoneuronal frequencies, 30 and 15 Hz). During the tetani (at 30 Hz) in which the force declined by 42%, the absolute size of the twitches evoked by interpolated stimuli (delivered regularly or only in the last second of the tetanus) diminished progressively to less than 1%. With stimulation at 30 Hz, there was also a marked reduction in size and area of the interpolated compound muscle action potential (M wave). With a 15 Hz tetanus, a progressive decline in the interpolated twitch force also occurred (to ∼10%) but did so before the area of the interpolated M wave diminished. These results indicate that the increase in interpolated twitch size predicted from the mouse studies does not occur. Diminution in superimposed twitches occurred whether or not the M wave indicated marked impairment at sarcolemmal/t-tubular levels. Consequently, the increase in superimposed twitch, which is used to denote central fatigue in human fatiguing exercise, is likely to reflect low volitional drive to high-threshold motor units, which stop firing or are discharging at low frequencies. PMID:23283762

  9. Twitch interpolation: superimposed twitches decline progressively during a tetanic contraction of human adductor pollicis.

    PubMed

    Gandevia, S C; McNeil, C J; Carroll, T J; Taylor, J L

    2013-03-01

    The assessment of voluntary activation of human muscles usually depends on measurement of the size of the twitch produced by an interpolated nerve or cortical stimulus. In many forms of fatiguing exercise the superimposed twitch increases and thus voluntary activation appears to decline. This is termed 'central' fatigue. Recent studies on isolated mouse muscle suggest that a peripheral mechanism related to intracellular calcium sensitivity increases interpolated twitches. To test whether this problem developed with human voluntary contractions we delivered maximal tetanic stimulation to the ulnar nerve (≥60 s at physiological motoneuronal frequencies, 30 and 15 Hz). During the tetani (at 30 Hz) in which the force declined by 42%, the absolute size of the twitches evoked by interpolated stimuli (delivered regularly or only in the last second of the tetanus) diminished progressively to less than 1%. With stimulation at 30 Hz, there was also a marked reduction in size and area of the interpolated compound muscle action potential (M wave). With a 15 Hz tetanus, a progressive decline in the interpolated twitch force also occurred (to ∼10%) but did so before the area of the interpolated M wave diminished. These results indicate that the increase in interpolated twitch size predicted from the mouse studies does not occur. Diminution in superimposed twitches occurred whether or not the M wave indicated marked impairment at sarcolemmal/t-tubular levels. Consequently, the increase in superimposed twitch, which is used to denote central fatigue in human fatiguing exercise, is likely to reflect low volitional drive to high-threshold motor units, which stop firing or are discharging at low frequencies.

  10. Corticospinal influences on the distal muscles of the hand in conditions of inertial loading.

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V

    2010-07-01

    Electromyographic activity and synchronous discharges in the muscles of the wrist induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex as the thumb and index finger were used to hold a handle bearing a weight were studied during performance of a number of motor tasks. When the subject increased grip force, for example, in response to increases in the weight of the attached load or by voluntarily squeezing the handle, the evoked response increased proportionally to muscle activity. If the subject moved the hand holding the handle up and down with an amplitude of 10 cm and a frequency of 0.5-1 Hz, grip force changed in accordance with the predicted inertial loading. The muscle response in the adductor pollicis muscle increased to a greater extent than the activity in the muscle. The response to sudden inertial loading consisted of a reflex increase in grip force, the muscle response increasing to a lesser extent than activity in the muscle. This suggests that larger increases in evoked muscle responses on up and down movement of the hand with a load are associated with anticipatory changes in grip force. These results are assessed from the point of view of the involvement of the motor cortex in generating anticipatory changes in muscle activity in the distal muscles. PMID:20544393

  11. Bone remodelling in the natural acetabulum is influenced by muscle force-induced bone stress.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Justin; Sartori, Massimo; Lloyd, David; Munro, Jacob; Shim, Vickie

    2014-01-01

    A modelling framework using the international Physiome Project is presented for evaluating the role of muscles on acetabular stress patterns in the natural hip. The novel developments include the following: (i) an efficient method for model generation with validation; (ii) the inclusion of electromyography-estimated muscle forces from gait; and (iii) the role that muscles play in the hip stress pattern. The 3D finite element hip model includes anatomically based muscle area attachments, material properties derived from Hounsfield units and validation against an Instron compression test. The primary outcome from this study is that hip loading applied as anatomically accurate muscle forces redistributes the stress pattern and reduces peak stress throughout the pelvis and within the acetabulum compared with applying the same net hip force without muscles through the femur. Muscle forces also increased stress where large muscles have small insertion sites. This has implications for the hip where bone stress and strain are key excitation variables used to initiate bone remodelling based on the strain-based bone remodelling theory. Inclusion of muscle forces reduces the predicted sites and degree of remodelling. The secondary outcome is that the key muscles that influenced remodelling in the acetabulum were the rectus femoris, adductor magnus and iliacus.

  12. Skeletal muscle fiber, nerve, and blood vessel breakdown in space-flown rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J. L.; Slocum, G. R.; Sedlak, F. R.

    1990-01-01

    Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were performed postflight on hind limb skeletal muscles of rats orbited for 12.5 days aboard the unmanned Cosmos 1887 biosatellite and returned to Earth 2 days before sacrifice. The antigravity adductor longus (AL), soleus, and plantaris muscles atrophied more than the non-weight-bearing extensor digitorum longus, and slow muscle fibers were more atrophic than fast fibers. Muscle fiber segmental necrosis occurred selectively in the AL and soleus muscles; primarily, macrophages and neutrophils infiltrated and phagocytosed cellular debris. Granule-rich mast cells were diminished in flight AL muscles compared with controls, indicating the mast cell secretion contributed to interstitial tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils implicated ubiquitin in myofilament degradation. Mitochondrial content and succinic dehydrogenase activity were normal, except for subsarcolemmal decreases. Myofibrillar ATPase activity of flight AL muscle fibers shifted toward the fast type. Absence of capillaries and extravasation of red blood cells indicated failed microcirculation. Muscle fiber regeneration from activated satellite cells was detected. About 17% of the flight AL end plates exhibited total or partial denervation. Thus, skeletal muscle weakness associated with spaceflight can result from muscle fiber atrophy and segmental necrosis, partial motor denervation, and disruption of the microcirculation.

  13. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Lynn; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2014-01-01

    The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV) of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG) compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01). The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between incremental position

  14. Drought and Burn Scars in Southeastern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    More than 2 million acres were consumed by hundreds of fires between December 2002 and February 2003 in southeastern Australia's national parks, forests, foothills and city suburbs. These images were acquired on February 14, 2002 (left) and February 17, 2003 (right) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument onboard NASA's Terra satellite. The year 2002 was one of Australia's hottest and driest on record, and the acreage burnt during the summer 2002-2003 fire season in Victoria, the Australian Capital Territory and southern New South Wales, is the largest since 1938-1939, when more than 3 million acres were scorched.

    The extent of the burnt area and the dry conditions as of February 2003 are indicated by these contrasting false-color views. Both image panels display data from the near-infrared, red and blue spectral bands of MISR's downward-viewing (nadir) camera, as red, green and blue, respectively. This display technique causes healthy vegetation to appear red and burnt areas to show as dark brown. The data displayed from the two dates were processed identically to preserve relative brightness variations. Vegetation changes related to the dry conditions (not related to the brown burn scars) are also indicated in the February 2003 panel, where many previously red areas exhibit instead the pale yellow-brown of the underlying soils and geology. Significant reduction in the surface area of several large and important water bodies are also apparent. The diminished extent of Lake Hume (along the left-hand edge) in the later date provides a good example.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 14999 and 16858. The panels cover an area of about 208 kilometers x 286 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 118 to

  15. Hypertrophic scars and keloids in surgery: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Song, Colin

    2014-09-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids remain a challenge in surgery. We appreciate that our understanding of the process at cellular and molecular level, profound as it is, when it comes to the clinical evidence much is left to be desired. Although the bench to bedside conundrum remains, the science of translational research calls for an even higher level of cooperation between the scientist and the clinician for the impetus to succeed.The clinicians alerted us to the possible theories in the pathogenesis of keloid formation, inter alia, the ischemia theory, mast cell theory, immune theory, transforming growth factor β interaction, mechanical theory, and the melanocyte stimulating hormone theory. All of the above presupposed a stimulus that would result in an uncontrolled upregulation of collagen and extracellular matrix expression in the pathogenesis of the keloid. This bedside to bench initiative, as in true science, realized more ponderables than possibilities.By the same token, research into the epidermal-mesenchymal signaling, molecular biology, genomics, and stem cell research holds much promise in the bench top arena. To assess efficacy, many scar assessment scores exist in the literature. The clinical measurement of scar maturity can aid in determining end points for therapeutics. Tissue oxygen tension and color assessment of scars by standardized photography proved to be useful.In surgery, the use of dermal substitutes holds some promise as we surmise that quality scars that arise from dermal elements, molecular and enzyme behavior, and balance. Although a systematic review shows some benefit for earlier closure and healing of wounds, no such review exists at this point in time for the use of dermal substitutes in scars.Adipose-derived stem cell, as it pertains to scars, will hopefully realize the potential of skin regeneration rather than by repair in which we are familiar with as well as the undesirable scarring as a result of healing through the inflammatory

  16. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    PubMed Central

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Hee Choi, Seong; Bless, Diane M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method Twenty four 4-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of four experimental groups: Chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100 ng basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), chronic vocal fold scar treated with saline (sham treatment), and unscarred untreated control. Following tissue harvest, histological and immunohistochemical data were collected to confirm extracellular matrix alteration in the chronic scar group, and acoustic, aerodynamic and high speed digital imaging data were collected using an excised larynx setup in all groups. Phonation threshold pressure (Pth), glottal resistance (Rg), glottal efficiency (Eg), vibratory amplitude and vibratory area were employed as dependent variables. Results Chronically scarred vocal folds were characterized by elevated collagen I and III and reduced hyaluronic acid abundance. Phonation was achieved and data were collected from all control and bFGF treated larynges, however phonation was not achieved with 3 of 6 chronically scarred and 1 of 6 saline treated larynges. Compared to control, the chronic scar group was characterized by elevated Pth, reduced Eg, and intra-larynx vibratory amplitude and area asymmetry. The bFGF group was characterized by Pth below control group levels, Eg comparable to control, and vocal fold vibratory amplitude and area symmetry comparable to control. The sham group was characterized by Pth comparable to control, Eg superior to control, and vocal fold vibratory amplitude and area symmetry comparable to control. Conclusions The excised larynx model reported here demonstrated robust deterioration across phonatory indices under the scar condition and sensitivity to treatment induced change under the bFGF condition. The improvement observed under the sham condition may reflect

  17. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Uterine Scar Niche before and after Laparoscopic Surgical Repair: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Olivier; Bergeron, Tessa; Beaudry, Ariane; Demers, Suzanne; Roberge, Stéphanie; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2014-11-01

    Context Uterine scar defects or scar niche are relatively common after cesarean delivery. An association has been observed between the severity of scar defect, also known as isthmocele, some gynecologic symptoms, and the risk of uterine scar dehiscence at the next delivery. It has been suggested that surgical repair of scar defect could improve the gynecological symptoms, but it remains unclear whether such surgery mends the uterine scar itself. Case Report We report the case of a woman with uterine scar defect in whom laparoscopic repair significantly improved the gynecological symptoms without affecting the uterine scar, evaluated by hysterosonography. Conclusion This case highlights the significant dearth of knowledge surrounding the diagnosis, consequences, and benefits of surgical repair of uterine scar defect after cesarean. PMID:25452883

  18. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Uterine Scar Niche before and after Laparoscopic Surgical Repair: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Drouin, Olivier; Bergeron, Tessa; Beaudry, Ariane; Demers, Suzanne; Roberge, Stéphanie; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Context Uterine scar defects or scar niche are relatively common after cesarean delivery. An association has been observed between the severity of scar defect, also known as isthmocele, some gynecologic symptoms, and the risk of uterine scar dehiscence at the next delivery. It has been suggested that surgical repair of scar defect could improve the gynecological symptoms, but it remains unclear whether such surgery mends the uterine scar itself. Case Report We report the case of a woman with uterine scar defect in whom laparoscopic repair significantly improved the gynecological symptoms without affecting the uterine scar, evaluated by hysterosonography. Conclusion This case highlights the significant dearth of knowledge surrounding the diagnosis, consequences, and benefits of surgical repair of uterine scar defect after cesarean. PMID:25452883

  19. Abdominal muscle and quadriceps strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Man, W; Hopkinson, N; Harraf, F; Nikoletou, D; Polkey, M; Moxham, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Quadriceps muscle weakness is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is not observed in a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis). Although this could be explained by reduced activity in the quadriceps, the observation could also be explained by anatomical location of the muscle or fibre type composition. However, the abdominal muscles are of a similar anatomical and fibre type distribution to the quadriceps, although they remain active in COPD. Cough gastric pressure is a recently described technique that assesses abdominal muscle (and hence expiratory muscle) strength more accurately than traditional techniques. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that more severe weakness exists in the quadriceps than in the abdominal muscles of patients with COPD compared with healthy elderly controls. Methods: Maximum cough gastric pressure and quadriceps isometric strength were measured in 43 patients with stable COPD and 25 healthy elderly volunteers matched for anthropometric variables. Results: Despite a significant reduction in mean quadriceps strength (29.9 kg v 41.2 kg; 95% CI –17.9 to –4.6; p = 0.001), cough gastric pressure was preserved in patients with COPD (227.3 cm H2O v 204.8 cm H2O; 95% CI –5.4 to 50.6; p = 0.11). Conclusions: Abdominal muscle strength is preserved in stable COPD outpatients in the presence of quadriceps weakness. This suggests that anatomical location and fibre type cannot explain quadriceps weakness in COPD. By inference, we conclude that disuse and consequent deconditioning are important factors in the development of quadriceps muscle weakness in COPD patients, or that activity protects the abdominal muscles from possible systemic myopathic processes. PMID:15923239

  20. Multimodal management of atrophic acne scarring in the aging face.

    PubMed

    O'Daniel, T Gerald

    2011-12-01

    Atrophic facial acne scarring is a widely prevalent condition that can have a negative impact on a patient's quality of life. The appearance of these scars is often worsened by the normal effects of aging. A number of options are available for the treatment of acne scarring, including chemical peeling, dermabrasion, ablative or nonablative laser resurfacing, dermal fillers, and surgical techniques such as subcision or punch excision. Depending on the type and extent of scarring, a multimodal approach is generally necessary to provide satisfactory results. Resurfacing techniques correct surface irregularities, long-lasting dermal fillers address the volume loss resulting from acne, and sub-superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) face-lift procedures counter the soft tissue laxity and ptosis associated with aging. This article briefly reviews the evolution of individual approaches to treating atrophic acne scarring, followed by case examples illustrating results that can be achieved using a multimodal approach. Representative cases from patients in their 30s, 40s, and 50s are presented. In the author's clinical practice, multimodal approaches incorporating fractionated laser, injectable poly-L: -lactic acid, and sub-SMAS face-lift procedures have achieved optimal aesthetic outcomes, high patient satisfaction, and durability of aesthetic effect over time. PMID:21491169

  1. Computational Representations of Myocardial Infarct Scars and Implications for Arrhythmogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Adam J.; Bishop, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Image-based computational modeling is becoming an increasingly used clinical tool to provide insight into the mechanisms of reentrant arrhythmias. In the context of ischemic heart disease, faithful representation of the electrophysiological properties of the infarct region within models is essential, due to the scars known for arrhythmic properties. Here, we review the different computational representations of the infarcted region, summarizing the experimental measurements upon which they are based. We then focus on the two most common representations of the scar core (complete insulator or electrically passive tissue) and perform simulations of electrical propagation around idealized infarct geometries. Our simulations highlight significant differences in action potential duration and focal effective refractory period (ERP) around the scar, driven by differences in electrotonic loading, depending on the choice of scar representation. Finally, a novel mechanism for arrhythmia induction, following a focal ectopic beat, is demonstrated, which relies on localized gradients in ERP directly caused by the electrotonic sink effects of the neighboring passive scar. PMID:27486348

  2. Superficial and deep infiltrating congenital juvenile xanthogranuloma involving multiple skeletal muscles and associated with ulceration and generalized postinvolution atrophy.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hye-Rim; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan

    2015-01-01

    We present a 2-day-old boy with a deep-seated giant juvenile xanthogranuloma infiltrating the skeletal muscles on his right lower limb. Unlike typical juvenile xanthogranuloma, the lesion has shown only partial spontaneous regression with large atrophic scar. However, despite the involvement multiple muscle on the right thigh, the patient has no evidence of orthopaedic sequelae.

  3. Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2014-02-15

    With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P < 0.05) as was force (40.3 ± 12.8% vs. 57.1 ± 13.8% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Likewise, after a 2-min AP MVC, elbow flexion voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (88.3 ± 7.5% vs. 93.6 ± 3.9%; P < 0.05) as was torque (80.2 ± 4.6% vs. 86.6 ± 1.0% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Pain during ischemia was reported as Moderate to Very Strong. Postfatigue firing of group III/IV muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb. PMID:24356522

  4. Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2014-02-15

    With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P < 0.05) as was force (40.3 ± 12.8% vs. 57.1 ± 13.8% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Likewise, after a 2-min AP MVC, elbow flexion voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (88.3 ± 7.5% vs. 93.6 ± 3.9%; P < 0.05) as was torque (80.2 ± 4.6% vs. 86.6 ± 1.0% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Pain during ischemia was reported as Moderate to Very Strong. Postfatigue firing of group III/IV muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb.

  5. Cranial myology and bite force performance of Erlikosaurus andrewsi: a novel approach for digital muscle reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of bite force and bite performance in fossil and extinct animals is a challenging subject in palaeontology and is highly dependent on the reconstruction of the cranial myology. Furthermore, the morphology and arrangement of the adductor muscles considerably affect feeding processes and mastication and thus also have important dietary and ecological ramifications. However, in the past, the reconstruction of the (cranial) muscles was restricted to the identification of muscle attachment sites or simplified computer models. This study presents a detailed reconstruction of the adductor musculature of the Cretaceous therizinosaur Erlikosaurus andrewsi based on a stepwise and iterative approach. The detailed, three-dimensional models of the individual muscles allow for more accurate measurements of the muscle properties (length, cross-section, attachment angle and volume), from which muscle and bite force estimates are calculated. Bite force estimations are found to be the lowest at the tip of the snout (43–65 N) and respectively higher at the first (59–88 N) and last tooth (90–134 N) position. Nevertheless, bite forces are comparatively low for E. andrewsi, both in actual numbers as well as in comparison with other theropod dinosaurs. The results further indicate that the low bite performance was mainly used for leaf-stripping and plant cropping, rather than active mastication or chewing processes. Muscle and thus bite force in E. andrewsi (and most likely all therizinosaurs) is considerably constrained by the cranial anatomy and declines in derived taxa of this clade. This trend is reflected in the changes of dietary preferences from carnivory to herbivory in therizinosaurs. PMID:23061752

  6. A simulating analysis of the effects of increased joint stiffness on muscle loading in a thumb

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The development of osteoarthritis (OA) in the hand results in increased joint stiffness, which in turn affects the grip strength. The goal of the present study is to theoretically analyze the muscle forces in a thumb in response to the increased joint stiffness. Methods The thumb was modeled as a linkage system consisting of a trapezium, a metacarpal bone, a proximal and a distal phalanx. Nine muscles were included in the model: flexor pollicis longus (FPL), extensor pollicis longus (EPL), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), abductor pollicis longus (APL), flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), abductor pollicis brevis (APB), the transverse head of the adductor pollicis (ADPt), the oblique head of the adductor pollicis (ADPo), and opponens pollicis (OPP). Numerical tests were performed using an inverse dynamic approach. The joints were prescribed to an angular motion at one degree-of-freedom (DOF) each time with all other DOFs of the joints being mechanically constrained, while the muscle forces in response to the joint motions were predicted. The normal joint stiffness was assumed to be 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 N m/rad for interphalangeal (IP), metacarpophalangeal (MCP), and carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, respectively. The joint stiffness was assumed to increase by 50% and 100%, simulating the biomechanical consequences of OA. Results Our simulations indicated that the increase in joint stiffness induced substantial increases in muscle forces, especially in the EPL and FPL muscles in response to IP, MCP, or CMC extension/flexion motions. Conclusions Because the strength of the muscles in the fingers is limited, the muscles will not be able to overcome joint resistance if joint stiffness is increased to its limit due to OA. This may contribute to the reduced range of motion typically seen in OA. PMID:20015378

  7. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  8. Impact of Nonischemic Scar Features on Local Ventricular Electrograms and Scar-Related Ventricular Tachycardia Circuits in Patients with Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Miller, Christopher F.; Hansford, Rozann; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Zviman, Menekhem M.; Marine, Joseph E.; Spragg, David; Cheng, Alan; Tandri, Harikrishna; Sinha, Sunil; Kolandaivelu, Aravindan; Zimmerman, Stefan L.; Bluemke, David A.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Berger, Ronald D.; Halperin, Henry R.; Calkins, Hugh; Nazarian, Saman

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of local electrogram features with scar morphology and distribution in nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) has not been investigated. We aimed to quantify the association of scar on late-gadolinium enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) with local electrograms and ventricular tachycardia (VT) circuit sites in patients with NICM. Methods and Results Fifteen patients with NICM underwent LGE-CMR before VT ablation. The transmural extent and intramural types (endocardial, mid-wall, epicardial, patchy, transmural) of scar were measured in LGE-CMR short axis planes. Electro-anatomic map (EAM) points were registered to LGE-CMR images. Myocardial wall thickness, scar transmurality, and intramural scar types were independently associated with electrogram amplitude, duration, and deflections in linear mixed effects multivariable models, clustered by patient. Fractionated and isolated potentials were more likely to be observed in regions with higher scar transmurality (P<0.0001 by ANOVA) and in regions with patchy scar (versus endocardial, mid wall, epicardial scar, P<0.05 by ANOVA). Most VT circuit sites were located in scar with >25% scar transmurality. Conclusions Electrogram features are associated with scar morphology and distribution in patients with NICM. Prior knowledge of electrogram image associations may optimize procedural strategies including the decision to obtain epicardial access. PMID:24235267

  9. The Modified POSAS: A Novel Approach to Defining Pathologic and Non-Pathologic Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Fearmonti, Regina; Bond, Jennifer; Erdmann, Detlev; Levin, L. Scott; Pizzo, Salvatore V; Levinson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Background Scarring is a highly prevalent and multifactorial process, yet no studies to date have attempted to distinguish pathologic from non-pathologic scarring. Methods This article defines and proposes methods of classifying pathologic scarring as it pertains to clinical presentation. Results We propose a new scar scale that incorporates pain and functional impairment. Conclusion The modified POSAS scar assessment scale is the first of its kind to factor in the functional deficits, pain and pruritus of scarring into measurements of associated morbidity. This has great potential in evaluating patient response to treatment and analyzing clinical outcomes. PMID:21200219

  10. A multidisciplinary approach to scars: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Zanier, Emiliano; Bordoni, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to carry out a narrative review regarding the approach to scars through complementary and alternative medicine focusing on osteopathy, naturopathy, and other minor methods and traditional rehabilitative medicines, such as physiotherapy and manual therapies. We analyzed the existing literature regarding the possible influences of techniques relaxing the diaphragm – both manual and psychophysical relaxing techniques – and the consequent local response to events leading to scar tissue healing. The objective of the study is to become a useful instrument of knowledge for those manual therapists and professionals who deal with patients affected by discontinuity of the skin surface due to trauma or surgery. This article also intends to stimulate research in order to find and propose new methods of scar treatment, taking into consideration the information gained so far from other complementary and alternative disciplines. PMID:26316774

  11. Arteriovenous malformation as a consequence of a scar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rygh, Astrid B; Greve, Ole J; Fjetland, Lars; Berland, Jannicke M; Eggebø, Torbjørn M

    2009-01-01

    A scar pregnancy is an ectopic pregnancy implanted in a previous lower segment cesarean scar, and the incidence of this complication may be expected to rise along with increasing cesarean section rates. Arteriovenous malformation of the uterus may be congenital, associated with early pregnancy loss, trophoblastic disease, or surgical procedures. We describe a case of uterine arteriovenous malformation as a consequence of a scar pregnancy, complicated by recurrent, serious bleeding. The condition was diagnosed using three-dimensional ultrasound with color Doppler and magnetic resonance imaging and appears not to have been described before. Selective embolization was performed, but eventually surgical intervention with resection of the affected uterine segment was necessary, and the patient recovered. The diagnosis was confirmed by pathologic-anatomical diagnosis showing trophoblastic cells in the resected area. Because of collateral formation, non-surgical options may be limited and not successful.

