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Sample records for adefovir dipivoxil adv

  1. Modeling of autocatalytic hydrolysis of adefovir dipivoxil in solid formulations.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Bingren; Deng, Haishan; Wu, Jingfang

    2011-04-01

    The stability and hydrolysis kinetics of a phosphate prodrug, adefovir dipivoxil, in solid formulations were studied. The stability relationship between five solid formulations was explored. An autocatalytic mechanism for hydrolysis could be proposed according to the kinetic behavior which fits the Prout-Tompkins model well. For the classical kinetic models could hardly describe and predict the hydrolysis kinetics of adefovir dipivoxil in solid formulations accurately when the temperature is high, a feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network was constructed to model the hydrolysis kinetics. The build-in approaches in Weka, such as lazy classifiers and rule-based learners (IBk, KStar, DecisionTable and M5Rules), were used to verify the performance of MLP. The predictability of the models was evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation and an external test set. It reveals that MLP should be of general applicability proposing an alternative efficient way to model and predict autocatalytic hydrolysis kinetics for phosphate prodrugs.

  2. Pathologic Femoral Neck Fracture Due to Fanconi Syndrome Induced by Adefovir Dipivoxil Therapy for Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Ho-Jae

    2016-01-01

    In Fanconi syndrome, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia is caused by proximal renal tubule dysfunction which leads to impaired reabsorption of amino acids, glucose, urate, and phosphate. We present a rare case of a 43-year-old Korean male who was found to have insufficiency stress fracture of the femoral neck secondary to osteomalacia due to Fanconi syndrome. He had been receiving low-dose adefovir dipivoxil (ADV, 10 mg/day) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection for 7 years and he subsequently developed severe hypophosphatemia and proximal renal tubule dysfunction. The incomplete femoral neck fracture was fixed with multiple cannulated screws to prevent further displacement of the initial fracture. After cessation of ADV and correction of hypophosphatemia with oral phosphorus supplementation, the patient's clinical symptoms, such as bone pain, muscle weakness, and laboratory findings improved. PMID:27247753

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of lamivudine, telbivudine, and entecavir in treatment of chronic hepatitis B with adefovir dipivoxil resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiliang; Liu, Yan; Qiu, Ping; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Xu, Linfang; Wen, Ping; Wen, Jianbo; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of lamivudine (LMV), telbivudine (LdT), and entecavir (ETV) in treatment of chronic hepatitis B with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) resistance. Two hundred and fifty-two patients were recruited and screened for resistance to ADV and randomly assigned into three groups: LMV + ADV, LdT + ADV, and ETV + ADV. The ratio of biochemical response, virological response, seroconversion of hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg)/hepatitis Be antibody (HBeAb), viral breakthrough, and the cost and effectiveness of treatments were analyzed. A comparison of the results of the ratio of biochemical response, virological response and seroconversion of HBeAg/HBeAb, showed no statistical difference between the three groups, with the economic cost of LMV + ADV the lowest, LdT + ADV the middle, and ETV + ADV the highest. The side effects of the three plans are all rare and tolerable. LMV + ADV is the optimal rescue strategy, and LdT + ADV the alternative selection in the economically less developed regions, while ETV + ADV was used in the economically developed regions.

  4. Relationship between nephrotoxicity and long-term adefovir dipivoxil therapy for chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qing; Deng, Yong; Cheng, Feifei; Kang, Juan; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Dazhi; Zeng, Weiqiong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: To assess the relationship between adefovir dipivoxil and renal function after anti-hepatitis B virus therapy and elucidate the risk factors involved. Methods: Based on the requirements of the Cochrane systematic review methodology, 21 observational articles on adefovir dipivoxil-associated renal dysfunction were obtained by searching various databases, between January 1, 1995 and July 1, 2016. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate risk bias. Parameters for 4276 chronic hepatitis B patients were analyzed by Review Manager and R software, and glomerular filtration rate, creatinine clearance, and serum creatinine values were extracted to evaluate renal function. Results: Renal dysfunction was more likely to occur in patients receiving the adefovir dipivoxil therapy (odds ratio [OR] 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40–2.80) than the none-adefovir dipivoxil group. Subgroup analysis showed that renal function predictive value is higher for glomerular filtration rate (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.34–3.14), compared with serum creatinine levels (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.75–3.04). The rate of adefovir dipivoxil-associated renal dysfunction was 12% (95% CI 0.08–0.16). Older patients and patients with renal insufficiency, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were more prone to developing adefovir dipivoxil-associated renal dysfunction; however, integrated raw data were insufficient for further detailed analysis. Conclusion: Long-term adefovir dipivoxil therapy is connected to renal dysfunction in chronic hepatitis B, necessitating the monitoring of kidney function. PMID:27977591

  5. Adefovir dipivoxil-induced Fanconi syndrome and its predictive factors: A study of 28 cases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yong; Pan, Fan; Wang, Yingchao; Chen, Ziqian; Lin, Chun; Yao, Lvfeng; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Rui; Pan, Chen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify monitoring and prevention measures as well as predictive factors for early detection of renal toxicity associated with long-term administration of adefovir dipivoxil in order to avoid progression to Fanconi syndrome. Clinical data of 28 patients with Fanconi syndrome caused by long-term administration of adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were collected pre-and post-administration for analysis. Patients presented with fatigue, progressive systemic pain in multiple bones and joints, as well as difficulty in walking and pathological fractures in a number of severe cases. Laboratory examinations revealed hypophosphatemia, elevated serum cystatin C (Cys-C), elevated serum creatinine (SCr), reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), positive urinary protein, erythrocytes and glucose, as well as osteoporosis. In consequence, adefovir dipivoxil administration was stopped, and patients received concentrated divitamins, sodium phosphate syrup and calcitriol. Symptoms and abnormalities in laboratory examinations were significantly improved in all patients after 2–6 months. Therefore, serum phosphate, SCr, routine urine parameters, Cys-C and GFR should be monitored regularly in chronic HBV patients treated with adefovir dipivoxil. The following factors were identified as predictive of kidney damage and Fanconi syndrome: Age ≥40 years, living in rural areas, previous renal toxicity, estimated GFR (eGFR) <90 ml/min/1.73 m2, hypertension, diabetes, cirrhosis and duration of adefovir dipivoxil treatment exceeding 24 months. The present results indicate that timely termination of adefovir dipivoxil treatment and replacement with other antiviral agents is critical once renal impairment appears, and that it is necessary to change to other antiviral agents and prolong the interval of administration according to the eGFR level. PMID:28123560

  6. Adefovir dipivoxil-induced Fanconi syndrome and its predictive factors: A study of 28 cases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong; Pan, Fan; Wang, Yingchao; Chen, Ziqian; Lin, Chun; Yao, Lvfeng; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Rui; Pan, Chen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify monitoring and prevention measures as well as predictive factors for early detection of renal toxicity associated with long-term administration of adefovir dipivoxil in order to avoid progression to Fanconi syndrome. Clinical data of 28 patients with Fanconi syndrome caused by long-term administration of adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were collected pre-and post-administration for analysis. Patients presented with fatigue, progressive systemic pain in multiple bones and joints, as well as difficulty in walking and pathological fractures in a number of severe cases. Laboratory examinations revealed hypophosphatemia, elevated serum cystatin C (Cys-C), elevated serum creatinine (SCr), reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), positive urinary protein, erythrocytes and glucose, as well as osteoporosis. In consequence, adefovir dipivoxil administration was stopped, and patients received concentrated divitamins, sodium phosphate syrup and calcitriol. Symptoms and abnormalities in laboratory examinations were significantly improved in all patients after 2-6 months. Therefore, serum phosphate, SCr, routine urine parameters, Cys-C and GFR should be monitored regularly in chronic HBV patients treated with adefovir dipivoxil. The following factors were identified as predictive of kidney damage and Fanconi syndrome: Age ≥40 years, living in rural areas, previous renal toxicity, estimated GFR (eGFR) <90 ml/min/1.73 m(2), hypertension, diabetes, cirrhosis and duration of adefovir dipivoxil treatment exceeding 24 months. The present results indicate that timely termination of adefovir dipivoxil treatment and replacement with other antiviral agents is critical once renal impairment appears, and that it is necessary to change to other antiviral agents and prolong the interval of administration according to the eGFR level.

  7. Progress in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: long-term experience with adefovir dipivoxil.

    PubMed

    Delaney, William E

    2007-05-01

    Most chronic hepatitis B patients do not undergo a curative response to interferon-alpha or nucleoside/nucleotide-based regimens and require long-term therapy. Long-term safety, efficacy and resistance profiles of hepatitis B virus (HBV) drugs are therefore crucial issues for patient management. Adefovir dipivoxil is a nucleotide prodrug indicated for the treatment of patients with hepatitis B e antigen positive or hepatitis B e antigen negative chronic hepatitis B, lamivudine-resistant HBV infection, HBV infection pre- or post-liver transplantation, or HlV co-infection. Long-term data from clinical trials of up to 5 years duration of adefovir dipivoxil have recently become available and are reviewed here. These data demonstrate that adefovir dipivoxil therapy results in sustained efficacy and safety in the majority of patients after multiple years of treatment. The efficacy of adefovir dipivoxil in treating lamivudine-resistant HBV and the delayed emergence of adefovir resistance are key factors contributing to the durable response achieved in broad groups of chronic hepatitis B patients.

  8. Effects of 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 on Intestinal Absorption and Disposition of Adefovir Dipivoxil and Its Metabolite, Adefovir, in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, In-Soo; Son, Jun-Hyeng; Kim, Sang-Bum; Choi, Min-Koo; Maeng, Han-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), an active form of vitamin D, on the oral absorption and disposition of adefovir dipivoxil (P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate) and its major active metabolite, adefovir (multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (Mrp4) substrate), in rats. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous adefovir and oral adefovir dipivoxil was evaluated in control and 1,25(OH)2D3-treated rats. The intestinal absorption of adefovir dipivoxil was investigated through an in situ closed loop study, and the tissue distribution of adefovir after oral administration of adefovir dipivoxil was evaluated in the two groups. There was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters of intravenous adefovir between the two groups. Importantly, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC), peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and extent of absolute oral bioavailability (F) of adefovir after oral administration of adefovir dipivoxil were significantly higher in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated rats than in control rats. In the in situ closed loop study, there was no significant difference in the remaining fraction of adefovir dipivoxil in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum loops between the two groups. In the tissue distribution study after oral administration of adefovir dipivoxil, the tissue-to-plasma partition coefficients of adefovir in the liver, brain, kidney, and intestine were significantly lower in the 1,25(OH)2D3-treated rats than in control rats. The present study indicates that 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment can enhance the oral absorption of adefovir dipivoxil, likely via the induction of basolateral Mrp4 function in rat intestine. However, the impact of 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous adefovir was limited. These results could lead to further studies in clinically significant P-gp and/or MRP4-mediated 1,25(OH)2D3-drug interactions.

  9. Curative effect of combined lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, and stem cell transplantation on decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Yan, Y; Zhou, J; Huang, L W; He, C P; Ling, K; Zhou, H C; Wen, Q M; Wang, X M

    2014-02-21

    This study assessed the clinical efficacy of lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil combined with autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation as treatment for patients with hepatitis B and decompensated liver cirrhosis. In total, 77 patients with hepatitis B and decompensated liver cirrhosis were randomly divided into two groups. Under general symptomatic and supportive treatment, the patients in group A (37 cases) were treated with lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil, whereas those in group B (40 cases) were treated with autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation in combination with lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil. After 4 weeks of treatment, the liver function indicators and clinical signs and symptoms of the patients in group B improved more significantly than those of patients in group A. Lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil in combination with autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation effectively prevented hepatitis B virus infection and bone marrow stem cell damage. This combination treatment facilitates the differentiation of bone marrow stem cells into normal liver cells to restore liver structure and improve liver function, thereby improving the quality of life of patients.

  10. Adefovir dipivoxil is less expensive than lamivudine and associated with similar prognosis in patients with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma after radical resection

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jian-Hong; Ke, Yang; Zhu, Shao-Liang; Wang, Lin; Luo, Cheng-Piao; Gong, Wen-Feng; You, Xue-Mei; Ma, Liang; Xiang, Bang-De; Li, Le-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Aim Lamivudine (LAM) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) are widely used in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but few studies have directly compared their therapeutic efficacy and treatment cost. This study aims to compare LAM with ADV head-to-head in these patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 201 patients with HBV-related HCC who underwent radical resection and subsequently received LAM (n=155) or ADV (n=46). The two groups were compared in terms of HBV-DNA levels, liver function, antiviral resistance, recurrence-free, and overall survival, as well as antiviral medication costs. Results Despite significant improvement in HBV-DNA and alanine aminotransferase level in the LAM group after 1 year of antiviral therapy, these parameters did not differ significantly between the two groups over the following 2 years. Incidence of antiviral resistance after 1, 2, and 3 years of antiviral treatment was significantly higher in the LAM group (19.5%, 45.7%, and 56.4%) than in the ADV group (0%, 3.3%, and 14.5%; P<0.001). Overall survival at 1, 2, and 3 years after resection was similar for the LAM group (84.5%, 69.3%, and 64.6%) and the ADV group (84.1%, 77.8%, and 63.4%; P=0.905). Recurrence-free survival at the three follow-up points was also similar for the LAM group (71.7%, 58.3%, and 43.9%) and the ADV group (81.1%, 66.1%, and 53.0%; P=0.452). Cox regression analysis confirmed that both nucleos(t)ide analogues were associated with similar overall and recurrence-free survival. However, the average medication costs after 1, 2, and 3 years of antiviral treatment were significantly higher in the LAM group (€3.0, €4.8, and €5.6 per person per day) than in the ADV group (€2.2, €2.4, and €3.1 per person per day; all P<0.05). Conclusion ADV and LAM are associated with similar survival benefit in patients with HBV-related HCC after radical resection, but ADV is more cost-effective. PMID:27877054

  11. Experimental and molecular docking studies on DNA binding interaction of adefovir dipivoxil: Advances toward treatment of hepatitis B virus infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Falsafi, Monireh

    The toxic interaction of adefovir dipivoxil with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multi-spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove binding mode. The binding constant of UV-visible and the number of binding sites were 3.33 ± 0.2 × 104 L mol-1and 0.99, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drug and CT-DNA is exothermic (ΔH = 34.4 kJ mol-1; ΔS = 184.32 J mol-1 K-1). Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was employed to measure the conformational change of CT-DNA in the presence of adefovir dipivoxil, which verified the groove binding mode. Furthermore, the drug induces detectable changes in its viscosity. The molecular modeling results illustrated that adefovir strongly binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -16.83 kJ mol-1. This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling methods can be widely used in the investigation on the toxic interaction of small molecular pollutants and drugs with bio macromolecules, which contributes to clarify the molecular mechanism of toxicity or side effect in vivo.

  12. Novel polymorphic form of adefovir dipivoxil derived from polymer-directed crystallization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Kyung; Lee, Hyeseung; Kim, Il Won; Lee, Jonghwi

    2011-10-01

    Crystallization is an essential step in pharmaceutical processing. The discovery of a non-classical crystallization pathway would be a promising strategy to engineer the properties of drug crystalline particles for specific delivery conditions. Herein, polymer-directed crystallization was successfully employed to modify the characteristics of a model drug, adefovir dipivoxil (AD). Polyacrylic acid (PAA), ethyl cellulose (EC), and hydroxypropyl cellulose were added as active polymers to control the crystallization pathway of AD. Changes in crystal habit were observed in all cases. A novel polymorph was found after the addition of PAA and EC, and was confirmed by XRD and DSC results. In FTIR investigations, the crystals derived from PAA-directed crystallization showed strong interactions between PAA and AD. The polymer content in polymer-directed crystallization-derived powders varied from 7 to 24 wt%, and the presence of polymers lead to sustained release of AD. These results make polymer-directed crystallization a simple and efficient technique to engineer the physical and chemical properties of drug crystals.

  13. Effect of adefovir dipivoxil on T cell immune function in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and hepatocirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Liting; Fu, Qilin; Huang, Fu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the T cell immune function in chronic hepatitis B hepatocirrhosis patients at the compensated and decompensated stage following treatment with adefovir dipivoxil. A total of 104 patients diagnosed with hepatitis B hepatocirrhosis during the period from October 2013 to October 2014 were enrolled in the study. Among the cases, there were 56 cases at compensated stage, and another 48 at decompensated stage. Adefovir dipivoxil was administered for antiviral therapy (10 mg/time, 1 time/day, for a total of 24 weeks), and we compared the virus disappearance rate, liver function improvement and T cell immune function between the two groups before and after treatment. The difference between the virus disappearance rate in the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The decreased level of ALT decrease in the compensated group was significantly higher than that in the decompensated group, while the increased level of albumin in the compensated group was significantly higher as well. The differences showed statistical significance (P<0.05). After treatment, the level of CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were higher than before treatment, while the level of CD8+ was lower after treatment than before treatment in the two groups. The differences all showed statistical significance (P<0.05). The CD4+CXCR5+ T follicular helper (TFH) cell level in the two groups was higher after treatment, as was interleukin-2 and interferon-γ. The differences all showed statistical significance (P<0.05). As for comparison between groups, the difference had no statistical significance (P>0.05). Adefovir dipivoxil treatment can improve T cell immune function at the compensated and decompensated stages in chronic hepatitis B hepatocirrhosis patients. This may be associated with virus disappearance and liver function improvement. PMID:27698751

  14. Effect of adefovir dipivoxil on T cell immune function in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and hepatocirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Liting; Fu, Qilin; Huang, Fu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the T cell immune function in chronic hepatitis B hepatocirrhosis patients at the compensated and decompensated stage following treatment with adefovir dipivoxil. A total of 104 patients diagnosed with hepatitis B hepatocirrhosis during the period from October 2013 to October 2014 were enrolled in the study. Among the cases, there were 56 cases at compensated stage, and another 48 at decompensated stage. Adefovir dipivoxil was administered for antiviral therapy (10 mg/time, 1 time/day, for a total of 24 weeks), and we compared the virus disappearance rate, liver function improvement and T cell immune function between the two groups before and after treatment. The difference between the virus disappearance rate in the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The decreased level of ALT decrease in the compensated group was significantly higher than that in the decompensated group, while the increased level of albumin in the compensated group was significantly higher as well. The differences showed statistical significance (P<0.05). After treatment, the level of CD4(+) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio were higher than before treatment, while the level of CD8(+) was lower after treatment than before treatment in the two groups. The differences all showed statistical significance (P<0.05). The CD4(+)CXCR5(+) T follicular helper (TFH) cell level in the two groups was higher after treatment, as was interleukin-2 and interferon-γ. The differences all showed statistical significance (P<0.05). As for comparison between groups, the difference had no statistical significance (P>0.05). Adefovir dipivoxil treatment can improve T cell immune function at the compensated and decompensated stages in chronic hepatitis B hepatocirrhosis patients. This may be associated with virus disappearance and liver function improvement.

  15. Adefovir

    MedlinePlus

    Adefovir is used to treat chronic (long-term) hepatitis B infection (swelling of the liver caused by a ... analogs. It works by decreasing the amount of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the body. Adefovir will not ...

  16. Mechanism study on stability enhancement of adefovir dipivoxil by cocrystallization: Degradation kinetics and structure-stability correlation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rui-Zhen; Sun, Peng-Jie; Tao, Qian; Yao, Jia; Chen, Jia-Mei; Lu, Tong-Bu

    2016-03-31

    The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanism by which cocrystallization can enhance the stability of adefovir dipivoxil (AD), a diester prodrug of adefovir with known chemical stability problem. Three multi-component crystals of AD with biologically safe coformers, including gallic acid cocrystal hydrate (1:1:1), salicylate salt (1:1), and maleate salt (1:1) were prepared and characterized by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. DVS measurements and stability tests were applied to evaluate the stability. The new crystalline phases exhibit improved stability compared to pure drug in the order AD gallic acid cocrystal>AD maleate>AD salicylate>AD form I. Degradation kinetics and structure-stability correlation studies demonstrate that the stability enhancement mechanism by cocrystallization involves (1) inhibition of hydrolysis of AD by replacement of drug-drug homosynthons by stronger drug-coformer heterosynthons at adenine fragments; (2) suppression of dimerization of AD by separation of adenine fragments by inserting coformers in crystal lattices; (3) further reducing rates of hydrolysis by forming hydrogen bonds with hydrate water at phosphoryl fragments. This study has important implications for use of cocrystallization approach to some easily degradable drugs in pharmaceutical.

  17. Efficacy and resistance in de novo combination lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil therapy versus entecavir monotherapy for the treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, there is no consensus on the efficacy and resistance of de novo combination therapy versus monotherapy for treatment naive patients of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and resistance of de novo combination of lamivudine (LAM) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) compared with entecavir (ETV) monotherapy for nucleos(t)ide–naive patients with CHB. Study design Publications on the effectiveness and resistance of LAM plus ADV versus ETV monotherapy for nucleos(t)ide-naive patients with CHB were identified by a search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of science, OVID, and CBM (Chinese Biological Medical Literature) until May 1, 2013. Biochemical response, hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion, and viroligic response were extracted and combined to obtain an integrated result. Viral resistance and safety were reviewed. Results Five eligible studies (328 patients in total) were included in the analysis. LAM plus ADV combination therapy produced more rapid HBV DNA reduction rate at 12 weeks than that of ETV monotherapy. At 48 weeks, the combination group had superior viroligic response rates compared with ETV group (90.0% vs. 78.9%, P=0.01). The difference in the ALT normalization and HBeAg seroconversion rates was not found. At week 96, LAM + ADV was more effective than ETV in ALT normalization [RR = 1. 11, 95% CI (1.02, 1.21), P =0.01] and HBeAg seroconversion [RR = 2.00, 95% CI (1.26, 3.18, P=0.003)], and no significant difference was found in the virologic response (P =0.23). No viral resistance occurred in combination therapy and six patients in ETV group were experienced with viral breakthrough. Both groups were well tolerated. Conclusion The de novo LAM plus ADV combination therapy for treatment-naïve patients with CHB was greater than ETV monotherapy in both biochemical response and HBeAg seroconversion rate up to 96 weeks. The rate of emergence of viral

  18. Decompensated lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis treated successfully with adefovir dipivoxil allowing surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Masaaki; Ichida, Takafumi; Ohkoshi, Shogo; Tsubata, Shunsuke; Osaki, Akihiko; Aoyagi, Tomoya; Nomoto, Minoru; Uehara, Kazuhiro; Terada, Haruo; Aoyagi, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    We describe a 64-year-old man with decompensated hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis who became resistant to lamivudine. He was started on adefovir at 10 mg daily while continuing lamivudine therapy. Several months later, his liver function improved and subsequently his ascites disappeared. The serum HBV-DNA level became undetectable 11 months later. Twenty months after the start of additional treatment with adefovir, one hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was detected, and the patient underwent a successful hepatectomy. Our findings suggest that the addition of adefovir to ongoing lamivudine therapy is useful for improving liver function in patients with decompensated lamivudine-resistant HBV-related cirrhosis, allowing surgery for HCC.

  19. The Effect of Prophylactic Lamivudine plus Adefovir Therapy Compared with Lamivudine Alone in Preventing Hepatitis B Reactivation in Lymphoma Patients with High Baseline HBV DNA during Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaoxu; Geng, Qirong; Huang, Huiqiang; Lin, Tongyu; Jiang, Wenqi; Xia, Zhongjun; Duan, Huaxin; Rao, Huilan; Yao, Mengfei; Hu, Liyang

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic antiviral therapy is essential for lymphoma patients with high baseline HBV DNA who undergo cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, there are limited data on the optimal options. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy of prophylactic lamivudine (LAM) with lamivudine plus adefovir dipivoxil (LAM+ADV) in preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in lymphoma with, pre-chemotherapy HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 86 lymphoma patients with baseline HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml during chemotherapy and received LAM or LAM+ADV as prophylaxis between January 1, 2008 and November 30, 2014 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, China. Sixty-five patients received LAM and 21 received LAM+ADV. The rate was significantly lower in the LAM+ADV group compared with the LAM group for HBV reactivation (23.8% vs 55.4%; p = 0.012), while no difference was observed between the two groups in patients for HBV-related hepatitis (21.3% vs 33.3%; p   =  0.349), and chemotherapy disruption (10.9% vs 19.0%; p = 0.337). In a multivariate analysis of factors associated with HBV reactivation in these patients, LAM+ADV treatment and HBeAg negative were the independent protective factors. Therefore, LAM+ADV should be considered for antiviral prophylaxis in lymphoma patients with pre-chemotherapy HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml. Further study is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:27711135

  20. Selective inhibition of anthrax edema factor by adefovir, a drug for chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuequan; Zhukovskaya, Natalia L; Zimmer, Michael I; Soelaiman, Sandriyana; Bergson, Pamela; Wang, Chyung-Ru; Gibbs, Craig S; Tang, Wei-Jen

    2004-03-02

    Edema factor (EF), a key virulence factor in anthrax pathogenesis, has calmodulin (CaM)-activated adenylyl cyclase activity. We have found that adefovir dipivoxil, a drug approved to treat chronic infection of hepatitis B virus, effectively inhibits EF-induced cAMP accumulation and changes in cytokine production in mouse primary macrophages. Adefovir diphosphate (PMEApp), the active cellular metabolite of adefovir dipivoxil, inhibits the adenylyl cyclase activity of EF in vitro with high affinity (K(i) = 27 nM). A crystal structure of EF-CaM-PMEApp reveals that the catalytic site of EF forms better van der Waals contacts and more hydrogen bonds with PMEApp than with its endogenous substrate, ATP, providing an explanation for the approximately 10,000-fold higher affinity EF-CaM has for PMEApp versus ATP. Adefovir dipivoxil is a clinically approved drug that can block the action of an anthrax toxin. It can be used to address the role of EF in anthrax pathogenesis.

  1. Clinical Potential of the Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates Cidofovir, Adefovir, and Tenofovir in Treatment of DNA Virus and Retrovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, Erik

    2003-01-01

    The acyclic nucleoside phosphonates HPMPC (cidofovir), PMEA (adefovir), and PMPA (tenofovir) have proved to be effective in vitro (cell culture systems) and in vivo (animal models and clinical studies) against a wide variety of DNA virus and retrovirus infections: cidofovir against herpesvirus (herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus [CMV], Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8), polyomavirus, papillomavirus, adenovirus, and poxvirus (variola virus, cowpox virus, vaccinia virus, molluscum contagiosum virus, and orf virus) infections; adefovir against herpesvirus, hepadnavirus (human hepatitis B virus), and retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus types 1 [HIV-1] and 2 [HIV-2], simian immunodeficiency virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus) infections; and tenofovir against both hepadnavirus and retrovirus infections. Cidofovir (Vistide) has been officially approved for the treatment of CMV retinitis in AIDS patients, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread) has been approved for the treatment of HIV infections (i.e., AIDS), and adefovir dipivoxil (Hepsera) has been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Nephrotoxicity is the dose-limiting side effect for cidofovir (Vistide) when used intravenously (5 mg/kg); no toxic side effects have been described for adefovir dipivoxil and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, at the approved doses (Hepsera at 10 mg orally daily and Viread at 300 mg orally daily). PMID:14557287

  2. Entecavir plus adefovir combination therapy versus lamivudine add-on adefovir for lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Xu, Hua; Liu, Jun-Ying; Lei, Yu; Zhong, Shan; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether adefovir (ADV) in combination with entecavir (ETV) is more effective than with lamivudine (LAM) in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic HBV infection, electronic databases were searched through May 10th, 2013 to obtain relevant trials which met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was performed on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies. Four trials containing a total of 323 patients were included. Serum HBV DNA reductions after 3 and 6 months of treatment in the ETV + ADV group were greater than that of LAM + ADV group (mean difference (MD) = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-1.07, P < 0.00001; MD = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.57-1.06, P < 0.00001). The rate of 6 months HBV DNA undetectability with ETV and ADV was higher than that of LAM and ADV (relative risk (RR) = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14-2.34, P < 0.007). There were higher rates of serum ALT normalization than those in LAM + ADV group after 6 months of treatment (RR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.11-1.77, P < 0.005). The ETV + ADV group had lower viral breakthrough and genotypic mutation rates than LAM + ADV group after 12 months of treatment (RR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.10-0.58, P = 0.002). The combination of ETV plus ADV is a more effective rescue therapy than LAM add-on ADV in patients with LAM-resistant HBV.

  3. Combination of lamivudine and adefovir without hepatitis B immune globulin is safe and effective prophylaxis against hepatitis B virus recurrence in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive liver transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Gane, Edward J; Patterson, Scott; Strasser, Simone I; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Angus, Peter W

    2013-03-01

    Without effective prophylaxis, liver transplantation for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease is frequently complicated by severe and rapidly progressive HBV recurrence. Combination prophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and lamivudine (LAM) reduces long-term recurrence rates below 10%; however, HBIG is costly and inconvenient to administer. We, therefore, conducted a multicenter, prospective study of outcomes with an HBIG-sparing regimen of LAM plus adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) initiated at the time of listing for liver transplantation and continued after transplantation. Twenty-six patients were recruited into this study at the time of listing for transplantation, and 20 subsequently underwent transplantation. Twelve of the 26 patients had LAM exposure before the study baseline, but none had LAM resistance. The median HBV viral load before the institution of antiviral therapy was approximately 4.0 log(10) IU/mL (range=2.3-7.5 log(10) IU/mL). To the 20 patients who underwent transplantation, 800 IU of intramuscular HBIG was given immediately after transplantation and daily for 7 days only (total HBIG dose=6400 IU). All transplant patients remained alive without HBV recurrence (they were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen, and HBV DNA was undetectable) after a median follow-up of 57 months after transplantation (range=27-83 months). The median serum creatinine level in these patients rose from 81 to 119 μmol/L over the course of the study. No patient required dose reduction or cessation. After the completion of this prospective study, the regimen was modified so that no perioperative HBIG was administered if the pretransplant serum HBV DNA level was suppressed below 3 log(10) IU/mL. Another 28 patients with HBV-related liver disease underwent transplantation (18 without HBIG). All remained alive and well without HBV recurrence after a median follow-up of 22 months after transplantation (range=10-58 months). In conclusion, a combination of

  4. Bisamidate Prodrugs of 2-Substituted 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA, adefovir) as Selective Inhibitors of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Česnek, Michal; Jansa, Petr; Šmídková, Markéta; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Dračínský, Martin; Brust, Tarsis F; Pávek, Petr; Trejtnar, František; Watts, Val J; Janeba, Zlatko

    2015-08-01

    Novel small-molecule agents to treat Bordetella pertussis infections are highly desirable, as pertussis (whooping cough) remains a serious health threat worldwide. In this study, a series of 2-substituted derivatives of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA, adefovir), in their isopropyl ester bis(L-phenylalanine) prodrug form, were designed and synthesized as potent inhibitors of adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) isolated from B. pertussis. The series consists of PMEA analogues bearing either a linear or branched aliphatic chain or a heteroatom at the C2 position of the purine moiety. Compounds with a small C2 substituent showed high potency against ACT without cytotoxic effects as well as good selectivity over human adenylate cyclase isoforms AC1, AC2, and AC5. The most potent ACT inhibitor was found to be the bisamidate prodrug of the 2-fluoro PMEA derivative (IC50 =0.145 μM). Although the bisamidate prodrugs reported herein exhibit overall lower activity than the bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) prodrug (adefovir dipivoxil), their toxicity and plasma stability profiles are superior. Furthermore, the bisamidate prodrug was shown to be more stable in plasma than in macrophage homogenate, indicating that the free phosphonate can be effectively distributed to target tissues, such as the lungs. Thus, ACT inhibitors based on acyclic nucleoside phosphonates may represent a new strategy to treat whooping cough.

  5. 75 FR 49233 - Amendments to Form ADV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part III Securities and... / Vol. 75 , No. 155 / Thursday, August 12, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 275 and 279 RIN 3235-AI17 Amendments to Form ADV AGENCY: Securities and...

  6. Floc Growth and Changes in ADV Acoustic Backscatter Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhnia, M.; Keyvani, A.; Strom, K.

    2013-12-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of mud floc growth on the acoustic back-scatter signal recorded by a Nortek Vector acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). Several studies have shown that calibration equations can be developed to link the backscatter strength with average suspended sediment concentration (SSC) when the sediment particle size distribution remains constant. However, when mud is present, the process of flocculation can alter the suspended particle size distribution. Past studies have shown that it is still unclear as to the degree of dependence of the calibration equation on changes in floc size. Part of the ambiguity lies in the fact that flocs can be porous and rather loosely packed and therefore might not scatter to the same extent as a grain of sand. In addition, direct, detailed measurements of floc size have not accompanied experiments examining the dependence of ADV backscatter and suspended sediment concentration. In this research, a set of laboratory experiments is used to test how floc growth affects the backscatter strength. The laboratory data is examined in light of an analytic model that was developed based on scatter theory to account for changes in both SSC and the floc properties of size and density. For the experiments, a turbulent suspension was created in a tank with a rotating paddle. Fixed concentrations of a mixture of kaolinite and montmorillonite were added to the tank in a step-wise manner. For each step, the flocs were allowed to grow to their equilibrium size before breaking the flocs with high turbulent mixing, adding more sediment, and then returning the mixing rate to a range suitable for the re-growth of flocs. During each floc growth phase, data was simultaneously collected at the same elevation in the tank using a floc camera to capture the changes in floc size, a Nortek Vector ADV for the acoustic backscatter, and a Campbell Scientific OBS 3+ for optical backscatter. Physical samples of the

  7. Research Gaps and Technology Needs in Development of PHM for Passive AdvSMR Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically due to losses in economy of scale, thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance (O&M) costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components. state-of-the-art in PHM.

  8. Research gaps and technology needs in development of PHM for passive AdvSMR components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Henagar, Chuck H. Jr.; Coble, Jamie B.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2014-02-18

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near-term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically because of losses in economy of scale; thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components.

  9. Bone Histology of Two Cases with Osteomalacia Related to Low-dose Adefovir

    PubMed Central

    Hiramatsu, Rikako; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Sawa, Naoki; Hasegawa, Eiko; Kawada, Masahiro; Imafuku, Aya; Sumida, Keiichi; Hoshino, Junichi; Takaichi, Kenmei

    2016-01-01

    We performed a bone histomorphometric analysis in two patients demonstrating Fanconi syndrome with hypophosphatemia, adefovir-related bone disease and chronic hepatitis B infection. Both patients had osteomalacia, but showed two different histological patterns. The osteoid volume of the patient without risedronate increased with [(osteoid volume/ bone volume)×100=18.6%]. However, the osteoid volume of the patient receiving risedronate without vitamin D analogue showed a greater increase of 53.8%. In both patients bone pain and hypophosphatemia subsided soon after the discontinuation of adefovir and the administration of phosphate derivative. These findings show that bisphosphonate may worsen this disease when this drug is administered without a vitamin D analogue. PMID:27746441

  10. Local-Level Prognostics Health Management Systems Framework for Passive AdvSMR Components. Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Pardini, Allan F.; Jones, Anthony M.; Deibler, John E.

    2014-09-12

    This report describes research results to date in support of the integration and demonstration of diagnostics technologies for prototypical AdvSMR passive components (to establish condition indices for monitoring) with model-based prognostics methods. The focus of the PHM methodology and algorithm development in this study is at the localized scale. Multiple localized measurements of material condition (using advanced nondestructive measurement methods), along with available measurements of the stressor environment, enhance the performance of localized diagnostics and prognostics of passive AdvSMR components and systems.

  11. 76 FR 255 - Amendments To Form ADV; Extension of Compliance Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Commission is extending the compliance date generally for four months to provide certain investment advisers... of Investment Adviser Regulation, Division of Investment Management, U.S. Securities and Exchange... Commission adopted amendments to Part 2 of Form ADV , and related rules under the Investment Advisers Act...

  12. Lamivudine/Adefovir Treatment Increases the Rate of Spontaneous Mutation of Hepatitis B Virus in Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Gómez, Marianoel; Bou, Juan-Vicente; Andreu, Iván; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The high levels of genetic diversity shown by hepatitis B virus (HBV) are commonly attributed to the low fidelity of its polymerase. However, the rate of spontaneous mutation of human HBV in vivo is currently unknown. Here, based on the evolutionary principle that the population frequency of lethal mutations equals the rate at which they are produced, we have estimated the mutation rate of HBV in vivo by scoring premature stop codons in 621 publicly available, full-length, molecular clone sequences derived from patients. This yielded an estimate of 8.7 × 10−5 spontaneous mutations per nucleotide per cell infection in untreated patients, which should be taken as an upper limit estimate because PCR errors and/or lack of effective lethality may inflate observed mutation frequencies. We found that, in patients undergoing lamivudine/adefovir treatment, the HBV mutation rate was elevated by more than sixfold, revealing a mutagenic effect of this treatment. Genome-wide analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms indicated that lamivudine/adefovir treatment increases the fraction of A/T-to-G/C base substitutions, consistent with recent work showing similar effects of lamivudine in cellular DNA. Based on these data, the rate at which HBV produces new genetic variants in treated patients is similar to or even higher than in RNA viruses. PMID:27649318

  13. De novo combination therapy adefovir plus lamivudine as a treatment for women of child-bearing age with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B before pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Na; Ding, Xiang-Chun; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Chun-Qiong; Liu, Shuai-Wei; Yan, Xie

    2014-03-01

    Substantial progress has been achieved in antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B; however, options for women of child-bearing age with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B remain a challenge. In this study, we sought to determine whether de novo combination therapy of Adefovir plus Lamivudine was a super treatment for women of child-bearing age with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B prior to conception. A total of 122 women patients of child-bearing age with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B were randomly assigned to receive (i) 10 mg Adefovir plus 100 mg Lamivudine (64 patients) or (ii) 10 mg Adefovir monotherapy (58 patients), administrated orally once daily for 96 weeks. The therapeutic efficacy within each group was compared at weeks 48 and 96. The results showed that de novo combination therapy of Adefovir plus Lamivudine significantly reduced HBV-DNA detectability, and enhanced ALT normalization and HBeAg seroconversion in women of child-bearing age with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. No virological breakthrough and genotypic resistance were observed in the combination therapy group. Additionally, the combination therapy with Adefovir plus Lamivudine was well tolerated. This study suggests that de novo combination therapy of Adefovir plus Lamivudine offers a therapeutic advantage for women of child-bearing age with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B when taken before conception.

  14. SACR ADVance 3-D Cartesian Cloud Cover (SACR-ADV-3D3C) product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Meng Wang, Tami Toto, Eugene Clothiaux, Katia Lamer, Mariko Oue

    2017-03-08

    SACR-ADV-3D3C remaps the outputs of SACRCORR for cross-wind range-height indicator (CW-RHI) scans to a Cartesian grid and reports reflectivity CFAD and best estimate domain averaged cloud fraction. The final output is a single NetCDF file containing all aforementioned corrected radar moments remapped on a 3-D Cartesian grid, the SACR reflectivity CFAD, a profile of best estimate cloud fraction, a profile of maximum observable x-domain size (xmax), a profile time to horizontal distance estimate and a profile of minimum observable reflectivity (dBZmin).

  15. Tumor-targeted gene therapy using Adv-AFP-HRPC/IAA prodrug system suppresses growth of hepatoma xenografted in mice.

    PubMed

    Dai, M; Liu, J; Chen, D-E; Rao, Y; Tang, Z-J; Ho, W-Z; Dong, C-Y

    2012-02-01

    Clinical efficacy of current therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment is limited. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is non-toxic for mammalian cells. Oxidative decarboxylation of IAA by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) leads to toxic effects of IAA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel gene-targeted enzyme prodrug therapy with IAA on hepatoma growth in vitro and in vivo mouse hepatoma models. We generated a plasmid using adenovirus to express HRP isoenzyme C (HRPC) with the HCC marker, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), as the promoter (pAdv-AFP-HRPC). Hepatocellular cells were infected with pAdv-AFP-HRPC and treated with IAA. Cell death was detected using MTT assay. Hepatoma xenografts were developed in mice by injection of mouse hepatoma cells. The size and weight of tumors and organs were evaluated. Cell death in tumors was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. HRPC expression in tissues was detected using Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction. IAA stimulated death of hepatocellular cells infected with pAdv-AFP-HRPC, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but not in control cells. Growth of hepatoma xenografts, including the size and weight, was inhibited in mice treated with pAdv-AFP-HRPC and IAA, compared with that in control group. pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA treatment induced cell death in hepatoma xenografts in mice. HRPC gene expressed only in hepatoma, but not in other normal organs of mice. pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA treatment did not cause any side effects on normal organs. These findings suggest that pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA enzyme/prodrug system may serve as a strategy for HCC therapy.

  16. Water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymer as a sorbent for the selective extraction and purification of adefovir from human serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Pourfarzib, Mojgan; Dinarvand, Rasoul; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz; Mehramizi, Ali; Rastegar, Hossein; Shekarchi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer has been synthesized to specifically extract adefovir, an antiviral drug, from serum and urine by dispersive solid-phase extraction before high-performance liquid chromatography with UV analysis. The imprinted polymers were prepared by bulk polymerization by a noncovalent imprinting method that involved the use of adefovir (template molecule) and functional monomer (methacrylic acid) complex prior to polymerization, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, and chloroform as porogen. Molecular recognition properties, binding capacity, and selectivity of the molecularly imprinted polymers were evaluated and the results show that the obtained polymers have high specific retention and enrichment for adefovir in aqueous medium. The new imprinted polymer was utilized as a molecular sorbent for the separation of adefovir from human serum and urine. The serum and urine extraction of adefovir by the molecularly imprinted polymer followed by high-performance liquid chromatography showed a linear calibration curve in the range of 20-100 μg/L with excellent precisions (2.5 and 2.8% for 50 μg/L), respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantization were determined in serum (7.62 and 15.1 μg/L), and urine (5.45 and 16 μg/L). The recoveries for serum and urine samples were found to be 88.2-93.5 and 84.3-90.2%, respectively.

  17. EVALUATION OF RANGE ESTIMATES FOR TOYOTA FCHV-ADV UNDER OPEN ROAD DRIVING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, D.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.

    2009-07-10

    The objective of this evaluation was to independently and objectively verify driving ranges of >400 miles announced by Toyota for its new advanced Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV-adv) utilizing 70 MPa compressed hydrogen. To accomplish this, participants from both Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) witnessed and participated in a 2-vehicle evaluation with Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. (TEMA) over a typical open road route for over 11 hours in one day with all relevant data recorded. SRNL and TEMA first entered into discussions of verifying the range of the advanced Toyota Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV-adv) in August 2008 resulting from reported 400+ mile range by Toyota. After extended negotiations, a CRADA agreement, SRNS CRADA No. CR-04-003, was signed on May 6, 2009. Subsequently, on June 30, 2009 SRNL and NREL participated in an all-day evaluation of the FCHV-adv with TEMA to determine the real-world driving range of this vehicle through on-road driving on an extended round-trip drive between Torrance and San Diego, California. SRNL and NREL observed the vehicles being refueled at Toyota's headquarters the day before the evaluation in Torrance, CA on June 29. At 8:00 AM on June 30, the vehicles departed Torrance north toward downtown Los Angeles, then west to the Pacific Coast Highway, and down to San Diego. After lunch the vehicles retraced their route back to Torrance. The traffic encountered was much heavier than anticipated, causing the vehicles to not return to Torrance until 9 PM. Each vehicle was driven by the same Toyota driver all day, with one SRNL/NREL observer in each vehicle the entire route. Data was logged by Toyota and analyzed by NREL. The maximum range of the FCHV-adv vehicles was calculated to be 431 miles under these driving conditions. This distance was calculated from the actual range of 331.5 miles during over 11 hours driving, plus 99.5 miles of

  18. Self-assembled drug delivery systems. Part 7: hepatocyte-targeted nanoassemblies of an adefovir lipid derivative with cytochrome P450-triggered drug release.

    PubMed

    Du, Lina; Wu, Lailong; Jin, Yiguang; Jia, Junwei; Li, Miao; Wang, Yu

    2014-09-10

    A novel strategy was used in the design of self-assembled drug delivery systems (SADDSs) in this study. The nanoassemblies of an amphiphilic adefovir lipid derivative were prepared and demonstrated to have the functions of hepatocyte targeting, enzyme-triggered drug release and high anti-hepatitis effect. An amphiphilic adefovir lipid derivative, N-lauroyl-1-(3-chlorophenyl)-1,3-propanyl phosphonyl adefovir (LCPA) was prepared and formed the nanoassemblies by injecting the mixture of LCPA and another amphiphilic polymer, d-galactide polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl ether (GPCE) (ca. 20:1, mol/mol) into water. The nanoassemblies were very stable and showed negative charge. LCPA was sensitive to the cytochrome P450 isozymes that were expressed predominantly in the hepatocytes to produce adefovir. GPCE contained a long hydrophilic chain and a galactose ligand targeting the asialoglycoprotein receptors overexpressed on the surface of hepatocytes. The nanoassemblies showed the long-circulating and liver targeting effects according to the results of pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and fluorescence imagination after bolus intravenous administration of the nanoassemblies to the mice. The highly efficient hepatitis B treatment was achieved by 10 day continuous administration of the nanoassemblies to the HBV-infected mice. Many functions were combined in the nanoassemblies, including prodrug, molecular self-assembly, nanotechnology, long-circulating, hepatocyte targeting and hepatocyte over expressing enzyme-triggered drug release.

  19. Plasma interferon-gamma, interleukin-10 and soluble markers of immune activation in infants with primary adenovirus (ADV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J Alonso; Tapia, Lorena; Palomino, M Angélica; Larrañaga, Carmen; Peña, Mónica; Jaramillo, Héctor

    2005-01-01

    Adenovirus (ADV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are etiological agents of acute respiratory tract infection in infants. Long-term prognosis of ADV infection includes severe lung damage, bronchiectasis and hyperlucent lung, while RSV infection is associated with development of recurrent wheezing and subsequent asthma. These differences may be related to differences in the primary immune responses elicited by these viruses. In this paper, we investigated the type of cytokine responses and the magnitude of immune activation in ADV and RSV infections in infants. We examined plasma concentrations of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-10 (IL-10), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sCD25) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (sTNFR-II) in previously healthy infants during the acute phase of primary ADV infection (n = 21) and RSV infection (n = 68), and in uninfected controls (n = 44). In ADV-infected infants, IFN-gamma plasma levels were significantly higher than those observed in RSV cases and the control group (p < 0.05). RSV cases did not show any differences in IFN-gamma plasma levels compared to the other groups. sCD25 levels were significantly higher in ADV- and RSV-infected infants than in controls (p < 0.0001), and higher in ADV than in RSV cases (p < 0.05). sTNFR-II levels were significantly higher in RSV- and ADV-infected infants than in controls (p < 0.0001, p < 0.05, respectively), and higher in RSV than in ADV infection (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in IL-10 plasma concentrations between the three groups. These results indicate that ADV and RSV infections in infants differ significantly with regard to the magnitude of production of interferon-gamma and soluble immune activation markers sCD25 and sTNFR-II. These immunological differences may be involved in the different clinical outcomes associated with these viral infections.

  20. Tenofovir has inferior efficacy in adefovir-experienced chronic hepatitis B patients compared to nucleos(t)ide-naïve patients

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Goh Eun; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Yoo, Jeong-ju; Lee, Minjong; Cho, Yuri; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Kim, Hwi Young; Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Zoulim, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims A recent study reported that entecavir had inferior efficacy in nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA)-experienced chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients compared to NA-naïve patients. We sought to compare the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in NA-experienced and NA-naïve CHB patients. Methods We retrospectively enrolled 252 consecutive patients who had a serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level greater than 2,000 IU/mL at the initiation of TDF treatment and who received TDF for at least 6 months. Complete virologic suppression (CVS) was defined as undetectable serum HBV DNA. We generated a multivariate Cox proportional-hazard model to examine predictive factors that were independently associated with time to CVS. Results The mean age of patients was 48.2 years, and the cohort included 181 NA-naïve patients and 71 NA-experienced patients. The median duration of TDF treatment was 14.4 (interquartile range, 9.5-17.8) months. A total of 167 (92.3%) of 181 NA-naïve patients achieved CVS, and 60 (84.5%) of 71 NA-exposed patients achieved CVS. Forty-nine (89.1%) of 55 patients who previously took an NA aside from adefovir and 11 (68.8%) of 16 adefovir-experienced patients achieved CVS. In multivariable analysis, previous adefovir exposure significantly influenced time to CVS (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.72; P=0.003), after adjusting for HBeAg positivity, baseline HBV DNA level and cirrhosis. Conclusions Tenofovir had inferior efficacy in adefovir-experienced CHB patients compared to NA-naïve patients. The response of patients with previous adefovir exposure to TDF monotherapy should be monitored closely. PMID:28190329

  1. Tenofovir-induced Fanconi syndrome in chronic hepatitis B monoinfected patients that reverted after tenofovir withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Mauro; Brocchieri, Alessandra; Spinetti, Angiola; Zaltron, Serena; Mangia, Giampaolo; Facchetti, Floriana; Fugazza, Alessandro; Castelli, Francesco; Colombo, Massimo; Lampertico, Pietro

    2014-12-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor widely used to treat patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Despite the excellent safety records of this regimen, a few cases of acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome have been reported among HIV patients exposed to TDF. In the HBV monoinfection scenario, only two cases of TDF-associated Fanconi syndrome have been reported thus far. Here, we describe two additional patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who developed a TDF-induced Fanconi syndrome that reverted after TDF withdrawal and had viral replication fully suppressed upon switching to entecavir (ETV). Though the overall risk of TDF associated severe renal toxicity in HBV patients appears to be negligible, both glomerular and tubular function should be monitored in patients exposed to TDF, especially when other renal risk factors or a history of previous exposure to adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) are present.

  2. The Neurospora Transcription Factor ADV-1 Transduces Light Signals and Temporal Information to Control Rhythmic Expression of Genes Involved in Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Dekhang, Rigzin; Wu, Cheng; Smith, Kristina M.; Lamb, Teresa M.; Peterson, Matthew; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Ibarra, Oneida; Emerson, Jillian M.; Karunarathna, Nirmala; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Azizi, Elham; Hurley, Jennifer M.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Galagan, James E.; Freitag, Michael; Sachs, Matthew S.; Bell-Pedersen, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Light and the circadian clock have a profound effect on the biology of organisms through the regulation of large sets of genes. Toward understanding how light and the circadian clock regulate gene expression, we used genome-wide approaches to identify the direct and indirect targets of the light-responsive and clock-controlled transcription factor ADV-1 in Neurospora crassa. A large proportion of ADV-1 targets were found to be light- and/or clock-controlled, and enriched for genes involved in development, metabolism, cell growth, and cell fusion. We show that ADV-1 is necessary for transducing light and/or temporal information to its immediate downstream targets, including controlling rhythms in genes critical to somatic cell fusion. However, while ADV-1 targets are altered in predictable ways in Δadv-1 cells in response to light, this is not always the case for rhythmic target gene expression. These data suggest that a complex regulatory network downstream of ADV-1 functions to generate distinct temporal dynamics of target gene expression relative to the central clock mechanism. PMID:27856696

  3. Evolutionary trends of resistance mutational patterns of HBV reverse transcriptase over years (2002-2012) of different treatment regimens: The legacy of lamivudine/adefovir combination treatment.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, Donatella; Piselli, Pierluca; Solmone, Mariacarmela; D'Offizi, Gianpiero; Capobianchi, Maria R; Menzo, Stefano

    2017-03-16

    Antiviral therapy has revolutionized treatment of chronic HBV infections. First generation compounds, lamivudine and adefovir, displayed a high rate of treatment failures, and have been replaced by more potent compounds with high genetic barrier to resistance. However, the evolution of the virus towards resistance due the use of first generation compounds may still provide useful information for a better management of current antivirals. A single center sequence database including 705 HBV reverse transcriptase sequences from patients failing antiviral treatments (2002-2012) has been statistically analyzed to highlight viral evolution in relationship to the use of antiviral compounds and to their associations/sequencing in those years. The influence of viral genotypes and polymorphisms on resistance-related mutational patterns was also investigated. This study documents how, after the first years of antiviral therapy, the use of adefovir as an add-on strategy allowed a consistent reduction treatment failures. It also documents the effects of the initial misuse of entecavir in lamivudine experienced patients. In the latest years, the correct use of entecavir and the introduction of tenofovir allowed further curbing of resistance-related treatment failures, which virtually disappeared. Furthermore, the study allows a better understanding of how viral genotype (A vs D) conditions specific mutational pathways to resistance against lamivudine and entecavir, and demonstrates that the use of adefovir in lamivudine experienced patients is associated to peculiar mutational patterns, in particular A181V + F/Y221L. Despite some concern may arise for patients previously treated with lamivudine/adefovir, in sequence or combination, where the virus may have developed a lower genetic barrier against resistance to tenofovir, the outlook of antiviral treatment of HBV infection should be quite optimistic.

  4. A test of the ADV-based Reynolds flux method for in situ estimation of sediment settling velocity in a muddy estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Grace M.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Smith, S. Jarrell

    2013-12-01

    Under conditions common in muddy coastal and estuarine environments, acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) can serve to estimate sediment settling velocity ( w s) by assuming a balance between upward turbulent Reynolds flux and downward gravitational settling. Advantages of this method include simple instrument deployment, lack of flow disturbance, and relative insensitivity to biofouling and water column stratification. Although this method is being used with increasing frequency in coastal and estuarine environments, to date it has received little direct ground truthing. This study compared in situ estimates of w s inferred by a 5-MHz ADV to independent in situ observations from a high-definition video settling column over the course of a flood tide in the bottom boundary layer of the York River estuary, Virginia, USA. The ADV-based measurements were found to agree with those of the settling column when the current speed at about 40 cm above the bed was greater than about 20 cm/s. This corresponded to periods when the estimated magnitude of the settling term in the suspended sediment continuity equation was four or more times larger than the time rate of change of concentration. For ADV observations restricted to these conditions, ADV-based estimates of w s (mean 0.48±0.04 mm/s) were highly consistent with those observed by the settling column (mean 0.45±0.02 mm/s). However, the ADV-based method for estimating w s was sensitive to the prescribed concentration of the non-settling washload, C wash. In an objective operational definition, C wash can be set equal to the lowest suspended solids concentration observed around slack water.

  5. Work Domain Analysis of a Predecessor Sodium-cooled Reactor as Baseline for AdvSMR Operational Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Farris; David Gertman; Jacques Hugo

    2014-03-01

    This report presents the results of the Work Domain Analysis for the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). This is part of the phase of the research designed to incorporate Cognitive Work Analysis in the development of a framework for the formalization of an Operational Concept (OpsCon) for Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs). For a new AdvSMR design, information obtained through Cognitive Work Analysis, combined with human performance criteria, can and should be used in during the operational phase of a plant to assess the crew performance aspects associated with identified AdvSMR operational concepts. The main objective of this phase was to develop an analytical and descriptive framework that will help systems and human factors engineers to understand the design and operational requirements of the emerging generation of small, advanced, multi-modular reactors. Using EBR-II as a predecessor to emerging sodium-cooled reactor designs required the application of a method suitable to the structured and systematic analysis of the plant to assist in identifying key features of the work associated with it and to clarify the operational and other constraints. The analysis included the identification and description of operating scenarios that were considered characteristic of this type of nuclear power plant. This is an invaluable aspect of Operational Concept development since it typically reveals aspects of future plant configurations that will have an impact on operations. These include, for example, the effect of core design, different coolants, reactor-to-power conversion unit ratios, modular plant layout, modular versus central control rooms, plant siting, and many more. Multi-modular plants in particular are expected to have a significant impact on overall OpsCon in general, and human performance in particular. To support unconventional modes of operation, the modern control room of a multi-module plant would typically require advanced HSIs that would

  6. MODFLOW-2000 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--documentation of the Advective-Transport Observation (ADV2) Package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderman, Evan R.; Hill, Mary Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Observations of the advective component of contaminant transport in steady-state flow fields can provide important information for the calibration of ground-water flow models. This report documents the Advective-Transport Observation (ADV2) Package, version 2, which allows advective-transport observations to be used in the three-dimensional ground-water flow parameter-estimation model MODFLOW-2000. The ADV2 Package is compatible with some of the features in the Layer-Property Flow and Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow Packages, but is not compatible with the Block-Centered Flow or Generalized Finite-Difference Packages. The particle-tracking routine used in the ADV2 Package duplicates the semi-analytical method of MODPATH, as shown in a sample problem. Particles can be tracked in a forward or backward direction, and effects such as retardation can be simulated through manipulation of the effective-porosity value used to calculate velocity. Particles can be discharged at cells that are considered to be weak sinks, in which the sink applied does not capture all the water flowing into the cell, using one of two criteria: (1) if there is any outflow to a boundary condition such as a well or surface-water feature, or (2) if the outflow exceeds a user specified fraction of the cell budget. Although effective porosity could be included as a parameter in the regression, this capability is not included in this package. The weighted sum-of-squares objective function, which is minimized in the Parameter-Estimation Process, was augmented to include the square of the weighted x-, y-, and z-components of the differences between the simulated and observed advective-front locations at defined times, thereby including the direction of travel as well as the overall travel distance in the calibration process. The sensitivities of the particle movement to the parameters needed to minimize the objective function are calculated for any particle location using the exact sensitivity

  7. Naturally occurring hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants with primary resistance to antiviral therapy and S-mutants with potential primary resistance to adefovir in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Rivero, Cintia W; Minassian, María L; Castillo, Amalia I; Gentile, Emiliano A; Trinks, Julieta; León, Liliana; Daleoso, Graciela; Frider, Bernardo; Lezama, Carol; Galoppo, Marcela; Giacove, Gisela; Mathet, Verónica L; Oubiña, José R

    2010-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants may either emerge in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) as a result of positive selection pressure exerted by their own immune response, or during therapy with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). Naturally occurring HBV variants with primary antiviral resistance are rarely observed. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the (eventual) circulation of HBV variants with natural resistance to NAs currently used as therapy for CHB in Argentina. This study reports 13 cases of CHB-infected patients with natural antiviral resistance to at least one NA. Five of them were also carriers of S-variants that might escape the humoral immune system recognition with potential resistance to adefovir. In addition to the already reported A2 HBV subgenotype association to NAs natural resistance, E and F genotypes association to such resistance is described for the first time. These findings suggest that sequence analysis of the HBV reverse transcriptase might be an essential tool before starting antiviral therapy, in order to choose the proper NAs for optimizing the therapeutic management of chronically infected patients. Moreover, the circulation and transmission of S-mutants with resistance to such antiviral drugs should be of public health concern as they may represent an additional risk for the community.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of a niobium-substituted-heteropolytungstate on hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Qi, Yanfei; Ding, Yanhua; Wang, Juan; Li, Qingmei; Zhang, Jingzhou; Jiang, Yanfang; Chi, Xiumei; Li, Juan; Niu, Junqi

    2012-02-15

    To synthesise and characterize the polyoxometalate Cs(2)K(4)Na[SiW(9)Nb(3)O(40)]·H(2)O 1 for its anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) properties by using the HepG2.2.15 cell. The methylthiazol tetrazolium assay was used to evaluate the growth inhibitory effect of Compound 1 on HepG2.2.15 cell. By using ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively, the presence of extracellular hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), e antigen (HBeAg), and HBV DNA were measured. The levels of intracellular HBV DNA and mRNA were determined by using Southern blot or reverse-transcription-PCR, respectively. Intracellular distribution of antigen were measured by Western blot. A 1995 μmol/L concentration of the commercially-available hepatitis B drug, adefovir dipivoxil (ADV), was required to achieve 50% cytotoxicity against cultured cells (CC(50)) by day nine; in contrast, only 1747 μmol/L of Compound 1 was required for the same result. Treatment of HepG2.2.15 cells with Compound 1 effectively suppress the secretion of HBV antigens and HBV DNA in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. IC(50) values were determined to be 80 μmol/L for HBsAg, 75 μmol/L for HBeAg and 3.72 μmol/L for supernatant HBV DNA at day nine post-exposure, as opposed to 266, 296, 30.09 μmol/L, respectively, for ADV. Intracellular HBV DNA, mRNA and antigen were also found to be decreased by Compound 1. The same dose of ADV yielded a significantly less robust inhibitory effect. Compound 1 can clear HBV from hepatic cells and may represent a therapeutic agent to treat HBV infection.

  9. Sensitivity of drug-resistant mutants of hepatitis B virus to poly-IC.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Q; Chen, E; Chen, L; Nong, Y; Cheng, X; He, M; Tang, H

    2014-01-01

    The long-term benefits of antiviral treatment are limited by the resistance of hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, the effect of interferon (IFN)α treatment on drug-resistant HBVs is so far unknown. We, therefore, investigated the effects of IFN-α inducer poly-IC on the replication of HBV mutants resistant to drugs such as lamivudine (LAM), adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and entecavir (ETV) in mice. HBV DNA and HBV DNA intermediate (RI) were employed as markers of the virus replication and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthase (OAS) mRNA as a marker of IFN-α/β induction. Poly-IC inhibited wtHBV replication and increased levels of OAS mRNA. Compared to the wt virus, the capacity of virus replication was reduced in most LAMr and ETVr mutants except those with mutations rtM(204V+L180M+V173L), and was similary in the ADVr mutants except rt(A121V+N236T). The virus replication was reduced after poly-IC treatment with LAMr and ADVr mutants similary to the wt virus. In contrast, ETVr mutants were resistant to the poly-IC treatment. In conclusion, the capacity of HBV replication and the sensitivity to IFN therapy are influenced by drug-resistant mutations. The IFN therapy may effectively inhibit HBV replication in particular in patients with LAMr or ADVr mutations but not in patients with ETVr mutations.

  10. In vitro evaluation of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine ester analogues, a series of anti-HBV structures with improved plasma stability and liver release.

    PubMed

    Liao, Sha; Fan, Shi-Yong; Liu, Qin; Li, Chang-Kun; Chen, Jia; Li, Jing-Lai; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Zhen-Qing; Zhong, Bo-Hua; Xie, Jian-Wei

    2014-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, but few drugs are available for its treatment. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) have remarkable antivirus activities but are not easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and accumulate in the kidneys, resulting in nephrotoxicity. Therefore, there is a need to find effective liver site-specific prodrugs. The dipivaloyloxymethyl ester of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA)-adefovir dipivoxil (ADV)-is a first-line therapy drug for chronic hepatitis B with a low therapeutic index because of renal toxicity and low hepatic uptake. In this study, a series of PMEA derivatives were synthesized to enhance plasma stability and liver release. The metabolic stability of ADV (Chemical I) and its two analogues (Chemicals II and III) was evaluated in rat plasma and liver homogenate in vitro. An ion-pair reverse-phase HPLC-UV method and a hybrid ion trap and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS) were used to evaluate the degradation rate of the analogues and to identify their intermediate metabolites, respectively. Chemicals I and II were hydrolyzed by cleavage of the C-O bond to give monoesters. Sufficient enzymatic activation in the liver homogenate through a relatively simple metabolic pathway, in addition to a favorable stability profile in rat plasma, made Chemical II an optimal candidate. Next, six analogues based on the structure of Chemical II were synthesized and evaluated in plasma and liver homogenate. Compared to Chemical II, these compounds generated less active PMEA levels in rat liver homogenate. Therefore, chemical modification of Chemical II may lead to new promising PMEA derivatives with enhanced plasma stability and liver activation.

  11. Inhibition of viral replication reduces regulatory T cells and enhances the antiviral immune response in chronic hepatitis B

    SciTech Connect

    Stoop, Jeroen N. . E-mail: j.n.stoop@erasmusmc.nl; Molen, Renate G. van der . E-mail: r.vandermolen@erasmusmc.nl; Kuipers, Ernst J. . E-mail: e.j.kuipers@erasmusmc.nl; Kusters, Johannes G. . E-mail: j.g.kusters@erasmusmc.nl; Janssen, Harry L.A. . E-mail: h.janssen@erasmusmc.nl

    2007-04-25

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a key role in the impaired immune response that is typical for a chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To gain more insight in the mechanism that is responsible for this impaired immune response, the effect of viral load reduction resulting from treatment with the nucleotide analogue adefovir dipivoxil on the percentages of Treg and HBV-specific T-cell responses was analyzed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 12 patients were collected at baseline and during treatment. In parallel to the decline in viral load, we found a decline in circulating Treg, combined with an increase in HBV core antigen-specific IFN-{gamma} production and proliferation. The production of IL10 did not decrease during therapy. In conclusion, adefovir induced viral load reduction results in a decline of circulating Treg together with a partial recovery of the immune response.

  12. Tissue Boundaries: Mimicking Tissue Boundaries by Sharp Multiparameter Matrix Interfaces (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 15/2016).

    PubMed

    Sapudom, Jiranuwat; Rubner, Stefan; Martin, Steve; Pompe, Tilo

    2016-08-01

    Engineering interfaces of extracellular compartments mimicking native tissues is key to study cell behavior in a physiologically relevant context and for a successful translation of these new biomaterials engineering principles in regenerative and therapeutic applications. Tilo Pompe and co-workers demonstrate a strategy to engineer multiparameter matrix interfaces using a sequential reconstitution of two well-defined Collagen I based matrices on page 1861. Such matrix interfaces trigger cell migration directionality normal to the interface plane in dependence on matrix pore size.

  13. Gold Nanocups: Colloidal Gold Nanocups with Orientation-Dependent Plasmonic Properties (Adv. Mater. 30/2016).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ruibin; Qin, Feng; Liu, Yejing; Ling, Xing Yi; Guo, Jun; Tang, Minghua; Cheng, Si; Wang, Jianfang

    2016-08-01

    On page 6322, J. F. Wang and co-workers report a wet-chemistry method for the preparation of colloidal Au nanocups and their plasmonic properties. The Au nanocups are prepared through single-vertex-initiated Au deposition on PbS nano-octahedrons and subsequent selective dissolution of PbS. Owing to the orientation-dependent coupling strengths, the obtained Au nanocups display orientation-dependent plasmonic properties and Raman enhancements when deposited on substrates.

  14. Artificial Synapses: Organometal Halide Perovskite Artificial Synapses (Adv. Mater. 28/2016).

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Cho, Himchan; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Young-Tae; Wolf, Christoph; Park, Chan-Gyung; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-07-01

    A synapse-emulating electronic device based on organometal halide perovskite thin films is described by T.-W. Lee and co-workers on page 5916. The device successfully emulates important characteristics of a biological synapse. This work extends the application of organometal halide perovskites to bioinspired electronic devices, and contributes to the development of neuromorphic electronics.

  15. Carbon Nanotubes: Printed Carbon Nanotube Electronics and Sensor Systems (Adv. Mater. 22/2016).

    PubMed

    Chen, Kevin; Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Kiriya, Daisuke; Ota, Hiroki; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Printed electronics and sensors enable new applications ranging from low-cost disposable analytical devices to large-area sensor networks. Recent progress in printed carbon nanotube electronics in terms of materials, processing, devices, and applications is discussed on page 4397 by A. Javey and co-workers. The research challenges and opportunities regarding the processing and system-level integration are also discussed for enabling of practical applications.

  16. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-03-01

    ABT-869, Acadesine, Acetylsalicylic acid/omeprazole, Adefovir, Adefovir dipivoxil, AEG-35156, Agatolimod sodium, Albiglutide, Alemtuzumab, Alipogene tiparvovec, Alogliptin benzoate, AMG-386, Amrubicin hydrochloride, Apremilast, Aripiprazole, Asoprisnil, Atorvastatin/fenofibrate, AVN-944, Axitinib; Belinostat, Bevacizumab, BHT-3021, BI-2536, Biapenem, Bilastine, Biphasic insulin aspart, Blinatumomab, Bortezomib, Bosentan; Catumaxomab, CD-NP, Cediranib, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Choline fenofibrate, Ciclesonide, CK-1827452,Clevudine, Clofarabine, CSL-360, CYT-997; Dapagliflozin, Darinaparsin, Denosumab, Densiron 68, Desloratadine, Dulanermin; Edoxaban tosilate, Emtricitabine, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Everolimus, Exenatide, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fidaxomicintiacumiv, Fulvestrant; G-207, GCR-8015, Gefitinib, Ghrelin (human), Glufosfamide; HPV16L1E7CVLP; Ibutamoren mesilate, Imatinib mesylate, Insulin detemir, Insulin glargine, Iodine (I131) tositumomab, Istaroxime, ITMN-191, Ixabepilone; JZP-4, Lenalidomide; Levetiracetam, Linaclotide acetate, Liposomal cytarabine/daunorubicin, Liposomal doxorubicin, Liraglutide, LY-518674; Milatuzumab, MMR-V, Motesanib diphosphate, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Niacin/simvastatin; Obatoclax mesylate, Odanacatib; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Pazufloxacin, PBT-2, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pemetrexed disodium, Perampanel, PfCP2.9, Pitavastatin calcium, Poly I:CLC, Pomalidomide, Pralatrexate, Pramlintide acetate, Prucalopride; rhGAD65, Roflumilast; RTS,S/AS02D; SCH-530348, Semagacestat, Sirolimus-eluting coronary stent, Sirolimus-Eluting Stent, SIR-Spheres, Sivelestat sodium hydrate, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Tafluprost, Tanespimycin, Teduglutide, Telaprevir, Telbivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tiotropium bromide, TMC-435350, Tositumomab/iodine (I131) tositumomab, Travoprost/timolol, Triciribine

  17. Clinical course of chronic hepatitis B patients receiving nucleos(t)ide analogues after virological breakthrough during monotherapy with lamivudine.

    PubMed

    De Francesco, Maria Antonia; Gargiulo, Franco; Spinetti, Angiola; Zaltron, Serena; Giagulli, Cinzia; Caccuri, Francesca; Castelli, Francesco; Caruso, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the optimal management of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who develop drug resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of different drug regimens in chronically HBV-infected patients. HBV viral load was determined using a bDNA assay and the substitutions in HBV-DNA were studied by polymerase sequencing test. The study involved 38 patients who experienced a therapeutic failure to lamivudine (LAM). The sequential treatments used were: LAM + adefovir (ADV), LAM + tenofovir (TDF), entecavir (ETV) monotherapy, ADV monotherapy and TDF monotherapy. Similar activity against HBV replication was observed with all drug regimens. Of the patients treated with LAM, 44% developed resistance mutations. The rt M204I mutation was observed more frequently. Sequential ADV add-on LAM and TDF therapy induced the appearance of resistance in 3/18 (16.6%) and in 1/8 (5.5%) treated patients, respectively. Genotype D was the most prevalent (78.9%), followed by genotype A (13%), genotype E (5.2%) and genotype C (2.6%). Our study showed that baseline serum HBV DNA is an important predictor of virologic response and that virologic breakthrough is significantly associated with the insurgence of genotypic resistance.

  18. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-12-01

    [Methoxy-(11)C]PD-153035, 2-Methoxyestradiol; Adalimumab, Adecatumumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, ADH-1, ADX-10059, Aflibercept, AIR-human growth hormone, Aliskiren fumarate, AMG-221, Amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil, Aprepitant; Bavituximab, Bevacizumab, Bexarotene, BIBW-2992, BMS-690514, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Briakinumab; Capecitabine, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Cholecalciferol, Choline fenofibrate, Chorionic gonadotropin (human), Cixutumumab, Clopidogrel, CP-690550 citrate; Dabigatran, Dacetuzumab, Daclizumab, Dapagliflozin, Darbepoetin alfa, Dasatinib, Denosumab; Efavirenz, Elisidepsin, Enoxaparin, Enzastaurin hydrochloride, Eribulin mesilate, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Everolimus, Exenatide; Fenobam, Figitumumab, Filibuvir, Fondaparinux sodium, Fresolimumab; Gefitinib, Golimumab, Golnerminogene pradenovec; Ifosfamide, Imatinib mesylate, Ipilimumab, Ivabradine hydrochloride, Ixabepilone; Lapatinib ditosylate, Lenalidomide, Levocetirizine dihydrochloride, Liposomal vincristine, Liraglutide; M-118, Masitinib mesylate, Metformin hydrochloride, Micafungin sodium, Moxifloxacin hydrochloride; Neratinib; Oblimersen sodium, Ofatumumab, Olmesartan medoxomil; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Palifosfamide lysine, Panobacumab, Panobinostat, Patupilone, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Pegylated arginine deiminase 20000, Piclozotan hydrochloride hydrate, Pixantrone maleate, Prasterone, Prasugrel, Prednisone, Progesterone, Prucalopride, pVGI.1 (VEGF-2); Retigabine, rhFSH, Rituximab, Rivaroxaban, Rosuvastatin calcium; Salinosporamide A, Selumetinib, Sipuleucel-T, Somatropin, Sorafenib, SSR-244738, Sunitinib malate; Tamoxifen citrate, Teduglutide, Telavancin hydrochloride, Telmisartan, Telmisartan/amlodipine, Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Temsirolimus, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tipifarnib, Tolvaptan, Trastuzumab, Trastuzumab-MCC-DM1, Travoprost, Tremelimumab; Valsartan/amlodipine besylate, Valsartan/amlodipine besylate/hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Vandetanib

  19. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2007-11-01

    1-Octanol, 9vPnC-MnCc; Abiraterone acetate, Adalimumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, Alemtuzumab, Aliskiren fumarate, Aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester, Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, Amrubicin hydrochloride, Anakinra, Aripiprazole, ARRY-520, AS-1404, Asimadoline, Atazanavir sulfate, AVE-0277, Azelnidipine; Bevacizumab, Bimatoprost, Boceprevir, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Botulinum toxin type B; Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Clevudine, Contusugene ladenovec, CP-751871, Crofelemer, Cypher, CYT006-AngQb; Darbepoetin alfa, Desmopressin, Dexlansoprazole, DG-041; E-5555, Ecogramostim, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Eszopiclone, Everolimus, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Falecalcitriol, Fampridine, Fesoterodine fumarate, Fingolimod hydrochloride; Gefitinib, Ghrelin (human), GS-7904L, GV-1001; HT-1001; Insulin detemir, ISIS-112989, Istradefylline; Laquinimod sodium, Latanoprost/timolol maleate, Lenalidomide, Levobetaxolol hydrochloride, Liposomal doxorubicin, Liposomal morphine sulfate, Lubiprostone, Lumiracoxib, LY-518674; MEM-1003, Mesna disulfide, Mipomersen sodium, MM-093, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Naptumomab estafenatox, Natalizumab; Olmesartan medoxomil, Olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel poliglumex, Pasireotide, Pazufloxacin mesilate, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pegvisomant, Pemetrexed disodium, Pimagedine, Pimecrolimus, Pramlintide acetate, Prasterone, Pregabalin, Prulifloxacin; QAE-397; Rec-15/2615, RFB4(dsFv)-PE38, rhGAD65, Roflumilast, Romiplostim, Rosuvastatin calcium, Rotigotine, Rupatadine fumarate; Safinamide mesilate, SIR-Spheres, Sitagliptin phosphate, Sodium phenylacetate, Sodium phenylacetate/Sodium benzoate, Sorafenib, SSR-244738; Taribavirin hydrochloride, Taxus, Teduglutide, Tegaserod maleate, Telaprevir, Telbivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tigecycline, Tiotropium bromide, Trabectedin, Travoprost

  20. A screening strategy for the discovery of drugs that reduce C/EBPβ-LIP translation with potential calorie restriction mimetic properties

    PubMed Central

    Zaini, Mohamad A.; Müller, Christine; Ackermann, Tobias; Reinshagen, Jeanette; Kortman, Gertrud; Pless, Ole; Calkhoven, Cornelis F.

    2017-01-01

    An important part of the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR) on healthspan and lifespan is mediated through regulation of protein synthesis that is under control of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). As one of its activities, mTORC1 stimulates translation into the metabolic transcription factor CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β (C/EBPβ) isoform Liver-specific Inhibitory Protein (LIP). Regulation of LIP expression strictly depends on a translation re-initiation event that requires a conserved cis-regulatory upstream open reading frame (uORF) in the C/EBPβ-mRNA. We showed before that suppression of LIP in mice, reflecting reduced mTORC1-signaling at the C/EBPβ level, results in CR-type of metabolic improvements. Hence, we aim to find possibilities to pharmacologically down-regulate LIP in order to induce CR-mimetic effects. We engineered a luciferase-based cellular reporter system that acts as a surrogate for C/EBPβ-mRNA translation, emulating uORF-dependent C/EBPβ-LIP expression under different translational conditions. By using the reporter system in a high-throughput screening (HTS) strategy we identified drugs that reduce LIP. The drug Adefovir Dipivoxil passed all counter assays and increases fatty acid β-oxidation in a hepatoma cell line in a LIP-dependent manner. Therefore, these drugs that suppress translation into LIP potentially exhibit CR-mimetic properties. PMID:28198412

  1. NKp30+ NK cells are associated with HBV control during pegylated-interferon-alpha-2b therapy of chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaokun; Fu, Binqing; Liu, Yanyan; Guo, Chuang; Ye, Ying; Sun, Rui; Li, Jiabin; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2016-01-01

    A pressing need exists for improved therapeutic options for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Pegylated-interferon-alpha (Peg-IFN-α) achieves sustained off-treatment responses in many cases because of its direct anti-viral effects and regulation of the immune response. However, non-responsiveness to Peg-IFN-α is frequent, and the mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we found that the frequency and absolute number of NKp30+ natural killer (NK) cells increased markedly, accompanied by enhanced CD107a and IFN-γ production, during Peg-IFN-α-2b monotherapy or combination therapy with adefovir dipivoxil in patients with CHB, especially in responders. The responders and non-responders differed in the frequency of polyfunctional IFN-γ+ CD107+ NK cells. In addition, the increase in NKp30+ NK cells was negatively correlated with the HBV viral load and plasma HBeAg. Moreover, it was found that IL-15 may contribute to the up-regulation of NKp30 on the NK cells, and this up-regulation was not induced in vitro by Peg-IFN-α-2b alone. However, in the non-responders, these NKp30+ NK cells were dysfunctional because of increased NKG2A expression, which partly explains the inactivation of NKp30+ NK cells and the reduced capacity of these cells to produce antiviral cytokines. These findings may provide a new mechanism to explain the variable efficacy of Peg-IFN-α-2b therapy. PMID:27941937

  2. Organosilica: Chemistry of Mesoporous Organosilica in Nanotechnology: Molecularly Organic-Inorganic Hybridization into Frameworks (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials can combine the advantages of organic and inorganic materials, and overcome their drawbacks accordingly. On page 3235, Y. Chen and J. L. Shi review and discuss research progress on the design, synthesis, structure, and composition control of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (MONs). Extensive applications of MONs in nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine, nanocatalysis and nanofabrication are discussed.

  3. Wearable Strain Sensors: Carbonized Silk Fabric for Ultrastretchable, Highly Sensitive, and Wearable Strain Sensors (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunya; Li, Xiang; Gao, Enlai; Jian, Muqiang; Xia, Kailun; Wang, Qi; Xu, Zhiping; Ren, Tianling; Zhang, Yingying

    2016-08-01

    A novel carbonized plain-weave silk-fabric-based wearable strain sensor is proposed by Y. Y. Zhang and co-workers on page 6640. The sensor can be stretched up to 500% with high sensitivity in a wide strain range and can be assembled into wearable devices for the detection of both large and subtle human activities, showing great potential in human-motion detection and robotics.

  4. Liquid Metals: Stretchable, High-k Dielectric Elastomers through Liquid-Metal Inclusions (Adv. Mater. 19/2016).

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Michael D; Fassler, Andrew; Kazem, Navid; Markvicka, Eric J; Mandal, Pratiti; Majidi, Carmel

    2016-05-01

    An all-soft-matter composite consisting of liquid metal microdroplets embedded in a soft elastomer matrix is presented by C. Majidi and co-workers on page 3726. This composite exhibits a high dielectric constant while maintaining exceptional elasticity and compliance. The image shows the composite's microstructure captured by 3D X-ray imaging using a nano-computed tomographic scanner.

  5. Flexible Batteries: Hierarchical Assemblies of Carbon Nanotubes for Ultraflexible Li-Ion Batteries (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shahab; Copic, Davor; George, Chandramohan; De Volder, Michael

    2016-08-01

    An advanced battery architecture composed of 3D carbon nanotube (CNT) current collectors is used to mitigate stresses in flexible batteries. On Page 6705, C. George, M. De Volder, and co-workers describe the fabrication process and characteristics of this new generation of ultraflexible batteries, which show high rate and cyclablility. These batteries may find applications in the powering of flexible displays and logics.

  6. Adv. Simulation for Additive Manufacturing: 11/2014 Wkshp. Report for U.S. DOE/EERE/AMO

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Blue, Craig A.

    2015-07-01

    The overarching question for the workshop was as following: How do we best utilize advanced modeling and high-performance computing (HPC) to address key challenges and opportunities in order to realize the full potential of additive manufacturing; and what are the key challenges of additive manufacturing to which modeling and simulation can contribute solutions, and what will it take to meet these challenges?

  7. Batteries: encapsulated monoclinic sulfur for stable cycling of li-s rechargeable batteries (adv. Mater. 45/2013).

    PubMed

    Moon, San; Jung, Young Hwa; Jung, Wook Ki; Jung, Dae Soo; Choi, Jang Wook; Kim, Do Kyung

    2013-12-03

    On page 6547 Do Kyung Kim, Jang Wook Choi and co-workers describe a highly aligned and carbon-encapsulated sulfur cathode synthesized with an AAO template that exhibits a high and long cycle life, and the best rate capability based on the complete encapsulation of sulfur (physical) and implementation of the monoclinic sulfur phase (chemical).

  8. Ferromagnetism: Sulfur Doping Induces Strong Ferromagnetic Ordering in Graphene: Effect of Concentration and Substitution Mechanism (Adv. Mater. 25/2016).

    PubMed

    Tuček, Jiří; Błoński, Piotr; Sofer, Zdeněk; Šimek, Petr; Petr, Martin; Pumera, Martin; Otyepka, Michal; Zbořil, Radek

    2016-07-01

    R. Zbořil and co-workers show that doping a graphene lattice with sulfur induces magnetic centers which display ferromagnetic order below ≈62 K. As described on page 5045, sulfur doping promotes magnetically active configurations resembling the gamma-thiothiapyrone motif. Enhanced magnetic properties of sulfur-doped graphene are attributed to two unpaired electrons from each sulfur atom injected into the graphene conducting band where they are delocalized between the S and C atoms.

  9. Flexible Electronics: High Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films and Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 28/2016).

    PubMed

    He, Rongrui; Day, Todd D; Sparks, Justin R; Sullivan, Nichole F; Badding, John V

    2016-07-01

    On page 5939, J. V. Badding and co-workers describe the unrolling of a flexible hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell, deposited by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The high-pressure deposition process is represented by the molecules of silane infiltrating the small voids between the rolled up substrate, facilitating plasma-free deposition over a very large area. The high-pressure approach is expected to also find application for 3D nanoarchitectures.

  10. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices (Adv. Mater. 22/2016).

    PubMed

    Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido; Sachyani, Ela; Cohn, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    On page 4449, D. Cohn, S. Magdassi, and co-workers describe a general and facile method based on 3D printing of methacrylated macromonomers to fabricate shape-memory objects that can be used in flexible and responsive electrical circuits. Such responsive objects can be used in the fabrication of soft robotics, minimal invasive medical devices, sensors, and wearable electronics. The use of 3D printing overcomes the poor processing characteristics of thermosets and enables complex geometries that are not easily accessible by other techniques.

  11. Perovskite Solar Cells: High Efficiency Pb-In Binary Metal Perovskite Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Kui; Li, Meng; Yang, Ying-Guo; Hu, Yun; Ma, Heng; Gao, Xing-Yu; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    On page 6695, X. Y. Gao, L.-S. Liao, and co-workers describe the fabrication of mixed Pb-In perovskite solar cells, using indium (III) chloride and lead (II) chloride with methylammonium iodide. A maximum power conversion efficiency as high as 17.55% is achieved owing to the high quality of the perovskites with multiple ordered crystal orientations. This work demonstrates the possibility of substituting the Pb (II) by using In (III), which opens a broad route to fabricating alloy perovskite solar cells with mitigated ecological impact.

  12. Nanoparticle Assemblies: Nanoparticle Clusters: Assembly and Control Over Internal Order, Current Capabilities, and Future Potential (Adv. Mater. 27/2016).

    PubMed

    Stolarczyk, Jacek K; Deak, Andras; Brougham, Dermot F

    2016-07-01

    Clusters or assemblies of nanoparticles exhibit unique features which arise from the enhancement of properties of single nanoparticles or due to new collective properties. On page 5400, D. F. Brougham and co-workers review the role of nanoparticle interactions in controlling cluster formation, and classify the assembly mechanisms. Emerging applications for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), optical labeling, light harvesting, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia, photocatalysis, enrichment, and separation are presented. Cover image by Christoph Hohmann, Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM).

  13. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm.

  14. A five years study of antiviral effect of entecavir in Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kehui; Xiang, Xiaogang; Bao, Rebecca; Chen, Rong; Liu, Yunye; Xie, Jingdong; Guo, Qing; Bao, Shisan; Xie, Qing; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Entecavir (ETV) is a potent viral replication inhibitor for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. To investigate the efficacy of ETV in Chinese nucleos(t)ide(NA)-experienced CHB patients. Among 89 CHB patients with ETV monotherapy for ≥6 months, 33/89 (37%) or 56/89 (73%) were NA-naïve or NA-experienced. During a median follow-up of 5.75 years, all NA-naïve CHB patients achieved VR without genotypic ETV-resistance. However, VR was observed in 50/56 (~90%) of NA-experienced CHB patients during a median follow-up of 4.75 years. Antiviral efficacy was not reduced in patients with previous lamivudine (LAM) with/without LAM-resistance (HR 0.465; 95% CI 0.196–1.100; p > 0.05) (HR 0.472; 95% CI 0.205–1.091; p > 0.05). Patients with a primary treatment failure to adefovir (ADV) had a reduced probability of achieving VR compared to NA-naïve (HR 0.496; 95% CI 0.287–0.857; p < 0.01). Previous ADV-experienced patients with a partial VR (HR 1.253; 95% CI 0.429–3.665; p > 0.05) did not influence antiviral response to ETV. The antiviral efficacy of ETV is not influenced by previous treatment LAM with/without LAM-resistance. ETV may still be an option in ADV-experienced patients with a partial VR, but not advised in patients with a primary treatment failure to ADV. PMID:27364728

  15. Treatment Efficacy and Safety of Tenofovir-Based Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis B: A Real Life Cohort Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Song, Myeong Jun; Jang, Jeong Won; Bae, Si Hyun; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims We evaluated the efficacy and safety of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based therapy in naïve and treatment-experienced chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients for 96 weeks in Korean real life practice. Methods A total of 209 CHB patients with a prescription for TDF at the Seoul and Daejeon St. Mary’s hospitals were enrolled from December 2012 to October 2014. We compared the virological responses and evaluated the renal safety of treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients. Results An overall complete virological response (CVR) was achieved in 80.4% and 84.6% of patients at weeks 48 and 96, respectively. In a subgroup analysis, CVR at week 96 was present in 88.4%, 75.0%, 75.5%, and 83.3% of participants in the lamivudine-resistant (LAM-R) group, adefovir-resistant (ADV-R) group, multidrug-resistant (MDR) group, and suboptimal response group, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, ADV-R, MDR, hepatitis B virus DNA, and hepatitis B e antigen were independent predictors for CVR. With regard to renal safety, diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, and an initial low estimated glomerular filtration rate were independent factors affecting creatinine elevation (≥0.5 mg/dL). Moreover, two patients with DM and cirrhosis experienced TDF-related Fanconi syndrome. Conclusions TDF-based therapy demonstrated sustained viral suppression and favorable safety during a 2-year treatment period. The LAM-R and suboptimal response groups showed comparable efficacy to the naïve group, while the ADV-R and MDR groups were significantly associated with a low CVR. Close monitoring of renal safety should be mandatory when treating CHB patients receiving TDF, particularly those with DM and cirrhosis. PMID:28114428

  16. [Diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B and D. National consensus guideline in Hungary from 15 October 2016].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Gábor; Gerlei, Zsuzsanna; Gervain, Judit; Lengyel, Gabriella; Makara, Mihály; Pár, Alajos; Rókusz, László; Szalay, Ferenc; Tornai, István; Werling, Klára; Hunyady, Béla

    2017-02-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of HBV/HDV infection means for the patient to be able to maintain working capacity, to increase quality of life, to prevent cancer, and to prolong life expectancy, while society benefits from eliminating the chances of further transmission of the viruses, and decreasing the overall costs of serious complications. The guideline delineates the treatment algorithms for 2017 set by a consensus meeting of physicians involved in the treatment of these diseases. The prevalence of HBV infection in the Hungarian general population is 0.5-0.7%. The indications of treatment is based upon viral examinations (including viral nucleic acid determination), determinations of disease activity and stage (including biochemical, pathologic, and/or non-invasive methods), and excluding contraindications. To avoid unnecessary side effects and for cost-effective approach the guideline stresses the importance of quick and detailed virologic evaluations, the applicability of elastography as an acceptable alternative of liver biopsy in this regard, as well as the relevance of appropriate consistent follow up schedule for viral response during therapy. The first choice of therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection can be pegylated interferon for 48 weeks or continuous entecavir or tenofovir therapy. The latter two must be continued for at least 12 months after hepatitis B surface antigen seroconversion. Adefovir dipivoxil is recommended mainly in combination therapy. Lamivudine is no longer a first choice; patients currently taking lamivudine must switch if response is inadequate. Appropriate treatment of patients taking immunosuppressive medications is highly recommended. Pegylated interferon based therapy is recommended for the treatment of concomitant hepatitis D infection. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(Suppl. 1) 23-35.

  17. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-04-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABI-007, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, alemtuzumab, 3-AP, AP-12009, APC-8015, L-Arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arundic acid, avasimibe; Bevacizumab, bivatuzumab, BMS-181176, BMS-184476, BMS-188797, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BQ-123, BRL-55730, bryostatin 1; CEP-1347, cetuximab, cinacalcet hydrochloride, CP-461, CpG-7909; D-003, dabuzalgron hydrochloride, darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, desoxyepothilone B, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, DHA-paclitaxel, diflomotecan, DN-101, DP-b99, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, duramycin; Eculizumab, Efalizumab, EKB-569, elcometrine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, eszopiclone, everolimus, exatecan mesilate, ezetimibe; Fenretinide, fosamprenavir calcium, frovatriptan; GD2L-KLH conjugate vaccine, gefitinib, glufosfamide, GTI-2040; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin, hydroquinone, gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium; IL-4(38-37)-PE38KDEL, imatinib mesylate, indisulam, inhaled insulin, ixabepilone; KRN-5500; LY-544344; MDX-210, melatonin, mepolizumab, motexafin gadolinium; Natalizumab, NSC-330507, NSC-683864; 1-Octanol, omalizumab, ortataxel; Pagoclone, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, phenoxodiol, pimecrolimus, plevitrexed, polyphenon E, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PX-12; QS-21; Ragaglitazar, ranelic acid distrontium salt, RDP-58, recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide, repinotan hydrochloride, rhEndostatin, rh-Lactoferrin, (R)-roscovitine; S-8184, semaxanib, sitafloxacin hydrate, sitaxsentan sodium, sorafenib, synthadotin

  18. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-01-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Know- ledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABI-007, Ad.Egr.TNF.11D, adefovir dipivoxil, AdPEDF.11, AES-14, albumex, alefacept, alemtuzumab, aliskiren fumarate, alvimopan hydrate, aAminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anti-IL-12 MAb, aprepitant, atazanavir sulfate, atrasentan, avanafil; Banoxantrone, BG-12, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentan; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, caspofungin acetate, CBT-1, ciclesonide, clofarabine, conivaptan hydrochloride, CpG-7909, C-Vax, Cypher; DA-8159, DAC:GLP-1, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin, duloxetine hydrochloride; Eculizumab, efalizumab, efaproxiral sodium, EGF vaccine, eletriptan, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, ETC-642, etoricoxib, everolimus, exenatide; Gefitinib, IV gamma-globulin; Human insulin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium; IDN-6556, iguratimod, imatinib mesylate, indiplon, ixabepilone; Laquinimod, LB-80380, lidocaine/prilocaineliraglutide, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lucinactant; MAb-14.18, melatonin, MLN-591-DM1; NC-531, neridronic acid, nesiritide, neutrophil-inhibitory factor, niacin/lovastatin; Oblimersen sodium, olcegepant, oral Insulin, ORV-105; Palonosetron hydrochloride, PAmAb, pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, pegvisomant, perifosine, pexelizumab, phenoxodiol, phenserine tartrate, pimecrolimus, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, PRO-542, prostate cancer vaccine, PT-141; Ramelteon, rasagiline mesilate, rDNA insulin, reslizumab, rh-Lactoferrin, ribamidine hydrochloride, rosuvastatin calcium; S-8184l, SC-1, sorafenib, St. John's Wort extract, SU-11248; Taxus, telbivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide

  19. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2003-01-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 81C6; Adefovir dipivoxil, Agalsidase alfa, AGM-1470, albumin interferon alfa, alefacept, alosetron hydrochloride, anakinra, anti-CTLA-4 Mab, aprepitant, aripiprazole, atazanavir; BAY-43-9006, BBR-3438, beta-L-Fd4C, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentanBR96-doxorubicin; Caspofungin acetate, ciclesonide, cilengitide, cilomilast, COL-1621, COL-3, CpG-7909, cyclosporine; DCVax-Brain, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, dexosome vaccine (melanoma), donepezil hydrochloride, drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTI-015, [99Tc]-DTPA-mannosyldextran, duloxetine hydrochloride; Emivirine, emtricitabine, entecavir, epothilone B, estradiol-MNP, etonogestrel/etonogestrel/ethinylestradiol, etoricoxib; Febuxostat, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; Gefitinib, GVS-111; Heparinase I, HspE7, human alpha-glucosidase, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, INGN-241, interferon alfa B/D hybrid, interferon alfa Biphasix, ISIS-14803; Lanicemine hydrochloride, 1311-lipiodol, liposome-encapsulated mitoxantrone, lixivaptan, lumiracoxib, lupus-AHP, LY-466700; Marimastat, MEN-10755, micafungin sodium; Nitronaproxen, NSC-683864 Omalizumab, oral insulin; Palonosetron hydrochloride, peginterferon alfa-2a, pimecrolimus, pralnacasan, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, pyrazoloacridine; R-165335, ranolazine, risperidone, RPR-109881;, RSD-1235, Satraplatin, seocalcitol, sertindole, SMART anti-interferon gamma antibody, sulfasalazine; T-138067, TAK-013, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, TP-38; Valdecoxib, vatalanib succinate, voriconazole; ZD-9331.

  20. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-10-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen; Ad.muIFN-beta AD-237, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, agalsidase alfa, alemtuzumab, almotriptan, ALVAC vCP1452, alvimopan hydrate, ambrisentan, anakinra, anti-IFN-gamma MAb; Bimatoprost, BMS-188797, BMS-214662, bortezomib, bosentan, bovine lactoferrin; Caffeine, canertinib dihydrochloride, canfosfamide hydrochloride, cannabidiol, caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, cH36, ChimeriVax-JE, ciclesonide, cilansetron, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clopidogrel, CpG-7909, Cypher; Daptomycin, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, decitabine, denufosol tetrasodium, Dexamet, diindolemethane, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, DX-9065a; E-7010, edaravone, efalizumab, eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, elacridar, eletriptan, emtricitabine, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, eszopiclone, everolimus, ezetimibe; Fludarabine, fondaparinux sodium; gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, gavestinel sodium, gefitinib, granisetron-Biochronomer; Human Albumin, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, interleukin-2 XL, isatoribine, ISS-1018, i.v. gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lanthanum carbonate, L-arginine hydrochloride, liposomal doxorubicin, LY-450139; Magnesium sulfate, melatonin, motexafin gadolinium, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Natalizumab, nesiritide, niacin/lovastatin; OGX-011, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, ospemifene; PACAP38, panitumumab, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, patupilone, pegfilgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b

  1. From channel-forming ionic liquid crystals exhibiting humidity-induced phase transitions to nanostructured ion-conducting polymer membranes (adv. Mater. 26/2013).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Li, Lei; Möller, Martin; Zhu, Xiaomin; Rueda, Jaime J Hernandez; Rosenthal, Martin; Ivanov, Dimitri A

    2013-07-12

    A novel wedge-shaped amphiphilic molecule bearing a sulfonate group at the tip displays humidity-induced phase transitions from a hexagonal columnar structure to a bicontinuous cubic phase. The mesophases can be frozen by photopolymerization of acrylic end-groups resulting in free-standing membranes with different topology of ionic nanochannels. The obtained membranes with a well-ordered ionic channel structure hold promise for applications in separation and catalysis.

  2. Photoacoustic Imaging: Semiconducting Oligomer Nanoparticles as an Activatable Photoacoustic Probe with Amplified Brightness for In Vivo Imaging of pH (Adv. Mater. 19/2016).

    PubMed

    Miao, Qingqing; Lyu, Yan; Ding, Dan; Pu, Kanyi

    2016-05-01

    Despite the great potential of photoacoustic imaging in the life sciences, the development of smart activatable photoacoustic probes remains elusive. On page 3662, K. Pu and co-workers report a facile nanoengineering approach based on semiconducting oligomer nano-particles to develop ratiometric photoacoustic probes with amplified brightness and enhanced sensing capability for accurate photoacoustic mapping of pH in the tumors of living mice.

  3. Solar Cells: Homo-Tandem Polymer Solar Cells with VOC >1.8 V for Efficient PV-Driven Water Splitting (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    PubMed

    Gao, Yangqin; Le Corre, Vincent M; Gaïtis, Alexandre; Neophytou, Marios; Hamid, Mahmoud Abdul; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Beaujuge, Pierre M

    2016-05-01

    On page 3366, P. M. Beaujuge and co-workers describe homo-tandem solar cells constructed by stacking identical subcells solution-processed from blends of the wide-bandgap polymer donor PBDTTPD and the fullerene acceptor PCBM, which achieve power conversion efficiencies >8% and open-circuit voltages >1.8 V. The homo-tandem devices provide sufficient voltage to induce the dissociation of water in an electrochemical cell. The authors acknowledge Hyun Ho Hwang (Heno) for developing the artwork.

  4. Sensors: A Highly Sensitive Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Ambipolar Transistor for Selective Detection and Discrimination of Xylene Isomers (Adv. Mater. 21/2016).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Huynh, Tan-Phat; Wu, Weiwei; Hayek, Naseem; Do, Thu Trang; Cancilla, John C; Torrecilla, Jose S; Nahid, Masrur Morshed; Colwell, John M; Gazit, Oz M; Puniredd, Sreenivasa Reddy; McNeill, Christopher R; Sonar, Prashant; Haick, Hossam

    2016-06-01

    An ambipolar organic field-effect transistor (OFET) based on poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPPHD-T3) is shown by P. Sonar, H. Haick, and co-workers on page 4012 to sensitively detect xylene isomers at low to 40 ppm level in multiple sensing features. Combined with pattern-recognition algorithms, a sole ambipolar FET sensor, rather than arrays of sensors, is able to discriminate highly similar xylene structural isomers from each other.

  5. Field-Effect Transistors: Ultrathin MXene-Micropattern-Based Field-Effect Transistor for Probing Neural Activity (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingzhe; Zhu, Minshen; Zhang, Wencong; Zhen, Xu; Pei, Zengxia; Xue, Qi; Zhi, Chunyi; Shi, Peng

    2016-05-01

    A field-effect transistor (FET) based on ultrathin Ti3 C2 -MXene micropatterns is developed by C. Zhi, P. Shi, and co-workers, as described on page 3333. The FET can be utilized for label-free probing of small molecules in typical biological environments, e.g., for fast detection of action potentials in primary neurons. This device is produced with a microcontact printing technique, harnessing the unique advantages for easy fabrication.

  6. Microfluidics-Based Biosensors: A Microfluidic Paper-Based Origami Nanobiosensor for Label-Free, Ultrasensitive Immunoassays (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 11/2016).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Liu, Xinyu

    2016-06-01

    The first microfluidic paper-based origami nano-biosensor featuring zinc oxide nanowires and an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy biosensing mechanism, for label-free, ultrasensitive immunoassays is reported by X. Li and X. Liu on page 1326. The sensor consists of cellulose paper, a carbon ink electrode, and zinc oxide nanowires directly grown on the top. Possible parallelization of assays and high storage stability render the sensor promising for clinical diagnostics applications.

  7. Cellular Microcultures: Programming Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of 3D Hydrogel Cellular Microcultures via Direct Ink Writing (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 9/2016).

    PubMed

    McCracken, Joselle M; Badea, Adina; Kandel, Mikhail E; Gladman, A Sydney; Wetzel, David J; Popescu, Gabriel; Lewis, Jennifer A; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2016-05-01

    R. Nuzzo and co-workers show on page 1025 how compositional differences in hydrogels are used to tune their cellular compliance by controlling their polymer mesh properties and subsequent uptake of the protein poly-l-lysine (green spheres in circled inset). The cover image shows pyramid micro-scaffolds prepared using direct ink writing (DIW) that differentially direct fibroblast and preosteoblast growth in 3D, depending on cell motility and surface treatment.

  8. Photothermal Gene Delivery: Stimuli-Regulated Enzymatically Degradable Smart Graphene-Oxide-Polymer Nanocarrier Facilitating Photothermal Gene Delivery (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 15/2016).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Jinhwan; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Kim, Won Jong

    2016-08-01

    On page 1918, Won Jong Kim and co-workers use disulfide bonding for the rational design of graphene oxide (GO) based nanocarriers. In the lower left side, photothermally triggered gene release is illustrated in cancer cell. Polymer-detached GOis exocytosed, and subsequently gets into the macrophage (middle right). In the macrophage, peroxidase binds to GO, thus degrades it to small fragments which are fluorescent.

  9. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Future of Using Earth-Abundant Elements in Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 20/2016).

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Joe; Dunn, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Sustainability is an important concept generating traction in the research community. To be really sustainable the full life cycle of a product needs to be carefully considered. A key aspect of this is using elements that are either readily recycled or accessible in the Earth's biosphere. Jigsawing these materials together in compounds to address our future energy needs represents a great opportunity for the current generation of researchers. On page 3802, S. Dunn and J. Briscoe summarize the performance of a selection of alternative materials to replace platinum in the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  10. Electrospun Scaffolds: Enhanced Lineage-Specific Differentiation Efficiency of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Engineering Colony Dimensionality Using Electrospun Scaffolds (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 12/2016).

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Maricela; Ico, Gerardo; Low, Karen; Luu, Rebeccah J; Nam, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Electrospun scaffolds provide soft nanofibrous networks pliable by human induced pluripotent stem cells. J. Nam and co-workers show on page 1408 that such compliant scaffolding leads to the formation of stem cell colonies with a distinctive three-dimensional morphology. The morphological modulation resulted in the lineage-specific differentiation, suggesting a potential means to enhance translational applications of the stem cells.

  11. Phase IIb trial of in vivo electroporation mediated dual-plasmid hepatitis B virus DNA vaccine in chronic hepatitis B patients under lamivudine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fu-Qiang; Rao, Gui-Rong; Wang, Gui-Qiang; Li, Yue-Qi; Xie, Yao; Zhang, Zhan-Qing; Deng, Cun-Liang; Mao, Qing; Li, Jun; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Mao-Rong; Han, Tao; Chen, Shi-Jun; Pan, Chen; Tan, De-Ming; Shang, Jia; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Zhang, Yue-Xin; Yang, Ji-Ming; Chen, Guang-Ming

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the efficacy and safety of in vivo electroporation (EP)-mediated dual-plasmid hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccine vs placebo for sequential combination therapy with lamivudine (LAM) in patients with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS Two hundred and twenty-five patients were randomized to receive either LAM + vaccine (vaccine group, n = 109) or LAM + placebo (control group, n = 116). LAM treatment lasted 72 wk. Patients received the DNA vaccine or placebo by intramuscular injection mediated by EP at weeks 12 (start of treatment with vaccine or placebo, SOT), 16, 24, and 36 (end of treatment with vaccine or placebo, EOT). RESULTS In the modified intent-to-treat population, more patients had a decrease in HBV DNA > 2 log10 IU/mL in the vaccine group at week 12 after EOT compared with the control group. A trend toward a difference in the number of patients with undetectable HBV DNA at week 28 after EOT was obtained. Adverse events were similar. In the dynamic per-protocol set, which excluded adefovir (ADV) add-on cases at each time point instantly after ADV administration due to LAM antiviral failure, more patients had a decrease in HBV DNA > 2 log10 IU/mL in the vaccine group at week 12 and 28 after EOT compared with the control group. More patients with undetectable HBV DNA at week 28 after EOT in the vaccine group were also observed. Among patients with a viral load < 1000 copies/mL at week 12, more patients achieved HBeAg seroconversion in the vaccine group than among controls at week 36 after EOT, as well as less virological breakthrough and YMDD mutations. CONCLUSION The primary endpoint was not achieved using the HBV DNA vaccine. The HBV DNA vaccine could only be beneficial in subjects that have achieved initial virological response under LAM chemotherapy. PMID:28127204

  12. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2008-09-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com.This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABT-263, AC-2307, Aclidinium bromide, Adefovir dipivoxil, ADH-1, Agatolimod sodium, Alefacept, Aliskiren fumarate, Aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Anakinra, Apaziquone, Aprepitant, Aripiprazole, ASM-8, Atiprimod hydrochloride, AVE-0277, AVE-1642, AVE-8062, Axitinib, Azacitidine, AZD-0530; Bazedoxifene acetate, Bevacizumab, Bexarotene, BI-2536, Biphasic insulin aspart, BMS-387032, BMS-663513, Bortezomib, BQ-123, Brivanib alaninate, BSI-201; Caspofungin acetate, CDX-110, Cetuximab, Ciclesonide, CR-011, Cypher; Daptomycin, Darbepoetin alfa, Dasatinib, Decitabine, Deferasirox, Denosumab, Dexlansoprazole, Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, DNA-Hsp65 vaccine, Dovitinib, Drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hibvaccine, DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Ecogramostim, Elacytarabine, Emtricitabine, Endothelin, Entecavir, Eplivanserin fumarate, Escitalopram oxalate, Everolimus, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Farletuzumab, Fesoterodine fumarate, Fibrin sealant (human), Fulvestrant; Gefitinib, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, Glufosfamide, GSK-1562902A; Hib-TT; Imatinib mesylate, IMC-11F8, Imidazoacridinone, IMP-321, INCB-18424, Indiplon, Indisulam, INNO-406, Irinotecan hydrochloride/Floxuridine, ITF-2357, Ixabepilone; KRN-951; Lasofoxifene tartrate; Lenalidomide, LGD-4665, Lonafarnib, Lubiprostone, Lumiliximab; MDX-1100, Melan-A/MART-1/gp100/IFN-alfa, Methyl-CDDO, Metreleptin, MLN-2704, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Na-ASP-2, Naproxcinod, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate, NPI-2358; Oblimersen sodium, Odanacatib; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, PAN-811, Panobinostat, PBI-1402, PC-515, Peginterferon alfa

  13. Risk for hepatocellular carcinoma in the course of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and the protective effect of therapy with nucleos(t)ide analogues.

    PubMed

    Rapti, Irene; Hadziyannis, Stephanos

    2015-05-18

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem worldwide, representing one of the leading causes of death. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) is the most important etiologic factor of this tumor, accounting for the development of more than 50% of the cases in the world. Primary prevention of HCC is possible by hepatitis B vaccination conferring protection from HBV infection. However, according to the World Health Organization Hepatitis B Fact sheet N° 204 (update of July 2014) globally there exists a large pool of > 240 million people chronically infected with HBV who are at risk for development of HCC. These individuals represent a target population for secondary prevention both of cirrhosis and of HCC. Since ongoing HBV replication in CHB is linked with the progression of the underlying liver disease to cirrhosis as well as with the development of HCC, effective antiviral treatment in CHB has also been evaluated in terms of secondary prevention of HCC. Currently, most patients with active CHB are subjected to long term treatment with the first line nucleos(t)ide analogues entecavir and tenofovir. These compounds are of high antiviral potency and have a high barrier to HBV resistance compared to lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil and even telbivudine. Many studies have shown that patients under antiviral treatment, especially those in virological remission, develop less frequently HCC compared to the untreated ones. However, the risk for development of HCC cannot be eliminated. Therefore, surveillance for the development of HCC of patients with chronic hepatitis B must be lifelong or until a time in the future when new treatments will be able to completely eradicate HBV from the liver particularly in the early stages of CHB infection. In this context, the aim of this review is to outline the magnitude of the risk for development of HCC among patients with CHB, in the various phases of the infection and in relation to virus, host and

  14. On-treatment quantitative hepatitis B e antigen predicted response to nucleos(t)ide analogues in chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu-Hua; Meng, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Zhan-Qing; Zhao, Ping; Shang, Qing-Hua; Yuan, Quan; Li, Yao; Deng, Juan; Li, Tong; Liu, Xue-En; Zhuang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate potential predictors for treatment response to nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. METHODS Seventy-six HBeAg-positive CHB patients received 96-wk NAs optimized therapy (lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil) were studied retrospectively. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen, HBeAg, hepatitis B core antibody, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and alanine aminotransferase levels were quantitatively measured before and during the treatment at 12 and 24 wk. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors for treatment response, and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of the independent predictors were calculated. RESULTS Forty-three CHB patients (56.6%) achieved virological response (VR: HBV DNA ≤ 300 copies/mL) and 15 patients (19.7%) developed HBeAg seroconversion (SC) after the 96-wk NAs treatment. The HBeAg level (OR = 0.45, P = 0.003) as well as its declined value (OR = 2.03, P = 0.024) at 24-wk independently predicted VR, with the AUROC of 0.788 and 0.736, respectively. The combination of HBeAg titer < 1.3 lg PEIU/mL and its decreased value > 1.6 lg PEIU/mL at 24-wk predicted VR with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of 85%, 100%, 100% and 83%, respectively, and the AUROC increased to 0.923. The HBeAg level (OR = 0.37, P = 0.013) as well as its declined value (OR = 2.02, P = 0.012) at 24-wk also independently predicted HBeAg SC, with the AUROC of 0.828 and 0.814, respectively. The HBeAg titer < -0.5 lg PEIU/mL combined with its declined value > 2.2 lg PEIU/mL at 24-wk predicted HBeAg SC with a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of 88%, 98%, 88% and 98%, respectively, and the AUROC reached 0.928. CONCLUSION The combination of HBeAg level and its declined value at 24-wk may be used as a reference parameter to optimize NAs therapy. PMID:28008342

  15. Li-Ion Battery Cathodes: Enhancing Interfacial Bonding between Anisotropically Oriented Grains Using a Glue-Nanofiller for Advanced Li-Ion Battery Cathode (Adv. Mater. 23/2016).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejung; Lee, Sanghan; Cho, Hyeon; Kim, Junhyeok; Lee, Jieun; Park, Suhyeon; Joo, Se Hun; Kim, Su Hwan; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Song, Hyun-Kon; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Cho, Jaephil

    2016-06-01

    The formation of a spinel Lix CoO2 layer in a Ni-rich secondary particle for lithium-ion batteries is reported by S. K. Kwak, J. Cho, and co-workers on page 4705, who find that the spinel-like Lix CoO2 layer, between layered primary particles, can enhance the mechanical strength of secondary particles by enhancing the interfacial binding energy among the grains. Moreover, the layer can effectively protect the unstable surface of the primary particles and offers a fast electron-ion pathway, resulting in overall enhancements of stability and kinetics in battery performance.

  16. Photothermal Therapy: Cancer Cell Internalization of Gold Nanostars Impacts Their Photothermal Efficiency In Vitro and In Vivo: Toward a Plasmonic Thermal Fingerprint in Tumoral Environment (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 9/2016).

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Ana; Silva, Amanda K A; Sánchez-Iglesias, Ana; Grzelczak, Marek; Péchoux, Christine; Desboeufs, Karine; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Wilhelm, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Because the ultimate target for photothermal therapy is the cancer cell, heating performances must be evaluated intracellularly. On page 1040 C. Wilhelm and team provide the first in vitro and in vivo photothermal measurements in cancer cells with gold nanostars. They demonstrate that once nanostars are internalized within endosomes, heat generation can change significantly.

  17. Human Neuron Cultures: Micropatterning Facilitates the Long-Term Growth and Analysis of iPSC-Derived Individual Human Neurons and Neuronal Networks (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 15/2016).

    PubMed

    Burbulla, Lena F; Beaumont, Kristin G; Mrksich, Milan; Krainc, Dimitri

    2016-08-01

    Dimitri Krainc, Milan Mrksich, and co-workers demonstrate the utility of microcontact printing technology for culturing of human neurons in defined patterns over extended periods of time on page 1894. This approach facilitates studies of neuronal development, cellular trafficking, and related mechanisms that require assessment of individual neurons and neuronal networks.

  18. A Cost-Utility and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Oral Antiviral Medications in Patients With HBeAg-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B in Iran: An Economic Microsimulation Decision Model

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, Khosro; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Akbari Sari, Ali; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Lotfi, Farhad; Hashemi Meshkini, Amir; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Keshvari, Maryam; Nikfar, Shekoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Although hepatitis B infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease in Iran, no studies have employed economic evaluations of the medications used to treat Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Therefore, the cost-effectiveness of the different treatment options for this disease in Iran is unknown. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the cost utility and cost-effectiveness of medication strategies tailored to local conditions in patients with HB e antigen (HBeAg)-negative CHB infection in Iran. Methods An economic evaluation of the cost utility of the following five oral medication strategies was conducted: adefovir (ADV), lamivudine (LAM), ADV + LAM, entecavir (ETV), and tenofovir (TDF). A Markov microsimulation model was used to estimate the clinical and economic outcomes over the course of the patient’s lifetime and based on a societal perspective. Medical and nonmedical direct costs and indirect costs were included in the study and life-years gained (LYG) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) were determined as measures of effectiveness. The results are presented in terms of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per QALY or LYG. The model consisted of nine stages of the disease. The transition probabilities for the movement between the different stages were based on clinical evidence and international expert opinion. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was used to measure the effects of uncertainty in the model parameters. Results The results revealed that the TDF treatment strategy was more effective and less costly than the other options. In addition, TDF had the highest QALY and LYG in the HBeAg-negative CHB patients, with 13.58 and 21.26 (discounted) in all comparisons. The PSA proved the robustness of the model results. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that TDF was the most cost-effective treatment in 59% - 78% of the simulations of HBeAg-negative patients, with WTP thresholds

  19. 77 FR 71461 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... the Commission a Form ADV-E and accompanying statement within four business days of the resignation... Commission, c/o Remi Pavlik-Simon, 6432 General Green Way, Alexandria, VA 22312; or send an email ] to:...

  20. 17 CFR 275.203-1 - Application for investment adviser registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., substantial changes to Part II of Form ADV. Thus, the rules for preparing, delivering, and offering Part II...) When filed. Each Form ADV is considered filed with the Commission upon acceptance by the IARD....

  1. Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase 1/2 Study of Tazemetostat (EZH2 Histone Methyl Transferase [HMT] Inhibitor) as a Single Agent in Subjects With Adv. Solid Tumors or With B-cell Lymphomas and Tazemetostat in Combination With Prednisolone in Subjects With DLBCL

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-28

    B-cell Lymphomas (Phase 1); Advanced Solid Tumors (Phase 1); Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (Phase 2); Follicular Lymphoma (Phase 2); Transformed Follicular Lymphoma; Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma

  2. Reply to the comments by Willem J. Zaadnoordijk on "An analytical solution for predicting the transient seepage from a subsurface drainage system" by P. Xin, H.C. Dan, T. Zhou, C. Lu, J. Kong, L. Li [Adv. Water Resour. 91 (2016) 1-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Pei; Dan, Han-Cheng; Zhou, Tingzhang; Lu, Chunhui; Kong, Jun; Li, Ling

    2016-10-01

    We appreciate Willem J. Zaadnoordijk's comments, which led us to revisit the results in Xin et al. (2016). Zaadnoordijk (2016) solved numerically the Boussinesq equation-based (BE) model, Eq. (6) in Xin et al. (2016), and found that (1) the transient groundwater tables predicted by the numerical BE model didn't match Fig. 5b in Xin et al. (2016) and (2) with an adjusted effective specific yield (discussed further below), the BE model predicted similar results to the analytical solution that accounts for the unsaturated zone effects. We address these two points in the following. (1) The results of Fig. 5b in Xin et al. (2016) were calculated from the analytical solution with the unsaturated zone neglected. Although the governing equation of the saturated-unsaturated mathematical model presented in Xin et al. (2016) can be reduced to the Boussinesq equation with the unsaturated zone neglected (i.e., α and β approaching infinity), the application of the approximate analytical solution directly to this limiting condition incurs large errors as contained in Fig. 5b of Xin et al. (2016). In this reply we derive a new analytical solution separately for the BE model (detailed derivation given in the appendix) with such errors removed.

  3. Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

  4. 77 FR 39767 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... rebate tier depends on an ETP Holder's ADV. Endnote 3 provides that ``ADV'' means, with respect to an ETP... occurred. Endnote 3 further clarifies that ``ADV'' as used with respect to the Exchange's Automatic.... Endnote 5, which is proposed to apply to each of the four rebate tiers in Order Delivery, provides that...

  5. 78 FR 62778 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...) (``Fee Schedule'') to add orders yielding Flag AA to the calculation of the average daily trading (``ADV... add orders yielding Flag AA to the calculation of the ADV threshold required to meet the MidPoint... orders yielding Flag AA (MidPoint Match Cross (same MPID)) to the calculation of the ADV...

  6. Adenovirus as a gene therapy vector for hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Marini, F C; Yu, Q; Wickham, T; Kovesdi, I; Andreeff, M

    2000-06-01

    Adenovirus (Adv)-mediated gene transfer has recently gained new attention as a means to deliver genes for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) or progenitor cell gene therapy. In the past, HSCs have been regarded as poor Adv targets, mainly because they lack the specific Adv receptors required for efficient and productive Adv infection. In addition, the nonintegrating nature of Adv has prevented its application to HSC and bone marrow transduction protocols where long-term expression is required. There is even controversy as to whether Adv can infect hematopoietic cells at all. In fact, the ability of Adv to infect epithelium-based targets and its inability to effectively transfect HSCs have been used in the development of eradication schemes that use Adv to preferentially infect and "purge" tumor cell-contaminating HSC grafts. However, there are data supporting the existence of productive Adv infections into HSCs. Such protocols involve the application of cytokine mixtures, high multiplicities of infection, long incubation periods, and more recently, immunological and genetic modifications to Adv itself to enable it to efficiently transfer genes into HSCs. This is a rapidly growing field, both in terms of techniques and applications. This review examines the two sides of the Adv/CD34 controversy as well as the current developments in this field.

  7. Development of Multiplexed Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay for Detecting Human Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Meei-Li; Nguy, Long; Ferrenberg, James; Boeckh, Michael; Cent, Anne; Corey, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdV) have been associated with a wide variety of human disease and are increasingly recognized as viral pathogens that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Early detection of AdV DNA in plasma and sterile fluids has been shown to be useful for identifying patients at risk for invasive AdV disease. Due to the large number of existing Adv types, few real-time quantitative AdV PCR assays published effectively cover all AdV types. We designed a series of AdV PCR primers and probes and empirically multiplexed them into two separate real-time PCR assays to quantitatively detect all 49 serotypes of human AdV (Types 1-49) available from ATCC. We then subsequently multiplexed all the primers and probes into one reaction. The sensitivity of these assays was determined to be less than 10 copies per reaction (500 copies/ml plasma). In a retrospective evaluation we detected all 84 clinical AdV isolates isolated in cell culture from patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) between 1981 and 1987. Prospective analysis of 46 consecutive clinical samples submitted for adenovirus testing showed greater sensitivity and equal specificity of the AdV PCR than viral culture. This real time PCR assay allows rapid, sensitive and specific quantification of all currently defined adenoviruses into either two or one multiplex assay for clinical samples. PMID:18707838

  8. Replication of Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus In Vivo Is Influenced by Residues in the VP2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James M.; McCrackin Stevenson, Mary A.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    1999-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is the etiological agent of Aleutian disease of mink. Several ADV isolates have been identified which vary in the severity of the disease they elicit. The isolate ADV-Utah replicates to high levels in mink, causing severe Aleutian disease that results in death within 6 to 8 weeks, but does not replicate in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells. In contrast, ADV-G replicates in CrFK cells but does not replicate in mink. The ability of the virus to replicate in vivo is determined by virally encoded determinants contained within a defined region of the VP2 gene (M. E. Bloom, J. M. Fox, B. D. Berry, K. L. Oie, and J. B. Wolfinbarger. Virology 251:288–296, 1998). Within this region, ADV-G and ADV-Utah differ at only five amino acid residues. To determine which of these five amino acid residues comprise the in vivo replication determinant, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to individually convert the amino acid residues of ADV-G to those of ADV-Utah. A virus in which the ADV-G VP2 residue at 534, histidine (H), was converted to an aspartic acid (D) of ADV-Utah replicated in CrFK cells as efficiently as ADV-G. H534D also replicated in mink, causing transient viremia at 30 days postinfection and a strong antibody response. Animals infected with this virus developed diffuse hepatocellular microvesicular steatosis, an abnormal accumulation of intracellular fat, but did not develop classical Aleutian disease. Thus, the substitution of an aspartic acid at residue 534 for a histidine allowed replication of ADV-G in mink, but the ability to replicate was not sufficient to cause classical Aleutian disease. PMID:10482625

  9. Prognostics Health Management for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-10-18

    In the United States, sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security is a key national energy priority. Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMR), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts using non-light-water reactor (LWR) coolants such as liquid metal, helium, or liquid salt may provide a longer-term alternative to more conventional LWR-based concepts. The economics of AdvSMRs will be impacted by the reduced economy-of-scale savings when compared to traditional LWRs and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance costs. Therefore, achieving the full benefits of AdvSMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management. In this context, prognostic health management of passive components in AdvSMRs can play a key role in enabling the economic deployment of AdvSMRs. In this paper, the background of AdvSMRs is discussed from which requirements for PHM systems are derived. The particle filter technique is proposed as a prognostics framework for AdvSMR passive components and the suitability of the particle filter technique is illustrated by using it to forecast thermal creep degradation using a physics-of-failure model and based on a combination of types of measurements conceived for passive AdvSMR components.