  12. Current Strategies in the Treatment of Scars and Keloids.

    PubMed

    Heppt, Markus V; Breuninger, Helmut; Reinholz, Markus; Feller-Heppt, Gabriele; Ruzicka, Thomas; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTSs) and keloids are a major health concern for aesthetic and functional reasons. Despite a plethora of rapidly evolving treatment options and technical advances, the management of pathologic scarring remains difficult. The development of standardized treatment algorithms has been problematic for years due to the lack of sound randomized controlled trials. Expert panels are more and more establishing guidelines to provide an evidence-based framework on a national and international level. This article aims to evaluate the current strategies and upcoming trends in the therapy and prevention of unpleasant scars and keloids from a clinical perspective. There is strong evidence to support a growing role of early combination treatments, particularly the application of 5-fluoruracil adjunct to intralesional steroid injections. Furthermore, the use of fractional ablative laser technologies such as the CO2 laser has recently yielded promising results with respect to aesthetic outcomes and patient satisfaction at tolerable side effects.

  13. Mapping Fire Scars in the Brazilian Cerrado Using AVHRR Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Brass, J. A.; Rezendez, A.; Alexander, S.; Guild, L. S.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian cerrado, or savanna, spans an area of 1,800,000 square kilometers on the great plateau of Central Brazil. Large fires covering hundreds of square kilometers, frequently occur in wildland areas of the cerrado, dominated by grasslands or grasslands mixed with shrubs and small trees, and also within area in the cerrado used for agricultural purposes, particularly for grazing. Smaller fires, typically extending over arm of a few square kilometers or less, are associated with the clewing of crops, such as dry land rice. A method for mapping fire scars and differentiating them from extensive areas of bare sod with AVHRR bands 1 (.55 -.68 micrometer) and 3 (3.5 - 3.9 micrometers) and measures of performance based on comparison with maps of fires with Landsat imagery will be presented. Methods of estimating total area burned from the AVHRR fire scar map will be discussed and related to land use and scar size.

  14. The SCAR Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica Scientific Research Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, John W. V.; Abe, Lyu; Andersen, Michael; Anderson, Philip; Burton, Michael; Cui, Xiangqun; Ichikawa, Takashi; Karle, Albrecht; Lloyd, James; Masi, Silvia; Steinbring, Eric; Travouillon, Tony; Tuthill, Peter; Zhou, HongYang

    2013-01-01

    SCAR, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, is, like the IAU, a committee of ICSU, the International Council for Science. For over 30 years, SCAR has provided scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty System and made numerous recommendations on a variety of matters. In 2010, Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica was recognized as one of SCAR's five Scientific Research Programs. Broadly stated, the objectives of Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica are to coordinate astronomical activities in Antarctica in a way that ensures the best possible outcomes from international investment in Antarctic astronomy, and maximizes the opportunities for productive interaction with other disciplines. There are four Working Groups, dealing with site testing, Arctic astronomy, science goals, and major new facilities. Membership of the Working Groups is open to any professional working in astronomy or a related field.

  15. Verapamil inhibits scar formation after peripheral nerve repair in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Han, A-chao; Deng, Jing-xiu; Huang, Qi-shun; Zheng, Huai-yuan; Zhou, Pan; Liu, Zhi-wei; Chen, Zhen-bing

    2016-01-01

    The calcium channel blocker, verapamil, has been shown to reduce scar formation by inhibiting fibroblast adhesion and proliferation in vitro. It was not clear whether topical application of verapamil after surgical repair of the nerve in vivo could inhibit the formation of excessive scar tissue. In this study, the right sciatic nerve of adult Sprague-Dawley rats was transected and sutured with No. 10-0 suture. The stoma was wrapped with gelfoam soaked with verapamil solution for 4 weeks. Compared with the control group (stoma wrapped with gelfoam soaked with physiological saline), the verapamil application inhibited the secretion of extracellular matrix from fibroblasts in vivo, suppressed type I and III collagen secretion and increased the total number of axons and the number of myelinated axons. These findings suggest that verapamil could reduce the formation of scar tissue and promote axon growth after peripheral nerve repair. PMID:27127494

  16. Scars and the stability of crystalline shells under external pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Duanduan; Bowick, Mark; Sknepnek, Rastko

    2015-03-01

    While continuum elastic theory predicts the mechanical properties of ideal spherical shells under external pressure, on microscopic scale the response of shells to pressure may be affected by their crystalline order and defect structure. Here we compare the stability, under external pressure, of shells with a minimal set of topologically-required defects to shells with extended defect arrays (grain boundary ``scars''). In particular, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to compare how shells with and without scars deform quasi-statically under external hydrostatic pressure. We find that the critical pressure at which shells collapse is lowered when the scar distribution breaks icosahedral symmetry and raised when symmetry is preserved. The particular shapes resulting from collapses which break icosahedral symmetry depend crucially on the Föppl-von Kármán number. We thank the Soft Matter Program of Syracuse University for support.

  17. A multidisciplinary approach to scars: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Zanier, Emiliano; Bordoni, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to carry out a narrative review regarding the approach to scars through complementary and alternative medicine focusing on osteopathy, naturopathy, and other minor methods and traditional rehabilitative medicines, such as physiotherapy and manual therapies. We analyzed the existing literature regarding the possible influences of techniques relaxing the diaphragm - both manual and psychophysical relaxing techniques - and the consequent local response to events leading to scar tissue healing. The objective of the study is to become a useful instrument of knowledge for those manual therapists and professionals who deal with patients affected by discontinuity of the skin surface due to trauma or surgery. This article also intends to stimulate research in order to find and propose new methods of scar treatment, taking into consideration the information gained so far from other complementary and alternative disciplines.

  18. Homeostasis of Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Scarred Vocal Folds

    PubMed Central

    Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Watanuki, Makoto; Bless, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives/Hypothesis Vocal fold scarring is one of the most challenging laryngeal disorders to treat. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the main component of lamina propria, and it plays an important role in proper vocal fold vibration and is also thought to be important in fetal wound healing without scarring. Although several animal models of vocal fold scarring have been reported, little is known about the way in which HA is maintained in vocal folds. The purpose of this study was to clarify the homeostasis of HA by examining the expression of hyaluronan synthase (Has) and hyaluronidase (Hyal), which produce and digest HA, respectively. Study Design Experimental prospective animal study. Methods Vocal fold stripping was performed on 38 Sprague-Dawley rats. Vocal fold tissue was collected at five time points (3 days–2 months). Expression of HA was examined by immunohistochemistry, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Has and Hyal was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and in-situ hybridization. Results In scarred vocal folds, expression of Has1 and Has2 increased at day 3 together with expression of HA and returned to normal at 2 weeks. At 2 months, Has3 and Hyal3 mRNA showed higher expressions than normal. Conclusions Expression patterns of Has and Hyal genes differed between normal, acute-scarred, and chronic-scarred vocal folds, indicating the distinct roles of each enzyme in maintaining HA. Continuous upregulation of Has genes in the acute phase may be necessary to achieve scarless healing of vocal folds. PMID:25499520

  19. Recontouring, resurfacing, and scar revision in skin cancer reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Michael J; Perro, Christopher A

    2009-08-01

    Residual disfigurement is a common problem for patients who have undergone skin cancer reconstruction. Restoring form and function in these patients is an artistic and technical endeavor. The efficacy of surgical scar revision, dermabrasion, chemical peels, and laser resurfacing is predicated upon the skin's innate ability to regenerate over time in response to mechanical, chemical, and thermal or ablative stresses. The patient and surgeon should be accepting of a process that is often gradual and may proceed in stages. Achieving proficiency with the secondary procedures for improving scars and local flaps may allow the motivated surgeon to mold an initially passable surgical result into an excellent one.

  20. Scar Functions, Barriers for Chemical Reactivity, and Vibrational Basis Sets.

    PubMed

    Revuelta, F; Vergini, E; Benito, R M; Borondo, F

    2016-07-14

    The performance of a recently proposed method to efficiently calculate scar functions is analyzed in problems of chemical interest. An application to the computation of wave functions associated with barriers relevant for the LiNC ⇄ LiCN isomerization reaction is presented as an illustration. These scar functions also constitute excellent elements for basis sets suitable for quantum calculation of vibrational energy levels. To illustrate their efficiency, a calculation of the LiNC/LiCN eigenfunctions is also presented. PMID:26905100

  1. Recontouring, resurfacing, and scar revision in skin cancer reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Michael J; Perro, Christopher A

    2009-08-01

    Residual disfigurement is a common problem for patients who have undergone skin cancer reconstruction. Restoring form and function in these patients is an artistic and technical endeavor. The efficacy of surgical scar revision, dermabrasion, chemical peels, and laser resurfacing is predicated upon the skin's innate ability to regenerate over time in response to mechanical, chemical, and thermal or ablative stresses. The patient and surgeon should be accepting of a process that is often gradual and may proceed in stages. Achieving proficiency with the secondary procedures for improving scars and local flaps may allow the motivated surgeon to mold an initially passable surgical result into an excellent one. PMID:19698924

  2. Mineral analysis in experimental corneal scars. An EDAX study

    SciTech Connect

    Bonafonte, S.; Fernandez del Cotero, J.N.; Aguirre Vila-Coro, A.

    1988-01-01

    Central penetrating excisional wounds were made in the corneas of 12 rabbits and 10 trout. The scar tissue and the surrounding cornea were compared using a new method for assessing inorganic elements in the cornea: the scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of x-ray (EDAX). Semiquantitative determination of inorganic elements within the range of atomic numbers 9-93 in the periodic system was performed, comparing the relative concentration of those elements in the scar tissue to the surrounding cornea. Results showed that calcium was the only element higher in the healing wound than in the surrounding cornea.

  3. Mineral analysis in experimental corneal scars. An EDAX study.

    PubMed

    Bonafonte, S; Fernandez del Cotero, J N; Aguirre Vila-Coro, A

    1988-01-01

    Central penetrating excisional wounds were made in the corneas of 12 rabbits and 10 trout. The scar tissue and the surrounding cornea were compared using a new method for assessing inorganic elements in the cornea: the scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of x-ray (EDAX). Semiquantitative determination of inorganic elements within the range of atomic numbers 9-93 in the periodic system was performed, comparing the relative concentration of those elements in the scar tissue to the surrounding cornea. Results showed that calcium was the only element higher in the healing wound than in the surrounding cornea.

  4. Liposuction-Assisted Short-Scar Brachioplasty: Technical Highlights.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sean; Small, Kevin H; Pezeshk, Ronnie A; Rohrich, Rod J

    2016-09-01

    Upper arm contouring is based on the location and amount of excess skin and fat. The short-scar brachioplasty addresses minimal to moderate skin laxity and lipodystrophy in the proximal arm in patients with appropriate skin tone and quality. This article highlights technical refinements of the senior author's (R.J.R.) approach to short-scar medial liposuction-assisted brachioplasty to maximize results and minimize incision length. To highlight this simple and safe approach with high patient/surgeon satisfaction, the authors discuss the following in this Video Plus article: patient examination, preoperative assessment, surgical pearls, and postoperative outcomes. PMID:27556619

  5. Fatty degeneration of gluteus minimus muscle as a predictor of falls.

    PubMed

    Kiyoshige, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The cause of falls is multifactorial, however, hip fractures in elderly would be prevented if accidental falls are predictable. We assessed magnetic resonance images of 38 patients with groin pain after taking a fall whose fracture could not be detected by plain X-rays, and 45 patients with no episode of falls. Their ages were over 65 years. Fatty degeneration of muscles, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, obturator externus, adductor longus, rectus femoris and iliopsoas muscles, were evaluated by Goutallier's staging. Odds ratio was calculated by a logistic regression analysis allocating dependent variable for falls and independent variables for Goutallier's stage, age and gender. The fatty degeneration of gluteus maximus muscle was generalized, while that of gluteus minimus muscle was unevenly distributed, especially in anterior area. Gluteus minimus muscle initiated its fatty degeneration earlier than gluteus medius muscle. Odds ratio of falling was 3.2 (95% confidence intervals: 1, 14, 8.94) for Goutallier' stage of the gluteus medius muscle. Fatty degeneration of gluteus medius muscle has a crucial role in providing stability of the pelvis including hip joint. Evaluating fatty streaks in the gluteus minimus muscle could help give early indication to those who have a higher risk of falling. PMID:25440137

  6. Scar-free cutaneous wound healing in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Hanna M; Gilbert, Emily A B; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous wounds heal with two possible outcomes: scarification or near-perfect integumentary restoration. Whereas scar formation has been intensively investigated, less is known about the tissue-level events characterising wounds that spontaneously heal scar-free, particularly in non-foetal amniotes. Here, a spatiotemporal investigation of scar-free cutaneous wound healing following full-thickness excisional biopsies to the tail and body of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) is provided. All injuries healed without scarring. Cutaneous repair involves the development of a cell-rich aggregate within the wound bed, similar to scarring wounds. Unlike scar formation, scar-free healing involves a more rapid closure of the wound epithelium, and a delay in blood vessel development and collagen deposition within the wound bed. It was found that, while granulation tissue of scarring wounds is hypervascular, scar-free wound healing conspicuously does not involve a period of exuberant blood vessel formation. In addition, during scar-free wound healing the newly formed blood vessels are typically perivascular cell-supported. Immunohistochemistry revealed widespread expression of both the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor A and the anti-angiogenic factor thrombospondin-1 within the healing wound. It was found that scar-free wound healing is an intrinsic property of leopard gecko integument, and involves a modulation of the cutaneous scar repair program. This proportional revascularisation is an important factor in scar-free wound healing.

  7. Successful Management of a Cesarean Scar Defect with Dehiscence of the Uterine Incision by Using Wound Lavage

    PubMed Central

    Ida, Akinori; Kubota, Yoko; Nosaka, Maiko; Ito, Koichi; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Cesarean scar defects (CSDs) that can be visualized using transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) may cause prolonged menstruation, irregular genital bleeding, and secondary infertility; surgical repair is sometimes necessary. We present a case of CSD, with dehiscence of the uterine incision, which was managed using wound lavage. A 38-year-old woman (gravida 4, para 4) had delivered her third and fourth children by cesarean section. Upon the resumption of menstruation, 9 months after her second cesarean section, she demonstrated prolonged menstruation and the presence of a menstrual fistula due to dehiscence of the cesarean section incision from the myometrium to the serosa. We treated the defect by lavaging with a physiological saline solution. After lavaging the wound 3 times, spontaneous healing of the dehiscent muscle layer was successfully achieved. The treatment was complication-free and the healing of the muscle layer has been maintained for more than 8 months. PMID:25431714

  8. A polarized multispectral imaging system for quantitative assessment of hypertrophic scars

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Travis, Taryn E.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are a pathologic reaction of the skin and soft tissue to burn or other traumatic injury. Scar tissue can cause patients serious functional and cosmetic issues. Scar management strategies, specifically scar assessment techniques, are vital to improve clinical outcome. To date, no entirely objective method for scar assessment has been embraced by the medical community. In this study, we introduce for the first time, a novel polarized multispectral imaging system combining out-of-plane Stokes polarimetry and Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI). This imaging system enables us to assess the pathophysiology (hemoglobin, blood oxygenation, water, and melanin) and structural features (cellularity and roughness) of HTS. To apply the proposed technique in an in vivo experiment, dermal wounds were created in a porcine model and allowed to form into scars. The developed scars were then measured at various time points using the imaging system. Results showed a good agreement with clinical Vancouver Scar Scale assessment and histological examinations. PMID:25360354

  9. In vivo assessment of human burn scars through automated quantification of vascularity using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Yih Miin; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Gong, Peijun; Wood, Fiona M.; Sampson, David D.

    2013-06-01

    In scars arising from burns, objective assessment of vascularity is important in the early identification of pathological scarring, and in the assessment of progression and treatment response. We demonstrate the first clinical assessment and automated quantification of vascularity in cutaneous burn scars of human patients in vivo that uses optical coherence tomography (OCT). Scar microvasculature was delineated in three-dimensional OCT images using speckle decorrelation. The diameter and area density of blood vessels were automatically quantified. A substantial increase was observed in the measured density of vasculature in hypertrophic scar tissues (38%) when compared against normal, unscarred skin (22%). A proliferation of larger vessels (diameter≥100 μm) was revealed in hypertrophic scarring, which was absent from normal scars and normal skin over the investigated physical depth range of 600 μm. This study establishes the feasibility of this methodology as a means of clinical monitoring of scar progression.

  10. Hysteroscopy and suction evacuation of cesarean scar pregnancies: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Fylstra, Donald L

    2014-03-01

    Implantation of a pregnancy into the scar of a prior cesarean is an uncommon type of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of cesarean scar pregnancy is thought to be one in 1800-2216 pregnancies. The increase in the incidence of cesarean scar pregnancy is thought to be a consequence of the increasing rates of cesarean delivery. The natural history of cesarean scar pregnancy is unknown. However, if such a pregnancy is allowed to continue, uterine scar rupture with hemorrhage and possible hysterectomy seem likely. Two early diagnosed cesarean scar pregnancies were treated with hysteroscopy and suction curettage removal. One required intramuscular methotrexate to resolve a persistent cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. It would seem reasonable that simple suction evacuation would frequently leave chorionic villi imbedded within the cesarean scar, as the pregnancy is not within the endometrial cavity.

  11. Ectopic Pregnancy in caesarean section scar: A case report.

    PubMed

    Aich, Rajarshi; Solanki, Narayan; Kakadiya, Ketan; Bansal, Ashank; Joshi, Manisha; Nawale, Ajita

    2015-12-01

    We report a rare case of ectopic pregnancy occurring in the scar of a previous caesarean section, diagnosed by ultrasonography and confirmed by 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging of pelvis. We present the clinical details and imaging findings, followed by discussion of the etiology, pathogenesis, and imaging of this condition. PMID:26649124

  12. Triterpenes for Well-Balanced Scar Formation in Superficial Wounds.

    PubMed

    Kindler, Stefan; Schuster, Matthias; Seebauer, Christian; Rutkowski, Rico; Hauschild, Anna; Podmelle, Fred; Metelmann, Camilla; Metelmann, Bibiana; Müller-Debus, Charlotte; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Metelmann, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenes are demonstrably effective for accelerating re-epithelialisation of wounds and known to improve scar formation for superficial lesions. Among the variety of triterpenes, betuline is of particular medical interest. Topical betuline gel (TBG) received drug approval in 2016 from the European Commission as the first topical therapeutic agent with the proven clinical benefit of accelerating wound healing. Two self-conducted randomized intra-individual comparison clinical studies with a total of 220 patients involved in TBG treatment of skin graft surgical wounds have been screened for data concerning the aesthetic aspect of wound healing. Three months after surgery wound treatment with TBG resulted in about 30% of cases with more discreet scars, and standard of care in about 10%. Patients themselves appreciate the results of TBG after 3 months even more (about 50%) compared to standard of care (about 10%). One year after surgery, the superiority of TBG counts for about 25% in comparison with about 10%, and from the patients' point of view, for 25% compared to 4% under standard of care. In the majority of wound treatment cases, there is no difference visible between TBG treatment and standard of care after 1 year of scar formation. However, in comparison, TBG still offers a better chance for discreet scars and therefore happens to be superior in good care of wounds. PMID:27618886

  13. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. PMID:25439143

  14. Prediction of scar integrity and vaginal birth after caesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Lil

    2013-04-01

    A statistically significant association with uterine rupture during a trial of labour after caesarean delivery was found in at least two studies for the following variables: inter-delivery interval (higher risk with short interval), birth weight (higher risk if 4000 g or over), induction of labour (higher risk), oxytocin dose (higher risk with higher doses), and previous vaginal delivery (lower risk). However, no clinically useful risk estimation model that includes clinical variables has been published. A thin lower uterine segment at 35-40 weeks, as measured by ultrasound in women with a caesarean hysterotomy scar, increases the risk of uterine rupture or dehiscence. No cut-off for lower uterine segment thickness, however, can be suggested because of study heterogeneity, and because prospective validation is lacking. Large caesarean hysterotomy scar defects in non-pregnant women seen at ultrasound examination increase the risk of uterine rupture or dehiscence in subsequent pregnancy, but the strength of the association is unknown. To sum up, we currently lack a method that can provide a reliable estimate of the risk of uterine rupture or dehiscence during a trial of labour in women with caesarean hysterotomy scar(s).

  15. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder.

  16. Biologicals and Fetal Cell Therapy for Wound and Scar Management

    PubMed Central

    Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Ramelet, Albert-Adrien; Raffoul, Wassim; de Buys Roessingh, Anthony; Scaletta, Corinne; Pioletti, Dominique; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2011-01-01

    Few biopharmaceutical preparations developed from biologicals are available for tissue regeneration and scar management. When developing biological treatments with cellular therapy, selection of cell types and establishment of consistent cell banks are crucial steps in whole-cell bioprocessing. Various cell types have been used in treatment of wounds to reduce scar to date including autolog and allogenic skin cells, platelets, placenta, and amniotic extracts. Experience with fetal cells show that they may provide an interesting cell choice due to facility of outscaling and known properties for wound healing without scar. Differential gene profiling has helped to point to potential indicators of repair which include cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, cytokines, growth factors, and development. Safety has been evidenced in Phase I and II clinical fetal cell use for burn and wound treatments with different cell delivery systems. We present herein that fetal cells present technical and therapeutic advantages compared to other cell types for effective cell-based therapy for wound and scar management. PMID:22363853

  17. Muscle fiber type specific induction of slow myosin heavy chain 2 gene expression by electrical stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Crew, Jennifer R.; Falzari, Kanakeshwari; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2010-04-01

    Vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber types are defined by a broad array of differentially expressed contractile and metabolic protein genes. The mechanisms that establish and maintain these different fiber types vary throughout development and with changing functional demand. Chicken skeletal muscle fibers can be generally categorized as fast and fast/slow based on expression of the slow myosin heavy chain 2 (MyHC2) gene in fast/slow muscle fibers. To investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control fiber type formation in secondary or fetal muscle fibers, myoblasts from the fast pectoralis major (PM) and fast/slow medial adductor (MA) muscles were isolated, allowed to differentiate in vitro, and electrically stimulated. MA muscle fibers were induced to express the slow MyHC2 gene by electrical stimulation, whereas PM muscle fibers did not express the slow MyHC2 gene under identical stimulation conditions. However, PM muscle fibers did express the slow MyHC2 gene when electrical stimulation was combined with inhibition of inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) activity. Electrical stimulation was sufficient to increase nuclear localization of expressed nuclear-factor-of-activated-T-cells (NFAT), NFAT-mediated transcription, and slow MyHC2 promoter activity in MA muscle fibers. In contrast, both electrical stimulation and inhibitors of IP3R activity were required for these effects in PM muscle fibers. Electrical stimulation also increased levels of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} co-activator-1 (PGC-1{alpha}) protein in PM and MA muscle fibers. These results indicate that MA muscle fibers can be induced by electrical stimulation to express the slow MyHC2 gene and that fast PM muscle fibers are refractory to stimulation-induced slow MyHC2 gene expression due to fast PM muscle fiber specific cellular mechanisms involving IP3R activity.

  18. Process of Hypertrophic Scar Formation: Expression of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 6

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing-Qing; Yang, Si-Si; Tan, Jiang-Lin; Luo, Gao-Xing; He, Wei-Feng; Wu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic scar is one of the most common complications and often causes the disfigurement or deformity in burn or trauma patients. Therapeutic methods on hypertrophic scar treatment have limitations due to the poor understanding of mechanisms of hypertrophic scar formation. To throw light on the molecular mechanism of hypertrophic scar formation will definitely improve the outcome of the treatment. This study aimed to illustrate the negative role of eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) in the process of human hypertrophic scar formation, and provide a possible indicator of hypertrophic scar treatment and a potential target molecule for hypertrophic scar. Methods: In the present study, we investigated the protein expression of eIF6 in the human hypertrophic scar of different periods by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Results: In the hypertrophic scar tissue, eIF6 expression was significantly decreased and absent in the basal layer of epidermis in the early period, and increased slowly and began to appear in the basal layer of epidermis by the scar formation time. Conclusions: This study confirmed that eIF6 expression was significantly related to the development of hypertrophic scar, and the eIF6 may be a target molecule for hypertrophic scar control or could be an indicator of the outcomes for other treatment modalities. PMID:26481747

  19. Malignant Melanoma on a Thermal Burn Scar with an Interval of More Than 70 Years

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Shusuke; Oiso, Naoki; Shiga, Kuriko; Narita, Tomohiko; Kawada, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Cases of malignant melanoma on thermal burn scars have occasionally been reported. We report a 78-year-old Japanese female with malignant melanoma on a thermal burn scar with an interval of more than 70 years. Our case reemphasizes the importance of regular examinations in persons with thermal burn scars. PMID:27721752

  20. CD44 and hyaluronan expression in human cutaneous scar fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Messadi, D. V.; Bertolami, C. N.

    1993-01-01

    Fibrotic disorders of skin and other organs are typically associated with an abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix. This study focuses on a matrix constituent, hyaluronan-which is known to be altered in fibrotic disorders of skin- and on CD44, a cell adhesion molecule and putative receptor for hyaluronan. Tissue samples were obtained from biopsies of human normal skin, normal cutaneous scar; and hypertrophic cutaneous scar. After culturing, cells were studied by single- and double-labeling immunohistochemistry using the two anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies, BU-52 and J173, and a biotinylated hyaluronan binding complex probe, b-HABR. Certain cultures were pretreated with Streptomyces hyaluronidase to assess the dependency of CD44 expression on the presence of endogenous hyaluronan. CD44 expression, both in the presence and the absence of exogenous hyaluronan, was quantitated by radioimmunobinding assay. Overall glycosaminoglycan synthesis and identification of hyaluronan were accomplished by precursor incorporation assays and by quantitative cellulose acetate electrophoresis. CD44 was found to be a normal human adult fibroblastic antigen whose expression is markedly increased for hypertrophic scar fibroblasts compared with normal skin fibroblasts. Although hyaluronan was found to be the predominant glycosaminoglycan constituent of the pericellular matrix for these fibroblasts, CD44 attachment to the cell surface is neither mediated by hyaluronan nor is the presence of hyaluronan a prerequisite for CD44 expression. Exogenous hyaluronan induced a decline in measurable CD44 expression for normal skin fibroblasts but not for hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. These observations are compatible with current understanding of the way cells manage the hyaluronan economy of the extracellular matrix and emphasize phenotypic heterogeneities between fibroblasts derived from normal versus scar tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8475990

  1. Blockade of mast cell activation reduces cutaneous scar formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Schrementi, Megan E; Ranzer, Matthew J; Wilgus, Traci A; DiPietro, Luisa A

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally, mast cells stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts, suggesting they may also influence scar formation. To examine the contribution of mast cells in tissue repair, we determined the effects the mast cell inhibitor, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), on several parameters of dermal repair including, inflammation, re-epithelialization, collagen fiber organization, collagen ultrastructure, scar width and wound breaking strength. Mice treated with DSCG had significantly reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and CXCL1. Although DSCG treatment reduced the production of inflammatory mediators, the rate of re-epithelialization was not affected. Compared to control, inhibition of mast cell activity caused a significant decrease in scar width along with accelerated collagen re-organization. Despite the reduced scar width, DSCG treatment did not affect the breaking strength of the healed tissue. Tryptase β1 exclusively produced by mast cells was found to increase significantly in the course of wound healing. However, DSCG treatment did not change its level in the wounds. These results indicate that blockade of mast cell activation reduces scar formation and inflammation without further weakening the healed wound.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of scar-sourced axon growth inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ohtake, Yosuke; Li, Shuxin

    2014-01-01

    Astrogliosis is a defense response of the CNS to minimize primary damage and to repair injured tissues, but it ultimately generates harmful effects by upregulating inhibitory molecules to suppress neuronal elongation and forming potent barriers to axon regeneration. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are highly expressed by reactive scars and are potent contributors to the non-permissive environment in mature CNS. Surmounting strong inhibition by CSPG-rich scar is an important therapeutic goal for achieving functional recovery after CNS injuries. Currently, enzymatic digestion of CSPGs with locally applied chondroitinase ABC is the main in vivo approach to overcome scar inhibition, but several disadvantages may prevent using this bacterial enzyme as a therapeutic option for patients. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying CSPG function may facilitate development of new effective therapies to overcome scar-mediated inhibition. Previous studies support that CSPGs act by non-specifically hindering the binding of matrix molecules to their cell surface receptors through steric interactions, but two members of the leukocyte common antigen related (LAR) phosphatase subfamily, protein tyrosine phosphatase σ and LAR, are functional receptors that bind CSPGs with high affinity and mediate CSPG inhibition. CSPGs may also act by binding two receptors for myelin-associated growth inhibitors, Nogo receptors 1 and 3. Thus, CSPGs inhibit axon growth through multiple mechanisms, making them especially potent and difficult therapeutic targets. Identification of CSPG receptors is not only important for understanding the scar-mediated growth suppression, but also for developing novel and selective therapies to promote axon sprouting and/or regeneration after CNS injuries. PMID:25192646

  3. Direct Brow Lift Combined with Suspension of the Orbicularis Oculi Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Woo; Cho, Byung Chae

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the conventional direct brow lift operation provides a simple means of managing lateral brow ptosis, the scars produced have been unacceptable. However, using the modifications proposed here, scarring showed remarkable improvement. This article reviews our experiences with the presented technique, mainly with respect to postoperative scarring. Methods Measured amounts of supra-eyebrow skin and subcutaneous fat were excised en bloc in the conventional manner under 'hyper-hydrated' local infiltration anesthesia. The lower flap and the edge of the upper flap were undermined above the muscular plane, and the orbicularis oculi muscle was directly suture-plicated and suspended upward to the distal frontalis muscle. Skin closure was performed in a basic plastic surgical manner. Results From April 2007 to April 2012, a consecutive series of 60 patients underwent surgery using the above method. The average width of the excised skin was 8 mm (range, 5-15 mm) at the apex of the eyebrow. Preoperative complaints were resolved without occurrence of significant complications. The surgical scars showed remarkable improvement and were negligible in the majority of the cases. Conclusions The direct brow lift operation combined with plication/suspension of the superior and lateral portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle provides a simple, safe, and predictable means of correcting lateral brow ptosis. The scars were acceptable to all of the patients. For proper management of the frontalis tone, upper blepharoplasty and/or repair of eyelid levator function must be considered in addition to brow lift procedures. PMID:24086817

  4. Histology of the thick scar on the female, red Duroc pig: final similarities to human hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Harunari, Nobuyuki; Zhu, Kathy Q; Armendariz, Rebecca T; Deubner, Heike; Muangman, Pornprom; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Isik, F Frank; Gibran, Nicole S; Engrav, Loren H

    2006-09-01

    The etiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar remain puzzles even after decades of research. A significant reason is the lack of an accepted animal model of the process. The female, red Duroc pig model was described long ago. Since the skin of the pig is similar to that of humans, we are attempting to validate this model and found it to be encouraging. In this project we quantified myofibroblasts, mast cells and collagen nodules in the thick scar of the Duroc pig and compared these to the values for human hypertrophic scar. We found the results to be quite similar and so further validated the model. In addition, we observed that soon after wounding an inflammatory cell layer forms. The thickness of the inflammatory layer approaches the thickness of the skin removed as if the remaining dermis "knows" how much dermis is gone. In deep wounds this inflammatory layer thickens and this thickness is predictive of the thickness of the ultimate scar. PMID:16905264

  5. Health professionals' and consumers' opinion: what is considered important when rating burn scars from photographs?

    PubMed

    Simons, Megan; Tyack, Zephanie

    2011-01-01

    With advances in wound care technology, there is a trend toward patients undertaking specialist burns treatment in an outpatient capacity. Photographic scar evaluation is a part of this trend in some health services because it permits scar assessment by different health professionals, both within and across outpatient services, to assess the impact of scar management strategies. The aim of this study was to explore the parameters considered integral to scar assessment when completing photographic scar evaluation. First, opinions were sought from 38 burn health professionals in 2 tertiary pediatric hospitals who participated in focus groups where in-person and in-photograph scar rating were completed using three burn scar rating scales (modified Vancouver scar scale, Manchester scar scale, and patient and observer scar assessment scale) presented with a standard format and instructions. Second, 36 occupational therapists and physiotherapists from Australia and New Zealand completed questionnaires. Third, 10 healthcare consumers from 1 tertiary pediatric hospital participated in face-to-face or telephone interviews. Parameters believed to be assessed using photographic evaluation of burns scarring were vascularity, surface area, color, contour, height, and overall opinion. However, surface area was considered questionable as an indicator of scar maturity. These parameters mostly differ from those considered important in a burn scar outcome measure when rating scars in-person: height/thickness, vascularity, color, pliability, joint function, and patient/client opinion. A categorical scale with visual descriptors, as well as specific strategies to improve photographic technique, may go some way to addressing the perceived difficulty in rating these parameters using burn scar photographs.

  6. Clinical and Histological Correlation in Post-Burn Hypertrophic Scar for Pain and Itching Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kim, Hye-One; Jang, Young-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic scar following a burn is caused by the excessive deposit of collagen resulting in an exaggerated wound healing response. The burn patient complains of pain and itching over the scar, which can give rise to cosmetic and functional problems. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histological correlation of a hypertrophic burn scar for itching and pain sensations. Methods Thirty-eight patients underwent a scar release and skin graft. the modified Vancouver scar scale and the verbal numerical rating scale were recorded. All biopsies were taken from scar tissue (scar) and normal tissue (normal). Histologically, tissues were observed in the epidermis, the monocytes around the vessels, the collagen fiber, elastic fiber, and the mast cells. Results The mean total score of MVSS was 8.4±2.7 (pliability 2.0±0.9; thickness 1.8±0.9; vascularity 2.0± 0.9; and pigmentation 2.1±0.9). Pain and itching were 2.4±2.0 and 2.9±3.0. Epidermis were 7.9±2.8 layers (scar) and 4.0±0.8 layers (normal). The collagen fibers were thin and dense (scar) and thicker and loose (normal). The elastic fibers were thin and nonexistent (scar) and thin and loose (normal). Mast cells were 11.2±5.8/high power field (scar) and 7.4±4.1 (normal). Conclusion As the scar tissue thickens, the itching becomes more severe. The stiffness of the scar with the pain appeared to be associated with the condition of the tissue. The correlation between clinical and histological post-burn hypertrophic scars will help further studies on the scar. This helped with the development of the base material for therapeutic strategies. PMID:24371389

  7. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  8. Use of makeup, hairstyles, glasses, and prosthetics as adjuncts to scar camouflage.

    PubMed

    Sidle, Douglas M; Decker, Jennifer R

    2011-08-01

    Scars after facial trauma or surgery can be a source of distress for patients, and facial plastic surgeons are frequently called upon to help manage them. Although no technique can remove a scar, numerous treatment modalities have been developed to improve facial scar appearance with varying levels of invasiveness. This article reviews techniques that camouflage scars without surgical intervention. Topical scar treatments, camouflage cosmetics, use of hairstyling and glasses, and facial prosthetics are discussed. In addition, professional counseling is provided on selection and application of topical cosmetics for use as part of an office practice.

  9. [Evaluation of Cepan Cream after 15 years of treatment of burn scars].

    PubMed

    Stozkowska, Wiesława

    2002-01-01

    Cepan Cream is used for the topical treatment of scars and keloids resulting from burns, post-operative scars, and contractures. Cepan Cream makes scars more elastic, softer and paler. Plant extracts, heparin and allantoin in Cepan act on the biochemical processes in the developing connective tissue, preventing the formation of hyperplastic scars. These active ingredients enhance swelling, softening and loosening of connective tissue. It exerts softening and smoothing action on indurated and hyperplastic scar tissue, improving collagen structure. It promotes tissue regeneration and reduces exuberant granulation. Cepan is well tolerated. PMID:12731382

  10. Analgesic Efficacy of Adductor Canal Block in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xu; Wang, Qian-Qian; Wu, Cheng-Ai; Tian, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adductor canal block (ACB) for early postoperative pain management in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Relevant manuscripts comparing ACB with saline or femoral nerve block (FNB) in TKA patients were searched for in the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. The outcomes assessed included cumulative analgesic consumption, pain at rest or during movement, ability to ambulate, quadriceps strength, and complications (nausea, vomiting or sedation). For continuous outcomes, pooled effects were measured using weighted mean difference (WMD) or standard mean difference (SMD), together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For outcomes without sufficient data for synthesis, qualitative interpretation of individual studies was summarized. Finally, 11 RCTs involving 675 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled results showed that ACB resulted in less postoperative analgesic consumption than saline (WMD, -12.84 mg; 95% CI, -19.40 mg to -6.27 mg; P < 0.001) and less pain at rest or during activity. No conclusions could be drawn regarding ability to ambulate and quadriceps strength, because only one study reported these variables. Most studies comparing ACB and FNB reported similar effects on postoperative analgesic consumption (WMD, -0.56 mg; 95% CI, -8.05 mg to 6.93 mg; P = 0.884) and pain; however, ability to ambulate and quadriceps strength were significantly better with ACB (SMD, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.04-1.94; P = 0.041). Additionally, ACB did not increase the rate of complications. Our results suggest that, compared with saline, ACB decreases analgesic consumption and offers short-term advantages in terms of pain relief. Compared with FNB, ACB was associated with better ability to ambulate and quadriceps strength. PMID:27627711

  11. Activity of lower limb muscles during treadmill running at different velocities

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Keiichi; Ishida, Hiroyasu; Oba, Kaori; Ueki, Tsutomu; Fujihashi, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine changes in muscle activity while moving on a treadmill at various speeds. [Subjects] The activities of the left vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, hip adductors, lateral head of gastrocnemius, medial head gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior of 10 healthy male university students were analyzed. [Methods] University students walked, jogged, and ran for 10 minutes each in random order, and then myogenic potentials were measured 10 minutes later for 30 seconds. The flexion angle of the lower limb upon initial contact, mid stance, and toe off were measured. [Results] The average walking, jogging, and running speeds were 3.6 ± 0.4, 6.7 ± 0.6, and 10.4 ± 1.3 km/h, respectively. The average electromyographic activities of the vastus medial, tibialis anterior, medial head of gastrocnemius, and lateral head of gastrocnemius significantly differed. All muscles were more active during jogging and running than walking. Only the soleus was more active during running than walking, and the activities of the hip adductors and vastus lateralis did not significantly differ. [Conclusion] Velocity is faster and the angles of the lower limbs and ground reaction force (GRF) are larger during running than walking. The vastus medialis and soleus worked more easily according to the angle of the knee joint, whereas the tibialis anterior worked more easily at faster velocities and the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius worked more easily with an increased GRF. PMID:25729166

  12. Interactive effects of growth hormone and exercise on muscle mass in suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grossman, Elena J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Jiang, Bian; Pierotti, David J.; Rudolph, Ingrid

    1994-01-01

    Measures to attenuate muscle atrophy in rats in response to simulated microgravity (hindlimb suspension (HS)) have been only partially successful. In the present study, hypophysectomized rats were in HS for 7 days, and the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (GH), exercise (Ex), or GH+Ex on the weights, protein concentrations, and fiber cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of hindlimb muscles were determined. The weights of four extensor muscles, i.e., the soleus (Sol), medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius, and plantaris (Plt), and one adductor, i.e., the adductor longus (AL), were decreased by 10-22% after HS. Fiber CSAs were decreased by 34% in the Sol and by 1 17% in the MG after HS. In contrast, two flexors, i.e., the tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), did not atrophy. In HS rats, GH treatment alone maintained the weights of the fast extensors (MG, LG, Plt) and flexors (TA, EDL) at or above those of control rats. This effect was not observed in the slow extensor (Sol) or AL. Exercise had no significant effect on the weight of any muscle in HS rats. A combination of GH and Ex treatments yielded a significant increase in the weights of the fast extensors and in the CSA of both fast and slow fibers of the MG and significantly increased Sol weight and CSA of the slow fibers of the Sol. The AL was not responsive to either GH or Ex treatments. Protein concentrations of the Sol and MG were higher only in the Sol of Ex and GH+Ex rats. These results suggest that while GH treatment or intermittent high intensity exercise alone have a minimal effect in maintaining the mass of unloaded muscle, there is a strong interactive effect of these two treatments.

  13. Comparison of different laser systems in the treatment of hypertrophic and atrophic scars and keloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharschmidt, D.; Algermissen, Bernd; Willms-Jones, J.-C.; Philipp, Carsten M.; Berlien, Hans-Peter

    1997-12-01

    Different laser systems and techniques are used for the treatment of hypertrophic scars, keloids and acne scars. Significant criteria in selecting a suitable laser system are the scar's vascularization, age and diameter. Flashlamp- pumped dye-lasers, CO2-lasers with scanner, Argon and Nd:YAG-lasers are used. Telangiectatic scars respond well to argon lasers, erythematous scars and keloids to dye-laser treatment. Using interstitial Nd:YAG-laser vaporization, scars with a cross-section over 1 cm can generally be reduced. For the treatment of atrophic and acne scars good cosmetic results are achieved with a CO2-laser/scanner system, which allows a precise ablation of the upper dermis with low risk of side-effects.

  14. Photoletter to the editor: Topical 0.5% brimonidine gel to camouflage redness of immature scars.

    PubMed

    Reinholz, Markus; Heppt, Markus; Tietze, Julia K; Ruzicka, Thomas; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Schauber, Jürgen

    2015-09-30

    Cutaneous scars develop as a result of a defective wound healing process. Scars are commonly visible as erythematous, sometimes disfiguring lesions which might be stigmatizing for the affected patient. Only a few therapies to improve the appearance of scars are available. Recently, brimonidine - a selective α2-receptor-agonist which causes vasoconstriction of small cutaneous vessels - was approved for the treatment of erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea. Topical brimonidine might also be helpful to improve redness of immature scars. Here we report on the effect of brimonidine 0.5% gel on a flat, erythematous scar in a 25-year-old female patient. Whitening of the scar could be observed immediately after application of brimonidine 0.5% gel and a good clinical result was observed within one hour. This effect lasted for up to three hours. We conclude that brimonidine 0.5% gel is a suitable topical therapy to reduce erythema in visible cutaneous scars. PMID:26512307

  15. The effect of the anti-allergic agent avil on abnormal scar fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, J; Ramakrishnan, M; Habibullah, C M; Babu, M

    1999-05-01

    Abnormal wound healing in humans leads to the formation of hypertrophic scar and keloids. These abnormal scars accumulate excessive extracellular matrix proteins through increased synthesis as well as decreased degradation. In order to find a therapeutic control for scar formation, we investigated the effect of avil (pheniramine maleate) on fibroblasts cultured from abnormal scars in comparison to normal skin. We observed a decrease in the proliferation rate in cells from normal skin (39%), hypertrophic scar (44%), keloid (63%) and in DNA synthesis in cells from normal skin (50%), hypertrophic scar (55%) and keloid (63%) treated with 8 mM avil (72 h). The rate of decrease in collagen synthesis in normal skin (44%), hypertrophic scar (74%) and keloid fibroblast (73%) correlated with changes in DNA synthesis.

  16. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation attenuates thigh skeletal muscles atrophy but not trunk muscles after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Dolbow, David R; Cifu, David X; Gater, David R

    2013-08-01

    The current study examined the effects of 12weeks of surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and ankle weights on the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of three thigh [Gracilis (Gra), Sartorious (Sar) and Adductor (Add)] as well as two trunk [hip flexor (HF) and back extensor (BE)] muscle groups in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Seven individuals with chronic motor complete SCI were randomly assigned into a resistance training +diet (RT+diet; n=4) or diet control (n=3) groups. The RT+diet group underwent twice weekly training with surface NMES and ankle weights for 12weeks. Training composed of four sets of 10 repetitions of leg extension exercise while sitting in their wheelchairs. Both groups were asked to monitor their dietary intake. Magnetic resonance images were captured before and after 12weeks of interventions. Gra muscle CSA showed no change before and after interventions. A significant interaction (P=0.001) was noted between both groups as result of 9% increase and 10% decrease in the Gra muscle CSA of the RT+diet and diet groups, respectively. Sar muscle CSA increased [1.7±0.4-2.5±0.5cm(2); P=0.029] in the RT+diet group with no change [2.9±1.4-2.6±1.3cm(2)] in the diet group; with interaction noted between both groups (P=0.002). Analysis of covariance indicated that Add muscle CSA was 38% greater in the RT+diet compared to the diet group (P=0.025) after 12weeks; a trend of interaction was also noted between both groups (P=0.06). HF and BE muscle groups showed no apparent changes in CSA in both groups. The results suggested that surface NMES can delay the process of progressive skeletal muscle atrophy after chronic SCI. However, the effects are localized to the trained thigh muscles and do not extend to the proximal trunk muscles.