  10. 77 FR 49463 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ....m. SUBJECT MATTER: Chairman's remarks, discussion of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (AdvLIGO) Construction Project Change in Scope, and discussion of and action on...

  11. Fatal systemic adenoviral infection superimposed on pulmonary mucormycosis in a child with acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu Mi; Hwang-Bo, Seok; Kim, Seong koo; Han, Seung Beom; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Kang, Jin Han

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Although adenovirus (ADV) infection usually causes self-limiting respiratory disorders in immune competent children; severe and systemic ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy for leukemia has been continuously reported. Nevertheless, there has been no consensus on risk factors and treatment strategies for severe ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy. Case summary: We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with a fatal systemic ADV infection. He had received reinduction chemotherapy for relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia under continuing antifungal therapy for previously diagnosed fungal pneumonia. He complained of fever and right shoulder pain 4 days after completing the reinduction chemotherapy. In spite of appropriate antibiotic and antifungal therapy, pneumonia was aggravated and gross hematuria was accompanied. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction test for respiratory viruses was positive for ADV in a blood sample, and a urine culture was positive for ADV. He received oral ribavirin, intravenous immunoglobulin, and intravenous cidofovir therapy; however, he eventually died. Relapsed leukemia, concurrent fungal pneumonia, and delayed cidofovir administration were considered the cause of the grave outcome in this patient. Conclusion: ADV may cause severe infections not only in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, but also in patients undergoing chemotherapy for acute leukemia. The risk factors for severe ADV infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy should be determined in the future studies, and early antiviral therapy should be administered to immune compromised patients with systemic ADV infection. PMID:27749571

  12. What's in a name?

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    A table charts the various nomenclature of drugs used to treat HIV and AIDS. The common name, generic name, and brand name are given for several categories including NARTIs (NRTIs, "Nukes", Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors), NNRTIs (Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), and PIs (Protease Inhibitors). Other drugs listed are Hydroxyurea (anti-cancer drug) and preveon (Adefovir (Nucleotide)).

  13. Smallpox Antiviral Drug

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Nevirapine 1996 HIV Delavirdine 1997 HIV Abacavir 1998 HIV Efavirenz 1998 HIV Tenofovir 2001 HIV Adefovirn dipivoxil 2002 HBV Emtricitabine 2003 HIV Acyclovir...toxicity, hair loss, and skin changes [De Benedittis et al., 2004]. The other approach to orthopoxvirus antiviral drug discovery is to screen new...Rouzioux C. 2004. Penetration of enfuvirtide, tenofovir, efavirenz , and protease inhibitors in the genital tract of HIV-1-infected men. Aids 18:1958

  14. Novel Adenoviruses in Wild Primates: a High Level of Genetic Diversity and Evidence of Zoonotic Transmissions ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wevers, Diana; Metzger, Sonja; Babweteera, Fred; Bieberbach, Marc; Boesch, Christophe; Cameron, Kenneth; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Cranfield, Mike; Gray, Maryke; Harris, Laurie A.; Head, Josephine; Jeffery, Kathryn; Knauf, Sascha; Lankester, Felix; Leendertz, Siv Aina J.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth; Mugisha, Lawrence; Nitsche, Andreas; Reed, Patricia; Robbins, Martha; Travis, Dominic A.; Zommers, Zinta; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) broadly infect vertebrate hosts, including a variety of nonhuman primates (NHPs). In the present study, we identified AdVs in NHPs living in their natural habitats, and through the combination of phylogenetic analyses and information on the habitats and epidemiological settings, we detected possible horizontal transmission events between NHPs and humans. Wild NHPs were analyzed with a pan-primate AdV-specific PCR using a degenerate nested primer set that targets the highly conserved adenovirus DNA polymerase gene. A plethora of novel AdV sequences were identified, representing at least 45 distinct AdVs. From the AdV-positive individuals, 29 nearly complete hexon genes were amplified and, based on phylogenetic analysis, tentatively allocated to all known human AdV species (Human adenovirus A to Human adenovirus G [HAdV-A to -G]) as well as to the only simian AdV species (Simian adenovirus A [SAdV-A]). Interestingly, five of the AdVs detected in great apes grouped into the HAdV-A, HAdV-D, HAdV-F, or SAdV-A clade. Furthermore, we report the first detection of AdVs in New World monkeys, clustering at the base of the primate AdV evolutionary tree. Most notably, six chimpanzee AdVs of species HAdV-A to HAdV-F revealed a remarkably close relationship to human AdVs, possibly indicating recent interspecies transmission events. PMID:21835802

  15. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The ...

  16. Complete genome sequence and integrated protein localization and interaction map for alfalfa dwarf virus, which combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Breuil, Soledad de; Trucco, Verónica; Nome, Claudia; Lenardon, Sergio; Dietzgen, Ralf G.

    2015-09-15

    Summary: We have determined the full-length 14,491-nucleotide genome sequence of a new plant rhabdovirus, alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV). Seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the antigenomic orientation of the negative-sense, single-stranded viral RNA, in the order 3′-N-P-P3-M-G-P6-L-5′. The ORFs are separated by conserved intergenic regions and the genome coding region is flanked by complementary 3′ leader and 5′ trailer sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein amino acid sequence indicated that this alfalfa-infecting rhabdovirus is related to viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. When transiently expressed as GFP fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, most ADV proteins accumulated in the cell periphery, but unexpectedly P protein was localized exclusively in the nucleus. ADV P protein was shown to have a homotypic, and heterotypic nuclear interactions with N, P3 and M proteins by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ADV appears unique in that it combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses. - Highlights: • The complete genome of alfalfa dwarf virus is obtained. • An integrated localization and interaction map for ADV is determined. • ADV has a genome sequence similarity and evolutionary links with cytorhabdoviruses. • ADV protein localization and interaction data show an association with the nucleus. • ADV combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses.

  17. Adenovirus 36 and Obesity: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Ponterio, Eleonora; Gnessi, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    There is an epidemic of obesity starting about 1980 in both developed and undeveloped countries definitely associated with multiple etiologies. About 670 million people worldwide are obese. The incidence of obesity has increased in all age groups, including children. Obesity causes numerous diseases and the interaction between genetic, metabolic, social, cultural and environmental factors are possible cofactors for the development of obesity. Evidence emerging over the last 20 years supports the hypothesis that viral infections may be associated with obesity in animals and humans. The most widely studied infectious agent possibly linked to obesity is adenovirus 36 (Adv36). Adv36 causes obesity in animals. In humans, Adv36 associates with obesity both in adults and children and the prevalence of Adv36 increases in relation to the body mass index. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the viral E4orf1 protein (early region 4 open reading frame 1, Adv) mediates the Adv36 effect including its adipogenic potential. The Adv36 infection should therefore be considered as a possible risk factor for obesity and could be a potential new therapeutic target in addition to an original way to understand the worldwide rise of the epidemic of obesity. Here, the data indicating a possible link between viral infection and obesity with a particular emphasis to the Adv36 will be reviewed. PMID:26184280

  18. Adenoviruses C in non-hospitalized Mexican children older than five years of age with acute respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Rosete, Dora P; Manjarrez, María Eugenia; Barrón, Blanca L

    2008-03-01

    Adenoviruses (AdV) are commonly involved in acute respiratory infections (ARI), which cause high morbidity and mortality in children. AdV are grouped in six species (A-F), which are associated with a wide range of diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the AdV species infecting non-hospitalized Mexican children with ARI symptoms, attending to the same school. For that, a PCR/RFLP assay was designed for a region of the hexon gene, which was chosen, based on the bioinformatical analysis of AdV genomes obtained from GenBank. A total of 100 children's nasopharyngeal samples were collected from January to June, 2005, and used for viral isolation in A549 cells and PCR/RFLP analysis. Only 15 samples produced cytopathic effect, and in all of them AdV C was identified. AdV C was also identified in eight additional nasopharyngeal samples which were negative for viral isolation. In summary, this outpatient population showed a rate of AdV infection of 23%, and only AdV C was detected.

  19. A novel adenovirus of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Wevers, Diana; Leendertz, Fabian H; Scuda, Nelly; Boesch, Christophe; Robbins, Martha M; Head, Josephine; Ludwig, Carsten; Kühn, Joachim; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2010-11-05

    Adenoviruses (AdV) broadly infect vertebrate hosts including a variety of primates. We identified a novel AdV in the feces of captive gorillas by isolation in cell culture, electron microscopy and PCR. From the supernatants of infected cultures we amplified DNA polymerase (DPOL), preterminal protein (pTP) and hexon gene sequences with generic pan primate AdV PCR assays. The sequences in-between were amplified by long-distance PCRs of 2-10 kb length, resulting in a final sequence of 15.6 kb. Phylogenetic analysis placed the novel gorilla AdV into a cluster of primate AdVs belonging to the species Human adenovirus B (HAdV-B). Depending on the analyzed gene, its position within the cluster was variable. To further elucidate its origin, feces samples of wild gorillas were analyzed. AdV hexon sequences were detected which are indicative for three distinct and novel gorilla HAdV-B viruses, among them a virus nearly identical to the novel AdV isolated from captive gorillas. This shows that the discovered virus is a member of a group of HAdV-B viruses that naturally infect gorillas. The mixed phylogenetic clusters of gorilla, chimpanzee, bonobo and human AdVs within the HAdV-B species indicate that host switches may have been a component of the evolution of human and non-human primate HAdV-B viruses.

  20. 78 FR 62907 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... for adding liquidity to the Exchange. Specifically, the Exchange is proposing to amend the methodology... that eliminating days where the Exchange experiences an Exchange Outage from the definition of ADV and... among Exchange constituents as the methodology for calculating ADV and TCV will apply equally to...

  1. Detection of Soft Gamma-Ray Emission from the Seyfert II Galaxy NGC 4507 by the OSSE Telescope (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    botes1.tesre.bo.cnr.it G. Malaguti : 38045:: MALAGUTI , malaguti @icarus.tesre.bo.cnr.it E. Jourdain: 17424::ROQUES J.P. Roques: 17424::ROQUES W.N. Johnson...Press), 537 Awaki, H, and Koyama, K. 1993, Adv. Space Res. Vol. 13,N.12, 221 Bassani L., Malaguti G. and Palumbo G.G.C., 1995, Adv. Space Res., in

  2. Sublingual immunization with recombinant adenovirus encoding SARS-CoV spike protein induces systemic and mucosal immunity without redirection of the virus to the brain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sublingual (s.l.) administration of soluble protein antigens, inactivated viruses, or virus-like particles has been shown to induce broad immune responses in mucosal and extra-mucosal tissues. Recombinant replication-defective adenovirus vectors (rADVs) infect mucosa surface and therefore can serve as a mucosal antigen delivery vehicle. In this study we examined whether s.l. immunization with rADV encoding spike protein (S) (rADV-S) of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) induces protective immunity against SARS-CoV and could serve as a safe mucosal route for delivery of rADV. Results Here, we show that s.l. administration of rADV-S induced serum SARS-CoV neutralizing and airway IgA antibodies in mice. These antibody responses are comparable to those induced by intranasal (i.n.) administration. In addition, s.l. immunization induced antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the lungs that are superior to those induced by intramuscular immunization. Importantly, unlike i.n. administration, s.l. immunization with rADV did not redirect the rADV vector to the olfactory bulb. Conclusion Our study indicates that s.l. immunization with rADV-S is safe and effective in induction of a broad spectrum of immune responses and presumably protection against infection with SARS-CoV. PMID:22995185

  3. 75 FR 69507 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Endnote 3 of the Fee Schedule, ``Liquidity Adding ADV'') is less than 25 million shares (``Tier 1''); a rebate of $0.0027 per share if Liquidity Adding ADV is at least 25 million shares and less than 40... is less than 20 basis points of TCADV. The Tier 2 rebate of $0.0027 is proposed to be...

  4. Adenovirus vectors lacking virus-associated RNA expression enhance shRNA activity to suppress hepatitis C virus replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Zheng; Shi, Guoli; Kondo, Saki; Ito, Masahiko; Maekawa, Aya; Suzuki, Mariko; Saito, Izumu; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Kanegae, Yumi

    2013-12-01

    First-generation adenovirus vectors (FG AdVs) expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) effectively downregulate the expressions of target genes. However, this vector, in fact, expresses not only the transgene product, but also virus-associated RNAs (VA RNAs) that disturb cellular RNAi machinery. We have established a production method for VA-deleted AdVs lacking expression of VA RNAs. Here, we showed that the highest shRNA activity was obtained when the shRNA was inserted not at the popularly used E1 site, but at the E4 site. We then compared the activities of shRNAs against hepatitis C virus (HCV) expressed from VA-deleted AdVs or conventional AdVs. The VA-deleted AdVs inhibited HCV production much more efficiently. Therefore, VA-deleted AdVs were more effective than the currently used AdVs for shRNA downregulation, probably because of the lack of competition between VA RNAs and the shRNAs. These VA-deleted AdVs might enable more effective gene therapies for chronic hepatitis C.

  5. Effects of Levels of Automation for Advanced Small Modular Reactors: Impacts on Performance, Workload, and Situation Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya Le Blanc

    2014-07-01

    The Human-Automation Collaboration (HAC) research effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The DOE AdvSMR program focuses on plant design and management, reduction of capital costs as well as plant operations and maintenance costs (O&M), and factory production costs benefits.

  6. Efficient genome replication of hepatitis B virus using adenovirus vector: a compact pregenomic RNA-expression unit

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Mariko; Kondo, Saki; Yamasaki, Manabu; Matsuda, Norie; Nomoto, Akio; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Saito, Izumu; Kanegae, Yumi

    2017-01-01

    The complicated replication mechanisms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have impeded HBV studies and anti-HBV therapy development as well. Herein we report efficient genome replication of HBV applying adenovirus vectors (AdVs) showing high transduction efficiency. Even in primary hepatocytes derived from humanized mice the transduction efficiencies using AdVs were 450-fold higher compared than those using plasmids. By using an expression unit consisting of the CMV promoter, 1.03-copy HBV genome and foreign poly(A) signal, we successfully generated an improved AdV (HBV103-AdV) that efficiently provided 58 times more pregenomic RNA than previously reported AdVs. The HBV103-AdV-mediated HBV replication was easily and precisely detected using quantitative real-time PCR in primary hepatocytes as well as in HepG2 cells. Notably, when the AdV containing replication-defective HBV genome of 1.14 copy was transduced, we observed that HBV DNA-containing circular molecules (pseudo-ccc DNA) were produced, which were probably generated through homologous recombination. However, the replication-defective HBV103-AdV hardly yielded the pseudo-ccc, probably because the repeated sequences are vey short. Additionally, the efficacies of entecavir and lamivudine were quantitatively evaluated using this system at only 4 days postinfection with HBV103-AdVs. Therefore, this system offers high production of HBV genome replication and thus could become used widely. PMID:28157182

  7. Optimization and internalization mechanisms of PEGylated adenovirus vector with targeting peptide for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xing-Lei; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ruan, Gui-Xin; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Mukai, Yohei; Okada, Naoki; Gao, Jian-Qing; Nakagawa, Shinsaku

    2012-08-13

    We have previously developed a novel adenovirus vector (Adv) that targeted tumor tissues/vasculatures after systemic administration. The surface of this Adv is conjugated with CGKRK tumor homing peptide by the cross-linking reaction of polyethyleneglycol (PEG). In this study, we showed that the condition of PEG modification was important to minimize the gene expression in normal tissues after systemic treatment. When Adv was modified only with PEG-linked CGKRK, its luciferase expression was enhanced even in the liver tissue, as well as the tumor tissue. However, in the reaction with the mixture of non-cross-linking PEG and PEG-linked CGKRK, we found out that the best modification could suppress its gene expression in the liver, without losing that in the tumor. We also studied the internalization mechanisms of CGKRK-conjugated Adv. Results suggested that there is a specific interaction of the CGKRK peptide with a receptor at the cell surface enabling efficient internalization of CGKRK-conjugated Adv. The presence of cell-surface heparan sulfate is important receptor for the cellular binding and uptake of CGKRK-conjugated Adv. Moreover, macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis is also important in endocytosis of CGKRK-conjugated Adv, aside from clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. These results could help evaluate the potentiality of CGKRK-conjugated Adv as a prototype vector with suitable efficacy and safety for systemic cancer gene therapy.

  8. Characteristics of Adenovirus Pneumonia in Korean Military Personnel, 2012–2016

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hee; Yoo, Hongseok; Park, Sung Bum

    2017-01-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) can cause severe pneumonia in non-immunocompromised host, but limited data exist on the distinctive characteristics of AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients. We evaluated distinctive clinico-laboratory and radiological characteristics and outcomes of AdV pneumonia (n = 179), compared with non-AdV pneumonia (n = 188) in Korean military personnel between 2012 and 2016. AdV pneumonia patients had a higher rate of consolidation with ground-glass opacity (101/152) in lobar distribution (89/152) on computed tomography (CT) (P < 0.001). Laboratory findings showed a higher incidence of unusual blood profiles such as leukopenia (55/179, P < 0.001) or thrombocytopenia (100/179, P < 0.001). The patients had more systemic symptoms such as myalgia (82/179, P = 0.001) or diarrhea (23/179, P < 0.001), compared with non-AdV pneumonia patients. Bacterial co-infection was identified in 28.5% of AdV pneumonia. Most of the AdV isolates typed (69/72, 95.8%) were AdV-55. Patients with a pneumonia severity index ≥ class III were more commonly observed in AdV pneumonia patients compared with non-AdV pneumonia patients (11.2% vs. 2.1%, P < 0.001), and time to clinical stabilization from admission was longer in the AdV pneumonia patients compared with the non-AdV pneumonia patients (3.8 vs. 2.6 days, P < 0.001). Mechanical ventilation (n = 6) was only required in AdV pneumonia patients, one of whom died due to AdV-55. Our data showed that AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients had distinct characteristics and most of the isolates typed in our study were AdV-55. It is suggested that AdV-55 is an important pathogen of pneumonia in Korean military personnel. PMID:28049240

  9. Characteristics of Adenovirus Pneumonia in Korean Military Personnel, 2012-2016.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hee; Jhun, Byung Woo; Kim, Hojoong; Yoo, Hongseok; Park, Sung Bum

    2017-02-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) can cause severe pneumonia in non-immunocompromised host, but limited data exist on the distinctive characteristics of AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients. We evaluated distinctive clinico-laboratory and radiological characteristics and outcomes of AdV pneumonia (n = 179), compared with non-AdV pneumonia (n = 188) in Korean military personnel between 2012 and 2016. AdV pneumonia patients had a higher rate of consolidation with ground-glass opacity (101/152) in lobar distribution (89/152) on computed tomography (CT) (P < 0.001). Laboratory findings showed a higher incidence of unusual blood profiles such as leukopenia (55/179, P < 0.001) or thrombocytopenia (100/179, P < 0.001). The patients had more systemic symptoms such as myalgia (82/179, P = 0.001) or diarrhea (23/179, P < 0.001), compared with non-AdV pneumonia patients. Bacterial co-infection was identified in 28.5% of AdV pneumonia. Most of the AdV isolates typed (69/72, 95.8%) were AdV-55. Patients with a pneumonia severity index ≥ class III were more commonly observed in AdV pneumonia patients compared with non-AdV pneumonia patients (11.2% vs. 2.1%, P < 0.001), and time to clinical stabilization from admission was longer in the AdV pneumonia patients compared with the non-AdV pneumonia patients (3.8 vs. 2.6 days, P < 0.001). Mechanical ventilation (n = 6) was only required in AdV pneumonia patients, one of whom died due to AdV-55. Our data showed that AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients had distinct characteristics and most of the isolates typed in our study were AdV-55. It is suggested that AdV-55 is an important pathogen of pneumonia in Korean military personnel.

  10. Acoustic Doppler velocimeter-induced acoustic streaming and its implications for measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C. M.; Rusello, P. J.; Variano, E. A.

    2011-05-01

    The acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) is widely used for the characterization of fluid flow. Secondary flows ("acoustic streaming") generated by the ADV's acoustic pulses may affect the accuracy of measurements in experiments with small velocities. We assessed the impact of acoustic streaming on flow measurement using particle image velocimetry. The probes of two different ADVs were successively mounted in a tank of quiescent water. The probes' ultrasound emitters were aligned with a laser light sheet. Observed flow was primarily in the axial direction, accelerating from the ultrasound emitter and peaking within centimeters of the velocimeter sampling volume before dropping off. We measured the dependence of acoustic streaming velocity on ADV configuration, finding that different settings induce streaming ranging from negligible to more than 2.0 cm s-1. From these results, we describe cases where acoustic streaming affects velocity measurements and also cases where ADVs accurately measure their own acoustic streaming.

  11. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-08-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation into the development of new models and guidance for Concepts of Operations in advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) designs. AdvSMRs are nuclear power plants (NPPs), but unlike conventional large NPPs that are constructed on site, AdvSMRs systems and components will be fabricated in a factory and then assembled on site. AdvSMRs will also use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. Some AdvSMR designs also propose to be operated in a multi-unit configuration with a single central control room as a way to be more cost-competitive with existing NPPs. These differences from conventional NPPs not only pose technical and operational challenges, but they will undoubtedly also have regulatory compliance implications, especially with respect to staffing requirements and safety standards.

  12. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinheng; Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Chen, Weiguo; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens.

  13. Atmospheric dump valve engineering analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, B.; McNemar, P.

    1990-01-01

    This report documents the activities undertaken after the atmospheric dump valves (ADVs) failed to operate following a Unit 3 reactor trip. The activities consisted of testing valves in all three units, examining Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS) history with the valves, determining causes for failures, and making recommendations. The PVNGS engineering departments performed an in-depth review of the history, operation, maintenance, and design of ADVs. A preliminary mathematical model of the valves' dynamic behavior was developed by Arizona State University. The corrective actions are designed to eliminate the anomalies noted with the Unit 1 and 3 ADVs. Subsequent monitoring and testing activities following the planned modifications will ensure the ADVs remain operable during modes required by the PVNGS technical specifications. Through this increased monitoring and testing program, the valve modifications will be evaluated to confirm that the required level of reliability has been reached for the ADVs. The specific failures have been evaluated and the causes determined.

  14. Molecular cloning of the Aleutian disease virus genome: expression of Aleutian disease virus antigens by a recombinant plasmid.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, L W; Aasted, B; Garon, C F; Bloom, M E

    1983-01-01

    Three nonoverlapping segments representing approximately 80% of the 4.8-kilobase pair Aleutian disease virus (ADV-G) duplex genome were molecularly cloned into either bacteriophage M13mp9 (M13bm2 = 0.07 to 0.15 map unit; M13bm1 = 0.15 to 0.54 map unit) or plasmid pUC8 (pBM1 = 0.54 to 0.88 map units). In addition the 0.54- to 0.88-map unit segment of a Danish isolate of ADV (DK ADV) was also cloned into pUC8 (pBM2). The recombinant plasmids pBM1 and pBM2 induced expression of several polypeptides in Escherichia coli JM103 that were specifically recognized by sera from mink infected with ADV. The same three proteins with approximate molecular weights of 55,000, 34,000, and 27,000 were detected both by immune blotting and by immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled JM103 (pBM1). None of these proteins were recognized in JM103 or JM103 (pUC8), nor were they detected by sera from normal mink. Purified pBM1 and pBM2 DNA appeared identical in size by gel analysis and contour length measurement, and electron microscopic heteroduplex mapping revealed no visible areas of heterology. However, restriction endonuclease mapping showed that pBM2 was different from pBM1, indicating that this segment of the ADV genome was similar but not identical for two strains of ADV (ADV-G and DK ADV). Furthermore, when cloned DNA from ADV-G was labeled with [32P]dCTP by nick translation, DNA relatedness to several field strains of ADV (Utah I, Pullman, and DK), but not to mink enteritis virus or cellular DNA, was shown by Southern blot hybridization. Images PMID:6313959

  15. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  16. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for the study of adenoviral diversity in urban rivers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Kim, Sang-Jong

    2010-05-01

    The diversity of human adenoviruses (AdVs) in river waters was studied by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Water samples were collected between 2002 and 2003 from 4 rivers in the Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. Forty-six (79.3%) of the 58 samples were positive for AdVs as determined on PCR amplification. Nine different SSCP profiles (profiles A to I) were detected in all the AdVs-positive samples by SSCP analysis, and most of the AdVs-positive samples (38 of 46 samples; 82.6%) showed the SSCP profile D. Nine different sequences were obtained in the SSCP profiles; sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis identified 5 different sequences that were closely related to the human AdV type 41, and the 4 different sequences that were closely related to human AdV types 3, 4, 12, and 40. Two AdVs genomic variants were detected (types 3 and 41 in A, types 12 and 41 in B, and 2 genomic variants of type 41 in C) in SSCP profiles A, B, and C, respectively. SSCP analysis could be a useful technique for the identification of genetic variants of AdVs and for studying AdVs diversity in urban rivers.

  17. The relationship between adenovirus-36 seropositivity, obesity and metabolic profile in Turkish children and adults.

    PubMed

    Karamese, M; Altoparlak, U; Turgut, A; Aydogdu, S; Karamese, S Aksak

    2015-12-01

    Obesity potentially arising from viral infection is known as 'infectobesity'. The latest reports suggest that adenovirus-36 (Adv36) is related to obesity in adults and children. Our aim was not only to determine the Adv36 seropositivity in both obese and non-obese children and adults, but also to investigate correlations between antibody positivity and serum lipid profiles. Both Adv36 positivity and tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha, leptin and interleukin-6 levels were detected in blood samples collected from 146 children and 130 adults by ELISA. Fasting plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels were also measured. Adv36 positivity was determined to be 27·1% and 6% in obese and non-obese children and 17·5% and 4% in obese and non-obese adults, respectively. There was no difference with regard to total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels (P > 0·05). However, there was a significant difference between groups in terms of leptin levels (P < 0·05). We determined the prevalence of Adv36 positivity in obese children and adults. Our results showed that Adv36 may be an obesity agent for both adults and children, parallel with current literature data. However, the available data on a possible relationship between Adv36 infection and obesity both in children and adults do not completely solve the problem.

  18. Wild boar: an increasing concern for Aujeszky's disease control in pigs?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was describing the temporal evolution of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) contact prevalence among Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations under different management regimes and contact likelihoods with domestic pigs. Given the recent increase in wild boar abundance throughout Europe, we hypothesized that wild boar contact with ADV would remain stable in time even after significant reduction of ADV prevalence in domestic pigs. Results Sera from 1659 wild boar were collected from 2000 to 2010 within 6 areas of the Iberian Peninsula and tested for the presence of antibodies against ADV by ELISA. According to sampling date, wild boar were grouped into three time periods. ADV prevalence was compared through period both globally and by geographic area. Overall seroprevalence for the ten-year study period was 49.6 ± 2.4%. The highest seroprevalence was recorded in areas with intense wild boar management. The annual proportion of positive wild boar sampling sites remained stable through the study period, while the percentage of domestic pig AD positive counties decreased from 70% in 2003 to 1.7% in 2010. Conclusions Results presented herein confirmed our hypothesis that ADV would remain almost stable in wild boar populations. This evidences the increasing risk wild boar pose in the final stages of ADV eradication in pigs and for wildlife conservation. PMID:22251441

  19. Association of adenovirus 36 infection with obesity-related gene variants in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dušátková, L; Zamrazilová, H; Aldhoon Hainerová, I; Atkinson, R L; Sedláčková, B; Lee, Z P; Včelák, J; Bendlová, B; Kunešová, M; Hainer, V

    2015-01-01

    Both, common gene variants and human adenovirus 36 (Adv36) are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. The potential relationship between these two pathogenic factors has not yet been investigated. The aim of our study was to examine the association of obesity susceptibility loci with Adv36 status. Genotyping of ten gene variants (in/near TMEM18, SH2B1, KCTD15, PCSK1, BDNF, SEC16B, MC4R, FTO) and analysis of Adv36 antibodies was performed in 1,027 Czech adolescents aged 13.0-17.9 years. Variants of two genes (PCSK1 and BDNF) were associated with Adv36 seropositivity. A higher prevalence of Adv36 antibody positivity was observed in obesity risk allele carriers of PCSK1 rs6232, rs6235 and BDNF rs4923461 vs. non-carriers (chi(2)=6.59, p=0.010; chi(2)=7.56, p=0.023 and chi(2)=6.84, p=0.033, respectively). The increased risk of Adv36 positivity was also found in PCSK1 variants: rs6232 (OR=1.67, 95 % CI 1.11-2.49, p=0.016) and rs6235 (OR=1.34, 95 % CI 1.08-1.67, p=0.010). PCSK1 rs6232 and BDNF rs925946 variants were closely associated with Adv36 status in boys and girls, respectively (chi(2)=5.09, p=0.024; chi(2)=7.29, p=0.026). Furthermore, PCSK1 rs6235 risk allele was related to Adv36 seropositivity (chi(2)=6.85, p=0.033) in overweight/obese subgroup. In conclusion, our results suggest that obesity risk variants of PCSK1 and BDNF genes may be related to Adv36 infection.

  20. Detection of Aleutian disease virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Bin; Hu, Shouping; Zhang, Jiaoer; He, Xijun; Zheng, Shimin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and optimized for the detection of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in minks. The amplification could be completed within 45 min under isothermal condition by employing a set of six ADV genome-specific primers. The amplification results could be visualized directly with the naked eye by using fluorescent dye. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay is superior to conventional polymerase chain reaction for the detection of both experimental and field samples. Results of current study indicated that the LAMP assay is a rapid and reliable technique for routine diagnosis of ADV infection in minks.

  1. Compact, Robust Chips Integrate Optical Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Located in Bozeman, Montana, AdvR Inc. has been an active partner in NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Langley Research Center engineers partnered with AdvR through the SBIR program to develop new, compact, lightweight electro-optic components for remote sensing systems. While the primary customer for this technology will be NASA, AdvR foresees additional uses for its NASA-derived circuit chip in the fields of academic and industrial research anywhere that compact, low-cost, stabilized single-frequency lasers are needed.

  2. Brincidofovir clearance of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus-1 and adenovirus infection after stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Voigt, S; Hofmann, J; Edelmann, A; Sauerbrei, A; Kühl, J-S

    2016-10-01

    Infections with adenovirus (AdV) and herpesviruses can result in considerable morbidity and mortality in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivations are usually prevented by acyclovir (ACV) prophylaxis, whereas cidofovir (CDV) has been used off indication to manage AdV infections. We report a child with myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing multiple SCT, who experienced HSV-1 disease including severe mucositis and herpetic whitlow, as well as high viral load AdV DNAemia. Both ACV and CDV were ineffective; however, viral loads were decreased with brincidofovir, resulting in viral clearance. A subsequent Epstein-Barr virus disease with relevant meningoencephalitis responded to rituximab.

  3. Entecavir Interacts with Influx Transporters hOAT1, hCNT2, hCNT3, but Not with hOCT2: The Potential for Renal Transporter-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Drug–Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mandíková, Jana; Volková, Marie; Pávek, Petr; Navrátilová, Lucie; Hyršová, Lucie; Janeba, Zlatko; Pavlík, Jan; Bárta, Pavel; Trejtnar, František

    2016-01-01

    Entecavir (ETV) is one of the most potent agents for the treatment of the hepatitis B viral infection. The drug is principally eliminated by the kidney. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of ETV to interact in vitro with the renal SLC transporters hOAT1, hOCT2, hCNT2 and hCNT3. Potential drug–drug interactions of ETV at the renal transporters with antiviral drugs known to be excreted by the kidney (adefovir, tenofovir, cidofovir) as well as transporter-dependent cytotoxicity were also examined. Interactions with the selected transporters along with cytotoxicity were studied in several transiently transfected cellular models using specific substrates and inhibitors. ETV was found to be both a substrate and inhibitor of hOAT1 (IC50 = 175.3 μM), hCNT2 (IC50 = 241.9 μM) and hCNT3 (IC50 = 278.4 μM) transporters, although it interacted with the transporters with relatively low affinities. ETV inhibited the cellular uptake of adefovir, tenofovir, and cidofovir by hOAT1; however, effective inhibition was shown at ETV concentrations exceeding therapeutic levels. In comparison with adefovir, tenofovir, and cidofovir, ETV displayed no transporter-mediated cytotoxicity in cells transfected with hOAT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3. No significant interaction of ETV with hOCT2 was detected. The study demonstrates interactions of ETV with several human renal transporters. For the first time, an interaction of ETV with the hCNTs was proved. We show that the potency of ETV to cause nephrotoxicity and/or clinically significant drug-drug interactions related to the tested transporters is considerably lower than that of adefovir, tenofovir, and cidofovir. PMID:26779022

  4. The design and characterization of wideband spline-profiled feedhorns for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sara M.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Coughlin, Kevin P.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Hills, Felicity B.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Josaitis, Alec; Koopman, Brian J.; McMahon, Jeff J.; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Ward, Jonathan; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upgraded camera for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) that will measure the cosmic microwave background in temperature and polarization over a wide range of angular scales and five frequency bands from 28-230 GHz. AdvACT will employ four arrays of feedhorn-coupled, polarization- sensitive multichroic detectors. To accommodate the higher pixel packing densities necessary to achieve Ad- vACT's sensitivity goals, we have developed and optimized wideband spline-profiled feedhorns for the AdvACT multichroic arrays that maximize coupling efficiency while carefully controlling polarization systematics. We present the design, fabrication, and testing of wideband spline-profiled feedhorns for the multichroic arrays of AdvACT.

  5. Ether lipid-ester prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: activity against adenovirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hartline, Caroll B; Gustin, Kortney M; Wan, William B; Ciesla, Stephanie L; Beadle, James R; Hostetler, Karl Y; Kern, Earl R

    2005-02-01

    The acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir (CDV) and its closely related analogue (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-adenine ([S]-HPMPA) have been reported to have activity against many adenovirus (AdV) serotypes. A new series of orally active ether lipid-ester prodrugs of CDV and of (S)-HPMPA that have slight differences in the structure of their lipid esters were evaluated, in tissue-culture cells, for activity against 5 AdV serotypes. The results indicated that, against several AdV serotypes, the most active compounds were 15-2500-fold more active than the unmodified parent compounds and should be evaluated further for their potential to treat AdV infections in humans.

  6. What Would They Do? Parents' Responses to Hypothetical Adolescent Dating Violence Situations.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Arlene N; Black, Beverly M; Hawley, Alicia C

    2017-04-01

    Although adolescent dating violence (ADV) is recognized as a significant public health problem, little is known about how parents respond to it. This article analyzes exploratory, qualitative data from a public opinion survey of 529 Midwestern, U. S. parents' ideas about how they would respond to a daughter victimized by ADV. It examines differing responses between mothers and fathers across 3 vignettes. Most parents viewed the ADV as serious, meriting deeper discussions with the daughter, boyfriend, or his parents. Many planned to handle the incident by trying to end the adolescents' relationship, talking to the boyfriend, or informing the daughter about ADV. These findings can help prevention workers show how knowledge about parents' typical reactions can help parents modulate their responses to increase effective communication with adolescents.

  7. Assembly and Integration Process of the First High Density Detector Array for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Yaqiong; Choi, Steve; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Crowley, Kevin T.; Salatino, Maria; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) consists of multichroicTransition Edge Sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. The first AdvACT detector array, sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz, is fabricated on a 150 mm diameter wafer and read out with a completely different scheme compared to ACTPol. Approximately 2000 TES bolometers are packed into the wafer leading to both a much denser detector density and readout circuitry. The demonstration of the assembly and integration of the AdvACT arrays is important for the next generation CMB experiments, which will continue to increase the pixel number and density. We present the detailed assembly process of the first AdvACT detector array.

  8. The Design and Characterization of Wideband Spline-profiled Feedhorns for Advanced Actpol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Sara M.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Coughlin, Kevin P.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Hills, Felicity B.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Josaitis, Alec; Koopman, Brian J.; McMahon, Jeff J.; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upgraded camera for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) that will measure the cosmic microwave background in temperature and polarization over a wide range of angular scales and five frequency bands from 28-230 GHz. AdvACT will employ four arrays of feedhorn-coupled, polarization- sensitive multichroic detectors. To accommodate the higher pixel packing densities necessary to achieve Ad- vACTs sensitivity goals, we have developed and optimized wideband spline-profiled feedhorns for the AdvACT multichroic arrays that maximize coupling efficiency while carefully controlling polarization systematics. We present the design, fabrication, and testing of wideband spline-profiled feedhorns for the multichroic arrays of AdvACT.

  9. The Crossbyton project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, J. D.

    1980-05-01

    The Analog Design Verification System (ADVS), the largest single solar collector built, was tested. Referred to as the Solar Gridiron or Bowl Concept, it employs a stationary mirror, with tracking accomplished by the mirror.

  10. DM-2 Chilling

    NASA Video Gallery

    How do you chill down 1.4 million pounds of solid rocket fuel in the hot Utah desert? Lots of air conditioning! Learn how ATK chilled down DM-2, the second Ares first stage development motor in adv...

  11. Assembly and integration process of the first high density detector array for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaqiong; Choi, Steve; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Crowley, Kevin T.; Salatino, Maria; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Nati, Federico; Ward, Jonathan; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Henderson, Shawn; Koopman, Brian J.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Niemack, Michael D.; McMahon, Jeff; Duff, Shannon M.; Schillaci, Alessandro; Hubmayr, Johannes; Hilton, Gene C.; Beall, James A.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) consists of multichroic Transition Edge Sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. The first AdvACT detector array, sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz, is fabricated on a 150 mm diameter wafer and read out with a completely different scheme compared to ACTPol. Approximately 2000 TES bolometers are packed into the wafer leading to both a much denser detector density and readout circuitry. The demonstration of the assembly and integration of the AdvACT arrays is important for the next generation CMB experiments, which will continue to increase the pixel number and density. We present the detailed assembly process of the first AdvACT detector array.

  12. Screening ecological impacts of environmental surface waters using cell-based metabolomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic chemicals are routinely detected in aquatic ecosystems downstream from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), industrial and agricultural operations, and numerous other sources. Various studies have shown that exposure to such complex chemical mixtures can produce adv...

  13. Antibody-Forming Cells and Serum Hemolysin Responses of Pastel and Sapphire Mink Inoculated with Aleutian Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lodmell, Donald L.; Bergman, R. Kaye; Hadlow, William J.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV. PMID:4584051

  14. Partial characterization of new adenoviruses found in lizards.

    PubMed

    Ball, Inna; Behncke, Helge; Schmidt, Volker; Geflügel, F T A; Papp, Tibor; Stöhr, Anke C; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-06-01

    In the years 2011-2012, a consensus nested polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of adenovirus (AdV) infection in reptiles. During this screening, three new AdVs were detected. One of these viruses was detected in three lizards from a group of green striped tree dragons (Japalura splendida). Another was detected in a green anole (Anolis carolinensis). A third virus was detected in a Jackson's chameleon (Chamaeleo jacksonii). Analysis of a portion of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase genes of each of these viruses revealed that they all were different from one another and from all previously described reptilian AdVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial DNA polymerase gene sequence showed that all newly detected viruses clustered within the genus Atadenovirus. This is the first description of AdVs in these lizard species.

  15. Nuclear Import of Adenovirus DNA Involves Direct Interaction of Hexon with an N-Terminal Domain of the Nucleoporin Nup214

    PubMed Central

    Ragues, Jessica; Guan, Tinglu; Bégu, Dominique; Wodrich, Harald; Kann, Michael; Nemerow, Glen R.; Gerace, Larry

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we characterized the molecular basis for binding of adenovirus (AdV) to the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), a key step during delivery of the viral genome into the nucleus. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to deplete cells of either Nup214 or Nup358, the two major Phe-Gly (FG) repeat nucleoporins localized on the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, and evaluated the impact on hexon binding and AdV infection. The accumulation of purified hexon trimers or partially disassembled AdV at the nuclear envelope (NE) was observed in digitonin-permeabilized cells in the absence of cytosolic factors. Both in vitro hexon binding and in vivo nuclear import of the AdV genome were strongly reduced in Nup214-depleted cells but still occurred in Nup358-depleted cells, suggesting that Nup214 is a major binding site of AdV during infection. The expression of an NPC-targeted N-terminal domain of Nup214 in Nup214-depleted cells restored the binding of hexon at the NE and the nuclear import of protein VII (pVII), indicating that this region is sufficient to allow AdV binding. We further narrowed the binding site to a 137-amino-acid segment in the N-terminal domain of Nup214. Together, our results have identified a specific region within the N terminus of Nup214 that acts as a direct NPC binding site for AdV. IMPORTANCE AdVs, which have the largest genome of nonenveloped DNA viruses, are being extensively explored for use in gene therapy, especially in alternative treatments for cancers that are refractory to traditional therapies. In this study, we characterized the molecular basis for binding of AdV to the cytoplasmic face of the NPC, a key step for delivery of the viral genome into the nucleus. Our data indicate that a 137-amino-acid region of the nucleoporin Nup214 is a binding site for the major AdV capsid protein, hexon, and that this interaction is required for viral DNA import. These findings provide additional insight on how AdV exploits the

  16. Surface Grafting of Thermoresponsive Microgel Nanoparticles (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    and cell immobilization, as biosensors, and for in vivo drug delivery .33,34,36,49–53 PNIPAM-containing microgels have been synthesized and...2007, 25, 577–583. 51 J. Jagur-Grodzinski, Polym. Adv. Technol., 2010, 21, 27–47.Soft Matter52 M. Hamidi, A. Azadi and P. Rafiei,Adv. Drug Delivery ...prospective applications in micro- and nanofluidics, biocompatible materials, controlled drug release, nano- and biotribology, controlled cell growth

  17. Technical Needs for Prototypic Prognostic Technique Demonstration for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-05-17

    This report identifies a number of requirements for prognostics health management of passive systems in AdvSMRs, documents technical gaps in establishing a prototypical prognostic methodology for this purpose, and describes a preliminary research plan for addressing these technical gaps. AdvSMRs span multiple concepts; therefore a technology- and design-neutral approach is taken, with the focus being on characteristics that are likely to be common to all or several AdvSMR concepts. An evaluation of available literature is used to identify proposed concepts for AdvSMRs along with likely operational characteristics. Available operating experience of advanced reactors is used in identifying passive components that may be subject to degradation, materials likely to be used for these components, and potential modes of degradation of these components. This information helps in assessing measurement needs for PHM systems, as well as defining functional requirements of PHM systems. An assessment of current state-of-the-art approaches to measurements, sensors and instrumentation, diagnostics and prognostics is also documented. This state-of-the-art evaluation, combined with the requirements, may be used to identify technical gaps and research needs in the development, evaluation, and deployment of PHM systems for AdvSMRs. A preliminary research plan to address high-priority research needs for the deployment of PHM systems to AdvSMRs is described, with the objective being the demonstration of prototypic prognostics technology for passive components in AdvSMRs. Greater efficiency in achieving this objective can be gained through judicious selection of materials and degradation modes that are relevant to proposed AdvSMR concepts, and for which significant knowledge already exists. These selections were made based on multiple constraints including the analysis performed in this document, ready access to laboratory-scale facilities for materials testing and measurement, and

  18. Optics, Acoustics and Stress in Situ (OASIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    seafloor bedform measurements (Rotary Sidescan and Pencil-beam sonars ) APPROACH Our project is focused on obtaining direct measurements of the...September 2011, showing Pulse Coherent Doppler Profiler (PCDP), Imagenex rotary sidescan sonar , Imagenex 2- axis rotary pencil beam sonar , Aquatec ABS and...Nortek Vector ADVs. Rotary Pencil Beam Sonar Rotary Sidescan Sonar PCDP ABS ADVs 5 Figure 3. Rotary Sidescan Image showing 70 cm

  19. Armament for the Army in Transition Session II Interim Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) & Legacy Force Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-18

    Coco Director, Adv Sys Concepts Office TACOM–ARDEC, Picatinny, NJ Tank-automotive & Armaments COMmand Session Co-Chairs: Mr. Donald...Program Element Number Author(s) Del Coco , Gene; Howe, Donald Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s) and...SESSION CHAIRMAN 0800 HOURS MR. GENE DEL COCO CHIEF, TACOM-ARDEC ADV. SYSTEMS CONCEPTS DIR MR. DONALD HOWE BCT PROGRAM, DIR. FOR GM-GDLS, DEFENSE

  20. Air Evacuation and Its Effect on Theater and Zone of Interior Hospitalization Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-10-13

    34:,; invalided home. 9 Medical Service- Communication Zone, Subj~ct 4308, Adv Sheet, par 8, p. 12 10 Historical Review, WuV II, Apend P, P• 58 11 FM...Service in Communication Zone", Apend 4 to Adv Sheet, par 9, p.26 25 liiJiil FM 8-35, par 102 f. 26 Maj Gen Kirk, op. cit. PP• 27-29 -12- skilled

  1. A Novel Platform to Study the Effect of Small-scale Turbulent Density Fluctuations on Underwater Imaging in the Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    camera and optical target mounted on a 5m-long frame, along with several Nortek Vector Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter and PME Conductivity -Temperature...BOTEX. the array free-fall through the water column. In the present study, we settled on the use of Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs) and high...as optical target (bottom). a Nortek Vector Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and PME Conductivity–Temperature (CT) mi- crostructure probe

  2. Measuring Turbulence from Moored Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters. A Manual to Quantifying Inflow at Tidal Energy Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kilcher, Levi; Thomson, Jim; Talbert, Joe; DeKlerk, Alex

    2016-03-01

    This work details a methodology for measuring hub height inflow turbulence using moored acoustic Doppler velocimiters (ADVs). This approach is motivated by the shortcomings of alternatives. For example, remote velocity measurements (i.e., from acoustic Doppler profilers) lack sufficient precision for device simulation, and rigid tower-mounted measurements are very expensive and technically challenging in the tidal environment. Moorings offer a low-cost, site-adaptable and robust deployment platform, and ADVs provide the necessary precision to accurately quantify turbulence.

  3. Prevalence of neutralising antibodies against adenoviruses in lizards and snakes.

    PubMed

    Ball, Inna; Ofner, Sabine; Funk, Richard S; Griffin, Chris; Riedel, Ulf; Möhring, Jens; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-10-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are relatively common in lizards and snakes, and several genetically distinct AdVs have been isolated in cell culture. The aims of this study were to examine serological relationships among lizard and snake AdVs and to determine the frequency of AdV infections in these species. Isolates from a boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), a corn snake (Pantherophis gutattus) and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and two isolates from helodermatid lizards (Heloderma horridum and H. suspectum) were used in neutralisation tests for the detection of antibodies in plasma from 263 lizards from seven families (including 12 species) and from 141 snakes from four families (including 28 species) from the USA and Europe. Most lizard and snake samples had antibodies against a range of AdV isolates, indicating that AdV infection is common among these squamates. Neutralisation tests with polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits demonstrated serological cross-reactivity between both helodermatid lizard isolates. However, squamate plasma showed different reactions to each of these lizard isolates in neutralisation tests.

  4. Construction and characterization of adenoviral vectors for the delivery of TALENs into human cells.

    PubMed

    Holkers, Maarten; Cathomen, Toni; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V

    2014-09-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are designed to cut the genomic DNA at specific chromosomal positions. The resulting DNA double strand break activates cellular repair pathways that can be harnessed for targeted genome modifications. TALENs thus constitute a powerful tool to interrogate the function of DNA sequences within complex genomes. Moreover, their high DNA cleavage activity combined with a low cytotoxicity make them excellent candidates for applications in human gene therapy. Full exploitation of these large and repeat-bearing nucleases in human cell types will benefit largely from using the adenoviral vector (AdV) technology. The genetic stability and the episomal nature of AdV genomes in conjunction with the availability of a large number of AdV serotypes able to transduce various human cell types make it possible to achieve high-level and transient expression of TALENs in numerous target cells, regardless of their mitotic state. Here, we describe a set of protocols detailing the rescue, propagation and purification of TALEN-encoding AdVs. Moreover, we describe procedures for the characterization and quantification of recombinant viral DNA present in the resulting AdV preparations. The protocols are preceded by information about their underlying principles and applied in the context of second-generation capsid-modified AdVs expressing TALENs targeted to the AAVS1 "safe harbor" locus on human chromosome 19.

  5. Pulmonary Artery Adventitial Fibroblasts Cooperate with Vasa Vasorum Endothelial Cells to Regulate Vasa Vasorum Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Davie, Neil J.; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V.; Hofmeister, Stephen E.; Richman, Aaron P.; Jones, Peter L.; Reeves, John T.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2006-01-01

    The precise cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating adventitial vasa vasorum neovascularization, which occurs in the pulmonary arterial circulation in response to hypoxia, remain unknown. Here, using a technique to isolate and culture adventitial fibroblasts (AdvFBs) and vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVECs) from the adventitia of pulmonary arteries, we report that hypoxia-activated pulmonary artery AdvFBs exhibited pro-angiogenic properties and influenced the angiogenic phenotype of VVEC, in a process of cell-cell communication involving endothelin-1 (ET-1). We demonstrated that AdvFBs, either via co-culture or conditioned media, stimulated VVEC proliferation and augmented the self-assembly and integrity of cord-like networks that formed when VVECs where cultured on Matrigel. In addition, hypoxia-activated AdvFBs produced ET-1, suggesting a paracrine role for this pro-angiogenic molecule in these processes. When co-cultured on Matrigel, AdvFBs and VVECs self-assembled into heterotypic cord-like networks, a process augmented by hypoxia but attenuated by either selective endothelin receptor antagonists or oligonucleotides targeting prepro-ET-1 mRNA. From these observations, we propose that hypoxia-activated AdvFBs exhibit pro-angiogenic properties and, as such, communicate with VVECs, in a process involving ET-1, to regulate vasa vasorum neovascularization occurring in the adventitia of pulmonary arteries in response to chronic hypoxia. PMID:16723696

  6. Immunoglobulin classes of Aleutian disease virus antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, D D; Porter, H G; Suffin, S C; Larsen, A E

    1984-01-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV) persistently infects mink and causes marked hypergammaglobulinemia. Immunoglobulin class-specific antisera were used to define the total immunoglobulin of each class by radial immunodiffusion and the immunoglobulin class of ADV-specific antibody by immunofluorescence in experimentally and naturally infected mink. Electrophoretic gamma globulin closely reflects the immunoglobulin G (IgG) level in mink, and the majority of the increased immunoglobulin and ADV antibody in infected mink is IgG. IgM becomes elevated within 6 days after infection, reaches peak levels by 15 to 18 days, and returns to normal by 60 days after infection. The first ADV antibody demonstrable is IgM, and most mink have virus-specific IgM antibody for at least 85 days postinfection. Serum IgA levels in normal mink are not normally distributed, and ADV infection causes a marked elevation of IgA. Low levels of ADV-specific IgA antibody can be shown throughout the course of infection. Failure of large amounts of virus-specific IgG antibody to inhibit the reaction of virus-specific IgM and IgA antibodies suggests that the various classes of antibodies are directed against spatially different antigenic determinants. The IgM and IgA were shown not to be rheumatoid factors. PMID:6319283

  7. Chemistry and Mineralogy of Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Implications for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, J. E.; Golden, D. C.; Graff, T. G.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Tamppari, L, K.; Smith, P. H.; Zent, A. P.; Archer, P. D., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) comprise the largest ice-free region of Antarctica. Precipitation almost always occurs as snow, relative humidity is frequently low, and mean annual temperatures are about -20 C. The ADV soils have previously been categorized into three soil moisture regimes: subxerous, xerous and ultraxerous, based on elevation and climate influences. The subxerous regime is predominately a coastal zone soil, and has the highest average temperature and precipitation, while the ultraxerous regime occurs at high elevation (>1000 m) and have very low temperature and precipitation. The amounts and types of salts present in the soils vary between regions. The nature, origin and significance of salts in the ADV have been previously investigated. Substantial work has focused on soil formation in the ADVs, however, little work has focused on the mineralogy of secondary alteration phases. The dominant weathering process in the ADV region is physical weathering, however, chemical weathering has been well documented. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemistry and mineralogy, including the alteration mineralogy, of soils from two sites, a subxerous soil in Taylor Valley, and an ultraxerous soil in University Valley. The style of aqueous alteration in the ADVs may have implications for pedogenic processes on Mars.

  8. Pulmonary artery adventitial fibroblasts cooperate with vasa vasorum endothelial cells to regulate vasa vasorum neovascularization: a process mediated by hypoxia and endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Davie, Neil J; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V; Hofmeister, Stephen E; Richman, Aaron P; Jones, Peter L; Reeves, John T; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2006-06-01

    The precise cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating adventitial vasa vasorum neovascularization, which occurs in the pulmonary arterial circulation in response to hypoxia, remain unknown. Here, using a technique to isolate and culture adventitial fibroblasts (AdvFBs) and vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVECs) from the adventitia of pulmonary arteries, we report that hypoxia-activated pulmonary artery AdvFBs exhibited pro-angiogenic properties and influenced the angiogenic phenotype of VVEC, in a process of cell-cell communication involving endothelin-1 (ET-1). We demonstrated that AdvFBs, either via co-culture or conditioned media, stimulated VVEC proliferation and augmented the self-assembly and integrity of cord-like networks that formed when VVECs where cultured on Matrigel. In addition, hypoxia-activated AdvFBs produced ET-1, suggesting a paracrine role for this pro-angiogenic molecule in these processes. When co-cultured on Matrigel, AdvFBs and VVECs self-assembled into heterotypic cord-like networks, a process augmented by hypoxia but attenuated by either selective endothelin receptor antagonists or oligonucleotides targeting prepro-ET-1 mRNA. From these observations, we propose that hypoxia-activated AdvFBs exhibit pro-angiogenic properties and, as such, communicate with VVECs, in a process involving ET-1, to regulate vasa vasorum neovascularization occurring in the adventitia of pulmonary arteries in response to chronic hypoxia.

  9. Recombinant adenovirus vectors for gene therapy and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Nász, I; Adám, E

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade adenovirus (AdV) vectors have emerged as promising technology in gene therapy. They have been used for genetic modification of a variety of somatic cells in vitro and in vivo. They have been widely used as gene delivery vectors in experiments both with curative and preventive purposes. AdV vectors have been used in the experimental and in some extent in the clinical gene therapy of a variety of cancers. The combination of recombinant AdV technology with chemotherapy (pro drug system) seems to be promising, too. AdV vectors offer several advantages over other vectors. Replication defective vectors can be produced in very high titers (10(11) pfu/ml) thus allowing a substantially greater efficiency of direct gene transfer; they have the capacity to infect both replicating and nonreplicating (quiescent) cells from a variety of tissues and species. Several important limitations of adenovirus mediated gene transfer are also known, such as the relatively short-term (transient) expression of foreign genes, induction of the host humoral and cellular immune response to viral proteins and viral infected cells, which may substantially inhibit the effect of repeated treatment with AdV vectors, the limited cloning capacity and the lack of target cell specificity. However, the well-understood structure, molecular biology and host cell interactions of AdV-s offer some potential solutions to these limitations.

  10. Development and validation of a novel hydrolysis probe real-time polymerase chain reaction for agamid adenovirus 1 in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Fredholm, Daniel V; Coleman, James K; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-03-01

    Agamid adenovirus 1 (AgAdv-1) is a significant cause of disease in bearded dragons (Pogona sp.). Clinical manifestations of AgAdv-1 infection are variable and often nonspecific; the manifestations range from lethargy, weight loss, and inappetence, to severe enteritis, hepatitis, and sudden death. Currently, diagnosis of AgAdv-1 infection is achieved through a single published method: standard nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and sequencing. Standard nPCR with sequencing provides reliable sensitivity, specificity, and validation of PCR products. However, this process is comparatively expensive, laborious, and slow. Probe hybridization, as used in a TaqMan assay, represents the best option for validating PCR products aside from the time-consuming process of sequencing. This study developed a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using a TaqMan probe-based assay, targeting a highly conserved region of the AgAdv-1 genome. Standard curves were generated, detection results were compared with the gold standard conventional PCR and sequencing assay, and limits of detection were determined. Additionally, the qPCR assay was run on samples known to be positive for AgAdv-1 and samples known to be positive for other adenoviruses. Based on the results of these evaluations, this assay allows for a less expensive, rapid, quantitative detection of AgAdv-1 in bearded dragons.

  11. THE ROLE OF INERTIAL CAVITATION IN ACOUSTIC DROPLET VAPORIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Fabiilli, Mario L.; Haworth, Kevin J.; Fakhri, Nasir H.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Carson, Paul L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian

    2011-01-01

    The vaporization of a superheated droplet emulsion into gas bubbles using ultrasound – termed acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) – has potential therapeutic applications in embolotherapy and drug delivery. The optimization of ADV for therapeutic applications can be enhanced by understanding the physical mechanisms underlying ADV, which are currently not clearly elucidated. Acoustic cavitation is one possible mechanism. This paper investigates the relationship between the ADV and inertial cavitation (IC) thresholds (measured as peak rarefactional pressures) by studying parameters that are known to influence the IC threshold. These parameters include bulk fluid properties such as gas saturation, temperature, viscosity, and surface tension; droplet parameters such as degree of superheat, surfactant type, and size; and acoustic properties such as pulse repetition frequency and pulse width. In all cases the ADV threshold occurred at a lower rarefactional pressure than the IC threshold indicating that the phase-transition occurs before IC events. The viscosity and temperature of the bulk fluid are shown to influence both thresholds directly and inversely, respectively. An inverse trend is observed between threshold and diameter for droplets in the 1 to 2.5 μ range. Based on a choice of experimental parameters, it is possible to achieve ADV with or without IC. PMID:19473917

  12. Expression of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins in a baculovirus vector system.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, J; Storgaard, T; Bloch, B; Alexandersen, S; Aasted, B

    1993-01-01

    We have previously published a detailed transcription map of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) and proposed a model for the translation of the two virion structural proteins (VP1 and VP2) and three nonstructural proteins (NS-1, NS-2, and NS-3) (S. Alexandersen, M. E. Bloom, and S. Perryman, J. Virol. 62:3684-3994, 1988). To verify and further characterize this model, we cloned the predicted open reading frames for NS-1, NS-2, NS-3, VP1-VP2, and VP2 alone into a recombinant baculovirus and expressed them in Sf9 insect cells. Expression of VP1-VP2 or VP2 alone in cDNA and in the genomic form was achieved. The expressed proteins had molecular weights similar to those of the corresponding proteins of wild-type ADV-G, although the ratio of VP1 to VP2 was altered. The recombinant baculovirus-expressed ADV VP1 and VP2 showed nuclear localization in Sf9 cells and were able to form particles indistinguishable, by electron microscopy, from wild-type virus. The large nonstructural protein, NS-1, showed predominantly nuclear localization in Sf9 cells when analyzed by immunofluorescence and had a molecular weight similar to that of wild-type ADV NS-1. Moreover, expression of NS-1 in Sf9 cells caused a change in morphology of the cells and resulted in 10-times-lower titers of recombinant baculovirus during infection, suggesting a cytostatic or cytotoxic action of this protein. The smaller NS-2 gene product seems to be located in the cytoplasm. When analyzed by Western immunoblotting, NS-2 comigrated with an approximately 16-kDa band seen in lysates of ADV-infected feline kidney cells. The putative NS-3 gene product exhibited a diffuse distribution in Sf9 cells and had a molecular weight of approximately 10,000. All of the expressed ADV-encoded proteins were recognized by sera from ADV-infected mink. Thus, expression of ADV cDNAs allowed assignment of the different mRNAs to the viral proteins observed during ADV infection in cell culture and supported our previously proposed

  13. Investigation of enteric adenovirus and poliovirus removal by coagulation processes and suitability of bacteriophages MS2 and φX174 as surrogates for those viruses.

    PubMed

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Marubayashi, T; Murai, K

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the removal of enteric adenovirus (AdV) type 40 and poliovirus (PV) type 1 by coagulation, using water samples from 13 water sources for drinking water treatment plants in Japan. The behaviors of two widely accepted enteric virus surrogates, bacteriophages MS2 and φX174, were compared with the behaviors of AdV and PV. Coagulation with polyaluminum chloride (PACl, basicity 1.5) removed AdV and PV from virus-spiked source waters: the infectious AdV and PV removal ratios evaluated by means of a plaque-forming-unit method were 0.1-1.4-log10 and 0.5-2.4-log10, respectively. A nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1) removed infectious AdV and PV more efficiently than did other commercially available PACls (basicity 1.5-2.1), alum, and ferric chloride. The MS2 removal ratios tended to be larger than those of AdV and PV, partly because of differences in the hydrophobicities of the virus particles and the sensitivity of the virus to the virucidal activity of PACl; the differences in removal ratios were not due to differences in the surface charges of the virus particles. MS2, which was more hydrophobic than the other viruses, was inactivated during coagulation with PACl. Therefore, MS2 does not appear to be an appropriate surrogate for AdV and PV during coagulation. In contrast, because φX174, like AdV and PV, was not inactivated during coagulation, and because the hydrophobicity of φX174 was similar to or somewhat lower than the hydrophobicities of AdV and PV, the φX174 removal ratios tended to be similar to or somewhat smaller than those of the enteric viruses. Therefore, φX174 is a potential conservative surrogate for AdV and PV during coagulation. In summary, the surface hydrophobicity of virus particles and the sensitivity of the virus to the virucidal activity of the coagulant are probably important determinants of the efficiency of virus removal during coagulation.

  14. Current and future disease progression of the chronic HCV population in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zalesak, Martin; Francis, Kevin; Gedeon, Alex; Gillis, John; Hvidsten, Kyle; Kidder, Phyllis; Li, Hong; Martyn, Derek; Orne, Leslie; Smith, Amanda; Kwong, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can lead to advanced liver disease (AdvLD), including cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The aim of this study was to determine recent historical rates of HCV patient progression to AdvLD and to project AdvLD prevalence through 2015. We first determined total 2008 US chronic HCV prevalence from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys. Next, we examined disease progression and associated non-pharmacological costs of diagnosed chronic HCV-infected patients between 2007-2009 in the IMS LifeLink and CMS Medicare claims databases. A projection model was developed to estimate AdvLD population growth through 2015 in patients diagnosed and undiagnosed as of 2008, using the 2007-2009 progression rates to generate a "worst case" projection of the HCV-related AdvLD population (i.e., scenario where HCV treatment is the same in the forecasted period as it was before 2009). We found that the total diagnosed chronic HCV population grew from 983,000 to 1.19 million in 2007-2009, with patients born from 1945-1964 accounting for 75.0% of all patients, 83.7% of AdvLD patients, and 79.2% of costs in 2009, indicating that HCV is primarily a disease of the "baby boomer" population. Non-pharmacological costs grew from $7.22 billion to $8.63 billion, with the majority of growth derived from the 60,000 new patients that developed AdvLD in 2007-2009, 91.5% of whom were born between 1945 and 1964. The projection model estimated the total AdvLD population would grow from 195,000 in 2008 to 601,000 in 2015, with 73.5% of new AdvLD cases from patients undiagnosed as of 2008. AdvLD prevalence in patients diagnosed as of 2008 was projected to grow 6.5% annually to 303,000 patients in 2015. These findings suggest that strategies to diagnose and treat HCV-infected patients are urgently needed to increase the likelihood that progression is interrupted, particularly for patients born from 1945-1964.

  15. Scavenging dissolved oxygen via acoustic droplet vaporization.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Holland, Christy K; Haworth, Kevin J

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) of perfluorocarbon emulsions has been explored for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Previous studies have demonstrated that vaporization of a liquid droplet results in a gas microbubble with a diameter 5-6 times larger than the initial droplet diameter. The expansion factor can increase to a factor of 10 in gassy fluids as a result of air diffusing from the surrounding fluid into the microbubble. This study investigates the potential of this process to serve as an ultrasound-mediated gas scavenging technology. Perfluoropentane droplets diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were insonified by a 2 MHz transducer at peak rarefactional pressures lower than and greater than the ADV pressure amplitude threshold in an in vitro flow phantom. The change in dissolved oxygen (DO) of the PBS before and after ADV was measured. A numerical model of gas scavenging, based on conservation of mass and equal partial pressures of gases at equilibrium, was developed. At insonation pressures exceeding the ADV threshold, the DO of air-saturated PBS decreased with increasing insonation pressures, dropping as low as 25% of air saturation within 20s. The decrease in DO of the PBS during ADV was dependent on the volumetric size distribution of the droplets and the fraction of droplets transitioned during ultrasound exposure. Numerically predicted changes in DO from the model agreed with the experimentally measured DO, indicating that concentration gradients can explain this phenomenon. Using computationally modified droplet size distributions that would be suitable for in vivo applications, the DO of the PBS was found to decrease with increasing concentrations. This study demonstrates that ADV can significantly decrease the DO in an aqueous fluid, which may have direct therapeutic applications and should be considered for ADV-based diagnostic or therapeutic applications.

  16. Modulation of lung inflammation by the Epstein-Barr virus protein Zta

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, James F.; Cameron, Jennifer E.; Nguyen, Hong T.; Wang, Yu; Sullivan, Deborah E.; Shan, Bin; Lasky, Joseph A.; Flemington, Erik K.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have implicated gamma-herpesviruses, particularly Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), in the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The data presented here examine the possible role that EBV plays in the potentiation of this disease by evaluating the pulmonary response to expression of the EBV lytic transactivator protein Zta. Expression of Zta in the lungs of mice via adenovirus-mediated delivery (Adv-Zta) produced profibrogenic inflammation that appeared most pronounced by day 7 postexposure. Relative to mice exposed to control GFP-expressing adenovirus (Adv-GFP), mice exposed to Adv-Zta displayed evidence of lung injury and a large increase in inflammatory cells, predominantly neutrophils, recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Cytokine and mRNA profiling of the BAL fluid and cells recovered from Adv-Zta-treated mice revealed a Th2 and Th17 bias. mRNA profiles from Adv-Zta-infected lung epithelial cells revealed consistent induction of mRNAs encoding Th2 cytokines. Coexpression in transient assays of wild-type Zta, but not a DNA-binding-defective mutant Zta, activated expression of the IL-13 promoter in lung epithelial cells, and detection of IL-13 in Adv-Zta-treated mice correlated with expression of Zta. Induction of Th2 cytokines in Zta-expressing mice corresponded with alternative activation of macrophages. In cell culture and in mice, Zta repressed lung epithelial cell markers. Despite the profibrogenic character at day 7, the inflammation resolves by 28 days postexposure to Adv-Zta without evidence of fibrosis. These observations indicate that the EBV lytic transactivator protein Zta displays activity consistent with a pathogenic role in pulmonary fibrosis associated with herpesvirus infection. PMID:20817778

  17. Expression of Coxsackie-Adenovirus receptor (CAR) in the developing mouse olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Giri; Behrens, Maik; Pyrski, Martina; Margolis, Frank L

    2005-09-01

    Interest in manipulating gene expression in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) has led to the use of adenoviruses (AdV) as gene delivery vectors. OSNs are the first order neurons in the olfactory system and the initial site of odor detection. They are highly susceptible to adenovirus infection although the mechanism is poorly understood. The Coxsackie-Adenovirus receptor (CAR) and members of the integrin family have been implicated in the process of AdV infection in various systems. Multiple serotypes of AdV efficiently bind to the CAR, leading to entry and infection of the host cell by a mechanism that can also involve integrins. Cell lines that do not express CAR are relatively resistant, but not completely immune to AdV infection, suggesting that other mechanisms participate in mediating AdV attachment and entry. Using in situ hybridization and western blot analyses, we show that OSNs and olfactory bulbs (OB) of mice express abundant CAR mRNA at embryonic and neonatal stages, with progressive diminution during postnatal development. By contrast to the olfactory epithelium (OE), CAR mRNA is still present in the adult mouse OB. Furthermore, despite a similar postnatal decline, CAR protein expression in the OE and OB of mice continues into adulthood. Our results suggest that the robust AdV infection observed in the postnatal olfactory system is mediated by CAR and that expression of even small amounts of CAR protein as seen in the adult rodent, permits efficient AdV infection and entry. CAR is an immunoglobulin domain-containing protein that bears homology to cell-adhesion molecules suggesting the possibility that it may participate in organization of the developing olfactory system.

  18. A long-term serological survey on Aujeszky's disease virus infections in wild boar in East Germany.

    PubMed

    Pannwitz, G; Freuling, C; Denzin, N; Schaarschmidt, U; Nieper, H; Hlinak, A; Burkhardt, S; Klopries, M; Dedek, J; Hoffmann, L; Kramer, M; Selhorst, T; Conraths, F J; Mettenleiter, T; Müller, T

    2012-02-01

    Between 1985 and 2008, a total of 102,387 wild boar sera originating from Eastern Germany covering an area of 108 589 km2 were tested for the presence of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV)-specific antibodies. From 1985 until 1991 and from 1992 until 2008, wild boar sera were exclusively investigated using either conventional seroneutralization assays (n=39 621) or commercial gB and full antigen ELISAs (n=62,766), respectively. Spatial-temporal analysis revealed an increasing ADV seroprevalence from 0·4% to 15·9%, on average, during the 24-year observation period that went along with a continuous spread of the infection in a western direction. During 2006 and 2008, 18% of the 66 affected districts had ADV seroprevalences >30%. There was a significant correlation between ADV seroprevalence and the hunting index of population density (HIPD) of wild boar in the entire study area, although this did not hold true for some regions. Seroprevalences did not differ between sexes but were age-dependent. East Germany has been officially free of Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) in domestic pigs since 1985. Although a risk for domestic pigs cannot be completely ruled out, experience has shown that ADV in domestic pigs could be eliminated although the virus was present in the wild boar population. Despite increasing ADV seroprevalence in the East German wild boar population no spillover infections from wild boar to domestic pigs have been reported. To further trace ADV infections in the wild boar population in Germany, a nationwide serological monitoring programme should be implemented.

  19. Clinical Impact of Mixed Respiratory Viral Infection in Children with Adenoviral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background Although adenovirus (ADV) infection occurs steadily all year round in Korea and the identification of respiratory viral coinfections has been increasing following the introduction of multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction tests, the clinical impact of viral coinfection in children with ADV infection has rarely been reported. Materials and Methods Medical records of children diagnosed with ADV infection were retrospectively reviewed. The enrolled children were divided into two groups based on the identified respiratory viruses: ADV group and coinfection group. Clinical and laboratory parameters were compared between the two groups. Results In total, 105 children (60 males and 45 females) with a median age of 29 months (range: 0-131 months) diagnosed with an ADV infection were enrolled. Fever (99.0%) was by far the most frequent symptom, followed by respiratory (82.9%), and gastrointestinal (22.9%) symptoms. Upper and lower respiratory tract infections were diagnosed in 56 (53.3%), and 32 (30.5%) children, respectively. Five (4.8%) children received oxygen therapy, and no child died due to ADV infection. Coinfection was diagnosed in 32 (30.5%) children, with rhinovirus (46.9%), and respiratory syncytial virus (21.9%) being the most frequent. The proportions of children younger than 24 months (P <0.001), with underlying medical conditions (P = 0.020), and diagnosed with lower respiratory tract infection (P = 0.011) were significantly higher in the coinfection group than in the ADV group. In a multivariate analysis, only the younger age was significantly associated with coinfection (P <0.001). Although more children in the coinfection group received oxygen therapy (P = 0.029), the duration of fever and hospitalization was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion Respiratory viral coinfection with ADV occurred more frequently in children younger than 24 months of age compared with children aged 24 months or older. Respiratory

  20. Monoclonal antibodies against Aleutian disease virus distinguish virus strains and differentiate sites of virus replication from sites of viral antigen sequestration.

    PubMed Central

    Race, R E; Chesebro, B; Bloom, M E; Aasted, B; Wolfinbarger, J

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used to study antigenic differences among strains of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) and to characterize viral proteins in vitro and in vivo. A number of ADV field strains could be discriminated, and highly virulent Utah I ADV was clearly delineated from the tissue culture-adapted avirulent ADV-G strain. This specificity could be demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence against infected cultures of Crandell feline kidney cells or against tissues of Utah I ADV-infected mink. Viral antigens were demonstrated in both the nuclei and the cytoplasm of infected tissue culture cells. However, in mink mesenteric lymph node, spleen, and liver, viral antigen was observed only in the cytoplasm. Absence of nuclear fluorescence suggested that the detected antigen represented phagocytized viral antigens rather than replicating virus. This conclusion was supported by the finding that mAbs reactive only against low-molecular-weight polypeptides derived from intact viral proteins gave the same pattern of in vivo fluorescence as mAbs with broad reactivity for large or small (or both) viral polypeptides. The distribution of infected cells was the same as that described for macrophages in these tissues and suggested that cells of the reticuloendothelial system had sequestered viral antigens. Images PMID:3001352

  1. The Evolution of Advanced Merger (U)LIRGs on the Color-Stellar Mass Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Hao, Cai-Na; Xia, Xiao-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Based on a sample of 79 local advanced merger (adv-merger) (U)LIRGs, we search for evidence of quenching processes by investigating the distributions of star formation history indicators (EW(Hα), EW(HΔA) and Dn(4000)) on the NUV-r color-mass and SFR-M * diagrams. The distributions of EW(Hα) and Dn(4000) on the NUV-r color-mass diagram show clear trends that at a given stellar mass, galaxies with redder NUV-r colors have smaller EW(Hα) and larger D n (4000). The reddest adv-merger (U)LIRGs close to the green valley mostly have D n (4000)> 1.4. In addition, in the SFR-M * diagram, as the SFR decreases, the EW(Hα) decreases and the D n (4000) increases, implying that the adv-merger (U)LIRGs on the star formation main sequence have more evolved stellar populations than those above the main sequence. These results indicate that a fraction of the adv-merger (U)LIRGs have already exhibited signs of fading from the starburst phase and that the NUV-r reddest adv-merger (U)LIRGs are likely at the initial stage of post-starbursts with an age of ˜ 1 Gyr, which is consistent with the gas exhaustion time-scales. Therefore, our results offer additional support for the fast evolutionary track from the blue cloud to the red sequence.

  2. Localization of neutralization epitopes on adenovirus fiber knob from species C.

    PubMed

    Lang, Shuai; Wang, Lizheng; Wang, Zixuan; Zhu, Rui; Yan, Jingyi; Wang, Baoming; Wu, Jiaxin; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Yan; Kong, Wei; Yu, Bin; Yu, Xianghui

    2016-04-01

    Although potential neutralization epitopes on the fiber knob of adenovirus (AdV) serotype 2 (Ad2) and Ad5 have been revealed, few studies have been carried out to identify neutralization epitopes on the knob from a broader panel of AdV serotypes. In this study, based on sequence and structural analysis of knobs from Ad1, Ad2, Ad5 and Ad6 (all from species C), several trimeric chimeric knob proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli to identify the locations of neutralization epitopes on the knobs by analysing their reactivity with mouse and rabbit polyclonal sera raised against AdVs and human sera with natural AdV infection. The dominant neutralization epitopes were located mainly in the N-terminal part of knobs from Ad1, Ad2 and Ad5, but they seemed to be located in the C-terminal part of the Ad6 knob, with some individual differences in rabbit and human populations. Our study adds to our understanding of humoral immune responses to AdVs and will facilitate the construction of more desirable capsid-modified recombinant Ad5 vectors.

  3. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xinheng; Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Chen, Weiguo; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  4. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measure- ment of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 µ m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detec- tor wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered alu- minum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97%.

  5. Characterization of single disseminated prostate cancer cells reveals tumor cell heterogeneity and identifies dormancy associated pathways

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Ilsa; Lakely, Bryce; Coleman, Roger; Larson, Sandy; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.; Xia, Jing; Gulati, Roman; Nelson, Peter S.; Montgomery, Bruce; Lange, Paul; Snyder, Linda A.; Vessella, Robert L.; Morrissey, Colm

    2014-01-01

    Cancer dormancy refers to the prolonged clinical disease-free time between removal of the primary tumor and recurrence, which is common in prostate cancer (PCa), breast cancer, esophageal cancer, and other cancers. PCa disseminated tumor cells (DTC) are detected in both patients with no evidence of disease (NED) and advanced disease (ADV). However, the molecular and cellular nature of DTC is unknown. We performed a first-in-field study of single DTC transcriptomic analyses in cancer patients to identify a molecular signature associated with cancer dormancy. We profiled eighty-five individual EpCAM+/CD45− cells from the bone marrow of PCa patients with NED or ADV. We analyzed 44 DTC with high prostate-epithelial signatures, and eliminated 41 cells with high erythroid signatures and low prostate epithelial signatures. DTC were clustered into 3 groups: NED, ADV_1, and ADV_2, in which the ADV_1 group presented a distinct gene expression pattern associated with the p38 stress activated kinase pathway. Additionally, DTC from the NED group were enriched for a tumor dormancy signature associated with head and neck squamous carcinoma and breast cancer. This study provides the first clinical evidence of the p38 pathway as a potential biomarker for early recurrence and an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25301725

  6. Preferential and Bidirectional Labeling of the Rubrospinal Tract with Adenovirus-GFP for Monitoring Normal and Injured Axons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofei; Smith, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The rodent rubrospinal tract (RST) has been studied extensively to investigate regeneration and remodeling of central nervous system (CNS) axons. Currently no retrograde tracers can specifically label rubrospinal axons and neurons (RSNs). The RST can be anterogradely labeled by injecting tracers into the red nucleus (RN), but accurately locating the RN is a technical challenge. Here we developed a recombinant adenovirus carrying a green fluorescent protein reporter gene (Adv-GFP) which can preferentially, intensely, and bi-directionally label the RST. When Adv-GFP was injected into the second lumbar spinal cord, the GFP was specifically transported throughout the entire RST, with peak labeling seen at 2 weeks post-injection. When Adv-GFP was injected directly into the RN, GFP was anterogradely transported throughout the RST. Following spinal cord injury (SCI), injection of Adv-GFP resulted in visualization of GFP in transected, spared, or sprouted RST axons bi-directionally. Thus Adv-GFP could be used as a novel tool for monitoring and evaluating strategies designed to maximize RST axonal regeneration and remodeling following SCI. PMID:21299337

  7. Mechanical designs and development of TES bolometer detector arrays for the Advanced ACTPol experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jonathan T.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Devlin, Mark J.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Khavari, Niloufar; Klein, Jeffrey; Koopman, Brian J.; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeffrey; Mumby, Grace; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman A.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Thornton, Robert; Ullom, Joel N.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline profile leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modified to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.

  8. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measurement of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 \\upmu m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detector wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered aluminum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97 %.

  9. Mechanical Design and Development of TES Bolometer Detector Arrays for the Advanced ACTPol Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Jonathan T.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Devlin, Mark J.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio M.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Khavari, Niloufar; Klein, Jeffrey; Koopman, Brian J.; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeffrey; Mumby, Grace; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline pro le leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modi ed to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.

  10. Male predominance among Japanese adult patients with late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Asano, Y; Kanda, Y; Ogawa, N; Sakata-Yanagimoto, M; Nakagawa, M; Kawazu, M; Goyama, S; Kandabashi, K; Izutsu, K; Imai, Y; Hangaishi, A; Kurokawa, M; Tsujino, S; Ogawa, S; Aoki, K; Chiba, S; Motokura, T; Hirai, H

    2003-12-01

    Late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (LHC) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is mainly caused by viral infections. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 141 Japanese adult patients who underwent a first allogeneic HSCT from 1995 to 2002. In all, 19 patients developed LHC a median of 51 days after HSCT. Adenovirus (AdV) was detected in the urine of 10 LHC patients, of whom eight had AdV type 11. Five of the six available serum samples from these patients were also positive for AdV type 11, but the detection of AdV in serum was not associated with a worse outcome. Male sex and the development of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease were identified as independent significant risk factors for LHC. Male predominance was detected in LHC after HSCT, as has been previously shown in children with AdV-induced acute HC. The detection of AdV DNA in serum did not predict a poor outcome.

  11. Understanding and managing resistance.

    PubMed

    Berger, D S

    1998-01-01

    As many as 25 to 45 percent of patients using triple therapy with protease inhibitors will develop resistance due to a change in the genetic HIV code. However, patients who develop resistance may still benefit clinically when protease inhibitors are used in combination with other antiretrovirals. These patients may not have undetectable viral loads although they may have stable T4-cell counts. Resistance does not always lead to disease progression. Newer drugs under development or available through compassionate track programs may benefit people with resistance. DMP-266 (Sustiva) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that shows promise for these patients. Other drugs in development include Compound 141, 1592, and adefovir.

  12. [The ABC of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Van Bambeke, F

    2008-03-01

    Viral hepatitis has long been under-diagnosed. Hepatitis A is an acute disease, while patients infected by hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses are likely to develop chronical infections and severe complications (cancer, cirrhosis). The current treatment of hepatitis B and C consists in alpha interferon (preferably under its pegylated form), in combination with ribavirin for hepatitis C. The frequent and severe adverse effects of interferon-based therapy constitute, however, a major limiting factor (reactions at the injection site, flu-like syndrome, neurological disorders, ...). For hepatitis B, two alternatives are available so far, namely lamivudine and adefovir (used as a prodrug with highe oral bioavailability).

  13. Assessment of Sensor Technologies for Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, Kofi; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Vlim, R.; Kisner, Roger A.; Britton, Jr, Charles L.; Wootan, D. W.; Anheier, Jr, N. C.; Diaz, A. A.; Hirt, E. H.; Chien, H. T.; Sheen, S.; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Gopalsami, S.; Heifetz, A.; Tam, S. W.; Park, Y.; Upadhyaya, B. R.; Stanford, A.

    2016-10-01

    Sensors and measurement technologies provide information on processes, support operations and provide indications of component health. They are therefore crucial to plant operations and to commercialization of advanced reactors (AdvRx). This report, developed by a three-laboratory team consisting of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), provides an assessment of sensor technologies and a determination of measurement needs for AdvRx. It provides the technical basis for identifying and prioritizing research targets within the instrumentation and control (I&C) Technology Area under the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) program and contributes to the design and implementation of AdvRx concepts.

  14. Coating with spermine-pullulan polymer enhances adenoviral transduction of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Li; Yao, Xinglei; Faiola, Francesco; Liu, Bojun; Zhang, Tianyuan; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Gao, Jian-Qing; Zhao, Robert Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with multilineage potential, which makes them attractive tools for regenerative medicine applications. Efficient gene transfer into MSCs is essential not only for basic research in developmental biology but also for therapeutic applications involving gene-modification in regenerative medicine. Adenovirus vectors (Advs) can efficiently and transiently introduce an exogenous gene into many cell types via their primary receptors, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors, but not into MSCs, which are deficient in coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors expression. To overcome this problem, we developed an Adv coated with a spermine-pullulan (SP) cationic polymer and investigated its physicochemical properties and internalization mechanisms. We demonstrated that the SP coating could enhance adenoviral transduction of MSCs without detectable cytotoxicity or effects on differentiation. Our results argue in favor of the potentiality of the SP-coated Adv as a prototype vector for efficient and safe transduction of MSCs. PMID:28008251

  15. Development of an Acoustic Droplet Vaporization, Ultrasound Drug Delivery Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabiilli, Mario L.; Sebastian, Ian E.; Fowlkes, J. Brian

    2010-03-01

    Many therapeutic applications of ultrasound (US) include the use of pefluorocarbon (PFC) microbubbles or emulsions. These colloidal systems can be activated in the presence of US, which in the case of emulsions, results in the production of bubbles—a process known as acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV). ADV can be used as a drug delivery mechanism, thereby yielding the localized release of toxic agents such a chemotherapeutics. In this work, emulsions that contain PFC and chlorambucil, a chemotherapy drug, are formulated using albumin or lipid shells. For albumin droplets, the oil phase—which contained CHL—clearly enveloped the PFC phase. The albumin emulsion also displayed better retention of CHL in the absence of US, which was evaluated by incubating Chinese hamster ovary cells with the various formulations. Thus, the developed emulsions are suitable for further testing in ADV-induced release of CHL.

  16. Comparative study of two extraction methods for enteric virus recovery from sewage sludge by molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Schlindwein, A D; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two nucleic acid extraction methods for the recovery of enteric viruses from activated sludge. Test samples were inoculated with human adenovirus (AdV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), poliovirus (PV) and rotavirus (RV) and were then processed by an adsorption-elution-precipitation method. Two extraction methods were used: an organic solvent-based method and a silica method. The organic-based method was able to recoup 20% of the AdV, 90% of the RV and 100% of both the PV and HAV from seeded samples. The silica method was able to recoup 1.8% of the AdV and 90% of the RV. These results indicate that the organic-based method is more suitable for detecting viruses in sewage sludge.

  17. Adenovirus-Vectored Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Directed Against gp120 Prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Acquisition in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Jackson, Andrew; Beloor, Jagadish; Kumar, Priti; Sutton, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite nearly three decades of research, a safe and effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has yet to be achieved. More recently, the discovery of highly potent anti-gp160 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has garnered renewed interest in using antibody-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. Here, we encoded bNAbs in first-generation adenoviral (ADV) vectors, which have the distinctive features of a large coding capacity and ease of propagation. A single intramuscular injection of ADV-vectorized bNAbs in humanized mice generated high serum levels of bNAbs that provided protection against multiple repeated challenges with a high dose of HIV-1, prevented depletion of peripheral CD4+ T cells, and reduced plasma viral loads to below detection limits. Our results suggest that ADV vectors may be a viable option for the prophylactic and perhaps therapeutic use of bNAbs in humans. PMID:25953321

  18. Contribution of viruses, Chlamydia spp. and Mycoplasma pneumoniae to acute respiratory infections in Iranian children.

    PubMed

    Naghipour, Mohammadreza; Cuevas, Luis E; Bakhshinejad, Tahereh; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Noursalehi, Smaeil; Alavy, Ali; Dove, Winifred; Hart, Charles Anthony

    2007-06-01

    The study reports the frequency and clinical presentation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, influenza (Inf V), parainfluenza, adenovirus (Adv), Chlamydia spp. and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Rasht, Iran. Nasopharyngeal aspirates and swabs were collected from 261 children in 2003 and 2004. Pathogens were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), confirmed with sequence analysis. Ninety-three pathogens were detected in 83 children. RSV was present in 39 (15%), Adv in 37 (14%), Inf A in 11 (4%), C. trachomatis in 4 (2%) and M. pneumoniae, in 2 (1%) children. Neither parainfluenza nor metapneumovirus were detected. RSV, Inf A and C. trachomatis were more frequent in children with lower respiratory infections. Adv presented more frequently as upper respiratory infection. All pathogens, except M. pneumoniae, were detected in children with severe pneumonia. Viruses play a significant role in Iranian children with community-acquired ARI.

  19. Discovery of natural perchlorate in the Antarctic Dry Valleys and its global implications.

    PubMed

    Kounaves, Samuel P; Stroble, Shannon T; Anderson, Rachel M; Moore, Quincy; Catling, David C; Douglas, Susanne; McKay, Christopher P; Ming, Douglas W; Smith, Peter H; Tamppari, Leslie K; Zent, Aaron P

    2010-04-01

    In the past few years, it has become increasingly apparent that perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) is present on all continents, except the polar regions where it had not yet been assessed, and that it may have a significant natural source. Here, we report on the discovery of perchlorate in soil and ice from several Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADVs) where concentrations reach up to 1100 microg/kg. In the driest ADV, perchlorate correlates with atmospherically deposited nitrate. Far from anthropogenic activity, ADV perchlorate provides unambiguous evidence that natural perchlorate is ubiquitous on Earth. The discovery has significant implications for the origin of perchlorate, its global biogeochemical interactions, and possible interactions with the polar ice sheets. The results support the hypotheses that perchlorate is produced globally and continuously in the Earth's atmosphere, that it typically accumulates in hyperarid areas, and that it does not build up in oceans or other wet environments most likely because of microbial reduction on a global scale.

  20. Optimization of adenovirus 40 and 41 recovery from tap water using small disk filters.

    PubMed

    McMinn, Brian R

    2013-11-01

    Currently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Information Collection Rule (ICR) for the primary concentration of viruses from drinking and surface waters uses the 1MDS filter, but a more cost effective option, the NanoCeram® filter, has been shown to recover comparable levels of enterovirus and norovirus from both matrices. In order to achieve the highest viral recoveries, filtration methods require the identification of optimal concentration conditions that are unique for each virus type. This study evaluated the effectiveness of 1MDS and NanoCeram filters in recovering adenovirus (AdV) 40 and 41 from tap water, and optimized two secondary concentration procedures the celite and organic flocculation method. Adjustments in pH were made to both virus elution solutions and sample matrices to determine which resulted in higher virus recovery. Samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Most Probable Number (MPN) techniques and AdV recoveries were determined by comparing levels of virus in sample concentrates to that in the initial input. The recovery of adenovirus was highest for samples in unconditioned tap water (pH 8) using the 1MDS filter and celite for secondary concentration. Elution buffer containing 0.1% sodium polyphosphate at pH 10.0 was determined to be most effective overall for both AdV types. Under these conditions, the average recovery for AdV40 and 41 was 49% and 60%, respectively. By optimizing secondary elution steps, AdV recovery from tap water could be improved at least two-fold compared to the currently used methodology. Identification of the optimal concentration conditions for human AdV (HAdV) is important for timely and sensitive detection of these viruses from both surface and drinking waters.

  1. Detection of known and novel adenoviruses in cattle wastes via broad-spectrum primers.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Samuel D; Goldberg, Tony L; Pedersen, Joel A

    2011-07-01

    The critical assessment of bovine adenoviruses (BAdV) as indicators of environmental fecal contamination requires improved knowledge of their prevalence, shedding dynamics, and genetic diversity. We examined DNA extracted from bovine and other animal waste samples collected in Wisconsin for atadenoviruses and mastadenoviruses using novel, broad-spectrum PCR primer sets. BAdV were detected in 13% of cattle fecal samples, 90% of cattle urine samples, and 100% of cattle manure samples; 44 percent of BAdV-positive samples contained both Atadenovirus and Mastadenovirus DNA. Additionally, BAdV were detected in soil, runoff water from a cattle feedlot, and residential well water. Overall, we detected 8 of 11 prototype BAdV, plus bovine, rabbit, and porcine mastadenoviruses that diverged significantly from previously reported genotypes. The prevalence of BAdV shedding by cattle supports targeting AdV broadly as indicators of the presence of fecal contamination in aqueous environments. Conversely, several factors complicate the use of AdV for fecal source attribution. Animal AdV infecting a given livestock host were not monophyletic, recombination among livestock mastadenoviruses was detected, and the genetic diversity of animal AdV is still underreported. These caveats highlight the need for continuing genetic surveillance for animal AdV and for supporting data when BAdV detection is invoked for fecal source attribution in environmental samples. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report natural BAdV excretion in urine, BAdV detection in groundwater, and recombination in AdV of livestock origin.

  2. The Role of Major Gas-rich Mergers on the Evolution of Galaxies from the Blue Cloud to the Red Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Hao, Cai-Na; Xia, X. Y.; Mao, Shude; Shi, Yong

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of exploring the fast evolutionary path from the blue cloud of star-forming galaxies to the red sequence of quiescent galaxies in the local universe, we select a local advanced merging infrared luminous and ultraluminous galaxy (adv-merger (U)LIRGs) sample and perform careful dust extinction corrections to investigate their positions in the star formation rate-M *, u - r, and NUV - r color-mass diagrams. The sample consists of 89 (U)LIRGs at the late merger stage, obtained from cross-correlating the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey and 1 Jy ULIRGs samples with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 database. Our results show that 74 % +/- 5 % of adv-merger (U)LIRGs are localized above the 1σ line of the local star-forming galaxy main sequence. We also find that all adv-merger (U)LIRGs are more massive than and as blue as the blue cloud galaxies after corrections for Galactic and internal dust extinctions, with 95 % +/- 2 % and 81 % +/- 4 % of them outside the blue cloud on the u - r and NUV - r color-mass diagrams, respectively. These results, combined with the short timescale for exhausting the molecular gas reservoir in adv-merger (U)LIRGs (3× {10}7 to 3× {10}8 years), imply that the adv-merger (U)LIRGs are likely at the starting point of the fast evolutionary track previously proposed by several groups. While the number density of adv-merger (U)LIRGs is only ˜ 0.1 % of the blue cloud star-forming galaxies in the local universe, this evolutionary track may play a more important role at high redshift.

  3. An oral Aujeszky's disease vaccine (YS-400) induces neutralizing antibody in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Aujeszky's disease (AD) is an economically important disease affecting both wild and domestic pigs of the species Sus scrofa. A previous study yielded serological evidence of AD in Korean wild boars, which could spread AD to other animals. A new Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) bait vaccine is required to prevent AD outbreaks in swine. In the present study, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of a gE-deleted marker vaccine, strain YS-400, in young domestic pigs. Materials and Methods The YS-400 strain was propagated in Vero cells, and the trial ADV bait vaccine (a vaccine blister in a matrix including an attractant) was prepared. Pigs were orally immunized with the vaccine (2 mL, 107.5 TCID50/mL) delivered using a syringe or in the bait vaccine. The animals were observed for 9 weeks after vaccination, and immunogenicity was assessed using a virus neutralization (VN) test and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results The YS-400 strain was non-pathogenic to pigs when given orally and induced high VN titers (1:32-1:128) 6 weeks post-administration. Of the pigs given the ADV bait vaccine twice or three times, 40% were seropositive by 2 weeks, and 100% were seropositive by 7 weeks after the first dose. Pigs that consumed the AD bait vaccine three times developed VN titers that were slightly higher than those of pigs given the vaccine twice. Conclusion Domestic pigs given the trial ADV bait vaccine exhibited no adverse effects and developed high VN titers against ADV, indicating that the YS-400 strain is safe and can prevent ADV infection in domestic pigs. PMID:27489803

  4. Correction of chromosomal mutation and random integration in embryonic stem cells with helper-dependent adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Fumi; Balamotis, Michael A; Kishimoto, Atsuhiro; Aizawa, Emi; Diaz, Arturo; Hasty, Paul; Graham, Frank L; Caskey, C Thomas; Mitani, Kohnosuke

    2005-09-20

    For gene therapy of inherited diseases, targeted integration/gene repair through homologous recombination (HR) between exogenous and chromosomal DNA would be an ideal strategy to avoid potentially serious problems of random integration such as cellular transformation and gene silencing. Efficient sequence-specific modification of chromosomes by HR would also advance both biological studies and therapeutic applications of a variety of stem cells. Toward these goals, we developed an improved strategy of adenoviral vector (AdV)-mediated HR and examined its ability to correct an insertional mutation in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) locus in male mouse ES cells. The efficiency of HR was compared between four types of AdVs that contained various lengths of homologies at the Hprt locus and with various multiplicities of infections. The frequency of HR with helper-dependent AdVs (HD AdVs) with an 18.6-kb homology reached 0.2% per transduced cell at a multiplicity of infection of 10 genomes per cell. Detection of random integration at DNA levels by PCR revealed extremely high efficiency of 5% per cell. We also isolated and characterized chromosomal sites where HD AdVs integrated in a random manner. In contrast to retroviral, lentiviral, and adeno-associated viral vectors, which tend to integrate into genes, the integration sites of AdV was distributed randomly inside and outside genes. These findings suggest that HR mediated by HD AdVs is efficient and relatively safe and might be a new viable option for ex vivo gene therapy as well as a tool for chromosomal manipulation of a variety of stem cells.

  5. Comparative evaluation of long-term monotherapies & combination therapies in patients with chronic hepatitis B: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Manjita; Singh, Neha; Dixit, Vinod Kumar; Nath, Gopal; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Reduction of viraemia in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection using nucleoside/nucleotide analogues reduces fatal liver disease-related events, but development of resistance in virus presents serious clinical challenge. Therefore, comparative evaluation of prolonged antiviral monotherapy and combination therapies was prospectively studied to assess their influence on viral suppression, rapidity of response, development of drug resistance and surfacing mutants in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. Methods: A total of 158 (62eAg-ve) chronic hepatitis B patients were prospectively studied for 24 months. Final analysis was performed on patients treated with lamivudine (LAM, n = 28), adefovirdipivoxil (ADV, n = 24), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, n = 26), entecavir (ETV, n = 25), LAM + ADV (n = 28) and LAM + TDF (n = 27). Quantitative hepatitis B virus DNA was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Multiple comparisons among drugs and genotypic mutations were analyzed. Results: Progressive biochemical and virological response were noted with all the regimens at 24 months except LAM and ADV which were associated with viral breakthrough (VBT) in 46.4 and 25 per cent, respectively. Mutations: rtM204V (39.3%), M204V+L180M (10.7%) while rtA181V (8.1%) and rtN236T (8.3%) were observed with LAM and ADV regimen, respectively. LAM + ADV combination therapy revealed VBT in seven per cent of the cases without mutations whereas TDF, ETV and LAM + TDF therapies neither showed VBT nor mutations. Interpretation & conclusions: LAM was the least potent drug among all therapeutic options followed by ADV. TDF and ETV were genetically stable antivirals with a strong efficacy. Among newer combination therapies, LAM + TDF revealed more efficacy in virological remission and acted as a profound genetic barrier on long term. Hence, newer generation molecules (TDF, ETV) and effective combination therapy should be a certain choice

  6. Effects of an advanced temperature cycle on smolt development and endocrinology indicate that temperature is not a zeitgeber for smolting in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Shrimpton, J.M.; Moriyama, S.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2002-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) juveniles were reared under simulated conditions of normal photoperiod (LDN) or short days (LD 9:15) and ambient temperature (AMB: normal temperature increases in April) or an advanced temperature cycle (ADV: temperature increases in February). Under both photoperiod conditions, the timing of increased and peak levels of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity were not altered by temperature, although the rate of increase was initially greater under ADV. ADV/LD 9:15 resulted in peak gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity that was half of that seen under normal photoperiod and temperature conditions. Plasma growth hormone (GH) levels increased threefold in late March under ADV/LDN, but not under ADV/LD 9:15, indicating that there is a photoperiod-dependent effect of temperature on levels of this hormone. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased in spring in all groups, with increases occurring significantly earlier in the ADV/LDN group. In each photoperiod condition, the advanced temperature cycle resulted in large decreases in plasma thyroxine (T4) levels in March, which subsequently recovered, whereas plasma 3,5,3???-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) levels were not substantially affected by either photoperiod or temperature. There was no consistent pattern of change in plasma cortisol levels. The results do not provide support for the role of temperature as a zeitgeber, but do indicate that temperature has a role in the timing of smolting by affecting the rate of development and interacting with the photoperiod.

  7. Functional characterization of a PEI-CyD-FA-coated adenovirus as delivery vector for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Chen, Shih-Chi; Shen, Zan; Huang, Yun-Chao; Zhu, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-mei; Jiang, Wenqi; Wang, Zi-Feng; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Ling, Eng-Ang; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Lin, Marie C

    2013-01-01

    The recombinant adenovirus is evolving as a promising gene delivery vector for gene therapy due to its efficiency in transducing different genes into most types of cells. However, the host-immune response elicited by primary inoculation of an adenovirus can cause rapid clearance of the vector, impairing the efficacy of the adenovirus and hence obstructing its clinical application. We have previously synthesized a biodegradable co-polymer consisting of a low molecular weight PEI (MW 600 Da), cross-linked with β-cyclodextrin, and conjugated with folic acid (PEI-CyD-FA, named H1). Here we report that coating the adenovirus vector (Adv) with H1 (H1/rAdv) could significantly improve both the efficacy and biosafety of Adv. Enhanced transfection efficiency as well as prolonged duration of gene expression were clearly demonstrated either by intratumoral or systemic injection of a single dose of H1/rAdv in immunocompetent mice. Importantly, repeated injections of H1/rAdv did not reduce the transfection efficiency in immunocompetent mice. Furthermore, H1 transformed the surface charge of the adenovirus capsomers from negative to positive in physiological solution, suggesting that H1 coated the capsid protein of the adenovirus. This could shelter the epitopes of capsid proteins of the adenovirus, resulting in a reduced host-immune response and enhanced transfection efficiency. Taken together, these findings suggest that H1/rAdv is an effective gene delivery system superior to the adenovirus alone and that it could be considered as a preferred vehicle for gene therapy.

  8. Investigation of the pathogenesis of transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in experimentally infected mink.

    PubMed Central

    Broll, S; Alexandersen, S

    1996-01-01

    The transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) was studied in experimental infection of 1-year-old female non-Aleutian mink. The ADV-seronegative female mink were inoculated with ADV prior to mating or after the expected implantation of the embryos during pregnancy. A group of uninfected females served as a control group. Animals from each group were killed prior to or shortly after parturition. The in situ hybridization technique with radiolabeled strand-specific RNA probes was used to determine target cells of virus infection and virus replication. In both infected groups, ADV crossed the endotheliochorial placental barrier, although animals infected before mating already had high antibody titers against ADV at the time of implantation. The percentage of dead and resorbed fetuses was much higher in dams infected before mating. In the placentae of these mink, virus DNA and viral mRNA were detected in cells in the mesenchymal stroma of the placental labyrinth and hematoma but only occasionally in the cytotrophoblast of the placental hematoma. Placentae of animals infected during pregnancy showed in addition very high levels of virus and also viral replication in a large number of cytotrophoblast cells in the placental hematoma, which exhibited distinct inclusion bodies. In both groups, neither virus nor virus replication could be detected in maternal endothelial cells or fetal syncytiotrophoblast of the placental labyrinth. Fetuses were positive for virus and viral replication at high levels in a wide range of tissues. Possible routes of transplacental transmission of ADV and the role of trophoblast cells as targets for viral replication are discussed. PMID:8627663

  9. Assessing Photocatalytic Oxidation Using Modified TiO 2 Nanomaterials for Virus Inactivation in Drinking Water: Mechanisms and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liga, Michael Vincent

    Photocatalytic oxidation is an alternative water treatment method under consideration for disinfecting water. Chlorine disinfection can form harmful byproducts, and some viruses (e.g. adenoviruses) are resistant to other alternative disinfection methods. Photocatalytic oxidation using nano-sized photocatalytic particles (e.g. TiO2, fullerene) holds promise; however, it is limited by its low efficiency and long required treatment times. This research focuses on improving virus inactivation by photocatalytic oxidation by modifying catalysts for improved activity, by analyzing virus inactivation kinetics, and by elucidating the inactivation mechanisms of adenovirus serotype 2 (AdV2) and bacteriophage MS2. Modifying TiO2 with silver (nAg/TiO2) or silica (SiO2-TiO2) improves the inactivation kinetics of bacteriophage MS2 by a factor of 3-10. nAg/ TiO2 increases hydroxyl radical (HO·) production while SiO2 increases the adsorption of MS2 to TiO 2. These results suggest that modifying the photocatalyst surface to increase contaminant adsorption is an important improvement strategy along with increasing HO· production. The inactivation kinetics of AdV2 by P25 TiO2 is much slower than the MS2 inactivation kinetics and displays a strong shoulder, which is not present in the MS2 kinetics. nAg/TiO2 initially improves the inactivation rate of AdV2. SiO2-TiO2 reduces the AdV2 inactivation kinetics since adsorption is not significantly enhanced, as it is with MS2. Amino-C60 is highly effective for AdV2 inactivation under visible light irradiation, making it a good material for use in solar disinfection systems. The efficacy of amino-fullerene also demonstrates that singlet oxygen is effective for AdV2 inactivation. When exposed to irradiated TiO2, AdV2 hexon proteins are heavily damaged resulting in the release of DNA. DNA damage is also present but may occur after capsids break. With MS2, the host interaction protein is rapidly damaged, but not the coat protein. The kinetics

  10. Effect of ammonia production on intracellular pH: Consequent effect on adenovirus vector production.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, T B; Carrondo, M J T; Alves, P M

    2007-05-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors (AdV) have proven to be highly efficient for the delivery and expression of foreign genes in a broad spectrum of cell types and species both for vaccination and gene therapy in a number of specific applications. In this study, the effect of ammonia production on intracellular pH (pH(i)) and consequently inhibition of AdV production at high cell densities is assessed. Different specific ammonia production rates were obtained for 293 cells adapted to grow in glutamate supplemented medium (non-ammoniagenic medium) as compared with 293 cells growing in glutamine supplemented medium (ammoniagenic medium); pH(i) was observed to be lower during cell growth and AdV production at both high and low CCI in the ammoniagenic medium, where the specific ammonia production rate is higher. In addition, after infection at CCI of 3x10(6)cell/ml, the cell viability decreased significantly in the ammoniagenic medium, attributed to the activation of an acidic pathway of apoptosis. Furthermore, AdV DNA was observed to be degraded at the observed pH(i) in the ammoniagenic medium, decreasing significantly the amount of AdV DNA available for encapsulation. To elucidate the pH(i) effect upon AdV production, 293 cells were infected at a CCI of 1 x 10(6)cell/ml in the non-ammoniagenic medium with a manipulated pH(i) as observed at the time of infection at CCI of 3 x 10(6)cell/ml in the ammoniagenic (pH(i) 7.0) and non-ammoniagenic (pH(i) 7.3) media; AdV volumetric productivities were observed to be lower when the cells were exposed to the lower pH(i). Thus, the importance of controlling all the factors contributing to pH(i) on AdV production, such as ammonia production, has been established.

  11. Novel adenovirus detected in kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gál, János; Mándoki, Míra; Sós, Endre; Kertész, Péter; Koroknai, Viktória; Bányai, Krisztián; Farkas, Szilvia L

    2017-02-15

    A male kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) originating from a zoo facility was delivered for post mortem evaluation in Hungary. Acute lobar pneumonia with histopathologic changes resembling an adenovirus (AdV) infection was detected by light microscopic examination. The presence of an AdV was confirmed by obtaining partial sequence data from the adenoviral DNA-dependent DNA-polymerase. Although the exact taxonomic position of this novel marsupial origin virus could not be determined, pairwise identity analyses and phylogenetic calculations revealed that it is distantly related to other members in the family Adenoviridae.

  12. Evaluation of Synthetic Fuel for Army Ground Applications Tasks II-VI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-29

    Fluorocarbon (Viton) 27245 Seal, O-ring (cam ring/hyd head) Fluorocarbon (Viton) 27601 Seal, O-ring Fluorocarbon (Viton) 27608 Seal, (transfer pump... 27601 27608 11507 24585 27609 27610 27163 27602 27607 27W 1417010008 1410210503 1410210501 1410210041 7603014106 5234281 1148718 129888...Rod Guide 5331~1-236~476 27601 Viton TM 9-�-465-24P Seal, 0-Ring, Adv Plug 5331~1-399-2160 29282 Viton TM 9-�-465-24P Seal, 0-Ring, Adv Plug

  13. Implications of DOD Funds Execution Policy for Acquisition Program Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Reman ) and New Build  The total quantities were reduced, which increased unit cost  Mods line structured to provide significant upgrades to software and...Obligation Rate Disbursements Disbursement Rate FY13 Proc. -BLK IIIA Reman 594 134 23% Proc.-Blk IIIB New Build 325 23 7% Mods 128 63 49% RDT&E 202 103 51...6 3% FY12 Proc. -BLK IIIA Reman 381 351 92% Adv. Proc. ( Reman ) 213 187 88% Adv. Proc. (New Build) 84 19 22% Mods 330 6 2% RDT&E 145 101 69% 13 9% FY11

  14. High-level recombinant protein production in CHO cells using an adenoviral vector and the cumate gene-switch.

    PubMed

    Gaillet, Bruno; Gilbert, Rénald; Amziani, Rachid; Guilbault, Claire; Gadoury, Christine; Caron, Antoine W; Mullick, Alaka; Garnier, Alain; Massie, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    To facilitate and accelerate the production of eukaryotic proteins with correct post-translational modifications, we have developed a protein production system based on the transduction of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using adenovirus vectors (AdVs). We have engineered a CHO cell line (CHO-cTA) that stably expresses the transactivator (cTA) of our newly developed cumate gene-switch transcription system. This cell line is adapted to suspension culture and can grow in serum-free and protein-free medium. To increase the transduction level of AdVs, we have also generated a cell line (CHO-cTA-CAR) that expresses additional amounts of the coxackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on its surface. Recombinant protein production was tested using an AdV carrying the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) under the control of the CR5 promoter, which is strongly and specifically activated by binding to cTA. The SEAP expression was linked to the expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to facilitate titration of the AdV. We monitored SEAP expression on a daily basis for 9 days after transduction of CHO-cTA and CHO-cTA-CAR using different quantities of AdVs at 37 and 30 degrees C. Incubation at the latter temperature increased the production of SEAP at least 10-fold, and the presence of CAR increased the transduction level of the AdV. Maximum SEAP production (63 mg/L) was achieved at 6-7 days post-infection at 30 degrees C by transducing CHO-cTA-CAR with 500 infectious particles/cell. Because numerous AdVs can now be generated within a few weeks and large-scale production of AdVs is now a routine procedure, this system could be used to produce rapidly milligram quantities of a battery of recombinant proteins as well as for large-scale protein production.

  15. New drugs on the horizon.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    Since many new anti-HIV drugs are variations of currently available drugs, they may be more effective for people who are beginning treatment. One study shows favorable results when using efavirenz in triple combination therapy; however, it is recommended that this therapy be reserved for people who are treatment-naive and symptom-free. It is still unclear if all non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) are as potent as efavirenz and whether the long-term potential for them is as promising as standard combinations. Researchers caution against pairing an NNRTI with a protease inhibitor in the event that resistance to the combination develops. That resistance may eliminate the option of using any other protease inhibitor or NNRTI in future therapies. Conversely, abacavir, an NARTI, has been effective in combination with many protease inhibitors. Amprenavir shows good antiviral activity; although studies show that it may not be successful as a salvage therapy with protease inhibitors. Nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as adefovir and bis-poc PMPA, showed moderate anti-HIV potency. A study evaluating FTC alone showed a good reduction in viral load. FTC also fights hepatitis B and requires only one dose daily. Information is included about expanded access programs for abacavir, adefovir, and efavirenz.

  16. Photoenergy Harvesting Organic PV Cells Using Modified Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Complex for Energy Harvesting Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-03

    7. M. Nagata, M. Nango, A. Kashiwada, S. Yamada, S. Ito, N. Sawa , M. Ogawa, K. Iida, Y. Kurono and T. Ohtsuka, Chem. Lett. 32, 216 (2003). 8. M...calculation is under 0 vias volt. 50. H. Ishii , K. Sugiyama, E. Ito, K. Seki, Adv. Mater. 11, 605 (1999). 51. R. Akiyama, T. Matsumoto, T. Kawai, T

  17. 77 FR 24239 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... meet the 10% ADV requirement, and use of specified SLP mnemonics. In addition, the business unit of the... unique mnemonics specifically dedicated to SLMM activity. Use of these unique mnemonics will enable SLMMs... to the Exchange. As proposed, such mnemonics may not be used for trading in securities other than...

  18. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae) and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia)

    PubMed Central

    Szirovicza, Leonóra; López, Pilar; Kopena, Renáta; Benkő, Mária; Martín, José; Pénzes, Judit J.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs) in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni), nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus), and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi), respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses. PMID:27399970

  19. Providing Assistance to the Victims of Adolescent Dating Violence: A National Assessment of School Nurses' Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Hendershot, Candace

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the perceptions and practices of school nurses regarding adolescent dating violence (ADV). Methods: The membership list of the National Association of School Nurses was used to identify a national random cross-sectional sample of high school nurses in the United States (N?=?750). A valid and reliable survey…

  20. 10. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: WEST FRONT AT NIGHT, Date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: WEST FRONT AT NIGHT, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) E. S. Cheney and R. B. Bird, Photographers Cheney Photo Adv. Co., Oakland, California - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. 14. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: DOMED CEILING OF AUDITORIUM, Date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: DOMED CEILING OF AUDITORIUM, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) E. S. Cheney and R. B. Bird, Photographers, Cheney Photo Adv. Co., Oakland, California. - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. 13. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: AUDITORIUM, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BALCONY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: AUDITORIUM, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BALCONY AND FOYER, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) E. S. Cheney and R. B. Bird, Photographers, Cheney Photo Adv. Co., Oakland, California - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. Modeling of Finite Depth Wind Wave Dissipation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    source-sink energy balance. At Lake George, two different devices, the standard SonTek ADV and the Dopbeam ( Veron and Melville, 1999), were used to...for deep water waves. Part 1: Unforced irrotational wave groups. Submitted to JPO. Veron , F. and W.K. Melville, 1999. Pulse-to-pulse coherent

  4. Convective Heat Transfer in Internal Gas Flows with Temperature-Dependent Properties.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-30

    effects of variable properties have been provided by Petukhov [1970],specifically for turbulent flow in circular tubes.and by Leontiev o for the...243-249. Leontiev , A. I., 1966. Heat and mass transfer in turbulent boundary layers, Adv. Heat Transfer, 3, pp. 33-100. Leung, E. Y., V. M. Kays and W

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Viability Assays for Storage of Ornamental Giner (Hedychium spp.) Pollen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, Hedychium plants are mostly grown in the southern part of the country where they generally flower in the summer and fall, but some species bloom in winter and spring times. This asynchronous flowering could constitute an impediment for breeders of that region to fully take adv...

  6. AdChoices? Compliance with Online Behavioral Advertising Notice and Choice Requirements. Revised Version

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-07

    Alliance Announces Self-Regulatory Program For Online Behavioural Advertising, http://www.dglaw.com/images_user/newsalerts/AdvMktngPromo_Behavioral...including AOL Advertising, Collective, Google, interCLICK, and Traffic Marketplace. This suggests that some online advertising buyers are interested in...AdChoices? Compliance with Online Behavioral Advertising Notice and Choice Requirements Saranga Komanduri, Richard Shay, Greg

  7. Mycoleptodiscus terrestris: An Endophyte Turned Latent Pathogen of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    plants. Some fungal endophytes have also been reported to inhibit plant pathogens . Fewer lesions have been reported on Panicum agrostoides when the...and ecosystem dynamics: Biological aspects of plant pathogens , plant endophytes and saprophytes. Adv. in Bot. Res. 24:170–193. Shearer, J. F. 2001

  8. The Relationship between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values and Their Perceptions of Scientists' Cultural Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Eastwood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers' cultural values and the values they believe are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) "Adv Exp Soc Psychol" 25:331-351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment of…

  9. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Programs: DoD Advance Planning Briefing for Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-16

    Tech Development - Adv Dev for CB Prep at Univ of Med & Dentistry of NJ - Miniaturization of CB Detectors - Biodefense Statewide Med Response - Bio...aerobiolgoical research, forensic genomics and certified forensic biological threat agent capability 28 Biological Defense Homeland Security Support Program

  10. Acoustic droplet–hydrogel composites for spatial and temporal control of growth factor delivery and scaffold stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Fabiilli, Mario L.; Wilson, Christopher G.; Padilla, Frédéric; Martín-Saavedra, Francisco M.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Franceschi, Renny T.

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing is regulated by temporally and spatially restricted patterns of growth factor signaling, but there are few delivery vehicles capable of the “on-demand” release necessary for recapitulating these patterns. Recently we described a perfluorocarbon double emulsion that selectively releases a protein payload upon exposure to ultrasound through a process known as acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV). In this study, we describe a delivery system composed of fibrin hydrogels doped with growth factor-loaded double emulsion for applications in tissue regeneration. Release of immunoreactive basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) from the composites increased up to 5-fold following ADV and delayed release was achieved by delaying exposure to ultrasound. Releasates of ultrasound-treated materials significantly increased the proliferation of endothelial cells compared to sham controls, indicating that the released bFGF was bioactive. ADV also triggered changes in the ultrastructure and mechanical properties of the fibrin as bubble formation and consolidation of the fibrin in ultrasound-treated composites were accompanied by up to a 22-fold increase in shear stiffness. ADV did not reduce the viability of cells suspended in composite scaffolds. These results demonstrate that an acoustic droplet–hydrogel composite could have broad utility in promoting wound healing through on-demand control of growth factor release and/or scaffold architecture. PMID:23535233

  11. PROCESS TRANSFER FUNCTIONS TO RELATE STREAM ECOLOGICAL CONDITION METRICS TO NITRATE RETENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecologists have developed hydrological metrics to characterize the nutrient processing capability of streams. In most cases these are used qualitatively to draw inferences on ecological function. In this work, several of these metrics have been integrated in a nonsteady state adv...

  12. 75 FR 48338 - Intel Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... (1966) (quoting F.T.C. v. Motion Picture Adv. Serv. Co., 344 U.S. 392, 394-95 (1953)); see also F.T.C. v..., not to force a third party to take any particular action. Second, the Proposed Consent Order...

  13. Experimental Evidence for Nematic Order of Cuprates in Relation to Lattice Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-08

    A. Kivelson, Science 327, 155 (2010). 12 S. A. Kivelson, E. Fradkin, and V. J. Emery, Nature (Lon- don) 393, 550 (1998). 13 M. Vojta , Adv. Phys. 58...al., Nature (London) 463, 519 (2010). 15 A. Hackl and M. Vojta , Phys. Rev. B 80, 220514(R) (2009). 16 V. Hinkov, D. Haug, B. Fauque, P. Bourges, Y

  14. "Futures" of Space Technology "Frontiers of the Responsibly Imaginable"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    in the Macro/Classical World • Lasers • Bose-Einstein Condensate • Super-Fluidity • Super-Conductivity • Quantum Entanglement • Fermionic Condensate ...Army Costs,IVHM] • Reduced cost/Ruggedized “Conventional Rockets” • Revolutionary Rockets [PDWR, Ejector ,Beamed MWs/MHD,HEDM/Adv. Fuels,CNT Materials

  15. MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL AEROSOL COMPONENT 2. MODEL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (atmospheric suspensions of solid of liquid materials, i.e., aerosols) continue to be a major concern for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High particulate matter (PM) concentrations are associated not only with adv...

  16. Assessment of the Navy’s North West Region Advance Food Menu Gallery Workload and Food Cost Impact Trade-Offs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Adv Pre-made frozen boil in bag D Q02001 French Fried Okra SpScr Breaded frozen product - galley deep fried D Q04501 French Fried Potatoes (Fz) SpScr...raw ribs, parboiled, then baked, and galley prepared sauce applied. D P01000 Chicken Gumbo Soup Scr From chicken stock plus fresh okra and vegetable

  17. The Effects of Elevated pCO2, Hypoxia and Temperature on Larval Sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus: How much stress is too much?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine fish are acclimated to living in an environment with rapid and frequent changes in temperature, salinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) levels; the physiology of these organisms is well suited to cope with extreme thermal, hypercapnic, and hypoxic stress. While the adve...

  18. 76 FR 14702 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ...% (Schlumberger N.V., Halliburton Company, National ] Oilwell Varco, Inc., Baker Hughes Incorporated, Transocean...., Halliburton Company, National Oilwell Varco, Inc., Baker Hughes Incorporated, Transocean Ltd (Switzerland...'') of the components, (a) The highest six-month ADV of a component was 14.61 million shares...

  19. Enhanced Oxidation and Solvolysis Reactions in Chemically Inert Microheterogeneous Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-13

    Mackay, Adv.Coll.Interf.Sc{. 15, 131 (1981) 11 C. Bodea and J. Silberg, "Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Phenothiazines" in "Advances in Heterocyclic ... Chemistry ", A.R. Katritzky and A.J. Boulton, , eds., Vol. 9, Academic Press, New York, 1968, p. 321 12 A.M. Braun, M.-A. Gilson, M. Krieg, M.-T

  20. 78 FR 25101 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Physics, Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: AdvLIGO Construction Review Site Visit at Livingston Observatory for Physics, 1208 Date and Time.... Contact Person: Mark Coles, Director of Large Facilities, Division of Physics, National Science...

  1. 76 FR 20412 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... daily volume (as such term is defined in Endnote 3 of the Fee Schedule, ``Liquidity Adding ADV'') is less than 20 basis points of Total Consolidated Average Daily Volume (as defined in Endnote 13 of the... with Endnote 8), and NSX Rule 16.4 would be deleted in its entirety. \\5\\ NSX Rule 16.4(b). To...

  2. Operator identities involving the bivariate Rogers-Szegö polynomials and their applications to the multiple q-series identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhizheng; Wang, Tianze

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we first give several operator identities involving the bivariate Rogers-Szegö polynomials. By applying the technique of parameter augmentation to the multiple q-binomial theorems given by Milne [S.C. Milne, Balanced summation theorems for U(n) basic hypergeometric series, AdvE Math. 131 (1997) 93-187], we obtain several new multiple q-series identities involving the bivariate Rogers-Szegö polynomials. These include multiple extensions of Mehler's formula and Rogers's formula. Our U(n+1) generalizations are quite natural as they are also a direct and immediate consequence of their (often classical) known one-variable cases and Milne's fundamental theorem for An or U(n+1) basic hypergeometric series in Theorem 1E49 of [S.C. Milne, An elementary proof of the Macdonald identities for , Adv. Math. 57 (1985) 34-70], as rewritten in Lemma 7.3 on p. 163 of [S.C. Milne, Balanced summation theorems for U(n) basic hypergeometric series, Adv. Math. 131 (1997) 93-187] or Corollary 4.4 on pp. 768-769 of [S.C. Milne, M. Schlosser, A new An extension of Ramanujan's summation with applications to multilateral An series, Rocky Mountain J. Math. 32 (2002) 759-792].

  3. Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals in the Serum and Milk of Breastfeeding Women.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) comprise a group of man-made organic compounds, some of which are persistent contaminants with developmental toxicity shown in laboratory animals. There is a paucity of human perinatal exposure data. The US EPA conducted a pilot study (Methods Adv...

  4. Information Processing, Specificity of Practice, and the Transfer of Learning: Considerations for Reconsidering Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grierson, Lawrence E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Much has been made in the recent medical education literature of the incorrect characterization of simulation along a continuum of low to high fidelity (Cook et al. "JAMA" 306(9): 978-988, 2011; Norman et al. "Med Educ" 46(7): 636-647, 2012; Teteris et al. "Adv Health Sci Educ" 17(1): 137-144, 2012). For the most…

  5. MICRO DOSE ASESSMENT OF INHALED PARTICLES IN HUMAN LUNGS: A STEP CLOSER TOWARDS THE TARGET TISSUE DOSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Inhaled particles deposit inhomogeneously in the lung and this may result in excessive deposition dose at local regions of the lung, particularly at the anatomic sites of bifurcations and junctions of the airways, which in turn leads to injuries to the tissues and adve...

  6. DEVELOPING AZO AND FORMAZAN DYES BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    In previous papers, the synthesis and chemical properties of iron-complexed azo and formazan dyes were reported. In this regard, it was shown that in certain cases iron could be substituted for the traditionally used metals, chromium and cobalt, without having an adve...