  17. Transforming medical imaging: the first SCAR TRIP conference a position paper from the SCAR TRIP subcommittee of the SCAR research and development committee.

    PubMed

    Andriole, Katherine P; Morin, Richard L

    2006-03-01

    The First Society for Computer Applications in Radiology (SCAR) Transforming the Radiological Interpretation Process (TRIP) Conference and Workshop, "Transforming Medical Imaging" was held on January 31-February 1, 2005 in Bethesda, MD. Representatives from all areas of medical and scientific imaging-academia, research, industry, and government agencies-joined together to discuss the future of medical imaging and potential new ways to manage the explosion in numbers, size, and complexity of images generated by today's continually advancing imaging technologies. The two-day conference included plenary, scientific poster, and breakout sessions covering six major research areas related to TRIP. These topic areas included human perception, image processing and computer-aided detection, data visualization, image set navigation and usability, databases and systems integration, and methodology evaluation and performance validation. The plenary presentations provided a general status review of each broad research field to use as a starting point for discussion in the breakout sessions, with emphasis on specific topics requiring further study. The goals for the breakout sessions were to define specific research questions in each topic area, to list the impediments to carrying out research in these fields, to suggest possible solutions and near- and distant-future directions for each general topic, and to report back to the general session. The scientific poster session provided another mechanism for presenting and discussing TRIP-related research. This report summarizes each plenary and breakout session, and describes the group recommendations as to the issues facing the field, major impediments to progress, and the outlook for radiology in the short and long term. The conference helped refine the definition of the SCAR TRIP Initiative and the problems facing radiology with respect to the dramatic growth in medical imaging data, and it underscored a present and future need

  18. Real-time ultrasound-guided comparison of adductor canal block and psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block in laparoscopic knee surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Messeha, Medhat M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lumbar plexus block, combined with a sciatic nerve block, is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the lower extremity. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results outcome of the adductor canal block versus the psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block using real time ultrasound guidance in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries. Patients and Methods: Ninety patients who were undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries were randomly allocated to receive a sciatic nerve block in addition to lumbar plexus block using either an adductor canal block (ACB) or a posterior psoas compartment approach (PCB) using 25 ml of bupivacine 0.5% with adrenaline 1:400,000 injection over 2-3 minutes while observing the distribution of the local anesthetic in real time. Successful nerve block was defined as a complete loss of pinprick sensation in the region that is supplied by the three nerves along with adequate motor block, 30 minutes after injection. The degree of motor block was evaluated 30 minutes after the block procedure. The results of the present study showed that the real time ultrasound guidance of PCB is more effective than ACB approach. Although the sensory blockade of the femoral nerve achieved equally by both techniques, the LFC and OBT nerves were faster and more effectively blocked with PCB technique. Also PCB group showed significant complete sensory block without need for general anesthesia, significant decrease in the post-operative VAS and significant increase time of first analgesic requirement as compared to the ACB group. Result and Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that blockade of lumber plexus by psoas compartment block is more effective in complete sensory block without general anesthesia supplementation in addition to decrease post-operative analgesic requirement than adductor canal block. PMID:27212766

  19. Temporalis Muscle Tendon Unit Transfer for Smile Restoration After Facial Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Owusu Boahene, Kofi D

    2016-02-01

    Temporalis muscle tendon unit (MTU) transfer may be used as a single-stage procedure for dynamic reanimation of the paralyzed face. Principles and biomechanics of muscle function and tendon transposition are essential in optimizing outcome. Critical steps and pearls for success include minimizing scarring, maintaining glide plains, mobilizing adequate tendon length, insertion of MTU at ideal tension based on intraoperative dynamic tension-excursion relationship, and insertion of tendon as close to the lip margin as possible. Because muscles adapt to tension, load, and task changes by altering their sarcomere arrangement and muscle fiber composition, physiotherapy should be initiated to use the repurposed temporalis MTU for smile restoration.

  20. Skin, fascias, and scars: symptoms and systemic connections

    PubMed Central

    Bordoni, Bruno; Zanier, Emiliano

    2014-01-01

    Every element or cell in the human body produces substances that communicate and respond in an autocrine or paracrine mode, consequently affecting organs and structures that are seemingly far from each other. The same also applies to the skin. In fact, when the integrity of the skin has been altered, or when its healing process is disturbed, it becomes a source of symptoms that are not merely cutaneous. The skin is an organ, and similar to any other structure, it has different functions in addition to connections with the central and peripheral nervous system. This article examines pathological responses produced by scars, analyzing definitions and differences. At the same time, it considers the subcutaneous fascias, as this connective structure is altered when there is a discontinuous cutaneous surface. The consequence is an ample symptomatology, which is not limited to the body area where the scar is located, such as a postural or trigeminal disorder. PMID:24403836

  1. Skin, fascias, and scars: symptoms and systemic connections.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, Bruno; Zanier, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Every element or cell in the human body produces substances that communicate and respond in an autocrine or paracrine mode, consequently affecting organs and structures that are seemingly far from each other. The same also applies to the skin. In fact, when the integrity of the skin has been altered, or when its healing process is disturbed, it becomes a source of symptoms that are not merely cutaneous. The skin is an organ, and similar to any other structure, it has different functions in addition to connections with the central and peripheral nervous system. This article examines pathological responses produced by scars, analyzing definitions and differences. At the same time, it considers the subcutaneous fascias, as this connective structure is altered when there is a discontinuous cutaneous surface. The consequence is an ample symptomatology, which is not limited to the body area where the scar is located, such as a postural or trigeminal disorder.

  2. Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars: A Spectrum of Clinical Challenges.

    PubMed

    Trace, Anthony P; Enos, Clinton W; Mantel, Alon; Harvey, Valerie M

    2016-06-01

    Since their earliest description, keloids and hypertrophic scars have beleaguered patients and clinicians alike. These scars can be aesthetically disfiguring, functionally debilitating, emotionally distressing, and psychologically damaging, culminating in a significant burden for patients. Our current understanding of keloid pathophysiology has grown and continues to advance while molecular biology, genetics, and technology provide ever-deepening insight into the nature of wound healing and the pathologic perturbations thereof. Greater understanding will lead to the development and application of refined therapeutic modalities. This article provides an overview of our current understanding of keloids, highlighting clinical characteristics and diagnostic criteria while providing a comprehensive summary of the many therapeutic modalities available. The proposed mechanism, application, adverse events, and reported efficacy of each modality is evaluated, and current recommendations are summarized. PMID:26894654

  3. Facial Scars following Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: Role of Adnexal Involvement?

    PubMed

    Habre, Maya; Ortonne, Nicolas; Colin, Audrey; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Chosidow, Olivier; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Valeyrie-Allanore, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction leading to extensive sloughing of the skin. Late cutaneous complications such as pigmentation disorders are frequently reported. In this report, we present particular facial cutaneous sequelae with histological analysis after TEN. Two young patients who had survived TEN presented permanent multiple hypopigmented papules on the face affecting their quality of life. Histological analysis revealed areas of scarring, dystrophic microcalcifications and sebaceous hyperplasia. Late cutaneous sequelae are well documented; however, the physiopathological mechanisms leading to different clinical presentations remain unknown. We suggest that the destruction of the hair follicle by necrolysis leads to secondary dermal microcalcifications, scarring and sebaceous hyperplasia. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of these findings. PMID:26866828

  4. Evaluating lubricant performance by 3D profilometry of wear scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, C.; Deleanu, L.; Pirvu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Due to improvement in analysing surface texture and optical instruments for investigating the texture surface, the authors propose to evaluate the lubricant performance by analysing the change in several 3D parameters in comparison to an analysis on 2D profile. All the surface of the wear scar generated on the four ball machine is investigated and the conclusion is that from the tribological point of view, the 3D parameters reflect better the surface quality evolution after testing. Investigation was done on the wear scars generated on the three fixed balls, for five lubricants: a non-additivated transmission mineral oil (T90), two grades of rapeseed oil (coarse degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed).

  5. [Indications for surgical treatment of hard scarring gastric ulcers].

    PubMed

    Durleshter, V M; Korochanskaia, N V; Serikova, S N

    2014-01-01

    It was done the comparative analysis of the morphofunctional state of the upper gastrointestinal tract between 350 patients with effective conservative treatment and 104 patients with hard scarring gastric ulcers. The analysis identified the predictors of ineffective medical treatment and led to deliver the indications for timely surgical treatment. It was identified the next indications for planned organ-preserving surgical treatment of patients with hard scarring gastric ulcers: penetrating and non-healing ulcers with large or gigantic size in case of the adequate medical therapy, high-grade dysplasia and colonic metaplasia of the gastric epithelium in the borders or fundus of the ulcer,ulcers combination with fixed cardio-fundal or fundo-corporal hiatal hernias; hypotonic-hypokinetic type of the gastric and duodenal activity with the development of gastrostasis and pronounced duodenogastric reflux.

  6. Primary cutaneous dermal mucinosis on herpes zoster scars.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Diana; Feltes, Federico; Machán, Salma; Pielasinski, Úrsula; Fariña, María C; Gavin, Eduardo; Requena, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The term isotopic response refers to the appearance of a new skin disease at the site of another unrelated and already healed skin disorder. Often, the first disease is herpes zoster (HZ). Several cutaneous reactions have been described in a dermatome recently affected by HZ. We present the case of a 33-year-old man who developed whitish papules with a zosteriform distribution on HZ scars. Histopathologic study with hematoxylin and eosin and Alcian blue (pH 2.5) staining demonstrated abundant deposits of mucin interstitially arranged between collagen bundles of the papillary dermis. Cutaneous dermal mucinosis as a postherpetic isotopic response is rare, but it should be added to the list of cutaneous reactions arising in HZ scars. PMID:27529717

  7. Monolayered mesenchymal stem cells repair scarred myocardium after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Yoshinori; Nagaya, Noritoshi; Kataoka, Masaharu; Yanagawa, Bobby; Tanaka, Koichi; Hao, Hiroyuki; Ishino, Kozo; Ishida, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Kangawa, Kenji; Sano, Shunji; Okano, Teruo; Kitamura, Soichiro; Mori, Hidezo

    2006-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells that can differentiate into cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Here we show, using cell sheet technology, that monolayered mesenchymal stem cells have multipotent and self-propagating properties after transplantation into infarcted rat hearts. We cultured adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells characterized by flow cytometry using temperature-responsive culture dishes. Four weeks after coronary ligation, we transplanted the monolayered mesenchymal stem cells onto the scarred myocardium. After transplantation, the engrafted sheet gradually grew to form a thick stratum that included newly formed vessels, undifferentiated cells and few cardiomyocytes. The mesenchymal stem cell sheet also acted through paracrine pathways to trigger angiogenesis. Unlike a fibroblast cell sheet, the monolayered mesenchymal stem cells reversed wall thinning in the scar area and improved cardiac function in rats with myocardial infarction. Thus, transplantation of monolayered mesenchymal stem cells may be a new therapeutic strategy for cardiac tissue regeneration. PMID:16582917

  8. Decorin blocks scarring and cystic cavitation in acute and induces scar dissolution in chronic spinal cord wounds.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zubair; Bansal, Daljeet; Tizzard, Katie; Surey, Sarina; Esmaeili, Maryam; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann

    2014-04-01

    In the injured central nervous system (CNS), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/2-induced scarring and wound cavitation impede axon regeneration implying that a combination of both scar suppression and axogenic treatments is required to achieve functional recovery. After treating acute and chronic dorsal funicular spinal cord lesions (DFL) in adult rats with the pan-TGF-β1/2 antagonist Decorin, we report that in: (1), acute DFL, the development of all injury parameters was significantly retarded e.g., wound cavity area by 68%, encapsulation of the wound by a glia limitans accessoria (GLA) by 65%, GLA basal lamina thickness by 94%, fibronectin, NG2 and Sema-3A deposition by 87%, 48% and 48%, respectively, and both macrophage and reactive microglia accumulations by 60%; and (2), chronic DFL, all the above parameters were attenuated to a lesser extent e.g., wound cavity area by 11%, GLA encapsulation by 25%, GLA basal lamina thickness by 31%, extracellular fibronectin, NG2 and Sema-3A deposition by 58%, 22% and 29%, respectively, and macrophage and reactive microglia accumulations by 44%. Moreover, in acute and chronic DFL, levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) were raised (by 236% and 482%, respectively), as were active-MMP-2 (by 64% and 91%, respectively) and active-MMP-9 (by 122% and 18%, respectively), while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was suppressed (by 56% and 23%, respectively) and active-TIMP-1 and active TIMP-2 were both lower but only significantly suppressed in acute DFL (by 56 and 21%, respectively). These findings demonstrate that both scar tissue mass and cavitation are attenuated in acute and chronic spinal cord wounds by Decorin treatment and suggest that the dominant effect of Decorin during acute scarring is anti-fibrogenic through suppression of inflammatory fibrosis by neutralisation of TGF-β1/2 whereas, in chronic lesions, Decorin-induction of tPA and MMP (concomitant with reduced complimentary levels of TIMP and PAI-1

  9. Inhibited early immunologic response is associated with hypertrophic scarring.

    PubMed

    Butzelaar, Liselotte; Schooneman, Dennis P M; Soykan, Ezgi A; Talhout, Wendy; Ulrich, Magda M W; van den Broek, Lenie J; Gibbs, Susan; Beelen, Robert H J; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B; Niessen, Frank B

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to examine changes in the inflammatory response in early hypertrophic compared to normal wound healing. The immune system is thought to be involved in hypertrophic scar formation. However, the exact mechanism and time of onset of the derailment remain unknown. In a prospective observational study, skin biopsies were taken directly postwounding and 3 hours later from patients who had elective cardiothoracic surgery. The skin biopsies were analysed for mRNA, proteins and cells involved in the early inflammatory phase of wound healing. The endpoint was scar outcome (hypertrophic (HTS) or normal (NTS)) at one year after surgery. There were significant differences between the NTS and HTS groups regarding the fold changes of mRNA expression of P-selectin during surgery. Postoperative skin concentrations of inflammatory proteins IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 were significantly lower in the HTS compared to the NTS group. Also, a trend of higher pre-operative M2 macrophage numbers was observed in the HTS group. Neutrophil numbers increased equally during surgery in both groups. The increase of P-selectin mRNA in hypertrophic wound healing could affect leucocyte migration. The decreased concentrations of inflammatory proteins in hypertrophic wound healing indicate a reduced inflammatory response, which has consequences for the treatment of hypertrophic scarring during the early inflammatory phase. In a conclusion, alterations of wound healing associated with hypertrophic scarring are visible as early as 3 hours postwounding and include a reduced rather than increased inflammatory protein response. PMID:27249786

  10. Risk Factors for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Renal Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Nader; Pohl, Hans; Gravens-Mueller, Lisa; Ivanova, Anastasia; Zaoutis, Lisa; Patel, Melissa; deBerardinis, Rachel; Parker, Allison; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Haralam, Mary Ann; Pope, Marcia; Kearney, Diana; Sprague, Bruce; Barrera, Raquel; Viteri, Bernarda; Egigueron, Martina; Shah, Neha; Hoberman, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal scarring in children who have had 1 or 2 febrile or symptomatic UTIs and received no antimicrobial prophylaxis. METHODS: This 2-year, multisite prospective cohort study included 305 children aged 2 to 71 months with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) receiving placebo in the RIVUR (Randomized Intervention for Vesicoureteral Reflux) study and 195 children with no VUR observed in the CUTIE (Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation) study. Primary exposure was presence of VUR; secondary exposures included bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD), age, and race. Outcomes were recurrent febrile or symptomatic urinary tract infection (F/SUTI) and renal scarring. RESULTS: Children with VUR had higher 2-year rates of recurrent F/SUTI (Kaplan-Meier estimate 25.4% compared with 17.3% for VUR and no VUR, respectively). Other factors associated with recurrent F/SUTI included presence of BBD at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.07 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09–3.93]) and presence of renal scarring on the baseline 99mTc-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid scan (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.88 [95% CI: 1.22–6.80]). Children with BBD and any degree of VUR had the highest risk of recurrent F/SUTI (56%). At the end of the 2-year follow-up period, 8 (5.6%) children in the no VUR group and 24 (10.2%) in the VUR group had renal scars, but the difference was not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio: 2.05 [95% CI: 0.86–4.87]). CONCLUSIONS: VUR and BBD are risk factors for recurrent UTI, especially when they appear in combination. Strategies for preventing recurrent UTI include antimicrobial prophylaxis and treatment of BBD. PMID:26055855

  11. The Use of Chemotherapeutics for the Treatment of Keloid Scars

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher David; Guiot, Luke; Samy, Mike; Gorman, Mark; Tehrani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Keloid scars are pathological scars, which develop as a result of exaggerated dermal tissue proliferation following cutaneous injury and often cause physical, psychological and cosmetic problems. Various theories regarding keloidogenesis exist, however the precise pathophysiological events remain unclear. Many different treatment modalities have been implicated in their management, but currently there is no entirely satisfactory method for treating all keloid lesions. We review a number of different chemotherapeutic agents which have been proposed for the treatment of keloid and hypertrophic scars while giving insight into some of the novel chemotherapeutic drugs which are currently being investigated. Non-randomized trials evaluating the influence of different chemotherapeutic agents, such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); mitomycin C; bleomycin and steroid injection, either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents or alternative treatment modalities, for the treatment of keloids were identified using a predefined PubMed search strategy. Twenty seven papers were identified. Scar improvement ≥50% was found in the majority of cases treated with 5-FU, with similar results found for mitomycin C, bleomycin and steroid injection. Combined intralesional 5-FU and steroid injection produced statistically significant improvements when compared to monotherapy. Monotherapy recurrence rates ranged from 0-47% for 5-FU, 0-15% for bleomycin and 0-50% for steroid injection. However, combined therapy in the form of surgical excision and adjuvant 5-FU or steroid injections demonstrated lower recurrence rates; 19% and 6% respectively. Currently, most of the literature supports the use of combination therapy (usually surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy) as the mainstay treatment of keloids, however further investigation is necessary to determine success rates over longer time frames. Furthermore, there is the potential for novel therapies, but further investigation is

  12. Remote sensing and hydrological modeling of burn scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mary Ellen

    This study examined the potential usefulness of combining remote sensing data with hydrologic models and mapping tools available from Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to evaluate the effects of wildfire. Four subprojects addressed this issue: (1) validation of burn scar maps derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) with the National Fire Occurrence Database; (2) testing the potential of thermal MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for near-real time burn scar and fire severity mapping; (3) evaluation of Landsat derived burn severity maps within WEPP through the Geo-spatial interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project (GeoWEPP), and (4) predicting potential post-fire erosion for western U.S. forests utilizing existing datasets and models. Wildfire poses incredibly complex management problems in all of its stages. Today's land managers have the option of trying to mitigate the effects of a severe fire before it occurs by fuel management practices. This process is expensive especially considering the uncertainty of when and where the next fire in a given region will occur. When a wildfire does occur, deciding when to let it burn and when to suppress it may lead to controversial decisions. In addition to the threat to life and property from the fire itself, smoke emissions from large fires can cause air quality problems in distant airsheds. Even after the fire is extinguished, erosion and water quality problems may pose difficult management questions. Contributions stemming from these studies include improved burn scar maps for studying historical fire extent and demonstration of the feasibility of using thermal satellite data to predict burn scar extent when clouds and smoke obscure visible bands. The incorporation of Landsat derived burn severity maps was shown to improve post-fire erosion modeling results. Finally the potential post-fire burn severity and erosion risk maps generated for western US forests

  13. Overcoming the Low-Learning Scar Effect: Narratives of Learning and Resilience of Italian Low-Skilled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The idea of the "low-learning scar" is borrowed from recent labour economics literature in which concepts such as "unemployment scarring", "wage scarring" and "scarred generation" are increasingly used for the interpretation of problems (the NEETs problem, for instance) which presently plague all Western…

  14. Organization of lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups innervating hindlimb, pelvic floor, and axial muscles in the cat.

    PubMed

    Vanderhorst, V G; Holstege, G

    1997-05-26

    In a study on descending pathways from the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) to hindlimb motoneurons (see accompanying paper), it appeared impossible, using data from the literature, to precisely determine which muscles were innervated by the motoneurons receiving the NRA fibers. This lack of data made it necessary to produce a detailed map of the lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups in the cat. Therefore, 50 different muscles or muscle compartments of hindlimb, pelvic floor and lower back were injected with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in 135 cases. The respective muscles were divided into ten groups: I, sartorius and iliopsoas; II, quadriceps; III, adductors; IV, hamstrings; V, gluteal and other proximal muscles of the hip; VI, posterior compartment of the distal hindlimb; VII, anterior compartment of the distal hindlimb; VIII, long flexors and intrinsic muscles of the foot; IX, pelvic floor muscles; and X, extensors of the lower back and tail. The L4-S2 segments were cut and incubated, and labeled motoneurons were counted and plotted. A new method was developed that made it possible, despite variations in size and segmental organization between the different cases, to compare the results of different cases. The results show that the spatial interrelationship between the hindlimb and pelvic floor lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups remains constant. This finding enabled the authors to compose an accurate overall map of the location of lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups. The general distribution of the motoneuronal cell groups is also discussed in respect to their dorsoventral, mediolateral, and rostrocaudal position within the lumbosacral ventral horn. PMID:9136811

  15. Upper Limb Strength and Muscle Volume in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Saul, Katherine R; Vidt, Meghan E; Gold, Garry E; Murray, Wendy M

    2015-12-01

    Our purpose was to characterize shoulder muscle volume and isometric moment, as well as their relationship, for healthy middle- aged adults. Muscle volume and maximum isometric joint moment were assessed for 6 functional muscle groups of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in 10 middle-aged adults (46–60 y, 5M, 5F). Compared with young adults, shoulder abductors composed a smaller percentage of total muscle volume (P = .0009) and there was a reduction in shoulder adductor strength relative to elbow flexors (P = .012). We observed a consistent ordering of moment-generating capacity among functional groups across subjects. Although total muscle volume spanned a 2.3-fold range, muscle volume was distributed among functional groups in a consistent manner across subjects. On average, 72% of the variation in joint moment could be explained by the corresponding functional group muscle volume. These data are useful for improved modeling of upper limb musculoskeletal performance in middle-aged subjects, and may improve computational predictions of function for this group. PMID:26155870

  16. Electromyographic analysis of thigh muscles during track cycling on a velodrome.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Sato, Takayuki; Mukaimoto, Takahiro; Takashima, Wataru; Yamagishi, Michio; Nishiyama, Tetsunari

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate neuromuscular activation of thigh muscles during track cycling at various speeds. Eight male competitive cyclists volunteered to participate in this study. Surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and adductor magnus muscles of the bilateral legs was recorded during track cycling on velodromes with a 250-m track. The participants were instructed to maintain three different lap times: 20, 18 and 16 s. The average rectified value (ARV) was calculated from the sampled surface electromyography. Significantly higher ARVs were observed in the right compared to left leg for the biceps femoris muscle during both straight and curved sections at 18- and 16-s lap times (P < 0.05). In the biceps femoris muscle, significant changes in ARVs during the recovery phase with an increase in speed were seen in the right leg only (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in ARVs between the straight and curved sections for all three muscles (P > 0.05). From our findings, it was suggested that during track cycling on a velodrome the laterality of the biceps femoris muscle activity is a key strategy to regulate the speed, and fixed neuromuscular strategies are adopted between straight and curved sections for thigh muscles.