  7. DESTRUCTION OF PCBS USING SULFATE RADICAL-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 congeners that were extensively used in industrial applications during 1929 to early 1970s, The presence of PCBs in the environment poses long-term risk to public health and wildlife due to their persistent and toxic nature. Adv...

  8. Sustained Release Oral Nanoformulated Green Tea for Prostate Cancer Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    delivery to treat age-related macular degeneration . Mol Vis, 18, 2300-8. 23. Borchard, G. (2001) Chitosans for gene delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 52...imadzu Pro s, a SIL-20 fireTM C18 mobile phas ml/min and API 4000 ada) equipp spectromet ive analyses tive analyse ical chroma (i) shows e chromato

  9. Are endothelial cell bioeffects from acoustic droplet vaporization proximity dependent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seda, Robinson; Li, David; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Bull, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) produces gas microbubbles that provide a means of selective occlusion in gas embolotherapy. Vaporization and subsequent occlusion occur inside blood vessels supplying the targeted tissue, such as tumors. Theoretical and computational studies showed that ADV within a vessel can impart high fluid mechanical stresses on the vessel wall. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that vaporization at an endothelial layer may affect cell attachment and viability. The current study is aimed at investigating the role of vaporization distance away from the endothelial layer. HUVECs were cultured in OptiCell™ chambers until reaching confluence. Dodecafluoropentane microdroplets were added, attaining a 10:1 droplet to cell ratio. A single ultrasound pulse (7.5 MHz) consisting of 16 cycles (~ 2 μs) and a 5 MPa peak rarefactional pressure was used to produce ADV while varying the vaporization distance from the endothelial layer (0 μm, 500 μm, 1000 μm). Results indicated that cell attachment and viability was significantly different if the distance was 0 μm (at the endothelial layer). Other distances were not significantly different from the control. ADV will significantly affect the endothelium if droplets are in direct contact with the cells. Droplet concentration and flow conditions inside blood vessels may play an important role. This work was supported by NIH grant R01EB006476.

  10. Metabolic responses to prolonged consumption of glucose- and fructose-sweetened beverages are not associated with postprandial or 24-hour glucose and insulin excursions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been proposed that the adverse metabolic effects of chronic consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages which contain both glucose and fructose are a consequence of increased circulating glucose and insulin excursions, i.e dietary glycemic index (GI). Objective: We determined if the greater adv...

  11. Transfected Cell Microarrays for the Expression of Membrane-Displayed Single-Chain Antibodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Appli- cations of single-chain variable fragment antibodies in therapeutics and diagnostics. Biotechnology Adv 27, 502–520. 6. Denzin , L. K...4-20. J Biol Chem 266, 14095–14103. Transfected Cell Microarrays 137 7. Denzin , L. K., Gulliver, G. A., Voss, E. W., Jr. (1993) Mutational analysis of

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Human Adenovirus 7 Associated with Fatal Adult Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yatsyshina, Svetlana B; Ageeva, Margarita R; Deviatkin, Andrey A; Pimkina, Ekaterina V; Markelov, Mikhail L; Dedkov, Vladimir G; Safonova, Marina V; Shumilina, Elena Y; Lukashev, Alexander N; Shipulin, German A

    2016-10-27

    Human adenovirus 7 (hAdv7) 19BOVLB/Volgograd/Rus/2014 was isolated from the autopsy material from an adult with fatal pneumonia in Volgograd, Russia, in March 2014. Whole-genome sequencing of the virus isolate was performed.

  13. Practical Photonic Bandgap Calculations using MPB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-22

    R. Soc. Interface, doi: 10.1098/ rsif.2011.0730, 2011. Distribution A 19 14. Galusha, J.W., Richey, L.R., Gardner, J.S., Cha, J.N. and Bartl ...J.W., Jorgensen, M.R. and Bartl , M.H., “Diamond-structured titania photonic- bandgap crystals from biological templates”, Adv. Materials, Vol. 22

  14. Steric Control of Complex Chemical Reactions - 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-26

    their contrasting behaviors upon vibrational and translational excitations can serve as benchmark for gaining deeper insights into polyatomic reaction...equipped with a uniquely designed ion velocity map imaging detector capable of measuring the product pair correlation. The ultrafast femtosecond laser...From A + BC to Polyatomic Systems” K. Liu, Adv. in Chem. Phys. 149, (in press). Invited Review Invited talks at Conferences (* denoting

  15. EM Properties of High Tc Superconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    those calculated by Kes and van den Berg’ 9 for pinning 12A. M. CamDbell and J. Evetts, Adv. Phys. 21. 199 (1972). by twin boundaries . Our...consstet wih dnsey poulaed pnni 9~nter. ao ’J. Clem, in Proceedings of the International Conf’erence on pinning due to twin boundaries is Unlikely to be the

  16. Enhancing Active Learning in the Student Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modell, Harold I.; Michael, Joel A.; Adamson, Tom; Horwitz, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We previously examined how three approaches to directing students in a laboratory setting impacted their ability to repair a faulty mental model in respiratory physiology (Modell, HI, Michael JA, Adamson T, Goldberg J, Horwitz BA, Bruce DS, Hudson ML, Whitescarver SA, and Williams S. Adv Physiol Educ 23: 82?90, 2000). This study addresses issues…

  17. Occurrence of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Common and Noninvasive Diagnostic Sampling from Parrots and Racing Pigeons in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Dovč, Alenka; Jereb, Gregor; Krapež, Uroš; Gregurić-Gračner, Gordana; Pintarič, Štefan; Slavec, Brigita; Knific, Renata Lindtner; Kastelic, Marjan; Kvapil, Pavel; Mićunović, Jasna; Vadnjal, Stanka; Ocepek, Matjaž; Zadravec, Marko; Zorman-Rojs, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Airborne pathogens can cause infections within parrot (Psittaciformes) and pigeon (Columbiformes) holdings and, in the case of zoonoses, can even spread to humans. Air sampling is a useful, noninvasive method which can enhance the common sampling methods for detection of microorganisms in bird flocks. In this study, fecal and air samples were taken from four parrot holdings. Additionally, cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs as well as air samples were taken from 15 racing pigeon holdings. Parrots were examined for psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV), proventricular dilatation disease virus (PDDV), adenoviruses (AdVs), avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV-1), avian influenza virus (AIV), Chlamydia psittaci (CP), and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). MAC and AdVs were detected in three parrot holdings, CP was detected in two parrot holdings, and PBFDV and PDDV were each detected in one parrot holding. Pigeons were examined for the pigeon circovirus (PiCV), AdVs, and CP; PiCV and AdVs were detected in all investigated pigeon holdings and CP was detected in five pigeon holdings.

  18. Solar Drivers of 11-yr and Long-Term Cosmic Ray Modulation (PostPrint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-06

    largely reproduce the observed GCR intensity for the past ∼35 years. The failure to do so during cycle 20 appears to be a relatively rare occurrence. Fig... Terr . Phys. 70, 207 (2008) M.S. Potgieter, Adv. Space Res. 46, 402 (2010) M.S. Potgieter, J.A. Le Roux, Astrophys. J. 423, 817 (1994) M.S. Potgieter

  19. CONCENTRATION AND PROCESSING OF WATERBORNE VIRUSES BY POSITIVE CHARGE 1MDS CARTRIDGE FILTERS AND ORGANIC FLOCCULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the most widely used virus adsorption-elution (VIRADEL) method for recovering human enteric viruses from water matrices (Fout et al., 1996). The method takes advantage of postively charged cartridge filters to concentrate viruses from water. The major adv...

  20. Research of Ionospheric Scintillation in Asia (RISA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    as from satellite observations (Bilitza et al., 2003). More information on the IRI project, including information on the IRI Newsletter and the IRI...Science, 36 (6), 1559–1572. Chauhan, Vishal., Singh, O.P. A morphological study of GPS-TEC dataat Agra and their comparison with the IRI model. Adv

  1. Mineralogy of Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Implications for Pedogenic Processes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, J. E.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Tamppari, L, K.; Smith, P. H.; Zent, A. P.; Archer, P. D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADVs) located in the Transantarctic Mountains are the coldest and driest locations on Earth. The mean annual air temperature is -20 C or less and the ADVs receive 100mm or less of precipitation annually in the form of snow. The cold and dry climate in the ADVs is one of the best terrestrial analogs for the climatic conditions on Mars [2]. The soils in the ADVs have been categorized into three soil moisture zones: subxerous, xerous and ultraxerous. The subxerous zone is a coastal region in which soils have ice-cemented permafrost relatively close to the surface. Moisture is available in relatively large amounts and soil temperatures are above freezing throughout the soil profile (above ice permafrost) in summer months. The xerous zone, the most widespread of the three zones, is an inland region with a climate midway between the subxerous and ultraxerous. The soils from this zone have dry permafrost at moderate depths (30-75cm) but have sufficient water in the upper soil horizons to allow leaching of soluble materials. The ultraxerous zone is a high elevation zone, where both temperature and precipitation amounts are very low resulting in dry permafrost throughout the soil profile. The three moisture regime regions are similar to the three microclimatic zones (coastal thaw, inland mixed, stable upland) defined by Marchant and Head.

  2. Realization of New and Enhanced Materials Properties Through Nanostructural Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-15

    Fifield, L. R. Dalton, A. Mazzoldi, D. De-Rossi, I. I. Khayrullin , and R. H. Baughman, "Pneumatic Carbon Nanotube Actuators," Adv. Mater., 14, 1728-32 (2002... Khayrullin , and B. H. Baughman, "Pneumatic Actuator Response from Carbon Nanotube Sheets," Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, v. 706

  3. The transduction of Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-negative cells and protection against neutralizing antibodies by HPMA-co-oligolysine copolymer-coated adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chung-Huei K.; Chan, Leslie W.; Johnson, Russell N.; Chu, David S.H.; Shi, Julie; Schellinger, Joan G.; Lieber, Andre; Pun, Suzie H.

    2011-01-01

    Adenoviral (AdV) gene vectors offer efficient nucleic acid transfer into both dividing and non-dividing cells. However issues such as vector immunogenicity, toxicity and restricted transduction to receptor-expressing cells have prevented broad clinical translation of these constructs. To address this issue, engineered AdV have been prepared by both genetic and chemical manipulation. In this work, a polymer-coated Ad5 formulation is optimized by evaluating a series of N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA)-co-oligolysine copolymers synthesized by living polymerization techniques. This synthesis approach was used to generate highly controlled and well-defined polymers with varying peptide length (K5, K10 and K15), polymer molecular weight, and degradability to coat the viral capsid. The optimal formulation was not affected by the presence of serum during transduction and significantly increased Ad5 transduction of several cell types that lack the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) by up to 6-fold compared to unmodified AdV. Polymer-coated Ad5 also retained high transduction capability in the presence of Ad5 neutralizing antibodies. The critical role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in mediating cell binding and internalization of polymer-coated AdV was also demonstrated by evaluating transduction in HSPG-defective recombinant CHO cells. The formulations developed here are attractive vectors for ex vivo gene transfer in applications such as cell therapy. In addition, this platform for adenoviral modification allows for facile introduction of alternative targeting ligands. PMID:21959008

  4. Modulation of Stem Cell Differentiation and Myostatin as an Approach to Counteract Fibrosis in Muscle Dystrophy and Regeneration After Injury. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    currently studied clinically as a vasodilator for the treatment of coronary artery disease and angina pectoris [ 22 – 24 ] , and experimentally for its...formulations of molsidomine in patients with stable angina pectoris : double-blind and open-label studies . Adv Ther 2006 ; 23 : 107 – 30 25 Ozt

  5. Peer Influences on the Dating Aggression Process among Brazilian Street Youth: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonio, Tiago; Koller, Silvia H.; Hokoda, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    This study explored risk factors for adolescent dating aggression (ADA) among Brazilian street youth. Forty-three adolescents, between the ages of 13 and 17 years, were recruited at services centers in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Simultaneous multiple regression revealed that ADA was significantly predicted by adolescent dating victimization (ADV), and…

  6. Induction of Olefin Metathesis by Acetylenes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-20

    essentially that of 2. The acetylene is thus an activator, but unlike the organometallic co- catalysts like C2 H5A1C1 2 , which it replaces, it is unique in...J.C.; Moulijn, J.A. Adv. Catal. 1975, 24, 131. (4) Some of the results were discussed at the 3rd NSF Workshop on Organo - metallic Chemistry, Pingree

  7. 78 FR 75644 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Average Daily Volume Calculations Any Trading Day on Which the Exchange Is Closed for Trading Due To an... the average daily volume calculation for any trading day on which the Exchange is closed for trading... daily volume (``ADV'') calculation for any trading day on which the Exchange is closed for trading...

  8. How I treat adenovirus in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Lindemans, Caroline A.; Leen, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) infections are very common in the general pediatric population. The delayed clearance in young persons imposes a threat to immunocompromised patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), who can reactivate the virus, resulting in life-threatening disseminated disease. Although a definitive cure requires adequate immune reconstitution, 2 approaches appear to be feasible and effective to improve the outcomes of AdV infections. Strict monitoring with AdV quantitative polymerase chain reaction followed by preemptive treatment with low-dose (1 mg/kg) cidofovir 3 times a week, is effective in most cases to bridge the severely immunocompromised period shortly after HSCT, with acceptable toxicity rates. For centers who have the access, AdV-specific cytotoxic T cells can be the other important cornerstone of anti-AdV therapy with promising results so far. Methods to positively influence the reconstitution of the immune system after HSCT and optimizing new and currently available cellular immunotherapies will make HSCT safer against the threat of AdV infection/reactivation and associated disease. PMID:20837781

  9. Printed Biopolymer-Based Electro-Optic Device Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1...S. Sariciftci, J. G. Grote, Adv Polym Sci. DOI:10.1007/12 2009 6 [6] J. G. Grote, D. E. Diggs, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, F. K. Hopkins, N. Ogata

  10. [Development of immunoenzyme methods for detecting antibodies to Aujeszky's disease virus gB glycoprotein in swine serum].

    PubMed

    Morenkov, O S

    2000-01-01

    Four ELISA methods have been developed for detecting antibodies to Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) glycoprotein gB. Indirect ELISA is based on affinity-purified gB (affi-gB-ELISA); three blocking ELISAs: indirect blocking ELISA (lbgB-ELISA), direct blocking ELISA (db-gB-ELISA), and two-site "sandwich" ELISA (sb-gB-ELISA) are based on monoclonal antibodies to conservative immunodominant epitopes of gB. The specificities and sensitivities of ELISAs were compared with each other and with indirect ELISA based on purified ADV virions (vir-ELISA). Affi-gB ELISA, db-gB-ELISA, and sb-gB-ELISA possess 100% sensitivity, ib-gB-ELISA 98% sensitivity, and vir-ELISA 93% sensitivity. Affi-gB ELISA, ib-gB-ELISA, db-gB-ELISA, and sb-gB-ELISA possess 100% specificity and vir-ELISA 92% specificity. The efficiency of detection of ADV-specific antibodies by affi-gB ELISA, db-gB-ELISA, and sb-gB-ELISA was comparable to that of analogous commercial test. Since db-gB-ELISA is easier to perform than affi-gB-ELISA or sb-gB-ELISA, it is concluded to be the most appropriate test for detecting pigs infected with ADV among non-vaccinated animals.

  11. Effects of viscosity on endothelial cell damage under acoustic droplet vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seda, Robinson; Singh, Rahul; Li, David; Pitre, John; Putnam, Andrew; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Bull, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is a process by which stabilized superheated microdroplets are able to undergo phase transition with the aid of focused ultrasound. Gas bubbles resulting from ADV can provide local occlusion of the blood vessels supplying diseased tissue, such as tumors. The ADV process can also induce bioeffects that increase vessel permeability, which is beneficial for localized drug delivery. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that vaporization at the endothelial layer will affect cell attachment and viability. Several hypotheses have been proposed to elucidate the mechanism of damage including the generation of normal and shear stresses during bubble expansion. A single 3.5 MHz ultrasound pulse consisting of 8 cycles (~2.3 μs) and a 6 MPa peak rarefactional pressure was used to induce ADV on endothelial cells in media of different viscosities. Carboxylmethyl cellulose was added to the cell media to increase the viscosity up to 300 cP to and aid in the reduction of stresses during bubble expansion. The likelihood of cell damage was decreased when compared to our control (~1 cP), but it was still present in some cases indicating that the mechanism of damage does not depend entirely on viscous stresses associated with bubble expansion. This work was supported by NIH Grant R01EB006476.

  12. New Applications of Ionization and Fluorescence Techniques for Detection and Characterization of Open-Shell Organometallics in the Gas Phase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    112, 3668. 20. Poliakoff , M.; Weitz, E. Adv Organomet. Chem. 19 86, 25,277. 21. (a) Graham, M. A.; Perutz, R. N.; Poliakoff , M.; Turner, J. J. J...Perutz, R. N.; Turner, J. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1975,97,4800. (e) Burdett, J. K.; Graham, M. A.; Perutz, R. N.; Poliakoff , M.; Turner, J. J.; Turner

  13. New Applications of Ionization and Fluorescence Techniques for Detecting and Characterization of Open-Shell Organometallics in the Gas Phase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Poliakoff , M.; Weitz, E. Adv~ Organomet Chem. 19 86,25,277. 21. (a) Graham, M. A.; Perutz, R. N.; Poliakoff , M.; Turner, J. J. J. Organomet Chem. 1972,34...Turner, J. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1975,97,4800. (e) Burdett, J. K.; Graham, M. A.; Perutz, R. N.; Poliakoff , M.; Turner, J. J.; Turner, R. F. J. Am. Chem

  14. Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Structure: Improved Understanding and Prediction. Evaluation of Existing and Development of New Techniques for Global and Mesoscale NWP Model Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    published, refereed] 6 Leslie, LM, MS Speer,and L Qi, (2003) Prediction of Extreme Rainfall for the Coffs Harbour Catchment. Aust. Meteor. Mag...Adv. Space Res.,30, 2479-2486. [published, refereed] Shao, Y, E Jung and LM Leslie (2002): Numerical prediction of northeast Asian dust storms using

  15. Selecting a Benchmark Suite to Profile High-Performance Computing (HPC) Machines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Performance Evaluation Corporation . Gainesville (VA): SPEC; c1995 [accessed 2014 Jun 2]. http://www.spec.org/. 16. Woo SC, Ohara M, Torrie E, Singh JP... communicatons systems. In Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Microarchitecture; 1997, p. 330–335. 20. Li ML, Sasanka R, Adve

  16. Comparison between Sendai virus and adenovirus vectors to transduce HIV-1 genes into human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Noriaki; Miura, Toshiyuki; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Koibuchi, Tomohiko; Shioda, Tatsuo; Odawara, Takashi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Yoshihiro; Kano, Munehide; Kato, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Mamoru; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Iwamoto, Aikichi

    2008-03-01

    Immuno-genetherapy using dendritic cells (DCs) can be applied to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Sendai virus (SeV) has unique features such as cytoplasmic replication and high protein expression as a vector for genetic manipulation. In this study, we compared the efficiency of inducing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and HIV-1 gene expression in human monocyte-derived DCs between SeV and adenovirus (AdV). Human monocyte-derived DCs infected with SeV showed the maximum gene expression 24 hr after infection at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 2. Although SeV vector showed higher cytopathic effect on DCs than AdV, SeV vector induced maximum gene expression earlier and at much lower MOI. In terms of cell surface phenotype, both SeV and AdV vectors induced DC maturation. DCs infected with SeV as well as AdV elicited HIV-1 specific T-cell responses detected by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) enzyme-linked immunospot (Elispot). Our data suggest that SeV could be one of the reliable vectors for immuno-genetherapy for HIV-1 infected patients.

  17. Controlled Stochastic Dynamical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-18

    the existence of value functions of two-player zero-sum stochastic differential games Indiana Univ. Math. Journal, 38 (1989), pp 293-314. [6] George ...control problems, Adv. Appl. Prob., 15, (1983) pp 225-254. [10] Karatzas, I. Ocone, D., Wang, H. and Zervos , M., Finite fuel singular control with

  18. ToxiFly: Can Fruit Flies be Used to Identify Toxicity Pathways for Airborne Chemicals?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current high-throughput and alternative screening assays for chemical toxicity are unable to test volatile organic compounds (VOCs), thus limiting their scope. Further, the data generated by these assays require mechanistic information to link effects at molecular targets to adve...

  19. Decontamination of a drinking water pipeline system contaminated with adenovirus and Escherichia coli utilizing peracetic acid and chlorine.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Ari; Ikonen, Jenni; Pursiainen, Anna; Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2012-09-01

    A contaminated drinking water distribution network can be responsible for major outbreaks of infections. In this study, two chemical decontaminants, peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine, were used to test how a laboratory-scale pipeline system can be cleaned after simultaneous contamination with human adenovirus 40 (AdV40) and Escherichia coli. In addition, the effect of the decontaminants on biofilms was followed as heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and total cell counts (TCC). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine AdV40 and plate counting was used to enumerate E. coli. PAA and chlorine proved to be effective decontaminants since they decreased the levels of AdV40 and E. coli to below method detection limits in both water and biofilms. However, without decontamination, AdV40 remained present in the pipelines for up to 4 days. In contrast, the concentration of cultivable E. coli decreased rapidly in the control pipelines, implying that E. coli may be an inadequate indicator for the presence of viral pathogens. Biofilms responded to the decontaminants by decreased HPCs while TCC remained stable. This indicates that the mechanism of pipeline decontamination by chlorine and PAA is inactivation rather than physical removal of microbes.

  20. A Multicenter, Open-label Study of CMX001 Treatment of Serious Diseases or Conditions Caused by dsDNA Viruses

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-08-28

    Male or Female Patients With a Serious or Immediately Life-threatening; Disease or Condition Caused by CMV, ADV, HSV, VAVC, VARV or; Monkeypox Viruses(s) Who Have a Life Expectancy of ≥ 2 Weeks and for; Whom no Comparable or Satisfactory Alternative Therapy is Available

  1. Event-Related Potentials Index Subclinical Neurological Differences in HIV Patients During Rapid Decision-Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Pashler H: Atentional limitations In doing two tasks at the same time. Current Directions in Psychological Science 1992, 1:44-48. 13. Donchin E...clinically evident CNS deficits . In P.M. Rossini and F. Mauguibre (Eds.), New Trends and Adv~anced Techniques in Clinical Neurophysiology 1990, EEG Suppl

  2. Electrostatic Effects on the Free-Energy Balance in Folding a Ribosome-Inactivating Protein

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Tidor , M. Karplus, Science 244 (1989) 1069. [24] B. Tidor , M. Karplus, Biochemistry 30 (1991) 3217. [25] T. Simonson, AT. Briinger...775. [30] Z.S. Hendsch, B. Tidor , Protein Sei. 3 (1994) 211. [31] B. Honig, A.S. Yang, Adv. Protein Chem. 46 (1995) 27. [32] J.K. Myers

  3. The Kidney and Acid-Base Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeppen, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the topic of the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid base balance was last reviewed from a teaching perspective (Koeppen BM. Renal regulation of acid-base balance. Adv Physiol Educ 20: 132-141, 1998), our understanding of the specific membrane transporters involved in H+, HCO , and NH transport, and especially how these…

  4. Terrestrial cold-desert analogs: Antarctic landforms and implications for regional glaciation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.; Dickson, J. L.; Baker, D. M.; Mackay, S.; Lamp, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) are generally classified as a hyper-arid, cold-polar desert. The region has long been considered an important terrestrial analog for Mars because of its cold and dry climate and because it contains a suite of landforms at macro-, meso-, and microscales that closely resemble those occurring on the martian surface. The extreme hyperaridity of both Mars and the ADV has focused attention on the importance of salts and brines on soil development, phase transitions from liquid water to ice, and ultimately, on process geomorphology and landscape evolution at a range of scales on both planets. The ADV can be subdivided into three microclimate zones: a coastal thaw zone, an inland mixed zone, and a stable upland zone; zones are defined on the basis of summertime measurements of atmospheric temperature, soil moisture, and relative humidity. Subtle variations in these climate parameters result in considerable differences in the distribution and morphology of: (1) macroscale features (e.g., slopes and gullies); (2) mesoscale features (e.g., polygons, including ice-wedge, sand-wedge, and sublimation-type polygons, as well as viscous-flow features, including solifluction lobes, gelifluction lobes, and debris-covered glaciers); and (3) microscale features (e.g., rock-weathering processes/features, including salt weathering, wind erosion, and surface pitting). Equilibrium landforms are those features that formed in balance with environmental conditions within fixed microclimate zones. We report on our multi-year field and instrument analysis of four important ADV landforms: 1) sublimation polygons and relation to buried ice, 2) gullies and the environmental controls responsible for their episodic activity, 3) slope streaks, the role of water and brines in their formation and the timing of their activity, and 4) debris-covered glaciers and their three-dimensional geometry, mode and rates of formation. The relative geomorphic and climate stability for

  5. Comparison of the Phoenix Mars Lander WCL soil analyses with Antarctic Dry Valley soils, Mars meteorite EETA79001 sawdust, and a Mars simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroble, Shannon T.; McElhoney, Kyle M.; Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2013-08-01

    The results of the Mars Phoenix Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) for the analyses of the soluble ionic species present in the soil at the northern polar plains of Mars are compared to soil from the Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADVs), martian meteorite EETA79001 sawdust, and a Mars simulant. The ADV soil was compared to the Phoenix site by averaging the samples at analogous 0-5 cm depths and also all the samples from the pavement to the ice-table. Results from each analysis reveal similar ion concentrations ranging plus or minus one order-of-magnitude for all ions except perchlorate (ClO4-), which was three orders-of-magnitude greater in the Phoenix soil. The pH and solution electrical conductivity were also found to be similar for the ADV and Mars soils. The ADV profiles confirm that ClO4- gradients are sensitive indicators for the presence and form of liquid H2O on both Earth and Mars. The Phoenix and meteorite samples contained similar species and ratios but the meteorite concentrations were on average ˜4% of those for the Phoenix soil. The only exception was the ˜16% higher level of Ca2+ in the meteorite due to the CaCO3 druse. The ADV results imply that the Phoenix site is significantly more arid than University Valley, and has been for a greater period of time, as evidenced by the lack of salt gradients and the age of the soils. A Mars simulant was also formulated according to a MINEQL equilibrium model of the WCL results, and its analysis provides confidence that the soluble composition and parent salts at the Phoenix site are reasonably constrained. Overall, comparison of these samples of soil and sawdust indicates that not only does the martian meteorite EETA79001 contain similar soluble ionic species as the martian soil from the northern polar plains, but also that the soils from the ADV are similar to both, thus strengthening the argument for the ADV as a suitable terrestrial Mars analog environment.

  6. Anti-adenovirus activity, antioxidant potential, and phenolic content of black tea (Camellia sinensis Kuntze) extract.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ali; Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Alidadi, Somayeh; Hashemi, Leila

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundAdenovirus (ADV) causes a number of diseases in human, and to date, no specific antiviral therapy is approved against this virus. Thus, searching for effective anti-ADV agents seems to be an urgent requirement. Many studies have shown that components derived from medicinal plants have antiviral activity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate in vitro anti-ADV activity and also antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of black tea (Camellia sinensis) crude extract. MethodsIn this study, the hydroalchoholic extract of black tea was prepared and its anti-ADV activity was evaluated on HEp2 cell line using MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) and 50 % cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) of the extract were determined using regression analysis. Its inhibitory effect on adsorption and/or post-adsorption stages of the virus replication cycle was evaluated. To determine antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids content of the extract, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method were used, respectively. ResultsThe CC50 and the IC50 of the extract were 165.95±12.7 and 6.62±1.4 µg/mL, respectively, with the selectivity index (SI) of 25.06. This extract inhibited ADV replication in post-adsorption stage. The IC50 of DPPH radical was 8±1.41 μg/mL, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene, with IC50 of 25.41±1.89 μg/mL. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were 341.8±4.41 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram and 21.1±2.11 mg/g, respectively. ConclusionsHaving SI value of 25.06 with inhibitory effect on ADV replication, particularly during the post-adsorption period, black tea extract could be considered as a potential anti-ADV agent. The antiviral activity of this extract could be attributed to its phenolic compounds.

  7. Use of cidofovir in pediatric patients with adenovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Lakshmi; Arnold, Alana; Jones, Sarah; Patterson, Al; Graham, Dionne; Harper, Marvin; Levy, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adenoviruses contribute to morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised pediatric patients including stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients. Cidofovir (CDV), an antiviral compound approved by the FDA in 1996, is used for treatment of adenoviral (ADV) infections in immunocompromised patients despite concern of potential nephrotoxicity.   Methods: We conducted a retrospective 5-year review at Boston Children’s Hospital of 16 patients (mean age = 6.5 years) receiving 19 courses of CDV. During therapy all pertinent data elements were reviewed to characterize potential response to therapy and incidence of renal dysfunction.   Results: Of the 19 CDV courses prescribed, 16 courses (84%) were in patients who had a positive blood ADV Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) alone or in combination with positive ADV PCR/ Direct Immunofluorescence Assay (DFA) at another site. Respiratory symptoms with or without pneumonia were the most common presentation (10/19, 53%). In the majority of blood positive courses (10/16, 63%), viral clearance was also accompanied by clinical response. This was not the case in four courses where patients expired despite viral clearance, including one in which death was directly attributable to adenovirus. There was reversible renal dysfunction observed during the use of CDV. Conclusions:  CDV appeared safe and reasonably tolerated for treatment of ADV in this pediatric population and was associated with viral response and clinical improvement in the majority of patients but reversible renal dysfunction was a side effect. Further studies of the efficacy of CDV for immunocompromised children with ADV infection are warranted. PMID:27239277

  8. Adenoviral L4 33K forms ring-like oligomers and stimulates ATPase activity of IVa2: implications in viral genome packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Vemula, Sai V.; Hassan, Ahmed O.; Costakes, Greg; Stauffacher, Cynthia; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of genome packaging in adenoviruses (AdVs) is presumed to be similar to that of dsDNA viruses including herpesviruses and dsDNA phages. First, the empty capsids are assembled after which the viral genome is pushed through a unique vertex by a motor which consists of three minimal components: an ATPase, a small terminase and a portal. Various components of this motor exist as ring-like structures forming a central channel through which the DNA travels during packaging. In AdV, the IVa2 protein is believed to function as a packaging ATPase, however, the equivalents of the small terminase and the portal have not been identified in AdVs. IVa2 interacts with another viral protein late region 4 (L4) 33K which is important for genome packaging. Both IVa2 and 33K are expressed at high levels during the late stage of virus infection. The oligomeric state of IVa2 and 33K was analyzed in virus-infected cells, IVa2 and 33K transfected cells, AdV particles, or as recombinant purified proteins. Electron microscopy of the purified proteins showed ring-like oligomers for both proteins which is consistent with their putative roles as a part of the packaging motor. We found that the ATPase activity of IVa2 is stimulated in the presence of 33K and the AdV genome. Our results suggest that the 33K functions analogous to the small terminase proteins and so will be part of the packaging motor complex. PMID:25954255

  9. Nanomodified vermiculite NMV - a new material for recycling ammonium nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama, Miradije; Laiho, Taina; Eklund, Olav; Lehto, Kirsi; Shebanov, Alex; Smått, Jan-Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Vermiculites ((Mg,Fe,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)24H2O) are naturally occurring minerals from hydromica group with a high cation exchange capacity and large surface area. Since vermiculite is a hydrated mineral, its structure can be changed with heat. In this study vermiculite samples were heated in an oven until the interlayer distance of them diminished from 14 Å to 11.7 Å. This method for improving vermiculites intake of ammonium ions by heating, is an invention made at the University of Turku. Nanomodified vermiculite (NMV) is able to absorb up to 4.7 wt% of ammonium. NMV can be used as an efficient filter and immobilizer of ammonium in different environments. NMV has been efficiently tested on waste water from a biogas plant, human urine, combustion experiments, industrial chimneys, excrements from farms etc. Ammonium doped vermiculite (ADV) is further developed for fertilizer use. Performed experiments have testified the usability of ADV as a fertilizer. At first step the NMV was processed with the reject water from a biogas plant, were it absorbed NH4+ into the lattice. At second, the ADV was used as nutrient source for garden plants. Geraniums and begonias were used as test plants of the work. Plant growth rate was evaluated based on plant weight. Results showed that significant increase of the growth of geraniums and of begonias were observed when comparing to those cultivations where plants have got normal fertilization. Moreover, ADV has been tested as a fertilizer in greenhouse experiments with spruces and pines. After five months, the weight of the plants that had grown in a substrate containing ADV was 10 times the weight of plants growing in the reference substrate.

  10. Effects of local and systemic viral interleukin-10 gene transfer on corneal allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Gong, N; Pleyer, U; Volk, H-D; Ritter, T

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we explored the immunomodulatory effects of viral interleukin (IL) IL-10 after ex vivo and in vivo gene transfer in experimental corneal transplantation. Wistar-Furth rats were used as donors and major histocompatibility complex class I/II-disparate Lewis rats served as recipients. For ex vivo gene therapy donor corneas were either transfected with liposome/vIL-10 plasmid DNA mixtures or transduced with a vIL-10 expressing adenovirus vector (AdvIL-10). For in vivo studies, recipients were treated with AdvIL-10 intraperitoneally 1 day before transplantation. Graft survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier survival method. To monitor the efficacy of the therapy messenger RNA (mRNA) cytokine expression profiles in grafts and draining lymph nodes were analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, anti-adenovirus immunity was also investigated. Neither ex vivo liposome-mediated vIL-10 gene transfer nor ex vivo AdvIL-10 gene transfer led to prolonged corneal allograft survival. In contrast, corneal allograft survival was significantly prolonged in animals receiving systemic AdvIL-10 gene transfer. Moreover, only systemic vIL-10 gene therapy modulated the cytokine mRNA expression profile in draining lymph nodes. Interestingly, systemic AdvIL-10 gene transfer could not inhibit the generation of anti-adenovirus antibodies. Our data indicate systemic expression of the vIL-10 gene is required to modulate the cytokine expression profile in the draining lymph nodes, which might be a pre-requisite for the success of cytokine gene therapy.

  11. Technical Report on Preliminary Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coles, Garill A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.

    2013-09-17

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. AdvSMRs may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors (LWRs) and SMRs based on integral pressurized water reactor concepts currently being considered. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment. AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors. Some of this loss can be recovered through reduced capital costs through smaller size, fewer components, modular fabrication processes, and the opportunity for modular construction. However, the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments that are a step towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results from an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors by integrating real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors.

  12. Transduction of skin-migrating dendritic cells by human adenovirus 5 occurs via an actin-dependent phagocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Efrain; Taylor, Geraldine; Hope, Jayne; Herbert, Rebecca; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Charleston, Bryan

    2016-10-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are central to the initiation of immune responses, and various approaches have been used to target vaccines to DC in order to improve immunogenicity. Cannulation of lymphatic vessels allows for the collection of DC that migrate from the skin. These migrating DC are involved in antigen uptake and presentation following vaccination. Human replication-deficient adenovirus (AdV) 5 is a promising vaccine vector for delivery of recombinant antigens. Although the mechanism of AdV attachment and penetration has been extensively studied in permissive cell lines, few studies have addressed the interaction of AdV with DC. In this study, we investigated the interaction of bovine skin-migrating DC and replication-deficient AdV-based vaccine vectors. We found that, despite lack of expression of Coxsackie B-Adenovirus Receptor and other known adenovirus receptors, AdV readily enters skin-draining DC via an actin-dependent endocytosis. Virus exit from endosomes was pH independent, and neutralizing antibodies did not prevent virus entry but did prevent virus translocation to the nucleus. We also show that combining adenovirus with adjuvant increases the absolute number of intracellular virus particles per DC but not the number of DC containing intracellular virus. This results in increased trans-gene expression and antigen presentation. We propose that, in the absence of Coxsackie B-Adenovirus Receptor and other known receptors, AdV5-based vectors enter skin-migrating DC using actin-dependent endocytosis which occurs in skin-migrating DC, and its relevance to vaccination strategies and vaccine vector targeting is discussed.

  13. Production of first generation adenoviral vectors for preclinical protocols: amplification, purification and functional titration.

    PubMed

    Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan; Bastidas-Ramírez, Blanca Estela; Sandoval-Rodríguez, Ana; González-Cuevas, Jaime; Gómez-Meda, Belinda; García-Bañuelos, Jesús

    2011-11-01

    Gene therapy represents a promising approach in the treatment of several diseases. Currently, the ideal vector has yet to be designed; though, adenoviral vectors (Ad-v) have provided the most utilized tool for gene transfer due principally to their simple production, among other specific characteristics. Ad-v viability represents a critical variable that may be affected by storage or shipping conditions and therefore it is advisable to be assessed previously to protocol performance. The present work is unique in this matter, as the complete detailed process to obtain Ad-v of preclinical grade is explained. Amplification in permissive HEK-293 cells, purification in CsCl gradients in a period of 10 h, spectrophotometric titration of viral particles (VP) and titration of infectious units (IU), yielding batches of AdβGal, AdGFP, AdHuPA and AdMMP8, of approximately 10¹³-10¹⁴ VP and 10¹²-10¹³ IU were carried out. In vivo functionality of therapeutic AdHuPA and AdMMP8 was evidenced in rats presenting CCl₄-induced fibrosis, as more than 60% of fibrosis was eliminated in livers after systemic delivery through iliac vein in comparison with irrelevant AdβGal. Time required to accomplish the whole Ad-v production steps, including IU titration was 20 to 30 days. We conclude that production of Ad-v following standard operating procedures assuring vector functionality and the possibility to effectively evaluate experimental gene therapy results, leaving aside the use of high-cost commercial kits or sophisticated instrumentation, can be performed in a conventional laboratory of cell culture.

  14. Etiology of maculopapular rash in measles and rubella suspected patients from Belarus.

    PubMed

    Yermalovich, Marina A; Semeiko, Galina V; Samoilovich, Elena O; Svirchevskaya, Ekaterina Y; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M

    2014-01-01

    As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV), rubella virus (RV) and human parvovirus B19 (B19V). The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV) and adenovirus (AdV). Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6). A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7%) cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3-10 years old children and 20-29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3-6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6-11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus.

  15. Admiralty Inlet Advanced Turbulence Measurements: May 2015

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kilcher, Levi

    2015-05-18

    This data is from measurements at Admiralty Head, in Admiralty Inlet (Puget Sound) in May of 2015. The measurements were made using Inertial Motion Unit (IMU) equipped ADVs mounted on a 'StableMoor' (Manufacturer: DeepWater Buoyancy) buoy and a Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM). These platforms position ADV heads above the seafloor to make mid-depth turbulence measurements. The inertial measurements from the IMU allows for removal of mooring motion in post processing. The mooring and buoy motion has been removed from the stream-wise and vertical velocity signals (u, w). The lateral (v) velocity has some 'persistent motion contamination' due to mooring sway. The TTM was deployed with one ADV, it's position was: 48 09.145', -122 41.209' The StableMoor was deployed twice, the first time it was deployed in 'wing-mode' with two ADVs ('Port' and 'Star') at: 48 09.166', -122 41.173' The second StableMoor deployment was in 'Nose' mode with one ADV at: 48 09.166', -122 41.174' Units ----- - Velocity data (_u, urot, uacc) is in m/s. - Acceleration (Accel) data is in m/s^2. - Angular rate (AngRt) data is in rad/s. - The components of all vectors are in 'ENU' orientation. That is, the first index is True East, the second is True North, and the third is Up (vertical). - All other quantities are in the units defined in the Nortek Manual. Motion correction and rotation into the ENU earth reference frame was performed using the Python-based open source DOLfYN library (http://lkilcher.github.io/dolfyn/). Details on motion correction can be found there. Additional details on TTM measurements at this site can be found in the included Marine Energy Technology Symposium paper.

  16. Admiralty Inlet Advanced Turbulence Measurements: June 2014

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kilcher, Levi

    2014-06-30

    This data is from measurements at Admiralty Head, in Admiralty Inlet (Puget Sound) in June of 2014. The measurements were made using Inertial Motion Unit (IMU) equipped ADVs mounted on Tidal Turbulence Mooring's (TTMs). The TTM positions the ADV head above the seafloor to make mid-depth turbulence measurements. The inertial measurements from the IMU allows for removal of mooring motion in post processing. The mooring motion has been removed from the stream-wise and vertical velocity signals (u, w). The lateral (v) velocity has some 'persistent motion contamination' due to mooring sway. Each ttm was deployed with two ADVs. The 'top' ADV head was positioned 0.5m above the 'bottom' ADV head. The TTMs were placed in 58m of water. The position of the TTMs were: ttm01 : (48.1525, -122.6867) ttm01b : (48.15256666, -122.68678333) ttm02b : (48.152783333, -122.686316666) Deployments TTM01b and TTM02b occurred simultaneously and were spaced approximately 50m apart in the cross-stream direction. Units ----- - Velocity data (_u, urot, uacc) is in m/s. - Acceleration (Accel) data is in m/s^2. - Angular rate (AngRt) data is in rad/s. - The components of all vectors are in 'ENU' orientation. That is, the first index is True East, the second is True North, and the third is Up (vertical). - All other quantities are in the units defined in the Nortek Manual. Motion correction and rotation into the ENU earth reference frame was performed using the Python-based open source DOLfYN library (http://lkilcher.github.io/dolfyn/). Details on motion correction can be found there. Additional details on TTM measurements at this site can be found in the included Marine Energy Technology Symposium paper.

  17. Estimation of suspended sediment concentration in rivers using acoustic methods.

    PubMed

    Elçi, Sebnem; Aydin, Ramazan; Work, Paul A

    2009-12-01

    Acoustic Doppler current meters (ADV, ADCP, and ADP) are widely used in water systems to measure flow velocities and velocity profiles. Although these meters are designed for flow velocity measurements, they can also provide information defining the quantity of particulate matter in the water, after appropriate calibration. When an acoustic instrument is calibrated for a water system, no additional sensor is needed to measure suspended sediment concentration (SSC). This provides the simultaneous measurements of velocity and concentration required for most sediment transport studies. The performance of acoustic Doppler current meters for measuring SSC was investigated in different studies where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and suspended sediment concentration were related using different formulations. However, these studies were each limited to a single study site where neither the effect of particle size nor the effect of temperature was investigated. In this study, different parameters that affect the performance of an ADV for the prediction of SSC are investigated. In order to investigate the reliability of an ADV for SSC measurements in different environments, flow and SSC measurements were made in different streams located in the Aegean region of Turkey having different soil types. Soil samples were collected from all measuring stations and particle size analysis was conducted by mechanical means. Multivariate analysis was utilized to investigate the effect of soil type and water temperature on the measurements. Statistical analysis indicates that SNR readings ob tained from the ADV are affected by water temperature and particle size distribution of the soil, as expected, and a prediction model is presented relating SNR readings to SSC mea surements where both water temperature and sediment characteristics type are incorporated into the model. The coefficients of the suggested model were obtained using the multivariate anal ysis. Effect of high turbidity

  18. Management of chronic hepatitis B in an HIV-positive patient with 3TC-resistant hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Ristig, Maria; Drechsler, Henning; Crippin, Jeffrey; Lisker-Melman, Mauricio; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-09-01

    Chronic viral hepatitis has emerged as one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among HIV-positive patients. These individuals are at risk for aggressive chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and eventually, death. Currently available therapies for hepatitis B are limited and include interferon-alpha, lamivudine (3TC), and adefovir. Tenofovir (TDF), a recently approved drug for the treatment of HIV, is also active against hepatitis B. We report the case of a HIV-positive patient with liver cirrhosis secondary to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) with evidence of resistance to 3TC. The patient was initially accepted as a liver transplant candidate. However, when TDF was added to his treatment, a remarkable virologic and histopathologic improvement was achieved. The patient was subsequently removed from the liver transplant program and has not suffered from any further hepatic complications.

  19. Tenofovir Nephrotoxicity: 2011 Update

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Beatriz; Montoya-Ferrer, Ana; Sanz, Ana B.; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D.; Izquierdo, Maria C.; Poveda, Jonay; Sainz-Prestel, Valeria; Ortiz-Martin, Natalia; Parra-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Selgas, Rafael; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Tenofovir is an acyclic nucleotide analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitor structurally similar to the nephrotoxic drugs adefovir and cidofovir. Tenofovir is widely used to treat HIV infection and approved for treatment of hepatitis B virus. Despite initial cell culture and clinical trials results supporting the renal safety of tenofovir, its clinical use is associated with a low, albeit significant, risk of kidney injury. Proximal tubular cell secretion of tenofovir explains the accumulation of the drug in these mitochondria-rich cells. Tenofovir nephrotoxicity is characterized by proximal tubular cell dysfunction that may be associated with acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease. Withdrawal of the drug leads to improvement of analytical parameters that may be partial. Understanding the risk factors for nephrotoxicity and regular monitoring of proximal tubular dysfunction and serum creatinine in high-risk patients is required to minimize nephrotoxicity. Newer, structurally similar molecular derivatives that do not accumulate in proximal tubules are under study. PMID:21716719

  20. INITIATORS AND TRIGGERING CONDITIONS FOR ADAPTIVE AUTOMATION IN ADVANCED SMALL MODULAR REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna h Oxstrand

    2014-04-01

    It is anticipated that Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs) will employ high degrees of automation. High levels of automation can enhance system performance, but often at the cost of reduced human performance. Automation can lead to human out-of the loop issues, unbalanced workload, complacency, and other problems if it is not designed properly. Researchers have proposed adaptive automation (defined as dynamic or flexible allocation of functions) as a way to get the benefits of higher levels of automation without the human performance costs. Adaptive automation has the potential to balance operator workload and enhance operator situation awareness by allocating functions to the operators in a way that is sensitive to overall workload and capabilities at the time of operation. However, there still a number of questions regarding how to effectively design adaptive automation to achieve that potential. One of those questions is related to how to initiate (or trigger) a shift in automation in order to provide maximal sensitivity to operator needs without introducing undesirable consequences (such as unpredictable mode changes). Several triggering mechanisms for shifts in adaptive automation have been proposed including: operator initiated, critical events, performance-based, physiological measurement, model-based, and hybrid methods. As part of a larger project to develop design guidance for human-automation collaboration in AdvSMRs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have investigated the effectiveness and applicability of each of these triggering mechanisms in the context of AdvSMR. Researchers reviewed the empirical literature on adaptive automation and assessed each triggering mechanism based on the human-system performance consequences of employing that mechanism. Researchers also assessed the practicality and feasibility of using the mechanism in the context of an AdvSMR control room. Results indicate that there are tradeoffs associated with each

  1. Summary of the Preliminary Optical ICHMI Design Study: A Preliminary Engineering Design Study for a Standpipe Viewport

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Qiao, Hong; Berglin, Eric J.; Hatchell, Brian K.

    2013-12-26

    This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements

  2. Acoustic droplet vaporization for diagnostic and therapeutic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kripfgans, Oliver Daniel

    A technology, termed Acoustic Droplet Vaporization (ADV), is developed whereby superheated droplets are caused to vaporize by application of an ultrasonic field. The droplet emulsion (90% <6 um diameter) is made by mixing saline, albumin, and perfluorocarbon at high speed. It has been observed that an acoustic pressure threshold exists above which the droplets vaporize into bubbles approximately 25-times the original droplet diameter. For frequencies between 1.5 and 8 MHz, the threshold decreases from 4.5 to 0.75 MPa peak rarefactional pressure. The single pulse efficiency of ADV has been measured as 26%. This technology might be useful for tissue occlusion in cancer treatment as well as for aberration correction in acoustic imaging. To demonstrate these potential applications, gas bubbles were made in vivo in animal models by ADV. It was found that ADV could be used to temporarily form large gas bubbles (>30 um) in vivo, which at large number density occluded targeted tissues and reduced the blood flow by 34%. Alternatively, for a very sparse droplet population, gas bubbles could serve as potential point beacons for phase aberration correction given their backscatter amplitudes of 24 dB above tissue background. Other possible applications include drug delivery, indicator for cryo therapy, pressure/radiation beacons, hyperthermia, and cavitation nuclei. ADV of individual droplets showed that during acoustic irradiation, droplets perform dipole-type oscillations and that such oscillations increased in amplitude with acoustic intensity. Smaller droplets required more acoustic intensity for vaporization than larger droplets; however, independent of droplet diameter, a maximum oscillation amplitude of 1.3 um, was required. This threshold corresponds to a Reynolds number of ˜5 x 104. Vaporization started either as a spot on the axis of oscillation close to a pole of the droplet, or homogeneously throughout the droplet's imaged cross-section. It is concluded that

  3. Lamivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Haché, Chantal; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a common disease and approximately 20% of infected patients with compensated cirrhosis will decompensate over 5 years. If untreated, the survival of decompensated cirrhosis is poor (15% at 5 years). The extent of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, as assessed by serum HBV-DNA level, is a strong predictor of the risk of disease progression and hepatocellular carcinoma. This provides a rationale for antiviral therapy to arrest progression of liver disease. Lamivudine is a pyrimidine analogue that inhibits HBV-DNA reverse transcriptase. It decreases HBV replication, normalises alanine aminotransferase levels and reduces hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B. This article will focus on the use of lamivudine in patients with HBV-cirrhosis. In patients with compensated HBV-cirrhosis, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial has shown that lamivudine significantly reduced the rate of disease progression and hepatocellular carcinoma development over a 3-year period. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, treatment with lamivudine can produce spectacular improvements of liver function, but the improvement is slow and a clinical benefit is usually not observed until after at least 3-6 months of treatment. A major drawback of lamivudine treatment is the development of resistance, observed in 15-20% of patients after 1 year and up to 70% after 5 years of continued treatment. Thus, patients with HBV-cirrhosis treated with lamivudine should have regular monitoring of serum HBV-DNA levels and prompt institution of additional antiviral therapy if viral breakthrough is observed. Adefovir, tenofovir and entecavir have demonstrated efficacy in patients with lamivudine resistance. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, in whom the development of resistance can be fatal, combination therapy (such as lamivudine plus adefovir) may prove more effective than monotherapy and this issue needs further study.

  4. Adverse effects of oral antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Kayaaslan, Bircan; Guner, Rahmet

    2017-01-01

    Oral nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) are currently the backbone of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection treatment. They are generally well-tolerated by patients and safe to use. To date, a significant number of patients have been treated with NAs. Safety data has accumulated over the years. The aim of this article is to review and update the adverse effects of oral NAs. NAs can cause class adverse effects (i.e., myopathy, neuropathy, lactic acidosis) and dissimilar adverse effects. All NAs carry a “Black Box” warning because of the potential risk for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, these adverse effects are rarely reported. The majority of cases are associated with lamivudine and telbivudine. Adefovir can lead to dose- and time-dependent nephrotoxicity, even at low doses. Tenofovir has significant renal and bone toxicity in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, bone and renal toxicity in patients with CHB are not as prominent as in HIV infection. Entecavir and lamivudine are not generally associated with renal adverse events. Entecavir has been claimed to increase the risk of lactic acidosis in decompensated liver disease and high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores. However, current studies reported that entecavir could be safely used in decompensated cirrhosis. An increase in fetal adverse events has not been reported with lamivudine, telbivudine and tenofovir use in pregnant women, while there is no adequate data regarding entecavir and adefovir. Further long-term experience is required to highlight the adverse effects of NAs, especially in special patient populations, including pregnant women, elderly and patients with renal impairment. PMID:28261380

  5. Analysis of HBV genotype, drug resistant mutations, and pre-core/basal core promoter mutations in Korean patients with acute hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Ho; Hong, Sun Pyo; Jang, Eun Sun; Park, Sang Jong; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Kang, Sook-Kyoung; Jeong, Sook-Hyang

    2015-06-01

    Acute hepatitis B, caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains with drug resistant mutations or pre-core/basal core promoter (PC/BCP) mutations, is a public health concern, because this infection is often associated with poor disease outcome or difficulty in therapeutic choice. The HBV genotype, the prevalence of drug resistant mutations, and PC/BCP mutations in Korean patients with acute hepatitis B were studied. From 2006 to 2008, 36 patients with acute hepatitis B were enrolled prospectively in four general hospitals. Among them, 20 showed detectable HBV DNA (median value was 4.8 log copies/mL). HBV genotyping and analysis of HBV mutations that conferred resistance against lamivudine, adefovir, or entecavir and of PC/BCP mutations were performed using highly sensitive restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) analysis. All 20 patients were infected with HBV genotype C, which causes almost all cases of chronic hepatitis B in Korea. No patient showed mutations that conferred resistance against lamivudine (L180M, M204V/I), adefovir (A181T, N236S), or entecavir (I169M, A184T/V, S202I/G, M250V/I/L). However, four patients had BCP mutations, and two had PC mutations. Platelet counts were significantly lower in the four patients with PC/BCP mutations compared to those with wild type. In this study, all acute hepatitis B patients had genotype C HBV strains with no drug resistant mutations. However, 20% showed PC/BCP mutations. This highlights the need for further study on the significance of PC/BCP mutations.

  6. Antiviral therapy delays esophageal variceal bleeding in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang-Zheng; Cheng, Liu-Fang; Li, Qing-Shan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Jun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of antiviral therapy with nucleoside analogs in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis and esophageal varices. METHODS: Eligible patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and esophageal varices who consulted two tertiary hospitals in Beijing, China, the Chinese Second Artillery General Hospital and Chinese PLA General Hospital, were enrolled in the study from January 2005 to December 2009. Of 117 patients, 79 received treatment with different nucleoside analogs and 38 served as controls. Bleeding rate, change in variceal grade and non-bleeding duration were analyzed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify factors related to esophageal variceal bleeding. RESULTS: The bleeding rate was decreased in the antiviral group compared to the control group (29.1% vs 65.8%, P < 0.001). Antiviral therapy was an independent factor related to esophageal bleeding in multivariate analysis (HR = 11.3, P < 0.001). The mean increase in variceal grade per year was lower in the antiviral group (1.0 ± 1.3 vs 1.7 ± 1.2, P = 0.003). Non-bleeding duration in the antiviral group was prolonged in the Kaplan-Meier model. Viral load rebound was observed in 3 cases in the lamivudine group and in 1 case in the adefovir group, all of whom experienced bleeding. Entecavir and adefovir resulted in lower bleeding rates (17.2% and 28.6%, respectively) than the control (P < 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively), whereas lamivudine (53.3%) did not (P = 0.531). CONCLUSION: Antiviral therapy delays the progression of esophageal varices and reduces bleeding risk in HBV-related cirrhosis, however, high-resistance agents tend to be ineffective for long-term treatment. PMID:24187460

  7. A Tissue-Mimicking Ultrasound Test Object Using Droplet Vaporization to Create Point Targets

    PubMed Central

    Carneal, Catherine M.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Krücker, Jochen; Carson, Paul L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound test objects containing reference point targets could be useful for evaluating ultrasound systems and phase aberration correction methods. Polyacrylamide gels containing albumin-stabilized droplets (3.6 µm mean diameter) of dodecafluoropentane (DDFP) are being developed for this purpose. Perturbation by ultrasound causes spontaneous vaporization of the superheated droplets to form gas bubbles, a process termed acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV). The resulting bubbles (20 to 160 µm diameter) are small compared with acoustic wavelengths in diagnostic ultrasound and are theoretically suitable for use as point targets (phase errors <20° for typical f-numbers). Bubbles distributed throughout the material are convenient for determining the point spread function in an imaging plane or volume. Cooling the gel causes condensation of the DDFP droplets, which may be useful for storage. Studying ADV in such viscoelastic media could provide insight into potential bioeffects from rapid bubble formation. PMID:21937339

  8. High-Fidelity Down-Conversion Source for Secure Communications Using On-Demand Single Photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Tony

    2015-01-01

    AdvR, Inc., has built an efficient, fully integrated, waveguide-based source of spectrally uncorrelated photon pairs that will accelerate research and development (R&D) in the emerging field of quantum information science. Key to the innovation is the use of submicron periodically poled waveguides to produce counter propagating photon pairs, which is enabled by AdvR's patented segmented microelectrode poling technique. This novel device will provide a high brightness source of down-conversion pairs with enhanced spectral properties and low attenuation, and it will operate in the visible to the mid-infrared spectral region. A waveguide-based source of spectrally and spatially pure heralded photons will contribute to a wide range of NASA's advanced technology development efforts, including on-demand single photon sources for high-rate spaced-based secure communications.

  9. Access and Operator Methods for the Triton Nested Relational Database System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-13

    Smith 27 237-46-3567 Research Michael Taylor 31 395-73-8901 Advertising Tina Therrien 43 555-12-3434 Personnel Carla Dunlap 37 624-35-8152 Figure 1.1...childage Mktg J. Smith 27 237-46-3567 Jeramie 8 M Todd 4 M RIsrch M. Taylor 31 395-73-8901 Susan 3 F Adv T. Therrien 43 555-12-3434 Laura 18 F John 13 M...emp-ssn children child-name[ child-age sex Mktg J. Smith 27 237-46-3567 Jeramie 8 M Todd 4 M Rsrch M. Taylor 31 395-73-8901 Susan 3 F Adv T. Therrien 43

  10. Room-temperature, atmospheric plasma needle reduces adenovirus gene expression in HEK 293A host cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Z.; Lu, X.; Cao, Y.; Ning, Q.; Ostrikov, K.; Lu, Y.; Zhou, X.; Liu, J.

    2011-12-01

    Room-temperature, atmospheric-pressure plasma needle treatment is used to effectively minimize the adenovirus (AdV) infectivity as quantified by the dramatic reduction of its gene expression in HEK 293A primary human embryonic kidney cells studied by green fluorescent protein imaging. The AdV titer is reduced by two orders of magnitude within only 8 min of the plasma exposure. This effect is due to longer lifetimes and higher interaction efficacy of the plasma-generated reactive species in confined space exposed to the plasma rather than thermal effects commonly utilized in pathogen inactivation. This generic approach is promising for the next-generation anti-viral treatments and imunotherapies.

  11. Cyclic Cocycles on Twisted Convolution Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    We give a construction of cyclic cocycles on convolution algebras twisted by gerbes over discrete translation groupoids. For proper étale groupoids, Tu and Xu (Adv Math 207(2):455-483, 2006) provide a map between the periodic cyclic cohomology of a gerbe-twisted convolution algebra and twisted cohomology groups which is similar to the construction of Mathai and Stevenson (Adv Math 200(2):303-335, 2006). When the groupoid is not proper, we cannot construct an invariant connection on the gerbe; therefore to study this algebra, we instead develop simplicial techniques to construct a simplicial curvature 3-form representing the class of the gerbe. Then by using a JLO formula we define a morphism from a simplicial complex twisted by this simplicial curvature 3-form to the mixed bicomplex computing the periodic cyclic cohomology of the twisted convolution algebras.

  12. Coordinating Chemical and Mineralogical Analyses of Antarctic Dry Valley Sediments as Potential Analogs for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, S. N.; Bishop, J. L.; Englert, P.; Gibson, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) provide a unique terrestrial analog for Martian surface processes as they are extremely cold and dry sedimentary environments. The surface geology and the chemical composition of the Dry Valleys that are similar to Mars suggest the possible presence of these soil-formation processes on Mars. The soils and sediments from Wright Valley, Antarctica were investigated in this study to examine mineralogical and chemical changes along the surface layer in this region and as a function of depth. Surface samples collected near Prospect Mesa and Don Juan Pond of the ADV were analyzed using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) and mid-IR reflectance spectroscopy and major and trace element abundances.

  13. Characterization of bioeffects on endothelial cells under acoustic droplet vaporization

    PubMed Central

    Seda, Robinson; Li, David; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Bul, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Gas embolotherapy is achieved by locally vaporizing microdroplets through acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), which result in bubbles that are large enough to occlude blood flow directed to tumors. Endothelial cells, lining blood vessels, can be affected by these vaporization events leading to cell injury and cell death. An idealized monolayer of endothelial cells was exposed to ADV using a 3.5 MHz transducer and dodecafluoropentane droplets. Treatments included insonation pressures that varied from 2 to 8 MPa (rarefactional), and pulse lengths that varied from 4 to 16 input cycles. The generated bubble cloud was directly dependent on pressure, but not on pulse length. Cellular damage increased with increasing bubble cloud size, but was limited to the bubble cloud area. These results suggest that vaporization near the endothelium may impact the vessel wall, an effect that could be either deleterious or beneficial depending on the intended overall therapeutic application. PMID:26403698

  14. Nondestructive Measurements for Diagnostics of Advanced Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Prowant, Matthew S.; Dib, Gerges; Roy, Surajit; Luzi, Lorenzo; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2016-09-20

    Information on advanced reactor (AdvRx) component condition and failure probability is necessary to maintaining adequate safety margins and avoiding unplanned shutdowns, both of which have regulatory and economic consequences. Prognostic health management (PHM) technologies provide one approach to addressing these needs by providing the technical means for lifetime management of significant passive components and reactor internals. However, such systems require measurement data that are sensitive to degradation of the component. This paper describes results to date of ongoing research on nondestructive measurements of component condition for degradation mechanisms of relevance to AdvRx concepts. The focus of this paper is on in-situ ultrasonic measurements during high-temperature creep degradation. The data were analyzed to assess the sensitivity of the measurements to creep degradation, with the specific objective of assessing the suitability of the resulting correlations for remaining life prediction. The details of the measurements, results of data analysis, and ongoing research in this area are discussed.

  15. Quantifying Turbulence for Tidal Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Jim; Richmond, Marshall C.; Polagye, Brian; Durgesh, Vibhav

    2010-08-01

    Using newly collected data from a tidal power site in Puget Sound, WA, metrics for turbulence quantification are assessed and discussed. The quality of raw ping Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data for turbulence studies is evaluated against Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) data at a point. Removal of Doppler noise from the raw ping data is shown to be a crucial step in turbulence quantification. Excluding periods of slack tide, the turbulent intensity estimates at a height of 4.6 m above the seabed are 8% and 11% from the ADCP and ADV, respectively. Estimates of the turbulent dissipation rate are more variable, from 10e-3 to 10e-1 W/m^3. An example analysis of coherent Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) is presented.

  16. Integrating fluorescent dye flow-curve testing and acoustic Doppler velocimetry profiling for in situ hydraulic evaluation and improvement of clarifier performance.

    PubMed

    Tarud, F; Aybar, M; Pizarro, G; Cienfuegos, R; Pastén, P

    2010-08-01

    Enhancing the performance of clarifiers requires a thorough understanding of their hydraulics. Fluorescence spectroscopy and acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV) profiling generally have been used separately to evaluate secondary settlers. We propose that simultaneous use of these techniques is needed to obtain a more reliable and useful evaluation. Experiments were performed on laboratory- and full-scale clarifiers. Factors affecting Fluorescein and Rhodamine 6G properties were identified. Underestimations up to 500% in fluorescence intensities may be derived from differential fluorescence quenching by oxygen. A careful control and interpretation of fluorescent dye experiments is needed to minimize artifacts in real settings. While flow-curve tests constructed under controlled conditions provided a more accurate overall quantitative estimation of the hydraulic performance, ADV velocity and turbulence profiling provided a detailed spatial understanding of flow patterns that was used to troubleshoot and fix the causes of hydraulic short-circuits.

  17. A model for acoustic vaporization of encapsulated droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulouvrat, François; Guédra, Matthieu

    2015-10-01

    This work deals with the theoretical modelling of the acoustic vaporization of a droplet encapsulated with a thin viscoelastic shell. A generalized Rayleigh-Plesset equation describing the radial motion of the particle is derived, which accounts for the evaporation rate at liquid/vapor interface, the surface tension between droplet and outer liquid, and the viscoelasticity of the shell. This equation is coupled to heat equations in the liquid media which rule the temperature field around the bubble and thus the mass flux through the surface. Numerical simulations reveal behaviors of the vapor nucleus which can be substantially different from the case of a vapor bubble in an infinite medium. The results show that the ADV threshold depends on frequency in agreement with experimental observations in literature. The rigidity of the shell also affects the ADV threshold and the dynamics of the vapor expansion.

  18. Wave-Turbulence-Sediment Dynamics on the Atchafalaya Shelf, Louisiana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safak, I.; Sheremet, A.; Allison, M.; Hsu, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    Two synchronized Sontek Hydra ADVs (Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter) were deployed for 2 weeks in early spring 2008 on the muddy Atchafalaya Shelf to observe near-bed wave, turbulence and cohesive sediment transport processes. The ADVs sampled at 10 Hz and were mounted in a vertical array to separate the effects of waves and turbulence and estimate Reynolds stresses. Near bottom velocity profile and suspended sediment concentration were also monitored using a pulse-coherent acoustic Doppler current profiler together with optical and acoustic backscatter sensors. A uni-dimensional boundary layer model for cohesive sediment transport was used to reconstruct the near bed suspended sediment concentration and simulate its interaction with the flow field.

  19. TIDAL TURBULENCE SPECTRA FROM A COMPLIANT MOORING

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Jim; Kilcher, Levi; Richmond, Marshall C.; Talbert, Joe; deKlerk, Alex; Polagye, Brian; Guerra, Maricarmen; Cienfuegos, Rodrigo

    2013-06-13

    A compliant mooring to collect high frequency turbulence data at a tidal energy site is evaluated in a series of short demon- stration deployments. The Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) improves upon recent bottom-mounted approaches by suspend- ing Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs) at mid-water depths (which are more relevant to tidal turbines). The ADV turbulence data are superior to Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data, but are subject to motion contamination when suspended on a mooring in strong currents. In this demonstration, passive stabilization is shown to be sufficient for acquiring bulk statistics of the turbulence, without motion correction. With motion cor- rection (post-processing), data quality is further improved; the relative merits of direct and spectral motion correction are dis- cussed.

  20. Novel Interphases: Synthesis, Molecular Orientation and Grafting of Liquid Crystal Polymers on Carbon Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    rigid molecules into an anisotropic phase have been reported. Lars Onsager (13) showed that steric interactions between rigid rods can lead to...will eventually undergo an Onsager orientational transition. From a properties point of view the occurrence of a high density surface layer with...Plate’, N. A., Adv. in Polym. Sci., 1984, 173. (12) Flory, P. J., Proc. Royal Soc. London, 1956, A234, 73. (13) Onsager , L., Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci

  1. Microvascular Materials for Mass and Energy Transport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    50 μm 250 μm 250 μm • Varying diameters of range 20-500 μm ! 1 mm 500 200 20 Different Micro-Fabrication Methods for Materials: Hamburger to...C. McDonald, X. Jiang, P. LeDuc , M. ‐H Wu, D. E. Ingber, G. M. Whitesides, Adv. Mat. 2001, 13, 570–574 0 -700 \\ §. 600 -s; I "-6 o, -’- 500 :F

  2. Soils and weathering processes in Antarctic Dry Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-09-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) represent a unique analog for Mars, as they are extremely cold and dry desert environments [1,2]. Elevated clay and salt components just below the surface indicate an active subsurface alteration environment where liquid water is seasonally present. Similarities in the climate, surface geology, and chemical properties of the Dry Valleys to that of Mars imply the possible presence of these soil-formation mechanisms on Mars, other planets and icy satellites.

  3. Toxicity of Synthetic High Density and Conventional Hydrocarbon Jet Fuels to a Soil Bacterium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 15 Bartha, R. and R.M. Atlas. 1977. The microbiology of aquatic oil spills . Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 22: 225-266... Nigerian crude oil , and used crankcase oil on attached algal communities: Acute and chronic toxicity of water-soluble constituents. Appl. Environ. Microbiol...other data, is not to be regarded by implication or otherwise, as in any manner licensing the holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying

  4. Automatic Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement (AMCLM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Schmutz, P., Heinz, S., et al.,. 2009. Cognitive load in ecommerce applications: measurement and effects on user satisfaction. Adv. in Hum.-Comp...interpret the cognitive processes through their effect on the operator’s body state. In the past, physiological measures usually entailed invasive equipment...sensing. As a physiological index, eye activity has been considered as an effective indicator of cognitive workload assessment, as it can be sensitive

  5. A Construction of Boolean Functions with Good Cryptographic Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    ciphers with linear feedback,” Adv. in Crypt. – CRYPTO 2003, LNCS 2729, Springer–Verlag, 2003, pp. 176–194. [12] N. Courtois and W. Meier, “ Algebraic ...37] Q. Wang, T. Johansson and H. Kan, “Some results on fast algebraic attacks and higher-order non- linearities ,” IET Information Security 6:1 (2012...construction. Keywords: Cryptographic Boolean functions, avalanche characteristics, re- siliency, algebraic immunity, nonlinearity, hidden weighted bit

  6. Hybrid Nanotechnologies for Detection and Synergistic Therapies for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Tsourkas A. (2006). Super - paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle probes for molecular imaging. Ann Biomed Eng 34: 23–38. Uchida M, Kosuge H, Terashima M...tissue penetration devices for nanoparticles . Adv. Mat. (review article) 24:3747-3756. (2012). [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22550056. Braun G B., Friman...T., Pang, H-B., Kotamraju, VR, Pallaoro, A., Reich, NO.,Teesalu, T. and Ruoslahti, E. Etchable and bright silver nanoparticle probes for cell

  7. An Updated Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Coles, Garill A.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Ivans, William J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2014-07-18

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment, as AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results on augmenting an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors that integrate real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors. Methods to propagate uncertainty through the enhanced risk monitor are evaluated. Available data to quantify the level of uncertainty and the POF of key components are examined for their relevance, and a status update of this data evaluation is described. Finally, we describe potential targets for developing new risk metrics that may be useful for studying trade-offs for economic

  8. Beyond Rabies: Are Free-Ranging Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in British Columbia Reservoirs of Emerging Infection?

    PubMed

    Britton, A P; Redford, T; Bidulka, J J; Scouras, A P; Sojonky, K R; Zabek, E; Schwantje, H; Joseph, T

    2017-04-01

    Wild animal reservoirs are an important source of emerging and zoonotic infection. Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) are a reservoir of skunk strain rabies virus in Canada, with the exception of some areas including the province of British Columbia (BC). Beyond rabies, the reservoir status of skunks for emerging and zoonotic pathogens in BC is unknown. From March 2011 to February 2015, 50 free-ranging skunks were necropsied and tested for 4 pathogens: influenza A, Aleutian disease virus (ADV), Leptospira spp. and Salmonella spp. Two skunks (4%) with respiratory disease caused by influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 were detected during the human flu season suggesting that skunks may represent a target population for reverse zoonosis of this strain of influenza A virus. High prevalence of ADV infection was detected (43/50, 86%). Two of the infected skunks exhibited Aleutian disease (AD) suggesting that skunks act as both a reservoir and a target population for the virus. Most studies of ADV have focused on the potential for infection of free-ranging species living near mink farms. Our study suggests that urban skunks may be a primary host for the virus independent of domestic mink. Whether skunks act as a reservoir of ADV infection for other peridomestic species will depend on host specificity of the viral strains. Leptospira interrogans was detected in 18% (9/49) of the skunks. Identification of the serovar(s) detected is needed to determine any public health risk of leptospirosis following exposure to infected skunks. Salmonella spp. was isolated from three of 43 skunks (7%), specifically S. Typhimurium, S. Muenchen and S. Enteritidis. These serotypes cause disease in humans, but the low prevalence of infection suggests there is a low risk for zoonotic transmission.

  9. A Method of Successive Corrections of the Control Subspace in the Reduced-Order Variational Data Assimilation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    and M. Kamachi, 2002: The improvement made by a modified TLM in 4DVar with a geophysical boundary layer model . Adv. Atmos. Sci., 19 (4), 563–582...into numerical models is proposed. In contrast to the conventional 4DVAR schemes, the method does not require development of the tangent linear and... model utilized as a strong constraint. When the adjoint code is stable, R4DVAR’s convergence rate is comparable to that of the standard 4DVAR

  10. Numerical Results of the Theory of Diffraction of Radio Waves around the Surface of the Earth (Selected Sections),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-20

    the joining with reflection formulas (even if 25 terms are taken in them) and we had td use other methods. Thus for Y =4.8 formulas (3.18)-(3.19...O with any values of the parameter /4 . e)V’x,O.vco) adV~ 𔃻𔃺, mkn For the functions o Y, and V(X, 0,j2, 0), making it possible to find V for Sf << I

  11. Optics, Acoustics and Stress in Situ (OASIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    Sidescan and Pencil-beam sonars ) APPROACH The approach is to obtain direct measurements of the turbulent Reynolds stress within the centimeters...881 L rotary sidescan sonars from Imagenex. We worked the manufacturer to develop a downward tilted head fan- beam transducer within an oil filled cap...Pulse Coherent Doppler Profiler (PCDP), Imagenex rotary sidescan sonar , Imagenex 2- axis rotary pencil beam sonar , Aquatec ABS and Nortek Vector ADVs

  12. Field and Numerical Study of the Columbia River Mouth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    registered acoustic backscatter were collected throughout the MCR with a Systems Engineering & Assessment, Ltd. SWATHplus-M interferometric sidescan sonar ...ADV, and a pressure sensor to measure hydrodynamics, a CTD and OBS to measure water properties near the bed, and fan- and pencil-beam sonars to...two of the sonars due to limited battery life) (Figures 3 and 4). In August 2005 these tripods were successfully deployed during low river discharge

  13. Sensitive Mid-Infrared Detection in Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors Using Extreme Non-Degenerate Two-Photon Absorption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-07

    cutting and imaging, with p- and i -GaN regions estimated to be ,1 mm in thickness36. This detector was used in photoconductive mode, with a preamplifier...D., Khoo, I . C., Salamo, G. J., Stegeman, G. I . & Van Straland, E. W. Nonlinear refraction and absorption: mechanisms and magnitudes. Adv. Opt...Am. B 9, 2065–2074 (1992). 14. Sheik- Bahae , M., Wang, J., DeSalvo, R., Hagan, D. J. & Van Styland, E. W. Measurement of nondegenerate nonlinearities

  14. Sensory Sensitivities and Discriminations and Their Roles in Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-30

    10. Tweel LH van der, Regan D & Spekreijse H (1969) Some aspects of potentials evoked by changes in spatial brightness conast. 7th ISCERG Syntp...on EPs to spatial contrast. Trace 6,20-8. 23. Regan D (1972) Cortical evoked potentials. Adv Behav Biol 5, 177-92. 24. Spekreijse H, van der Tweel LH...conwas In H Spekreijse & LH van der Tweel (Eds), Spatial contrast: report of a workshop. Publ for Netherlands Royal Academy of Sciences. Amsterdam: North

  15. Sensory Sensitivities and Discriminations and their Roles in Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-31

    technique. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 32,479-83. 10. Tweel LH van der, Regan D & Spekreijse H (1969) Some aspects of potentials evoked by changes in...evoked potentials. Adv Behav Biol 5, 177-92. 24. Spekreijse H, van der Tweel LH & Regan D (1972) Interocular sustained suppression: correlations with...contrast. In H Spekreijse & LH van der Tweel (Eds), Spatial contrast: report of a workshop. Publ for Netherlands Royal Academy of Sciences. Amsterdam

  16. Sensory Sensitivities and Discriminations and Their Roles in Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-30

    new objective technique. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 32,479-83. 10. Tweel LH van der, Regan D & Spekreijse H (1969) Some aspects of potentials evoked...1972) Cortical evoked potentials. Adv Behav Biol 5, 177-92. 24. Spekreijse H, van der Tweel LH & Regan D (1972) Interocular sustained suppression...46. 70. Regan D (1977) Colour and contrast. In H Spekreijse & LH van der Tweel (Eds), Spatial contrast: report of a workshop. Publ for Netherlands

  17. Visual Sensitivities and Discriminations and Their Roles in Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-14

    Neurosurg Psychiat 32, 479-83. 10. Tweel LH van der, Regan D & Spekreijse H (1969) Some aspects of potentials evoked by changes in spatial brightness...potentials. Adv Behav Biol 5, 177-92. 24. Spekreijse H, van der Tweel LH & Regan D (1972) Interocular sustained suppression: correlations with evoked...Colour and contrast. In H Spekreijse & LH van der Tweel (Eds), Spatial contrast: report of a workshop. Publ for Netherlands Royal Academy of Sciences

  18. Visual Sensitivities and Discriminations and Their Role in Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-30

    of the visual pathway: a new objective technique. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 32, 479-83. 10. Tweel LH van der, Regan D & Spekreijse H (1969) Some...evoked potentials. Adv Behav Biol 5, 177-92. 24. Spekreijse H, van der Tweel LH & Regan D (1972) Interocular sustained suppression: correlations with...applications of EEG data processing. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 319-46. 78. Regan D (1977) Colour and contrast. In H Spekreijse & LH van der Tweel (Eds), Spatial

  19. 78 FR 59740 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Customer and/ $0.25 or Professional liquidity of up to 0.20% of total industry customer equity and ETF.../ $0.40 or Professional liquidity of 0.21% to 0.30% of total industry customer equity and ETF option... liquidity of 0.31% to 0.49% of total industry customer equity and ETF option ADV contracts per day in...

  20. Functional Rehabilitation With a Foot Plate Modification for Circular External Fixation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-05

    return-to-duty rates in service members participating in the RTR and using a novel custom orthosis . This may ultimately translate into higher return-to...secondary to back pain, separated from the Army Abbreviation: IDEO, intrepid dynamic extraskeletal orthosis .14 Figure 6. The white arrow demonstrates a break...Owens JG, et al. Can an ankle- foot orthosis change hearts and minds? J Surg Orthop Adv. 2011;20(1):8-18. 15. Patzkowski JC, Owens JG, Blanck RV

  1. A Nonlinear Transfer Operator Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollicott, Mark

    2017-02-01

    In recent papers, Kenyon et al. (Ergod Theory Dyn Syst 32:1567-1584 2012), and Fan et al. (C R Math Acad Sci Paris 349:961-964 2011, Adv Math 295:271-333 2016) introduced a form of non-linear thermodynamic formalism based on solutions to a non-linear equation using matrices. In this note we consider the more general setting of Hölder continuous functions.

  2. Inflow Characterization for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Devices. FY-2010 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Durgesh, Vibhav; Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian

    2011-01-31

    Marine and Hydro Kinetic devices (MHK) are being widely studied as a source of renewable energy. The Marrowstone Island site is a potential location for installing MHK devices because the tidal currents observed that are sufficient for power generation. In order to quantify the effects of turbulence on MHK devices and the surrounding environment at this site, a prelimi- nary fluid flow field study was conducted here by the Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL) in collaboration with the Applied Physics Lab at the University of Washington (APL-UW). This study entailed continuous The Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV), Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements from May 4, 2010 to May 22, 2010, in order to obtain information about turbulence effects during different tidal conditions. The instruments used for collecting the above measurements were deployed at the Marrowstone site using a R/V Jack Robertson provided by the University of Washington (APL-UW). All the measurements were taken at the site with an average depth of 22 m below the sea surface. ADV acquired velocity data at 32 Hz sampling frequency at 4.6 m above the seabed, and ADCP acquired velocity profile data at a sampling frequency of 2 Hz, from a height of 2.6 m above the seabed to the surface with a bin resolution of 0.5 m. The ADV and ADCP measurements showed that the horizontal velocity had a turbulence intensity of 10%. Further- more, the spectral analysis from ADV measurements showed that the flow is fully turbulent with -5/3 slope in the inertial sub-range of the spectra. Moreover, the temporal-frequency analysis showed presence of ”eddies” at high frequencies. These preliminary studies provided initial flow field and site characteristics, showed the limitations of the instruments used and highlighted changes that need to be made in the experimental setup for deployment in FY-2011 studies.

  3. pi-Conjugated Gradient Copolymers Suppress Phase Separation and Improve Stability in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    discussion Polymer synthesis The gradient copolymers described herein were prepared using a living, chain-growth polymerization method known as catalyst...and C. S. Hsu, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2011, 21, 1723–1732; (d) V. A. Kostyanovsky, D. K. Susarova, A. S. Peregudov and P. A. Troshin, Thin Solid Films ...bromohexyl)thiophene (10 mol%) were synthesized by catalyst transfer polycondensation. Post- polymerization conversion of the side-chain bromides into azides

  4. An Evaluation of Stereoscopic Digital Mammography for Earlier Detection of Breast Cancer and Reduced Rate of Recall

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    magnification stereoscopic technique. Adv Neurol 1981; 30:175-189. Gautsch TL, Johnson EE, Seeger LL. True three dimensional stereographic display of 3D ...evaluation of depth perception using a virtual 3D cursor. Med Phys 2000; 27:1305-1310. Graf von Keyserlingk D, De Bleser R, Poeck K. Stereographic...Sexton 1, Surman P. Stereoscopic and autostereoscopic display systems. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 1999:85-99. 23 APPENDICES "* Appendix Al : SDM

  5. Merged Beam Studies of the Dissociative Recombination of H(+3) Ions with Low Internal Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-30

    Miko is gratefully ac- the form factor and other experimental param- knowledged. This work was supported by the Na- eters though not shown contribute...59. T.F. O’Malley, Phys. Rev. 150, 14, 1966. 60. T.F. O’Malley, 3. Chem. PhyS. 61, 322 , 1969. 61. T.F. o’Ialley In Adv. At. Mol. Phys., Vol.7 (Eds

  6. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    predictors of surveillance and follow-up care is Baldwin’s Afrocentric model for describing AA women’s participation in breast and cervical cancer screening...African American women’s participation in breast and cervical cancer early detection and screening. Adv Nurs Sci. 1996;19(2):27Y42. 28. Marin G. Subjective...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0454 TITLE: Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance

  7. Self-Organized Terrorist-Counterterrorist Adaptive Coevolutions, Part 1: A Conceptual Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    in social network formation is discussed by Ibarra , et al. [207], Monge, et al. [208], and Rice and Aydin [209]. • Social exchange: agents tend to...Order and Chaos, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992. [64] Serguei N. Dorogovtsev and Jose Fernando Ferreira Mendes, "Evolution of Networks,” Adv...Mechanics of Complex Networks,” Rev. Mod. Phys., Volume 74, 2002: http:/ /merlin.fae.ua.es/fvega/review_ab.pdf. [89] Serguei N. Dorogovtsev and Jose

  8. Detection and molecular characterization of diarrhea causing viruses in single and mixed infections in children: a comparative study between Bangladesh and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Mitui, Marcelo Takahiro; Bozdayi, Gulendam; Ahmed, Selim; Matsumoto, Takashi; Nishizono, Akira; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2014-07-01

    The incidence and mortality caused by diarrhea differ among countries. The prevalence of different enteric viruses, their molecular characteristics, and infections with multiple viruses might affect the disease incidence and mortality caused by diarrhea. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution and molecular characteristics of enteric viruses in children with diarrhea in Turkey and Bangladesh. A total of 288 stool samples that were negative for group A rotavirus were collected from children aged <5 years with acute diarrhea who presented to hospitals in Turkey and Bangladesh. The samples were screened for human bocavirus (HBoV), astrovirus (HAstV), norovirus (NoV), and adenovirus (AdV). Phylogenetic analyses of the targeted virus genes were performed. In Turkey, viruses were detected in 87/150 samples (58%), which included 69 (79.3%) with single viruses and 18 (20.7%) with multiple viruses. AdV was the most common virus, followed by HBoV. In Bangladesh, viruses were detected in 123/138 samples (89.1%), which included 29 (23.6%) with single viruses and 94 (76.4%) with multiple viruses. NoV GII was the most common, followed by AdV. The dominant genotypes among the virus species were HBoV 2A, HAstV 1, NoV GI type 1, and AdV 40. For NoV GII, the Hunter variant of genotype 4 in Turkey and genotype 17 in Bangladesh were the most common among the sequenced strains. It was concluded that the distribution of the viruses associated with diarrhea in Turkish and Bangladeshi children was different. Enteric viruses and mixed infections were more prevalent in Bangladesh than in Turkey.

  9. Development of Spatially-Based Emission Factors from Real-Time Measurements of Gaseous Pollutants Using Cermet Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    oxides have been studied as gas sensors. For example, recent investigations address novel nanostructured materials such as TiO2 , and WO3 in single...Thurnauer, 1999. “Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Waste Streams Using Surface-Modified Nanosized TiO2 Photocatalysts ,” J. Adv. Oxid. Technol...Murasawa, K. Hashimoto, and A. Fujishima, 1994. “Highly efficient TiO2 film photocatalyst . Degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde,” Chemistry Letters 723

  10. A Mars/phobos Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A transportation system will be necessary to support construction and operation of bases on Phobos and Mars beginning in the year 2020 or later. An approach to defining a network of vehicles and the types of vehicles which may be used in the system are presented. The network will provide a convenient, integrated means for transporting robotically constructed bases to Phobos and Mars. All the technology needed for the current plan is expected to be available for use at the projected date of cargo departure from the Earth system. The modular design of the transportation system provides easily implemented contingency plans, so that difficulties with any one vehicle will have a minimal effect on the progress of the total mission. The transportation network proposed consists of orbital vehicles and atmospheric entry vehicles. Initially, only orbital vehicles will participate in the robotic construction phase of the Phobos base. The Interplanetary Transfer Vehicle (ITV) will carry the base and construction equipment to Phobos where the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicles (OMV's) will participate in the initial construction of the base. When the Mars base is ready to be sent, one or more ITV's will be used to transport the atmospheric entry vehicles from Earth. These atmospheric vehicles are the One Way Landers (OWL's) and the Ascent/Descent Vehicles (ADV's). They will be used to carry the base components and/or construction equipment. The OMV's and the Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV's) will assist in carrying the atmospheric entry vehicles to low Martian orbit where the OWL's or ADV's will descent to the planet surface. The ADV's were proposed to accommodate expansion of the system. Additionally, a smaller version of the ADV class is capable of transporting personnel between Mars and Phobos.

  11. 77 FR 48568 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... penny pilot issues executions in SPY (except SPY) Base ($0.32) ($0.34) Tier 1 30,000 Contracts from... are not included in the ADV. The Exchange does not propose to change the base rate, Tier 1, or Tier 3...). (except SPY) market maker executions in SPY Base ($0.32) ($0.34) Tier 1 30,000 Contracts from ($0.34)...

  12. Penetration Resistance of Armor Ceramics: Dimensional Analysis and Property Correlations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    validation experiments can be organized and compared. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ceramics, terminal ballistics, armor, dimensional analysis 16. SECURITY... Terminal ballistics Armor Dimensional analysis* Impact Physics RDRL-WMP-C, US Army Research L Ground, MD 21005-5066, USA. Tel.: þ1 410 278 6146 E-mail...shock properties of ce- ramics. Adv Appl Ceram 2010;109:446e66. [2] Rosenberg Z, Dekel E. Terminal ballistics. Berlin: Springer; 2012. [3] Kaufmann C

  13. Severe Weather Guide Mediterranean Ports - 33. Tangier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    building tctt, eas. : .u’.d r.i f on l’ues. b. North to northwest wrrds usually accompany cold frontal passages. .2 or vato :an rayoe Strongest fronts...principal A-S-Nao2.s A. , 0 Rue Du Clateii-Lor, B.P. 426 irect-or, Tec!!. Info~at-,cn A-aPo11 x 292075 - Brost Cadex, Franc. Defense Adv. Rach. projects

  14. Determination of Optimal Portion Size for Hot Combat Rations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-12

    STATES ARMY NATICK RESEARCH, DEVELOPM-ENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER NATICK, MASSACHUSETTS 01760-5000 SCIENCE AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE...CENTER SCIENCE & ADV TECH DIRECTORATE 6b OFFICE SYMBOL (If applicable) STRNC-YBF 6c. AODRESS (Gfy, State, and IIP Code) NATICK, MA 01760-5020...portion size for hot combat rations was conducted by the Sensory Analysis Branch of the Behavioral Sciences Division, Science & Advanced Technology

  15. Microgravity can activate signals urging cells to S-phase entry during tissue and organ regeneration in Urodele amphibians exposed to real and simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, E.; Anton, H.-J.; Mitashov, V.

    Regenerative response following local injury or tissue removal in urodele amphibians is dependent on cell cycle entry of cells sources for regeneration in the remaining tissue. In a number of our experiments performed aboard biosatellites in orbital flights and fast rotated clinostat we found enhanced proliferative activity and, as a result, regeneration quicker than that in controls. In each investigated case an activity of cell proliferation evaluated by 3H-thymidine radioautography and BrdU assay at the early stages of lens, retina, forelimb and tail regeneration in newts was about 1,2-1,7 fold higher both under conditions of real and physiological weightlessness as compared with controls. Faster S-phase entry under conditions of micro- g was demonstrated by cycling multipotent cells as well as by differentiated postmitotic cells both participated in regeneration. Important, that cycling cells outside areas of regeneration were also found as displayed faster cellular growth. In our papers (1,2,3,4) we offered some hypothesis that could explain mechanisms of low g stimulating effect upon cell growth in regeneration in Urodela. In particular, changes in expression of some growth factors and their receptors, as well as the synthesis of specific range of generalized stress proteins (AGSPs) were proposed. However, in fact, molecular mechanisms of micro- g effect upon cell proliferation are mediated by changes on organismic level induced by micro- g environment. Some of them which are able to trigger off signaling changes on the cellular level that, in turn, evoke cells to grow faster would be represented in our report. 1. Mitashov V. et al. Adv. Space Res. 1996. 17 (6/7): 241-255 2. Anton H.-J. et al. Adv. Space Res. 1996. 17 (6/7): 55-65 3. Grigoryan E. et al. Adv. Space Res. 1998. 22 (2): 293-301 4. Grigoryan E. et al. Adv. Space Res. 2002. 30 (4): 757-764

  16. Laser Hazards Bibliography - November 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    W., and Schmidt, I., Protection against photic damage in retinitis pigmentosa , Adv Exp Med Biol, 77: 233-247 (1977). 2. Agarwal, L. P., and Malik, S...Laser Exposure imits ...................... 180 C. Optical Radiation Hazards - General Reviews...... 181 D. Retinal Burns from Lasers...radiation, Soy J Quantum Electron, 8: 552 (1978). 3. Anonymous, Use of various types of quantium generators in retinal diseases, Oftalmol Zh, 33(5): 323-324

  17. Reflection Spectra of Distorted Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Structures in Cells with Interdigitated Electrodes (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    adjusting the magnitude of the electric field. 15. SUBJECT TERMS liquid crystals, liquid-crystal devices, Bragg reflectors, optical properties, chiral ...160.3710) Liquid crystals; (230.3720) Liquid-crystal devices; (230.1480) Bragg reflectors; (160.4760) Optical properties; (160.1585) Chiral media...polymerizing chiral - nematic media,” Adv. Mater. 11(7), 573–578 (1999). 13. M. Rumi, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning

  18. Multiscale Mass-Spring Models of Carbon Nanotube Foams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-06

    235430. Blesgen, T., (2007). On the competition of elastic energy and surface energy in discrete numerical schemes. Adv. Comput . Math . 27, 179-194...Braides, A., Cicalese, M., (2007). Surface energies in nonconvex discrete systems. Math . Mod. Mrth. Appl. S. 17(7), 985-1037. Cao, A., Dickrell, P.L...Italy, and Division of Engineering, King’s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, UK T. Blesgen Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences

  19. Studies of Ionospheric Irregularities: Origins and Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    and Ionospheric Scintillations that can be found at: GPS and ionospheric scintillations, P.M. Kintner, B.M. Ledvina , and E.R. de Paula, Space... Ledvina , and P.M. Kintner, Measurements of equatorial scintillations on the WAAS satellite signal, Radio Sci., submitted, 2005. [refereed] 7...Adv. Space Res., 31(3), 741-747, 2003. [refereed] Humphreys, T.E., B.M. Ledvina , M.L. Psiaki, A.P. Cerruti, and P.M. Kintner, Analysis of

  20. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Guided Therapy: Molecular Beacon-Based Photosensitizers Triggered by Breast Cancer-Specific mRNA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    conditions such as atherosclerosis, macular degeneration and rheumatoid ar- thritis [10, 11]. Recently, it has also been used for blood steriliza- tion [12...macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis . AdV. Drug DeliVery ReV. 56, 1205-1217. (20) Hilgenbrink, A. R., and Low, P. S. (2005) Folate receptor-mediated...is also used in treatment of macular degeneration and atherosclerosis [10]. On a subcellular level, the targets—mainly cytoskeletal tubulins

  1. Tyrosine-derived Polycarbonate-silica Xerogel Nanocomposites for Controlled Drug Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-05

    biofilms [54]. In our Kirby–Bauer ZOI test we found that the rifam- picin released from the O10/N10 nanocomposite retained its anti- microbial activity...therefore merit further study for such applications as implantable drug delivery depots, wound dressings, tissue engineering scaf- folds and...scaffolds for drug delivery in dental , oral and craniofacial tissue engineering. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2007;59:308–24. [17] Ruiz-Hitzky E, Darder M, Aranda P

  2. Spatio-temporal analysis of the progression of Aujeszky's disease virus infection in wild boar of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

    PubMed

    Denzin, Nicolai; Borgwardt, Joachim; Freuling, Conrad; Müller, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Aujeszky's disease (AD, pseudorabies) is a notifiable disease caused by Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), also named pseudorabies virus (PrV). The study aimed at determining the occurrence and spatio-temporal trend of specific antibodies to AD virus (ADV) among wild boar of Saxony-Anhalt, a landlocked federal state situated in the western part of eastern Germany. To this end, a total of 7,209 blood samples were collected and tested from 2000 to 2011. An average seroprevalence of 6.8% was found for the entire observation period, whilst seroprevalence increased significantly between time periods January 2000-March 2009 (n = 3,605; prevalence = 4.5%) and March 2009-December 2011 (n = 3,604; prevalence = 9.1%). Spatial analysis revealed an extremely heterogenous distribution of seropositive samples with cluster formation [relative risk (RR) up to 41, P = 0.001] in the east. A comparison of spatial clusters between the aforementioned time intervals showed an expansion of the disease in the north to north-westerly direction. A test for spatial shift involving the entire territory of Saxony-Anhalt detected a spread of ADV infection in the latter direction (P = 0.079) at the average speed of 3.3 km/year. Detailed study of the distribution and spread of the disease among wild boar, including assessment of the speed of spatial spread, has not been done in the region before. Saxony-Anhalt has been officially recognised as being free of AD in domestic pigs since 1996. Despite increasing ADV seroprevalences in the wild boar population of Saxony-Anhalt and other federal states in the east of Germany, no spill-over to domestic pigs have been reported. The currently implemented monitoring will be continued in conjunction with surveillance of classical swine fever (CSF) to further trace ADV infections in the wild boar population of Saxony-Anhalt.

  3. Protein Localization in Silica Nanospheres Derived via Biomimetic Mineralization (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    can be used for characterizing a wide range of mesoporous and ultrastructural materials. neutron scattering, silica, lysozyme, biomineralization U U...used for characterizing a wide range of mesoporous and ultrastructural materials. FU LL P A P ER © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Adv...The nitrogen adsorption isotherms of the silica-lysozyme composites show typical type IV characteristics, with hysteresis indicative of a

  4. Brain’s DNA Repair Response to Neurotoxicants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Gordon WA, Cantor JB (2004) The diagnosis of cognitive impairment associated with exposure to mold. Adv Appl Microbiol 55:361-374. Gordon WA...investigated (see review Marquardt and Frohlich, 1992). OTA has been shown to induce a tubulointerstitial nephropathy in animals (Krogh et al., 1974...and enzymuria (Kane et al., 1986a,b) similar to Balkan endemic nephropathy found in humans (Krogh, 1992; Krogh et al., 1974; Petkova-Bocharova et al

  5. Optical Detection of Space Debris Using a Large Achromatic Coronagraph

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    34Exploter 46 Meteoroid Bumper Experiment: Earth orbital debris interpretation", in "Properties and Interactions of Interplanetary Dust", Astrophy- sics and...communication, 9th Sacramento Peak Workshop on Coronal Structure, 17-21th August. Su, S. Y.: 1986, " Orbital Debris Environement resulting from Future Activities...in Space", Adv. Sp. Res., 6, 7, 109. Taff, L. G., Jonuskis, D. M.: 1986, "Results and Analysis of a bi-telescopic Sur- vey of low Altitude Orbital

  6. Degeneration of Trigonometric Dynamical Difference Equations for Quantum Loop Algebras to Trigonometric Casimir Equations for Yangians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagović, Martina

    2015-03-01

    We show that, under Drinfeld's degeneration (Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians. American Mathematical Society, Providence, pp 798-820, 1987) of quantum loop algebras to Yangians, the trigonometric dynamical difference equations [Etingof and Varchenko (Adv Math 167:74-127, 2002)] for the quantum affine algebra degenerate to the trigonometric Casimir differential equations [Toledano Laredo (J Algebra 329:286-327, 2011)] for Yangians.

  7. Bead-rod-spring models in random flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plan, Emmanuel Lance Christopher Medillo, VI; Ali, Aamir; Vincenzi, Dario

    2016-08-01

    Bead-rod-spring models are the foundation of the kinetic theory of polymer solutions. We derive the diffusion equation for the probability density function of the configuration of a general bead-rod-spring model in short-correlated Gaussian random flows. Under isotropic conditions, we solve this equation analytically for the elastic rhombus model introduced by Curtiss, Bird, and Hassager [Adv. Chem. Phys. 35, 31 (1976)].

  8. Biomimetic Bidirectional Switchable Adhesive Inspired by the Gecko

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Tulane University New Orleans , LA 70118 , USA E-mail: npesika@tulane.edu Dr. J. S. Erickson Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering...Naval Research Laboratory Washington , D.C. 20375 , USA Dr. Y. Tian State Key Laboratory of Tribology Tsinghua University Beijing...100084 , PR China Dr. J. N. Israelachvili Department of Chemical Engineering University of California Santa Barbara , CA 93106 , USA Adv. Funct

  9. Front Resolving Observational Network with Telemetry: Turbulence Characterization from an AUV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    region of strongly varying bathymetry on the shelf near Long Island Sound (Fig. 1). Tides and energetic wind- and buoyancy-forced motions combine to...produce a complex flow field. Satellite measurements of surface temperature and color show recurrent front-like features at the FRONT site (Ullman and...two CTDs, and an ADV-O. Towards this end, I obtain horizontals profiles of dissipation rate, temperature microstructure, 3-dimensional small scale

  10. US Army Power Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Cells (DMFC, RMFC, SOFC ), Batteries & Stirl ing (LFP, Kinemat ic) * Packaged & Reformed Fuels: Methanol, Propane, NaBH4, Ammonia Borane * Direct JP-8...Fuel Goal - SOFC , Stirl ing Burner ~ RENEWABLES/ALTERNATIVE ENERGY * Solar, Wind Energy Storage Systems * Bio-Fuels, Hydrogen Generation ~ MOBILE...Alternative Fuels Advanced Battery Chemistries Fielded Zn-Air Li-MnO2 Li-Ion DMFC RMFC Adv RMFC Stirling & SOFC -propane SOFC & Stirling - JP-8 Li

  11. Targeting the genital tract mucosa with a lipopeptide/recombinant adenovirus prime/boost vaccine induces potent and long-lasting CD8+ T cell immunity against herpes: importance of MyD88.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuli; Dervillez, Xavier; Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Badakhshan, Tina; Bettahi, Ilham; Benmohamed, Lbachir

    2012-11-01

    Targeting of the mucosal immune system of the genital tract with subunit vaccines has failed to induce potent and durable local CD8(+) T cell immunity, which is crucial for protection against many sexually transmitted viral pathogens, including HSV type 2 (HSV-2), which causes genital herpes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a novel lipopeptide/adenovirus type 5 (Lipo/rAdv5) prime/boost mucosal vaccine for induction of CD8(+) T cell immunity to protect the female genital tract from herpes. The lipopeptide vaccine and the rAdv5 vaccine express the immunodominant HSV-2 CD8(+) T cell epitope (gB(498-505)), and both were delivered intravaginally in the progesterone-induced B6 mouse model of genital herpes. Compared with mice immunized with the homologous lipopeptide/lipopeptide (Lipo/Lipo) vaccine, the Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost immunized mice 1) developed potent and sustained HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells, detected in both the genital tract draining nodes and in the vaginal mucosa; 2) had significantly lower virus titers; 3) had decreased overt signs of genital herpes disease; and 4) did not succumb to lethal infection (p < 0.005) after intravaginal HSV-2 challenge. Polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells, producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 and exhibiting cytotoxic activity, were associated with protection (p < 0.005). The protective CD8(+) T cell response was significantly compromised in the absence of the adapter MyD88 (p = 0.0001). Taken together, these findings indicate that targeting of the vaginal mucosa with a Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost vaccine elicits a potent, MyD88-dependent, and long-lasting mucosal CD8(+) T cell protective immunity against sexually transmitted herpes infection and disease.

  12. Technical Readiness and Gaps Analysis of Commercial Optical Materials and Measurement Systems for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Qiao, Hong; Andersen, Eric S.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bliss, Mary; Cannon, Bret D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Mendoza, Albert; Sheen, David M.

    2013-08-06

    This report intends to support Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap and industry stakeholders by evaluating optical-based instrumentation and control (I&C) concepts for advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. These advanced designs will require innovative thinking in terms of engineering approaches, materials integration, and I&C concepts to realize their eventual viability and deployability. The primary goals of this report include: 1. Establish preliminary I&C needs, performance requirements, and possible gaps for AdvSMR designs based on best available published design data. 2. Document commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) optical sensors, components, and materials in terms of their technical readiness to support essential AdvSMR in-vessel I&C systems. 3. Identify technology gaps by comparing the in-vessel monitoring requirements and environmental constraints to COTS optical sensor and materials performance specifications. 4. Outline a future research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program plan that addresses these gaps and develops optical-based I&C systems that enhance the viability of future AdvSMR designs. The development of clean, affordable, safe, and proliferation-resistant nuclear power is a key goal that is documented in the Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. This roadmap outlines RD&D activities intended to overcome technical, economic, and other barriers, which currently limit advances in nuclear energy. These activities will ensure that nuclear energy remains a viable component to this nation’s energy security.

  13. Hopf algebras and topological recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteves, João N.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a model for topological recursion based on the Hopf algebra of planar binary trees defined by Loday and Ronco (1998 Adv. Math. 139 293-309 We show that extending this Hopf algebra by identifying pairs of nearest neighbor leaves, and thus producing graphs with loops, we obtain the full recursion formula discovered by Eynard and Orantin (2007 Commun. Number Theory Phys. 1 347-452).

  14. Supersaturated Self-Assembled Charge-Selective Interfacial Layers for Organic Solar Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-24

    Zeng,§ Henry M. Heitzer,† Eric F. Manley,†,∥ Samuel Goldman,⊥ Lin X. Chen,*,†,∥ Mark A. Ratner,*,†,‡ Michael J. Bedzyk,*,‡,§ Robert P. H. Chang,*,‡ Mark...Li, G.; Ray, C.; Yu, L. Adv. Mater. 2010, 22, 1−4. (58) Oliveira, O. N.; Taylor, D. M.; Lewis, T. J.; Salvagno, S.; Stirling , C. J. M. J. Chem. Soc

  15. An Economic and Technical Study on the Feasibility of Using Advanced Joining Techniques in Constructing Critical Naval Marine Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    7 A-A 092 299 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA F IG 13/6 AN ECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL STUDY ON THE FEASIBILITY OF USING ADV--ETC(U) UNLSIID JUN 79...during laser welding of the HY-130 plates are presented in graphical and tabular form._) An economic analysis, comparing shielded metal arc, gas...metal arc, laser, and electron beam welding processes, for fabricating the HY-130 pressure hull is performed. The economic factors considered were labor

  16. [Effects of different ecological conditions on grain quality and RVA profile of japonica rice from Yunnan of China and Korea].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-hua; Kim, Ki-young; Yuan, Ping-rong; Zhao, Guo-zhen; Su, Zhen-xi; Liao, Xin-hua; Yang, Sea-jun; Dai, Lu-yuan

    2009-12-01

    Taking sixteen japonica rice varieties from Yunnan of China and Korea growing at three locations with different altitudes in Yunnan Plateau as test materials, this paper studied the effects of different ecological conditions on their grain quality, including brown rice length (BRL), brown rice width (BRW), length-width ratio (L/W), chalky rate (CR), whiteness (WH), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), and alkali digestion value (ADV), and their starch RVA profile, including peak viscosity (PKV), hot viscosity (HTV), final viscosity (FLV), breakdown viscosity (BDV), setback viscosity (SBV), consistence viscosity( CTV), peak time (PeT), and pasting temperature (PaT). Of all the test parameters, SBV had the largest coefficient of variation. The coefficients of variation of BRL, CR, AC, PC, ADV, FLV, SBV, and PeT of Yunnan varieties were higher than those of Korean varieties, while the BRW, L/W, WH, PKV, HTV, BDV, CTV, and PaT of Korean varieties had higher coefficients of variation than those of Yunnan varieties. With increasing altitude, the BRL, BRW, L/W, WH, AC, ADV, FLV, and CTV of Yunnan varieties, and the BRL, BRW, WH, PC, PKV, HTV and BDV of Korean varieties decreased significantly, while the CR, PC, HTV, and PeT of Yunnan varieties, and the L/W, AC, ADV, SBV and CTV of Korean varieties increased significantly. The CR of Korean varieties had no obvious change. The PKV, BDV, and PaT of Yunnan varieties and the PaT of Korean varieties increased after an initial decrease, whereas the SBV of Yunnan varieties and the FLV and PeT of Korean varieties were in reverse.

  17. Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Structure: Improved Understanding and Prediction. Evaluation of Existing and Development of New Techniques for Global and Mesoscale NWP Model Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    Asian dust storms: Real-time numerical prediction and validation. J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 108, No. D22, 4691 DOI:10.1029/2003JD003667 (Online November... Coffs Harbour Catchment. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 52, 95-100. Speer, MS, LM Leslie, and L.Qi, (2003): Numerical Prediction of Severe Convection...data, Adv. Space Res., 30, 2479-2486. Shao, Y, E Jung and LM Leslie (2002): Numerical prediction of northeast Asian dust storms using an integrated

  18. Comparative Analysis of Single-Species and Polybacterial Wound Biofilms Using a Quantitative, In Vivo, Rabbit Ear Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-08

    Shearer A, Oglesby A, Tobian JA (2003) The healthcare costs of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the US. Diabetes Care 26: 1790–1795. 3. Sen CK... diabetes in a managed-care population. Pharmacoeconomics 16: 285–295. 6. Ramsey SD, Newton K, Blough D, McCulloch DK, Sandhu N, et al. (1999) Incidence...outcomes, and cost of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes . Diabetes Care 22: 382–387. 7. Fleck CA (2006) Fighting infection in chronic wounds. Adv Skin

  19. Efficient Determination of Hugoniot States Using Classical Molecular Simulation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    K., 1999, Adv. chem. Phys., 105, 461. [56] MCQUARRIE , D. A., 1976, Statistical Mechanics (New York: Harper). [57] KRISTÓF, T., and LISZI, J., 1998...GUBBINS, K. E., 1973, Applied Statistical Mechanics (New York: McGraw-Hill). [50] LOFTHUS, A., and KRUPENIE, P. H., 1977, J. phys. Chem. ref. Data, 6, 113...several methods, which are considered in the next section.) Step 6: Repeat steps (3)–(6) until the results con- verge to the desired statistical

  20. Layered Organization in the Coastal Ocean: 4-D Assessment of Thin Layer Structure, Dynamics and Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    oceans, and the processes responsible for the formation, maintenance and dissipation of layers; (2) to understand the spatial coherence and spatial...and K2 had a Nortek ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocity meter) for simultaneously measuring centimeter- scale currents and turbulence. Our ORCAS profiler...detect the presence, intensity, thickness, temporal persistence, and spatial coherence of thin optical and acoustical layers, (2) quantify their optical

  1. Layered Organization in the Coastal Ocean: 4-D Assessment of Thin Layer Structure, Dynamics and Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    maintenance and dissipation of layers; (2) to understand the spatial coherence and spatial properties of thin layers in the coastal ocean (especially in...ORCAS profilers at K1 South and K2 had a Nortek ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocity meter) for simultaneously measuring centimeter- scale currents and...year will be used to (1) detect the presence, intensity, thickness, temporal persistence, and spatial coherence of thin optical and acoustical layers

  2. Recent Developments in the Photophysics of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Their Use as Active and Passive Material Elements in Thin Film Photovoltaics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    3 , 1235–1238. 3 R . C. Tenent, T. M . Barnes, J . D . Bergeson, A. J . Ferguson, B. To, L . M . Gedvilas, M . J . Heben and J . L . Blackburn, Adv. Mater ...ACS Nano, 2012 , 6, 904–911. 64 M . Gao, J . M . Zuo , R . D . Twesten, I. Petrov, L . a. Nagahara and R . Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2003, 82, 2703. 65 T. W...Johnston, L . M .

  3. CMB lensing beyond the power spectrum: Cosmological constraints from the one-point probability distribution function and peak counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Hill, J. Colin; Sherwin, Blake D.; Petri, Andrea; Böhm, Vanessa; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-11-01

    Unprecedentedly precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) data are expected from ongoing and near-future CMB stage III and IV surveys, which will yield reconstructed CMB lensing maps with effective resolution approaching several arcminutes. The small-scale CMB lensing fluctuations receive non-negligible contributions from nonlinear structure in the late-time density field. These fluctuations are not fully characterized by traditional two-point statistics, such as the power spectrum. Here, we use N -body ray-tracing simulations of CMB lensing maps to examine two higher-order statistics: the lensing convergence one-point probability distribution function (PDF) and peak counts. We show that these statistics contain significant information not captured by the two-point function and provide specific forecasts for the ongoing stage III Advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope (AdvACT) experiment. Considering only the temperature-based reconstruction estimator, we forecast 9 σ (PDF) and 6 σ (peaks) detections of these statistics with AdvACT. Our simulation pipeline fully accounts for the non-Gaussianity of the lensing reconstruction noise, which is significant and cannot be neglected. Combining the power spectrum, PDF, and peak counts for AdvACT will tighten cosmological constraints in the Ωm-σ8 plane by ≈30 %, compared to using the power spectrum alone.

  4. Mineralogical analyses of surface sediments in the Antarctic Dry Valleys: coordinated analyses of Raman spectra, reflectance spectra and elemental abundances.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Janice L; Englert, Peter A J; Patel, Shital; Tirsch, Daniela; Roy, Alex J; Koeberl, Christian; Böttger, Ute; Hanke, Franziska; Jaumann, Ralf

    2014-12-13

    Surface sediments at Lakes Fryxell, Vanda and Brownworth in the Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) were investigated as analogues for the cold, dry environment on Mars. Sediments were sampled from regions surrounding the lakes and from the ice cover on top of the lakes. The ADV sediments were studied using Raman spectra of individual grains and reflectance spectra of bulk particulate samples and compared with previous analyses of subsurface and lakebottom sediments. Elemental abundances were coordinated with the spectral data in order to assess trends in sediment alteration. The surface sediments in this study were compared with lakebottom sediments (Bishop JL et al. 2003 Int. J. Astrobiol. 2, 273-287 (doi:10.1017/S1473550403001654)) and samples from soil pits (Englert P et al. 2013 In European Planetary Science Congress, abstract no. 96; Englert P et al. 2014 In 45th Lunar and Planetary Science Conf., abstract no. 1707). Feldspar, quartz and pyroxene are common minerals found in all the sediments. Minor abundances of carbonate, chlorite, actinolite and allophane are also found in the surface sediments, and are similar to minerals found in greater abundance in the lakebottom sediments. Surface sediment formation is dominated by physical processes; a few centimetres below the surface chemical alteration sets in, whereas lakebottom sediments experience biomineralization. Characterizing the mineralogical variations in these samples provides insights into the alteration processes occurring in the ADV and supports understanding alteration in the cold and dry environment on Mars.

  5. (13) C-metabolic flux analysis of human adenovirus infection: Implications for viral vector production.

    PubMed

    Carinhas, Nuno; Koshkin, Alexey; Pais, Daniel A M; Alves, Paula M; Teixeira, Ana P

    2017-01-01

    Adenoviruses are human pathogens increasingly used as gene therapy and vaccination vectors. However, their impact on cell metabolism is poorly characterized. We performed carbon labeling experiments with [1,2-(13) C]glucose or [U-(13) C]glutamine to evaluate metabolic alterations in the amniocyte-derived, E1-transformed 1G3 cell line during production of a human adenovirus type 5 vector (AdV5). Nonstationary (13) C-metabolic flux analysis revealed increased fluxes of glycolysis (17%) and markedly PPP (over fourfold) and cytosolic AcCoA formation (nearly twofold) following infection of growing cells. Interestingly, infection of growth-arrested cells increased overall carbon flow even more, including glutamine anaplerosis and TCA cycle activity (both over 1.5-fold), but was unable to stimulate the PPP and was associated with a steep drop in AdV5 replication (almost 80%). Our results underscore the importance of nucleic and fatty acid biosynthesis for adenovirus replication. Overall, we portray a metabolic blueprint of human adenovirus infection, highlighting similarities with other viruses and cancer, and suggest strategies to improve AdV5 production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 195-207. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Obesity and infection: reciprocal causality.

    PubMed

    Hainer, V; Zamrazilová, H; Kunešová, M; Bendlová, B; Aldhoon-Hainerová, I

    2015-01-01

    Associations between different infectious agents and obesity have been reported in humans for over thirty years. In many cases, as in nosocomial infections, this relationship reflects the greater susceptibility of obese individuals to infection due to impaired immunity. In such cases, the infection is not related to obesity as a causal factor but represents a complication of obesity. In contrast, several infections have been suggested as potential causal factors in human obesity. However, evidence of a causal linkage to human obesity has only been provided for adenovirus 36 (Adv36). This virus activates lipogenic and proinflammatory pathways in adipose tissue, improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and hepatic steatosis. The E4orf1 gene of Adv36 exerts insulin senzitizing effects, but is devoid of its pro-inflammatory modalities. The development of a vaccine to prevent Adv36-induced obesity or the use of E4orf1 as a ligand for novel antidiabetic drugs could open new horizons in the prophylaxis and treatment of obesity and diabetes. More experimental and clinical studies are needed to elucidate the mutual relations between infection and obesity, identify additional infectious agents causing human obesity, as well as define the conditions that predispose obese individuals to specific infections.

  7. Purification and characterization of the major nonstructural protein (NS-1) of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, J; Pedersen, M; Aasted, B; Alexandersen, S

    1995-01-01

    We have previously described the expression of the major nonstructural protein (NS-1) of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) in insect cells by using a baculovirus vector (J. Christensen, T. Storgaard, B. Bloch, S. Alexandersen, and B. Aasted, J. Virol. 67:229-238, 1993). To study its biochemical properties, ADV NS-1 was expressed in Sf9 insect cells and purified to apparent homogeneity with a combination of nuclear extraction, Zn2+ ion chromatography, and immunoaffinity chromatography on monoclonal antibodies. The purified protein showed ATP binding and ATPase- and ATP- or dATP-dependent helicase activity requiring either Mg2+ or Mn2+ as a cofactor. The ATPase activity of NS-1 was efficiently stimulated by single-stranded DNA and, to a lesser extent, double-stranded DNA. We also describe the expression, purification, and characterization of a mutant NS-1 protein, in which a lysine in the putative nucleotide binding consensus sequence of the molecule was replaced with serine. The mutated NS-1 was expressed at 10-fold higher levels than wild-type NS-1, but it exhibited no ATP binding. ATPase, or helicase activity. The availability of large amounts of purified functional NS-1 protein will facilitate studies of the biochemistry of ADV replication and gene regulation leading to disease in mink. PMID:7853520

  8. Bone formation in vivo induced by Cbfa1-carrying adenoviral vectors released from a biodegradable porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Toshimasa; Kojima, Hiroko

    2011-06-01

    Overexpression of Cbfa1 (a transcription factor indispensable for osteoblastic differentiation) is expected to induce the formation of bone directly and indirectly in vivo by accelerating osteoblastic differentiation. Adenoviral vectors carrying the cDNA of Cbfa1/til-1(Adv-Cbf1) were allowed to be adsorbed onto porous blocks of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), a biodegradable ceramic, which were then implanted subcutaneously and orthotopically into bone defects. The adenoviral vectors were released sustainingly by biodegradation, providing long-term expression of the genes. Results of the subcutaneous implantation of Adv-Cbfa1-adsorbed β-TCP/osteoprogenitor cells suggest that a larger amount of bone formed in the pores of the implant than in the control material. Regarding orthotopic implantation into bone defects, the released Adv-Cbfa1 accelerated regeneration in the cortical bone, whereas it induced bone resorption in the marrow cavity. A safer gene transfer using a smaller amount of the vector was achieved using biodegradable porous β-TCP as a carrier.

  9. Mimicking Retention and Transport of Rotavirus and Adenovirus in Sand Media Using DNA-labeled, Protein-coated Silica Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Liping; Farkas, Kata; Bennett, Grant; Varsani, Arvind; Easingwood, Richard; Tilley, Richard; Nowostawska, Urszula; Lin, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Rotavirus (RoV) and adenovirus (AdV) are important viral pathogens for the risk analysis of drinking water. Despite this, little is known about their retention and transport behaviors in porous media (e.g. sand filtered used for water treatment and groundwater aquifers due to a lack of representative surrogates. In this study, we developed RoV and AdV surrogates by covalently coating 70-nm sized silica nanoparticles with specific proteins and a DNA marker for sensitive detection. Filtration experiments using beach sand columns demonstrated the similarity of the surrogates' concentrations, attachment, and filtration efficiencies to the target viruses. The surrogates showed the same magnitude of concentration reduction as the viruses. Conversely, MS2 phage (a traditional virus model) over predicted concentrations of AdV and RoV by 1- and 2-orders of magnitude, respectively. The surrogates remained stable in size, surface charge and DNA concentration for at least one year. They can be easily and rapidly detected at concentrations down to one particle per PCR reaction and are readily detectable in natural waters and even in effluent. With up-scaling validation in pilot trials, the surrogates can be a useful cost-effective new tool for studying virus retention and transport in porous media, e.g. for assessing filter efficiency in water and wastewater treatment, tracking virus migration in groundwater after effluent land disposal, and establishing safe setback distances for groundwater protection.

  10. Studies on disease transmission in spacecraft environments. [as experienced onboard Skylab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of the Skylab gas mixtures on general health and immunocompetence of mice and ferrets subjected to the Skylab space cabin environment (SCE) were initially studied in a stainless steel low pressure facility which was maintained at gas ratios of 30% nitrogen and 70% oxygen under 5 psia, and which consisted of two subchambers, that permitted mutual isolation of experimental groups and/or selective removal of animals without return of the entire cabin to ambient pressure was developed. The studies demonstrated that ferrets immunized with Brucella Strain 19 prior to being housed in SCE had decreased synthesis of IgG compared to their respective controls. The possibility of latent infections being responsible for stress-induced upper respiratory diseases of astronauts required that the role of neutralizing antibody as a function of antibody affinity/avidity be investigated. The model consisted of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) which infects ferrets and mink resulting in nonneutralized immune complexes. These studies demonstrated that early antibody to ADV had lower affinity/avidity than late antibody with respect to chronicity. These studies culminated in a description of antibody affinity, first isolation of ADV and its cultivation in vitro.

  11. Surface water quality in the Sinos River basin, in Southern Brazil: tracking microbiological contamination and correlation with physicochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Dalla Vecchia, Andréia; Rigotto, Caroline; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Soliman, Mayra Cristina; Gil de Souza, Fernanda; Henzel, Andreia; Santos, Eliane Lemos; do Nascimento, Carlos Augusto; de Quevedo, Daniela Muller; Fleck, Juliane Deise; Heinzelmann, Larissa Schemes; de Matos Almeida, Sabrina Esteves; Spilki, Fernando Rosado

    2015-07-01

    Around the world, enteric viruses are often found in surface waters. This study set out to evaluate the occurrence of adenoviruses (AdVs) in water samples, and its relation to different physical, chemical, and bacteriological parameters [total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC), represented by Escherichia coli]. Monthly samples of 500 ml of raw water were collected from May 2011 to June 2013 in eight abstraction points water treatment stations along three stretches of the Sinos River Basin (SRB), in Southern Brazil and, subsequently, were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). AdVs from different species, from human (HAdV), and from other animals (CAV1-2, BAdV, PAdV, and AvAdV) were detected along the three stretches of the basin, indicating fecal contamination from different sources and proving the inefficiency of the wastewater treatment in the waters of the SRB and intensifying the strong influence of human activities that can contribute to the presence of inhibitory substances such as organic acids in surface of these waters. Statistical analyses revealed no significant correlations between the concentrations of TC and FC and the concentrations of AdVs. We observed a small, nonconstant, and unstable correlation between viruses and physicochemical parameters. These correlations were not sufficiently consistent to establish a reliable association; therefore, this study corroborates that only the viral assay itself is reliable for the diagnosis of fecal contamination by viruses in environmental samples.

  12. Polyaspartic acid coated iron oxide nanoprobes for PET/MRI imaging.

    PubMed

    Cowger, Taku; Xie, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles, due to their exceptional magnetic property, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, have long been studied as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (Xie et al., Curr Med Chem 16(10):1278-1294, 2009; Xie et al., Adv Drug deliv Rev 62(11):1064-1079, 2010). While previous applications mostly target reticuloendothelial system (RES) organs such as liver and lymph nodes, recent efforts have been made to impart targeting peptides or antibodies onto particle surface to enable site-specific targeting after systemic administration (Xie et al., Adv Drug Deliv Rev 62(11):1064-1079, 2010; Cai and Chen, Small 3(11):1840-1854, 2007; Corot et al., Adv Drug Deliv Rev 58 (14):1471-1504, 2006; Xie et al., Acc Chem Res 44(10):883-892). Moreover, other imaging functionalities can be loaded onto nanoparticles to achieve multimodality imaging probes (Cai and Chen, Small 3(11):1840-1854, 2007; Lee et al., J Nucl Med Soc Nucl Med 49(8):1371-1379, 2008). In this protocol, we describe the procedure of constructing an iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-based probe with high affinity towards integrin αvβ3 for positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual modality imaging. The related characterizations and validation experiments, including particle concentration determination, Prussian blue staining, animal model preparation, and in vivo PET/MRI imaging will also be discussed.

  13. Linear Stability Analysis of an Acoustically Vaporized Droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Junaid; Qamar, Adnan; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is a phase transition phenomena of a superheat liquid (Dodecafluoropentane, C5F12) droplet to a gaseous bubble, instigated by a high-intensity acoustic pulse. This approach was first studied in imaging applications, and applicable in several therapeutic areas such as gas embolotherapy, thrombus dissolution, and drug delivery. High-speed imaging and theoretical modeling of ADV has elucidated several physical aspects, ranging from bubble nucleation to its subsequent growth. Surface instabilities are known to exist and considered responsible for evolving bubble shapes (non-spherical growth, bubble splitting and bubble droplet encapsulation). We present a linear stability analysis of the dynamically evolving interfaces of an acoustically vaporized micro-droplet (liquid A) in an infinite pool of a second liquid (liquid B). We propose a thermal ADV model for the base state. The linear analysis utilizes spherical harmonics (Ynm, of degree m and order n) and under various physical assumptions results in a time-dependent ODE of the perturbed interface amplitudes (one at the vapor/liquid A interface and the other at the liquid A/liquid B interface). The perturbation amplitudes are found to grow exponentially and do not depend on m. Supported by KAUST Baseline Research Funds.