  17. Cranial muscle development in frogs with different developmental modes: direct development versus biphasic development.

    PubMed

    Ziermann, Janine M; Diogo, Rui

    2014-04-01

    Normal development in anurans includes a free swimming larva that goes through metamorphosis to develop into the adult frog. We have investigated cranial muscle development and adult cranial muscle morphology in three different anuran species. Xenopus laevis is obligate aquatic throughout lifetime, Rana(Lithobates) pipiens has an aquatic larvae and a terrestrial adult form, and Eleutherodactylus coqui has direct developing juveniles that hatch from eggs deposited on leaves (terrestrial). The adult morphology shows hardly any differences between the investigated species. Cranial muscle development of E. coqui shows many similarities and only few differences to the development of Rana (Lithobates) and Xenopus. The differences are missing muscles of the branchial arches (which disappear during metamorphosis of biphasic anurans) and a few heterochronic changes. The development of the mandibular arch (adductor mandibulae) and hyoid arch (depressor mandibulae) muscles is similar to that observed in Xenopus and Rana (Lithobates), although the first appearance of these muscles displays a midmetamorphic pattern in E. coqui. We show that the mix of characters observed in E. coqui indicates that the larval stage is not completely lost even without a free swimming larval stage. Cryptic metamorphosis is the process in which morphological changes in the larva/embryo take place that are not as obvious as in normal metamorphosing anurans with a clear biphasic lifestyle. During cryptic metamorphosis, a normal adult frog develops, indicating that the majority of developmental mechanisms towards the functional adult cranial muscles are preserved.

  18. Histological evidence for muscle insertion in extant amniote femora: implications for muscle reconstruction in fossils

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Holger; Sander, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Since the 19th century, identification of muscle attachment sites on bones has been important for muscle reconstructions, especially in fossil tetrapods, and therefore has been the subject of numerous biological and paleontological studies. At the microscopic level, in histological thin sections, the only features that can be used reliably for identifying tendon–bone or muscle–tendon-bone interactions are Sharpey's fibers. Muscles, however, do not only attach to the bone indirectly with tendons, but also directly. Previous studies failed to provide new indicators for muscle attachment, or to address the question of whether muscles with direct attachment can be identified histologically. However, histological identification of direct muscle attachments is important because these attachments do not leave visible marks (e.g. scars and rugosities) on the bone surface. We dissected the right hind limb and mapped the muscle attachment sites on the femur of one rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), one Alligator mississippiensis, and one turkey (Meleagris cuniculus). We then extracted the femur and prepared four histological thin sections for the rabbit and the turkey and five histological thin sections for the alligator. Sharpey's fibers, vascular canal orientation, and a frayed periosteal margin can be indicators for indirect but also direct muscle attachment. Sharpey's fibers can be oriented to the cutting plane of the thin section at high angles, and two Sharpey's fibers orientations can occur in one area, possibly indicating a secondary force axis. However, only about 60% of mapped muscle attachment sites could be detected in thin sections, and frequently histological features suggestive of muscle attachment occurred outside mapped sites. While these insights should improve our ability to successfully identify and reconstruct muscles in extinct species, they also show the limitations of this approach. PMID:23439026

  19. Fire scars and ancient sand dunes in southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The rectangular green areas in this view of southern Australia are protected areas of natural forest (national parks and biospheric reserves), and the lighter surrounding colors (tan-brown) are agricultural croplands occupying land which once must have looked as green as the nature reserves but are now cleared of forest. The major green patch has been recently burned, as shown by the irregular pattern of a large, multiple burn scar. The pattern of the fire scar indicates that the fires were driven by winds blowing from left to right. Close examination of the view shows that the forests are rooted in a soil made up of a widespread sheet of ancient dune sand. The dunes can be seen best within the area of the large fire scar where the characteristic wavy, scalloped pattern of crescent dunes can be detected. The crescents indicate that the sand was heaped up by winds blowing from right to left in this view, in the opposite direction to the winds which fanned the fires. A few straight dunes

  20. Scar formation in mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide.

    PubMed

    Żak, Magdalena; van der Linden, Cynthia A; Bezdjian, Aren; Hendriksen, Ferry G; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-08-01

    In mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and leads to hearing loss. To develop and test the functioning of different strategies aiming at hair cell regeneration, animal models of sensorineural hearing loss are essential. Although cochleae of these animals should lack hair cells, supporting cells should be preserved forming an environment for the regenerated hair cells. In this study, we investigated how ototoxic treatment with kanamycin and furosemide changes the structure of cochlear sensory epithelium in mice. The study also compared different tissue preparation protocols for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cochleae were collected from deafened and nondeafened mice and further processed for plastic mid modiolar sections and SEM. For comparing SEM protocols, cochleae from nondeafened mice were processed using three protocols: osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium (OTO), tannic acid-arginine-osmium, and the conventional method with gold-coating. The OTO method demonstrated optimal cochlear tissue preservation. Histological investigation of cochleae of deafened mice revealed that the supporting cells enlarged and ultimately replaced the lost hair cells forming types 1 and 2 phalangeal scars in a base towards apex gradient. The type 3 epithelial scar, flattened epithelium, has not been seen in analysed cochleae. The study concluded that mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide formed scars containing supporting cells, which renders this mouse model suitable for testing various hair cell regeneration approaches. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:766-772, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27311812

  1. Development of antimicrobial and scar preventive chitosan hydrogel wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Sadiya; Arora, Abha; Alam, M S; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-07-11

    Antimicrobial and scar preventive wound dressings were developed by coating a blend of chitosan (CS), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP) on the cotton fabric and subsequent freeze drying. The miscibility of blend systems and functional group interaction were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-infra red spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy of the coated fabric revealed porous structure. The porosity of the material was 54-70% and the pore size was in the range of 75-120μm depending on the blend composition. The air permeability diminished as the PVP content increased. The water vapour transmission rate was in the range of 2000-3500g/m(2)day which may offer to be proper material for the wound dressing with moderate exudate absorption. Tetracycline hydrochloride was used as model drug within the hydrogel matrix. The cumulative release of drug was found to be ∼80% of the total loading after ∼48h. The drug loaded dressings showed good antimicrobial nature against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. In vivo wound healing and tissue compatibility studies were carried out over a period of 21 days on full-thickness skin wounds created on male Wistar rats. Fast healing was observed in drug loaded dressing treated wounds with minimum scarring, as compared to the other groups. These results suggest that drug loaded dressing could provide scar preventive wound healing.

  2. Development of antimicrobial and scar preventive chitosan hydrogel wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Sadiya; Arora, Abha; Alam, M S; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-07-11

    Antimicrobial and scar preventive wound dressings were developed by coating a blend of chitosan (CS), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP) on the cotton fabric and subsequent freeze drying. The miscibility of blend systems and functional group interaction were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-infra red spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy of the coated fabric revealed porous structure. The porosity of the material was 54-70% and the pore size was in the range of 75-120μm depending on the blend composition. The air permeability diminished as the PVP content increased. The water vapour transmission rate was in the range of 2000-3500g/m(2)day which may offer to be proper material for the wound dressing with moderate exudate absorption. Tetracycline hydrochloride was used as model drug within the hydrogel matrix. The cumulative release of drug was found to be ∼80% of the total loading after ∼48h. The drug loaded dressings showed good antimicrobial nature against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. In vivo wound healing and tissue compatibility studies were carried out over a period of 21 days on full-thickness skin wounds created on male Wistar rats. Fast healing was observed in drug loaded dressing treated wounds with minimum scarring, as compared to the other groups. These results suggest that drug loaded dressing could provide scar preventive wound healing. PMID:27163526

  3. Scar formation in mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide.

    PubMed

    Żak, Magdalena; van der Linden, Cynthia A; Bezdjian, Aren; Hendriksen, Ferry G; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-08-01

    In mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and leads to hearing loss. To develop and test the functioning of different strategies aiming at hair cell regeneration, animal models of sensorineural hearing loss are essential. Although cochleae of these animals should lack hair cells, supporting cells should be preserved forming an environment for the regenerated hair cells. In this study, we investigated how ototoxic treatment with kanamycin and furosemide changes the structure of cochlear sensory epithelium in mice. The study also compared different tissue preparation protocols for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cochleae were collected from deafened and nondeafened mice and further processed for plastic mid modiolar sections and SEM. For comparing SEM protocols, cochleae from nondeafened mice were processed using three protocols: osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium (OTO), tannic acid-arginine-osmium, and the conventional method with gold-coating. The OTO method demonstrated optimal cochlear tissue preservation. Histological investigation of cochleae of deafened mice revealed that the supporting cells enlarged and ultimately replaced the lost hair cells forming types 1 and 2 phalangeal scars in a base towards apex gradient. The type 3 epithelial scar, flattened epithelium, has not been seen in analysed cochleae. The study concluded that mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide formed scars containing supporting cells, which renders this mouse model suitable for testing various hair cell regeneration approaches. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:766-772, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic High Frequency Axisymmetric Cavity Scars.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt

    2014-10-01

    This report examines the localization of high frequency electromagnetic fi elds in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This report treats both the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex, where there are no interior foci, and the case where they are concave, leading to interior foci. The scalar problem is treated fi rst but the approximations required to treat the vector fi eld components are also examined. Particular att ention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the fi eld along the scarred orbit as well as point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are m ade with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation. This axisymmetric cas eformstheoppositeextreme(wherethetwomirror radii at each end of the ray orbit are equal) from the two -dimensional solution examined previously (where one mirror radius is vastly di ff erent from the other). The enhancement of the fi eldontheorbitaxiscanbe larger here than in the two-dimensional case. Intentionally Left Blank

  5. Suppression of scar formation in a murine burn wound model by the application of non-thermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoon Lee, Dae; Lee, Jae-Ok; Jeon, Wonju; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Kim, Jun-Sub; Hoon Jeong, Je; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Hoon Seo, Cheong

    2011-11-01

    Suppression of hypertrophic scar generation in an animal model by treatment with plasma is reported. Contact burn following mechanical stretching was used to induce scar formation in mice. Exposure to the plasma tended to reduce the scar area more rapidly without affecting vitality. The treatment resulted in decreased vascularization in the scar tissue. Plasma-treated scars showed mild decrease in the thickness of hypertrophic tissues as shown by histological assessment. Finally, we showed that plasma treatment induced cell death and reactive oxygen species generation in hypertrophic scar fibroblast. All of the results support that plasma treatment can control scar generation.

  6. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Kent; SUZUKI, Satoshi; KOYABU, Daisuke; KIMURA, Junpei; HAN, Sung-Yong; ENDO, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  7. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  8. Hoffmann's syndrome with unusually long duration: Report on clinical, laboratory and muscle imaging findings in two cases

    PubMed Central

    Nalini, Atchayaram; Govindaraju, C.; Kalra, Pramila; Kadukar, Prashanth

    2014-01-01

    Two adult men presented with the rare Hoffmann's syndrome (HS). Case 1: A 35-year-old male patient had progressive stiffness of lower limbs of 13 years and generalized muscle hypertrophy and myalgia of 3 years duration. Had periorbital edema, dry skin, generalized muscle hypertrophy and spastic dysarthria with hoarseness. Muscle power was normal. Jaw jerk and deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated. Case 2: A 24-year-old male patient presented with muscle hypertrophy from childhood, slowness in motor activities and hearing impairment. For 6 months, he had severe muscle pains, cramps and further increase in hypertrophy. He had yellow tinged, dry skin, hoarseness of voice, gross muscle hypertrophy and minimal weakness. Both had markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels and high thyroid stimulating hormone, low free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels. Levothyroxine treatment demonstrated remarkable reduction in muscle bulk at 2 months in both and no symptoms at 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of lower limbs in both cases revealed almost identical features with involvement of the muscles of posterior and adductor compartment of thighs and posterior and lateral compartments of the legs. Differential diagnosis of long duration muscle pseudohypertrophy and elevated CK levels should include HS. PMID:25024579

  9. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  10. RNAi functionalized collagen-chitosan/silicone membrane bilayer dermal equivalent for full-thickness skin regeneration with inhibited scarring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Ma, Lie; Liang, Jun; Zhang, Bing; Teng, Jianying; Gao, Changyou

    2013-03-01

    Scar inhibition of dermal equivalent is one of the key issues for treatment of full thickness skin defects. To yield a bioactive RNAi functionalized matrix for skin regeneration with inhibited scarring, collagen-chitosan/silicone membrane bilayer dermal equivalent (BDE) was combined with trimetylchitosan (TMC)/siRNA complexes which could induce suppression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) pathway. The RNAi-BDE functioned as a reservoir for the incorporated TMC/siRNA complexes, enabling a prolonged siRNA release. The seeded fibroblasts in the RNAi-BDE showed good viability, internalized the TMC/siRNA complexes effectively and suppressed TGF-β1 expression constantly until 14 d. Application of the RNAi-BDE on the full-thickness skin defects of pig backs confirmed the in vivo inhibition of TGF-β1 expression by immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting during 30 d post surgery. The levels of other scar-related factors such as collagen type I, collagen type III and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were also down-regulated. In combination with the ultra-thin skin graft transplantation for 73 d, the regenerated skin by RNAi-BDE had an extremely similar structure to that of the normal one. Our study reflects the latest paradigm of tissue engineering by incorporating the emerging biomolecule siRNA. The 3-D scaffolding materials for siRNA delivery may have general implications in generation of bioactive matrix as well. PMID:23261213

  11. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process.

  12. Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Hobbs, P. V.; Kirchoff, V. W. J. H.; Artaxo, P.; Remer, L. A.; Holben, B. N.; King, M. D.; Ward, D. E.; Prins, E. M.; Longo, K. M.; Mattos, L. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Ji, Q.; Thompson, A. M.; Gleason, J. F.; Christopher, S. A.; Tsay, S.-C.

    1998-01-01

    The Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) field project took place in the Brazilian Amazon and cerrado regions in August-September 1995 as a collaboration between Brazilian and American scientists. SCAR-B, a comprehensive experiment to study biomass burning, emphasized measurements of surface biomass, fires, smoke aerosol and trace gases, clouds, and radiation. their climatic effects, and remote sensing from aircraft and satellites. It included aircraft and ground-based in situ measurements of smoke emission factors and the compositions, sizes, and optical properties of the smoke particles; studies of the formation of ozone; the transport and evolution of smoke; and smoke interactions with water vapor and clouds. This overview paper introduces SCAR-B and summarizes some of the main results obtained so far. (1) Fires: measurements of the size distribution of fires, using the 50 m resolution MODIS Airborne Simulator, show that most of the fires are small (e.g. 0.005 square km), but the satellite sensors (e.g., AVHRR and MODIS with I km resolution) can detect fires in Brazil which are responsible for 60-85% of the burned biomass: (2) Aerosol: smoke particles emitted from fires increase their radius by as much as 60%, during their first three days in the atmosphere due to condensation and coagulation, reaching a mass median radius of 0.13-0.17 microns: (3) Radiative forcing: estimates of the globally averaged direct radiative forcing due to smoke worldwide, based on the properties of smoke measured in SCAR-B (-O.l to -0.3 W m(exp -2)), are smaller than previously modeled due to a lower single-scattering albedo (0.8 to 0.9), smaller scattering efficiency (3 square meters g(exp -2) at 550 nm), and low humidification factor; and (4) Effect on clouds: a good relationship was found between cloud condensation nuclei and smoke volume concentrations, thus an increase in the smoke emission is expected to affect cloud properties. In SCAR-B, new techniques were developed

  13. A study of optimal handle shape and muscle strength distribution on lower arm when holding a foil.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Fang-Tsan; Li, Kai-Way; Jou, Yung-Tsan; Huang, Chuen-Der

    2009-04-01

    The strength of five working muscle groups of the lower arms of 8 male fencers, including adductor pollicis, extensor carpi radialis, flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris, and flexor carpi ulnaris, were examined during competition. Root mean square values of muscular electromyographic signals indicated that the shape of foil handles significantly influenced distribution of working strength of each muscle group. Use of the Pistol-Viscounti type of foil handle showed better distribution of strength among the 5 muscle groups than did other types of foils. Using the Pistol-Viscounti foil handle not only reduced muscular fatigue but also lessened cumulative trauma symptoms while holding a foil for a long duration. PMID:19544957

  14. Probability mapping of scarred myocardium using texture and intensity features in CMR images

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The myocardium exhibits heterogeneous nature due to scarring after Myocardial Infarction (MI). In Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) imaging, Late Gadolinium (LG) contrast agent enhances the intensity of scarred area in the myocardium. Methods In this paper, we propose a probability mapping technique using Texture and Intensity features to describe heterogeneous nature of the scarred myocardium in Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) images after Myocardial Infarction (MI). Scarred tissue and non-scarred tissue are represented with high and low probabilities, respectively. Intermediate values possibly indicate areas where the scarred and healthy tissues are interwoven. The probability map of scarred myocardium is calculated by using a probability function based on Bayes rule. Any set of features can be used in the probability function. Results In the present study, we demonstrate the use of two different types of features. One is based on the mean intensity of pixel and the other on underlying texture information of the scarred and non-scarred myocardium. Examples of probability maps computed using the mean intensity of pixel and the underlying texture information are presented. We hypothesize that the probability mapping of myocardium offers alternate visualization, possibly showing the details with physiological significance difficult to detect visually in the original CMR image. Conclusion The probability mapping obtained from the two features provides a way to define different cardiac segments which offer a way to identify areas in the myocardium of diagnostic importance (like core and border areas in scarred myocardium). PMID:24053280

  15. Non-invasive evaluation of therapeutic response in keloid scar using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chao-Kai; Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Yang, Chao-Chun; Lee, Julia Yu-Yun; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei; Chen, Wan-Rung; Hughes, Michael; Chen, Yu-Wen; Liao, Yu-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis and ideal treatment of keloid are still largely unknown, and it is essential to develop an objective assessment of keloid severity to evaluate the therapeutic response. We previously reported that our diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) system could assist clinicians in understanding the functional and structural condition of keloid scars. The purpose of this study was to understand clinical applicability of our DRS system on evaluating the scar severity and therapeutic response of keloid. We analyzed 228 spectral data from 71 subjects with keloid scars. The scars were classified into mild (0-3), moderate (4-7) and severe (8-11) according to the Vancouver scar scale. We found that as the severity of the scar increased, collagen concentration and water content increased, and the reduced scattering coefficient at 800 nm and oxygen saturation (SaO2) decreased. Using the DRS system, we found that collagen bundles aligned in a specific direction in keloid scars, but not in normal scars. Water content and SaO2 may be utilized as reliable parameters for evaluating the therapeutic response of keloid. In conclusion, the results obtained here suggest that the DRS has potential as an objective technique with which to evaluate keloid scar severity. In addition, it may be useful as a tool with which to track longitudinal response of scars in response to various therapeutic interventions. PMID:25780731

  16. Characteristics of scar margin dynamic with time based on multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zheng, Liqin; Jiang, Xingshan; Chen, Jianxin; Lin, Bifang

    2011-03-01

    Scar margins dynamic with time were quantitatively characterized using multiphoton microscopy (MPM). 2D large-area and 3D focused images of elastin and collagen at scar margins were obtained to extract quantitative parameters. An obvious boundary was observed at the scar margin, showing altered morphological patterns of elastin and collagen on both sides. Content alteration of elastin and collagen between the two sides of boundary were defined to characterize scar margins from different individuals. The statistical results from 15 normal scar samples strongly demonstrated that content alteration degree of elastin and collagen had decreasing tendency with the increase of patient age or scar duration, consistent with the fact of normal scars regressing spontaneously over time. It indicated that alteration degree can potentially serve as quantitative indicators to examine wound healing and scar progression over time. With the advent of clinical portable multiphoton endoscopes, the MPM technique can be applied in tracking scar formation and progression in vivo by examination of scar margin.

  17. Nonsurgical scar management of the face: does early versus late intervention affect outcome?

    PubMed

    Parry, Ingrid; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2013-01-01

    Special emphasis is placed on the clinical management of facial scarring because of the profound physical and psychological impact of facial burns. Noninvasive methods of facial scar management include pressure therapy, silicone, massage, and facial exercises. Early implementation of these scar management techniques after a burn injury is typically accepted as standard burn rehabilitation practice, however, little data exist to support this practice. This study evaluated the timing of common noninvasive scar management interventions after facial skin grafting in children and the impact on outcome, as measured by scar assessment and need for facial reconstructive surgery. A retrospective review of 138 patients who underwent excision and grafting of the face and subsequent noninvasive scar management during a 10-year time frame was conducted. Regression analyses were used to show that earlier application of silicone was significantly related to lower Modified Vancouver Scar Scale scores, specifically in the subscales of vascularity and pigmentation. Early use of pressure therapy and implementation of facial exercises were also related to lower Modified Vancouver Scar Scale vascularity scores. No relationship was found between timing of the interventions and facial reconstructive outcome. Early use of silicone, pressure therapy, and exercise may improve scar outcome and accelerate time to scar maturity. PMID:23816994

  18. Cranial muscle development in the model organism ambystoma mexicanum: implications for tetrapod and vertebrate comparative and evolutionary morphology and notes on ontogeny and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Ziermann, Janine M; Diogo, Rui

    2013-07-01

    There is still confusion about the homology of several cranial muscles in salamanders with those of other vertebrates. This is true, in part, because of the fact that many muscles present in early ontogeny of amphibians disappear during development and specifically during metamorphosis. Resolving this confusion is important for the understanding of the comparative and evolutionary morphology of vertebrates and tetrapods because amphibians are the phylogenetically most plesiomorphic tetrapods, concerning for example their myology, and include two often used model organisms, Xenopus laevis (anuran) and Ambystoma mexicanum (urodele). Here we provide the first detailed report of the cranial muscle development in axolotl from early ontogenetic stages to the adult stage. We describe different and complementary types of general muscle morphogenetic gradients in the head: from anterior to posterior, from lateral to medial, and from origin to insertion. Furthermore, even during the development of neotenic salamanders such as axolotls, various larval muscles become indistinct, contradicting the commonly accepted view that during ontogeny the tendency is mostly toward the differentiation of muscles. We provide an updated comparison between these muscles and the muscles of other vertebrates, a discussion of the homologies and evolution, and show that the order in which the muscles appear during axolotl ontogeny is in general similar to their appearance in phylogeny (e.g. differentiation of adductor mandibulae muscles from one anlage to four muscles), with only a few remarkable exceptions, as for example the dilatator laryngis that appears evolutionary later but in the development before the intermandibularis.