  14. Optimal Stopping with Information Constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Lempa, Jukka

    2012-10-15

    We study the optimal stopping problem proposed by Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002). In this maximization problem of the expected present value of the exercise payoff, the underlying dynamics follow a linear diffusion. The decision maker is not allowed to stop at any time she chooses but rather on the jump times of an independent Poisson process. Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002), solve this problem in the case where the underlying is a geometric Brownian motion and the payoff function is of American call option type. In the current study, we propose a mild set of conditions (covering the setup of Dupuis and Wang in Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002) on both the underlying and the payoff and build and use a Markovian apparatus based on the Bellman principle of optimality to solve the problem under these conditions. We also discuss the interpretation of this model as optimal timing of an irreversible investment decision under an exogenous information constraint.

  15. Interaction between endothelial cells and albumin encapsulated droplets in Poiseuille flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seda, Robinson; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Bull, Joseph

    2012-11-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) of DDFP encapsulated microdroplets has the ability to transform these emulsions into larger gas emboli capable of occluding blood vessels for therapy. An albumin shell is able to stabilize the droplet's superheated core, but can also interact with endothelial cells (EC) at the vessel wall if in close proximity. Radial migration of these microdroplets could bring them close enough to make this interaction possible leading to bioeffects that include cell detachment and death if an ADV event occurs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the hydrodynamic conditions (i.e. shear stresses) that make possible this EC-droplet interaction. A flow chamber coated with a monolayer of EC and connected to a syringe pump is used to flow a DDFP droplet solution at physiological shear stresses (1-50 dyne/cm2) and inspected for droplet attachment. Droplets have been observed to interact and reversibly attach to EC in a static environment, thus it is expected that at low shear stress values interaction and further attachment will be possible. Knowing the flow conditions at which this interaction is likely to occur will aid in preventative measures to avoid significant bioeffects associated with ADV near the vessel wall. This work is supported by NIH grant R01EB006476.

  16. A serosurvey for selected pathogens in Greek European wild boar

    PubMed Central

    Touloudi, A.; Valiakos, G.; Athanasiou, L. V.; Birtsas, P.; Giannakopoulos, A.; Papaspyropoulos, K.; Kalaitzis, C.; Sokos, C.; Tsokana, C. N.; Spyrou, V.; Petrovska, L.; Billinis, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Serum samples, collected from 94 European wild boar (Sus scrofa) during the hunting seasons 2006 -2010 from different regions of Greece, were examined in order to estimate the role of these wildlife species as reservoir of pathogens important for livestock and/or public health. Materials and Methods The assays used for this purpose were commercial indirect ELISA for the detection of antibodies against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (virus) (PRRSV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), influenza A (IA) virus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Salmonella species, Trichinella species and indirect immunofluorescence antibody test for the detection of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Results Antibodies against PCV-2, PRRSV, ADV, IA virus,A. pleuropneumoniae, M. hyopneumoniae,Salmonella species, Trichinella species, T. gondii and N. caninum were detected in 19.1 per cent, 12.8 per cent, 35.1 per cent, 1.1 per cent, 57.4 per cent, 0 per cent, 4.3 per cent, 6.4 per cent, 5.2 per cent and 1.1 per cent of the samples, respectively. Cluster analysis revealed a hot spot of seropositivity near Bulgarian border; seropositivity to ADV was more common among female animals. Conclusions These results indicate exposure of wild boar to most of the above-mentioned pathogens, raising concern about the possibility that these species may pose a significant health risk for livestock and/or humans. PMID:26392908

  17. Neural cell adhesion molecule 2 as a target molecule for prostate and breast cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shu; Kato, Kazunori; Nakamura, Kiminori; Nakano, Rika; Kubota, Kazuishi; Hamada, Hirofumi

    2011-04-01

    In adenovirus-derived gene therapy, one of the problems is the difficulty in specific targeting. We have recently demonstrated that monoclonal antibody (mAb) libraries screened by fiber-modified adenovirus vector (Adv-FZ33), which is capable of binding to immunoglobulin-G (IgG), provide a powerful approach for the identification of suitable target antigens for prostate cancer therapy. Hybridoma libraries from mice immunized with androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP were screened and mAb were selected. Through this screening, we obtained one mAb, designated LNI-29, that recognizes a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 100 kD. It was identified as neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2). Some prostate and breast cancer cell lines highly expressed NCAM2 whereas normal prostate cell lines expressed NCAM2 at low levels. In contrast to the low efficiency of gene transduction by Adv-FZ33 with a control antibody, LNI-29-mediated Adv-FZ33 infection induces high rates of gene delivery in NCAM2-positive cancers. NCAM2-mediated therapeutic gene transduction of uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) had a highly effective cytotoxic effect on NCAM2-positive cancer cells, whereas it had less of an effect in cases with a control antibody. In conclusion, NCAM2 should be a novel gene therapy target for the treatment of prostate and breast cancer.

  18. Mimicking filtration and transport of rotavirus and adenovirus in sand media using DNA-labeled, protein-coated silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pang, Liping; Farkas, Kata; Bennett, Grant; Varsani, Arvind; Easingwood, Richard; Tilley, Richard; Nowostawska, Urszula; Lin, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Rotavirus (RoV) and adenovirus (AdV) are important viral pathogens for the risk analysis of drinking water. Despite this, little is known about their retention and transport behaviors in porous media due to a lack of representative surrogates. We developed RoV and AdV surrogates by covalently coupling 70-nm sized silica nanoparticles with specific proteins and a DNA marker for sensitive detection. Filtration experiments using beach sand columns demonstrated the similarity of the surrogates' concentrations, filtration efficiencies and attachment kinetics to those of the target viruses. The surrogates showed the same magnitude of concentration reduction as the viruses. Conversely, MS2 phage (a traditional virus model) over-predicted concentrations of AdV and RoV by 1- and 2-orders of magnitude respectively. The surrogates remained stable in size, surface charge and DNA concentration for at least one year. They can be easily and rapidly detected down to a single particle. Preliminary tests suggest that they were readily detectable in a number of environmental waters and treated effluent. With up-scaling validation in pilot trials, the surrogates developed here could be a cost-effective new tool for studying virus retention and transport in porous media. Examples include assessing filter efficacy in water and wastewater treatment, tracking virus migration in groundwater after effluent land disposal, and establishing safe setback distances for groundwater protection.

  19. The spread of adenoviral vectors to central nervous system through pathway of cochlea in mimetic aging and young rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zhao, X; Hu, Y; Lan, F; Sun, H; Fan, G; Sun, Y; Wu, J; Kong, W; Kong, W

    2015-11-01

    There is no definitive conclusion concerning the spread of viral vectors to the brain after a cochlear inoculation. In addition, some studies have reported different distribution profiles of viral vectors in the central auditory system after a cochlear inoculation. Thus, rats were grouped into either a mimetic aging group or a young group and transfected with adenoviral vectors (AdVs) by round window membrane injection. The distribution of AdV in central nervous system (CNS) was demonstrated in the two groups with transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. We found that the AdV could disseminate into the CNS and that the neuronal damage and stress-induced GRP78 expression were reduced after transfection with PGC-1α, as compared with the control vectors, especially in the mimetic aging group. We also found that the host immune response was degraded in CNS in the mimetic aging group after transduction through the cochlea, as compared with the young group. These results demonstrate that viral vectors can disseminate into the CNS through the cochlea. Moreover, mimetic aging induced by D-galactose could facilitate the spread of viral vectors into the CNS from the cochlea. These findings may indicate a new potential approach for gene therapy against age-related diseases in the CNS.

  20. Adenovirus-mediated shRNA interference against HSV-1 replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Bo; Liu, Xinjing; Wang, Qingzhi; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Ting; Han, Zhiqiang; Xu, Yuming

    2016-12-01

    The UL29 and UL28 proteins encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are critical for its replication and packaging, respectively. Research has demonstrated that synthesized siRNA molecules targeting the UL29 gene are able to suppress HSV-2 replication and the UL28-null HSV-1 gene cannot form infectious viruses in vitro. Silencing the UL28 and UL29 genes by RNAi might lead to the development of novel antiviral agents for the treatment of HSV-1 infections. Two kinds of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the UL29 and UL28 genes were chemically synthesized and then delivered into cells by a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Adv5) vector. (-) shRNAs targeting none of the genome of HSV-1 were used as the control. Vero cells were inoculated with Ad-UL28shRNA or Ad-UL29shRNA at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100 and challenged 24 h later with HSV-1 at an MOI of 0.01 to inhibit HSV-1 replication, as measured by the level of the corresponding RNA and proteins. In addition, the amount of progeny virus was assessed at daily intervals. The antiviral effects of Ad-shRNAs at ongoing HSV-1 infection were explored at 12 h after inoculation of the HSV-1. The results showed that the shRNAs delivered by Adv5 significantly suppressed HSV-1 replication in vitro, as determined by the levels of viral RNA transcription, viral protein synthesis, and viral production. The Ad-UL28shRNA and Ad-UL29shRNA suppressed the replication of HSV-1, respectively, compared with the control group (P < 0.001). When Ad-UL28shRNA and Ad-UL29shRNA were combined, a synergistic effect was observed. The antiviral effects could sustain for at least 4 days after the HSV-1 infection (P < 0.001). Furthermore, antiviral effects were achieved 12 h prior to inoculation of Adv5-shRNAs (P < 0.001). Our data demonstrated comparable antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus by shRNAs targeting either UL29 or UL28 sites in vitro and the effectiveness of using the Adv5

  1. The NINJA-2 project: detecting and characterizing gravitational waveforms modelled using numerical binary black hole simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th S.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Bergmann, G.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Buchman, S.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burman, R.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corpuz, A.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Donath, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dossa, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hooper, S.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, H.; Jaranowski, P.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karlen, J.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kremin, A.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lawrie, C.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.-H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, J.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Le Roux, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Litvine, V.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Loew, K.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Luijten, E.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Manca, G. M.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martinelli, L.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Milde, S.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moesta, P.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nanda Kumar, D.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Poggiani, R.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C.; Ramirez, K.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rodruck, M.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Sperandio, L.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Stops, D.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, R.; ter Braack, A. P. M.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Verma, S. S.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Wade, A.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, K.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williams, T.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yang, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Brügmann, B.; Buchman, L. T.; Campanelli, M.; Chu, T.; Etienne, Z. B.; Hannam, M.; Healy, J.; Hinder, I.; Kidder, L. E.; Laguna, P.; Liu, Y. T.; London, L.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; MacDonald, I.; Marronetti, P.; Mösta, P.; Müller, D.; Mundim, B. C.; Nakano, H.; Paschalidis, V.; Pekowsky, L.; Pollney, D.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Ponce, M.; Pürrer, M.; Reifenberger, G.; Reisswig, C.; Santamaría, L.; Scheel, M. A.; Shapiro, S. L.; Shoemaker, D.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sperhake, U.; Szilágyi, B.; Taylor, N. W.; Tichy, W.; Tsatsin, P.; Zlochower, Y.

    2014-06-01

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave (GW) astrophysics communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the ability to detect GWs emitted from merging binary black holes (BBH) and recover their parameters with next-generation GW observatories. We report here on the results of the second NINJA project, NINJA-2, which employs 60 complete BBH hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modelling the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modelling the early inspiral. In a ‘blind injection challenge’ similar to that conducted in recent Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo science runs, we added seven hybrid waveforms to two months of data recoloured to predictions of Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) and Advanced Virgo (AdV) sensitivity curves during their first observing runs. The resulting data was analysed by GW detection algorithms and 6 of the waveforms were recovered with false alarm rates smaller than 1 in a thousand years. Parameter-estimation algorithms were run on each of these waveforms to explore the ability to constrain the masses, component angular momenta and sky position of these waveforms. We find that the strong degeneracy between the mass ratio and the BHs’ angular momenta will make it difficult to precisely estimate these parameters with aLIGO and AdV. We also perform a large-scale Monte Carlo study to assess the ability to recover each of the 60 hybrid waveforms with early aLIGO and AdV sensitivity curves. Our results predict that early aLIGO and AdV will have a volume-weighted average sensitive distance of 300 Mpc (1 Gpc) for 10M⊙ + 10M⊙ (50M⊙ + 50M⊙) BBH coalescences. We demonstrate that neglecting the component angular momenta in the waveform models used in matched-filtering will result in a reduction in sensitivity for systems with large component angular momenta. This

  2. Advanced Reactor Technology -- Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, Wayne Leland

    2015-05-01

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a “critical path” for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain “minimum” levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial “first step” in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by technology development studies, the anticipated regulatory

  3. Taxonomy proposal for Old World monkey adenoviruses: characterisation of several non-human, non-ape primate adenovirus lineages.

    PubMed

    Pantó, Laura; Podgorski, Iva I; Jánoska, Máté; Márkó, Orsolya; Harrach, Balázs

    2015-12-01

    A species classification regarding Old World monkey adenoviruses is proposed. We determined the nucleotide sequences of PCR-amplified fragments from the genes of the IVa2, DNA-dependent DNA polymerase, penton base, and hexon proteins from every simian adenovirus (SAdV) serotype that originated from Old World monkeys for which the full genome sequence had not yet been published. We confirmed that the majority of Old Word monkey SAdVs belong to two previously established species. Interestingly, one is the most recently established human AdV species, Human mastadenovirus G, which includes a single human virus, HAdV-52, as well as SAdV-1, -2, -7, -11, -12, and -15. The other approved species, Simian mastadenovirus A includes SAdV-3, -4, -6, -9, -10, -14, and -48. Several SAdVs (SAdV-5, -8, -49, -50) together with baboon AdV-1 and rhesus monkey AdV strains A1139, A1163, A1173, A1258, A1285, A1296, A1312, A1327 and A1335 have been proposed to be classified into an additional species, Simian mastadenovirus B. Another proposed species, Simian mastadenovirus C has been described for SAdV-19, baboon AdV-2/4 and -3. Our study revealed the existence of four additional AdV lineages. The corresponding new candidate species are Simian mastadenovirus D (for SAdV-13), Simian mastadenovirus E (for SAdV-16), Simian mastadenovirus F (for SAdV-17 and -18), and Simian mastadenovirus G (for SAdV-20). Several biological and genomic properties, such as the host origin, haemagglutination profile, number of fibre genes, and G+C content of the genome, strongly support this classification. Three SAdV strains originating from the American Type Culture Collection turned out to be mixtures of at least two virus types, either of the same species (SAdV-12 and -15 types from Human mastadenovirus G) or of two different species (SAdV-5 types from Simian mastadenovirus B and Human mastadenovirus G).

  4. Genotype-specific mutations in the polymerase gene of hepatitis B virus potentially associated with resistance to oral antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Mirandola, Silvia; Sebastiani, Giada; Rossi, Cristina; Velo, Emanuela; Erne, Elke Maria; Vario, Alessandro; Tempesta, Diego; Romualdi, Chiara; Campagnolo, Davide; Alberti, Alfredo

    2012-12-01

    The evolution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the role of different variants during antiviral therapy may be influenced by HBV genotype. We have therefore analysed substitutions potentially related to nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) resistance at 42 positions within RT-region in a cohort of patients with chronic hepatitis B in relation to HBV-genotype. RT mutations analysis was performed by direct sequencing in 200 NAs-naïve patients and in 64 LAM or LAM+ADV experienced patients with NAs resistance, infected mainly by HBV-genotypes D and A. 27 polymorphic-sites were identified among the 42 positions analysed and 64 novel mutations were detected in 23 positions. Genotype-D displayed the highest mutation frequency (6.4%) among all HBV-genotypes analysed. Single or multiple mutations were detected in 80% of naïve patients. Overall, the most frequent single mutations were at residues rt54, rt53 and rt91 which may associate with significantly lower HBV-DNA levels (p=0.001). Comparison with sequencing data of patients failing LMV or LAM+ADV therapy revealed an higher frequency of novel genotype-specific mutations if compared with naïve patients: 3 mutations under LAM monotherapy in HBV-D (rtS85F; rtL91I; rtC256G) and 3 mutations under ADV therapy in HBV-A (rtI53V; rtW153R; rtF221Y). In HBV-D treated patients the dominant resistance mutation was rtL80V (31.4%) and rtM204I (60%) in LAM+ADV group while LAM-treated patients showed a preference of rtM204V (51.9%). Interestingly, none of HBV-A patients had mutation rtM204I under ADV add-on treatment but all of them had the "V" AA substitution. These results suggested that in patients with CHB, HBV-genotype might be relevant in the evolution and development of drug resistance showing also different mutation patterns in the YMDD motif between HBV genotype D and A.

  5. Sediment and Soil Profiles of Taylor and Wright Valleys, Antarctica, as Analogs for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, P. A.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S.; Koeberl, C.; Gibson, E. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys are extremely cold and dry desert environments. They represent a unique analog for Martian surface development conditions. Chemistry and mineralogy of soils and sediments from Taylor and Wright Valleys were analyzed [1-4]. Samples from selected lakes, ponds and nearby surface areas were collected in 1979/1980, from sediments below Lake Hoare in 1994/95, and from lake surfaces in 2005/06. Surface samples are from Lakes Brownworth, Vanda and Fryxell; sediment cores from Lake Hoare, Don Juan and Don Quixote ponds. Systematic analysis by INAA, XRD, VNIR and mid-infrared spectroscopy, and other methods is underway for all samples. Classical major element weathering / pedogenesis ratiosand major element weathering indices are applied to ADV as well as MER and MSL rocks and soils. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values were used to characterize weathering conditions in Antarctic soils of Barton Peninsula [5] and for sediment layers in Antarctic drill cores [6]. The CIAs of sediment layers in drill cores are largely explained by the CIAs of source materials and reflect little or isochemical weathering. At Barton Peninsula with a less arid environment than the ADVs, CIAs of soils generally exceed those of source rocks. In Figure 1, two of several ADV soil source rocks and three sets of ADV soil and sediment CIAs are compared to molar Al2O3/TiO2 ratios. ADV CIA data are clustered and, as expected, lower than those of Barton Penisula, indicating a lesser degree of weathering. Very low ADV soil CIAs indicate sulfur rich samples. Full geochemical analysis as proposed will provide good indicators of weathering where historical to contemporary alteration conditions are liquid water based. Investigating elemental relationships for analogs that can be applied to Mars elemental abundance data bases is therefore important to assist in evaluating the extent of water based alteration derived from indicators in the Martian surface. References: [1] Gibson

  6. Comparison of Detection Rate and Mutational Pattern of Drug-Resistant Mutations Between a Large Cohort of Genotype B and Genotype C Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Patients in North China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Yan; Xin, Shaojie; Ji, Dong; You, Shaoli; Hu, Jinhua; Zhao, Jun; Wu, Jingjing; Liao, Hao; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Xu, Dongping

    2016-10-28

    The study aimed to investigate the association of prevalent genotypes in China (HBV/C and HBV/B) with HBV drug-resistant mutations. A total of 13,847 nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA)-treated patients with chronic HBV infection from North China were enrolled. HBV genotypes and resistant mutations were determined by direct sequencing and confirmed by clonal sequencing if necessary. HBV/B, HBV/C, and HBV/D occupied 14.3%, 84.9%, and 0.8% across the study population, respectively. NA usage had no significant difference between HBV/B- and HBV/C-infected patients. Lamivudine-resistant mutations were more frequently detected in HBV/C-infected patients, compared with HBV/B-infected patients (31.67% vs. 25.26%, p < 0.01). Adefovir- and entecavir-resistant mutation detection rates were similar, but the mutational pattern was different between the two genotypes. For adefovir-resistant mutations, HBV/C-infected patients had a higher detection rate of rtA181 V (HBV/C 5.29% vs. HBV/B 1.36%, p < 0.01) and a lower detection rate of rtN236T (2.70% vs. 6.54%, p < 0.01). For entecavir-resistant mutations, HBV/C-infected patients had a higher detection rate of rtM204 V/I+T184 substitution or S202G/C (3.66% vs. 2.16%, p < 0.01) and a lower detection rate of rtM204 V/I+M250 V/I/L substitution (0.67% vs. 1.46%, p < 0.01). Multidrug-resistant mutations (defined as coexistence of mutation to nucleoside and nucleotide analogues) were detected in 104 patients. HBV/C-infected patients had a higher detection rate of multidrug-resistant mutation than HBV/B-infected patients (0.83% vs. 0.35%, p < 0.05). The study for the first time clarified that HBV/C-infected patients had a higher risk to develop multidrug-resistant mutations, compared with HBV/B-infected patients; and HBV/C- and HBV/B-infected patients had different inclinations in the ETV-resistant mutational pattern.

  7. Survey strategy optimization for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bernardis, F.; Stevens, J. R.; Hasselfield, M.; Alonso, D.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Crowley, K. T.; Devlin, M.; Dunkley, J.; Gallardo, P. A.; Henderson, S. W.; Hilton, M.; Hlozek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Huffenberger, K.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A.; Louis, T.; Madhavacheril, M. S.; McMahon, J.; Næss, S.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Page, L. A.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; van Engelen, A.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    In recent years there have been significant improvements in the sensitivity and the angular resolution of the instruments dedicated to the observation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). ACTPol is the first polarization receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and is observing the CMB sky with arcmin resolution over 2000 sq. deg. Its upgrade, Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT), will observe the CMB in five frequency bands and over a larger area of the sky. We describe the optimization and implementation of the ACTPol and AdvACT surveys. The selection of the observed fields is driven mainly by the science goals, that is, small angular scale CMB measurements, B-mode measurements and cross-correlation studies. For the ACTPol survey we have observed patches of the southern galactic sky with low galactic foreground emissions which were also chosen to maximize the overlap with several galaxy surveys to allow unique cross-correlation studies. A wider field in the northern galactic cap ensured significant additional overlap with the BOSS spectroscopic survey. The exact shapes and footprints of the fields were optimized to achieve uniform coverage and to obtain cross-linked maps by observing the fields with different scan directions. We have maximized the efficiency of the survey by implementing a close to 24 hour observing strategy, switching between daytime and nighttime observing plans and minimizing the telescope idle time. We describe the challenges represented by the survey optimization for the significantly wider area observed by AdvACT, which will observe roughly half of the low-foreground sky. The survey strategies described here may prove useful for planning future ground-based CMB surveys, such as the Simons Observatory and CMB Stage IV surveys.

  8. Noise correction of turbulent spectra obtained from Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Durgesh, Vibhav; Thomson, Jim; Richmond, Marshall C.; Polagye, Brian

    2014-03-02

    Accurately estimated auto-spectral density functions are essential for characterization of turbulent flows, and they also have applications in computational fluid dynamics modeling, site and inflow characterization for hydrokinetic turbines, and inflow turbulence generation. The Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) provides single-point temporally resolved data, that are used to characterize turbulent flows in rivers, seas, and oceans. However, ADV data are susceptible to contamination from various sources, including instrument noise, which is the intrinsic limit to the accuracy of acoustic velocity measurements. Due to the presence of instrument noise, the spectra obtained are altered at high frequencies. The focus of this study is to develop a robust and effective method for accurately estimating auto-spectral density functions from ADV data by reducing or removing the spectral contribution derived from instrument noise. For this purpose, the “Noise Auto-Correlation” (NAC) approach was developed, which exploits the correlation properties of instrument noise to identify and remove its contribution from spectra. The spectra estimated using the NAC approach exhibit increased fidelity and a slope of -5/3 in the inertial range, which is typically observed for turbulent flows. Finally, this study also compares the effectiveness of low-pass Gaussian filters in removing instrument noise with that of the NAC approach. For the data used in this study, both the NAC and Gaussian filter approaches are observed to be capable of removing instrument noise at higher frequencies from the spectra. However, the NAC results are closer to the expected frequency power of -5/3 in the inertial sub-range.

  9. Hydroacoustic Current Meters for the Measurement of Discharge in Shallow Rivers and Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morlock, S.E.; Fisher, G.T.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is evaluating the use of hydroacoustic current meters for making discharge measurements in shallow rivers and streams. The USGS historically has made discharge measurements in shallow rivers using mechanical, impellor-type current meters attached to a wading rod. The evaluation project has focused on three categories of hydroacoustic meters: an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) called a Flowtracker3, an acoustic Doppler velocity profiler (BoogieDopp), and bottom-tracking acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). The USGS role in this project includes providing USGS discharge-computation methods and algorithms to instrument manufacturers and evaluating instruments in the laboratory and field. An ADV (Flowtracker) designed for making discharge measurements in shallow rivers, has been tested in a USGS tow tank and was found to meet USGS calibration standards for mechanical, impellor-type current meters. The Flowtracker was field tested by USGS offices in five states; the tests were conducted by comparing discharge measurements made with the ADV to discharge measurements made with mechanical, impellor-type current meters. In general, the comparisons of Flowtracker performance to mechanical-meter results were favorable. An acoustic Doppler velocity profiler (BoogieDopp) is being evaluated for making discharge measurements in shallow rivers. The Boogiedopp will measure vertical velocity profiles at stationary positions across a channel, and the velocity profiles will be used to compute discharge. Discharge-computation software based on USGS methods and algorithms is under development for the acoustic Doppler velocity profiler. The USGS will evaluate bottom-tracking ADCPs from two manufacturers for making discharge measurements in shallow water. The bottom-tracking feature allows ADCPs to compute discharge from a moving platform as the platform moves across the channel.

  10. Antiviral activities of extracts and selected pure constituents of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Lien-Chai; Ng, Lean-Teik; Cheng, Pei-Win; Chiang, Win; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2005-10-01

    1. Ocimum basilicum (OB), also known as sweet basil, is a well known medicinal herb in traditional Chinese medicine preparations. In the present study, extracts and purified components of OB were used to identify possible antiviral activities against DNA viruses (herpes viruses (HSV), adenoviruses (ADV) and hepatitis B virus) and RNA viruses (coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1) and enterovirus 71 (EV71)). 2. The results show that crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of OB and selected purified components, namely apigenin, linalool and ursolic acid, exhibit a broad spectrum of antiviral activity. Of these compounds, ursolic acid showed the strongest activity against HSV-1 (EC50 = 6.6 mg/L; selectivity index (SI) = 15.2), ADV-8 (EC50 = 4.2 mg/L; SI = 23.8), CVB1 (EC50 = 0.4 mg/L; SI = 251.3) and EV71 (EC50 = 0.5 mg/L; SI = 201), whereas apigenin showed the highest activity against HSV-2 (EC50 = 9.7 mg/L; SI = 6.2), ADV-3 (EC50 = 11.1 mg/L; SI = 5.4), hepatitis B surface antigen (EC50 = 7.1 mg/L; SI = 2.3) and hepatitis B e antigen (EC50 = 12.8 mg/L; SI = 1.3) and linalool showed strongest activity against AVD-II (EC50 = 16.9 mg/L; SI = 10.5). 3. No activity was noted for carvone, cineole, beta-caryophyllene, farnesol, fenchone, geraniol, beta-myrcene and alpha-thujone. 4. The action of ursolic acid against CVB1 and EV71 was found to occur during the infection process and the replication phase. 5. With SI values greater than 200, the potential use of ursolic acid for treating infection with CVB1 and EV71 merits further investigation.

  11. Light emitting transistors: A new route for display pixels (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namdas, Ebinazar B.

    2015-10-01

    Organic light emitting transistors (LEFETs) are an emerging class of light emitting devices that have been successfully demonstrated in single-layer [1] and mutli-layer device structures [2]. LEFETs can simultaneously execute light-emission and standard logic functions (ON/OFF) of a transistor in a single device architecture [1]. This dual functionality of LEFETs has a potential to offer a new route to simplify fabrication of display pixels. However, the key problem of existing LEFETs thus far has been their low external quantum efficiency (EQE) at high brightness, poor ON/OFF ratio, and mobility. More recently, hybrid light emitting transistors [3-4], consisting of solution processed n-type metal oxide (inorganic) as the charge transport layer and light emitting conjugated polymer (organic), have been used to achieve higher mobility, ON/OFF ratio and brightness. In this talk, I will discuss the various factors that currently influence device performance in LEFETs, and will provide insights into our recent progress in developing high-performance hybrid LEFETs. References: (1). E. B. Namdas, J. S. Swensen, P. Ledochowitsch, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater.,20, 1321 (2008). (2). M. Ullah, K. Tandy, S. D. Yambem, M. Aljada, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, E. B. Namdas. Adv. Mater. 25, 6213-6218 (2013). (3). B. Walker, M. Ullah, G. J. Chae, P. L Burn, S. Cho, J. Y. Kim, E. B. Namdas, J. H. Seo. Appl Phys Lett, 105, 183302 (2014). (4). K. Muhieddine, M. Ullah, B. N. Pal, P. Burn, E. B. Namdas, Adv. Mater. 26, 6410 (2014).

  12. Survey Strategy Optimization for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Bernardis, F.; Stevens, J. R.; Hasselfield, M.; Alonso, D.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Crowley, K. T.; Devlin, M.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there have been significant improvements in the sensitivity and the angular resolution of the instruments dedicated to the observation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). ACTPol is the first polarization receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and is observing the CMB sky with arcmin resolution over approximately 2000 square degrees. Its upgrade, Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT), will observe the CMB in five frequency bands and over a larger area of the sky. We describe the optimization and implementation of the ACTPol and AdvACT surveys. The selection of the observed fields is driven mainly by the science goals, that is, small angular scale CMB measurements, B-mode measurements and cross-correlation studies. For the ACTPol survey we have observed patches of the southern galactic sky with low galactic foreground emissions which were also chosen to maximize the overlap with several galaxy surveys to allow unique cross-correlation studies. A wider field in the northern galactic cap ensured significant additional overlap with the BOSS spectroscopic survey. The exact shapes and footprints of the fields were optimized to achieve uniform coverage and to obtain cross-linked maps by observing the fields with different scan directions. We have maximized the efficiency of the survey by implementing a close to 24-hour observing strategy, switching between daytime and nighttime observing plans and minimizing the telescope idle time. We describe the challenges represented by the survey optimization for the significantly wider area observed by AdvACT, which will observe roughly half of the low-foreground sky. The survey strategies described here may prove useful for planning future ground-based CMB surveys, such as the Simons Observatory and CMB Stage IV surveys.

  13. Performance evaluation of Puritan® universal transport system (UniTranz-RT™) for preservation and transport of clinical viruses.

    PubMed

    Brasel, Trevor; Madhusudhan, Kunapuli T; Agans, Krystle; Dearen, Karen; Jones, Sara L; Sherwood, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    The ability of a non-propagating microbial transport medium to maintain the viability of clinically relevant viruses was compared to a similar commercial medium to establish performance equivalence. Two dilutions of stock of test viruses, namely adenovirus (AdV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), echovirus Type 30 (EV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, influenza A, parainfluenza 3 (PIV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV), were spiked into Puritan® Medical Products Company Universal Transport System (UniTranz-RT™) and BD(TM) Universal Viral Transport System (UVT) and incubated at 4 °C and room temperature (RT) for up to 72 hr. Post incubation assessment of recovery of AdV, EV, HSV-2, PIV, and VZV from UniTranz-RT™ and UVT using shell vial assays followed by immunofluorescence staining demonstrated statistically significant differences between both transport media. In general, significantly higher recoveries of AdV, EV, and VZV were found from UniTranz-RT™ than UVT whereas HSV-2 and PIV were recovered better from UVT than UniTranz-RT™, under specific test conditions. The recovery of HSV-1, influenza A, PIV, and RSV showed no significant differences between transport media. Sulforhodamine B-based assay analysis of UniTranz-RT™ lots prior to and at expiration exhibited no cytotoxicity. The overall results of the study validate the full performance of UniTranz-RT™ as a viral transport medium and establish its effectiveness on par with the UVT.

  14. Increased Mucosal CD4+ T Cell Activation in Rhesus Macaques following Vaccination with an Adenoviral Vector

    PubMed Central

    Bukh, Irene; Calcedo, Roberto; Roy, Soumitra; Carnathan, Diane G.; Grant, Rebecca; Qin, Qiuyue; Boyd, Surina; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Veeder, Christin L.; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Betts, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The possibility that vaccination with adenovirus (AdV) vectors increased mucosal T cell activation remains a central hypothesis to explain the potential enhancement of HIV acquisition within the Step trial. Modeling this within rhesus macaques is complicated because human adenoviruses, including human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5), are not endogenous to macaques. Here, we tested whether vaccination with a rhesus macaque-derived adenoviral vector (simian adenovirus 7 [SAdV-7]) enhances mucosal T cell activation within rhesus macaques. Following intramuscular SAdV-7 vaccination, we observed a pronounced increase in SAdV-7-specific CD4+ T cell responses in peripheral blood and, more dramatically, in rectal mucosa tissue. Vaccination also induced a significant increase in the frequency of activated memory CD4+ T cells in SAdV-7- and HAdV-5-vaccinated animals in the rectal mucosa but not in peripheral blood. These fluctuations within the rectal mucosa were also associated with a pronounced decrease in the relative frequency of naive resting CD4+ T cells. Together, these results indicate that peripheral vaccination with an AdV vector can increase the activation of mucosal CD4+ T cells, potentially providing an experimental model to further evaluate the role of host-vector interactions in increased HIV acquisition after AdV vector vaccination. IMPORTANCE The possibility that vaccination with a human adenovirus 5 vector increased mucosal T cell activation remains a central hypothesis to explain the potential enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition within the Step trial. In this study, we tested whether vaccination with a rhesus macaque-derived adenoviral vector in rhesus macaques enhances mucosal CD4+ T cell activation, the main cell target of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/HIV. The results showed that vaccination with an adenoviral vector indeed increases activation of mucosal CD4+ T cells and potentially increases susceptibility to SIV

  15. Flufenamic acid is a tool for investigating TRPC6-mediated calcium signalling in human conditionally immortalised podocytes and HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rebecca R; Zadeh, Maryam A H; Welsh, Gavin I; Satchell, Simon C; Ye, Yi; Mathieson, Peter W; Bates, David O; Saleem, Moin A

    2009-04-01

    Mutations in the cation channel TRPC6 result in a renal-specific phenotype of familial nephrotic syndrome, affecting intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) signalling in the glomerular podocyte. Tools to study native TRPC6 activity are scarce, although there has been recent success with flufenamic acid (FFA). We confirm the specificity of FFA for TRPC6 both in an artificial expression system and in a human conditionally immortalised podocyte cell line (ciPod). Cells were loaded with fura-2AM and changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) were calculated. 200microM FFA induced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in HEK293 cells with native TRPC6 expression, which was enhanced by overexpression of TRPC6 and completely blocked in the absence of extracellular calcium. Expressed TRPC7 did not significantly affect the response to FFA whereas expressed TRPC3 reduced it. FFA also induced an increase ciPod in [Ca(2+)](i), which was inhibited using SKF96365 and 2-APB, but not indomethacin. In ciPod, adenovirus (Ad-v) wild type (WT) TRPC6 increased [Ca(2+)](i) activity to FFA compared to native TRPC6, whereas activity was significantly reduced with Ad-v dominant negative (DN) TRPC6. The niflumic acid (NFA) induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in ciPod was not affected by Ad-v TRPC6 DN, and in HEK293 cells was not affected by WT TRPC6. In conclusion, FFA activates TRPC6 [Ca(2+)](i) signalling in both ciPod and HEK293 cells independently of TRPC3 and TRPC7, and independently of properties of the fenamate family.

  16. Treatment of traumatic brain injury using zinc-finger protein gene therapy targeting VEGF-A.

    PubMed

    Siddiq, Ishita; Park, Eugene; Liu, Elaine; Spratt, S Kaye; Surosky, Richard; Lee, Gary; Ando, Dale; Giedlin, Marty; Hare, Gregory M T; Fehlings, Michael G; Baker, Andrew J

    2012-11-20

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a role in angiogenesis and has been shown to be neuroprotective following central nervous system trauma. In the present study we evaluated the pro-angiogenic and neuroprotective effects of an engineered zinc-finger protein transcription factor transactivator targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-ZFP). We used two virus delivery systems, adeno-virus and adeno-associated virus, to examine the effects of early and delayed VEGF-A upregulation after brain trauma, respectively. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subject to a unilateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) of moderate severity (2.2-2.5 atm) followed by intracerebral microinjection of either adenovirus vector (Adv) or an adeno-associated vector (AAV) carrying the VEGF-ZFP construct. Adv-VEGF-ZFP-treated animals had significantly fewer TUNEL positive cells in the injured penumbra of the cortex (p<0.001) and hippocampus (p=0.001) relative to untreated rats at 72 h post-injury. Adv-VEGF-ZFP treatment significantly improved fEPSP values (p=0.007) in the CA1 region relative to injury alone. Treatment with AAV2-VEGF-ZFP resulted in improved post-injury microvascular diameter and improved functional recovery on the balance beam and rotarod task at 30 days post-injury. Collectively, the results provide supportive evidence for the concept of acute and delayed treatment following TBI using VEGF-ZFP to induce angiogenesis, reduce cell death, and enhance functional recovery.

  17. Aerosol retrievals over Asian mega cities with the AATSR Dual-View Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundström, Anu-Maija; Kolmonen, Pekka; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Sogacheva, Larisa; Rodriguez, Edith

    2010-05-01

    The increase of anthropogenic pollutants in Asia is evident along with the continuously increasing population and strong economic growth. Several studies have shown, that the mean aerosol mass concentration can be well above national and international standards especially in the Asian mega cities, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and New Delhi. Large emissions of aerosols and precursor gases exported from these areas can have significant impacts on air quality and climate on both regional and global scales. AATSR (Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer) on board ENVISAT (ENVIronmental SATelite) is used for monitoring various environmental parameters. The parameters include e.g. aerosol optical properties over land (Dual View algorthm (ADV)), and ocean (Single View algorithm (ASV)). The ADV-algorithm exploits the AATSR measurements made in two different viewing angles (nadir and forward) to eliminate the surface contribution from the top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. Hence an additional surface reflectance model is not needed in the retrieval. AATSR reaches global coverage of about five days, while at the mid-latitudes the return time is about three days. In this study the ADV-algorithm is applied for observing aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Asia, focusing especially on the aerosol contents at the largest cities, and the impact of these cities on the air quality at the surrounding areas. Two years of AATSR data (Jan 2008- Dec. 2009) has been retrieved and validated against the collocated groundbased AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) measurements. Good agreement with the AERONET measurements was obtained both in clean (AOD below 0.2 at 555 nm wavelength) and polluted (AOD well above 1.0 at 555 nm wavelength) cases. Results also showed that the AOD was dominated by the anthropogenic submicron particles.

  18. Alpha fetoprotein DNA prime and adenovirus boost immunization of two hepatocellular cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncofetal antigen over-expressed by many hepatocellular cancers (HCC). We previously demonstrated that HLA-A2-restricted epitopes derived from AFP are immunogenic in vitro and in vivo despite high circulating levels of this oncofetal antigen. In order to test a more broadly applicable, HLA-unrestricted, inexpensive, cell-free vaccine platform capable of activating tumor antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, we tested full length AFP in a plasmid DNA construct in combination with an AFP-expressing replication-deficient adenovirus (AdV) in a prime-boost vaccine strategy. Methods HCC patients who had an AFP+ tumor and previous treatment for HCC were screened and two patients received vaccination with three plasmid DNA injections followed by a single AdV injection, all delivered intramuscularly (i.m.). Results The vaccine was well tolerated and safe. Both patients showed immunologic evidence of immunization. The first patient had a weak AFP-specific T cell response, a strong AdV-specific cellular response and recurred with an AFP-expressing HCC at nine months. The second patient developed a strong AFP-specific CD8+ and CD4+ cellular response and an AdV neutralizing antibody response, and recurred at 18 months without an increase in serum AFP. Conclusions The AFP DNA prime-AdV boost vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Circulating anti-AdV neutralizing antibodies at baseline did not prohibit the development of AFP-specific cellular immunity. The patient who developed CD8+ and CD4+ AFP-specific T cell immunity had more favorable progression-free survival. The observations with these two patients support development of this vaccine strategy in a larger clinical trial. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00093548 PMID:24708667

  19. Interface engineering in inorganic hybrid structures towards improved photocatalysis (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yujie

    2016-10-01

    Designing new photocatalytic materials for improving photoconversion efficiency is a promising route to alleviate the steadily worsening environmental issues and energy crisis. Despite the invention of a large number of catalytic materials with well-defined structures, their overall efficiency in photocatalysis is still quite limited as the three key steps - light harvesting, charge generation and separation, and charge transfer to surface for redox reactions - have not been substantially improved. To improve each step in the complex process, there is a major trend to develop materials based on inorganic hybrid structures. In this case, interface engineering holds the promise for boosting the overall efficiency, given the key roles of interface structures in charge and energy transfer. In this talk, I will demonstrate several different approaches to designing inorganic hybrid structures with improved photocatalytic performance via interface engineering. The typical demonstrations include semiconductor-plasmonics systems for broad-spectrum light harvesting, metal-semiconductor interfaces for improved charge separation, semiconductor-MOF (metal-organic framework) configurations for activated surface reactions. It is anticipated that this series of works open a new window to rationally designing inorganic hybrid materials for photo-induced applications. References: (1) Bai, S.; Yang, L.; Wang, C.; Lin, Y.; Lu, J.; Jiang, J. and Xiong, Y.*, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 54, 14810-14814 (2015). (2) Bai, S.; Jiang, J.; Zhang, Q. and Xiong, Y.*, Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 2893-2939 (2015). (3) Bai, S.; Li, X.; Kong, Q.; Long, R.; Wang, C.; Jiang, J. and Xiong, Y.*, Adv. Mater. 27, 3444-3452 (2015). (4) Bai, S.; Ge, J.; Wang, L.; Gong, M.; Deng, M.; Kong, Q.; Song, L.; Jiang, J.;* Zhang, Q.;* Luo, Y.; Xie, Y. and Xiong, Y.*, Adv. Mater. 26, 5689-5695 (2014). (5) Li, R.; Hu, J.; Deng, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Hu, Y.; Jiang, H. L.; Jiang, J.;* Zhang, Q.;* Xie, Y. and Xiong, Y.*, Adv. Mater

  20. Long-term monitoring of 10 selected pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Sierra Nevada National Park, southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; López-Olvera, Jorge; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M; Granados, José E

    2014-11-07

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations are increasing in the Iberian Peninsula, and population management must include disease management and control. In this study, the epidemiology of 10 selected pathogens (Aujeszky's disease virus - ADV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus - PRRSV, porcine influenza virus, porcine circovirus, porcine parvovirus, Erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae, Leptospira pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp., Salmonella sp. and Mycobacterium bovis) in the wild boar population in Sierra Nevada National Park (SNNP), an open unfenced area, is reported, taking into account wild boar population abundance variation in space and time in an open unfenced environment. A total of 1103 wild boar were sampled in 141 hunting events randomly carried out for sampling in seven hunting seasons (October to February from 2002-2003 to 2009-2010 (except 2007-2008). Prevalence was overall lower than those previously reported for fenced wild boar populations in Spain, but all the pathogens analyzed except PRRSV were considered endemic in the SNNP. ADV, E. rhusiopathiae and total pathogen prevalence were positively correlated to wild boar density. Prevalence in the positive areas was significantly higher in females for ADV, E. rhusiopathiae, L. pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp. and Salmonella sp., and in males for M. bovis. This longitudinal study provides the first data on the health status of the relatively unmanaged and low density wild boar population of SNNP. It is concluded that non-intensively managed wild boar populations are able to maintain the circulation of several pathogens, even in low prevalences and in open unfenced areas with natural density variation both in time and space.

  1. Viral Vector Effects on Exoenzyme C3 Transferase–Mediated Actin Disruption and on Outflow Facility

    PubMed Central

    Slauson, Sarah R.; Peters, Donna M.; Schwinn, Marie K.; Kaufman, Paul L.; Gabelt, B'Ann T.; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Purified Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 transferase (C3) effects on the actin cytoskeleton in human trabecular meshwork cells (HTM) and on the outflow facility response in monkey organ-cultured anterior segments (MOCAS) were determined in the presence or absence of viral vectors. Methods. Human adenovirus type 5 (AdV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vectors were produced using kits. Cell soluble purified C3 (C3cs) was purchased commercially. Recombinant C3 (C3rec) cDNA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The HTM cells were incubated with up to 10 μg/mL C3cs or with 5 μg of C3rec and/or viral vector (multiplicity of infection [MOI] = 25). Cells then were fixed and stained for actin. Outflow facility in MOCAS was measured at baseline, 4 hours, 24 hours, and 3 to 4 days following bolus injection of AdV (1.6 × 107 transducing units) and/or 2.5 μg C3rec. Results. The HTM cells treated for 4 hours with C3cs (all doses) or for 24 hours with C3rec developed a rounded morphology and lost stress fibers. Cells transduced with vectors alone showed no changes at any time point. Cells exposed to C3rec and cotransduced with either viral vector showed significant disruption of the actin cytoskeleton within 4 hours after exposure, which persisted at 24 hours. In MOCAS, the AdV vector alone had no effect on outflow facility, but enhanced the response to C3rec at 4 hours. Conclusions. Coadministration of viral vectors enhances the ability of C3 transferase to disrupt actin stress fiber formation in HTM cells and increase outflow facility in MOCAS. Viral vectors potentially could be used to increase the bioavailability of proteins for cells that are difficult to transfect. PMID:25783606

  2. Huygens/HASI 2002 balloon test campaign: Probe trajectory and atmospheric vertical profiles reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaborit, V.; Fulchignoni, M.; Colombatti, G.; Ferri, F.; Bettanini, C.

    2004-08-01

    In the framework of the activities going on in preparation for the mission of the Huygens probe in Titan's atmosphere (January 2005), the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI) team scheduled and performed several balloon campaigns to test the HASI sensors' performance in flight conditions in the Earth's atmosphere. In particular, pressure conditions reached during each test are similar to those expected in Titan's lower atmosphere. A 1:1 scaled mock-up of the Huygens probe was launched with a stratospheric balloon in 2001 (Br. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 33 (2001) 1109) and in 2002 (Br. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 34 (2002) 911; Adv. Space. Sci. (2003)) from the G. Broglio base of the Italian Space Agency, located in Trapani Milo (Sicily). In both cases the mock-up was dropped from an altitude higher than 27 and 32 km, respectively, and recovered on the ground after a parachuted descent. In this paper, we describe the results obtained in reconstructing (i) the probe descent trajectory and (ii) the profiles of the physical quantities characterizing the Earth's atmosphere, on the basis of a complete analysis of the data obtained during the HASI 2002 balloon flight experiment. Using temperature and pressure measurements, we are able to reach an accuracy of the order of 0.5% on the altitude reconstruction during the descent. We validate both the models used for trajectory reconstruction and to check the sensors' performance. We describe the problems faced in determining the Huygens probe descent trajectory in Titan's atmosphere focusing our discussion on the critical aspects of the descent reconstruction (such as the uncertainties due to measurement errors, limited knowledge of the atmospheric composition, etc.) and the validity of the adopted assumptions.

  3. Cation coordination reactions on nanocrystals: surface/interface, doping control and advanced photocatalysis applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiatao

    2016-10-01

    Abstract: Including the shape and size effect, the controllable doping, hetero-composite and surface/interface are the prerequisite of colloidal nanocrystals for exploring their optoelectronic properties, such as fluorescence, plasmon-exciton coupling, efficient electron/hole separation, and enhanced photocatalysis applications. By controlling soft acid-base coordination reactions between cation molecular complexes and colloidal nanocrystals, we showed that chemical thermodynamics could drive nanoscale monocrystalline growth of the semiconductor shell on metal nano-substrates and the substitutional heterovalent doping in semiconductor nanocrystals. We have demonstrated evolution of relative position of Au and II-VI semiconductor in Au-Semi from symmetric to asymmetric configuration, different phosphines initiated morphology engineering, oriented attachment of quantum dots into micrometer nanosheets with synergistic control of surface/interface and doing, which can further lead to fine tuning of plasmon-exciton coupling. Therefore, different hydrogen photocatalytic performance, Plasmon enhanced photocatalysis properties have been achieved further which lead to the fine tuning of plasmon-exciton coupling. Substitutional heterovalent doping here enables the tailoring of optical, electronic properties and photocatalysis applications of semiconductor nanocrystals because of electronic impurities (p-, n-type doping) control. References: (1) J. Gui, J. Zhang*, et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 3683. (2) Q. Zhao, J. Zhang*, etc., Adv. Mater. 2014, 26, 1387. (3) J. Liu, Q. Zhao, S. G. Wang*, J. Zhang*, etc., Adv. Mater. 2015, 27-2753-2761. (4) H. Qian, J. Zhang*, etc., NPG Asia Mater. (2015) 7, e152. (5) M. Ji, M. Xu, etc., J. Zhang*, Adv. Mater. 2016, in proof. (6) S. Yu, J. T. Zhang, Y. Tang, M. Ouyang*, Nano Lett. 2015, 15, 6282-6288. (7) J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee and M. Ouyang*, Science 2010, 327, 1634. (8) J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee, M. Ouyang*, Nature 2010, 466

  4. Entropic Elastic Processes in Protein Mechanisms. Part 1. Elastic Structure Due to an Inverse Temperature Transition and Elasticity Due to Internal Chain Dynamics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    microscopic, to the molecu- lar and to the atomic levels of characterization. The sum of the results leave no question but that the molecular basis for the...becomes of interest to use the Onsager equation for polar liquids ( Onsager , 1931) to calculate the apparent dipole moment changes from the amplitudes of...J. PhyS. Chn. 78, 1595-16?0. Onsager , L. (1931). Phys. Rev. 37, 405-426. Partridge, S. M. (1962). Adv. Prot. Chein. 17, 227-302. Pethig, R. (1979

  5. Laplacian Growth of Parallel Needles: Their Mullins-Sekerka Instability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    conformal mapping allows to obtain analytical results as shown by Derrida and Hakim 6 for radial needles. An important question in such systems is the...and Bensimon1 °, Sz6p and Lugosi11 , Peterson and Furry 12 , Kurtze13 , and Derrida and Hakim6 . For the dynamics, we will follow here Derrida et al...Kassner, P. Meakin, and F. Family, Europhys. Lett. 27, 527 (1993). 5. J. Krug, Adv. Phys. 46, 158 (1997). 6. B. Derrida , and V. Hakim, Phys. Rev. A

  6. Novel cycloalkylthiophene-imine derivatives bearing benzothiazole scaffold: synthesis, characterization and antiviral activity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Shaoyong; Wei, Yanhong; Yang, Ziwen; Wang, Kaimei; Liang, Ying; Shi, Liqiao

    2013-09-15

    A series of novel cycloalkylthiophene-imine derivatives containing benzothiazole unit were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-viral activities. The bio-evaluation results indicated that some of the target compounds (such as 5g, 5i, 5u) exhibited good to moderate antiviral effect on CVB5, ADV7 and EV71 viruses, however, these compounds did not have inhibition activity against H1N1 virus. Especially, the compounds 4c and 4d also exhibited high antiviral activities, which provide a new and efficient approach to evolve novel multi-functional antiviral agents by rational integration of active pharmacophores.

  7. Vitamin D Pathway Status and the Identification of Target Genes in the Mouse Mammary Gland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    without 1,25 D) (9). Prolonged activation of β-catenin can induce hair follicle tumors while loss of function of the VDR leads to alopecia (loss of...vitamin D in MCF-7 cells. Adv Exp Med Biol 1995; 375:45-52. 12 Palmer HG et al. The vitamin D receptor is a Wnt effector that controls hair follicle ... hair ) (12). This alopecia is not present in mice lacking 1αOHase enzyme suggesting it may be driven by promiscuous or unliganded VDR activity. The

  8. An Inspire-Konform 3d Building Model of Bavaria Using Cadastre Information, LIDAR and Image Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roschlaub, R.; Batscheider, J.

    2016-06-01

    The federal governments of Germany endeavour to create a harmonized 3D building data set based on a common application schema (the AdV-CityGML-Profile). The Bavarian Agency for Digitisation, High-Speed Internet and Surveying has launched a statewide 3D Building Model with standardized roof shapes for all 8.1 million buildings in Bavaria. For the acquisition of the 3D Building Model LiDAR-data or data from Image Matching are used as basis in addition with the building ground plans of the official cadastral map. The data management of the 3D Building Model is carried out by a central database with the usage of a nationwide standardized CityGML-Profile of the AdV. The update of the 3D Building Model for new buildings is done by terrestrial building measurements within the maintenance process of the cadaster and from image matching. In a joint research project, the Bavarian State Agency for Surveying and Geoinformation and the TUM, Chair of Geoinformatics, transformed an AdV-CityGML-Profilebased test data set of Bavarian LoD2 building models into an INSPIRE-compliant schema. For the purpose of a transformation of such kind, the AdV provides a data specification, a test plan for 3D Building Models and a mapping table. The research project examined whether the transformation rules defined in the mapping table, were unambiguous and sufficient for implementing a transformation of LoD2 data based on the AdV-CityGML-Profile into the INSPIRE schema. The proof of concept was carried out by transforming production data of the Bavarian 3D Building Model in LoD2 into the INSPIRE BU schema. In order to assure the quality of the data to be transformed, the test specifications according to the test plan for 3D Building Models of the AdV were carried out. The AdV mapping table was checked for completeness and correctness and amendments were made accordingly.

  9. Theory of Detonation Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-05-04

    and progresses through .an explosive. Such a theory must explain how the head of the detonation wave initiates· the reaction (and the detonation ... theory of detonation is based on the assumption that the actual value of 9’ is this lower limit Cf1 ! This is tho so-called hypothesis of’ Chapman and...DEVELOP!i!ENT Progress Report on 11 Theory of Detonation Waves 11 to April 1, 1942 by John von Nounr.n Institute for Adv&nccd Study Princeton

  10. Development of a Technical Basis and Guidance for Advanced SMR Function Allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Ronal Farris; April Whaley; Heather Medema

    2013-09-01

    This report presents the results from three key activities for FY13 that influence the definition of new concepts of operations for advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMR: a) the development of a framework for the analysis of the functional environmental, and structural attributes, b) the effect that new technologies and operational concepts would have on the way functions are allocated to humans or machines or combinations of the two, and c) the relationship between new concepts of operations, new function allocations, and human performance requirements.

  11. PAN AIR - A Computer Program for Predicting Subsonic or Supersonic Linear Potential Flows about Arbitrary Configurations Using a Higher Order Panel Method. Volume I. Theory Document (Version 1.0)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-15

    continuous). A continuous doublet strength, once again, is much more important in supersonic than in subsonic flow. That is due to the failure of...latter, since quadratic functions are not amenable to extrapolation, but need to be " pinned down" at network edges. (b) tangential velocity bounoary...rsh 2 a v V- V- vv dv 2 -ddv + vsh adv aqrs 5 Rdv + rsh2 [aqrs f + rsh f V- V- RV- (a+ sfR (J.6.210) Definirng 2 2 2R q2I() J621 12 2 ra2 + rqh2 and

  12. 2003 IDA Cost Research Symposium: Cost of Evolutionary Acquisition/Spiral Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    SBR * MPF(F)* E-2 Adv Hwk* LCS* GCCS-AF* ** PRs for THAAD, PAC-3 Blk 04, ABL, SBL OSD/CAIG Summary of EA & SD Costing Challenges...Building the Schedule • Build a PERT network (Project Evaluation and Review Technique) – Decide on level of detail – Aggregate tasks – Identify start...schedule (illustrated previously) – Estimate can be done as low a level as the schedule is estimated at (and for which you have cost data) 29 15

  13. Materials for Optical Cryocoolers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-07

    Melgaard, R. I . Epstein, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik- Bahae , “Precise determination of minimum achievable temperature for solid-state optical...M. G. Brik and K. W. Krämer, J. Lumin., 2013, 136, 221–239. 13 D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hehlen, R. I . Epstein and M. Sheik- Bahae , Adv. Opt... I . Epstein, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2004, 92, 24740. 16 M. Sheik- Bahae and R. I . Epstein, Nat. Photonics, 2007, 1, 693–699. 17 G. Rupper, N. H. Kwong and R

  14. Soluble P3HT-Grafted Graphene for Efficient Bilayer-Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    5,11 Along with certain inorganic nanoparticles (e.g., CdSe ,12,13 CdTe,5 and ZnO14,15 nanocrystals), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently been used in...Performance of Heterostructured Tetrapod-Shaped CdSe /CdTe Nanocrystals Using C60 Interlayer. Adv. Mater. 2009, 21, 4461–4466. 11. Peumans, P.; Uchida, S...Cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 6550–6551. 14. Law, M.; Greene, L. E.; Johnson, J. C.; Saykally, R.; Yang, P. Nanowire Dye-sensitized Solar Cells. Nat

  15. Visual Sensitivities and Discriminations and Their Roles in Aviation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-17

    a new objective technique. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat, 1969, 32, 479-83. 10. Tweel L.H. van der, Regan D. & Spekreijse H. Some aspects of...8. 23. Regan D. Cortical evoked potentials. Adv Behav Biol, 1972, 5, 177-92. 24. Spekreijse H., van der Tweel L.H. & Regan D. Interocular sustained...Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1977, pp 319-46. 78. Regan D. Colour and contrast. In H. Spekreijse & L.H. van der Tweel (Eds.), Spatial contrast: report of a workshop

  16. Optical spectra of graded nanostructured TiO 2 chiral sculptured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, F.; Esfandiar, A.; Savaloni, H.

    2010-07-01

    The optical properties of graded chiral sculptured TiO 2 thin films in axial and non-axial excited states are calculated using the rigorous coupled wave analysis method (RCWA) in conjunction with the Bruggeman homogenization formalism. The filtering frequency and polarization selectivity of these graded nanostructured TiO 2 sculptured thin films showed dependence on both structural and deposition parameters. The results achieved are consistent with the experimental data [K. M. Krause and M. J. Bret, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18 (2008) 3111].

  17. Influence of Tumor Microenvironment on the Molecular Regulation of Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    well plates. Lysates were prepared from cultured cells in a solution containing 50 mM Tris, pH 7.5; 120 mM NaCl; 0.5% Nonidet p - 40 ; 40 M...metastatic progression. Adv Cancer Res, 2007. 97: p . 225-46. 40 . Mimori, K., et al., Coexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and epidermal...day period. Results are means ± SE of three independent experiments. * P , 0.05 (students t-test) compared to cell number at day 1 ±SEM (B

  18. SLSTR/AATSR Viewing Geometry Simulated with MISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Timo H.; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Rodriguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-12-01

    The AATSR Dual View (ADV) aerosol retrieval algorithm is based on the stereo-viewing capability of AATSR. In our approach the radiances measured in nadir and forward views are used to eliminate the surface reflectance contribution from the top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, allowing us to retrieve the aerosol contribution without any prior knowledge of the surface properties. We are preparing to use the dual-view algorithm for aerosol retrieval with the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) nadir and backward view data. In this paper we consider the effects the changing viewing geometry may have on the aerosol retrieval.

  19. Elevated 20-HETE impairs coronary collateral growth in metabolic syndrome via endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Gregory; Soler, Amanda; Hutcheson, Rebecca; Hunter, Ian; Bradford, Chastity; Hutcheson, Brenda; Gotlinger, Katherine H; Jiang, Houli; Falck, John R; Proctor, Spencer; Schwartzman, Michal Laniado; Rocic, Petra

    2017-03-01

    Coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in metabolic syndrome (MetS). microRNA-145 (miR-145-Adv) delivery to our rat model of MetS (JCR) completely restored and neutrophil depletion significantly improved CCG. We determined whether low endogenous levels of miR-145 in MetS allowed for elevated production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), which, in turn, resulted in excessive neutrophil accumulation and endothelial dysfunction leading to impaired CCG. Rats underwent 0-9 days of repetitive ischemia (RI). RI-induced cardiac CYP4F (neutrophil-specific 20-HETE synthase) expression and 20-HETE levels were increased (4-fold) in JCR vs. normal rats. miR-145-Adv and 20-HETE antagonists abolished and neutrophil depletion (blocking antibodies) reduced (~60%) RI-induced increases in CYP4F expression and 20-HETE production in JCR rats. Impaired CCG in JCR rats (collateral-dependent blood flow using microspheres) was completely restored by 20-HETE antagonists [collateral-dependent zone (CZ)/normal zone (NZ) flow ratio was 0.76 ± 0.07 in JCR + 20-SOLA, 0.84 ± 0.05 in JCR + 20-HEDGE vs. 0.11 ± 0.02 in JCR vs. 0.84 ± 0.03 in normal rats]. In JCR rats, elevated 20-HETE was associated with excessive expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and neutrophil infiltration, which were reversed by miR-145-Adv. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation of coronary arteries, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) Ser1179 phosphorylation, eNOS-dependent NO(·-) production and endothelial cell survival were compromised in JCR rats. These parameters of endothelial dysfunction were completely reversed by 20-HETE antagonism or miR-145-Adv delivery, whereas neutrophil depletion resulted in partial reversal (~70%). We conclude that low miR-145 in MetS allows for increased 20-HETE, mainly from neutrophils, which compromises endothelial cell survival and function leading to impaired CCG. 20-HETE antagonists could provide viable therapy for restoration of CCG in MetS.NEW & NOTEWORTHY

  20. Microscale Self-Assembled Electrical Contacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    scales. 23 References 1. Morris, C. J.; Stauth, S.A.; Parviz , B.A. Self-assembly for micro and nano scale packaging: steps toward self-packaging...IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 2005, 28, 600–611. 2 Stauth, S.; Parviz , B.A. Self-assembled silicon networks on plastic. Proceedings of the 13th Int...Conf. on Solid State Sens. Actuators (Transducers 󈧉), Seoul, Korea, 2005, 964–967. 3. Stauth, S. A;. Parviz , B.A. Self-assembled single

  1. General theory for Rydberg states of atoms: The nonrelativistic case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Yan, Zong-Chao

    2017-02-01

    We carry out a complete derivation on nonrelativistic energies of atomic Rydberg states, including finite nuclear mass corrections. Several missing terms are found and a discrepancy is confirmed in the works of Drachman [in Long Range Casimir Forces: Theory and Recent Experiments on Atomic Systems, edited by F. S. Levin and D. A. Micha (Plenum, New York, 1993)] and Drake [Adv. At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 31, 1 (1993)]., 10.1016/S1049-250X(08)60087-7 As a benchmark, we present a detailed tabulation of different energy levels.