  19. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Słupska, Lucyna; Bartnicki, Janusz; Dymarek, Robert; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Heimrath, Jerzy; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM), gluteus maximus (GM), rectus abdominis (RA), and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a woman’s ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM) during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI. Materials and methods This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16) and continent women (n=14). The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM) was recorded with a surface electromyographic instrument in a standing position during resting and functional PFM activity. Results Bioelectrical activity of RA was significantly higher in the incontinent group than in the continent group. These results concern the RA activity during resting and functional PFM activity. The results for other muscles showed no significant difference in bioelectrical activity between groups. Conclusion In women with SUI, during the isolated activation of PFM, an increased synergistic activity of RA muscle was observed; however, this activity was not observed in asymptomatic women. This may indicate the important accessory contribution of these muscles in the

  20. Comparison of Adductor Canal Block and Femoral Nerve Block for Postoperative Pain in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Cui-Cui; Dong, Shu-Ling; He, Fu-Cheng

    2016-03-01

    A total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has always been associated with moderate-to-severe pain. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pain control of adductor canal block (ACB) and femoral nerve block (FNB) after TKA.Relevant literatures about the ACB and FNB after TKA for reducing pain were searched from Medline (1996-January, 2015), Embase (1980-January, 2015), PubMed (1980-January, 2015), Web of Science (1980-January, 2015), and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. High-quality RCTs and non-RCTs were picked to evaluate the visual analogue scale (VAS) and other outcome. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the PRISMA statement criteria. The software RevMan 5.30 was used for the meta-analysis.Eight literatures fitted into the inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences in VAS score with rest or mobilization at 4, 24, and 48 h between ACB group and FNB group. There were also no significant differences in the strength of quadriceps and adductor, the length of hospital stay, and complications of vomiting and nausea.Present meta-analysis indicated that ACB shows no superiority than FNB group. Both of them can reduce the pain score after TKA. As referred to which method to adopt, it is determined by the preference of the surgeons and anesthesiologists. PMID:27015172

  1. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352. PMID:27374014

  2. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352.

  3. Progression of surgical scars in the hand and wrist over time: a peak in scar-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wollstein, Ronit; Carlson, Lois; Bilonick, Richard A; Rodgers, John

    2012-09-01

    We have noted a peak in induration and tenderness around scars with accompanying symptoms 6-8 weeks after most hand operations. The purpose of this study was to characterise this phenomenon. All consecutive patients treated for fractures of the distal radius through a volar scar were prospectively enrolled. Exclusion criteria included: previous injuries of that wrist, no volar scar, open fractures with considerable soft tissue injury, or injuries to the nerve or vessel, or all three. Patients were evaluated every other week for three months after the operation for the following: tightness, the Vancouver scale, oedema, and range of movement in the wrist. Non-linear mixed effects models were used for analysis. Eighteen patients were evaluated. The primary outcomes included a reduction in pliability from 2.1 (0.6) to 0.9 (0.5), and subjective tightness that decreased from 3.6 (1.8) to 1.5 (2.6). Both pliability and subjective tightness showed a parabolic pattern over time, with a peak at 5.10 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.36 to 5.84) weeks and 4.12 (2.19 to 6.05) weeks, respectively. Mean (SD) active extension increased from 22.5 (11.4)(o) at 2 weeks to 45.5 (13.4)(o) at 12 weeks. Flexion increased from 19.1 (10.2)(o) to 33.0 (14.7)(o). Oedema decreased from 19.4 (2.1) to 17.3 (1.3) cm. The Vancouver scale decreased from 6.0 (1.9) to 3.4 (1.9), and these variables showed a consistent pattern of change over time. Our results support the existence of a peak in scar symptoms, illustrated by a reduction in pliability and an increase in subjective tightness about 4-5 weeks after the operation. Anticipating this healing pattern can aid in tailoring postoperative management of the scar.

  4. Effect of static stretching of muscles surrounding the knee on knee joint position sense

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffarinejad, Farahnaz; Taghizadeh, Shohreh; Mohammadi, Farshid

    2007-01-01

    Background Muscle stretching is widely used in sport training and in rehabilitation. Considering the important contribution of joint position sense (JPS) to knee joint stability and function, it is legitimate to question if stretching might alter the knee JPS. Objective To evaluate if a stretch regimen consisting of three 30 s stretches alters the knee JPS. Design and setting A blinded, randomised design with a washout time of 24 h was used. Subjects 39 healthy students (21 women, 18 men) volunteered to participate in this study. Methods and main outcome measures JPS was estimated by the ability to reproduce the two target positions (20° and 45° of flexion) in the dominant knee. The absolute angular error (AAE) was defined as the absolute difference between the target angle and the subject perceived angle of knee flexion. AAE values were measured before and immediately after the static stretch. Measurements were repeated three times. The static stretch comprised a 30 s stretch followed by a 30 s pause, three times for each muscle. Results The AAE decreased significantly after the stretching protocols for quadriceps (3.5 (1.3) vs 0.7 (2.4); p<0.001), hamstring (3.6 (2.2) vs 1.6 (3.1); p = 0.016) and adductors (3.7 (2.8) vs 1.7 (2.4); p = 0.016) in 45° of flexion, but no differences were found for values of the gastrocnemius and popliteus muscles in this angle and for the values of all muscles in 20° of flexion (p>0.05). Conclusion The accuracy of the knee JPS in 45° of flexion is improved subsequent to a static stretch regimen of quadriceps, hamstring and adductors in healthy subjects. PMID:17510229

  5. Force enhancement during and following muscle stretch of maximal voluntarily activated human quadriceps femoris.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Daniel; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2007-08-01

    Force enhancement during and following muscle stretch has been observed for electrically and voluntarily activated human muscle. However, especially for voluntary contractions, the latter observation has only been made for adductor pollicis and the ankle joint muscles, but not for large muscles like quadriceps femoris. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of active muscle stretch on force production for maximal voluntary contractions of in vivo human quadriceps femoris (n = 15). Peak torques during and torques at the end of stretch, torques following stretch, and passive torques following muscle deactivation were compared to the isometric torques at corresponding muscle length. In addition, muscle activation of rectus femoris, vastus medialis and vastus lateralis was obtained using surface EMG. Stretches with different amplitudes (15, 25 and 35 degrees at a velocity of 60 degrees s(-1)) were performed on the plateau region and the descending limb of the force-length relation in a random order. Data analysis showed four main results: (1) peak torques did not occur at the end of the stretch, but torques at the end of the stretch exceeded the corresponding isometric torque; (2) there was no significant force enhancement following muscle stretch, but a small significant passive force enhancement persisted for all stretch conditions; (3) forces during and following stretch were independent of stretch amplitude; (4) muscle activation during and following muscle stretch was significantly reduced. In conclusion, although our results showed passive force enhancement, we could not provide direct evidence that there is active force enhancement in voluntarily activated human quadriceps femoris.

  6. Fibrosis, adipogenesis, and muscle atrophy in congenital muscular torticollis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Xiong; Tang, Sheng-Ping; Gao, Fu-Tang; Xu, Jiang-Long; Jiang, Xian-Ping; Cao, Juan; Fu, Gui-Bing; Sun, Ke; Liu, Shi-Zhe; Shi, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In the traditional view, muscle atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were regarded as the basic pathological features of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). But in the ultrastructure study, the mesenchyme-like cells, myoblasts, myofibroblasts, and fibroblasts were found in the proliferation of interstitium of CMT. To investigate the characteristics of pathological features and the mechanisms of muscle atrophy in CMT, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 185 CMT patients from July 2009 to July 2011 in Shenzhen Children's Hospital in China and performed pathological studies. According to age, the 185 CMT patients were divided into 4 groups. All resected surgical specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson trichromic staining. Sudan III staining was used for frozen sections, whereas immunohistochemical staining for S-100, calpain-1, ubiquitin, and 20S proteasome was carried out on 40 CMT specimens. Eight adductor muscle specimens from 8 patients with development dysplasia of the hip were taken as control group in the immunohistochemical staining. By Masson trichromic staining, the differences in the percent area of fibrous tissue in each CMT groups were significant. In Sudan III staining and immunostaining for S-100, adipocyte hyperplasia was the pathological feature of CMT. Moreover, compared with controls, most atrophic muscle fibers in CMT specimens were found to show strong immunoreactivity for calpain-1, ubiquitin, and 20S proteasome. With increasing age, fibrosis peaked at both sides and it was low in middle age group. Adipocytes increased with age. The characteristics of pathological features in CMT are changeable with age. The calpain and the ubiquitin-proteasome system may play a role in muscle atrophy of CMT. In the CMT, adipogenesis, fibrogenesis, and myogenesis may be the results of mesenchyme-like cells in SCM (sternocleidomastoid muscle). In conclusion, the present study furthermore supports maldevelopment of the

  7. Fibrosis, Adipogenesis, and Muscle Atrophy in Congenital Muscular Torticollis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huan-xiong; Tang, Sheng-ping; Gao, Fu-tang; Xu, Jiang-Long; Jiang, Xian-ping; Cao, Juan; Fu, Gui-bing; Sun, Ke; Liu, Shi-zhe; Shi, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the traditional view, muscle atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were regarded as the basic pathological features of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). But in the ultrastructure study, the mesenchyme-like cells, myoblasts, myofibroblasts, and fibroblasts were found in the proliferation of interstitium of CMT. To investigate the characteristics of pathological features and the mechanisms of muscle atrophy in CMT, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 185 CMT patients from July 2009 to July 2011 in Shenzhen Children's Hospital in China and performed pathological studies. According to age, the 185 CMT patients were divided into 4 groups. All resected surgical specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson trichromic staining. Sudan III staining was used for frozen sections, whereas immunohistochemical staining for S-100, calpain-1, ubiquitin, and 20S proteasome was carried out on 40 CMT specimens. Eight adductor muscle specimens from 8 patients with development dysplasia of the hip were taken as control group in the immunohistochemical staining. By Masson trichromic staining, the differences in the percent area of fibrous tissue in each CMT groups were significant. In Sudan III staining and immunostaining for S-100, adipocyte hyperplasia was the pathological feature of CMT. Moreover, compared with controls, most atrophic muscle fibers in CMT specimens were found to show strong immunoreactivity for calpain-1, ubiquitin, and 20S proteasome. With increasing age, fibrosis peaked at both sides and it was low in middle age group. Adipocytes increased with age. The characteristics of pathological features in CMT are changeable with age. The calpain and the ubiquitin–proteasome system may play a role in muscle atrophy of CMT. In the CMT, adipogenesis, fibrogenesis, and myogenesis may be the results of mesenchyme-like cells in SCM (sternocleidomastoid muscle). In conclusion, the present study furthermore supports

  8. Cesarean scar pregnancy: uterine artery embolization combined with a hysterectomy at 13 weeks' gestation--a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kwaśniewska, Anna; Stupak, Aleksandra; Krzyzanowski, Arkadiusz; Pietura, Radoslaw; Kotarski, Jan

    2014-12-01

    A cesarean scar pregnancy is a pregnancy located within the uterine muscle after previous cesarean sections. Recent years have shown a significant increase in the rate of CS and an improvement in the ultrasound diagnosis, and therefore a trend towards an increase in the rate of CSP cases has been reported in many countries. We report on a case of CSP diagnosed using ultrasound at 5/6 weeks'gestation and confirmedbymagnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent surgical management at 13 weeks, combined with the chemioembolization of the uterine arteries. The current review aims to update the knowledge of the available treatment modalities.

  9. The Immunomodulatory Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Prevention or Treatment of Excessive Scars.

    PubMed

    Seo, Bommie Florence; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-01-01

    Excessive scars, including keloids and hypertrophic scars, result from aberrations in the process of physiologic wound healing. An exaggerated inflammatory process is one of the main pathophysiological contributors. Scars may cause pain, and pruritis, limit joint mobility, and cause a range of cosmetic deformities that affect the patient's quality of life. Extensive research has been done on hypertrophic scar and keloid formation that has resulted in the plethora of treatment and prevention methods practiced today. Mesenchymal stem cells, among their multifunctional roles, are known regulators of inflammation and have been receiving attention as a major candidate for cell therapy to treat or prevent excessive scars. This paper extensively reviews the body of research examining the mechanism and potential of stem cell therapy in the treatment of excessive scars. PMID:26839566

  10. A Modeling Approach for Burn Scar Assessment Using Natural Features and Elastic Property

    SciTech Connect

    Tsap, L V; Zhang, Y; Goldgof, D B; Sarkar, S

    2004-04-02

    A modeling approach is presented for quantitative burn scar assessment. Emphases are given to: (1) constructing a finite element model from natural image features with an adaptive mesh, and (2) quantifying the Young's modulus of scars using the finite element model and the regularization method. A set of natural point features is extracted from the images of burn patients. A Delaunay triangle mesh is then generated that adapts to the point features. A 3D finite element model is built on top of the mesh with the aid of range images providing the depth information. The Young's modulus of scars is quantified with a simplified regularization functional, assuming that the knowledge of scar's geometry is available. The consistency between the Relative Elasticity Index and the physician's rating based on the Vancouver Scale (a relative scale used to rate burn scars) indicates that the proposed modeling approach has high potentials for image-based quantitative burn scar assessment.

  11. The Immunomodulatory Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Prevention or Treatment of Excessive Scars

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung-No

    2016-01-01

    Excessive scars, including keloids and hypertrophic scars, result from aberrations in the process of physiologic wound healing. An exaggerated inflammatory process is one of the main pathophysiological contributors. Scars may cause pain, and pruritis, limit joint mobility, and cause a range of cosmetic deformities that affect the patient's quality of life. Extensive research has been done on hypertrophic scar and keloid formation that has resulted in the plethora of treatment and prevention methods practiced today. Mesenchymal stem cells, among their multifunctional roles, are known regulators of inflammation and have been receiving attention as a major candidate for cell therapy to treat or prevent excessive scars. This paper extensively reviews the body of research examining the mechanism and potential of stem cell therapy in the treatment of excessive scars. PMID:26839566

  12. Severe hypoxia and malnutrition collectively contribute to scar fibroblast inhibition and cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Emily C; Xie, Yan; Dawson, Rebecca; Mcgovern, Jacqui; Upton, Zee; Wang, XiQiao

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to investigate whether severe hypoxia and malnutrition in scar tissue play key roles to induce hypertrophic scar regression. And scar-derived fibroblasts were treated with moderate/severe hypoxia and malnutrition to model condition of proliferative and regressive scar (5%O2 +5%FCS and 0.5%O2  + 0.5%FCS), and normoxia with well nutrition as control (10%O2  + 10%FCS). Our results demonstrated that severe hypoxia and malnutrition resulted in significantly reduced cell viability and collagen production, as well as HIF-1, VEGF, TGF-β1, and Bcl-2 protein expression when compared with control, and cell apoptosis occurred. Therefore, the severe hypoxia and malnutrition in scar tissue contribute to fibroblast inhibition and cell apoptosis, which is correlated with scar regression.

  13. The successful treatment of pain associated with scar tissue using acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Fang, Sheng

    2014-10-01

    In this case report, a 48-year-old female who had suffered severe scar pain for 3 months was treated with acupuncture using the Wei Ci technique (surrounding the dragon). Scar tissue usually forms after deep trauma, such as piercings, burns, and surgery, to the dermis. In Chinese Medicine, scar tissue causes local Qi and blood stagnation which lead to pain. The Wei Ci technique (surrounding the dragon) and distal points Hegu-LI-4, Taichong-LIV-3, Zusanli-ST-36 were used. The patient received a total of eight treatments in 5 weeks. The scar pain decreased from 7 to 1 or 2 on a Likert scale of 0-10, with 0 being no pain and 10 being the worst pain. Acupuncture may have a good short-term pain-relieving effect on scar pain but its long-term scar-pain-relieving effects are still unclear. PMID:25441952

  14. A modeling approach for burn scar assessment using natural features and elastic property.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Goldgof, Dmitry B; Sarkar, Sudeep; Tsap, Leonid V

    2004-10-01

    A modeling approach is presented for quantitative burn scar assessment. Emphases are given to: 1) constructing a finite-element model from natural image features with an adaptive mesh and 2) quantifying the Young's modulus of scars using the finite-element model and regularization method. A set of natural point features is extracted from the images of burn patients. A Delaunay triangle mesh is then generated that adapts to the point features. A three-dimensional finite-element model is built on top of the mesh with the aid of range images providing the depth information. The Young's modulus of scars is quantified with a simplified regularization functional, assuming that the knowledge of the scar's geometry is available. The consistency between the relative elasticity index and the physician's rating based on the Vancouver scale (a relative scale used to rate burn scars) indicates that the proposed modeling approach has high potential for image-based quantitative burn scar assessment.

  15. Biomaterial-based delivery for skeletal muscle repair

    PubMed Central

    Cezar, Christine A.; Mooney, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable capacity for regeneration in response to minor damage, but severe injury resulting in a volumetric muscle loss can lead to extensive and irreversible fibrosis, scarring, and loss of muscle function. In early clinical trials, the intramuscular injection of cultured myoblasts was proven to be a safe but ineffective cell therapy, likely due to rapid death, poor migration, and immune rejection of the injected cells. In recent years, appropriate therapeutic cell types and culturing techniques have improved progenitor cell engraftment upon transplantation. Importantly, the identification of several key biophysical and biochemical cues that synergistically regulate satellite cell fate has paved the way for the development of cell-instructive biomaterials that serve as delivery vehicles for cells to promote in vivo regeneration. Material carriers designed to spatially and temporally mimic the satellite cell niche may be of particular importance for the complete regeneration of severely damaged skeletal muscle. PMID:25271446

  16. Contributions of muscles to mediolateral ground reaction force over a range of walking speeds.

    PubMed

    John, Chand T; Seth, Ajay; Schwartz, Michael H; Delp, Scott L

    2012-09-21

    Impaired control of mediolateral body motion during walking is an important health concern. Developing treatments to improve mediolateral control is challenging, partly because the mechanisms by which muscles modulate mediolateral ground reaction force (and thereby modulate mediolateral acceleration of the body mass center) during unimpaired walking are poorly understood. To investigate this, we examined mediolateral ground reaction forces in eight unimpaired subjects walking at four speeds and determined the contributions of muscles, gravity, and velocity-related forces to the mediolateral ground reaction force by analyzing muscle-driven simulations of these subjects. During early stance (0-6% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the leading foot was directed laterally and increased significantly (p<0.05) with walking speed. During early single support (14-30% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the stance foot was directed medially and increased significantly (p<0.01) with speed. Muscles accounted for more than 92% of the mediolateral ground reaction force over all walking speeds, whereas gravity and velocity-related forces made relatively small contributions. Muscles coordinate mediolateral acceleration via an interplay between the medial ground reaction force contributed by the abductors and the lateral ground reaction forces contributed by the knee extensors, plantarflexors, and adductors. Our findings show how muscles that contribute to forward progression and body-weight support also modulate mediolateral acceleration of the body mass center while weight is transferred from one leg to another during double support.

  17. Proteomic Changes in Rat Thyroarytenoid Muscle Induced by Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection

    PubMed Central

    Welham, Nathan V.; Marriott, Gerard; Tateya, Ichiro; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection into the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle is a commonly performed medical intervention for adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The mechanism of action of BoNT at the neuromuscular junction is well understood, however, aside from reports focused on myosin heavy chain isoform abundance, there is a paucity of data addressing the effects of therapeutic BoNT injection on the TA muscle proteome. In this study, 12 adult Sprague Dawley rats underwent unilateral TA muscle BoNT serotype A injection followed by tissue harvest at 72 hrs, 7 days, 14 days, and 56 days post-injection. Three additional rats were reserved as controls. Proteomic analysis was performed using 2D SDS-PAGE followed by MALDI-MS. Vocal fold movement was significantly reduced by 72 hrs, with complete return of function by 56 days. Twenty-five protein spots demonstrated significant protein abundance changes following BoNT injection, and were associated with alterations in energy metabolism, muscle contractile function, cellular stress response, transcription, translation, and cell proliferation. A number of protein abundance changes persisted beyond the return of gross physiologic TA function. These findings represent the first report of BoNT induced changes in any skeletal muscle proteome, and reinforce the utility of applying proteomic tools to the study of system-wide biological processes in normal and perturbed TA muscle function. PMID:18442174

  18. A novel immune competent murine hypertrophic scar contracture model: a tool to elucidate disease mechanism and develop new therapies.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Magdy; Bond, Jennifer; Bergeron, Andrew; Miller, Kyle J; Ehanire, Tosan; Quiles, Carlos; Lorden, Elizabeth R; Medina, Manuel A; Fisher, Mark; Klitzman, Bruce; Selim, M Angelica; Leong, Kam W; Levinson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HSc) contraction following burn injury causes contractures. Contractures are painful and disfiguring. Current therapies are marginally effective. To study pathogenesis and develop new therapies, a murine model is needed. We have created a validated immune-competent murine HSc model. A third-degree burn was created on dorsum of C57BL/6 mice. Three days postburn, tissue was excised and grafted with ear skin. Graft contraction was analyzed and tissue harvested on different time points. Outcomes were compared with human condition to validate the model. To confirm graft survival, green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice were used, and histologic analysis was performed to differentiate between ear and back skin. Role of panniculus carnosus in contraction was analyzed. Cellularity was assessed with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Collagen maturation was assessed with Picro-sirius red. Mast cells were stained with Toluidine blue. Macrophages were detected with F4/80 immune. Vascularity was assessed with CD31 immune. RNA for contractile proteins was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Elastic moduli of skin and scar tissue were analyzed using a microstrain analyzer. Grafts contracted to ∼45% of their original size by day 14 and maintained their size. Grafting of GFP mouse skin onto wild-type mice, and analysis of dermal thickness and hair follicle density, confirmed graft survival. Interestingly, hair follicles disappeared after grafting and regenerated in ear skin configuration by day 30. Radiological analysis revealed that panniculus carnosus doesn't contribute to contraction. Microscopic analyses showed that grafts show increase in cellularity. Granulation tissue formed after day 3. Collagen analysis revealed increases in collagen maturation over time. CD31 stain revealed increased vascularity. Macrophages and mast cells were increased. qRT-PCR showed up-regulation of transforming growth factor beta, alpha smooth muscle

  19. Magnetic Resonance–Based Anatomical Analysis of Scar-Related Ventricular Tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Sasano, Tetsuo; Dong, Jun; Zviman, M. Muz; Evers, Robert; Hopenfeld, Bruce; Castro, Valeria; Helm, Robert H.; Dickfeld, Timm; Nazarian, Saman; Donahue, J. Kevin; Berger, Ronald D.; Calkins, Hugh; Abraham, M. Roselle; Marbán, Eduardo; Lardo, Albert C.; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Halperin, Henry R.

    2010-01-01

    In catheter ablation of scar-related monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT), substrate voltage mapping is used to electrically define the scar during sinus rhythm. However, the electrically defined scar may not accurately reflect the anatomical scar. Magnetic resonance–based visualization of the scar may elucidate the 3D anatomical correlation between the fine structural details of the scar and scar-related VT circuits. We registered VT activation sequence with the 3D scar anatomy derived from high-resolution contrast-enhanced MRI in a swine model of chronic myocardial infarction using epicardial sock electrodes (n=6, epicardial group), which have direct contact with the myocardium where the electrical signal is recorded. In a separate group of animals (n=5, endocardial group), we also assessed the incidence of endocardial reentry in this model using endocardial basket catheters. Ten to 12 weeks after myocardial infarction, sustained monomorphic VT was reproducibly induced in all animals (n=11). In the epicardial group, 21 VT morphologies were induced, of which 4 (19.0%) showed epicardial reentry. The reentry isthmus was characterized by a relatively small volume of viable myocardium bound by the scar tissue at the infarct border zone or over the infarct. In the endocardial group (n=5), 6 VT morphologies were induced, of which 4 (66.7%) showed endocardial reentry. In conclusion, MRI revealed a scar with spatially complex structures, particularly at the isthmus, with substrate for multiple VT morphologies after a single ischemic episode. Magnetic resonance–based visualization of scar morphology would potentially contribute to preprocedural planning for catheter ablation of scar-related, unmappable VT. PMID:17916777

  20. Biphasic Presence of Fibrocytes in a Porcine Hypertrophic Scar Model

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Taryn E.; Mino, Matthew J.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Mauskar, Neil A.; Prindeze, Nicholas J.; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Jordan, Marion H.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The duroc pig has been described as a promising animal model for use in the study of human wound healing and scar formation. However little is known about the presence and chronology of the fibrocyte cell population in the healing process of these animals. Methods Wounds known to form scar were created on red duroc swine (3“ × 3”) with a dermatome to a total depth of either 0.06“ or 0.09”. These wounds were allowed to heal completely and were biopsied at scheduled time points during the healing process. Biopsies were formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded for immunohistochemical analysis. Porcine-reactive antibodies to CD-45 and procollagen-1 and a human-reactive antibody to LSP-1 were used to detect the presence of fibrocytes in immunohistochemistry an immunocytochemistry. Results Initial immunohistochemical studies showed evidence of a biphasic presence of fibrocytes. Pigs with 0.06“ deep wounds showed positive staining for CD-45 and LSP-1 within highly cellular areas at days 2 and 4 after wounding. Additional animals with 0.09” deep wounds showed positive staining within similar areas at days 56, 70, and 113 after wounding. There was no immunohistochemical evidence of fibrocytes in skin biopsies taken at days 14, 28, or 42. Procollagen-1 staining was diffuse in all samples. Cultured cells stained for CD-45, LSP-1, and procollagen-1 by immunocytochemistry. Conclusions These data confirm that fibrocytes are indeed present in this porcine model. We conclude that these cells are present after initial wounding and later during scar formation and remodeling. We believe that this is evidence of a biphasic presence of fibrocytes, first as an acute response to skin wounding followed by later involvement in the remodeling process, prompted by continued inflammation in a deep partial thickness wound. PMID:25051518

  1. Phototherapeutic keratectomy in the treatment of corneal scarring from trachoma.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, M; Loewenstein, A; Rosner, M; Lipshitz, I; Lazar, M

    1994-01-01

    Trachoma is still one of the world's major blinding diseases. Characteristically, trachoma causes deep scarring of the conjunctiva and tarsus that can result in tear deficiency, trichiasis, and entropion. Another common finding is a diffused corneal opacity that is the end stage of peripheral and central corneal infiltrates. The conventional treatment of the corneal opacities is keratoplasty, which has a guarded prognosis because of severe dryness and trichiasis. We report on our experience in treating patients with corneal trachoma with phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) with the excimer laser.

  2. Comparative efficacy of intralesional verapamil hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide in hypertrophic scars and keloids.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Chatterjee, Pallab

    2014-06-01

    There is not much level 1 evidence based literature to guide management of hypertrophic scars and keloids despite an array of therapeutic modalities at disposal. Intralesional (i/l) triamcinolone injections have remained a gold standard in non surgical management. Sporadic reports on use of i/l verapamil suggest its efficacy. Since verapamil has not found sufficient mention as an effective alternative modality, it was decided to undertake a randomized study which could also address some additional clinical parameters. A randomized, parallel group and observer blinded comparison with 40 patients (48 scars) was carried out to compare the effects of i/l triamcinolone (T) (22 scars) and verapamil injections (V) (26 scars). 1.5 ml was the maximum indicative volume decided in the study protocol for both the drugs (triamcinolone @40 mg/ml and verapamil @ 2.5 mg/ml). Patients included were aged between 15-60 years with scars ranging between 0.5-5 cm (but total area roughly <6 cm(2)), and scars under 2 years duration. Patients with keloidal diathesis were excluded. Injections were scheduled every three weeks until complete flattening of the scar or eight sessions, which ever came earlier. No concomitant therapies like massage, silicone gel or pressure garments were used. Scar evaluation at each stage was done by serial photographic records as well as by Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Comparative survival analysis between the two drugs was done using Kaplan Meier curves, and VSS scores were analyzed using Wilcoxon test and log rank test. Mean zero VSS scores were achieved with treatments in respect of scar height (T-12 weeks, V-21 weeks), vascularity (T-15 weeks, V-18 weeks) and pliability (T-15 weeks, V-21 weeks). The improvement in scar vascularity and pliability kept pace with decrease in scar height, in both the groups. There was not much difference in the rate of change of scar pigmentation with either drug but almost 60% patients in both the groups regained normal

  3. Keloid scarring, but not Dupuytren’s contracture, is associated with unexplained carotid atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Sankalp; Nimigan, Andre; Hackam, Daniel G.; O’Gorman, David B.; Gan, Bing Siang; Spence, J. David

    2016-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis, a response to injury, may be thought of as scarring in the artery wall. TGF-β and associated signaling molecules have been implicated in the pathophysiology of keloid scarring, Dupuytren’s Contracture and atherosclerotic plaques in independent studies. Purpose To test the hypothesis that excess cutaneous scarring and Dupuytren’s contractures predispose independently to carotid atherosclerosis. Methods Among 1,747 patients with plaque measurements and complete data for multivariable regression analysis, 57 Caucasian patients had Dupuytren’s contractures and 12 had keloid scars. Carotid total plaque area (TPA) was measured by 2-Dimensional ultrasound. Results In linear multivariable regression analysis with coronary risk factors, keloid scars were associated with TPA (P= 0.018), but Dupuytren’s contractures were not. Patients with keloid scarring were younger (P<0.0001), and more likely to be diabetic (P<0.0001) Conclusions Keloid scarring is a clinical clue to excess atherosclerosis not explained by traditional risk factors. Such patients may benefit from therapy directed at targets related to signalling molecules common to both the process of keloid scarring and atherosclerosis. These findings suggest previously unexplored possibilities for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. The differences between Dupuytren’s and keloid scars that may identify such targets are discussed. PMID:19331810

  4. Extracellular Matrix Reorganization During Wound Healing and Its Impact on Abnormal Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Meilang; Jackson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: When a cutaneous injury occurs, the wound heals via a dynamic series of physiological events, including coagulation, granulation tissue formation, re-epithelialization, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. The final stage can take many months, yet the new ECM forms a scar that never achieves the flexibility or strength of the original tissue. In certain circumstances, the normal scar is replaced by pathological fibrotic tissue, which results in hypertrophic or keloid scars. These scars cause significant morbidity through physical dysfunction and psychological stress. Recent Advances and Critical Issues: The cutaneous ECM comprises a complex assortment of proteins that was traditionally thought to simply provide structural integrity and scaffolding characteristics. However, recent findings show that the ECM has multiple functions, including, storage and delivery of growth factors and cytokines, tissue repair and various physiological functions. Abnormal ECM reconstruction during wound healing contributes to the formation of hypertrophic and keloid scars. Whereas adult wounds heal with scarring, the developing foetus has the ability to heal wounds in a scarless fashion by regenerating skin and restoring the normal ECM architecture, strength, and function. Recent studies show that the lack of inflammation in fetal wounds contributes to this perfect healing. Future Directions: Better understanding of the exact roles of ECM components in scarring will allow us to produce therapeutic agents to prevent hypertrophic and keloid scars. This review will focus on the components of the ECM and their role in both physiological and pathological (hypertrophic and keloid) cutaneous scar formation. PMID:25785236

  5. The pectoral fin muscles of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae: Functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Tsutomu; Kumamoto, Minayori; Iwata, Masamitsu; Sato, Ryuichi; Okabe, Masataka; Koie, Hiroshi; Kumai, Nori; Fujii, Kenichi; Matsuzaki, Koji; Nakamura, Chiho; Yamauchi, Shinya; Yoshida, Kosuke; Yoshimura, Kohtaroh; Komoda, Akira; Uyeno, Teruya; Abe, Yoshitaka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the morphology and evolutionary origin of muscles in vertebrate limbs, we conducted anatomical dissections, computed tomography and kinematic analyses on the pectoral fin of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. We discovered nine antagonistic pairs of pronators and supinators that are anatomically and functionally distinct from the abductor and adductor superficiales and profundi. In particular, the first pronator and supinator pair represents mono- and biarticular muscles; a portion of the muscle fibers is attached to ridges on the humerus and is separated into two monoarticular muscles, whereas, as a biarticular muscle, the main body is inserted into the radius by crossing two joints from the shoulder girdle. This pair, consisting of a pronator and supinator, constitutes a muscle arrangement equivalent to two human antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod between the shoulder and elbow joints. Our recent kinesiological and biomechanical engineering studies on human limbs have demonstrated that two antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod (1) coordinately control output force and force direction at the wrist and ankle and (2) achieve a contact task to carry out weight-bearing motion and maintain stable posture. Therefore, along with dissections of the pectoral fins in two lungfish species, Neoceratodus forsteri and Protopterus aethiopicus, we discuss the functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods. Anat Rec, 299:1203-1223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The pectoral fin muscles of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae: Functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Tsutomu; Kumamoto, Minayori; Iwata, Masamitsu; Sato, Ryuichi; Okabe, Masataka; Koie, Hiroshi; Kumai, Nori; Fujii, Kenichi; Matsuzaki, Koji; Nakamura, Chiho; Yamauchi, Shinya; Yoshida, Kosuke; Yoshimura, Kohtaroh; Komoda, Akira; Uyeno, Teruya; Abe, Yoshitaka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the morphology and evolutionary origin of muscles in vertebrate limbs, we conducted anatomical dissections, computed tomography and kinematic analyses on the pectoral fin of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. We discovered nine antagonistic pairs of pronators and supinators that are anatomically and functionally distinct from the abductor and adductor superficiales and profundi. In particular, the first pronator and supinator pair represents mono- and biarticular muscles; a portion of the muscle fibers is attached to ridges on the humerus and is separated into two monoarticular muscles, whereas, as a biarticular muscle, the main body is inserted into the radius by crossing two joints from the shoulder girdle. This pair, consisting of a pronator and supinator, constitutes a muscle arrangement equivalent to two human antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod between the shoulder and elbow joints. Our recent kinesiological and biomechanical engineering studies on human limbs have demonstrated that two antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod (1) coordinately control output force and force direction at the wrist and ankle and (2) achieve a contact task to carry out weight-bearing motion and maintain stable posture. Therefore, along with dissections of the pectoral fins in two lungfish species, Neoceratodus forsteri and Protopterus aethiopicus, we discuss the functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods. Anat Rec, 299:1203-1223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27343022

  7. Fat Grafting in Burn Scar Alleviates Neuropathic Pain via Anti-Inflammation Effect in Scar and Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Lee, Su-Shin; Chang, Kao-Ping; Chai, Chee-Yin; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Lin, Sin-Daw; Kwan, Aij-Lie; David Wang, Hui-Min; Lai, Chung-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Burn-induced neuropathic pain is complex, and fat grafting has reportedly improved neuropathic pain. However, the mechanism of fat grafting in improving neuropathic pain is unclear. Previous investigations have found that neuroinflammation causes neuropathic pain, and anti-inflammatory targeting may provide potential therapeutic opportunities in neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that fat grafting in burn scars improves the neuropathic pain through anti-inflammation. Burn-induced scar pain was confirmed using a mechanical response test 4 weeks after burn injuries, and autologous fat grafting in the scar area was performed simultaneously. After 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and specimens were collected for the inflammation test, including COX-2, iNOS, and nNOS in the injured skin and spinal cord dorsal horns through immunohistochemistry and Western assays. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β and TNF-α) in the spinal cord were collected. Double immunofluorescent staining images for measuring p-IκB, p-NFκB, p-JNK, and TUNEL as well as Western blots of AKT, Bax/Bcl-2 for the inflammatory process, and apoptosis were analyzed. Fat grafting significantly reduced COX2, nNOS, and iNOS in the skin and spinal cord dorsal horns, as well as IL-1β and TNF-α, compared with the burn group. Moreover, regarding the anti-inflammatory effect, the apoptosis cells in the spinal cord significantly decreased after the fat grafting in the burn injury group. Fat grafting was effective in treating burn-induced neuropathic pain through the alleviation of neuroinflammation and ameliorated spinal neuronal apoptosis. PMID:26368011

  8. Implantation of atelocollagen sheet for vocal fold scar

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Yo; Welham, Nathan V.; Hirano, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review This article reviews recent advances in scaffold-based interventions for the treatment of vocal fold scarring, with a particular emphasis on atelocollagen sheet implantation in the vocal fold lamina propria. Recent findings Scaffold-based therapies have demonstrated therapeutic promise in both pre-clinical and early clinical studies. Recent research has begun to shed light on the interactions between scaffold material properties, encapsulated and infiltrating cells, stimulatory molecules such as growth factors, and external regulatory variables such as stress, strain and vibration. The atelocollagen sheet, a cross-linked collagen material with abundant micropores, has an established clinical track record as a scaffold for dermal and epidermal repair and exhibited potential therapeutic benefit in a recent study of patients with vocal fold scarring and sulcus vocalis. Summary Scaffolding is one of the useful tools in tissue engineering and atelocollagen sheet implantation has shown to be effective in vocal fold regeneration. However, many of the scaffold materials under investigation still await clinical translation, and those that have been investigated in human patients (such as the atelocollagen sheet) require additional research in appropriately powered placebo controlled studies. PMID:20856118

  9. NEDD4-1 and PTEN expression in keloid scarring.

    PubMed

    Sang, P F; Wang, H; Wang, M; Hu, C; Zhang, J S; Li, X J; Zhu, F

    2015-01-01

    Keloid scarring remains a major problem in plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of the PTEN tumor suppressor and NEDD4-1 genes in keloid tissue and explore their effect on the formation of such scarring. Twenty keloid patients were enrolled in the study and underwent surgical removal of keloid tissue. No patient had received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy prior to treatment. PTEN and NEDD4-1 mRNA expression was detected by reverse transcription PCR, while PTEN protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that levels of PTEN were significantly diminished in keloid samples (P < 0.05), whereas those of NEDD4-1 did not significantly differ between keloid tissue and normal skin (P > 0.05). Furthermore, we found that NEDD4-1 expression is high and inversely correlated with that of PTEN in keloids. Our results suggest that the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway may play an important role in keloid formation and reduces PTEN expression in such tissue. Finally, although NEDD4-1 has previously been identified as a factor in keloid susceptibility, and the protein for which it encodes is known to degrade PTEN by catalyzing its polyubiquitylation, the detailed mechanism behind its involvement in keloid formation needs to be further studied. PMID:26535660

  10. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  11. Involvement of impaired desmosome-related proteins in hypertrophic scar intraepidermal blister formation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianglin; He, Weifeng; Luo, Gaoxing; Wu, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Hypertrophic scar is one of the unique fibrotic diseases in human. Intraepidermal blister is a common clinical symptom following the hypertrophic scar formation. However, little is known about the reason of blister creation. In this study, we selected three patients with hypertrophic scar as manifested by raised, erythematous, pruritic, blister and thickened appearance undergoing scar resection. The first scar sample was 6 months after burn from the neck of a 3 years old male patient with 10 score by Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). The second scar sample was 12 months after burn from the dorsal foot of a 16 years old female patient with 13 score by VSS. The third one was 9 months after burn from the elbow of a 34 years old male patients with 13 score by VSS. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of blister formation, we screened the different protein expression between hypertrophic scar and normal skin tissue by means of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling technology and high throughput 2D LC-MS/MS. There were 48 proteins found to be downregulated in hypertrophic scar. Among the downregulated ones, plakophilin1 (PKP1), plakophilin3 (PKP3) and desmoplakin (DSP) were the desmosome-related proteins which were validated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting assay. Transmission electron microscopy further showed the considerably reduced size and intensity of hemidesmosome and desmosome in hypertrophic scar tissue, compared to control normal skin. Our data indicted for the first time that downregulation of DSP, PKP1 and PKP3 in hypertrophic scar might be responsible for intraepidermal blister formation.

  12. A review of needle core biopsy diagnosed radial scars in the Welsh Breast Screening Programme

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, G; Wilton, F; Stevens, G; Vaughan-Williams, E; Gower-Thomas, K

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Radial scars are benign breast lesions; their appearance on mammography may, however, mimic carcinoma. Needle core biopsy is performed for pre-operative diagnosis and, currently in Wales, all lesions with benign biopsy results are surgically excised. We have reviewed all cases of needle core biopsy-diagnosed radial scars from the Welsh breast screening programme, Breast Test Wales (BTW), and investigated the outcome of radial scars based on histology from surgical excision in order to evaluate the appropriateness of the current management of these lesions in Wales. PATIENTS AND METHODS All needle core biopsy diagnosed radial scars were identified from the BTW screening database from the start of screening in 1989 until the end of 2007. RESULTS A total of 118 patients were diagnosed with radial scars on needle core biopsy; two patients had bilateral radial scars. Median patient age was 54 years (range, 49-68 years). Ninety-five lesions (79%) were thought to be pure radial scars on needle core biopsy; however, only 81 pure radial scars were identified on excision biopsy histology. Carcinoma was present in seven patients and ductal carcinoma in situ in nine patients at excision biopsy. In two patients, the cancers occurred in lesions reported as pure radial scars on needle core biopsy. Twenty-two lesions showed atypical ductal or lobular hyperplasia (ADH/ALH) or both on excision biopsy; 14 of these lesions were classed as pure radial scars by needle core biopsy. CONCLUSIONS All core biopsy diagnosed radial scars, presenting as screen detected abnormalities, should be excised due to their association with premalignant and malignant conditions. PMID:21073820

  13. Anti-inflammatory cytokine TSG-6 inhibits hypertrophic scar formation in a rabbit ear model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Zhao; Li, Xiao-Jing; Ma, Li; Tang, Yue-Ling

    2015-03-15

    Hypertrophic scars are characterized by excessive fibrosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and can be functionally and cosmetically problematic; however, there are few satisfactory treatments for controlling hypertrophic scars. The inflammatory cells and cytokines involved in excessive inflammation during wound healing facilitate fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition, leading to pathologic scar formation. TSG-6 exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. This study examined the effect of recombinant TSG-6 on inflammation in hypertrophic scars using a rabbit ear model. Six 7-mm, full-thickness, circular wounds were made on the ears of 12 rabbits. TSG-6 and PBS were intradermally injected into the right and left ear wounds, respectively. The methods of TEM and TUNEL were used to detect fibroblast apoptosis. The expressions of inflammatory factors: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, were detected by immunohistochemistry and real time polymerase chain reaction. Collagen I and III expression detected by immunohistochemistry and Masson׳s trichrome staining and SEI (scar elevation index) was used to evaluate the extent of scarring. TSG-6 injection mitigated the formation of a hypertrophic scar in the rabbit ear. TSG-6-treated wounds exhibited decreased inflammation compared with the control group, as evidenced by the lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MPO. The SEI and the synthesis of collagens I and III were significantly decreased in the TSG-6-treated scars compared with control scars. The apoptosis rate was higher in the TSG-6-treated scars. TSG-6 exhibited anti-inflammatory effects during the wound healing process and cicatrization and significantly diminished hypertrophic scar formation in a rabbit ear model.

  14. Postoperative gait analysis and hip muscle strength in patients with pelvic ring fracture.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Masafumi; Uchida, Kenzo; Kokubo, Yasuo; Shimada, Seiichiro; Matsuo, Hideaki; Yayama, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Sugita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Shuji; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2013-07-01

    The aims of present study were (1) to determine changes in kinematic and kinetic variables at 3 and 12 months after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of pelvic ring fracture and (2) to determine the factor(s) associated with gait disorders that correlate with gait parameters measured at 12 months after surgery. Nineteen patients with pelvic ring fractures underwent ORIF and examined at 3 and 12 months postoperatively. The study also included a similar number of age-matched control subjects. Peak hip abduction angle, peak hip extension moment in the stance, peak hip abduction moment, and peak ankle plantarflexion moment at 3 months after ORIF were significantly lower than the respective control values. At 12 months, complete recovery was noted in peak hip abduction moment and peak ankle plantarflexion moment, whereas the recovery in peak hip abduction angle and peak hip extension moment in the stance was partial. The existence of neurological lesions and strength asymmetry of hip abductor and adductor at 3 months post-ORIF correlated with decreased peak hip abduction moment after ORIF. Our results highlighted characteristic gait patterns up to 12 months after ORIF for pelvic fracture, and these patterns correlated with neurological lesion and weakness of hip abductor and adductor muscles. PMID:23333355

  15. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis after cesarean section--case report.