  2. Genetic Induction of Cytolytic Susceptibility in Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    papillomaviruses (HPV) and adenoviruses (Ad) both transform cells by expressing functionally related oncogenes (Ad-ElA/E1B; HPV-E7/E6), only HPV are... papillomaviruses ; NK cells; E1A; E7. INTRODUCTION ing et al., 1980). The ElA and E7 oncoproteins appear to Human pa pillomavi ruses (HPV) and adenoviruses... papillomaviruses and in transgenic mice expressing the E7 and E6 oncogenes of human carcinomas. Adv Virus Res. 37, 125-171. papillomavirus type 16. J. Viral. 71

  3. Effects of Azaprophen, Scopolamine and Trihexyphenidyl on Schedule-Controlled Behavior, Before and After Chronic Physostigmine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    clinically in the treatment of dystonia , such fects on behavior when administered alone (Mc- as the extra-pyramidal effects produced by the Master and... dystonia . Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 13, 42. Loullis, C.C.. R.L. Dean, D.I. Benson, L.R. Meverson and The author thanks Timothy F. Elsmore for helpful com- R.T...Fahq, 1983, Double-blind evaluation of Behav. 12, 409. trihexyphenidyl in dystonia , in: Adv. Neurol., Vol. 37, eds. McMaster. S.B. and J.M. Carney, 1986

  4. Beyond Standard Model Physics: At the Frontiers of Cosmology and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Suarez, Alejandro O.

    I begin to write this thesis at a time of great excitement in the field of cosmology and particle physics. The aim of this thesis is to study and search for beyond the standard model (BSM) physics in the cosmological and high energy particle fields. There are two main questions, which this thesis aims to address: 1) what can we learn about the inflationary epoch utilizing the pioneer gravitational wave detector Adv. LIGO?, and 2) what are the dark matter particle properties and interactions with the standard model particles?. This thesis will focus on advances in answering both questions.

  5. Hydrokinetic canal measurements: inflow velocity, wake flow velocity, and turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, Budi

    2014-06-11

    The dataset consist of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) velocity measurements in the wake of a 3-meter diameter vertical-axis hydrokinetic turbine deployed in Roza Canal, Yakima, WA, USA. A normalized hub-centerline wake velocity profile and two cross-section velocity contours, 10 meters and 20 meters downstream of the turbine, are presented. Mean velocities and turbulence data, measured using acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) at 50 meters upstream of the turbine, are also presented. Canal dimensions and hydraulic properties, and turbine-related information are also included.

  6. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry. Quantum Chemistry Symposium Number 26: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Atomic, Molecular, and Condensed Matter Theory and Computational Methods Held in St. Augustine, Florida on 14-21 March 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    Viinikka, Phys . Rev . A 15, 1486 (1977). I 01 L. S. Cederbaum, W. Domcke. J. Schirmer. W. Von Niessen. G. It. F . Diercksen. and W. P. Kraemer, J. (hem. Phys ...Csanak, and H. S. Taylor. Adv. At. Mol. Phvs. 7,287 (1971). f231 F , J. Dyson. Phys . Rev . 75,436 (1949): 75. 1736 (1949). [24] J_ C. Inkson. Man y-Body...161 ( 1982)- f [19] H. Monkhorst, Int. J. Quantum (hem.. Quantumn Chem. S% np, 11, 421 (1977): E. Dalgaard and H. J. Monkhorst. Phys . Rev . A28, 1217

  7. Regulation of PKCdelta Apoptotic Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells by Tyrosine Phosphorylation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    T, Garcia- Bermejo ML, Bernabo JL, Caamano J, Ohba M , Kuroki T, Li L, Yuspa SH, Kazanietz MG. Involvement of protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta) in...ntibodies t o m ap phos phorylation sites. The f ollowing T yr s ite- specific ant ibodies w ere us ed: ant i-Tyr52, a nti-Tyr155 a nti-Tyr311 ( kind g ifts...fferent MOI, a nd f ound t hat at a n M OI of 3 pf u/cell, bot h A dVs c ause significant overexpression (Fig. 3). We infected LNCaP cells with AdVs

  8. Analytical Applications of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-10

    Univ. Press, Oxford, 1991). 7. E. Betzig and J . K. Trautman. Science 257, 189 (1992). 8. H. Kumar Wickramasinghe, Scient . Am. 261, 74 (1989). 9. H...Academic Press, Boston, 1993. 13. Y. Kuk and P. J . Silverman, Rev. Sci. Instrum . 60, 165 (1989). -9- P. S. Weiss 14. R. J . Hamers, Adv. Phys. Chem...OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Grant #N00014-91- J -1630 R&T Code 313s002 --- 05 AD-A276 066 Technical Report #9 I IN III 111M11 oi11111111I Analytical

  9. Topological Insulators and Superconductors for Innovative Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-20

    Ong , and R. J. Cava, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 057001 (2010). [12] S. Sasaki, M. Kriener, K. Segawa, K. Yada, Y. Tanaka, M. Sato, and Y. Ando, Phys. Rev...Baumberger , C. R. A. Catlow , Adv. Mater. 2012 , 24 , 2154 . [ 7 ] D. X. Qu , Y. S. Hor , J. Xiong , R. J. Cava , N. P. Ong ...Xiong, R. J. Cava, and N. P. Ong , Science 329, 821 (2010). [6] Z. Ren, A.A. Taskin, S. Sasaki, K. Segawa, and Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. B 82, 241306(R

  10. Doing Business with the Naval Air Systems Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-13

    PRECISION APPROACH & LANDING SYSTEM (JPALS) • E -2D ADVANCED HAWKEYE (AHE) • EA-6B ICAP-III • EA-18G AIRBORNE ELECTRONIC ATTACK • F/A-18E/F...ARRESTING GEAR • ALR-67(V)3 ADVANCED SPECIAL RECEIVER (ASR) • E -6B MERCURY BLOCK 1 MOD • F/A-18 IRST ACAT III • EA-6B ALQ-99 LOW BAND...CONTROL AND COMMUNICATIONS E -6B MERCURY PMA272 ADVANCED TACTICAL AIRCRAFT PROTECTION SYSTEMS ALR67(V)2 ADV SPECIAL RECEIVER AAR-47

  11. Reliable Welding of HSLA Steels by Square Wave Pulsing Using an Advanced Sensing (EDAP) Technique.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-30

    situation is the result of welding on A710 steel . (A similar effect on welding on HY80 ?) The following is offered by Woods and Milner (Ref. 12): "The...AD-R69 762 RELIABLE MELDING OF HSLA STEELS BY SQUARE MAVE PULSING 1/2 USING AN ADV NCED.. (U) APPLIED FUSION TECHNOLOGIES INC FORT COLLINS CO C...6 p . 0 Report 0001 AZ AD-A 168 762 I "RELIABLE WELDING OF HSLA STEELS BY SQUARE WAVE PULSING USING AN ADVANCED SENSING (EDAP) TECHNIQUE- Preliminary

  12. Microdesigning of Lightweight/High Strength Ceramic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-31

    pp. 199-204. Mat. Res. Sx). Symp. Proc., 32 Amsterdam: North-Hlolland. 23. See, e.g., Matijevic , E~. 1976. Progr. Coloid & Polymer Sd. 61:24-35. 24...Johnson, D,. W, 1987. Adv. Ceram. 21:3. 25. Matijevic , E. 1984. Ultrastructure Processing of Ceramics, Classes, and Composites, pp. 334-352. L. L...Ilench, 1). R. Ulrich, ed., New York: Wiley. 26. Matijevic , E. 1987. Personal communication. 27. Pak, S. F)88. M.S. Thesis. University of Washington

  13. Broadband light absorption enhancement in polymer photovoltaics using metal nanowall gratings as transparent electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Zhuo; Chaudhary, Sumit; Kuang, Ping; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2012-05-15

    The authors investigate light absorption in organic solar cells in which indium tin oxide (ITO) is replaced by a new metallic architecture (grating) as a transparent electrode. Different from typical metal nanowire gratings, our gratings consist of metal nanowalls with nanoscale footprint and (sub)microscale height [Adv. Mater. 23, 2469 (2011)], thus ensuring high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Simulations reveal that a broadband and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement is achieved via two mechanisms, when such silver nanowall gratings are employed in P3HT:PCBM based solar cells. Overall absorption enhanced by ~23% compared to a reference cell with ITO electrode.

  14. Drug delivery monitoring by photoacoustic tomography with an ICG encapsulated double emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueding; Rajian, Justin R.; Fabiilli, Mario L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.

    2012-02-01

    We successfully encapsulated ICG in an ultrasound-triggerable perfluorocarbon double emulsion that prevents ICG from binding with plasma proteins. Photoacoustic spectral measurements on point target as well as 2-D photoacoustic images of blood vessels revealed that the photoacoustic spectrum changes significantly in blood when the ICG-loaded emulsion undergoes acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), which is the conversion of liquid droplets into gas bubbles using ultrasound. Other than providing a new photoacoustic contrast agent, the ICG encapsulated double emulsion, when imaged with photoacoustic tomography, could facilitate spatial and quantitative monitoring of ultrasound initiated drug delivery.

  15. Impact of the MRN Complex on Adeno-Associated Virus Integration and Replication during Coinfection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Rachel; Jolinon, Nelly; Nguyen, Xuan-Nhi; Berger, Gregory; Cimarelli, Andrea; Greco, Anna; Bertrand, Pascale; Odenthal, Margarete; Büning, Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a helper-dependent parvovirus that requires coinfection with adenovirus (AdV) or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) to replicate. In the absence of the helper virus, AAV can persist in an episomal or integrated form. Previous studies have analyzed the DNA damage response (DDR) induced upon AAV replication to understand how it controls AAV replication. In particular, it was shown that the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex, a major player of the DDR induced by double-stranded DNA breaks and stalled replication forks, could negatively regulate AdV and AAV replication during coinfection. In contrast, MRN favors HSV-1 replication and is recruited to AAV replication compartments that are induced in the presence of HSV-1. In this study, we examined the role of MRN during AAV replication induced by HSV-1. Our results indicated that knockdown of MRN significantly reduced AAV DNA replication after coinfection with wild-type (wt) HSV-1 or HSV-1 with the polymerase deleted. This effect was specific to wt AAV, since it did not occur with recombinant AAV vectors. Positive regulation of AAV replication by MRN was dependent on its DNA tethering activity but did not require its nuclease activities. Importantly, knockdown of MRN also negatively regulated AAV integration within the human AAVS1 site, both in the presence and in the absence of HSV-1. Altogether, this work identifies a new function of MRN during integration of the AAV genome and demonstrates that this DNA repair complex positively regulates AAV replication in the presence of HSV-1. IMPORTANCE Viral DNA genomes trigger a DNA damage response (DDR), which can be either detrimental or beneficial for virus replication. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a defective parvovirus that requires the help of an unrelated virus such as adenovirus (AdV) or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) for productive replication. Previous studies have demonstrated that the cellular Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex, a

  16. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    this use gill- netters are divided into 3 groups in 1982. Most herring are frozen of about 130 boats each and each group ., whole and shipped to Korea...and sold haul vessels were allotted 54 mt each for human consumption in Korea and gill- netters 1,437-1,526 mt each, (Eldridge and Kaill 1973... physiology Eschmeyer, W.N. , E. S. Herald, and H. of herring and other clupeids. Adv. Hamman. 1983. A field guide to Mar. Biol. 1:261-393. Pacific coast fishes

  17. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  18. Lightweight Combat Vehicle S&T Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Increasing Threats and Coverage V e h ic le W e ig h t (t o n s ) 600 lbs allocated for armor & structure is NOT feasible Challenge: Reducing Weight...Manufacturing L C V S T C Structure / Armor Mobility Lethality Elec/Sensors/Other •Operational Metrics •Lightweighting BoD •ICME •Load Cases/Reqts •Adv Arch...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 31 AUG 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED

  19. Inflow Characterization for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Devices. FY-2011: Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Durgesh, Vibhav; Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian

    2011-06-09

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in collaboration with the Applied Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington (APL-UW), has carried out a detailed preliminary fluid flow field study at site selected for testing of marine and hydrokinetic turbines using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) measurements, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements, and Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements. In FY-2011 these measurements were performed continuously for two weeks, in order to collect data during neap and spring tides, as well as during diurnal tidal variations.

  20. Viral persistence in surface and drinking water: Suitability of PCR pre-treatment with intercalating dyes.

    PubMed

    Prevost, B; Goulet, M; Lucas, F S; Joyeux, M; Moulin, L; Wurtzer, S

    2016-03-15

    After many outbreaks of enteric virus associated with consumption of drinking water, the study of enteric viruses in water has increased significantly in recent years. In order to better understand the dynamics of enteric viruses in environmental water and the associated viral risk, it is necessary to estimate viral persistence in different conditions. In this study, two representative models of human enteric viruses, adenovirus 41 (AdV 41) and coxsackievirus B2 (CV-B2), were used to evaluate the persistence of enteric viruses in environmental water. The persistence of infectious particles, encapsidated genomes and free nucleic acids of AdV 41 and CV-B2 was evaluated in drinking water and surface water at different temperatures (4 °C, 20 °C and 37 °C). The infectivity of AdV 41 and CV-B2 persisted for at least 25 days, whatever the water temperature, and for more than 70 days at 4 °C and 20 °C, in both drinking and surface water. Encapsidated genomes persisted beyond 70 days, whatever the water temperature. Free nucleic acids (i.e. without capsid) also were able to persist for at least 16 days in drinking and surface water. The usefulness of a detection method based on an intercalating dye pre-treatment, which specifically targets preserved particles, was investigated for the discrimination of free and encapsidated genomes and it was compared to virus infectivity. Further, the resistance of AdV 41 and CV-B2 against two major disinfection treatments applied in drinking water plants (UV and chlorination) was evaluated. Even after the application of UV rays and chlorine at high doses (400 mJ/cm(2) and 10 mg.min/L, respectively), viral genomes were still detected with molecular biology methods. Although the intercalating dye pre-treatment had little use for the detection of the effects of UV treatment, it was useful in the case of treatment by chlorination and less than 1 log10 difference in the results was found as compared to the infectivity measurements

  1. National Interests and Geopolitics: A Primer on the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    alit w it ai ,ii, irms buildl -ut) by other countries. The last groulp of i)1,,, 11 a, (-f uxlerii.il itiii.iiv %- d.i•i •’v iincludes attempts to...For air mobile mis sidn s, an ad(v a neer variant oif Ilie 11-76 will be u se(1. One model will be chosen between two av;iilatile iH’)(el.: cihrtho...ships, new lypes of nledical ttclhnologi-s, commullllnication and information are all affected.48 Priority is given to civilian production. In the

  2. Extreme Value Analysis of Tidal Stream Velocity Perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, Samuel; Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian; Richmond, Marshall C.; Durgesh, Vibhav; Bryden, Ian

    2011-04-26

    This paper presents a statistical extreme value analysis of maximum velocity perturbations from the mean flow speed in a tidal stream. This study was performed using tidal velocity data measured using both an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) at the same location which allows for direct comparison of predictions. The extreme value analysis implements of a Peak-Over-Threshold method to explore the effect of perturbation length and time scale on the magnitude of a 50-year perturbation.

  3. Army Training Study: Training Effectiveness Analysis (TEA) Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-08

    concerning other ongoing tests which might support ARTS objectives are solicited. Work sheets are at :z-ATS 5 A:D-V i 19 S"BJECT: ARMY TRAINING STUDY (ARTS...Unit, as part of its FY 1978 *" work program. The research was expanded in response to a request by . Director, Army Training Study , to determine the...Armor), Fort Knox, KY. The Army Training Study System Work Team at Fort Knox,KY, in coordination with the Fort Knox Field Unit of ARI, refined the

  4. Epidemiology study of HBV genotypes and antiviral drug resistance in multi-ethnic regions from Western China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Liao, Yun; Chen, Jie; Cai, Bei; Su, Zhenzhen; Ying, Binwu; Lu, Xiaojun; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-11-27

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a critical global health issue and moderately epidemic in Western China, but HBV molecular epidemiology characteristics are still limited. We conducted this study to investigate HBV genotypes and antiviral resistant mutations in this multi-ethnic area. A total of 1316 HBV patients were recruited from four ethnic groups from 2011 to 2013. Genotypes and resistant mutations were determined by Sanger sequencing. Four genotypes (B, C, D and C/D) were identified. Genotype B and C were common in Han population, while genotype D was predominant in Uygurs. Genotype C was the major genotype in both Tibetans and Yis, and recombinant C/D was found in Tibetans only. Lamivudine resistance was common in all populations, especially in Hans with prevalence of 42.8%. Entecavir resistance was barely observed regardless of ethnicity. Genotype C isolates had higher rates of rtA181T/V than genotype B (13.5% vs. 5.1%, P < 0.001), in accordance with higher prevalence of resistance to adefovir (20.0% vs. 9.5%, P < 0.001). While incidence of resistant mutations to other drugs and clinical factors showed no difference among different genotypes. HBV genotypes and resistance-conferring mutations had different geographic and demographic distributions in Western China, which provided molecular epidemiology data for clinical management.

  5. Clinical update: hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tram T

    2007-07-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains a global health problem, with disproportionately high prevalence rates approaching 10-15% in the Asian population worldwide and in Asian immigrants in the United States. Chronic infection complications, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, occur in 1 5-40% of infected individuals, and important recent data from the REVEAL study have suggested that, independent of other factors, high viral replication may impact long-term disease outcomes. More recent recognition of parameters for defining normal transaminases may also affect decision-making for therapy initiation. Recently, new treatment options have been effective at viral suppression, with lower rates of viral resistance compared to lamivudine. Currently, therapies for hepatitis B treatment include interferon, lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, and telbivudine. Treatment considerations need to take into account therapy duration and risks, specifically the development of viral resistance. Recently updated guidelines and algorithms use viral replication, alanine aminotransferase levels, and severity of histologic disease as the determining factors for treatment. Therapy length is dependent on hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion in HBeAg-positive CHB patients. In patients with the precore/basal core promoter HBeAg-negative CHB, the treatment goal is continued viral suppression. Future options, including new oral agents, therapeutic vaccines, and combination therapies, require further study.

  6. Roles of hepatocyte nuclear factors in hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Doo Hyun; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Kyun-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 350 million people are estimated to be persistently infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. HBV maintains persistent infection by employing covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), a template for all HBV RNAs. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients are currently treated with nucleos(t)ide analogs such as lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, and tenofovir. However, these treatments rarely cure CHB because they are unable to inhibit cccDNA transcription and inhibit only a late stage in the HBV life cycle (the reverse transcription step in the nucleocapsid). Therefore, an understanding of the factors regulating cccDNA transcription is required to stop this process. Among numerous factors, hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNFs) play the most important roles in cccDNA transcription, especially in the generation of viral genomic RNA, a template for HBV replication. Therefore, proper control of HNF function could lead to the inhibition of HBV replication. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current understanding of the roles of HNFs in the HBV life cycle and the upstream factors that regulate HNFs. This knowledge will enable the identification of new therapeutic targets to cure CHB. PMID:27610013

  7. Nucleotide Analogue-Related Proximal Renal Tubular Dysfunction during Long-Term Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Sobhonslidsuk, Abhasnee; Wanichanuwat, Jirachaya; Numthavaj, Pawin; Sophonsritsuk, Areepan; Petraksa, Supanna; Pugasub, Alongkorn; Jittorntam, Paisan; Kongsomgan, Anucha; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Phakdeekitcharoen, Bunyong

    2016-01-01

    Background. There have been few reports of nucleotide analogue-related renal tubular dysfunction (RTD) in CHB patients. We assessed the prevalence and presentation of nucleotide analogue-related proximal RTD. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in CHB patients taking nucleotide analogues. Inclusion criteria were patients who were on adefovir or tenofovir as mono- or add-on therapy with lamivudine (LAM) >1 year. Serum and urine were collected. Fractional excretion of phosphate (FEPO4), uric acid (FEUA), and potassium was calculated. Renal losses were defined based on the criteria: protein (24-hour urine protein >150 mg), glucose (glycosuria with normoglycemia), phosphate (FEPO4 >18%), uric acid (FEUA >15%), potassium (renal potassium losses with hypokalemia), and bicarbonate (normal gap acidosis). Subclinical and overt proximal RTD were defined when 2 and ≥3 criteria presented. Results. Ninety-two patients were enrolled. The mean duration of nucleotide analogue taking was 55.1 ± 29.6 months. Proximal RTD was found in 24 (26.1%) patients (subclinical 15 (16.3%) and overt 9 (9.8%)). The severity of RTD was associated with the duration of nucleotide analogue (P = 0.01). Conclusions. The prevalence of proximal RTD in CHB patients taking nucleotide analogues was 26%. The severity of RTD was associated with the treatment duration. Comprehensive testing is necessary for early detecting nucleotide analogue-related nephrotoxicity.

  8. The Use of Cytochrome C Oxidase Enzyme Activity and Immunohistochemistry in Defining Mitochondrial Injury in Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Zsengellér, Zsuzsanna K; Rosen, Seymour

    2016-09-01

    The renal biopsy is a dynamic way of looking at renal disease, and tubular elements are an important part of this analysis. The mitochondria in 20 renal biopsies were examined by immunohistochemical (electron transport chain enzyme: cytochrome C oxidase IV [COX IV]) and enzyme histochemical methods (COX), both by light and electron microscopy. The distal convoluted tubules and thick ascending limbs showed the greatest intensity in the COX immunostains and enzyme activity in controls. The degree of mitochondrial COX protein and enzyme activity diminished as the tubules became atrophic. With proximal hypertrophic changes, there was great variation in both COX activity and protein expression. In contrast, in three cases of systemic lupus erythematosus, biopsied for high-grade proteinuria, the activity was consistently upregulated, whereas protein expression remained normal. These unexpected findings of heterogeneous upregulation in hypertrophy and the dyssynchrony of protein expression and activity may indicate mitochondrial dysregulation. Functional electron microscopy showed COX activity delineated by the intense mitochondrial staining in normal or hypertrophic proximal tubules. With atrophic changes, residual small mitochondria with diminished activity could be seen. With mitochondrial size abnormalities (enlargement and irregularity, adefovir toxicity), activity persisted. In the renal biopsy, mitochondrial analysis is feasible utilizing immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical techniques.

  9. Liver transplantation for hepatitis B: what is the best hepatitis B immune globulin/antiviral regimen?

    PubMed

    Angus, Peter W; Patterson, Scott J

    2008-10-01

    1. Prophylaxis using the combination of lamivudine and high-dose intravenous hepatitis B immunoglobulin (approximately 10,000 IU monthly) reduces the long-term risk of recurrence of hepatitis B in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive transplant recipients to 5% to 10%. However, this therapy is expensive and inconvenient for patients. 2. Recent studies have shown that similar results can be obtained, at far less cost, with much lower doses of intramuscular hepatitis B immune globulin (400-800 IU monthly) in combination with pretransplant and posttransplant lamivudine therapy. 3. The development of lamivudine resistance pre-transplant can lead to hepatic decompensation and increases the risk of posttransplant recurrence in patients receiving hepatitis B immune globulin/lamivudine prophylaxis. Newer nucleos(t)ide analogues with lower resistance rates such as entecavir, adefovir, and tenofovir should therefore replace lamivudine in hepatitis B prophylaxis. 4. Combination therapy with these newer agents and low-dose intramuscular hepatitis B immune globulin is likely to be the most cost effective hepatitis B immune globulin-containing regimen for the prevention of hepatitis B recurrence post-transplant. 5. Some form of hepatitis B virus prophylaxis needs be continued indefinitely post-transplant. However, the use of antivirals with very low rates of drug resistance will make it possible to stop hepatitis B immune globulin therapy in many patients currently receiving hepatitis B immune globulin/nucleos(t)ide combination therapy.

  10. Heart transplantation in patients with chronic hepatitis B: clinical evolution, molecular analysis, and effect of treatment.

    PubMed

    Zampino, Rosa; Marrone, Aldo; Ragone, Enrico; Costagliola, Loredana; Cirillo, Grazia; Karayiannis, Peter; Ruggiero, Giuseppe; Utili, Riccardo

    2005-11-15

    We evaluated clinical evolution and hepatitis B virus (HBV) molecular changes in heart recipients with chronic HBV infection before transplantation, and studied the effects of lamivudine treatment in patients who experienced HBV reactivation. Nine patients with chronic HBV infection who underwent heart transplantation were investigated. HBV surface/core-promoter/precore/core regions were sequenced. Prior to transplantation, all nine patients had consistently normal ALT and low HBV-DNA levels. Seven experienced HBV reactivation after transplantation (ALT elevated, HBV-DNA>200.000 cps/ml). Lamivudine treatment was initially effective in all patients; three patients during the second year of treatment developed lamivudine resistance-associated mutations (rt-L180M, rt-M204V) with severe disease reactivation, remitted after switch to adefovir treatment. No other significant HBV mutations were identified in the genomic regions studied. Immune suppression is crucial in the reactivation of previous inactive HBV infection and in the liver disease progression in heart recipients. Preemptive lamivudine treatment could be useful in the early management of these patients.

  11. Computational model of hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase: Molecular dynamics and docking to understand resistant mutations

    PubMed Central

    Daga, Pankaj R; Duan, Jinsong; Doerksen, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA polymerase (HDP) is a pharmacological target of intense interest. Of the seven agents approved in USA for the treatment of HBV infections, five are HDP inhibitors. However, resistance development against HDP inhibitors, such as lamivudine and adefovir, has severely hurt their efficacy to treat HBV. As a step toward understanding the mechanism of resistance development and for gaining detailed insights about the active site of the enzyme, we have built a homology model of HDP which is an advance over previously reported ones. Validation using various techniques, including PROSTAT, PROCHECK, and Verify-3D profile, proved the model to be stereochemically significant. The stability of the model was studied using a 5 ns molecular dynamics simulation. The model was found to be sufficiently stable after the initial 2.5 ns with overall root mean squared deviation (RMSD) of 4.13 Å. The homology model matched the results of experimental mutation studies of HDP reported in the literature, including those of antiviral-resistant mutations. Our model suggests the significant role of conserved residues, such as rtLys32, in binding of the inhibitors, contrary to previous studies. The model provides an explanation for the inactivity of some anti-HIV molecules which are inactive against HDP. Conformational changes which occurred in certain binding pocket amino acids helped to explain the better binding of some of the inhibitors in comparison to the substrates. PMID:20162615

  12. Latest insights on adenovirus structure and assembly.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size (~950 Å) and triangulation number (pseudo T = 25), but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasi-equivalent icosahedral interactions. Up until 2009, only its major components (hexon, penton, and fiber) had separately been described in atomic detail. Their relationships within the virion, and the location of minor coat proteins, were inferred from combining the known crystal structures with increasingly more detailed cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) maps. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Later on that year, two reports described the structural differences between the mature and immature adenoviral particle, starting to shed light on the different stages of viral assembly, and giving further insights into the roles of core and minor coat proteins during morphogenesis [1,2]. Finally, in 2010, two papers describing the atomic resolution structure of the complete virion appeared [3,4]. These reports represent a veritable tour de force for two structural biology techniques: X-ray crystallography and cryoEM, as this is the largest macromolecular complex solved at high resolution by either of them. In particular, the cryoEM analysis provided an unprecedented clear picture of the complex protein networks shaping the icosahedral shell. Here I review these latest developments in the field of AdV structural studies.

  13. Latest Insights on Adenovirus Structure and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    San Martín, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size (~950 Å) and triangulation number (pseudo T = 25), but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasi-equivalent icosahedral interactions. Up until 2009, only its major components (hexon, penton, and fiber) had separately been described in atomic detail. Their relationships within the virion, and the location of minor coat proteins, were inferred from combining the known crystal structures with increasingly more detailed cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) maps. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Later on that year, two reports described the structural differences between the mature and immature adenoviral particle, starting to shed light on the different stages of viral assembly, and giving further insights into the roles of core and minor coat proteins during morphogenesis [1,2]. Finally, in 2010, two papers describing the atomic resolution structure of the complete virion appeared [3,4]. These reports represent a veritable tour de force for two structural biology techniques: X-ray crystallography and cryoEM, as this is the largest macromolecular complex solved at high resolution by either of them. In particular, the cryoEM analysis provided an unprecedented clear picture of the complex protein networks shaping the icosahedral shell. Here I review these latest developments in the field of AdV structural studies. PMID:22754652

  14. Turbulence Effects of Axial Flow Hydrokinetic Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C.; Chamorro, L. P.; Neary, V. S.; Morton, S.; Sotiropoulos, F.

    2011-12-01

    Axial flow hydrokinetic turbines provide a method for extracting the kinetic energy available in unidirectional (river), bidirectional (tidal) and marine currents; however, a deep understanding of the wake dynamics, momentum recovery, geomorphologic effects, and ecological interaction with these hydrokinetic turbines is required to guarantee their economical and environmental viability. The St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) at the University of Minnesota (UMN) has performed physical modeling experiments using a 1:10 scale axial flow tidal turbine in the SAFL Main Channel, a 2.75m x 1.8m x 80m open channel test facility. A sophisticated control system allows synchronous measurements of turbine torque and rotational speed along with high resolution 3-D velocity measurements within the channel. Using acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs), high resolution 3-D velocity profile data were collected up to 15 turbine diameters downstream of the turbine location. These data provide valuable information on the wake characteristics (turbulence, Reynolds stresses, etc.) resulting from a rotating axial flow hydrokinetic machine. Regions of high turbulence and shear zones that persist in the near wake regions are delineated along with the velocity deficit and momentum recovery within the wake downstream of the device. Synchronous ADV data shed light on the rotational and meandering characteristics of the wake and its potential impacts on the local geomorphology and hydrodynamic environment. This dataset on single hydrokinetic turbine flow characteristics is the basis for further work on the optimal arrangement and performance environment for arrays of similar hydrokinetic devices.

  15. MULTI-SCALE COHERENT TURBULENCE AT TIDAL ENERGY SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Jim; Kilcher, Levi; Harding, Samuel F.

    2014-11-05

    Turbulence is known to affect the performance and survivability of tidal turbines, yet characterization of turbulence in the field remains limited. Here, we refine and demonstrate a new approach to turbulence measurements, in which an array of multiple Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADV) is suspended above the seabed at the hub height of a tidal turbine. These measurements provide information on the intensity, structure, and coherence of turbulence across the scale of a turbine rotor (< 10 m). Deployment of multiple moorings expands the analysis to array scales (> 10 m). Motion correction of the moored ADV data is essential to this approach and is verified using the turbulent kinetic energy spectra. Additional measurements include a bottommounted 5-beam Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, from which scales can be assessed using the velocities a separation distances along a given beam. These methods are demonstrated with data collected at the site of the Snohomish PUD pilot project in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, WA (USA). Coherent motion is found to be largely isotropic, such that coherence is high only at scales less than the advective length scale or the water depth, whichever is less.

  16. Aleutian Disease: An Emerging Disease in Free-Ranging Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) From California.

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, E E B; Anderson, M; Ritchie, B W; Ciembor, P; Rimoldi, G; Piazza, M; Pesti, D; Clifford, D L; Giannitti, F

    2015-11-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV, Amdovirus, Parvoviridae) primarily infects farmed mustelids (mink and ferrets) but also other fur-bearing animals and humans. Three Aleutian disease (AD) cases have been described in captive striped skunks; however, little is known about the relevance of AD in free-ranging carnivores. This work describes the pathological findings and temporospatial distribution in 7 cases of AD in free-ranging striped skunks. All cases showed neurologic disease and were found in a 46-month period (2010-2013) within a localized geographical region in California. Lesions included multisystemic plasmacytic and lymphocytic inflammation (ie, interstitial nephritis, myocarditis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and splenitis), glomerulonephritis, arteritis with or without fibrinoid necrosis in several organs (ie, kidney, heart, brain, and spleen), splenomegaly, ascites/hydrothorax, and/or encephalomalacia with cerebral microangiopathy. ADV infection was confirmed in all cases by specific polymerase chain reaction and/or in situ hybridization. The results suggest that AD is an emerging disease in free-ranging striped skunks in California.

  17. Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration: Conclusions from Four Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya L. Le Blanc; John O'Hara; Jeffrey C. Joe; April M. Whaley; Heather Medema

    2013-11-01

    The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) research project is investigating how advanced technologies that are planned for Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMR) will affect the performance and the reliability of the plant from a human factors and human performance perspective. The HAC research effort investigates the consequences of allocating functions between the operators and automated systems. More specifically, the research team is addressing how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. Oxstrand et al. (2013 - March) describes the efforts conducted by the researchers to identify the research needs for HAC. The research team reviewed the literature on HAC, developed a model of HAC, and identified gaps in the existing knowledge of human-automation collaboration. As described in Oxstrand et al. (2013 – June), the team then prioritized the research topics identified based on the specific needs in the context of AdvSMR. The prioritization was based on two sources of input: 1) The preliminary functions and tasks, and 2) The model of HAC. As a result, three analytical studies were planned and conduced; 1) Models of Teamwork, 2) Standardized HAC Performance Measurement Battery, and 3) Initiators and Triggering Conditions for Adaptive Automation. Additionally, one field study was also conducted at Idaho Falls Power.

  18. Development of an Automated Decision-Making Tool for Supervisory Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Sacit M.; Muhlheim, Michael David; Flanagan, George F.; Fugate, David L.; Kisner, Roger A.

    2014-09-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) Research and Development Program of the US Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular AdvSMR plants. This research activity advances the state of the art by incorporating real-time, probabilistic-based decision-making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides background information on the state of the art of automated decision-making, including the description of existing methodologies. It then presents a description of a generalized decision-making framework, upon which the supervisory control decision-making algorithm is based. The probabilistic portion of automated decision-making is demonstrated through a simple hydraulic loop example.

  19. Phase camera experiment for Advanced Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; van Beuzekom, Martin; van der Schaaf, Laura; van den Brand, Jo

    2016-07-01

    We report on a study of the phase camera, which is a frequency selective wave-front sensor of a laser beam. This sensor is utilized for monitoring sidebands produced by phase modulations in a gravitational wave (GW) detector. Regarding the operation of the GW detectors, the laser modulation/demodulation method is used to measure mirror displacements and used for the position controls. This plays a significant role because the quality of controls affect the noise level of the GW detector. The phase camera is able to monitor each sideband separately, which has a great benefit for the manipulation of the delicate controls. Also, overcoming mirror aberrations will be an essential part of Advanced Virgo (AdV), which is a GW detector close to Pisa. Especially low-frequency sidebands can be affected greatly by aberrations in one of the interferometer cavities. The phase cameras allow tracking such changes because the state of the sidebands gives information on mirror aberrations. A prototype of the phase camera has been developed and is currently tested. The performance checks are almost completed and the installation of the optics at the AdV site has started. After the installation and commissioning, the phase camera will be combined to a thermal compensation system that consists of CO2 lasers and compensation plates. In this paper, we focus on the prototype and show some limitations from the scanner performance.

  20. Anomalous Magnetoresistance Phenomena in Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeson, Jeremy D.; Lincoln, Derek M.; Shima Edelstein, Ruth; Prigodin, Vladimir N.; Epstein, Arthur J.

    2006-03-01

    We report magnetoresistance (MR) phenomena with temperature and bias dependence in organic semiconductor thin films with either nonmagnetic or magnetic contacts through high field reaching 9T. For nonmagnetic organic thin films such as Alq3 we find a low field MR up to 15%. A similar magnetic field effect has been reported earlier^1 but, as noted, the mechanism remains unclear. We propose a model of the anomalous MR where charge transport is space-charge limited. The current is determined by the e-h recombination rate. The recombination rate is field dependent, analogous to the chemical yield for radical pairs^2. Using an organic- based magnetic semiconductor^3, V[TCNE]x, and Co as magnetic contacts, with a nonmagnetic organic semiconductor (α-6T) leads to an order-of-magnitude broader zero-centered MR peak superimposed on a spin-valve effect. Possible origins of this broader MR will be discussed. 1. Francis, et al., New J. Phys. 6 185 (2004); Frankevich, et al., Phys. Rev. B 53 4498 (1996) 2. Steiner and Ulrich, Chem. Rev. 89 51 (1989) 3. Pokhodnya, et al., Adv. Mater. 12 410 (2000); Prigodin, et al., Adv. Mater. 14 1230 (2002); Shima Edelstein, et al., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 871E I7.3 (2005)

  1. Self-pinning of a nanosuspension droplet: Molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Baiou; Webb, Edmund B.

    2016-07-01

    Results are presented from molecular dynamics simulations of Pb(l) nanodroplets containing dispersed Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and spreading on solid surfaces. Three-dimensional simulations are employed throughout, but droplet spreading and pinning are reduced to two-dimensional processes by modeling cylindrical NPs in cylindrical droplets; NPs have radius RNP≅3 nm while droplets have initial R0≅42 nm . At low particle loading explored here, NPs in sufficient proximity to the initial solid-droplet interface are drawn into advancing contact lines; entrained NPs eventually bind with the underlying substrate. For relatively low advancing contact angle θadv, self-pinning on entrained NPs occurs; for higher θadv, depinning is observed. Self-pinning and depinning cases are compared and forces on NPs at the contact line are computed during a depinning event. Though significant flow in the droplet occurs in close proximity to the particle during depinning, resultant forces are relatively low. Instead, forces due to liquid atoms confined between the particles and substrate dominate the forces on NPs; that is, for the NP size studied here, forces are interface dominated. For pinning cases, a precursor wetting film advances ahead of the pinned contact line but at a significantly slower rate than for a pure droplet. This is because the precursor film is a bilayer of liquid atoms on the substrate surface but it is instead a monolayer film as it crosses over pinning particles; thus, mass delivery to the bilayer structure is impeded.

  2. Delivery of Chlorambucil Using an Acoustically-Triggered, Perfluoropentane Emulsion

    PubMed Central

    Fabiilli, Mario L.; Haworth, Kevin J.; Sebastian, Ian E.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Carson, Paul L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound-mediated delivery systems have mainly focused on microbubble contrast agents as carriers of drugs or genetic material. This study utilizes micron-sized, perfluoropentane (PFP) emulsions as carriers for chlorambucil (CHL), a lipophilic chemotherapeutic. The release of CHL is achieved via acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), whereby the superheated emulsion is converted into gas bubbles using ultrasound. Emulsions were made using an albumin shell and soybean oil as the CHL carrier. The ratio of the PFP to soybean oil phases in the droplets, as well as the fraction of droplets that vaporize per ultrasound exposure were shown to correlate with droplet diameter. A 60-minute incubation with the CHL-loaded emulsion caused a 46.7% cellular growth inhibition, whereas incubation with the CHL-loaded emulsion that was exposed to ultrasound at 6.3 MHz caused an 84.3% growth inhibition. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01), signifying that ADV can be used as a method to substantially enhance drug delivery. PMID:20691925

  3. AlMn Transition Edge Sensors for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dale; Austermann, Jason E.; Beall, James A.; Becker, Daniel T.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Hilton, Gene C.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Hubmayr, Johannes; Koopman, Brian J.; McMahon, Jeffrey J.; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D.; Pappas, Christine G.; Salatino, Maria; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Van Lanen, Jeff; Ward, Jonathan T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) will use an array of multichroic polarization-sensitive AlMn transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers read out through time-division multiplexing. Aluminum doped with a low concentration of manganese can be deposited to a bulk film thickness for a more reliable superconducting critical temperature uniformity compared to thin bilayers. To build the TES, the AlMn alloy is deposited, over Nb wiring, to a specific thickness to set the TES normal resistance. The doping concentration of manganese coarsely defines the TES critical temperature, while a fine tuning is achieved by heating the deposited film to a specific temperature. The TES island is connected to the thermal bath via four silicon-nitride membranes, where their geometry defines the thermal conductance to the temperature of the bath. Lastly, the TES heat capacity is increased by addition of PdAu electrically connected to the AlMn film. Designs and performance characteristics of these AlMn TESs are presented for use in AdvACT.

  4. Selection-free gene repair after adenoviral vector transduction of designer nucleases: rescue of dystrophin synthesis in DMD muscle cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Ignazio; Stefanucci, Luca; Janssen, Josephine M.; Liu, Jin; Chen, Xiaoyu; Mouly, Vincent; Gonçalves, Manuel A.F.V.

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked muscle-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the 2.4 Mb dystrophin-encoding DMD gene. The integration of gene delivery and gene editing technologies based on viral vectors and sequence-specific designer nucleases, respectively, constitutes a potential therapeutic modality for permanently repairing defective DMD alleles in patient-derived myogenic cells. Therefore, we sought to investigate the feasibility of combining adenoviral vectors (AdVs) with CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) alone or together with transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), for endogenous DMD repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). The strategies tested involved; incorporating small insertions or deletions at out-of-frame sequences for reading frame resetting, splice acceptor knockout for DNA-level exon skipping, and RGN-RGN or RGN-TALEN multiplexing for targeted exon(s) removal. We demonstrate that genome editing based on the activation and recruitment of the NHEJ DNA repair pathway after AdV delivery of designer nuclease genes, is a versatile and robust approach for repairing DMD mutations in bulk populations of patient-derived muscle progenitor cells (up to 37% of corrected DMD templates). These results open up a DNA-level genetic medicine strategy in which viral vector-mediated transient designer nuclease expression leads to permanent and regulated dystrophin synthesis from corrected native DMD alleles. PMID:26762977

  5. Adenoviral vectors encoding CRISPR/Cas9 multiplexes rescue dystrophin synthesis in unselected populations of DMD muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Ignazio; Liu, Jin; Janssen, Josephine M.; Chen, Xiaoyu; Gonçalves, Manuel A. F. V.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations disrupting the reading frame of the ~2.4 Mb dystrophin-encoding DMD gene cause a fatal X-linked muscle-wasting disorder called Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Genome editing based on paired RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) from CRISPR/Cas9 systems has been proposed for permanently repairing faulty DMD loci. However, such multiplexing strategies require the development and testing of delivery systems capable of introducing the various gene editing tools into target cells. Here, we investigated the suitability of adenoviral vectors (AdVs) for multiplexed DMD editing by packaging in single vector particles expression units encoding the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 nuclease and sequence-specific gRNA pairs. These RGN components were customized to trigger short- and long-range intragenic DMD excisions encompassing reading frame-disrupting exons in patient-derived muscle progenitor cells. By allowing synchronous and stoichiometric expression of the various RGN components, we demonstrate that dual RGN-encoding AdVs can correct over 10% of target DMD alleles, readily leading to the detection of Becker-like dystrophin proteins in unselected muscle cell populations. Moreover, we report that AdV-based gene editing can be tailored for removing mutations located within the over 500-kb major DMD mutational hotspot. Hence, this single DMD editing strategy can in principle tackle a broad spectrum of mutations present in more than 60% of patients with DMD. PMID:27845387

  6. Etiology and Clinical Characteristics of Single and Multiple Respiratory Virus Infections Diagnosed in Croatian Children in Two Respiratory Seasons.

    PubMed

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Marijan, Tatjana; Ivković-Jureković, Irena; Čepin-Bogović, Jasna; Gagro, Alenka; Vraneš, Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the causative agent of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in hospitalized children, as well as investigate the characteristics of ARIs with single and multiple virus detection in two respiratory seasons. In 2010 and 2015, nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal swabs from a total of 134 children, admitted to the hospital due to ARI, were tested using multiplex PCR. Viral etiology was established in 81.3% of the patients. Coinfection with two viruses was diagnosed in 27.6% of the patients, and concurrent detection of three or more viruses was diagnosed in 12.8% of the patients. The most commonly diagnosed virus in both seasons combined was respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (28.6%), followed by parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) types 1-3 (18.4%), rhinovirus (HRV) (14.3%), human metapneumovirus (10.1%), adenovirus (AdV) (7.1%), influenza viruses types A and B (4.8%), and coronaviruses (4.2%). In 2015, additional pathogens were investigated with the following detection rate: enterovirus (13.2%), bocavirus (HBoV) (10.5%), PIV-4 (2.6%), and parechovirus (1.3%). There were no statistical differences between single and multiple virus infection regarding patients age, localization of infection, and severity of disease (P > 0.05). AdV, HRV, HBoV, and PIVs were significantly more often detected in multiple virus infections compared to the other respiratory viruses (P < 0.001).

  7. Turbulence Measurements from a Moored Platform at Mid-Depth in a Swift Tidal Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Alex; Lueck, Rolf; Wolk, Fabian; McMillan, Justine

    2014-05-01

    Results are presented from a turbulence experiment with a 3-m long streamlined floatation body, instrumented with velocity shear probes, fast-response thermistors, a 1 MHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (AD2CP), and an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV). The system was deployed over seven tidal cycles at mid-depth in a 30-m deep tidal channel in the lower Bay of Fundy, Canada. Peak flow speeds exceeded 2 m s-1, and while 10-min time scale average speeds were similar between ebb and flood, the variances were markedly higher during flood. Turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rates measured with the shear probes exhibit a pronounced flood/ebb contrast: O(10-4) W kg-1 peak values during flood, but lower by an order of magnitude during ebb. Dissipation rates follow u3 scaling over a wide range of flow speeds between 0.5 and 2.5 m s-1. Below 0.5 m s-1 an asymmetry in the mounting arrangement caused the floatation body to pitch upward, biasing the measured dissipation values high. The ADV on the platform registered mean speed - used to implement Taylor's hypothesis - which was corroborated with the platform-mounted ADCP. Additional ADCPs were also deployed on a nearby bottom pod, sampling at turbulence resolving rates - up to 8 Hz. Comparisons between the shear probe and acoustic estimates of the TKE spectrum and dissipation rate - at comparable depths - are presented.

  8. Evolution Trends of Wireless MIMO Channel Modeling towards IMT-Advanced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Chia-Chin; Watanabe, Fujio; Kitao, Koshiro; Imai, Tetsuro; Inamura, Hiroshi

    This paper describes an evolution and standardization trends of the wireless channel modeling activities towards IMT-Advanced. After a background survey on various channel modeling approaches is introduced, two well-known multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) channel models for cellular systems, namely, the 3GPP/3GPP2 Spatial Channel Model (SCM) and the IMT-Advanced MIMO Channel Model (IMT-Adv MCM) are compared, and their main similarities are pointed out. The performance of MIMO systems is greatly influenced by the spatial-temporal correlation properties of the underlying MIMO channels. Here, we investigate the spatial-temporal correlation characteristics of the 3GPP/3GPP2 SCM and the IMT-Adv MCM in term of their spatial multiplexing and spatial diversity gains. The main goals of this paper are to summarize the current state of the art, as well as to point out the gaps in the wireless channel modeling works, and thus hopefully to stimulate research in these areas.

  9. Optimal Sparse Upstream Sensor Placement for Hydrokinetic Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, Robert; Strom, Benjamin; Ross, Hannah; Hill, Craig; Polagye, Brian

    2016-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the flow field incident upon a hydrokinetic turbine is critical for performance evaluation during testing and setting boundary conditions in simulation. Additionally, turbine controllers may leverage real-time flow measurements. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is capable of rendering a flow field over a wide spatial domain in a controlled, laboratory environment. However, PIV's lack of suitability for natural marine environments, high cost, and intensive post-processing diminish its potential for control applications. Conversely, sensors such as acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs), are designed for field deployment and real-time measurement, but over a small spatial domain. Sparsity-promoting regression analysis such as LASSO is utilized to improve the efficacy of point measurements for real-time applications by determining optimal spatial placement for a small number of ADVs using a training set of PIV velocity fields and turbine data. The study is conducted in a flume (0.8 m2 cross-sectional area, 1 m/s flow) with laboratory-scale axial and cross-flow turbines. Predicted turbine performance utilizing the optimal sparse sensor network and associated regression model is compared to actual performance with corresponding PIV measurements.

  10. [Gnathostoma binucleatum (Spirurida: Gnathostomatidae) from the freshwater fish in Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Kifune, Teiji; Lamothe-Argumedo, Rafael; García-Prieto, Luis; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2004-06-01

    Human gnathostomiasis is a food-born parasitic disease of relative importance in many countries in Southeast Asia. It is caused by several species of nematodes of the genus Gnathostoma. In Mexico is an emerging public health problem since 1970, when first cases were reported. Until today, larval morphometric characters that have been proposed to differentiate between the three species of Gnathostoma present in this country, are not satisfactory. Recently, the presence of advanced third-stage larvae AdvL3 (infective form for humans) in freshwater fishes from Pantanos de Centla, Tabasco. was recorded but their specific identity was not clarified . Examination of four species of freshwater fishes from the same locality revealed that three of them: Petenia splendida (n=58), Cichlasoma managuense (n=35) and Gobiomorus dormitor (n=9) were infected by 15 AdvL3 of Gnathostoma binucleatum. Specific identity was obtained comparing the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA with sequences reported in Genbank. This is the first record of G. binucleatum in P. splendida and G. dormitor from Tabasco and the first specific determination of the parasite in the locality.

  11. Efficient Unstructured Grid Adaptation Methods for Sonic Boom Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Richard L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.; Waithe, Kenrick A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of two grid adaptation methods to improve the accuracy of the near-to-mid field pressure signature prediction of supersonic aircraft computed using the USM3D unstructured grid flow solver. The first method (ADV) is an interactive adaptation process that uses grid movement rather than enrichment to more accurately resolve the expansion and compression waves. The second method (SSGRID) uses an a priori adaptation approach to stretch and shear the original unstructured grid to align the grid with the pressure waves and reduce the cell count required to achieve an accurate signature prediction at a given distance from the vehicle. Both methods initially create negative volume cells that are repaired in a module in the ADV code. While both approaches provide significant improvements in the near field signature (< 3 body lengths) relative to a baseline grid without increasing the number of grid points, only the SSGRID approach allows the details of the signature to be accurately computed at mid-field distances (3-10 body lengths) for direct use with mid-field-to-ground boom propagation codes.

  12. Development of the Attitudes to Domestic Violence Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fox, Claire L; Gadd, David; Sim, Julius

    2015-09-01

    To provide a more robust assessment of the effectiveness of a domestic abuse prevention education program, a questionnaire was developed to measure children's attitudes to domestic violence. The aim was to develop a short questionnaire that would be easy to use for practitioners but, at the same time, sensitive enough to pick up on subtle changes in young people's attitudes. We therefore chose to ask children about different situations in which they might be willing to condone domestic violence. In Study 1, we tested a set of 20 items, which we reduced by half to a set of 10 items. The factor structure of the scale was explored and its internal consistency was calculated. In Study 2, we tested the factor structure of the 10-item Attitudes to Domestic Violence (ADV) Scale in a separate calibration sample. Finally, in Study 3, we then assessed the test-retest reliability of the 10-item scale. The ADV Questionnaire is a promising tool to evaluate the effectiveness of domestic abuse education prevention programs. However, further development work is necessary.

  13. Mucosal immunity induced by adenovirus-based H5N1 HPAI vaccine confers protection against a lethal H5N2 avian influenza virus challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ki Seok; Lee, Jiyeung; Ahn, So Shin; Byun, Young-Ho; Seong, Baik Lin; Baek, Yun Hee; Song, Min-Suk; Choi, Young Ki; Na, Yun Jeong; Hwang, Inhwan; Sung, Young Chul; Lee, Chang Geun

    2009-12-20

    Development of effective vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses is a global public health priority. Considering the difficulty in predicting HPAI H5N1 pandemic strains, one strategy used in their design includes the development of formulations with the capacity of eliciting broad cross-protective immunity against multiple viral antigens. To this end we constructed a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus-based avian influenza virus vaccine (rAdv-AI) expressing the codon-optimized M2eX-HA-hCD40L and the M1-M2 fusion genes from HPAI H5N1 human isolate. Although there were no significant differences in the systemic immune responses observed between the intramuscular prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IM/IM) and the intranasal prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IN/IM), IN/IM induced more potent CD8{sup +} T cell and antibody responses at mucosal sites than the IM/IM vaccination, resulting in more effective protection against lethal H5N2 avian influenza (AI) virus challenge. These findings suggest that the strategies used to induce multi-antigen-targeted mucosal immunity, such as IN/IM delivery of rAdv-AI, may be a promising approach for developing broad protective vaccines that may be more effective against the new HPAI pandemic strains.

  14. Turbulent stresses in the surf-zone: Which way is up?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, John W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Edge, B.L

    1997-01-01

    Velocity observations from a vertical stack of three-component Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs) within the energetic surf-zone are presented. Rapid temporal sampling and small sampling volume provide observations suitable for investigation of the role of turbulent fluctuations in surf-zone dynamics. While sensor performance was good, failure to recover reliable measures of tilt from the vertical compromise the data value. We will present some cursory observations supporting the ADV performance, and examine the sensitivity of stress estimates to uncertainty in the sensor orientation. It is well known that turbulent stress estimates are highly sensitive to orientation relative to vertical when wave motions are dominant. Analyses presented examine the potential to use observed flow-field characteristics to constrain sensor orientation. Results show that such an approach may provide a consistent orientation to a fraction of a degree, but the inherent sensitivity of stress estimates requires a still more restrictive constraint. Regardless, the observations indicate the degree to which stress estimates are dependent on orientation, and provide some indication of the temporal variability in time-averaged stress estimates.

  15. Concurrent anti-vascular therapy and chemotherapy in solid tumors using drug-loaded acoustic nanodroplet vaporization.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yi-Ju; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2017-02-01

    Drug-loaded nanodroplets (NDs) can be converted into gas bubbles through ultrasound (US) stimulation, termed acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), which provides a potential strategy to simultaneously induce vascular disruption and release drugs for combined physical anti-vascular therapy and chemotherapy. Doxorubicin-loaded NDs (DOX-NDs) with a mean size of 214nm containing 2.48mg DOX/mL were used in this study. High-speed images displayed bubble formation and cell debris, demonstrating the reduction in cell viability after ADV. Intravital imaging provided direct visualization of disrupted tumor vessels (vessel size <30μm), the extravasation distance was 12μm in the DOX-NDs group and increased over 100μm in the DOX-NDs+US group. Solid tumor perfusion on US imaging was significantly reduced to 23% after DOX-NDs vaporization, but gradually recovered to 41%, especially at the tumor periphery after 24h. Histological images of the DOX-NDs+US group revealed tissue necrosis, a large amount of drug extravasation, vascular disruption, and immune cell infiltration at the tumor center. Tumor sizes decreased 22%, 36%, and 68% for NDs+US, DOX-NDs, and DOX-NDs+US, respectively, to prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the combination of physical anti-vascular therapy and chemotherapy with DOX-NDs vaporization promotes uniform treatment to improve therapeutic efficacy.

  16. Supervisory Control System Architecture for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Sacit M; Cole, Daniel L; Fugate, David L; Kisner, Roger A; Melin, Alexander M; Muhlheim, Michael David; Rao, Nageswara S; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular SMR Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular advanced SMR (AdvSMR) plants. This research activity advances the state-of-the art by incorporating decision making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides a brief history of hierarchical functional architectures and the current state-of-the-art, describes a reference AdvSMR to show the dependencies between systems, presents a hierarchical structure for supervisory control, indicates the importance of understanding trip setpoints, applies a new theoretic approach for comparing architectures, identifies cyber security controls that should be addressed early in system design, and describes ongoing work to develop system requirements and hardware/software configurations.

  17. Graphene sheets stacked polyacrylate latex composites for ultra-efficient electromagnetic shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Song; Ni, Yuwei

    2016-07-01

    Graphene sheets (GS) are at the forefront of electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding/attenuation materials science research because of their excellent electrical properties (Wen B et al 2014 Adv. Mater. 26 3484, Zhang Y et al 2015 Adv. Mater. 27 2049). GS/polyacrylate (PA) composites were prepared using a solvent-free latex technology, which favored the build-up of a segregated GS architecture stacked in the polymer matrix. GS were obtained from graphite flakes (GF) via a mechanical delamination approach in water. The microstructure, electrical, dielectric and electromagnetic shielding properties of the GS/PA composites were correlated in this manuscript. A remarkably low percolation threshold of ˜0.11 mass per cent for room-temperature electrical conductivity was obtained in the GS/PA composites owing to the stacked architecture of GS with high aspect ratios. This unique nanostructured GS architecture not only enhanced the electrical conductivity of composites, but also dramatically increased complex permittivity by inducing strong Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) polarization at the highly conductive GS/non-conductive PA interfaces. The EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) of these composites was enhanced with increasing GS content, and the composite with 6 wt% GS loading exhibited a high EMI SE of ˜66 dB over a frequency of 8.2-12.4 GHz, resulting from the pronounced conduction loss, dielectric relaxation, and multi-scattering.

  18. Measurements of turbulent dissipation during the Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, Silvia; Hou, Weilin; Woods, Sarah; Jarosz, Ewa; Goode, Wesley; Weidemann, Alan

    2013-06-01

    The Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment (BOTEX) was conducted in the summer of 2011 to investigate the impact of turbulence on underwater optical imaging. Underwater optical properties can be affected by turbulence in the water, due to localized changes in the index of refraction. We discuss measurements of current velocity and temperature, made with a Nortek Vector Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and PME Conductivity- Temperature (CT) probe, as well as observations made with a Rockland Oceanographic Vertical Microstructure Profiler (VMP). The instruments were deployed in close proximity in the field and in the context of measurements of optical target clarity. Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (TKED) and temperature dissipation (TD) rates are calculated from the ADV/CT measurements and compared to TKED and TD estimated from the data collected with the VMP. The results show reasonable agreement between the two methods; differences are attributed to turbulence patchiness and intermittence, as well as sampling challenges. The study also highlights the importance of collecting concurrent data on temperature, current velocity, and current shear to assess the turbulence impact on underwater optical properties.

  19. Plants in water-controlled ecosystems: active role in hydrologic processes and response to water stress. IV. Discussion of real cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laio, F.; Porporato, A.; Fernandez-Illescas, C. P.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    Three water-controlled ecosystems are studied here using the stochastic description of soil moisture dynamics and vegetation water stress proposed in Part II (F. Laio, A. Porporato, L. Ridolfi, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, Adv. Water Res. 24 (7) (2001) 707-723) and Part III (A. Porporato, F. Laio, L. Ridolfi, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, Adv. Water Res. 24 (7) (2001) 725-744) of this series of papers. In the savanna of Nylsvley (South Africa) the very diverse physiological characteristics of the existing plants give rise to different strategies of soil moisture exploitation. Notwithstanding these differences, the vegetation water stress for all the species turns out to be very similar, suggesting that coexistence might be attained also through differentiation of water use. The case of the savanna of Southern Texas points out how rooting depth and interannual rainfall variability can impact soil moisture dynamics and vegetation water stress. Because of the different responses to water stress of trees and grasses, external climatic forcing could be at the origin of the dynamic equilibrium allowing coexistence in this ecosystem. Finally, the analysis of a short grass steppe in Colorado provides an interesting example of the so-called inverse texture effect, whereby preferential conditions for vegetation are dependent on soil texture and rainfall. Sites which are more favorable during wet conditions may become less suitable to the same vegetation type during drier years. Such an effect is important to explain the predominance of existing species, as well as to investigate their reproductive strategies.

  20. Acoustic Droplet Vaporization, Cavitation, and Therapeutic Properties of Copolymer-Stabilized Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Christensen, Douglas A.; Rapoport, Natalya; Kennedy, Anne M.

    2009-04-14

    Acoustic and therapeutic properties of Doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions have been investigated in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. The nanoemulsions were stabilized by two biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers that differed in the structure of the hydrophobic block. Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) and cavitation parameters were measured as a function of ultrasound frequency, pressure, duty cycles, and temperature. The optimal parameters that induced ADV and inertial cavitation of the formed microbubbles were used in vivo in the experiments on the ultrasound-mediated chemotherapy of ovarian cancer. A combination tumor treatment by intravenous injections of drug-loaded perfluoropentane nanoemulsions and tumor-directed 1-MHz ultrasound resulted in a dramatic decrease of ovarian or breast carcinoma tumor volume and sometimes complete tumor resolution. However, tumors often recurred three to six weeks after the treatment indicating that some cancer cells survived the treatment. The recurrent tumors proved more aggressive and resistant to the repeated therapy than initial tumors suggesting selection for the resistant cells during the first treatment.