    PubMed

    Dordević, Momcilo; Jovanović, Bozidar; Mitrović, Slobodanka; Dordević, Gordana; Radovanović, Dragce; Sazdanović, Predrag

    2009-09-01

    Endometriosis is defined by the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterus, where it is normally located. Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecologic entities affecting 8%-18% of menstrual women. Endometriosis can occur at intra- and extrapelvic localizations. The most common intrapelvic localizations are those involving the ovaries, Douglas' area, pelvic peritoneum, uterus, bladder and rectum. Abdominal endometriosis is the most common localization of extrapelvic endometriosis and usually develops in connective tissue. Extra-pelvic implantation of endometrial tissue may develop in any organ including the skin, lungs, liver, extremities, brain and stomach. Three years after cesarean section, a 35-year-old female was operated on for suspected anterior abdominal hernia at the site of previous section. An egg-sized tumor was removed from the rectus abdominis muscle and referred for histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses. The results showed endometriosis of the muscle with positive estrogen and progesterone receptors. A year after the procedure, treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs was continued due to recurrent pain in the scar area, along with ultrasonography and biochemical marker (carbohydrate antigen 125) follow-up. Clinical diagnosis of scar endometriosis can be made by thorough history and physical, ultrasonography and biochemical examinations. Scar endometriosis should always be considered when the symptoms occur in a cyclic and hormone-dependent pattern, mostly after gynecologic operations, and worsening during menstruation. Definitive diagnosis is based on histopathologic analysis. PMID:20405641

  16. Is a convergently derived muscle-activity pattern driving novel raking behaviours in teleost fishes?

    PubMed

    Konow, Nicolai; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2008-03-01

    Behavioural differences across prey-capture and processing mechanisms may be governed by coupled or uncoupled feeding systems. Osteoglossomorph and salmonid fishes process prey in a convergently evolved tongue-bite apparatus (TBA), which is musculoskeletally coupled with the primary oral jaws. Altered muscle-activity patterns (MAPs) in these coupled jaw systems could be associated with the independent origin of a novel raking behaviour in these unrelated lineages. Substantial MAP changes in the evolution of novel behaviours have rarely been quantified so we examined MAP differences across strikes, chewing and rakes in a derived raking salmonid, the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Electromyography, including activity onset timing, duration, mean amplitude and integrated area from five feeding muscles revealed significant differences between behaviour-specific MAPs. Specifically, early activity onset in the protractor hyoideus and adductor mandibularis muscles characterised raking, congruent with a recent biomechanical model of the component-mechanisms driving the raking preparatory and power-stroke phases. Oncorhynchus raking MAPs were then compared with a phylogenetically derived osteoglossomorph representative, the Australian arowana, Scleropages jardinii. In both taxa, early onset of protractor hyoideus and adductor mandibularis activity characterised the raking preparatory phase, indicating a convergently derived MAP, while more subtle inter-lineage divergence in raking MAPs resulted from onset-timing and duration differences in sternohyoideus and hypaxialis activity. Convergent TBA morphologies are thus powered by convergently derived MAPs, a phenomenon not previously demonstrated in feeding mechanisms. Between lineages, differences in TBA morphology and associated differences in the functional coupling of jaw systems appear to be important factors in shaping the diversification of raking behaviours. PMID:18310124

  17. The Effects of Knee Joint and Hip Abduction Angles on the Activation of Cervical and Abdominal Muscles during Bridging Exercises.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Kyoung; Park, Du-Jin

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the flexion angle of the knee joint and the abduction angle of the hip joint on the activation of the cervical region and abdominal muscles. [Subjects] A total of 42 subjects were enrolled 9 males and 33 females. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study was one form of exercise with a knee joint flexion angle of 90°. Based on this, a bridging exercise was conducted at the postures of abduction of the lower extremities at 0, 5, 10, and 15°. [Result] The changes in the knee joint angle and the hip abduction angle exhibited statistically significant effects on the cervical erector spinae, adductor magnus, and gluteus medius muscles. The abduction angles did not result in statistically significant effects on the upper trapezium, erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. However, in relation to the knee joint angles, during the bridging exercise, statistically significant results were exhibited. [Conclusion] When patients with both cervical and back pain do a bridging exercise, widening the knee joint angle would reduce cervical and shoulder muscle activity through minimal levels of abduction, permitting trunk muscle strengthening with reduced cervical muscle activity. This method would be helpful for strengthening trunk muscles in a selective manner. PMID:24259870

  18. The effect of bilateral asymmetry of muscle strength on the height of a squat jump: a computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Shinsuke; Nagano, Akinori; Hay, Dean C; Fukashiro, Senshi

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of bilateral asymmetry of muscle strength on maximal height of the squat jump. A computer simulation technique was used to develop two kinds of 3D human lower limb musculoskeletal model (model-symmetry and model-asymmetry). The total muscle strength of the two models was set to be identical. Bilateral muscle strength was equal in the model-symmetry simulation, while the model-asymmetry simulation was performed with a 10% bilateral strength asymmetry. A forward dynamics approach was used to simulate squat jumps. The squat jumps were successfully generated, producing jump heights of 0.389 m for model-symmetry and 0.387 m for model-asymmetry. The small difference in height (0.5%) indicated that the effect of the 10% bilateral asymmetry of muscle strength on jump height is negligible. With model-asymmetry, the strong leg compensated for the muscle strength deficit of the weak leg. Importantly, the mono-articular and large extensor muscles of the hip and knee joint of the strong leg, including the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, and vasti, compensated for the muscle strength deficit of the weak leg. PMID:21506038

  19. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes.

  20. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes. PMID:25755920

  1. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes. PMID:25755920

  2. Connexin43 contributes to electrotonic conduction across scar tissue in the intact heart

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Vanessa M.; Mezzano, Valeria; Mirams, Gary R.; Maass, Karen; Li, Zhen; Cerrone, Marina; Vasquez, Carolina; Bapat, Aneesh; Delmar, Mario; Morley, Gregory E.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated non-myocytes, including fibroblasts, can electrically couple to myocytes in culture. However, evidence demonstrating current can passively spread across scar tissue in the intact heart remains elusive. We hypothesize electrotonic conduction occurs across non-myocyte gaps in the heart and is partly mediated by Connexin43 (Cx43). We investigated whether non-myocytes in ventricular scar tissue are electrically connected to surrounding myocardial tissue in wild type and fibroblast-specific protein-1 driven conditional Cx43 knock-out mice (Cx43fsp1KO). Electrical coupling between the scar and uninjured myocardium was demonstrated by injecting current into the myocardium and recording depolarization in the scar through optical mapping. Coupling was significantly reduced in Cx43fsp1KO hearts. Voltage signals were recorded using microelectrodes from control scars but no signals were obtained from Cx43fsp1KO hearts. Recordings showed significantly decreased amplitude, depolarized resting membrane potential, increased duration and reduced upstroke velocity compared to surrounding myocytes, suggesting that the non-excitable cells in the scar closely follow myocyte action potentials. These results were further validated by mathematical simulations. Optical mapping demonstrated that current delivered within the scar could induce activation of the surrounding myocardium. These data demonstrate non-myocytes in the scar are electrically coupled to myocytes, and coupling depends on Cx43 expression. PMID:27244564

  3. Connexin43 contributes to electrotonic conduction across scar tissue in the intact heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, Vanessa M.; Mezzano, Valeria; Mirams, Gary R.; Maass, Karen; Li, Zhen; Cerrone, Marina; Vasquez, Carolina; Bapat, Aneesh; Delmar, Mario; Morley, Gregory E.

    2016-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated non-myocytes, including fibroblasts, can electrically couple to myocytes in culture. However, evidence demonstrating current can passively spread across scar tissue in the intact heart remains elusive. We hypothesize electrotonic conduction occurs across non-myocyte gaps in the heart and is partly mediated by Connexin43 (Cx43). We investigated whether non-myocytes in ventricular scar tissue are electrically connected to surrounding myocardial tissue in wild type and fibroblast-specific protein-1 driven conditional Cx43 knock-out mice (Cx43fsp1KO). Electrical coupling between the scar and uninjured myocardium was demonstrated by injecting current into the myocardium and recording depolarization in the scar through optical mapping. Coupling was significantly reduced in Cx43fsp1KO hearts. Voltage signals were recorded using microelectrodes from control scars but no signals were obtained from Cx43fsp1KO hearts. Recordings showed significantly decreased amplitude, depolarized resting membrane potential, increased duration and reduced upstroke velocity compared to surrounding myocytes, suggesting that the non-excitable cells in the scar closely follow myocyte action potentials. These results were further validated by mathematical simulations. Optical mapping demonstrated that current delivered within the scar could induce activation of the surrounding myocardium. These data demonstrate non-myocytes in the scar are electrically coupled to myocytes, and coupling depends on Cx43 expression.

  4. A Practical Algorithm for Improving Localization and Quantification of Left Ventricular Scar

    PubMed Central

    Zenger, Brian; Cates, Joshua; Morris, Alan; Kholmovski, Eugene; Au, Alexander; Ranjan, Ravi; Akoum, Nazem; McGann, Chris; Wilson, Brent; Marrouche, Nassir; Han, Frederick T.; MacLeod, Rob S.

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches to classification of left ventricular scar rely on manual segmentation of myocardial borders and manual classification of scar tissue. In this paper, we propose an novel, semi-automatic approach to segment the left ventricular wall and classify scar tissue using a combination of modern image processing techniques. We obtained high-resolution magnetic resonance angiograms (MRA) and late-gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI) in 14 patients who had ventricular scar from a prior myocardial infarction. We applied (1) a level set-based segmentation approach using a combination of the MRA and LGE-MRI to segment the myocardium and then (2) an automated signal intensity algorithm (Otsu thresholding) to identify ventricular scar tissue. We compared results from both steps to those of expert observers. The LVgeometry using the semi-automated segmentation method had a mean overlap of 94% with the manual segmentations. The scar volumes obtained with the Otsu method correlated with the expert observer scar volumes (Dice comparison coefficient of 0.85± 0.11). This proof of concept segmentation pipeline provides a more objective method for identifying scar in the left ventricle than manual approaches. PMID:26448961

  5. Vectorcardiographic identification of myocardial scar: a discriminative study with automatically processed vectorcardiographic information.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, R O; O'Brien, P C; Titus, J L; Smith, R E

    1978-07-01

    A multivariate discriminative procedure for the vectorcardiographic identification of ischemic myocardial scarring was performed utilizing data from 1,162 vectorcardiograms (VCGs) obtained in clinically normal subjects and 90 VCGs obtained from patients proved at autopsy to have ischemic myocardial scars. The VCGs from patients with myocardial scars were divided into two groups, a design group of 50 cases and an evaluation group of 40 cases. The best vectorcardiographic variables to discriminate the clinically normal group from the design group with scars were identified by stepwise linear discrimination. Sixteen vectorcardiographic variables were then used for discriminative analysis. This analysis correctly identified myocardial scars in 45 of the 50 VCGs in the design group (sensitivity 90%); among the 1,162 VCGs from clinically normal subjects, 32 were misidentified as myocardial scar (specificity 97.2). The sensitivity of these defining criteria was then tested in the 40 cases of myocardial scar in the evaluation group and found to be reproducible; 34 of the 40 cases of this group (85.0%) were correctly identified as having a myocardial scar. The multivariate discriminative criteria developed in this study had greater sensitivity and specificity than standard methods usually employed in electrocardiography and vectorcardiography. The criteria defined need to be evaluated in a large series that includes instances of cardiac pathology of nonischemic nature. PMID:357672

  6. Long-term Observation of Soil Creep Activity around a Landslide Scar

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rate of sediment infilling into landslide scars by soil creep is needed to estimate the timing of subsequent landslide activity at a particular site. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of its activity around the landslide scar is scarce. Additionally, there are few...

  7. A Mathematical Model of Regenerative Axon Growing along Glial Scar after Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuning; Zhu, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    A major factor in the failure of central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration is the formation of glial scar after the injury of CNS. Glial scar generates a dense barrier which the regenerative axons cannot easily pass through or by. In this paper, a mathematical model was established to explore how the regenerative axons grow along the surface of glial scar or bypass the glial scar. This mathematical model was constructed based on the spinal cord injury (SCI) repair experiments by transplanting Schwann cells as bridge over the glial scar. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was used in this model for three-dimensional numerical simulation. The advantage of this model is that it provides a parallel and easily implemented algorithm and has the capability of handling complicated boundaries. Using the simulated data, two significant conclusions were made in this study: (1) the levels of inhibitory factors on the surface of the glial scar are the main factors affecting axon elongation and (2) when the inhibitory factor levels on the surface of the glial scar remain constant, the longitudinal size of the glial scar has greater influence on the average rate of axon growth than the transverse size. These results will provide theoretical guidance and reference for researchers to design efficient experiments. PMID:27274762

  8. The cutometer and ultrasonography in the assessment of postburn hypertrophic scar--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Fong, S S; Hung, L K; Cheng, J C

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen patients with various degrees of postburn hypertrophic scars were evaluated by ultrasonography and elastometry. An Aloka Echo Camera (SSD-500) with a 7.5 MHz probe and a Cutometer SEM 575 skin elastometer were used. Serial monthly examinations were performed using both pieces of equipment. In some patients, more than one scar was assessed. The assessments were correlated with clinical grading of the progress of the scars. It was noted that ultrasonography was very sensitive in the localization of scar tissues, distinguishing them from normal skin, assessment of thickness and also delineation of the extent of scar tissues. The subcutaneous part of the scar could be assessed. Cutometer SEM 575 is a new machine that applies a gentle suction to the skin to measure its viscoelasticity. It is sensitive, the inter-observer variation is low, and it could be used for the grading of a scar. These two assessment techniques compliment other methods of scar assessment and will prove useful when assessment of response to treatment is required. PMID:9177896

  9. [To improve the effect of reconstruction of scar contracture deformity on face and neck].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Yan, X

    2016-08-20

    This article briefly summarizes the methods for repair of scar contracture deformity on face and neck in recent years, including new technologies in this field. We can choose non-surgical treatment or surgical treatment to achieve the purpose of repair and reconstruction of scar contracture deformity on face and neck after considering the factors of function and appearance. PMID:27562153

  10. 77 FR 2910 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; Evaluation of Scars; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 54708), an amendment to that portion of the Schedule for Rating Disabilities that... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 4 RIN 2900-AM55 Schedule for Rating Disabilities; Evaluation of Scars; Correction... it more clearly reflected VA's policies concerning the evaluation of scars. In the preamble of...

  11. 77 FR 2909 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; Evaluation of Scars; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... INFORMATION: On September 23, 2008, VA published in the Federal Register (73 FR 54708), an amendment to that... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 4 RIN 2900-AM55 Schedule for Rating Disabilities; Evaluation of Scars; Correction... clearly reflected VA's policies concerning the evaluation of scars. In the preamble of that document,...

  12. A Mathematical Model of Regenerative Axon Growing along Glial Scar after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuning; Zhu, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    A major factor in the failure of central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration is the formation of glial scar after the injury of CNS. Glial scar generates a dense barrier which the regenerative axons cannot easily pass through or by. In this paper, a mathematical model was established to explore how the regenerative axons grow along the surface of glial scar or bypass the glial scar. This mathematical model was constructed based on the spinal cord injury (SCI) repair experiments by transplanting Schwann cells as bridge over the glial scar. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was used in this model for three-dimensional numerical simulation. The advantage of this model is that it provides a parallel and easily implemented algorithm and has the capability of handling complicated boundaries. Using the simulated data, two significant conclusions were made in this study: (1) the levels of inhibitory factors on the surface of the glial scar are the main factors affecting axon elongation and (2) when the inhibitory factor levels on the surface of the glial scar remain constant, the longitudinal size of the glial scar has greater influence on the average rate of axon growth than the transverse size. These results will provide theoretical guidance and reference for researchers to design efficient experiments. PMID:27274762

  13. A report of four cases of caesarean scar pregnancy in a period of 12 months.

    PubMed

    Yan, C M

    2007-04-01

    We report on four cases of caesarean scar pregnancy with different modes of treatment--expectant, surgical, systemic medical, and local medical. We attempt to explore the indications, and pros and cons of the various management modalities for caesarean scar pregnancy. PMID:17406042

  14. Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs. resistance training in untrained young men.

    PubMed

    Vissing, Kristian; Brink, Mads; Lønbro, Simon; Sørensen, Henrik; Overgaard, Kristian; Danborg, Kasper; Mortensen, Jesper; Elstrøm, Ole; Rosenhøj, Nikolaj; Ringgaard, Steffen; Andersen, Jesper L; Aagaard, Per

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle strength, power, and morphology induced by conventional strength training vs. plyometric training of equal time and effort requirements. Young, untrained men performed 12 weeks of progressive conventional resistance training (CRT, n = 8) or plyometric training (PT, n = 7). Tests before and after training included one-repetition maximum (1 RM) incline leg press, 3 RM knee extension, and 1 RM knee flexion, countermovement jumping (CMJ), and ballistic incline leg press. Also, before and after training, magnetic resonance imaging scanning was performed for the thigh, and a muscle biopsy was sampled from the vastus lateralis muscle. Muscle strength increased by approximately 20-30% (1-3 RM tests) (p < 0.001), with CRT showing 50% greater improvement in hamstring strength than PT (p < 0.01). Plyometric training increased maximum CMJ height (10%) and maximal power (Pmax; 9%) during CMJ (p < 0.01) and Pmax in ballistic leg press (17%) (p < 0.001). This was far greater than for CRT (p < 0.01), which only increased Pmax during the ballistic leg press (4%) (p < 0.05). Quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor whole-muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) increased equally (7-10%) with CRT and PT (p < 0.001). For fiber CSA analysis, some of the biopsies had to be omitted. Type I and IIa fiber CSA increased in CRT (n = 4) by 32 and 49%, respectively (p < 0.05), whereas no significant changes occurred for PT (n = 5). Myosin heavy-chain IIX content decreased from 11 to 6%, with no difference between CRT and PT. In conclusion, gross muscle size increased both by PT and CRT, whereas only CRT seemed to increase muscle fiber CSA. Gains in maximal muscle strength were essentially similar between groups, whereas muscle power increased almost exclusively with PT training. PMID:18978625

  15. [Recommendations for the prevention and therapy of hypertrophic scars and keloids].

    PubMed

    Gauglitz, G G; Kunte, C

    2011-05-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids form due to aberrations in the physiologic wound healing cascade characterized by greater and more sustained ECM deposition. Both entities are frequently associated with pain, pruritus and contractures, and are thus significantly affecting the patient's quality of life. Genetic susceptibility, specific anatomic locations, prolonged inflammation and delayed epithelialization significantly contribute to excessive scar formation. However, despite intensive scientific work in this field the complex mechanisms underlying the processes of scarring and wound contraction remain poorly understood and most therapeutic approaches are clinically unsatisfactory. Nevertheless, based on a rising number of clinical studies next to well-known therapeutic concepts including cryotherapy and intralesional triamcinolone, recent techniques extend the spectrum for treating excessive scars. Nonetheless, prevention of pathologic scarring is undoubtedly more effective than to later attempts to treat it. PMID:21468729

  16. Marginal characteristics of skin scarred dermis quantitatively extracted from multiphoton microscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zheng, Liqin; Jiang, Xingshan; Chen, Jianxin; Lin, Bifang

    2010-11-01

    Multiphoton microscopy based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) was applied to examine the marginal regions at dermis of normal, atrophic and keloid scars. High-contrast, high-resolution image showed an obvious boundary at scar margin and different morphological patterns of collagen or elastin on the two sides. Since the degree of the morphological alteration between the two sides of boundary at scar margin was varied among different types of scars, alteration degree of SHG-to-TPEF index was defined as a quantitative indicator for discrimination. It will help to determine the most appropriate clinical treatment strategy for different types of scars and potentially monitor therapy in vivo.

  17. Role of superoxide in renal scarring following infection by mannose-sensitive piliated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, T; Mizunoe, Y; Ogata, N; Tanaka, M; Kumazawa, J

    1991-01-01

    The role of superoxide in scar formation following renal infection caused by mannose-sensitive (MS) piliated strains of bacteria was studied in the experimental pyelonephritis model using female Sprague-Dawley rats. The MS piliated strain stimulated renal scarring to a significantly greater extent than either the non-piliated or MR-piliated strain. Modulation of leukocytes by administering cyclophosphamide to induce neutropenia and colchicine to inhibit leukocyte migration was effective in preventing renal scarring. Treatment with superoxide dismutase during the early stage of infection was also effective in preventing scar formation. Finally, the production of superoxide by rat leukocytes was significantly larger following stimulation by MS piliated than either the non-piliated or MR piliated strains. These observations suggest that superoxide released from leukocytes plays a critical role in the development of renal scarring following a bacterial infection, especially by MS piliated strains.

  18. A Novel Triple Medicine Combination Injection for the Resolution of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars remain one of the more difficult treatment concerns for clinicians. A variety of therapies have been used in the past with moderate success. On occasion, combination therapy has been used to treat these lesion, in an attempt to lessen the symptoms of pain and pruritus that often accompanies keloids and hypertrophic scars, as well as treating the actual lesions themselves. A novel triple combination injection process is introduced here in an attempt to further reduce the signs and symptoms of these lesions. The combination includes 5-fluoruracil, triamcinolone acetonide, and hyaluronidase. All three work in concert to treat keloids and hypertrophic scars, and this is the first work at looking at these medicines given together, at the same time, in a series of recalcitrant keloids and hypertrophic scars. The positive results warrant further investigation and hope for those with keloids and hypertrophic scars. PMID:25489380

  19. Capillary muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Caroline; Mouterde, Timothée; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The contraction of a muscle generates a force that decreases when increasing the contraction velocity. This “hyperbolic” force–velocity relationship has been known since the seminal work of A. V. Hill in 1938 [Hill AV (1938) Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 126(843):136–195]. Hill’s heuristic equation is still used, and the sliding-filament theory for the sarcomere [Huxley H, Hanson J (1954) Nature 173(4412):973–976; Huxley AF, Niedergerke R (1954) Nature 173(4412):971–973] suggested how its different parameters can be related to the molecular origin of the force generator [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255–318; Deshcherevskiĭ VI (1968) Biofizika 13(5):928–935]. Here, we develop a capillary analog of the sarcomere obeying Hill’s equation and discuss its analogy with muscles. PMID:25944938

  20. Mapping of intramuscular tenderness and muscle fiber orientation of muscles in the beef round.

    PubMed

    Senaratne, L S; Calkins, C R; de Mello, A S; Pokharel, S; Hinkle, J B

    2010-09-01

    Intramuscular tenderness variation and muscle fiber orientation of beef M. adductor femoris (AF), M. biceps femoris (BF), M. gracilis (GL), M. pectineus (PT), M. sartorius (SR), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (SO), M. vastus intermedius (VI), M. vastus medialis (VM), and M. vastus lateralis (VL) were investigated. The USDA Choice boxed beef subprimals were purchased and aged for 14 d from boxed date. The AF, BF, GL, PT, SR, SM, SO, VI, VM, and VL (n = 10 each) were fabricated from subprimals. Crust-frozen AF, BF, SO, SM, and VL were cut into 2.54-cm steaks perpendicular to the long axis and grilled (71 degrees C). The PT, SR, VI, and VM were grilled (71 degrees C) as whole muscles, whereas the GL was grilled after cutting into anterior and posterior regions. Grilled muscles were cut into equal size sections perpendicular to long axis of muscles. Location-specific cores were prepared from each steak/section, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was measured. The muscle fiber orientations of BF, PT, and VI were bipennate, SR and SO were fusiform, and AD, SM, VL, GL, and VM were unipennate. The overall mean WBSF values for BF, SO, AF, SM, PT, SR, GL, VI, VM, and VL were 5.62, 4.86, 4.18, 4.90, 3.76, 4.44, 4.75, 4.78, 4.24, and 6.53 kg, respectively. Based on WBSF values, PT was tender, BF and VL were tough, and VM, VI, SM, GL SR, AF, and SO were intermediate. The first 2 proximal steaks of long head BF were more tender than the rest (P < 0.05). In the SO, the tenderness decreased from the middle of the muscle to both ends (P < 0.05). The anterior sides of the long head BF and SO were tougher than their posterior sides (P < 0.05).The first 4 steaks of the SM were more tender than the rest of the muscle (P < 0.05). There was a significant tenderness increment from the middle of the AF and SR to both ends of each muscle (P < 0.05). The medial side of the VI was more tender than its lateral side (P < 0.05). The VM had its smallest shear force value at the